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Sample records for grazing dairy systems

  1. Development of a lifetime merit-based selection index for US dairy grazing systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture-based dairy producers in the US face costs, revenues and management challenges that differ from those associated with conventional dairy production systems. Three Grazing Merit indexes (GM$1, GM$2, and GM$3), parallel to the US Lifetime Net Merit (NM$) index, were constructed using economic ...

  2. Soil intake of lactating dairy cows in intensive strip grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Jurjanz, S; Feidt, C; Prez-Prieto, L A; Ribeiro Filho, H M N; Rychen, G; Delagarde, R

    2012-08-01

    Involuntary soil intake by cows on pasture can be a potential route of entry for pollutants into the food chain. Therefore, it appears necessary to know and quantify factors affecting soil intake in order to ensure the food safety in outside rearing systems. Thus, soil intake was determined in two Latin square trials with 24 and 12 lactating dairy cows. In Trial 1, the effect of pasture allowance (20 v. 35 kg dry matter (DM) above ground level/cow daily) was studied for two sward types (pure perennial ryegrass v. mixed perennial ryegrass-white clover) in spring. In Trial 2, the effect of pasture allowance (40 v. 65 kg DM above ground level/cow daily) was studied at two supplementation levels (0 or 8 kg DM of a maize silage-based supplement) in autumn. Soil intake was determined by the method based on acid-insoluble ash used as an internal marker. The daily dry soil intake ranged, between treatments, from 0.17 to 0.83 kg per cow in Trial 1 and from 0.15 to 0.85 kg per cow in Trial 2, reaching up to 1.3 kg during some periods. In both trials, soil intake increased with decreasing pasture allowance, by 0.46 and 0.15 kg in Trials 1 and 2, respectively. In Trial 1, this pasture allowance effect was greater on mixed swards than on pure ryegrass swards (0.66 v. 0.26 kg reduction of daily soil intake between medium and low pasture allowance, respectively). In Trial 2, the pasture allowance effect was similar at both supplementation levels. In Trial 2, supplemented cows ate much less soil than unsupplemented cows (0.20 v. 0.75 kg/day, respectively). Differences in soil intake between trials and treatments can be related to grazing conditions, particularly pre-grazing and post-grazing sward height, determining at least in part the time spent grazing close to the ground. A post-grazing sward height lower than 50 mm can be considered as a critical threshold. Finally, a dietary supplement and a low grazing pressure, that is, high pasture allowance increasing post-grazing sward height, would efficiently limit the risk for high level of soil intake, especially when grazing conditions are difficult. Pre-grazing and post-grazing sward heights, as well as faecal crude ash concentration appear to be simple and practical tools for evaluating the risk for critical soil intake in grazing dairy cows. PMID:23217239

  3. Development of a Lifetime Merit-based selection index for US dairy grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Gay, K D; Widmar, N J O; Nennich, T D; Schinckel, A P; Cole, J B; Schutz, M M

    2014-07-01

    Pasture-based dairy producers in the United States face costs, revenue streams, and management challenges that may differ from those associated with confinement dairy production systems. Three Grazing Merit indices (GM$1, GM$2, and GM$3), parallel to the US Lifetime Net Merit (NM$) index, were constructed using economic values appropriate for grazing production in the United States. Milk prices based on averages from the previous 5 yr were used for GM$1, whereas GM$2 and GM$3 used milk prices found in NM$. Cull prices and interest rates from NM$ were used in GM$3 but were updated for GM$1 and GM$2. All other inputs remained constant among GM$1, GM$2, and GM$3. Economic costs and revenues were obtained from surveys, recent literature, and farm financial record summaries. Derived weights for GM$ were then multiplied by the predicted transmitting abilities of 584 active artificial insemination Holstein bulls to compare with NM$. Spearman rank correlations for NM$ were 0.93 with GM$1, 0.98 with GM$2, and 0.98 with GM$3. Traits (and their percentages of weight) comprising GM$1, GM$2, and GM$3, respectively, included milk volume (24, 0, 0%), Fat yield (16, 21, 21%), protein yield (4, 17, 17%), productive life (7, 8, 7%), somatic cell count (-8, -9, -9%), feet and legs composite (4, 4, 4%), body size composite (-3, -4, -4%), udder composite (7, 8, 8%), daughter pregnancy rate (18, 20, 20%), calving ability (3, 3, 3%), and dairy form (6, 6, 6%). These weights compared with NM$ weights of 0, 19, 16, 22, 10, 4, 6, 7, 11, 5, and 0% for the same traits, respectively. Dairy form was added to GM$ to offset the decrease in strength associated with selection to reduce stature through selection against body size. Emphasis on productive life decreased in GM$ because grazing cattle are estimated to remain in the herd considerably longer, diminishing the marginal value of productive life. Although NM$ provides guidance for grazing dairy producers, a GM$ index based upon appropriate costs and revenues allows for selection of cows and bulls for more optimal genetic progress. PMID:24792796

  4. Grazing-Based Dairy Production in Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confinement and grazing-based dairy producers face many challenges, including rising cost of inputs (labor, fertilizer, energy, machinery), economic disadvantages relative to commodity feeds, potential negative environmental impacts, legislation restricting operations, and variable climatic conditio...

  5. Influence of different systems for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on milk fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, Victor C; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Dunshea, Frank R; Ajlouni, Said

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on the proportions of fatty acids in milk. Two hundred and sixteen cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different strategies; (1) CONTROL: cows grazed perennial ryegrass pasture (14 kg dry matter/d) supplemented with milled barley grain fed in the milking parlour and pasture silage offered in the paddock; (2) Partial mixed ration 1 (PMR1): same pasture allotment and supplement as CONTROL strategy, but the supplements presented as a mixed ration after each milking in feedpad, and; (3) Partial mixed ration 2 (PMR2): same pasture allotment, supplemented with a mixed ration of milled barley grain, alfalfa hay, corn silage and crushed corn grain fed in a feedpad. Within each strategy, cows were assigned to receive either 6, 8, 10 or 12 kg dry matter supplement/cow per d. Milk fatty acid proportions from cows fed CONTROL and PMR1 strategies were similar and different from those fed PMR2, particularly at 10 to 12 kg dry matter supplement/cow per d. The reduction in milk fat yield and concentration in cows fed high amounts of supplement as CONTROL and PMR1 was coincident with 4 × increase in 10t-18:1 proportion. The composition of the partial mixed ration (PMR) and the amount offered affected milk fatty acid proportions and milk fat content, however, the method of supplementation did not. PMID:24560061

  6. Is there a need for different genetics in dairy grazing systems?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The decline in cow fertility has had a negative impact on all dairy producers, especially those that practise seasonal calving with pasture-based dairying. One alternative that is being tried in the United States by a few graziers who are interested in improved fertility is to use bulls from New Zea...

  7. Evaporative cooling for Holstein dairy cows under grazing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtorta, Silvia E.; Gallardo, Miriam R.

    . Twenty-four grazing Holstein cows in mid and late lactation were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: control and cooled. The trial was performed at the Experimental Dairy Unit, Rafaela Agricultural Experimental Station (INTA), Argentina. The objective was to evaluate the effects of sprinkler and fan cooling before milkings on milk production and composition. The effects of the cooling system on rectal temperature and respiration rate were also evaluated. Cooled cows showed higher milk production (1.04 l cow-1 day-1). The concentration and yield of milk fat and protein increased in response to cooling treatment. The cooling system also reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate. No effects were observed on body condition. It was concluded that evaporative cooling, which is efficient for housed animals, is also appropriate to improve yields and animal well-being under grazing systems. These results are impressive since the cooling system was utilized only before milkings, in a system where environmental control is very difficult to achieve. This trial was performed during a mild summer. The results would probably be magnified during hotter weather.

  8. Discrimination of "grazing milk" using milk fatty acid profile in the grassland dairy area in Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Kuniyuki; Ueda, Koichiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-02-01

    Milk produced by the grazing system, referred to as "grazing milk" contains many components required for human health. The milk fatty acid (FA) profile is strongly associated with the diet on the farms. In the present study, based on the FA profile of farmer's bulk milk, we determined how to discriminate between milk produced on grazing and on a confinement system. A field survey was conducted four times (grazing and confinement season) in the Konsen (29 farms) and Okhotsk (25 farms) area in Hokkaido. Farmer's bulk milk samples and details of feeding management were collected and the FA profile of milk was measured. Milk produced during the grazing season contained less C16:0 and cis-9 C16:0, and more C18:0, cis-9 C18:1, trans-11 C18:1, cis-9,12 C18:2, cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and cis-9,12,15 C18:3 than milk produced during the confinement season. Discrimination analysis using 16 FA revealed that almost all milk samples were discriminated correctly (confinement season: 90% correct and 10% borderline, grazing season: 88% correct, 9% borderline and 3% incorrect). For farmers that were categorized incorrectly and were considered borderline in the grazing season, the dependency on pasture was low compared with that for farmers correctly discriminated. Therefore, to claim "grazing milk", a high dependency on pasture is required for grazing dairy farmers. PMID:26220515

  9. Greenhouse gas exchange over grazed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2012-04-01

    Grasslands act as sinks and sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and are, in conjunction with livestock production systems, responsible for a large share of GHG emissions. Whereas ecosystem scale flux measurements (eddy covariance) are commonly used to investigate CO2 exchange (and is becoming state-of-the-art for other GHGs, too), GHG emissions from agricultural animals are usually investigated on the scale of individual animals. Therefore eddy covariance technique has to be tested for combined systems (i.e. grazed systems). Our project investigates the ability of field scale flux measurements to reliably quantify the contribution of grazing dairy cows to the net exchange of CO2 and CH4. To quantify the contribution of the animals to the net flux the position, movement, and grazing/rumination activity of each cow are recorded. In combination with a detailed footprint analysis of the eddy covariance fluxes, the animal related CO2 and CH4 emissions are derived and compared to standard emission values derived from respiration chambers. The aim of the project is to test the assumption whether field scale CO2 flux measurements adequately include the respiration of grazing cows and to identify potential errors in ecosystem Greenhouse gas budgets.

  10. Lying behavior and postpartum health status in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Seplveda-Varas, P; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2014-10-01

    Many cows have difficulty making the transition from pregnancy to lactation, as evidenced by the high incidence of disease that occurs in the weeks after calving. Changes in lying behavior can be used as an indicator of illness, yet no work to date has evaluated this relationship in dairy cows on pasture. The objectives of this study were to describe the lying behavior of grazing dairy cows during the first 3 wk after calving and determine the relationships between transition diseases and lying behavior. Our convenience sample included 227 multiparous and 47 primiparous Holstein cows from 6 commercial farms. Cows were recruited as they calved during the spring calving period. Electronic data loggers (Hobo Pendant G Acceleration, Onset Computer Corp., Pocasset, MA) recorded lying behavior at 1-min intervals. Diseases were recorded up to 21 d in milk, and cows were subsequently categorized into 3 health categories: (1) healthy, not lame and had no other signs of clinical (retained placenta, milk fever, metritis, mastitis) or subclinical (ketosis, hypocalcemia) postpartum diseases; (2) lame, identified as being clinically or severely lame with no other signs of clinical or subclinical postpartum disease; and (3) sick, diagnosed as having one or more clinical postpartum diseases (with or without a subclinical disease) but not lame. This last group was further divided into 2 groups: those that were diagnosed with a single clinical health event and those diagnosed with more than one clinical event. Lying behavior differed between primiparous and multiparous cows; primiparous cows divided their lying time into more bouts than did multiparous cows (9.7 0.54 vs. 8.4 0.26 bouts/d) and spent less time lying down than multiparous cows (7.5 0.38 h/d vs. 8.5 0.19 h/d). Lying behavior was also affected by illness; primiparous cows that developed more than one clinical disease, excluding lameness, spent more time lying, and tended to have longer lying bouts in the days following calving compared with healthy cows; multiparous severely lame cows spent more time lying down (1.7 h longer per day) compared with multiparous cows that were nonlame. Clinically lame cows had fewer lying bouts per day and these bouts were of longer duration than healthy nonlame cows. In summary, changes in lying behavior after calving were associated with postpartum health status in grazing dairy cows. PMID:25151885

  11. Can Grazing Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Dairy Farms?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass-based dairy production has been suggested as a healthier alternative for both the animals and the consumer compared to production using more traditional confinement feeding. In addition, pasture-based systems have been shown to decrease soil erosion and downstream nutrient pollution of surface...

  12. Determinations of feed-milk-manure relationships on grazing-based dairy farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whereas much is known about relationships between rations, milk production, manure excretion, and environmental risks of confinement dairy production, much less is known about these relationships on grazing-based farms. The objectives of this study were to determine relationships on grazing-based fa...

  13. Changes in soil carbon cycling accompanying conversion of row-crop fields to grazing dairy pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A.; Kramer, M. G.; Hill, N.; Machmuller, M. B.; Cyle, K.

    2011-12-01

    Increasingly, the dairy industry in the eastern US is transitioning from total confinement dairy systems (TCD) toward pasture-based, management intensive grazing dairy (MiGD) systems. This transition is driven by the fact that MiGDs require substantially less operating capital and are more economically efficient than TCD systems. Consequently, the impact of this transition and shift in land-use practice on carbon dynamics may be considerable. Land-use in a Management intensive Grazing Dairy (MiGD) system is fundamentally different than conventional confinement dairies and conventional no-till pastures. The forage system involves rotational grazing at optimal digestibility, when the plants are immature (~20-days) and consequently protein-rich. MiGD cows spend >90% of their time in the field and deposit > 90% of their waste directly to the soil surface. Thus, little above ground plant residues are directly returned to the soil, but rather substantial C inputs derive from bovine manure. We sampled a MiGD-chronosequence of row-crop to MiGD conversion established in 2007 in eastern Georgia. All soils across the MiGD-chronosequence, all occur in relative (40 km) close proximity to one another, are deep, well-drained, fine and fine sandy loam Ultisols formed on Coastal Plain sediments. Prior to MiGD established, the soils were farmed for > 50 yrs using conventional tillage techniques. Our current sampling to 1m depths captures fields at 0, 2, 3, and 5 yrs since conversion. Total soil carbon (C) and the carbon concentration of the clay fraction increased following conversion, with the greatest increases occurring between 3 and 5 yrs since conversion. These C increases were limited to the upper 40cm of the soil, with minimal change occurring at depth. Characterization of the protein and ligand content of these soils via 13C NMR and chemolytic techniques as a function of soil particle density and size is in progress and will be presented along with estimates of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes across the MiGD chronosequence. Our broad goal is to quantify ruminal methane emissions and changes to soil C-stocks and stability associated with this land-use shift. Our preliminary data suggest such a land-use change will likely improve soil health and increase C-stocks. Balancing this against potential increases in methane emissions is a key knowledge gap for future southeastern U.S. C-cycling estimates.

  14. Effect of pre-grazing herbage mass on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures.

    PubMed

    Wims, C M; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2014-01-01

    A grazing study was undertaken to examine the effect of maintaining three levels of pre-grazing herbage mass (HM) on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter (DM) production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures. Cows were randomly assigned to one of three pre-grazing HM treatments: 1150 - Low HM (L), 1400 - Medium HM (M) or 2000 kg DM/ha - High HM (H). Herbage accumulation under grazing was lowest (P<0.01) on the L treatment and cows grazing the L pastures required more grass silage supplementation during the grazing season (+73 kg DM/cow) to overcome pasture deficits due to lower pasture growth rates (P<0.05). Treatment did not affect daily milk production or pasture intake, although cows grazing the L pastures had to graze a greater daily area (P<0.01) and increase grazing time (P<0.05) to compensate for a lower pre-grazing HM (P<0.01). The results indicate that, while pre-grazing HM did not influence daily milk yield per cow, adapting the practise of grazing low HM (1150 kg DM/ha) pasture reduces pasture DM production and at a system level may increase the requirement for imported feed. PMID:24229787

  15. Practices to Reduce Milk Carbon Footprint on Grazing Dairy Farms in Southern Uruguay: Case Studies.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon footprint (CF) is an increasingly relevant indicator to estimate the impact of a product on climate change. This study followed international guidelines to quantify the CF of milk produced on 24 dairy farms in Uruguay. Cows were grazed all year and supplemented with concentrate feeds. These d...

  16. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Dini, Yoana; Gere, Jos; Briano, Carolina; Manetti, Martin; Juliarena, Paula; Picasso, Valentin; Gratton, Roberto; Astigarraga, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary GHGs emissions are relevant in evaluating environmental impact of farming systems. Methane (CH4) produced by enteric fermentation accounts for half of all anthropogenic emissions of GHGs in Uruguay, where ruminant production is based on year round grazing of forages. Here we compared milk production and CH4 emissions by dairy cows grazing two contrasting mixed pastures (rich in legumes or rich in grasses) using the SF6 tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-days periods. There were no differences in milk or CH4 production between the contrasting pastures, probably because of the high herbage allowance that enabled selective grazing by cows. Abstract Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH4 emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM) basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH4 emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI) was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD) was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71) and HOMI (15.7 kg OM) were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d), milk fat yield (742 g/d) and milk protein yield (667 g/d) were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow) which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d) or expressed as methane yield (6.6% of Gross Energy Intake (GEI)) was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, at high herbage allowance, the quality of the diet selected by grazing cows did not differ between pastures rich in legumes or rich in grasses, and therefore there was no effect on milk or methane production. PMID:26486922

  17. Effects of co-grazing dairy heifers with goats on animal performance, dry matter yield, and pasture forage composition.

    PubMed

    Dennis, T S; Unruh-Snyder, L J; Neary, M K; Nennich, T D

    2012-12-01

    Mixed livestock grazing can offer an alternative management system for rearing dairy replacement heifers (Bos taurus). A 2-yr study was conducted during 2009 (yr 1) and 2010 (yr 2) to determine the effects of co-grazing Holstein heifers under rotational stocking with Boer × Kiko goats on animal performance, pasture DM yield, and botanical composition. Each year, 24 heifers (134 ± 6 d of age and 147.4 ± 31.2 kg BW in yr 1; 166 ± 11 d of age and 168.0 ± 27.6 kg BW in yr 2) and 6 goats (2 yr old and 39.7 ± 16.2 kg BW in yr 1; 1 yr old and 33.7 ± 7.4 kg BW in yr 2) were divided into 6 paddocks with 4 heifers and 2 goats, where applicable, per group. Low endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pastures were used to evaluate 2 grazing strategies (heifers grazed alone [HO] or heifers co-grazed with goats [HG]). In addition, 6 goats were assigned to 2 paddocks and grazed alone (GO) each year to estimate goat pasture forage intake and compare Haemonchus contortus infection to co-grazed goats. Forage samples were taken monthly to assess DM yield and botanical composition. Samples collected for botanical composition were manually sorted into grass, legume, and weed species. Forage DMI was estimated using a rising plate meter before and after grazing. Heifer BW at the conclusion of yr 1 and yr 2 did not differ between HO and HG (P = 0.40 and P = 0.12, respectively). Likewise, overall ADG did not differ between HO and HG, averaging 0.65 kg/d and 0.63 kg/d over both grazing seasons (P = 0.70). Grazing strategy did not affect forage or total DMI in yr 1; however, HO consumed 2.3 kg/d more forage DM than HG (P < 0.01), resulting in greater total DMI for HO in yr 2 (P < 0.01). Heights at the hip and withers were greater for HO than for HG during both grazing seasons (P < 0.05). Weed presence did not differ between grazing strategies over both grazing seasons as determined by manual harvesting, but visual estimation of botanical composition at the end of yr 2 showed that HO paddocks had 3.5 times more weed presence than HG pastures (P < 0.01). Within the confines of this study, co-grazing did not affect overall heifer BW gain, but it decreased DMI, suggesting that dairy heifers can be co-grazed with goats without negative effects on ADG or feed efficiency. PMID:22952353

  18. Can Grazing Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Dairy Farms?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gases (GHG) have become a common topic the past few years as more concern is developing over global climate change and the potential impact of these gases on our environment. So do our farms emit GHG? If so, how much and does the use of grazing affect these losses? A study was conducted u...

  19. Economic and environmental issues associated with confinement and pasture-based dairy systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk is produced in a continuum of dairy systems from full confinement to full pasture grazing. Climate, available feeds, and milk price: feed cost ratio influence the preferred system. All dairy systems have an environmental impact and inputs to maximise profit may lead to pollution levels unacce...

  20. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Dini, Yoana; Gere, Jos; Briano, Carolina; Manetti, Martin; Juliarena, Paula; Picasso, Valentin; Gratton, Roberto; Astigarraga, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH? emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM) basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH? emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI) was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD) was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71) and HOMI (15.7 kg OM) were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d), milk fat yield (742 g/d) and milk protein yield (667 g/d) were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow) which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d) or expressed as methane yield (6.6% of Gross Energy Intake (GEI)) was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, at high herbage allowance, the quality of the diet selected by grazing cows did not differ between pastures rich in legumes or rich in grasses, and therefore there was no effect on milk or methane production. PMID:26486922

  1. Dairy heifers benefit from the presence of an experienced companion when learning how to graze.

    PubMed

    Costa, J H C; Costa, W G; Weary, D M; Machado Filho, L C P; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2016-01-01

    Pasture remains important on many dairy farms, but the age of first contact with pasture varies depending on the month of birth, weaning age, and farm management. Regardless of age, naïve dairy heifers must learn to graze when first introduced to pasture. This study investigated whether being grouped with experienced dairy cows would affect the development of grazing behaviors. Sixty-three Holstein heifers (mean ± SD 14.2±1.3 mo; 546±60.7kg) and 21 dry Holstein cows (2.6±0.8 lactations; 751±53.9kg) were assigned into 7 groups of 12 animals (3 dry cows and 9 naïve heifers), and each was divided and assigned to an experienced (3 cows and 3 heifers) and nonexperienced (6 heifers) sub-group. Sub-groups were introduced to pasture in different paddocks without visual contact with any other cattle. No difference was found in the time after introduction to the paddock for heifers to first attempt to nibble grass [experienced: 0:23 (0:17-0:43) vs. nonexperienced 0:40 (0:35-0:46); median (quartile 1 - quartile 3), h:mm]. However, heifers grouped with experienced cows showed a shorter latency to begin grazing [experienced: 0:47 (0:28-00:52) vs. nonexperienced 2:13 (1:25-2:30)]. During the first hour after introduction to pasture, heifers in the experienced treatment showed fewer stomping events [experienced: 2.5 (1.25-4) vs. nonexperienced: 6.5 (4-8)] and vocalized less often [experienced: 3.5 (1.25-5.75) vs. nonexperienced: 7 (5-8.75)]. After this initial period, animals in both subgroups began to graze normally; treatments did not differ in grazing behaviors over the 3-d observation period. These results indicate that grouping heifers with pasture-experienced cows improves grazing behavior of dairy heifers in the first hours following introduction to pasture. PMID:26547655

  2. Successful organic dairy systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for organic dairy products has continually increased and at times outpaced supply for a number of years. This has created favorable milk pricing for certified organic dairy farmers, as the stability of organic milk prices has provided organic dairy farmers with a security not found in the con...

  3. Unexpected Decrease in Milk Production after Fenbendazole Treatment of Dairy Cows during Early Grazing Season

    PubMed Central

    Ravinet, Nadine; Chartier, Christophe; Bareille, Nathalie; Lehebel, Anne; Ponnau, Adeline; Brisseau, Nadine; Chauvin, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) infection can impair milk production (MP) in dairy cows. To investigate whether MP would be optimized by spring targeted-selective anthelmintic treatment in grazing cows, we assessed (1) the effect on MP of an anthelmintic treatment applied 1.5 to 2 months after turn-out, and (2) herd and individual indicators associated with the post-treatment MP response. A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 13 dairy farms (578 cows) in western France in spring 2012. In each herd, lactating cows of the treatment group received fenbendazole orally, control cows remained untreated. Daily cow MP was recorded from 2 weeks before until 15 weeks after treatment. Individual serum pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody levels (expressed as ODR), faecal egg count and bulk tank milk (BTM) Ostertagia ODR were measured at treatment time. Anthelmintic treatment applied during the previous housing period was recorded for each cow. In each herd, information regarding heifers’ grazing and anthelmintic treatment history was collected to assess the Time of Effective Contact (TEC, in months) with GIN infective larvae before the first calving. The effect of treatment on weekly MP averages and its relationships with herd and individual indicators were studied using linear mixed models with two nested random effects (cow within herd). Unexpectedly, spring treatment had a significant detrimental effect on MP (-0.92 kg/cow/day on average). This negative MP response was particularly marked in high producing cows, in cows not treated during the previous housing period or with high pepsinogen levels, and in cows from herds with a high TEC or a high BTM ODR. This post-treatment decrease in MP may be associated with immuno-inflammatory mechanisms. Until further studies can assess whether this unexpected result can be generalized, non-persistent treatment of immunized adult dairy cows against GIN should not be recommended in early grazing season. PMID:26808824

  4. Methane uptake and emissions in a typical steppe grazing system during the grazing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoya; Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiaoqing

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of livestock grazing on CH4 emissions by testing six grazing conditions at Guyuan State Key Monitoring and Research Station of Grassland Ecosystem (China) in 2011 and 2012. Under all grazing systems, steppe soils were measured to be CH4 sinks. The uptake of CH4 by grassland was primarily determined by topsoil (7 cm) temperature and soil (0-7 cm) moisture in grassland at short-term grazing and non-grazing. The cumulative uptake of CH4 during the grazing period for all conditions was 0.88-3.23 kg hm-2 CH4, and the highest level was observed in the continuously moderate grazing condition. Reducing grazing stocking in the short-term did not significantly change the uptake of CH4 when compared with continuously heavy grazing condition. Enteric CH4 emissions were not significantly affected by the grazing period or conditions. The uptake of CH4 by grassland soil offset 3.1-8.6% of the CH4 emissions from the grazing sheep and was most effective at the continuously moderate grazing condition. These findings imply that continuously moderate grazing is the best approach considered here for optimizing the soil as a sink for atmospheric CH4.

  5. Inter-relationships among alternative definitions of feed efficiency in grazing lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hurley, A M; López-Villalobos, N; McParland, S; Kennedy, E; Lewis, E; O'Donovan, M; Burke, J L; Berry, D P

    2016-01-01

    International interest in feed efficiency, and in particular energy intake and residual energy intake (REI), is intensifying due to a greater global demand for animal-derived protein and energy sources. Feed efficiency is a trait of economic importance, and yet is overlooked in national dairy cow breeding goals. This is due primarily to a lack of accurate data on commercial animals, but also a lack of clarity on the most appropriate definition of the feed intake and utilization complex. The objective of the present study was to derive alternative definitions of energetic efficiency in grazing lactating dairy cows and to quantify the inter-relationships among these alternative definitions. Net energy intake (NEI) from pasture and concentrate intake was estimated up to 8 times per lactation for 2,693 lactations from 1,412 Holstein-Friesian cows. Energy values of feed were based on the French Net Energy system where 1 UFL is the net energy requirements for lactation equivalent of 1kg of air-dry barley. A total of 8,183 individual feed intake measurements were available. Energy balance was defined as the difference between NEI and energy expenditure. Efficiency traits were either ratio-based or residual-based; the latter were derived from least squares regression models. Residual energy intake was defined as NEI minus predicted energy to fulfill the requirements for the various energy sinks. The energy sinks (e.g., NEL, metabolic live weight) and additional contributors to energy kinetics (e.g., live weight loss) combined, explained 59% of the variation in NEI, implying that REI represented 41% of the variance in total NEI. The most efficient 10% of test-day records, as defined by REI (n=709), on average were associated with a 7.59 UFL/d less NEI (average NEI of the entire population was 16.23 UFL/d) than the least efficient 10% of test-day records based on REI (n=709). Additionally, the most efficient 10% of test-day records, as defined by REI, were associated with superior energy conversion efficiency (ECE, i.e., NEL divided by NEI; ECE=0.55) compared with the least efficient 10% of test-day records (ECE=0.33). Moreover, REI was positively correlated with energy balance, implying that more negative REI animals (i.e., deemed more efficient) are expected to be, on average, in greater negative energy balance. Many of the correlations among the 14 defined efficiency traits differed from unity, implying that each trait is measuring a different aspect of efficiency. PMID:26585474

  6. Genetics of grass dry matter intake, energy balance, and digestibility in grazing irish dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Berry, D P; Horan, B; O'Donovan, M; Buckley, F; Kennedy, E; McEvoy, M; Dillon, P

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for grass dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance (EB), and cow internal digestibility (IDG) in grazing Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Grass DMI was estimated up to 4 times per lactation on 1,588 lactations from 755 cows on 2 research farms in southern Ireland. Simultaneously measured milk production and BW records were used to calculate EB. Cow IDG, measured as the ratio of feed and fecal concentrations of the natural odd carbon-chain n-alkane pentatriacontane, was available on 583 lactations from 238 cows. Random regression and multitrait animal models were used to estimate residual, additive genetic and permanent environmental (co)variances across lactations. Results were similar for both models. Heritability for DMI, EB, and IDG across lactation varied from 0.10 [8 days in milk (DIM)] to 0.30 (169 DIM), from 0.06 (29 DIM) to 0.29 (305 DIM), and from 0.08 (50 DIM) to 0.45 (305 DIM), respectively, when estimated using the random regression model. Genetic correlations within each trait tended to decrease as the interval between periods compared increased for DMI and EB, whereas the correlations with IDG in early lactation were weakest when measured midlactation. The lowest correlation between any 2 periods was 0.10, -0.36, and -0.04 for DMI, EB, and IDG, respectively, suggesting the effect of different genes at different stages of lactations. Eigenvalues and associated eigenfunctions of the additive genetic covariance matrix revealed considerable genetic variation among animals in the shape of the lactation profiles for DMI, EB, and IDG. Genetic parameters presented are the first estimates from dairy cows fed predominantly grazed grass and imply that genetic improvement in DMI, EB, and IDG in Holstein-Friesian cows fed predominantly grazed grass is possible. PMID:17881707

  7. Effect of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars on the milk yield of grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wims, C M; McEvoy, M; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of four perennial ryegrass cultivars: Bealey, Astonenergy, Spelga and AberMagic on the milk yield and milk composition of grazing dairy cows. Two 4 4 latin square experiments were completed, one during the reproductive and the other during the vegetative growth phase of the cultivars. Thirty-two Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were divided into four groups, with each group assigned 17 days on each cultivar during both experiments. Within each observation period, milk yield and milk composition, sward morphology and pasture chemical composition were measured. During the reproductive growth phase, organic matter digestibility (OMD) was greater for Bealey and Astonenergy (P < 0.001; +1.6%). AberMagic contained a higher stem proportion (P < 0.01; +0.06) and a longer sheath height (P < 0.001; +1.9 cm). Consequently, cows grazing AberMagic recorded a lower milk yield (P < 0.001; -1.5 kg/day) and a lower milk solids yield (P < 0.001; -0.13 kg/day). During the vegetative growth phase, OMD was greater (P < 0.001; +1.1%) for Bealey, whereas the differences between the cultivars in terms of sward structure were smaller and did not appear to influence animal performance. As a result, cows grazing Bealey recorded a higher milk yield (P < 0.001; +0.9 kg/day) and a higher milk solids yield (P < 0.01; +0.08 kg/day). It was concluded that grass cultivar did influence milk yield due to variations in sward structure and chemical composition. PMID:23034142

  8. Transition diseases in grazing dairy cows are related to serum cholesterol and other analytes.

    PubMed

    Seplveda-Varas, Pilar; Weary, Daniel M; Noro, Mirela; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of postpartum disease and to evaluate the association with serum cholesterol concentrations during the first 3 weeks after calving in grazing dairy cows. The association between non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), calcium and postpartum diseases was also evaluated. A total of 307 Holstein dairy cows from 6 commercial grazing herds in Osorno, Chile, were monitored from calving until 21 days in milk. Cases of retained placenta, clinical hypocalcemia and clinical mastitis were recorded by the farmer using established definitions. Twice weekly, cows were evaluated for metritis by the same veterinarian based on vaginal discharge and body temperature. Postpartum blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for serum concentrations of cholesterol, NEFA, BHBA and calcium. Cows were considered as having subclinical ketosis if BHBA >1.2 mmol/L, and subclinical hypocalcemia if calcium <2.0 mmol/L in any of the 3 weekly samples. Overall, 56% of the cows studied developed at least one clinical or subclinical disease after calving. Incidence of individual diseases was 8.8% for retained placenta, 4.2% for clinical hypocalcemia, 11.7% for clinical mastitis, 41.1% for metritis, 19.9% for subclinical hypocalcemia and 16.6% for subclinical ketosis. Lower postpartum cholesterol in cows was associated with developing severe metritis or having more than one clinical disease after calving. For every 0.4 mmol/L decrease in serum cholesterol cows were nearly twice as likely to be diagnosed with multiple clinical diseases after calving. Higher BHBA concentrations and lower calcium concentrations during week 1 were associated with severe cases of metritis. Low serum calcium concentration during week 1 was also associated with developing more than one clinical disorder after calving. In conclusion, the incidence of postpartum diseases can be high even in grazing herds and lower serum cholesterol concentrations were associated with occurrence of clinical postpatum disorders. PMID:25807462

  9. Transition Diseases in Grazing Dairy Cows Are Related to Serum Cholesterol and Other Analytes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of postpartum disease and to evaluate the association with serum cholesterol concentrations during the first 3 weeks after calving in grazing dairy cows. The association between non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), calcium and postpartum diseases was also evaluated. A total of 307 Holstein dairy cows from 6 commercial grazing herds in Osorno, Chile, were monitored from calving until 21 days in milk. Cases of retained placenta, clinical hypocalcemia and clinical mastitis were recorded by the farmer using established definitions. Twice weekly, cows were evaluated for metritis by the same veterinarian based on vaginal discharge and body temperature. Postpartum blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for serum concentrations of cholesterol, NEFA, BHBA and calcium. Cows were considered as having subclinical ketosis if BHBA >1.2 mmol/L, and subclinical hypocalcemia if calcium <2.0 mmol/L in any of the 3 weekly samples. Overall, 56% of the cows studied developed at least one clinical or subclinical disease after calving. Incidence of individual diseases was 8.8% for retained placenta, 4.2% for clinical hypocalcemia, 11.7% for clinical mastitis, 41.1% for metritis, 19.9% for subclinical hypocalcemia and 16.6% for subclinical ketosis. Lower postpartum cholesterol in cows was associated with developing severe metritis or having more than one clinical disease after calving. For every 0.4 mmol/L decrease in serum cholesterol cows were nearly twice as likely to be diagnosed with multiple clinical diseases after calving. Higher BHBA concentrations and lower calcium concentrations during week 1 were associated with severe cases of metritis. Low serum calcium concentration during week 1 was also associated with developing more than one clinical disorder after calving. In conclusion, the incidence of postpartum diseases can be high even in grazing herds and lower serum cholesterol concentrations were associated with occurrence of clinical postpatum disorders. PMID:25807462

  10. Daily grazing time as a risk factor for alterations at the hock joint integument in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burow, E; Thomsen, P T; Rousing, T; Srensen, J T

    2013-01-01

    Structural changes lead to increasing sizes of dairy herds and a reduction in grazing use. Thus, cows spend more time in the barn and become more exposed to the barn environment. The cubicle surface can result in damages of the cows' hock joint integument. Pasture is generally seen as a beneficial environment for cows. We hypothesized that a higher number of daily grazing hours reduce the probability of hock joint alterations in dairy cows from large herds. In total, 3148 lactating cows from 36 grazing and 20 zero-grazing dairy herds, with an average herd size of 173 cows, were assessed individually on one randomly selected body side for alterations in hock integument (score 0 for no alterations or hairless areas <2 cm, 1 for at least one hairless area of ?2 cm, 2 for lesion or swelling). The cows were further assessed for lameness and cleanliness. Information on breed, parity and days in milk per cow was extracted from a national database. Cubicle surface was evaluated for each herd. Daily grazing hours 30 days before herd visits were recorded by the stockmen and later categorized as follows: zero hours (zero-grazing), few hours (3 to 9) and many hours (>9 to 21). The effects of daily grazing hours and other potential cow and herd-level risk factors were evaluated for their impact on hock integument alterations using a logistic analysis with a multi-level model structure. The probability for hock integument alterations such as hair loss, lesions or swellings decreased with increasing amount of grazing hours (odds of 3 to 9 h 2.2 times and odds of >9 to 21 h 4.8 times lower than of zero-grazing). The probability for only lesions or swellings decreased with >9 to 21 grazing hours (odds 2.1 times) but not with 3 to 9 h (odds 1.0 times) compared with zero-grazing. Lameness, hard cubicle surface and Danish Holstein v. other breeds showed an increasing effect on the probability for integument alterations. Increase in days in milk only showed an increasing effect on the probability for lesions and swellings. We concluded that a long daily stay on pasture is most beneficial for the hock joint integument of a dairy cow. PMID:23031448

  11. Effect of pregrazing herbage mass on methane production, dry matter intake, and milk production of grazing dairy cows during the mid-season period.

    PubMed

    Wims, C M; Deighton, M H; Lewis, E; O'Loughlin, B; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2010-10-01

    Increasing milk production from pasture while increasing grass dry matter intake (GDMI) and lowering methane (CH(4)) emissions are key objectives of low-cost dairy production systems. It was hypothesized that offering swards of low herbage mass with increased digestibility leads to increased milk output. A grazing experiment was undertaken to investigate the effects of varying levels of HM on CH(4) emissions, GDMI and milk production of grazing dairy cows during the mid-season grazing period (June to July). Prior to the experiment, 46 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (46 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments (n=23) in a randomized block design. The 2 treatments consisted of 2 target pregrazing HM: 1,000 kg of dry matter (DM)/ha (low herbage mass, LHM) or 2,200 kg of DM/ha (high herbage mass, HHM). The experimental period lasted 2 mo from June 1 until July 31. Within the experimental period, there were 2 measurement periods, measurement 1 (M1) and measurement 2 (M2), where CH(4) emissions, GDMI, and milk production were measured. Mean herbage mass throughout the measurement periods was 1,075 kg of DM/ha and 1,993 kg of DM/ha for the LHM and HHM treatments, respectively. Grass quality in terms of organic matter digestibility was significantly higher for the LHM treatment in M2 (+12 g/kg of DM). In M1, the effect of herbage mass on grass quality was approaching significance in favor of the LHM treatment. Herbage mass did not significantly affect milk production during the measurement periods. Cows grazing the LHM swards had increased GDMI in M1 (+1.5 kg of DM) compared with cows grazing the HHM swards; no difference in GDMI was observed in M2. Grazing HHM swards increased CH(4) production per cow per day (+42 g), per kilogram of milk yield (+3.5 g/kg of milk), per kilogram of milk solids (+47 g/kg of milk solids), and per kilogram of GDMI (+3.1 g/kg of GDMI) in M2. Cows grazing the HHM swards lost a greater proportion of their gross energy intake as CH(4) during both measurement periods (+0.9% and +1% for M1 and M2, respectively). It was concluded that grazing LHM swards would increase grass quality with a concurrent reduction in CH(4) emissions. PMID:20855032

  12. N leaching to groundwater from dairy production involving grazing over the winter on a clay-loam soil.

    PubMed

    Necpalova, M; Fenton, O; Casey, I; Humphreys, J

    2012-08-15

    This study investigated concentrations of various N species in shallow groundwater (<2.2m below ground level) and N losses from dairy production involving grazing over the winter period on a clay loam soil with a high natural attenuation capacity in southern Ireland (5251'N, 0821'W) over a 2-year period. A dense network of shallow groundwater piezometers was installed to determine groundwater flow direction and N spatial and temporal variation. Estimated vertical travel times through the unsaturated zone (<0.5 yr, time lag) allowed the correlation of management with groundwater N within a short space of time. There was a two way interaction of the system and sampling date (P<0.05) on concentrations of DON, oxidised N and NO(3)(-)-N. In contrast, concentrations of NH(4)(+)-N and NO(2)(-)-N were unaffected by the dairy system. Grazing over the winter had no effect on N losses to groundwater. Mean concentrations of DON, NH(4)(+)-N, NO(2)(-)-N and NO(3)(-)-N were 2.16, 0.35, 0.01 and 0.37 mg L(-1) respectively. Soil attenuation processes such as denitrification and DNRA resulted in increased NH(4)(+)-N levels. For this reason, DON and NH(4)(+)-N represented the highest proportion of N losses from the site. Some of the spatial and temporal variation of N concentrations was explained by correlations with selected chemical and hydro-topographical parameters (NO(3)(-)-N/Cl(-) ratio, distance of the sampling point from the closest receptor, watertable depth, depth of sampling piezometer, DOC concentration). A high explanatory power of NO(3)(-)-N/Cl(-) ratio and the distance of the sampling point from the closest receptor indicated the influence of point sources and groundwater-surface water interactions. PMID:22728303

  13. Rotational grazing systems and grazing management research: Mapping the future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent publication reviewed a substantial amount of evidence generated from a geographically diverse effort by university and agency scientists over the past 6 decades to investigate the impacts of rotational grazing on fundamental rangeland ecological processes. Their findings, and others as well...

  14. Productive and Economic Responses in Grazing Dairy Cows to Grain Supplementation on Family Farms in the South of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Filho, Luiz Carlos Pinheiro Machado; D'vila, Leandro Martins; da Silva Kazama, Daniele Cristina; Bento, Lauana Luiza; Kuhnen, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Pasture-based dairy production has been a major source of income for most family farms in the south of Brazil. Increasing milk prices have spurred an increase in grain supplementation, which has been poorly implemented, resulting in low levels of efficiency. To evaluate the consequences of supplementation on milk production and composition, grazing behavior and economic return, the widely used grain management system (CC-commercial concentrate, containing 21% CP, offered at 1 kg per 3.7 L of milk) was compared with an energy supplement (GC-ground corn, with 9.5% CP, offered at 0.4% of live weight). Ten Holstein cows were paired into two groups, and subjected to the two treatments in a crossover design. The cows remained in the same grazing group, and the grain supplement was offered individually at milking time and consumed completely. Each experimental period lasted 14 days, with 10 days for diet adaptation and four days for data collection; individual milk production and samples were collected to determine levels of fat, protein, lactose, carotenoids, vitamin A and N-urea. Grazing behavior was observed (scans every 5 min) in the first 4 h after the morning milking, and chemical composition of hand plucked samples of forage were measured. The cost of the supplement and profitability per treatment were calculated. Cows supplemented with GC consumed herbage with higher crude protein (CP: 16.23 vs. 14.62%; p < 0.05), had higher biting rate (44.21 vs. 39.54 bites/min; p < 0.03) and grazing time (22.20 vs. 20.55 scans; p < 0.05) than when receiving CC. There were no differences in milk composition between treatments (p > 0.05). However, higher concentrations of ?-carotene and total carotenoids were detected in the milk of cows at 70-164 days of lactation, compared to <70 days of lactation (p < 0.05). Milk production was higher (13.19 vs. 11.59 kg/day; p < 0.05) when cows consumed CC, but resulted in lower profitability compared to GC (US$ 4.39 vs. US$ 4.83/cow per day). Our results show that higher productivity does not necessarily improve profitability. Cows receiving supplement with lower levels of protein were able to adjust their grazing behavior to meet their protein needs and this level of diet modification did not alter milk composition. PMID:26480318

  15. Productive and Economic Responses in Grazing Dairy Cows to Grain Supplementation on Family Farms in the South of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos; Dvila, Leandro Martins; da Silva Kazama, Daniele Cristina; Bento, Lauana Luiza; Kuhnen, Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary In the South of Brazil, as in many regions where dairy production is pasture-based, the use of concentrate to supplement cattle diet frequently does not follow technical guidelines. This may result in inefficient management, with increased cost of production and lower pasture intake. In this study, small amounts of an energy supplement proved to be more economically efficient than a high protein commercial concentrate, despite a decrease in milk productivity. The cows were able to compensate for the lower levels of protein in the supplement with selective grazing for high protein plants. The quality of the milk was unaffected by the treatment. Abstract Pasture-based dairy production has been a major source of income for most family farms in the south of Brazil. Increasing milk prices have spurred an increase in grain supplementation, which has been poorly implemented, resulting in low levels of efficiency. To evaluate the consequences of supplementation on milk production and composition, grazing behavior and economic return, the widely used grain management system (CC-commercial concentrate, containing 21% CP, offered at 1 kg per 3.7 L of milk) was compared with an energy supplement (GC-ground corn, with 9.5% CP, offered at 0.4% of live weight). Ten Holstein cows were paired into two groups, and subjected to the two treatments in a crossover design. The cows remained in the same grazing group, and the grain supplement was offered individually at milking time and consumed completely. Each experimental period lasted 14 days, with 10 days for diet adaptation and four days for data collection; individual milk production and samples were collected to determine levels of fat, protein, lactose, carotenoids, vitamin A and N-urea. Grazing behavior was observed (scans every 5 min) in the first 4 h after the morning milking, and chemical composition of hand plucked samples of forage were measured. The cost of the supplement and profitability per treatment were calculated. Cows supplemented with GC consumed herbage with higher crude protein (CP: 16.23 vs. 14.62%; p < 0.05), had higher biting rate (44.21 vs. 39.54 bites/min; p < 0.03) and grazing time (22.20 vs. 20.55 scans; p < 0.05) than when receiving CC. There were no differences in milk composition between treatments (p > 0.05). However, higher concentrations of ?-carotene and total carotenoids were detected in the milk of cows at 70164 days of lactation, compared to <70 days of lactation (p < 0.05). Milk production was higher (13.19 vs. 11.59 kg/day; p < 0.05) when cows consumed CC, but resulted in lower profitability compared to GC (US$ 4.39 vs. US$ 4.83/cow per day). Our results show that higher productivity does not necessarily improve profitability. Cows receiving supplement with lower levels of protein were able to adjust their grazing behavior to meet their protein needs and this level of diet modification did not alter milk composition. PMID:26480318

  16. Milk production responses to different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2016-01-01

    Milk production responses of grazing cows offered supplements in different ways were measured. Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45d in milk, were allocated into 8 groups of 24, with 2 groups randomly assigned to each of 4 feeding strategies. These were control: cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock; FGM: same pasture and allowance as the control supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock; PMRL: same pasture and allowance as the control, supplemented with a PMR consisting of the same FGM but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking; and PMRH: same PMR fed in the same way as PMRL but with a higher pasture allowance. For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio [75:25, dry matter (DM) basis]. Each group of 24 cows was further allocated into 4 groups of 6, which were randomly assigned to receive 8, 12, 14, or 16kg of DM supplement/cow per d. Thus, 2 replicated groups per supplement amount per dietary strategy were used. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. Pasture allowance, measured to ground level, was approximately 14kg of DM/d for control, FGM, and PMRL cows, and 28kg of DM/d for the PMRH cows, and was offered in addition to the supplement. Positive linear responses to increasing amounts of supplement were observed for yield of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein for cows on all 4 supplement feeding strategies. Production of energy-corrected milk was greatest for PMRH cows, intermediate for FGM and PMRL cows, and lowest for control cows. Some of these differences in milk production related to differences in intake of pasture and supplement. Milk fat concentration decreased with increasing amount of supplement for all feeding strategies, but the decline was most marked for the control cows. Milk protein concentration increased for all groups as the amount of supplement increased, but was greater for FGM, PMRL, and PMRH cows than control cows. It is concluded that when supplements are fed to grazing dairy cows, inclusion of corn grain and canola meal can increase milk production even at similar metabolizable energy intakes, and that it does not matter whether these supplements are fed as a PMR or in the parlor and paddock. PMID:26585473

  17. Short communication: grazing pattern of dairy cows that were selected for divergent residual feed intake as calves.

    PubMed

    Gregorini, P; Waghorn, G C; Kuhn-Sherlock, B; Romera, A J; Macdonald, K A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and assess differences in the grazing pattern of 2 groups of mature dairy cows selected as calves for divergent residual feed intake (RFI). Sixteen Holstein-Friesian cows (47131kg of body weight, 100 d in milk), comprising 8 cows selected as calves (6-8 mo old) for low (most efficient: CSCLowRFI) and 8 cows selected as calves for high (least efficient: CSCHighRFI) RFI, were used for the purpose of this study. Cows (n=16) were managed as a single group, and strip-grazed (24-h pasture allocation at 0800h) a perennial ryegrass sward for 31 d, with measurements taken during the last 21 d. All cows were equipped with motion sensors for the duration of the study, and jaw movements were measured for three 24-h periods during 3 random nonconsecutive days. Measurements included number of steps and jaw movements during grazing and rumination, plus fecal particle size distribution. Jaw movements were analyzed to identify bites, mastication (oral processing of ingesta) during grazing bouts, chewing during rumination, and to calculate grazing and rumination times for 24-h periods. Grazing and walking behavior were also analyzed in relation to the first meal of the day after the new pasture was allocated. Measured variables were subjected to multivariate analysis. Cows selected for low RFI as calves appeared to (a) prioritize grazing and rumination over idling; (b) take fewer steps, but with a higher proportion of grazing steps at the expense of nongrazing steps; and (c) increase the duration of the first meal and commenced their second meal earlier than CSCHighRFI. The CSCLowRFI had fewer jaw movements during eating (39,820 vs. 45,118 for CSCLowRFI and CSCHighRFI, respectively), more intense rumination (i.e., 5 more chews per bolus), and their feces had 30% less large particles than CSCHighRFI. These results suggest that CSCLowRFI concentrate their grazing activity to the time when fresh pasture is allocated, and graze more efficiently by walking and masticating less, hence they are more efficient grazers than CSCHighRFI. PMID:26162793

  18. EFFECTIVENESS OF GRAZING SYSTEMS - A SYNTHESIS OF EVIDENCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The general body of evidence in support of the use of grazing systems for sustained production from and health of rangelands is underwhelming, at best. This is despite decades of scientific investigations, conservation programs, and textbook promotion of grazing systems as logical components of rang...

  19. Case study: dairies utilizing ultra-high stock density grazing in the northeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultra-high stock density (UHSD) grazing (also loosely referred to as mob grazing) has attracted a lot of attention and press in the forage industry. Numerous anecdotal articles can be found in trade magazines that promote the perceived benefits of UHSD grazing. However, there is little credible re...

  20. Husbandry Factors and the Resumption of Luteal Activity in Open and Zero-Grazed Dairy Cows in Urban and Peri-Urban Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kanyima, BM; Bge, R; Owiny, DO; Ntallaris, T; Lindahl, J; Magnusson, U; Nassuna-Musoke, MG

    2014-01-01

    Contents The study investigated the influence of selected husbandry factors on interval to resumption of post-partum cyclicity among dairy cows in urban and peri-urban Kampala. A prospective study of 85 day post-partum period of 59 dairy cows in open (n = 38) and zero grazing (n = 21) systems was conducted on 24 farms. Cows of parity 16 were recruited starting 1530 days post-partum. Progesterone (P4) content in milk taken at 1012 day intervals was analysed using ELISA. The cow P4 profiles were classified into normal (< 56 days), delayed (> 56 days), ceased or prolonged (if started < 56 days but with abnormal P4 displays) resumption of luteal activity and tested for association with husbandry and cow factors. Of the 59 cows, luteal activity in 81.4% resumed normally and in 18.6%, delayed. Only 23.7% maintained regular luteal activity, while the others had ceased (10.2%), prolonged (37.3%) or unclear luteal activity (20.3%). There were no differences between open and zero-grazed cows. Milk production was higher (p < 0.05) in zero than open grazing, in urban than peri-urban and in cows fed on brew waste (p < 0.001) compared with mill products and banana peels. Results suggest that luteal activity resumes normally in a majority of cows, although only a minority experienced continued normal cyclicity once ovulation had occurred, in the two farming systems irrespective of feed supplements or water, and that supplementing with brew waste is beneficial for milk production. PMID:24930481

  1. Husbandry factors and the resumption of luteal activity in open and zero-grazed dairy cows in urban and peri-urban kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kanyima, B M; Bge, R; Owiny, D O; Ntallaris, T; Lindahl, J; Magnusson, U; Nassuna-Musoke, M G

    2014-08-01

    The study investigated the influence of selected husbandry factors on interval to resumption of post-partum cyclicity among dairy cows in urban and peri-urban Kampala. A prospective study of 85 day post-partum period of 59 dairy cows in open (n = 38) and zero grazing (n = 21) systems was conducted on 24 farms. Cows of parity 1-6 were recruited starting 15-30 days post-partum. Progesterone (P4) content in milk taken at 10-12 day intervals was analysed using ELISA. The cow P4 profiles were classified into 'normal' (< 56 days), 'delayed' (> 56 days), 'ceased' or 'prolonged' (if started < 56 days but with abnormal P4 displays) resumption of luteal activity and tested for association with husbandry and cow factors. Of the 59 cows, luteal activity in 81.4% resumed normally and in 18.6%, delayed. Only 23.7% maintained regular luteal activity, while the others had ceased (10.2%), prolonged (37.3%) or unclear luteal activity (20.3%). There were no differences between open and zero-grazed cows. Milk production was higher (p < 0.05) in zero than open grazing, in urban than peri-urban and in cows fed on brew waste (p < 0.001) compared with mill products and banana peels. Results suggest that luteal activity resumes normally in a majority of cows, although only a minority experienced continued normal cyclicity once ovulation had occurred, in the two farming systems irrespective of feed supplements or water, and that supplementing with brew waste is beneficial for milk production. PMID:24930481

  2. Diet and cooling interactions on physiological responses of grazing dairy cows, milk production and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, M. R.; Valtorta, S. E.; Leva, P. E.; Gaggiotti, M. C.; Conti, G. A.; Gregoret, R. F.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of diet and cooling in the holding pen before milking on rectal temperature, respiration rate and milk production and composition. Fifty-eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a factorial split-plot design, at Rafaela Experimental Station from 12 January to 3 March 2003. The treatments were combinations of two diets: control (CD) and balanced (BD) with two levels of cooling before milking: none (NSF) and a sprinkler and fans (SF). Forage:concentrate ratios for CD and BD were 81:19 and 68:32, respectively. Cows were milked twice daily. Milk production was recorded daily, and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) was analysed twice a week. The physiological data were recorded once a week, before the cattle entered the holding pen and after milking, in the afternoon. Average maximum weekly temperature humidity index was 75.4 and ranged from 61.4 to 83. There were highly significant effects of cooling on physiological responses. Milk production was affected by diet and cooling, with no interaction; the highest and lowest production of milk was 22.42 and 20.07 l/cow per day, for BD+SF and CD+NSF, respectively. Protein was affected by diet, and was higher for BD (3.17 vs. 3.08%). There were interaction effects on milk fat at the 8% level, the highest concentration being 3.65% for BD+NFS. It was concluded that under grazing conditions, cooling by sprinkler and fans before milking improves the comfort of dairy cows, and that the effects on milk production and composition are enhanced when diets are specially formulated for heat-stress periods.

  3. Constraints to milk production in grazing dairy cows in Brazil and management strategies for improving their productivity.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, A L; Louvandini, H; Bueno, I C; Vitti, D M; Meirelles, C F; Gennari, S M

    1999-01-27

    Productivity in most Brazilian dairy herds is low and depends exclusively on pasture. To study the productive potential of pastures and to devise strategies to further improve pasture and animal productivity in this production system, studies were carried out to obtain basic on-farm information. The constraints which affect productivity and reproductive performance of dairy cows, the effects of restrictions in suckling time of calves, and strategic supplementation during the dry season upon animal production were the evaluated parameters. From March 1992 through February 1997, studies were carried out on four private farms in the northern region of the State of São Paulo. Between March 1992 and February 1994 (Study 1--survey phase), 142 cows (parity = 1-6) grazed pasture which consisted of signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizanta). Once-a-month data were collected on body weight, body condition, and milk production. Reproduction parameters were assessed by milk progesterone profiles. From March 1996 to February 1997 (Study 2--intervention phase), 45 lactating dairy cows from two farms were hand-milked once a day and the calf suckling was restricted to two hours after milking. Data were collected on milk production and cow body weight. In Study 1, cows were grouped by calving date for the analysis of the reproductive and production data. Concentrations of blood metabolites, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were compared among randomly selected cows (n = 69) from all farms. Estimated pasture available per hectare (ha) at any time, crude protein (CP), and dry matter digestibility (DMD) of pasture available for grazing differed (p < 0.05) between seasons [pasture available = 1.2, 1.4, 1.8 and 2.2 t/ha (SE = 0.70); CP = 42, 60, 48 and 57 g/kg (DM) (SE = 10.1); DMD = 399, 468, 401 and 457 g/kg (DM) (SE = 21), respectively, for dry season 1992 (D92), wet season 1992 (W92), dry season 1993 (D93), and wet season 1993 (W93)]. The proportion of animals showing ovarian activity at 90 days postpartum (DPP) was higher for cows which calved in the wet season than cows which calved in the dry season. In Study 2, milk production tended to the higher (7.3 and 6.5 kg/day, respectively, for the intervention and survey studies; p = 0.08). The data suggest that milk production is being limited by pasture availability, the quality of pasture, and the lack of supplementation. We suggest that, although supplementing cows in the dry period may have an economic advantage, better pasture management needs to be introduced. Stocking rate must be adapted to pasture productivity and pasture quality throughout the year. PMID:10081801

  4. Mixed Grazing Systems Benefit both Upland Biodiversity and Livestock Production

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Mariecia D.; Moorby, Jon M.; Vale, James E.; Evans, Darren M.

    2014-01-01

    Background With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously. Methods Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management ‘systems’ we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i) incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii) integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii) altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv) replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years. Results, Conclusion and Significance We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity, suggesting a ‘win-win’ solution for farmers and conservationists. PMID:24551216

  5. Grazing: the whole picture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental concerns for our farms include nutrient leaching to ground water, runoff in surface water, gaseous emissions, and the carbon footprint of our production systems. Recent reports have labeled grazing-based dairies as less environmentally sustainable compared to year around confinement sy...

  6. Molasses as the primary energy supplement on an organic grazing dairy farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to increasing organic grain costs, organic dairy farmers are looking for less expensive ingredients that can be reasonably fed to lactating dairy cows. Molasses seems to be a less expensive source of supplemental energy and vitamins. Organic dairy farmers inquire about molasses as an alternative...

  7. Carbon flux assessment in cow-calf grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Chiavegato, M B; Rowntree, J E; Powers, W J

    2015-08-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in grassland ecosystems are intimately linked to grazing management. This study assessed the carbon equivalent flux (Ceq) from 1) an irrigated, heavily stocked, low-density grazing system, 2) a nonirrigated, lightly stocked, high-density grazing system, and 3) a grazing-exclusion pasture site on the basis of the GHG emissions from pasture soils and enteric methane emissions from cows grazing different pasture treatments. Soil organic carbon and total soil nitrogen stocks were measured but not included in Ceq determination because of study duration and time needed to observe a change in soil composition. Light- and heavy-stocking systems had 36% and 43% greater Ceq than nongrazed pasture sites, respectively ( < 0.01). The largest contributor to increased Ceq from grazing systems was enteric CH emissions, which represented 15% and 32% of the overall emissions for lightly and heavily stocked grazing systems, respectively. Across years, grazing systems also had increased nitrous oxide (N2O; < 0.01) and CH emissions from pasture soils ( < 0.01) compared with nongrazed pasture sites but, overall, minimally contributed to total emissions. Results indicate no clear difference in Ceqflux between the grazing systems studied when SOC change is not incorporated ( = 0.11). A greater stocking rate potentially increased total SOC stock ( = 0.02), the addition of SOC deeper into the soil horizon ( = 0.01), and soil OM content to 30 cm ( < 0.01). The incorporation of long-term annual carbon sequestration into the determination of Ceq could change results and possibly differentiate the grazing systems studied. PMID:26440199

  8. Livestock and vegetation responses to stocking rate and grazing system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation and livestock responses from a 25 year (1982-2006) grazing system and stocking rate study in the northern mixed-grass prairie at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service, High Plains Grasslands Research Station near Cheyenne, Wyoming are presented here. Long-term grazing treatments of stock...

  9. Using dual-purpose crops in sheep-grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Dove, Hugh; Kirkegaard, John

    2014-05-01

    The utilisation of dual-purpose crops, especially wheat and canola grown for forage and grain production in sheep-grazing systems, is reviewed. When sown early and grazed in winter before stem elongation, later-maturing wheat and canola crops can be grazed with little impact on grain yield. Recent research has sought to develop crop- and grazing-management strategies for dual-purpose crops. Aspects examined have been grazing effects on crop growth, recovery and yield development along with an understanding of the grazing value of the crop fodder, its implications for animal nutrition and grazing management to maximise live-weight gain. By alleviating the winter 'feed gap', the increase in winter stocking rate afforded by grazing crops allows crop and livestock production to be increased simultaneously on the same farm. Integration of dual-purpose wheat with canola on mixed farms provides further systems advantages related to widened operational windows, weed and disease control and risk management. Dual-purpose crops are an innovation that has potential to assist in addressing the global food-security challenge. PMID:24323974

  10. Continuous and Long-Term Measurement of Reticuloruminal pH in Grazing Dairy Cows by an Indwelling and Wireless Data Transmitting Unit

    PubMed Central

    Gasteiner, J.; Guggenberger, T.; Husler, J.; Steinwidder, A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the continuous measurement of ruminal pH in grazing dairy cows to monitor the diets effects on ruminal pH value. A novel indwelling pH-measurement and data transmitting system was given to 6 multiparous cows orally. Ruminal pH was measured every 600?sec over a 40?d period. After barn feeding and changeover to pasture, the following 3 treatments (2 cows/treatment) were included in the measurement period: continuous grazing (G), continuous grazing plus 4?kg/d of hay fed twice daily (GH), and continuous grazing plus 4?kg/d of concentrate (GC). Ruminal pH decreased significantly (P < 0.05) from 6.58 0.15 to pH 6.19 0.19 during feed changeover to pasture. Mean ruminal pH for G, GH, and GC was 6.36, 6.56, and 6.01. Mean 24-h minimum pH was 5.95, 6.20 and, 5.58. The time pH was below 6.3, 6.0, 5.8, and 5.5, for G it was 583, 91, 26, and 3?min/d, for GH it was 97, 12, 0, and 0?min/d and for GC it was 1126, 621, 347, and 101?min/d, respectively. Results were significantly influenced by the diet. The indwelling pH-measurement and data transmitting system is a very useful and proper tool for long-term measurement of ruminal pH in cows. PMID:23213627

  11. Case study: dairies utilizing ultra-high stocking density grazing in Pennsylvania and New York

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultra-high stocking density (UHSD) grazing has gained interest in the forage industry. Proponents of UHSD emphasize increased forage use efficiency and soil improvement by grazing mature forage with stocking densities up to 560,425 kg ha**-1 of beef cattle on small paddocks with rest periods of up t...

  12. Case study: dairies using ultra-high stocking density grazing in the Northeastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proponents of ultra-high stocking density (UHSD) grazing emphasize increased forage use efficiency and soil improvement by grazing mature forage with stocking densities up to 500,000 lb per acre of beef cattle on small paddocks with rest periods up to 180 days. However, it is unclear if this managem...

  13. A two reservoir model to predict Escherichia coli losses to water from pastures grazed by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Muirhead, R W; Monaghan, R M

    2012-04-01

    Animal agriculture has been identified as an important source of diffuse faecal microbial pollution of water. Our current understanding of the losses of faecal microbes from grazed pasture systems is however poor. To help synthesise our current knowledge, a simple two reservoir model was constructed to represent the faecal and environmental sources of Escherichia coli found in a grazed pastoral system. The size of the faecal reservoir was modelled on a daily basis with inputs from grazing animals, and losses due to die-off of E. coli and decomposition of the faecal material. Estimates were made of transport coefficients of E. coli losses from the two reservoirs. The concentration of E. coli measured in overland flow and artificial drainage from grazed plots, used for calibration of the model, showed a significant (P<0.0001) decrease with days since last grazing - up to 120 days. Modelled E. coli runoff concentrations calibrated well with the regression line from the measured data up to 120 days. Variability of E. coli concentrations in the source faecal material could account for the variability in the measured runoff concentrations. Measured E. coli concentrations in artificial drainage water from 120 to 1300 days since last grazing appeared to be greater than the model predicted. The longer term data clearly illustrated the need for an environmental reservoir of E. coli in models of grazed pasture systems. Research is needed to understand the behaviour and impact of this environmental reservoir. Scenario analysis using the model indicated that rather than manipulating the faecal material itself post defecation, mitigation options should focus on manipulating grazing management. PMID:22280922

  14. Impact of spontaneous Neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Gilson Antonio; Martini, Ana Paula; Trentin, Janislene Mach; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Leonardi, Carlos Eduardo Porciuncula; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flres; de S Filho, Manoel Francisco; Rubin, Mara Iolanda Batistella; Silva, Carlos Antonio Mondino

    2016-02-01

    The impact of spontaneous Neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Data from 1273 females (878 multiparous and 395 first-calving cows) from six preselected dairy herds were analyzed. Cows were classified as seropositive (SP) (prevalence, 24%; range, 11%-33%) or seronegative (SN) by indirect immunofluorescence detection of antibodies against Ncaninum.Seropostive cows (prevalence, 40.0%) presented higher (P<0.001) incidence of abortion compared with SN cows (prevalence, 4.1%). Neospora caninum DNA was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction in 44.4% of intact aborted fetuses from SP cows, whereas none was found in those aborted from SN cows. The average daily milk production adjusted to 305days was lower (P<0.001) in SP (22.50.3L/day) than in SN cows (24.80.2L/day). Furthermore, SP cows presented greater occurrence of retained placenta (17.1% vs. 6.0%; P<0.001) and acute postpartum metritis (9.8% vs. 2.4%; P<0.001). Despite similar pregnancy rates after first postpartum artificial insemination (27.6% vs. 31.8%; P=0.40), cumulative pregnancy rates during 300days in milk (94.7% vs. 98.5%; P=0.005) were greater in SN cows. A reduced (P=0.0001) Cox proportional hazard of pregnancy rate at 300 days in milk and a longer interval from parturition or abortion to conception (median, 111 vs. 101days) were observed in SP compared with SN cows. Spontaneous N caninum infection is a significant contributing factor of pregnancy loss and occurrence of uterine disease (i.e., retained placenta and metritis), negatively affecting subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows. PMID:26542136

  15. Knowledge and tools to enhance resilience of beef grazing systems for sustainable animal protein production.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jean L; Engle, David M; Xiao, Xiangming; Saleh, Ali; Tomlinson, Peter; Rice, Charles W; Cole, N Andy; Coleman, Samuel W; Osei, Edward; Basara, Jeffrey; Middendorf, Gerad; Gowda, Prasanna; Todd, Richard; Moffet, Corey; Anandhi, Aavudai; Starks, Patrick J; Ocshner, Tyson; Reuter, Ryan; Devlin, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Ruminant livestock provides meat and dairy products that sustain health and livelihood for much of the world's population. Grazing lands that support ruminant livestock provide numerous ecosystem services, including provision of food, water, and genetic resources; climate and water regulation; support of soil formation; nutrient cycling; and cultural services. In the U.S. southern Great Plains, beef production on pastures, rangelands, and hay is a major economic activity. The region's climate is characterized by extremes of heat and cold and extremes of drought and flooding. Grazing lands occupy a large portion of the region's land, significantly affecting carbon, nitrogen, and water budgets. To understand vulnerabilities and enhance resilience of beef production, a multi-institutional Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP), the "grazing CAP," was established. Integrative research and extension spanning biophysical, socioeconomic, and agricultural disciplines address management effects on productivity and environmental footprints of production systems. Knowledge and tools being developed will allow farmers and ranchers to evaluate risks and increase resilience to dynamic conditions. The knowledge and tools developed will also have relevance to grazing lands in semiarid and subhumid regions of the world. PMID:25376887

  16. Case study: molasses as the primary energy supplement on an organic grazing dairy farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic dairies face many challenges, one of which is the high cost of purchasing organic feed grains. Many of these farms are seeking lower-cost feed ingredients that can be reasonably fed to lactating dairy cows. Molasses seems to be a viable, less expensive source of supplemental energy and vit...

  17. MOLASSES AS THE PRIMARY ENERGY SUPPLEMENT ON AN ORGANIC GRAZING DAIRY FARM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic dairies in New York face challenges, including the high cost of purchasing organic feed grains. Many of these farms are looking for alternative ingredients to use that can be reasonably fed to lactating dairy cows, and that are less costly. Molasses seems to be a viable, less expensive, so...

  18. Dugong grazing and turtle cropping: grazing optimization in tropical seagrass systems?

    PubMed

    Aragones, Lemnuel V; Lawler, Ivan R; Foley, William J; Marsh, Helene

    2006-10-01

    Grazing by dugongs and cropping by green turtles have the capacity to alter the subsequent nutritional quality of seagrass regrowth. We examined the effects of simulated light and intensive grazing by dugongs and cropping by turtles on eight nutritionally relevant measures of seagrass chemical composition over two regrowth periods (short-term, 1-4 months; long-term, 11-13 months) at two seagrass communities (a mixed species community with Zostera capricorni, Halophila ovalis, Halodule uninervis, Cymodocea rotundata and C. serrulate; and a monospecific bed of Halodule uninervis) in tropical Queensland, Australia. The concentrations of organic matter, total nitrogen, total water-soluble carbohydrates, total starch, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid lignin, as well as the in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) were measured in the leaves and below-ground parts of each species using near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). Regrowth of preferred species such as H. ovalis and H. uninervis from simulated intensive dugong grazing after a year exhibited increased (by 35 and 25%, respectively, relative to controls) whole-plant N concentrations. Similarly, regrowth of H. ovalis from simulated turtle cropping showed an increase in the leaf N concentration of 30% after a year. However, these gains are tempered by reductions in starch concentrations and increases in fiber. In the short-term, the N concentrations increased while the fiber concentrations decreased. These data provide experimental support for a grazing optimization view of herbivory in the tropical seagrass system, but with feedback in a different manner. Furthermore, we suggest that in areas where grazing is the only major source of natural disturbance, it is likely that there are potential ecosystem level effects if and when numbers of dugongs and turtles are reduced. PMID:16821013

  19. Dairy Herd On-line Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Satoshi

    As the business circumstances have become worse, computational breeding management based on the scientific matters has been needed for dairy farming in our country. In this connection it was urgent to construct the system which provided data effectively used in the fields for dairy farmers. The Federation has executed to provide dairy farming technical data promptly through its own on-line network being composed of middle sized general-purpose computer (main memory : 5MB, and fixed disk : 1100MB) and 22 terminals.

  20. Effects of cultivar and grazing initiation date on fall-grown oat for replacement dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Brink, G E; Esser, N M; Cavadini, J S

    2015-09-01

    Fall-grown oat has shown promise for extending the grazing season in Wisconsin, but the optimum date for initiating grazing has not been evaluated. Our objectives for this project were (1) to assess the pasture productivity and nutritive value of 2 oat cultivars [Ogle and ForagePlus (OG and FP, respectively)] with late-September (EG) or mid-October (LG) grazing initiation dates; and (2) to evaluate growth performance by heifers grazing these oat forages compared with heifers reared in confinement (CON). A total of 160 gravid Holstein heifers (80 heifers/yr) were assigned to 10 research groups (8 heifers/group). Mean initial body weight was 509±40.5 kg in 2013 and 517±30.2 kg in 2014. Heifer groups were assigned to specific pastures arranged as a 2×2 factorial of oat cultivars and grazing initiation dates. Grazing heifer groups were allowed to strip-graze oat pastures for 6 h daily before returning to the barn, where they were offered a forage-based basal total mixed ration. Main effects of oat cultivar and sampling date interacted for forage characteristics in 2013, but not in 2014. During 2013, oat forage mass increased until early November before declining in response to freezing weather conditions, thereby exhibiting linear and quadratic effects of sampling date, regardless of oat cultivar. Similar trends over time were observed in 2014. For 2013, the maximum forage mass was 5,329 and 5,046 kg/ha for FP and OG, respectively, whereas the mean maximum forage mass for 2014 was 4,806 kg/ha. ForagePlus did not reach the boot stage of growth during either year of the trial; OG matured more rapidly, reaching the late-heading stage during 2013, but exhibited only minor maturity differences from FP in 2014. For 2013, average daily gain for CON did not differ from grazing heifer groups (overall mean=0.63 kg/d); however, average daily gain from FP was greater than OG (0.68 vs. 0.57 kg/d), and greater from EG compared with LG (0.82 vs. 0.43 kg/d). For 2013, advantages in average daily gain for heifers grazing FP pastures were likely related to the greater energy density of FP oat throughout the fall that reached a maximum of 68.8% total digestible nutrients on November 27 compared with only 63.7% for OG on October 10. During 2014, average daily gain from CON exceeded all grazing heifer groups (0.81 vs. 0.57 kg/d), and average daily gain from EG again exceeded LG (0.70 vs. 0.44 kg/d). These results suggest that delaying grazing until mid-October will consistently suppress heifer growth performance, particularly if rapidly maturing cultivars are used. PMID:26142852

  1. Experimental Evidence for Grazing System Research: What Does it Tell Us?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on grazing systems has been conducted for the past 60 years and the experimental evidence consistently indicates that rotational grazing is comparable to continuous grazing on rangelands. For example, over 80% of the peer-reviewed studies reported that rotational grazing did not result in h...

  2. Assessment of Prior Grazing Experiences on Adaption to Pasture and Performance of Dairy Heifers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate how previous grazing experience affects animal behavior on pasture. Animal behavior was monitored in 32 Holstein (n = 21) and Holstein-Jersey (n = 11) yearlings. Two heifer groups (n = 8 per group) had been exposed to pasture from August through October 20...

  3. Analysis of FEL optical systems with grazing incidence mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, C.E.; Viswanathan, V.K.; Bender, S.C.; Appert, Q.D.; Lawrence, G.; Barnard, C.

    1986-01-01

    The use of grazing incidence optics in resonators alleviates the problem of damage to the optical elements and permits higher powers in cavities of reasonable dimensions for a free electron laser (FEL). The design and manufacture of a grazing incidence beam expander for the Los Alamos FEL mock-up has been completed. In this paper, we describe the analysis of a bare cavity, grazing incidence optical beam expander for an FEL system. Since the existing geometrical and physical optics codes were inadequate for such an analysis, the GLAD code was modified to include global coordinates, exact conic representation, raytracing, and exact aberration features to determine the alignment sensitivities of laser resonators. A resonator cavity has been manufactured and experimentally setup in the Optical Evaluation Laboratory at Los Alamos. Calculated performance is compared with the laboratory measurements obtained so far.

  4. Enhancing soil and landscape quality in smallholder grazing systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasslands constitute the largest global land use and are an important part of agricultural and ecological systems on every continent, across a wide range of potential productivity. Ruminant livestock grazing on these lands constitutes an important form of agricultural production. It is estimated th...

  5. Rumen biohydrogenation-derived fatty acids in milk fat from grazing dairy cows supplemented with rapeseed, sunflower, or linseed oils.

    PubMed

    Rego, O A; Alves, S P; Antunes, L M S; Rosa, H J D; Alfaia, C F M; Prates, J A M; Cabrita, A R J; Fonseca, A J M; Bessa, R J B

    2009-09-01

    The effects of supplementation with rapeseed, sunflower, and linseed oils (0.5 kg/d; good sources of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids, respectively) on milk responses and milk fat fatty acid (FA) profile, with special emphasis on rumen-derived biohydrogenation intermediates (BI), were evaluated in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square study using 16 grazing dairy cows. The dietary treatments were 1) control diet: 20-h access to grazing pasture supplemented with 5 kg/d of corn-based concentrate mixture (96% corn; CC); 2) RO diet: 20-h access to grazing supplemented with 4.5 kg/d of CC and 0.5 kg of rapeseed oil; 3) SO diet: 20-h access to grazing supplemented with 4.5 kg/d of CC and 0.5 kg of sunflower oil; and 4) LO diet: 20-h access to grazing supplemented with 4.5 kg/d of CC and 0.5 kg of linseed oil. Milk fatty acids were converted to methyl esters and analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography and silver-ion HPLC. Dietary treatments had no effect on milk production or on milk protein content and milk protein production. Supplementation with rapeseed and sunflower oils lowered milk fat content and milk fat production, but linseed oil had no effect. Inclusion of dietary vegetable oils promoted lower concentrations of short-chain (including 4:0) and medium-chain FA (including odd- and branched-chain FA) and 18:3n-3, and higher concentrations of C(18) FA (including stearic and oleic acids). The BI concentration was higher with the dietary inclusion of vegetable oils, although the magnitude of the concentration and its pattern differed between oils. The RO treatment resulted in moderate increases in BI, including trans 18:1 isomers and 18:2 trans-7,cis-9, but failed to increase 18:1 trans-11 and 18:2 cis-9,trans-11. Sunflower oil supplementation resulted in the highest concentrations of the 18:1 trans-10, 18:1 cis-12, and 18:2 trans-10,trans-12 isomers. Concentrations of 18:1 trans-11 and 18:2 cis-9,trans-11 were higher than with the control and RO treatments but were similar to the LO treatment. Concentration of BI in milk fat was maximal with LO, having the highest concentrations of some 18:1 isomers (i.e., trans-13/14, trans-15, cis-15, cis-16), most of the nonconjugated 18:2 isomers (i.e., trans-11,trans-15, trans-11,cis-15, cis-9,cis-15, and cis-12,cis-15), and conjugated 18:2 isomers (i.e., trans-11,cis-13, cis-12,trans-14, trans-11,trans-13, trans-12,trans-14, and trans-9,trans-11), and all conjugated 18:3 isomers. The LO treatment induced the highest amount and diversity of BI without decreasing milk fat concentration, as the RO and SO treatments had, suggesting that the BI associated with 18:3n-3 intake may not be the major contributors to inhibition of mammary milk fat synthesis. PMID:19700715

  6. Vacuum Pump System Optimization Saves Energy at a Dairy Farm

    SciTech Connect

    2001-08-01

    In 1998, S&S Dairy optimized the vacuum pumping system at their dairy farm in Modesto, California. In an effort to reduce energy costs, S&S Dairy evaluated their vacuum pumping system to determine if efficiency gains and energy savings were possible.

  7. Carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impact on global warming has become an important national and international concern. Dairy production systems along with all other types of animal agriculture are recognized as a source of GHG. Although little information exists on the net GHG emiss...

  8. Extreme phosphorus losses in drainage from grazed dairy pastures on marginal land.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Richard W; Monaghan, Ross M

    2015-03-01

    With the installation of artificial drainage and large inputs of lime and fertilizer, dairy farming can be profitable on marginal land. We hypothesized that this will lead to large phosphorus (P) losses and potential surface water impairment if the soil has little capacity to sorb added P. Phosphorous was measured in drainage from three "marginal" soils used for dairying: an Organic soil that had been developed out of scrub for 2 yr and used for winter forage cropping, a Podzol that had been developed into pasture for 10 yr, and an intergrade soil that had been in pasture for 2 yr. Over 18 mo, drainage was similar among all sites (521-574 mm), but the load leached to 35-cm depth from the Organic soil was 87 kg P ha (?89% of fertilizer-P added); loads were 1.7 and 9.0 kg ha from the Podzol and intergrade soils, respectively. Soil sampling to 100 cm showed that added P leached throughout the Organic soil profile but was stratified and enriched in the top 15 cm of the Podzol. Poor P sorption capacity (<5%) in the Organic soil, measured as anion storage capacity, and tillage (causing mineralization and P release) in the Organic and intergrade soils were thought to be the main causes of high P loss. It is doubtful that strategies would successfully mitigate these losses to an environmentally acceptable level. However, anion storage capacity could be used to identify marginal soils with high potential for P loss for the purpose of managing risk. PMID:26023973

  9. Trace gas emissions following deposition of excreta by grazing dairy cows in eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochette, P.; Pelster, D. E.; Chantigny, M. H.; Angers, D. A.; Liang, C.; Belanger, G.; Ziadi, N.; Charbonneau, E.; Pellerin, D.

    2012-04-01

    The N2O emission factor proposed for cattle excreta N by the Tier I IPCC methodology (EF3) is 2% (IPCC, 2006). While N2O emissions from excreta deposited by grazing animals have been reported in several publications, relatively few estimated EF3 values because measurements did not cover the entire year. This study measured N2O and CH4 flux and crop dry matter (DM) yield over two years (2009 to 2011) from a clay and a sandy loam soil cultivated with Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.). A split-plot design was used on each soil type, with different application dates (either spring, summer or autumn application) as main plots and treatment (U-50: urine 50 g N m-2, U-100: urine 100 g N m-2, dung: 60 g N m-2, and control) as the sub-plots. Regardless of application time, annual DM yield increased in all treated plots when compared to the control. Also, DM yields were generally greater when urine as opposed to dung was applied suggesting greater N-availability from the urine application. The CH4 flux from the dung plots increased for only the first two weeks after treatment while the flux from the urine plots was similar to the control plots. Cumulative N2O emissions on the U-50 and U-100 plots increased linearly with urine N rate on both soils, resulting in nearly identical mean emission factors for both urine rates. The emission factor for the urine was three times greater on the clay (1.02% of applied N on both rates) than on the sandy loam soil (0.26% (U100) and 0.31% (U50) of applied N). Cumulative N2O emissions from dung plots also differed between soil types; however the impact of soil type on N2O emissions was opposite to that of urine, with greater losses from the sandy loam (0.15%) compared with the clay soil (0.07%). These results suggest that estimates of soil N2O emissions by grazing cattle in Eastern Canada obtained using the IPCC default methodology are overestimates of actual values and that these estimates for should include a stratification according to soil type.

  10. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving efficiency of production in pasture- and range-based beef and dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Mulliniks, J T; Rius, A G; Edwards, M A; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; Nave, R L G

    2015-06-01

    Despite overall increased production in the last century, it is critical that grazing production systems focus on improving beef and dairy efficiency to meet current and future global food demands. For livestock producers, production efficiency is essential to maintain long-term profitability and sustainability. This continued viability of production systems using pasture- and range-based grazing systems requires more rapid adoption of innovative management practices and selection tools that increase profitability by optimizing grazing management and increasing reproductive performance. Understanding the genetic variation in cow herds will provide the ability to select cows that require less energy for maintenance, which can potentially reduce total energy utilization or energy required for production, consequently improving production efficiency and profitability. In the United States, pasture- and range-based grazing systems vary tremendously across various unique environments that differ in climate, topography, and forage production. This variation in environmental conditions contributes to the challenges of developing or targeting specific genetic components and grazing systems that lead to increased production efficiency. However, across these various environments and grazing management systems, grazable forage remains the least expensive nutrient source to maintain productivity of the cow herd. Beef and dairy cattle can capitalize on their ability to utilize these feed resources that are not usable for other production industries. Therefore, lower-cost alternatives to feeding harvested and stored feedstuffs have the opportunity to provide to livestock producers a sustainable and efficient forage production system. However, increasing production efficiency within a given production environment would vary according to genetic potential (i.e., growth and milk potential), how that genetic potential fits the respective production environment, and how the grazing management fits within those genetic parameters. Therefore, matching cow type or genetic potential to the production environment is and will be more important as cost of production increases. PMID:26115249

  11. GRAZING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS TO MINIMIZE PHOPHORUS LOSSES FROM UPLAND PASTURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of grazing management practices on Phosphorus (P) losses from upland pastures in Iowa. In 2001, five grazing treatments, including an ungrazed control, hay and stockpile, rotational grazing to 10 cm, rotational grazing to 5 cm, and continuous ...

  12. Sheep grazing effect on dryland soil carbon and nitrogen in the wheat-fallow system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control by sheep grazing during fallow periods in the dryland wheat-fallow system may influence soil C and N levels. The effects of fallow management for weed control and soil water conservation [sheep grazing (grazing), herbicide application (chemical), and tillage (mechanical)] and cropping s...

  13. Using post-grazing sward height to impose dietary restrictions of varying duration in early lactation: its effects on spring-calving dairy cow production.

    PubMed

    Crosse, M; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Delaby, L; Ganche, E; Kennedy, E

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the immediate and carryover effects of imposing two post-grazing sward heights (PGSH) for varying duration during early lactation on sward characteristics and dairy cow production. The experiment was a randomised block design with a 22 factorial arrangement of treatments. A total of 80 spring-calving (mean calving date - 6 February) dairy cows were randomly assigned, pre-calving, to one of the two (n=40) PGSH treatments - S (2.7 cm) and M (3.5 cm) - from 13 February to 18 March, 2012 (P1). For the subsequent 5-week period (P2: 19 March to 22 April, 2012), half the animals from each P1 treatment remained on their treatment, whereas the other half of the animals switched to the opposing treatment. Following P2, all cows were managed similarly for the remainder of the lactation (P3: 23 April to 4 November, 2012) to measure the carryover effect. Milk production, BW and body condition score were measured weekly, and grass dry matter intake (GDMI) was measured on four occasions - approximately weeks 5, 10, 15 and 20 of lactation. Sward utilisation (above 2.7 cm; P1 and P2) was significantly improved by reducing the PGSH from 3.5 (0.83) to 2.7 cm (0.96). There was no effect of PGSH on cumulative annual grass dry matter (DM) production (15.3 t DM/ha). Grazing to 2.7 cm reduced GDMI by 1.7 and 0.8 kg DM/cow in P1 and P2, respectively, when compared with 3.5 cm (13.3 and 14.0 kg/cow per day, respectively). Cows grazing to 2.7 cm for both P1 and P2 (SS) tended to have reduced cumulative 10-week milk yield (-105 kg) and milk solids yield (-9 kg) when compared with cows grazing to 3.5 cm for both periods (MM; 1608 and 128 kg/cow, respectively). Treatments that alternated PGSH at the end of P1, SM and MS had intermediate results. There was no interaction between P1 and P2 treatments. There was also no carryover effect of early lactation grazing regime on milk and milk solids production in P3, given the reduction in early lactation milk yield. The results indicate that the diet of dairy cows should not be restricted by imposing a severe PGSH for all of the first 10 weeks of lactation, cows should graze to 3.5 cm for at least 5 of these weeks. PMID:25471149

  14. 100% PASTURE FOR DAIRY COWS: PROFITABILITY, MILK QUALITY AND ANIMAL WELFARE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some dairy farmers and consumers are proponents of a diet for dairy cows with 100% pasture and no supplementation, similar to a New Zealand system. However, for US dairy producers who are thinking about a 100% pasture system, this may not be a reality. Even during the 6 to 7 months grazing period,...

  15. 100% PASTURE FOR DAIRY COWS: PROFITABILITY, MILK QUALITY AND ANIMAL WELFARE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some dairy farmers and consumers are proponents of a diet for dairy cows with 100% pasture and no supplementation, similar to a New Zealand system. However, for US dairy producers who are thinking about a “100% pasture” system, this may not be a reality. Even during the 6 to 7 months grazing period,...

  16. Organic dairy production systems in Pennsylvania: a case study evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rotz, C A; Kamphuis, G H; Karsten, H D; Weaver, R D

    2007-08-01

    The current market demand and price for organic milk is encouraging dairy producers, particularly those on smaller farms, to consider organic production as a means for improving the economic viability of their operations. Organic production systems vary widely in scale, in practices, and across agroclimatic settings. Within this context, case studies of 4 actual organic dairy farms were used to characterize existing systems in Pennsylvania. Based on data from these farms, a whole-farm simulation model (Integrated Farm System Model) was used to compare 4 production systems representing organic grass, organic crop, conventional crop with grazing, and conventional confinement production. The performance of each of these systems was simulated over each year of 25 yr of central Pennsylvania weather data. Simulation results indicated that farm level accumulation of soil P and K may be a concern on organic farms that use poultry manure as a primary crop nutrient source, and that erosion and runoff loss of P may be of concern on organic farms producing annual crops because more tillage is required for weed control. Whole-farm budgets with prices that reflect recent conditions showed an economic advantage for organic over conventional production. A sensitivity analysis showed that this economic advantage depended on a higher milk price for producers of organic milk and was influenced by the difference in milk production maintained by herds using organic and conventional systems. Factors found to have little effect on the relative profitability of organic over conventional production included the differences between organic and conventional prices for seed, chemicals, forage, and animals and the overall costs or prices assumed for organic certification, machinery, pasture fencing, fuel, and labor. Thus, at the current organic milk price, relative to other prices, the case study organic production systems seem to provide an option for improving the economic viability of dairy operations of the scale considered in Pennsylvania. To motivate transition to organic systems, the economic advantage found requires the persistence of a substantial difference between conventional and organic raw milk prices. PMID:17639008

  17. Do Bells Affect Behaviour and Heart Rate Variability in Grazing Dairy Cows?

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Julia; Patt, Antonia; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-01-01

    In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control), with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell) or with a functional bell (functional bell). The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare. PMID:26110277

  18. Do bells affect behaviour and heart rate variability in grazing dairy cows?

    PubMed

    Johns, Julia; Patt, Antonia; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-01-01

    In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control), with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell) or with a functional bell (functional bell). The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare. PMID:26110277

  19. Energy Requirements of Grazing Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing dairy cows expend more energy than confined dairy cows due to grazing activity as well as walking between the pasture and the milking parlor twice a day. The amount of energy expended depends on a variety of factors, including weather, slope, and distance. This summary article was developed ...

  20. Simulating rotational grazing management.

    PubMed

    Cros, M J; Duru, M; Garcia, F; Martin-Clouaire, R

    2001-09-01

    Dairy systems predominantly based on rotational grazing are notoriously hard to manage. In order to ensure profitability, this type of production requires quite good organisation, planning, and operating capability on the part of the farmer. A simulation-based decision support system, called SEPATOU, has been developed for this purpose. At the core of the decision support approach lies an explicit and rigorous modelling of the management strategy that underlies a dairy farmer's decision-making behaviour (real or hypothetical). The SEPATOU system is a discrete-event simulator that reproduces the day-to-day dynamics of the farmer's decision process and the response of the controlled biophysical system for which models of grass growth, animal consumption, and milk production are used. SEPATOU provides the means to evaluate and compare tentative strategies by simulating their application throughout the production season under different hypothetical weather conditions. The relative worth of a strategy can be assessed by analysing the effects on the biophysical system and their variability across the representative range of possible conditions that is considered. The activities to be managed concern the type and amount of conserved feed, where to fertilise and how much, the choice of fields to harvest, and most importantly, which field to graze next. Typically, SEPATOU is designed to be used by extension services and farming system scientists. It is implemented in C++ and is currently undergoing a validation process with the intended users. PMID:11697661

  1. Diffraction-limited performance of grazing incidence optical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Diffraction effects of X-ray optical systems are often (justifiably) ignored due to the small wavelength of the X-ray radiation. However, the extremely large obscuration ratio inherent to grazing incidence optical systems produces a profound degradation of the diffraction image over that produced by a moderately obscured aperture of the same diameter. The contradictory requirements of large collecting area and relatively short length of optical elements has tended to result in proposed designs containing many concentric shells with increasingly higher obscuration ratios. In this paper it is shown that diffraction effects in such systems can significantly affect the achievable optical performance at the low energy (long wavelength) end of the intended operating spectral range. Parametric diffraction-limited performance predictions for both imaging and spectrographic applications will be presented and compared to AXAF performance goals and/or BBXRT fabrication techniques.

  2. Energy Integrated Dairy Farm digester and cogeneration system installation

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.C.; Walsh, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Georgia Tech finished in December, 1983 Phase II (system installation and startup) of its four year Energy Integrated Dairy Farm System (EIDFS) program. This paper outlines the selection and installation of the anaerobic digestion and cogeneration components of the EIDFS.

  3. KNOWLEDGE GAPS IN ASSESS AND PREDICTING GRAZING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: ART OR SCIENCE?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adoption of research techniques associated with tame pastures has improved the community scale understanding of rangeland grazing systems. While our undertanding of grazing behavior, diet selection and intake has benefited by a more intensive approach, there is little evidence that livestock pe...

  4. Dryland Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Influenced by Sheep Grazing in the Wheat-Fallow System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep (Ovis aries L.) grazing during fallow for weed control in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow systems may influence soil C and N levels and grain yields by returning part of consumed crop residue to the soil through feces and urine. We evaluated the effects of fallow management [sheep grazing ...

  5. Sheep Grazing Effect on Dryland Soil Properties and Wheat Yield in the Wheat-Fallow System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep (Ovis aries L.) grazing during fallow is an effective method of controlling weeds and pests in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow system. Little is known about the effect of sheep grazing on dryland soil properties and wheat yield. We evaluated the effects of fallow management for weed co...

  6. Ultrasonic processing of dairy systems in large scale reactors.

    PubMed

    Zisu, Bogdan; Bhaskaracharya, Raman; Kentish, Sandra; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2010-08-01

    High intensity low frequency ultrasound was used to process dairy ingredients to improve functional properties. Based on a number of lab-scale experiments, several experimental parameters were optimised for processing large volumes of whey and casein-based dairy systems in pilot scale ultrasonic reactors. A continuous sonication process at 20 kHz capable of delivering up to 4 kW of power with a flow-through reactor design was used to treat dairy ingredients at flow rates ranging from 200 to 6000 mL/min. Dairy ingredients treated by ultrasound included reconstituted whey protein concentrate (WPC), whey protein and milk protein retentates and calcium caseinate. The sonication of solutions with a contact time of less than 1 min and up to 2.4 min led to a significant reduction in the viscosity of materials containing 18% to 54% (w/w) solids. The viscosity of aqueous dairy ingredients treated with ultrasound was reduced by between 6% and 50% depending greatly on the composition, processing history, acoustic power and contact time. A notable improvement in the gel strength of sonicated and heat coagulated dairy systems was also observed. When sonication was combined with a pre-heat treatment of 80 degrees C for 1 min or 85 degrees C for 30s, the heat stability of the dairy ingredients containing whey proteins was significantly improved. The effect of sonication was attributed mainly to physical forces generated through acoustic cavitation as supported by particle size reduction in response to sonication. As a result, the gelling properties and heat stability aspects of sonicated dairy ingredients were maintained after spray drying and reconstitution. Overall, the sonication procedure for processing dairy systems may be used to improve process efficiency, improve throughput and develop value added ingredients with the potential to deliver economical benefits to the dairy industry. PMID:19948420

  7. Wavefront Sensing Analysis of Grazing Incidence Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrbach, Scott; Saha, Timo

    2012-01-01

    Wavefront sensing is a process by which optical system errors are deduced from the aberrations in the image of an ideal source. The method has been used successfully in near-normal incidence, but not for grazing incidence systems. This innovation highlights the ability to examine out-of-focus images from grazing incidence telescopes (typically operating in the x-ray wavelengths, but integrated using optical wavelengths) and determine the lower-order deformations. This is important because as a metrology tool, this method would allow the integration of high angular resolution optics without the use of normal incidence interferometry, which requires direct access to the front surface of each mirror. Measuring the surface figure of mirror segments in a highly nested x-ray telescope mirror assembly is difficult due to the tight packing of elements and blockage of all but the innermost elements to normal incidence light. While this can be done on an individual basis in a metrology mount, once the element is installed and permanently bonded into the assembly, it is impossible to verify the figure of each element and ensure that the necessary imaging quality will be maintained. By examining on-axis images of an ideal point source, one can gauge the low-order figure errors of individual elements, even when integrated into an assembly. This technique is known as wavefront sensing (WFS). By shining collimated light down the optical axis of the telescope and looking at out-of-focus images, the blur due to low-order figure errors of individual elements can be seen, and the figure error necessary to produce that blur can be calculated. The method avoids the problem of requiring normal incidence access to the surface of each mirror segment. Mirror figure errors span a wide range of spatial frequencies, from the lowest-order bending to the highest order micro-roughness. While all of these can be measured in normal incidence, only the lowest-order contributors can be determined through this WFS technique.

  8. Emergy evaluation of contrasting dairy systems at multiple levels.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Mathieu; Peyraud, Jean-Louis; Lecomte, Philippe; Corson, Michael S; Wilfart, Aurlie

    2013-11-15

    Emergy accounting (EmA) was applied to a range of dairy systems, from low-input smallholder systems in South Mali (SM), to intermediate-input systems in two regions of France, Poitou-Charentes (PC) and Bretagne (BR), to high-input systems on Reunion Island (RI). These systems were studied at three different levels: whole-farm (dairy system and cropping system), dairy-system (dairy herd and forage land), and herd (animals only). Dairy farms in SM used the lowest total emergy at all levels and was the highest user of renewable resources. Despite the low quality of resources consumed (crop residues and natural pasture), efficiency of their use was similar to that of industrialised inputs by intensive systems in RI, PC and BR. In addition, among the systems studied, SM dairy farms lay closest to environmental sustainability, contradicting the usual image of high environmental impact of cattle production in developing countries. EmA also revealed characteristics of the three intensive systems. Systems from RI and PC had lower resource transformation efficiency and higher environmental impacts than those from BR, due mainly to feeding strategies that differed due to differing socio-climatic constraints. Application of EmA at multiple levels revealed the importance of a multi-level analysis. While the whole-farm level assesses the overall contribution of the system to its environment, the dairy-system level is suitable for comparison of multi-product systems. In contrast, the herd level focuses on herd management and bypasses debates about definition of system boundaries by excluding land management. Combining alllevels highlights the contribution of livestock to the global agricultural system and identifies inefficienciesand influences of system components on the environment. PMID:23792889

  9. Effects of grazing stockpilied endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on growth and physiological indices of dairy heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] S. J. Darbyshire) is a cool-season grass grown on over 20 million acres of pasture land and hayfields in the Midwestern and Southeastern United States. A grazing trial was conducted to determine the effects of stockpiled tall fescue on the physiological and...

  10. Relationships among rotational and conventional grazing systems, stream channels, and macroinvertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, K.L.; Vondracek, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cattle grazing in riparian areas can reduce water quality, alter stream channel characteristics, and alter fish and macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Services has recommended Rotational Grazing (RG) as an alternative management method on livestock and dairy operations to protect riparian areas and water quality. We evaluated 13 stream channel characteristics, benthic macroinvertebrate larvae (BML), and chironomid pupal exuviae (CPE) from 18 sites in the Upper Midwest of the United States in relation to RG and conventional grazing (CG). A Biotic Composite Score comprised of several macroinvertebrate metrics was developed for both the BML assemblage and the CPE assemblage. Multi-Response Permutation Procedures (MRPP) indicated a significant difference in stream channel characteristics between RG and CG. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling indicated that RG sites were associated with more stable stream banks, higher quality aquatic habitat, lower soil compaction, and larger particles in the streambed. However, neither MRPP nor Mann-Whitney U tests demonstrated a difference in Biotic Composite Scores for BML or CPE along RG and CG sites. The BML and CPE metrics were significantly correlated, indicating that they were likely responding to similar variables among the study sites. Although stream channel characteristics appeared to respond to grazing management, BML and CPE may have responded to land use throughout the watershed, as well as local land use. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  11. Global Grazing Systems: Their Continuing Importance in Meeting Global Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K. F.; D'Odorico, P.

    2014-12-01

    Animal production exerts significant demand on land, water and food resources and is an extensive means by which humans modify natural systems. Demand for animal source foods has more than tripled over the past 50 years due to population growth and dietary change. To meet this demand, livestock intensification (e.g. concentrated animal feeding operations) has increased and with it the water, nitrogen and carbon footprints of animal production. However, grass-fed systems continue to contribute significantly to overall animal production. To date, little is known about the contributions of grass- and grain-fed systems to animal calorie production, how this has changed through time and to what extent these two systems are sensitive to climate. Using a calorie-based approach we hypothesize that grain-fed systems are increasing in importance (with serious implications for water and nutrient demand) and that rangeland productivity is correlated with rainfall. Our findings show that grass-fed systems made up the majority of animal calorie production since 1960 years but that the relative contribution of grain-fed system has increased (from 27% to 49%). This rapid transition towards grain-fed animal production is largely a result of changing diets demand, as we found the growth of grass-fed production only kept pace with population growth. On a regional scale, we find that Asia has been the major contributor to the increase in grass-fed animal calorie production and that Africa has undergone the most drastic transition from grass-fed to grain-fed dependence. Finally, as expected we see a positive relationship between rangeland productivity and precipitation and a shift from dairy- to meat-dominated production going from drier to wetter climates. This study represents a new means of analyzing the food security of animal products and an important step in understanding the historic trends of animal production, their relation to climate, their prospects for the future and their implications for freshwater resources and nutrient cycling.

  12. Energy integrated dairy farm system in New York: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, L.P.; Ludington, D.C.; Merrill, W.G.; Pellerin, R.A.; Reid, W.S.; Space, R.; Space, R. II; White, S.A.; Heisler, M.G.; Farmer, G.S.

    1985-09-01

    This technical manual was developed from the experiences and results gained from Cornell University's Energy Integrated Dairy System Project (EIDS). Goal of the project was to reduce fossil fuels and fossil fuel-based inputs into an income producing dairy farm by substituting energy efficient processes and practices for energy-intensive ones, and using solar-based energy sources - wind, active solar, and biomass.

  13. Effect of nitrogen fertilization rate and regrowth interval of grass herbage on methane emission of zero-grazing lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Warner, D; Podesta, S C; Hatew, B; Klop, G; van Laar, H; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2015-05-01

    Dairy cattle farming in temperate regions often relies on grass herbage (GH)-based diets but the effect of several grass management options on enteric CH4 emission has not been fully investigated yet. We investigated the combined effect of N fertilization rate and length of regrowth period of GH (predominantly ryegrass) on CH4 emission from lactating dairy cows. In a randomized block design, 28 lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows received a basal diet of GH and compound feed [85:15; dry matter (DM) basis]. Treatments consisted of GH cut after 3 or 5 weeks of regrowth, after receiving either a low (20kg of N/ha) or a high (90kg of N/ha) fertilization rate after initial cut. Feed intake, digestibility, milk production and composition, N and energy balance, and CH4 emission were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after an adaptation to the diet for 12d. Cows were restricted-fed during measurements and mean DM intake was 15.00.16kg/d. Herbage crude protein content varied between 76 and 161g/kg of DM, and sugar content between 186 and 303g/kg of DM. Fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and feed digestibility increased with increased N fertilization rates and a shorter regrowth interval. Increasing the N fertilization rate increased daily CH4 emission per cow (+10%) and per unit of DM intake (+9%), tended to increase the fraction of gross energy intake emitted as CH4 (+7%), and (partly because of the low crude protein content for the low fertilized GH) only numerically reduced CH4 per unit of FPCM. The longer regrowth interval increased CH4 emission per unit of FPCM (+14%) compared with the shorter regrowth interval, but did not affect CH4 emission expressed in any other unit. With increasing N fertilization CH4 emission decreased per unit of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (-13%) but not per unit of digestible organic matter intake. There was no interaction of the effect of N fertilization rate and regrowth interval on CH4 emission, but effects of N fertilization were generally most distinct with GH of 5 wk regrowth. The present results suggest that altering grass quality through an increase of N fertilization and a shorter regrowth interval can reduce CH4 emission in zero-grazing dairy cows, depending on the unit in which it is expressed. The larger amount of CH4 produced per day and cow with the more intensively managed GH is compensated by a higher feed digestibility and FPCM yield. PMID:25771062

  14. Forage-based dairying in a water-limited future: use of models to investigate farming system adaptation in southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Chapman, D F; Dassanayake, K; Hill, J O; Cullen, B R; Lane, N

    2012-07-01

    The irrigated dairy industry in southern Australia has experienced significant restrictions in irrigation water allocations since 2005, consistent with climate change impact predictions for the region. Simulation models of pasture growth (DairyMod), crop yield (Agricultural Production Systems Simulator, APSIM), and dairy system management and production (UDDER) were used in combination to investigate a range of forage options that may be capable of sustaining dairy business profitability under restricted water-allocation scenarios in northern Victoria, Australia. A total of 23 scenarios were simulated and compared with a base farm system (100% of historical water allocations, grazed perennial ryegrass pasture with supplements; estimated operating surplus $A2,615/ha at a milk price of $A4.14/kg of milk solids). Nine simulations explored the response of the base farm to changes in stocking rate or the implementation of a double cropping rotation on 30% of farm area, or both. Five simulations explored the extreme scenario of dairying without any irrigation water. Two general responses to water restrictions were investigated in a further 9 simulations. Annual ryegrass grazed pasture, complemented by a double cropping rotation (maize grown in summer for silage, followed by either brassica forage crop and annual ryegrass for silage in winter and spring) on 30% of farm area, led to an estimated operating surplus of $A1746/ha at the same stocking rate as the base farm when calving was moved to autumn (instead of late winter, as in the base system). Estimated total irrigation water use was 2.7ML/ha compared with 5.4ML/ha for the base system. Summer-dormant perennial grass plus double cropping (30% of farm area) lifted operating surplus by a further $A100/ha if associated with autumn calving (estimated total irrigation water use 3.1ML/ha). Large shifts in the forage base of dairy farms could sustain profitability in the face of lower, and fluctuating, water allocations. However, changes in other strategic management policies, notably calving date and stocking rate, would be required, and these systems would be more complex to manage. The adaptation scenarios that resulted in the highest estimated operating surplus were those where at least 10 t of pasture or crop DM was grazed directly by cows per hectare per year, resulting in grazed pasture intake of at least 2 t of DM/cow, and at least 60% of all homegrown feed that was consumed was grazed directly. PMID:22720972

  15. Prepartum feeding level and body condition score affect immunological performance in grazing dairy cows during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Lange, Joshua; McCarthy, Allison; Kay, Jane; Meier, Susanne; Walker, Caroline; Crookenden, Mallory A; Mitchell, Murray D; Loor, Juan J; Roche, John R; Heiser, Axel

    2016-03-01

    Precalving feeding level affects dry matter intake, postcalving energy balance, the risk of hepatic lipidosis and metabolic disease, and gene expression in liver and adipose tissue. These coincide with a higher risk of disease postpartum and, very likely, a failure to reach optimum production as well as reproductive targets. Current interpretation of the available evidence suggest that metabolic stressors affect the immune system of transition dairy cows and lead to reduced immunocompetence. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of precalving body condition score (BCS) and level of feeding on immunocompetence during the peripartum period. Twenty-three weeks before calving, 78 cows were allocated randomly to 1 of 6 treatment groups (n=13) in a 2×3 factorial arrangement: 2 precalving BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0, based on a 10-point scale) and 3 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75, 100, and 125% of estimated requirements). Blood was sampled precalving and at 1, 2 and 4 wk after calving. Cells were analyzed by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. The numbers of T helper lymphocytes (CD4+), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8+), natural killer cells (CD335+), and γδ T lymphocytes (WC1+) as well as their activation status [IL-2 receptor (CD25)+ cells] were highly variable between animals, but there was no evident effect of BCS, feeding level, or time. All groups presented with an increase in expression of cytokines in unstimulated blood cells in the week after calving, although this was significant only for IFNG in the BCS 4.0 group. Analysis of in vitro-stimulated cells allowed 2 general observations: (1) cows with high energy intake precalving (125%) had increased cytokine expression precalving, and (2) all cows had increased cytokine expression in the week after calving. The present study provides evidence that prepartum feed management can affect immunocompetence during the transition period. Considering the current results, optimally conditioned animals might benefit from a restricted precalving diet, whereas underconditioned cows can be fed to requirements. PMID:26778312

  16. Modelling Parasite Transmission in a Grazing System: The Importance of Host Behaviour and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Naomi J.; Marion, Glenn; Davidson, Ross S.; White, Piran C. L.; Hutchings, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic helminths present one of the most pervasive challenges to grazing herbivores. Many macro-parasite transmission models focus on host physiological defence strategies, omitting more complex interactions between hosts and their environments. This work represents the first model that integrates both the behavioural and physiological elements of gastro-intestinal nematode transmission dynamics in a managed grazing system. A spatially explicit, individual-based, stochastic model is developed, that incorporates both the hosts’ immunological responses to parasitism, and key grazing behaviours including faecal avoidance. The results demonstrate that grazing behaviour affects both the timing and intensity of parasite outbreaks, through generating spatial heterogeneity in parasite risk and nutritional resources, and changing the timing of exposure to the parasites’ free-living stages. The influence of grazing behaviour varies with the host-parasite combination, dependent on the development times of different parasite species and variations in host immune response. Our outputs include the counterintuitive finding that under certain conditions perceived parasite avoidance behaviours (faecal avoidance) can increase parasite risk, for certain host-parasite combinations. Through incorporating the two-way interaction between infection dynamics and grazing behaviour, the potential benefits of parasite-induced anorexia are also demonstrated. Hosts with phenotypic plasticity in grazing behaviour, that make grazing decisions dependent on current parasite burden, can reduce infection with minimal loss of intake over the grazing season. This paper explores how both host behaviours and immunity influence macro-parasite transmission in a spatially and temporally heterogeneous environment. The magnitude and timing of parasite outbreaks is influenced by host immunity and behaviour, and the interactions between them; the incorporation of both regulatory processes is required to fully understand transmission dynamics. Understanding of both physiological and behavioural defence strategies will aid the development of novel approaches for control. PMID:24223133

  17. Grazing effects on forage production and botanical composition in a Quercus ithaburensis subs. macrolepis silvopastoral system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantera, A.; Papanastasis, V. P.

    2009-04-01

    Grazing is considered as a major factor affecting forage production as well as botanical composition of many silvopastoral systems. In order to study these effects, three pairs of grazed and protected plots were established in a Quercus ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis silvopastoral system. The experiment was carried out in western Greece, 15 km west of the city of Agrinion. Data were collected for two continuous years and included the determination of palatable and unpalatable to animals plant species as well as the botanical composition. The results suggest that heavy grazing decreased biomass production approximately threefold. Grazing also affected number of acorns, botanical composition as well as vegetation cover whereas had no effect on natural regeneration in the study period.

  18. Winter grazing system and supplementation of beef cows during late gestation influence heifer progeny.

    PubMed

    Funston, R N; Martin, J L; Adams, D C; Larson, D M

    2010-12-01

    A 2 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to evaluate effects of dam winter grazing system and supplementation in the last third of gestation on subsequent BW gain, feed efficiency, and reproduction in heifer progeny. Crossbred cows (yr 1, n = 109; yr 2, n = 114; yr 3, n = 116) grazed range (WR) or corn residue (CR) during winter and within grazing treatment received 0.40 kg/d of 31% CP (DM basis) cubes (PS) or no supplement (NS). Heifer calves (yr 1, n = 56; yr 2, n = 56; yr 3, n = 54) grazed dormant pasture for 114 d postweaning and were individually fed for 87 d before a 45-d natural service breeding. Dam PS reduced (P = 0.04) heifer birth date and CR tended to increase (P = 0.07) heifer birth BW. Both PS and CR increased (P ? 0.05) heifer weaning BW; however, adjusted 205-d weaning BW was only lighter (P = 0.03) if the dam grazed WR with NS. Heifers from PS dams tended to be younger (P = 0.09) at puberty than NS, and there was a trend (P = 0.11) for more heifers to be pubertal by breeding if the dam grazed WR with PS compared with other treatment groups. Heifers from WR-NS dams tended to weigh less (P ? 0.09) at breeding and at pregnancy diagnosis than WR PS. There was a trend (P = 0.13) for pregnancy rate to be greater for heifers born to PS dams. Individually fed heifer DMI was not affected (P = 0.25) by treatment; however, heifers from dams that grazed CR with PS gained the least BW (P = 0.04) during individual feeding and had the smallest (P = 0.03) G:F. In contrast, there were no differences (P > 0.15) in feed efficiency when expressed as residual feed intake. The first calf birth and weaning BW of the heifer was unaffected (P > 0.15) by dam treatment. Heifers from dams that grazed WR with NS tended to have lighter (P = 0.09) BW before the second breeding season but similar (P = 0.97) pregnancy rates. Cows grazing CR with NS produced the most valuable heifer calf at weaning; however, heifers from cows that grazed WR with NS cost the least to develop per pregnant heifer. Winter grazing system and late gestation supplementation affected heifer progeny BW, feed efficiency, and fertility. PMID:20709872

  19. A periodically forced, piecewise linear system, Part II: The fragmentation mechanism of strange attractors and grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Albert C. J.

    2007-09-01

    In the first part of this work, the local singularity of non-smooth dynamical systems was discussed and the criteria for the grazing bifurcation were presented mathematically. In this part, the fragmentation mechanism of strange attractors in non-smooth dynamical systems is investigated. The periodic motion transition is completed through grazing. The concepts for the initial and final grazing, switching manifolds are introduced for six basic mappings. The fragmentation of strange attractors in non-smooth dynamical systems is described mathematically. The fragmentation mechanism of the strange attractor for such a non-smooth dynamical system is qualitatively discussed. Such a fragmentation of the strange attractor is illustrated numerically. The criteria and topological structures for the fragmentation of the strange attractor need to be further developed as in hyperbolic strange attractors. The fragmentation of the strange attractors extensively exists in non-smooth dynamical systems, which will help us better understand chaotic motions in non-smooth dynamical systems.

  20. Genotype effects on body temperature in dairy cows under grazing conditions in a hot climate including evidence for heterosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikmen, S.; Martins, L.; Pontes, E.; Hansen, P. J.

    2009-07-01

    We compared diurnal patterns of vaginal temperature in lactating cows under grazing conditions to evaluate genotype effects on body temperature regulation. Genotypes evaluated were Holstein, Jersey, Jersey × Holstein and Swedish Red × Holstein. The comparison of Holstein and Jersey versus Jersey × Holstein provided a test of whether heterosis effects body temperature regulation. Cows were fitted with intravaginal temperature recording devices that measured vaginal temperature every 15 min for 7 days. Vaginal temperature was affected by time of day ( P < 0.0001) and genotype × time ( P < 0.0001) regardless of whether days in milk and milk yield were used as covariates. Additional analyses indicated that the Swedish Red × Holstein had a different pattern of vaginal temperatures than the other three genotypes (Swedish Red × Holstein vs others × time; P < 0.0001) and that Holstein and Jersey had a different pattern than Jersey × Holstein [(Holstein + Jersey vs Jersey × Holstein) × time, P < 0.0001]. However, Holstein had a similar pattern to Jersey [(Holstein vs Jersey) × time, P > 0.10]. These genotype × time interactions reflect two effects. First, Swedish Red × Holstein had higher vaginal temperatures than the other genotypes in the late morning and afternoon but not after the evening milking. Secondly, Jersey × Holstein had lower vaginal temperatures than other genotypes in the late morning and afternoon and again in the late night and early morning. Results point out that there are effects of specific genotypes and evidence for heterosis on regulation of body temperature of lactating cows maintained under grazing conditions and suggest that genetic improvement for thermotolerance through breed choice or genetic selection is possible.

  1. AN INTEGRATED FARM SYSTEM MODEL FOR EVALUATING ALTERNATIVES IN CROP, DAIRY AND BEEF PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through an expansion of the Dairy Forage System Model (DAFOSYM), an Integrated Farm System Model was created to study the long-term performance, environmental impact, and economics of crop, beef and dairy production systems. Simulation of cash crop hay, cow calf, stocker and dairy production options...

  2. Pluri-energy analysis of livestock systems--a comparison of dairy systems in different territories.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Mathieu; Vayssières, Jonathan; Lecomte, Philippe; Peyraud, Jean-Louis

    2013-09-15

    This paper introduces a generic assessment method called pluri-energy analysis. It aims to assess the types of energy used in agricultural systems and their conversion efficiencies. Four types of energy are considered: fossil energy, gross energy contained in the biomass, energy from human and animal labor and solar energy. The method was applied to compare smallholder low-input dairy-production systems, which are common in developing countries, to the high-input systems encountered in OECD countries. The pluri-energy method is useful for analyzing the functioning of agricultural systems by highlighting their modes of energy management. Since most dairy systems in South Mali (SM) are low-input systems, they are primarily based on solar and labor energy types and do not require substantial fossil-energy inputs to produce milk. Farms in Poitou-Charentes (PC) and Bretagne (BR) show intermediate values of fossil-energy use for milk production, similar to that found in the literature for typical European systems. However, fossil-energy use for milk production is higher on PC than BR farms because of a higher proportion of maize silage in the forage area; grazing pastures are more common on BR farms. Farms on Reunion Island (RI) require a relatively large amount of fossil energy to produce milk, mainly because the island context limits the amount of arable land. Consequently, milk production is based on large imports of concentrated feed with a high fossil-energy cost. The method also enables assessment of fossil-energy-use efficiency in order to increase the performance of biological processes in agricultural systems. Comparing the low-input systems represented by SM to the high-input systems represented by RI, PC and BR, an increase in solar-energy conversion, and thus land productivity, was observed due to intensification via increased fossil-energy use. Conversely, though fossil-energy use at the herd level increased milk productivity, its effect on gross-energy conversion by the herd was less evident. Partitioning the total on-farm gross energy produced among animal co-products (milk, meat and manure) highlights the major functions of SM herds, which are managed to produce organic crop fertilizers. PMID:23666069

  3. Evaluation of the effect of accounting method, IPCC v. LCA, on grass-based and confinement dairy systems' greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, D; Shalloo, L; Patton, J; Buckley, F; Grainger, C; Wallace, M

    2012-09-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guideline methodology, which are the principal greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification methods, were evaluated in this study using a dairy farm GHG model. The model was applied to estimate GHG emissions from two contrasting dairy systems: a seasonal calving pasture-based dairy farm and a total confinement dairy system. Data used to quantify emissions from these systems originated from a research study carried out over a 1-year period in Ireland. The genetic merit of cows modelled was similar for both systems. Total mixed ration was fed in the Confinement system, whereas grazed grass was mainly fed in the grass-based system. GHG emissions from these systems were quantified per unit of product and area. The results of both methods showed that the dairy system that emitted the lowest GHG emissions per unit area did not necessarily emit the lowest GHG emissions possible for a given level of product. Consequently, a recommendation from this study is that GHG emissions be evaluated per unit of product given the growing affluent human population and increasing demand for dairy products. The IPCC and LCA methods ranked dairy systems' GHG emissions differently. For instance, the IPCC method quantified that the Confinement system reduced GHG emissions per unit of product by 8% compared with the grass-based system, but the LCA approach calculated that the Confinement system increased emissions by 16% when off-farm emissions associated with primary dairy production were included. Thus, GHG emissions should be quantified using approaches that quantify the total GHG emissions associated with the production system, so as to determine whether the dairy system was causing emissions displacement. The IPCC and LCA methods were also used in this study to simulate, through a dairy farm GHG model, what effect management changes within both production systems have on GHG emissions. The findings suggest that single changes have a small mitigating effect on GHG emissions (<5%), except for strategies used to control emissions from manure storage in the Confinement system (14% to 24%). However, when several management strategies were combined, GHG emissions per unit of product could be reduced significantly (15% to 30%). The LCA method was identified as the preferred approach to assess the effect of management changes on GHG emissions, but the analysis indicated that further standardisation of the approach is needed given the sensitivity of the approach to allocation decisions regarding milk and meat. PMID:23031525

  4. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF AUTOMATIC MILKING SYSTEMS ON DAIRY FARMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) offer dairy farmers relief from the time consuming and demanding routine of milking. This new technology is now reliable and practical for use on commercial farms, and it is widely used in northern Europe. Although this technology is beginning to be adopted in the USA...

  5. Grass-Based Organic Dairy Production Systems in Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current market demand and price for organic milk is encouraging dairy producers, particularly those on smaller farms, to consider organic production as a means for improving the economic viability of their operations. Of particular interest in this region is a low-input production system relying...

  6. Grass Grows, the Cow Eats: A Simple Grazing Systems Model with Emergent Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Eugene David; Seligman, Noam G.; Noy-Meir, Imanuel

    2004-01-01

    We describe a simple, yet intellectually challenging model of grazing systems that introduces basic concepts in ecology and systems analysis. The practical is suitable for high-school and university curricula with a quantitative orientation, and requires only basic skills in mathematics and spreadsheet use. The model is based on Noy-Meir's (1975)

  7. Integrating sheep grazing into wheat-fallow systems: Crop yield and soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two predominant systems for weed management in summer fallow are tillage with a field cultivator or multiple applications of broad spectrum herbicides with zero tillage. Both systems are based on substantial use of off farm resources. Strategic grazing of sheep may allow grain growers to more ...

  8. Comparison of management intensive grazing and continuous grazing in beef cattle pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management intensive grazing (MIG) offers the potential to increase the financial profitability and productivity of grazing beef and dairy farms in Appalachian Ohio, with minimum environmental impacts. The objective of the project was to compare MIG with conventional continuous grazing (CG) and rela...

  9. Lamb meat--importance of origin and grazing system for Italian and Norwegian consumers.

    PubMed

    Hersleth, Margrethe; Næs, Tormod; Rødbotten, Marit; Lind, Vibeke; Monteleone, Erminio

    2012-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the importance of geographic origin and grazing system for Norwegian and Italian consumers' probability of buying lamb meat. The study consisted of a qualitative part with focus groups followed up with a quantitative survey in each country. Included in the survey was a conjoint design with origin of the meat (Norway, Italy and New Zealand) and pasture (lowland pasture and mountain pasture) as factors, plus questions about consumers' motives underlying selection of food. Results from the study shows that country of origin is important for consumers' buying probability of lamb meat, in both countries domestic meat was preferred. In addition, a higher probability of buying meat from lamb grazing on mountain pasture than from lamb grazing on lowland pasture was identified. It is important for producers of lamb meat to increase the communication of these elements in a competitive national and international food market. PMID:22172765

  10. Short-term response in milk production, dry matter intake, and grazing behavior of dairy cows to changes in postgrazing sward height.

    PubMed

    Ganche, E; Delaby, L; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Kennedy, E

    2014-05-01

    Postgrazing sward height (PGSH) can be altered to adjust the allowance of grass in the dairy cow's diet. This study aimed to investigate the short-term dairy cow response to a change in postgrazing height in early lactation. Ninety Holstein Friesian spring-calving cows were randomly assigned across 3 postgrazing height treatments (n=30): 2.7 cm (severe), 3.5 cm (low), and 4.2 cm (moderate) from February 14 to April 24, 2011. From April 25, animals were rerandomized within each treatment to graze across 2 postgrazing heights: 3.5 cm (low) or 4.5 cm (high). Animal production measurements were taken from April 4 to 24 (measurement period 1; M1) and from April 25 to May 15 (measurement period 2; M2). The 6 treatments (n=15) of M2 were severe-low, severe-high, low-low, low-high, moderate-low, and moderate-high. During M1, increasing postgrazing height from severe to low to moderate linearly increased daily milk yield (21.5, 24.6 and 25.8 kg/cow per day) and grass dry matter intake (GDMI; 13.2, 14.9, and 15.8 kg of DM/cow per day). Milk solids yield was reduced in the severe (-1,518 g/cow per day) treatment when compared with the low and moderate cows (1,866 g/cow per day, on average). The milk yield (MY) response to change in PGSH between M1 and M2 (VM1-M2) was established using VM1-M2 MY=-1.27-1.89 PGSHM1 + 1.51 PGSHM2 (R(2)=0.64). The MY response associated with each treatment between M1 and M2 (3 wk) were -1.03 kg/cow for severe-low, 0.68 kg/cow for severe-high, -2.56 kg/cow for low-low, -1.11 kg/cow for low-high, -4.17 kg/cow for moderate-low, and -2.39 kg/cow for moderate-high. The large increase in energy intake in severe-high between M1 and M2 was achieved through higher GDMI per minute and GDMI per bite, which supported the positive change in MY. Treatments low-high, moderate-low, and moderate-high recorded the highest overall cumulative milk yield (74 kg of milk solids/cow) over the 6-wk period, whereas severe-low and severe-high had the lowest (65 kg of MS/cow). From the animal responses observed in the present study, imposing a postgrazing height of 3.5 cm in early spring provides the opportunity to increase postgrazing height thereafter; the cow increases GDMI accordingly and converts the additional energy intake into milk output. The equations established in this paper provide a decision tool for dairy farmers to anticipate the animal response when postgrazing height is altered or maintained around the tenth week of lactation. PMID:24582439

  11. The effect of stocking rate on soil solution nitrate concentrations beneath a free-draining dairy production system in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, J; Delaby, L; Hennessy, D; McCarthy, B; Ryan, W; Pierce, K M; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2015-06-01

    Economically viable and productive farming systems are required to meet the growing worldwide need for agricultural produce while at the same time reducing environmental impact. Within grazing systems of animal production, increasing concern exists as to the effect of intensive farming on potential N losses to ground and surface waters, which demands an appraisal of N flows within complete grass-based dairy farming systems. A 3-yr (2011 to 2013) whole-farm system study was conducted on a free-draining soil type that is highly susceptible to N loss under temperate maritime conditions. Soil solution concentrations of N from 3 spring-calving, grass-based systems designed to represent 3 alternative whole-farm stocking rate (SR) treatments in a post-milk quota situation in the European Union were compared: low (2.51 cows/ha), medium (2.92 cows/ha), and high SR (3.28 cows/ha). Each SR had its own farmlet containing 18 paddocks and 23 cows. Nitrogen loss from each treatment was measured using ceramic cups installed to a depth of 1m to sample the soil water. The annual and monthly average nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and total N concentrations in soil solution collected were analyzed for each year using a repeated measures analysis. Subsequently, and based on the biological data collated from each farm system treatment within each year, the efficiency of N use was evaluated using an N balance model. Based on similar N inputs, increasing SR resulted in increased grazing efficiency and milk production per hectare. Stocking rate had no significant effect on soil solution concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, or total N (26.0, 0.2, 2.4, and 32.3 mg/L, respectively). An N balance model evaluation of each treatment incorporating input and output data indicated that the increased grass utilization and milk production per hectare at higher SR resulted in a reduction in N surplus and increased N use efficiency. The results highlight the possibility for the sustainable intensification of grass-based dairy systems and suggest that, at the same level of N inputs, increasing SR has little effect on N loss in pastoral systems with limited imported feed. These results suggest that greater emphasis should be attributed to increased grass production and utilization under grazing to further improve the environmental impact of grazing systems. PMID:25841970

  12. Grazing winter rye cover crop in a cotton no-till system: yield and economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crop adoption in conservation management systems continues to be limited in the US but could be encouraged if establishment costs could be offset. A 4-yr field experiment was conducted near Watkinsville, Georgia in which a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop was either grazed by catt...

  13. Grazing winter cover crops in a cotton-cover crop conservation tillage system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing of winter annual cover crops with cattle offers a way to offset costs and increase farm revenue in conservation tillage systems. However, cattle may create problems due to soil treading and reduction in surface residues needed to reduce soil erosion. Optimizing production efficiencies may re...

  14. Grazing winter cover crops in a cotton-cover crop conservation tillage system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing of winter annual cover crops may offset costs and increase farm revenue in conservation tillage systems. However, cattle may create management problems due to soil compaction and removal of surface residues which may cause potential loss of yield. We report on a four year study to evaluate g...

  15. Sweet Corn, Southern Pea, and Watermelon Yields following Winter Annual Grazing across Tillage Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable grower income may be supplemented by winter annual grazing of stockers, but excess soil compaction can decrease vegetable yields. We initiated a study to determine the optimal tillage system for sweet corn (Zea mays, L.) cv. Silver Queen, southern pea (Vigna unguiculata L.) cv. Pinkeye...

  16. a Sensor Based Automatic Ovulation Prediction System for Dairy Cows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, Toby; Hart, John; Pemberton, Roy

    2000-12-01

    Sensor scientists have been successful in developing detectors for tiny concentrations of rare compounds, but the work is rarely applied in practice. Any but the most trivial application of sensors requires a specification that should include a sampling system, a sensor, a calibration system and a model of how the information is to be used to control the process of interest. The specification of the sensor system should ask the following questions. How will the material to be analysed be sampled? What decision can be made with the information available from a proposed sensor? This project provides a model of a systems approach to the implementation of automatic ovulation prediction in dairy cows. A healthy well managed dairy cow should calve every year to make the best use of forage. As most cows are inseminated artificially it is of vital importance mat cows are regularly monitored for signs of oestrus. The pressure on dairymen to manage more cows often leads to less time being available for observation of cows to detect oestrus. This, together with breeding and feeding for increased yields, has led to a reduction in reproductive performance. In the UK the typical dairy farmer could save € 12800 per year if ovulation could be predicted accurately. Research over a number of years has shown that regular analysis of milk samples with tests based on enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) can map the ovulation cycle. However, these tests require the farmer to implement a manually operated sampling and analysis procedure and the technique has not been widely taken up. The best potential method of achieving 98% specificity of prediction of ovulation is to adapt biosensor techniques to emulate the ELISA tests automatically in the milking system. An automated ovulation prediction system for dairy cows is specified. The system integrates a biosensor with automatic milk sampling and a herd management database. The biosensor is a screen printed carbon electrode system capable of measuring concentrations of progesterone in milk in the range 0.3-25 ng/ml. The system is operational in the laboratory is described here and will be working on a test farm in the near future to automatically predict the ovulation of dairy cows routinely.

  17. Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows Grazing in Dry-summer Subtropical Climatic Conditions: Effect of Heat Stress and Heat Shock on Meiotic Competence and In vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Pavani, Krishna; Carvalhais, Isabel; Faheem, Marwa; Chaveiro, Antonio; Reis, Francisco Vieira; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate how environmental factors in a dry-summer subtropical climate in Terceira-Azores (situated in the North Atlantic Ocean: 38° 43′ N 27° 12′ W) can affect dairy cow (Holstein) fertility, as well as seasonal influence on in vitro oocytes maturation and embryos development. Impact of heat shock (HS) effects on in vitro oocyte’s maturation and further embryo development after in vitro fertilization (IVF) was also evaluated. For such purpose the result of the first artificial insemination (AI) performed 60 to 90 days after calving of 6,300 cows were recorded for one year. In parallel, climatic data was obtained at different elevation points (n = 5) from 0 to 1,000 m and grazing points from 0 to 500 m, in Terceira island, and the temperature humidity index (THI) was calculated. For in vitro experiments, oocytes (n = 706) were collected weekly during all year, for meiotic maturation and IVF. Further, to evaluate HS effect, 891 oocytes were collected in the cold moths (December, January, February and March) and divided in three groups treated to HS for 24 h during in vitro maturation at: C (Control = 38.5°C), HS1 (39.5°C) and HS2 (40.5°C). Oocytes from each group were used for meiotic assessment and IVF. Cleavage, morula and blastocyst development were evaluated respectively on day 2, 6, and 9 after IVF. A negative correlation between cow’s conception rate (CR) and THI in grazing points (−91.3%; p<0.001) was observed. Mean THI in warmer months (June, July, August and September) was 71.7±0.7 and the CR (40.2±1.5%) while in cold months THI was 62.8±0.2 and CR was 63.8±0.4%. A similar impact was obtained with in vitro results in which nuclear maturation rate (NMR) ranged from 78.4% (±8.0) to 44.3% (±8.1), while embryos development ranged from 53.8% (±5.8) to 36.3% (±3.3) in cold and warmer months respectively. In vitro HS results showed a significant decline (p<0.05) on NMR of oocytes for every 1°C rising temperature (78.4±8.0, 21.7±3.1 and 8.9±2.2, respectively for C, HS1, and HS2). Similar results were observed in cleavage rate and embryo development, showing a clear correlation (96.9 p<0.05) between NMR and embryo development with respect to temperatures. Results clearly demonstrated that, up to a THI of 70.6, a decrease in the CR occurs in first AI after calving; this impairment was confirmed with in vitro results. PMID:25656191

  18. Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows Grazing in Dry-summer Subtropical Climatic Conditions: Effect of Heat Stress and Heat Shock on Meiotic Competence and In vitro Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Pavani, Krishna; Carvalhais, Isabel; Faheem, Marwa; Chaveiro, Antonio; Reis, Francisco Vieira; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate how environmental factors in a dry-summer subtropical climate in Terceira-Azores (situated in the North Atlantic Ocean: 38 43' N 27 12' W) can affect dairy cow (Holstein) fertility, as well as seasonal influence on in vitro oocytes maturation and embryos development. Impact of heat shock (HS) effects on in vitro oocyte's maturation and further embryo development after in vitro fertilization (IVF) was also evaluated. For such purpose the result of the first artificial insemination (AI) performed 60 to 90 days after calving of 6,300 cows were recorded for one year. In parallel, climatic data was obtained at different elevation points (n = 5) from 0 to 1,000 m and grazing points from 0 to 500 m, in Terceira island, and the temperature humidity index (THI) was calculated. For in vitro experiments, oocytes (n = 706) were collected weekly during all year, for meiotic maturation and IVF. Further, to evaluate HS effect, 891 oocytes were collected in the cold moths (December, January, February and March) and divided in three groups treated to HS for 24 h during in vitro maturation at: C (Control = 38.5C), HS1 (39.5C) and HS2 (40.5C). Oocytes from each group were used for meiotic assessment and IVF. Cleavage, morula and blastocyst development were evaluated respectively on day 2, 6, and 9 after IVF. A negative correlation between cow's conception rate (CR) and THI in grazing points (-91.3%; p<0.001) was observed. Mean THI in warmer months (June, July, August and September) was 71.70.7 and the CR (40.21.5%) while in cold months THI was 62.80.2 and CR was 63.80.4%. A similar impact was obtained with in vitro results in which nuclear maturation rate (NMR) ranged from 78.4% (8.0) to 44.3% (8.1), while embryos development ranged from 53.8% (5.8) to 36.3% (3.3) in cold and warmer months respectively. In vitro HS results showed a significant decline (p<0.05) on NMR of oocytes for every 1C rising temperature (78.48.0, 21.73.1 and 8.92.2, respectively for C, HS1, and HS2). Similar results were observed in cleavage rate and embryo development, showing a clear correlation (96.9 p<0.05) between NMR and embryo development with respect to temperatures. Results clearly demonstrated that, up to a THI of 70.6, a decrease in the CR occurs in first AI after calving; this impairment was confirmed with in vitro results. PMID:25656191

  19. Incorporating grazing into an eco-hydrologic model: Simulating coupled human and natural systems in rangelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, J. J.; Liu, M.; Tague, C.; Choate, J. S.; Evans, R. D.; Johnson, K. A.; Adam, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Rangelands provide an opportunity to investigate the coupled feedbacks between human activities and natural ecosystems. These areas comprise at least one-third of the Earth's surface and provide ecological support for birds, insects, wildlife and agricultural animals including grazing lands for livestock. Capturing the interactions among water, carbon, and nitrogen cycles within the context of regional scale patterns of climate and management is important to understand interactions, responses, and feedbacks between rangeland systems and humans, as well as provide relevant information to stakeholders and policymakers. The overarching objective of this research is to understand the full consequences, intended and unintended, of human activities and climate over time in rangelands by incorporating dynamics related to rangeland management into an eco-hydrologic model that also incorporates biogeochemical and soil processes. Here we evaluate our model over ungrazed and grazed sites for different rangeland ecosystems. The Regional Hydro-ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys) is a process-based, watershed-scale model that couples water with carbon and nitrogen cycles. Climate, soil, vegetation, and management effects within the watershed are represented in a nested landscape hierarchy to account for heterogeneity and the lateral movement of water and nutrients. We incorporated a daily time-series of plant biomass loss from rangeland to represent grazing. The TRY Plant Trait Database was used to parameterize genera of shrubs and grasses in different rangeland types, such as tallgrass prairie, Intermountain West cold desert, and shortgrass steppe. In addition, other model parameters captured the reallocation of carbon and nutrients after grass defoliation. Initial simulations were conducted at the Curlew Valley site in northern Utah, a former International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme Desert Biome site. We found that grasses were most sensitive to model parameters affecting the daily-to-yearly ratio of net primary productivity allocation of carbon, non-structural carbohydrate pool, rate of root turnover, and leaf on/off days. We also ran RHESSys over AmeriFlux sites representing a spectrum of rangeland ecosystems, such as at Konza Prairie (Kansas), Fort Peck (Montana), and Corral Pocket (Utah), as well as grazed versus ungrazed sites. We evaluated RHESSys using net ecosystem exchange . Competition between rangeland vegetation types with different physiological parameters, such as carbon:nitrogen ratio and specific leaf area within a single site were also tested. Preliminary results indicated both species-specific parameters and allocation controls were important to capturing the ecosystem response to environmental conditions. Furthermore, the addition of a grazing component allowed us to better capture impacts of management at grazed sites. Future research will involve incorporation of other grazing processes, such as impacts of excreta and increased nutrient availability and cycling.

  20. Energy Integrated dairy Farm System in Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Sasscer, D.S.; Morgan, T.O.

    1986-10-01

    Principles of energy-integrated farming were applied to the Rio Canas Dairy Farm, a privately-owned dairy farm and one of the largest dairy farms in Puerto Rico with a milking herd of 400 cows. Animal wastes were fed to two anaerobic digesters where methane gas was produced by bacterial degradation of organic material. The methane gas fueled an engine-generator to produce electricity for farm use and for sale to the public utility. The Wastes were partially stabilized by bacterial action with the digesters and the digester effluent passed to a liquid-solid separator. Solid fraction was composted and either used as bedding material for the cows or marketed as soil conditioner. The liquid fraction flowed to a storage pond and was used in the Greenfeed subsystem to fertilize forage crops for the cows. Estimated energy savings of the system were 1705 MBtu for the first two subsystems and 7,718 MBtu's for all three subsystems. Simple payback for the first two subsystems was very long (20 years) because facilities for effective manure recovery did not exist on the farm at the outset of the project, operational costs for manure collection were charged against the project, and system components were oversized. Including the Greenfeed subsystem, simple payback for the project was 8.2 years. Assuming that manure collection facilities and practices already existed and assuming proper sizing of all components, simple payback for the Anaerobic Digestion and Electrical Production subsystem and the Farm Waste Management subsystem was 5.8 years. Using data from this project, an estimate of the return on investment was projected for different herd sizes. Results suggested that for dairy farms with less than 500 cows, anaerobic digester systems are only marginally profitable.

  1. Body condition score and plane of nutrition prepartum affect adipose tissue transcriptome regulators of metabolism and inflammation in grazing dairy cows during the transition period.

    PubMed

    Vailati-Riboni, M; Kanwal, M; Bulgari, O; Meier, S; Priest, N V; Burke, C R; Kay, J K; McDougall, S; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Crookenden, M; Heiser, A; Roche, J R; Loor, J J

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrating a higher incidence of metabolic disorders after calving have challenged the management practice of increasing dietary energy density during the last ~3 wk prepartum. Despite our knowledge at the whole-animal level, the tissue-level mechanisms that are altered in response to feeding management prepartum remain unclear. Our hypothesis was that prepartum body condition score (BCS), in combination with feeding management, plays a central role in the peripartum changes associated with energy balance and inflammatory state. Twenty-eight mid-lactation grazing dairy cows of mixed age and breed were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a 22 factorial arrangement: 2 prepartum BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0, based on a 10-point scale; BCS4, BCS5) obtained via differential feeding management during late-lactation, and 2 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75 and 125% of estimated requirements). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was harvested via biopsy at -1, 1, and 4 wk relative to parturition. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression of targets related to fatty acid metabolism (lipogenesis, lipolysis), adipokine synthesis, and inflammation. Both prepartum BCS and feeding management had a significant effect on mRNA and miRNA expression throughout the peripartum period. Overfed BCS5 cows had the greatest prepartum expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) and an overall greater expression of leptin (LEP); BCS5 was also associated with greater overall adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), whereas overfeeding upregulated expression of proadipogenic miRNA. Higher postpartum expression of chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) and the cytokines interleukin 6 (IL6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was detected in overfed BCS5 cows. Feed-restricted BCS4 cows had the highest overall interleukin 1 (IL1B) expression. Prepartum feed restriction resulted in greater chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) expression. Overall, changes in mRNA expression were consistent with the expression pattern of inflammation-related miRNA. These data shed light on molecular mechanisms underlying the effect of prepartum BCS and feeding management on metabolic and inflammatory status of adipose tissue during the peripartum period. Data support the use of a controlled feed restriction prepartum in optimally conditioned cows, as well as the use of a higher level of dietary energy in under-conditioned cows. PMID:26601585

  2. Beef Species Symposium: potential limitations of NRC in predicting energetic requirements of beef females within western U.S. grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Petersen, M K; Mueller, C J; Mulliniks, J T; Roberts, A J; DelCurto, T; Waterman, R C

    2014-07-01

    Assessment of beef cow energy balance and efficiency in grazing-extensive rangelands has occurred on a nominal basis over short time intervals and has not accounted for the complexity of metabolic and digestive responses; behavioral adaptations to climatic, terrain, and vegetation variables; and documentation of the effects of nutrient form and supply to grazing cattle. Previous research using pen-fed cows demonstrated differences (P < 0.01) in efficiency of weight change ranging from 135 to 58 g/Mcal ME intake. Furthermore, variation in efficiency of ME use for tissue energy gain or loss ranged from 36% to 80%. In general, energy costs for maintenance, tissue accretion, and mobilization were greatest in Angus-based cows, intermediate in Brahman- and Hereford-based cows, and least in dairy-based cows. The most efficient cattle may reflect the types that are successful in semiarid grazing environments with low input management. Successful range cattle systems are likely the result of retention of animals that best adapted to the grazing environment and thus were potentially more efficient. Animals exposed to a variety of stressors may continually adapt, so energy expenditure is reduced and may tend to depart from the modeled beef cow in the 1996 NRC Beef Cattle Requirements. Critical factors comprising cow lifetime achievement, including reproductive success, disease resistance, and calf weaning weight, may be driven by cow total energy utilization in energy-limiting environments. Therefore, energy adjustments for adapted cattle within these landscapes and seasonal BW changes can alter seasonal NEm requirements. Evaluated studies indicate that in static grazing environments, NRC prediction fitness was improved compared with predictions from dynamic systems where cattle were influenced less by management and more by environmental conditions. Preliminary herd analyses cast doubt on the accuracy of NRC BCS descriptions representing NEm requirements of adapted females utilizing semiarid rangelands. Possible gaps are proposed that could be the basis for prediction inaccuracies. A more complete understanding of mechanisms contributing to productivity in the field than the current model predicts will improve future models to better simulate energetic accountability and subsequent female performance. PMID:24492551

  3. Short-term application of prestimulation and increased automatic cluster remover threshold affect milking characteristics of grazing dairy cows in late lactation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J P; Jago, J G; Lopez-Villalobos, N

    2013-03-01

    It was hypothesized that reducing cow cluster-on time by increasing automatic cluster remover (ACR) thresholds above 0.4 kg/min would require premilking stimulation of the mammary gland to maintain milk yield. This was tested by examining the interaction between 4 ACR thresholds and 3 premilking treatments over an 8-wk period with 96 mixed-age Friesian-Jersey cross cows being milked twice per day in late lactation (average production: 13.9 kg/d). The 3 premilking treatments were attach cluster immediately (control), attach cluster 60s after entering the dairy (delay), or remove 2 squirts of foremilk from each quarter and attach cluster 60s after entering the dairy (Prep). Four ACR thresholds were chosen, where the cluster was removed after the milk flow rate was less than 0.2 (ACR2), 0.4 (ACR4), 0.6 (ACR6), and 0.8 kg/min (ACR8). Measurements included individual cow milk yield, cluster-on time, average milk flow rate, maximum milk flow rate, time from cluster attachment to average milk flow rate, milk yield in the first 2 min, time from maximum milk flow rate to end of milking, and the milk flow rate at predetermined intervals during each milking session. Composite milk samples were collected weekly at a.m. and p.m. milkings to determine composition and somatic cell count (SCC). On 3 occasions during the experiment, postmilking strip yield was measured. No interactions were detected between premilking treatment and ACR threshold in any of the measured variables. Cows receiving the Prep treatment had a 5 to 9% shorter cluster-on time than the control treatment. Milk yield, SCC, postmilking strip yield, and maximum flow rate were not different between the 3 premilking treatments. Cluster-on time of the ACR8 cows was 21 to 29% less than ACR2, but SCC and milk production variables were not different between the 4 end-of-milking treatments despite higher strip yields as ACR threshold increased. Increasing ACR threshold offers the potential to reduce the duration of milking without detriment to overall productivity. The results of the premilking treatments indicate that to achieve the most efficient routine, the operator should attach clusters as close as possible to the first bail in rotary dairies to increase bail utilization in pasture-based systems. If cluster attachment can be sped up and ACR threshold lifted, significant potential exists to decrease herd milking duration and improve labor productivity. PMID:23332836

  4. Heifer development systems: dry-lot feeding compared with grazing dormant winter forage.

    PubMed

    Funston, R N; Larson, D M

    2011-05-01

    Two hundred ninety-nine Angus-based, nulliparous heifers (253 2 kg initial BW) from 3 production years were utilized to compare traditional postweaning dry lot (DL) development with a more extensive winter grazing system utilizing a combination of corn residue and winter range (EXT). Heifers developed in the DL were offered a common diet after the weaning period for 208 d in yr 1, 194 d in yr 2, and 150 d in yr 3 until breeding. Heifers developed in EXT grazed corn residue for 135 d in yr 1, 106 d in yr 2, and 91 d in yr 3, and then fed in the DL until breeding (yr 1) or grazed dormant winter grass for approximately 60 d before being fed in the DL (yr 2 and 3). All 3 years, heifers were estrus synchronized, with timed AI performed in yr 1. In yr 2 and 3, estrus was detected and those detected in estrus were artificially inseminated approximately 12 h later. Heifers were exposed to bulls 10 d after the last AI for 60 d while grazing summer pasture. During the winter grazing period, EXT heifers gained less (P = 0.01) BW than DL heifers and EXT heifers had lighter (P = 0.02) BW at breeding. Fewer (P < 0.01) EXT heifers reached puberty before breeding. Conception to AI was not different (P = 0.23); however, AI pregnancy rate tended (P = 0.08) to be less in EXT heifers. Final pregnancy rates were not different (P = 0.38) between treatment groups. Although EXT heifers had lighter (P = 0.02) BW at pregnancy diagnosis; however, they did compensate with greater (P = 0.05) ADG after breeding, resulting in similar (P = 0.22) precalving BW. Winter development system did not influence (P > 0.10) percentage of calving in the first 21 d, calf birth date, and calf birth BW, or dystocia score. Pregnancy rate after the second breeding season was not different (P = 0.56) between treatments. Heifer development using extended winter grazing reduced (P < 0.01) the cost of producing a pregnant heifer by $45 compared with DL. PMID:21521820

  5. Chapter 14: Incorporating targeted grazing into farming systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cropping systems were once wholly integrated with livestock production, but today, few cropping systems include livestock. Sheep and goats traditionally produced on rangelands or pasture forages and supplemented with harvested feeds during winter. We present concepts and specific areas whereby gra...

  6. Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) Prototype System User Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sam Alessi; Dennis Keiser

    2012-10-01

    This document is a user manual for the Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) model. DANA provides an analysis of dairy anaerobic digestion technology and allows users to calculate biogas production, co-product valuation, capital costs, expenses, revenue and financial metrics, for user customizable scenarios, dairy and digester types. The model provides results for three anaerobic digester types; Covered Lagoons, Modified Plug Flow, and Complete Mix, and three main energy production technologies; electricity generation, renewable natural gas generation, and compressed natural gas generation. Additional options include different dairy types, bedding types, backend treatment type as well as numerous production, and economic parameters. DANA’s goal is to extend the National Market Value of Anaerobic Digester Products analysis (informa economics, 2012; Innovation Center, 2011) to include a greater and more flexible set of regional digester scenarios and to provide a modular framework for creation of a tool to support farmer and investor needs. Users can set up scenarios from combinations of existing parameters or add new parameters, run the model and view a variety of reports, charts and tables that are automatically produced and delivered over the web interface. DANA is based in the INL’s analysis architecture entitled Generalized Environment for Modeling Systems (GEMS) , which offers extensive collaboration, analysis, and integration opportunities and greatly speeds the ability construct highly scalable web delivered user-oriented decision tools. DANA’s approach uses server-based data processing and web-based user interfaces, rather a client-based spreadsheet approach. This offers a number of benefits over the client-based approach. Server processing and storage can scale up to handle a very large number of scenarios, so that analysis of county, even field level, across the whole U.S., can be performed. Server based databases allow dairy and digester parameters be held and managed in a single managed data repository, while allows users to customize standard values and perform individual analysis. Server-based calculations can be easily extended, versions and upgrades managed, and any changes are immediately available to all users. This user manual describes how to use and/or modify input database tables, run DANA, view and modify reports.

  7. Place of dairy products in the Chinese-American family food system.

    PubMed

    Lv, Nan; Brown, J Lynne

    2010-08-01

    Chinese Americans have a high risk of osteoporosis and their calcium intake is substantially below the daily recommendation. However, little has been done to reduce the risk of this hard-to-reach population. This theory-based qualitative study explored how first-generation Chinese American couples with children view dairy products, how they use them in their family food system, and how these uses influence their dietary behavior or intake. Twenty couples, recruited from weekend Chinese schools at three locations in Pennsylvania, were interviewed. Taste, texture, and use of additives and growth hormones appeared to be more important influences on dairy choice than lactose intolerance. In these families, parental use of food rules and power to influence food patterns affected family flexibility about dairy use. Father's power, his views of dairy products, and his preference for Chinese-based dinners had a greater influence than those of his wife or children on the use of dairy-based dinner dishes. In contrast, choices at breakfast or lunch and for snacks were more flexible and could include dairy products. Nutrition educators can encourage introduction of dairy products into the traditional dietary pattern of Chinese Americans by offering opportunities to taste unfamiliar dairy products, demonstrating use of dairy products to prepare familiar foods, including both parents in any intervention or at least in tasting recipes, and providing information on importance of calcium to bone health and amount of calcium needed from reputable sources. PMID:20656096

  8. The Effects of Components of Grazing System on Welfare of Fattening Pigs.

    PubMed

    Tozawa, Akitsu; Tanaka, Shigefumi; Sato, Shusuke

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to clarify the most effective component of grazing for improving welfare of fattening pigs. This study compared welfare indicators of 20 fattening pigs aged 100 to 124 days (the prior period) and 138 to 164 days (the latter period) in an indoor housing system (IS), an outdoor pasturing system (OP), a concrete floor paddock system (CF), a concrete floor paddock system with fresh grass (FG), or a soil floor paddock system (SF). The last three treatments include important components of a grazing system: extra space, grass feed, and soil floor. Behavior, wounds on the body, and performances, measured as average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio, were observed. CF pigs behaved similarly to IS pigs. FG pigs showed higher levels of foraging, chewing and activity. SF pigs engaged in higher levels of foraging, exploring, activity, and rooting, and showed a similar amount of playing behavior as OP pigs. ADG was the same in all treatments at the prior period, and increased in the order FG, IS, CF, SF, and OP at the latter. The behaviors and performance of SF pigs resembled those of OP which seemed to indicate a consistently higher standard of welfare than the other treatments. In conclusion, the existence of a soil floor is the most important component of a pasture for improving the welfare of pigs. PMID:26950876

  9. Analysis of Steroid Hormones in a Typical Dairy Waste Disposal System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental loading of steroid hormones contained in dairy wastes may cause a potential adversely affect on the aquatic species. This work was to investigate the profile of steroid hormones in a typical dairy waste operation system and assess the potential risk of hormone contaminations result...

  10. Effect of prior grazing experiences on grazing behavior and performance of lactating cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of grazing experiences early in life on grazing behavior and performance of lactating dairy heifers was evaluated in a 3-year study. Sixty-four Holstein and Holstein x Jersey calves were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments (n = 16) in 2008. Treatments were combinations of managing he...

  11. X-ray fluorescence induced by standing waves in the grazing-incidence and grazing-exit modes: study of the Mg-Co-Zr system.

    PubMed

    Tu, Yuchun; Yuan, Yanyan; Le Guen, Karine; Andr, Jean Michel; Zhu, Jingtao; Wang, Zhanshan; Bridou, Franoise; Giglia, Angelo; Jonnard, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The characterization of Mg-Co-Zr tri-layer stacks using X-ray fluorescence induced by X-ray standing waves, in both the grazing-incidence (GI) and the grazing-exit (GE) modes, is presented. The introduction of a slit in the direction of the detector improves the angular resolution by a factor of two and significantly improves the sensitivity of the technique for the chemical characterization of the buried interfaces. By observing the intensity variations of the Mg K? and Co L? characteristic emissions as a function of the incident (GI mode) or detection (GE mode) angle, it is shown that the interfaces of the Si/[Mg/Co/Zr] 30 multilayer are abrupt, whereas in the Si/[Mg/Zr/Co] 30 multilayer a strong intermixing occurs at the Co-on-Zr interfaces. An explanation of this opposite behavior of the Co-on-Zr and Zr-on-Co interfaces is given by the calculation of the mixing enthalpies of the Co-Mg, Co-Zr and Mg-Zr systems, which shows that the Co-Zr system presents a negative value and the other two systems present positive values. Together with the difference of the surface free energies of Zr and Co, this leads to the Mg/Zr/Co system being considered as a Mg/CoxZry bi-layer stack, with x/y estimated around 3.5. PMID:26524307

  12. Relationships among sward characteristics and herbage intake of grazed temperate grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in sward structure influence intake by grazing cattle. Our objective was to determine relationships between dry matter intake (DMI) and sward characteristics of four diverse temperate grasses grazed by dairy heifers. Meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.], orchardgrass (...

  13. Phenomena and characterization of grazing-sliding bifurcations in aeroelastic systems with discontinuous impact effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcellos, R.; Abdelkefi, A.

    2015-12-01

    Impacts are present in real aircraft movable surfaces, such as ailerons, flaps, rudder, elevators, trim tabs among other secondary control surfaces leading to complex, dangerous, and abrupt transitions. In this research study, we investigate the effects of discontinuous nonlinear stiffness simulating regions of freeplay, linear stiffness, and stoppers in the pitch degree of freedom on the response of a two-degree of freedom aeroelastic system. This system consists of a plunging and pitching rigid airfoil supported by a linear spring in the plunge degree of freedom and a nonlinear spring which includes the simulated stoppers at high angles in the pitch degree of freedom. The unsteady representation based on the Duhamel formulation is used to model the aerodynamic lift and moment. To characterize the system's response when subjected to impacts, we use modern methods of nonlinear dynamics including phase portraits, power spectra, and Poincaré sections. The results show that five main complex transitions are observed as the freestream velocity is increased. It is demonstrated that the observed transitions can be associated with grazing and/or grazing-sliding bifurcations.

  14. Liver functional genomics in beef cows on grazing systems: novel genes and pathways revealed.

    PubMed

    Laporta, Jimena; Rosa, Guilherme J M; Naya, Hugo; Carriquiry, Mariana

    2014-02-15

    The adaptation of the liver to periods of negative energy balance is largely unknown in beef cattle on grazing systems. We evaluated liver transcriptome throughout gestation and early lactation of purebred and crossbred beef cows [Angus, Hereford, and their F1 crossbreeds (CR)], grazing high or low herbage allowances (HA) of native grasslands (4 and 2.5 kg dry matter/kg body wt annual mean; n = 16) using an Agilent 4 44k bovine array. A total of 4,661 transcripts were affected by days [272 ? 2.5-fold difference, false discovery rate (FDR) ? 0.10] and 47 pathways were altered during winter gestation (-165 to -15 days relative to calving), when cows experienced decreased body condition score, decreased insulin, and increased nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation pathways were upregulated, while cell growth, DNA replication, and transcription pathways were downregulated (FDR ? 0.25). We observed only small changes in the liver transcriptome during early lactation (+15 to +60 days). A total of 225 genes were differentially expressed (47 ? 2-fold difference, FDR ? 0.10) between HA. The majority of those were related to glucose and pyruvate metabolism and were upregulated in high HA, reflecting their better metabolic status. Two genes were upregulated in CR cows, but 148 transcripts (74 ? 2-fold change difference, FDR ? 0.10) were affected by the HA and cow genotype interaction. The transcriptional changes observed indicated a complex and previously unrecognized, hepatic adaptive program of grazing beef cows in different nutritional environments. Novel target candidate genes, metabolic pathways, and regulatory mechanisms were reported. PMID:24326346

  15. Effect of a hay-based diet or different upland grazing systems on milk volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Coppa, Mauro; Martin, Bruno; Pradel, Philippe; Leotta, Barbara; Priolo, Alessandro; Vasta, Valentina

    2011-05-11

    The effect of animal feeding on milk volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of metabolic origin was tested on a hay-based diet (H), a highly diversified pasture under continuous grazing (CG), or a less diversified pasture under rotational grazing (RG). Individual milk of 24 Montbe?liarde cows (8 per treatment) were sampled after 2 weeks. Pasture-derived milk was richer (p < 0.05) in camphene, sabinene, ?-caryophyllene, and skatole than H milk. Neither milk yield nor fat content affected the majority of VOCs measured. Skatole increased slightly with milk yield, while indole and cineole decreased slightly with milk fat content but with poor regression (R(2) < 0.54). Multivariate analysis showed that, on the basis of those VOCs of metabolic origin whose concentration differed between treatment (dimethyl-sulfone, skatole, toluene, undecanoic acid, 1-octadecene, benzeneacetaldehyde, octanoic acid, and 2-pentanone-4-hydroxy-4-methyl), it was possible to obtain good discriminations among feeding systems. This study is promising for a future use of VOCs of metabolic origin to trace animal feeding systems. PMID:21434695

  16. Performance analysis of grazing incidence imaging systems. [X ray telescope aberrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, C. E.; Korsch, D.

    1977-01-01

    An exact expression relating the coordinates of a point on the incident ray, a point of reflection from an arbitrary surface, and a point on the reflected ray is derived. The exact relation is then specialized for the case of grazing incidence, and first order and third order systematic analyses are carried out for a single reflective surface and then for a combination of two surfaces. The third order treatment yields a complete set of primary aberrations for single element and two element systems. The importance of a judicious choice for a coordinate system in showing field curvature to clearly be the predominant aberration for a two element system is discussed. The validity of the theory is verified through comparisons with the exact ray trace results for the case of the telescope.

  17. Intensive cattle grazing affects pasture litter-fall: an unrecognized nitrous oxide source.

    PubMed

    Pal, Pranoy; Clough, Tim J; Kelliher, Francis M; van Koten, Chikako; Sherlock, Robert R

    2012-01-01

    The rationale for this study came from observing grazing dairy cattle dropping freshly harvested plant material onto the soil surface, hereafter called litter-fall. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines include NO emissions during pasture renewal but do not consider NO emissions that may result from litter-fall. The objectives of this study were to determine litter-fall rates and to assess indicative NO emission factors (EFs) for the dominant pasture species (perennial ryegrass [ L.] and white clover [ L.]). Herbage was vacuumed from intensively managed dairy pastures before and after 30 different grazing events when cows (84 cows ha) grazed for 24 h according to a rotational system; the interval between grazing events ranged from 21 to 30 d. A laboratory incubation study was performed to assess potential EF values for the pasture species at two soil moisture contents. Finely ground pasture material was incubated under controlled laboratory conditions with soil, and the NO emissions were measured until rates returned to control levels. On average, pre- and postgrazing dry matter yields per grazing event were 2516 636 and 1167 265 kg DM ha (SD), respectively. Pregrazing litter was absent, whereas postgrazing fresh and senesced litter-fall rates were 53 24 and 19 18 kg DM ha, respectively. Annually, the rotational grazing system resulted in 12 grazing events where fresh litter-fall equaed to 16 kg N ha yr to the soil. Emission factors in the laboratory experiment indicated that the EF for perennial ryegrass and white clover ranged from 0.7 to 3.1%. If such EF values should also occur under field conditions, then we estimate that litter-fall induces an NO emission rate of 0.3 kg NO ha yr. Litter-fall as a source of NO in grazed pastures requires further assessment. PMID:22370407

  18. Grazing and feedlot performance of yearling stocker cattle integrated with spring- and fall-calving beef cows in a year-round grazing system.

    PubMed

    Guretzky, N A Janovick; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G

    2005-11-01

    Effects of calving season and finishing system on forage and concentrate consumption and carcass characteristics of calves were compared. In each of 3 yr, two replicates of three growing and finishing systems were compared including 1) spring calves finished on a high-grain diet in a feedlot immediately post-weaning (WF); 2) spring calves backgrounded on a hay-corn gluten diet over winter for 179 +/- 18 d after weaning, grazed for 98 +/- 9 d in cool-season grass-legume pastures, and finished on a high-grain diet in a feedlot (SGF); and 3) fall calves backgrounded on a hay-corn gluten feed diet over winter for 69 +/- 31 d after weaning, grazed for 98 +/- 9 d in cool-season grass-legume pastures, and finished on a high-grain diet in a feedlot (FGF). During the grazing phase, calves on the SGF and FGF treatments were equally stocked with spring-calving cow-calf pairs before grazing by pregnant fall-calving cows in a first-last rotational stocking system at a rate of 1.9 standard livestock units/ha. As designed, retained calves in the FGF system spent 110 fewer days in the drylot during backgrounding than retained calves in the SGF system (P = 0.01), resulting in less feed provided during winter. A greater (P < 0.01) quantity of hay was fed to SGF calves after weaning over winter (1,305 kg of DM per calf) than the quantity fed to FGF calves (305 kg of DM per calf). Quantity of grain (including commercial starter) fed to SGF calves after weaning did not differ (P = 0.28) from that fed to FGF calves (126 vs. 55 kg of DM per calf); however, calves in the FGF system required 80 and 71 kg of DM per calf more concentrate to finish to an equivalent external fat thickness compared with SGF and WF calves, respectively (P = 0.02). Average daily gains in the feedlot were greater (P < 0.01) for SGF and FGF calves than for WF calves during all 3 yr. There were no differences (P = 0.69) in carcass quality grades among calves in all groups, but SGF calves had greater (P < 0.01) hot carcass weight and LM area measurements at slaughter than FGF or WF calves. Although calves in the FGF system were 25 kg lighter than calves in the WF system at slaughter (P = 0.03), and had a lower dressing percent (P = 0.03), other carcass characteristics did not differ between these two groups. Lower stored-feed requirements and similar carcass quality characteristics made retention of a fall calf crop advantageous over retention of a spring calf crop for use as stocker animals before finishing. PMID:16230669

  19. Invited review: Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare.

    PubMed

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-11-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes. Additionally, knowledge gaps are identified where research is needed to guide the dairy industry through changes that are occurring now or that we expect will occur in the future. The number of farms has decreased considerably, whereas herd size has increased. As a result, an increasing number of dairy farms depend on hired (nonfamily) labor. Regular professional communication and establishment of farm-specific protocols are essential to minimize human errors and ensure consistency of practices. Average milk production per cow has increased, partly because of improvements in nutrition and management but also because of genetic selection for milk production. Adoption of new technologies (e.g., automated calf feeders, cow activity monitors, and automated milking systems) is accelerating. However, utilization of the data and action lists that these systems generate for health and welfare of livestock is still largely unrealized, and more training of dairy farmers, their employees, and their advisors is necessary. Concurrently, to remain competitive and to preserve their social license to operate, farmers are increasingly required to adopt increased standards for food safety and biosecurity, become less reliant on the use of antimicrobials and hormones, and provide assurances regarding animal welfare. Partly because of increasing herd size but also in response to animal welfare regulations in some countries, the proportion of dairy herds housed in tiestalls has decreased considerably. Although in some countries access to pasture is regulated, in countries that traditionally practiced seasonal grazing, fewer farmers let their dairy cows graze in the summer. The proportion of organic dairy farms has increased globally and, given the pressure to decrease the use of antimicrobials and hormones, conventional farms may be able to learn from well-managed organic farms. The possibilities of using milk for disease diagnostics and monitoring are considerable, and dairy herd improvement associations will continue to expand the number of tests offered to diagnose diseases and pregnancy. Genetic and genomic selection for increased resistance to disease offers substantial potential but requires collection of additional phenotypic data. There is every expectation that changes in the dairy industry will be further accentuated and additional novel technologies and different management practices will be adopted in the future. PMID:26342982

  20. Selection for profit in cattle: II. Economic weights for dairy and beef sires in crossbreeding systems.

    PubMed

    Wolfov, M; Wolf, J; Kvapilk, J; Kica, J

    2007-05-01

    The relative economic importance (economic weights) of 18 traits was determined for Holstein and Charolais sires used in a dairy production system applying cross-breeding with beef sires and in a cow-calf pasture cross-breeding system with integrated fattening of surplus animals. A bioeconomic model containing a profit function was used for the calculations in both systems. Discounted expressions for direct and maternal components of the traits during an investment period of 25 yr were calculated using the gene-flow technique. The relative economic weights for some traits or trait components of the dairy sires differed substantially between the purebred and crossbred dairy systems. There were also meaningful differences among the relative economic weights of traits for beef sires, depending on whether these bulls were used for terminal crossing with F1 females in the cow-calf pasture system (back-crossing), for crossing in dairy herds producing slaughter animals, or for crossing in dairy herds producing F1 females for the cow-calf pasture system. We therefore recommend construction of specific sets of subindices for dairy and beef sires to allow users to rank the bulls according to expected merit of their progeny in specific production systems. PMID:17430950

  1. Carbon dioxide efflux from long-term grazing management systems in a semiarid region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing management can affect grassland carbon (C) dynamics, yet limited information is available documenting management effects on soil carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux. A study was conducted to quantify the role of long-term grazing management to affect soil CO2 efflux within the semiarid northern Gre...

  2. Global Warming Potential of Long-Term Grazing Management Systems in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing lands in the northern Great Plains of North America are extensive, occupying over 50 Mha. Yet grazing land contributions to, or mitigation of, global warming potential (GWP) is largely unknown for the region. The objective of this study was to estimate GWP for three long-term (70 to 90 yr)...

  3. Sheep grazing to manage crop residues, insects and weeds in Northern Plains grain and alfalfa systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep are traditionally produced on rangelands or pasture forages and supplemented during winter with harvested feeds. In recent years, sheep producers have made great strides using commercial-scale grazing on native rangelands to control noxious weeds and excess fire fuels. Incorporating grazing in...

  4. Acoustic monitoring system to quantify ingestive behavior of free-grazing cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to estimate intake in grazing livestock include using markers, visual observation, mechanical sensors that respond to jaw movement and acoustic recording. In most of the acoustic monitoring studies, the microphone is inverted on the forehead of the grazing livestock and the skull is utilize...

  5. Soil greenhouse gas emissions affected by sheep grazing under dryland cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep grazing to control weeds during fallow may influence soil greenhouse gas (CO2, N2O, and CH4) emissions by consuming crop residue and returning feces and urine to the soil. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of sheep grazing compared to herbicide application on soil temperature ...

  6. Net greenhouse gas emissions affected by sheep grazing under dryland cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep grazing to control weeds during fallow may influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by consuming crop residue and returning feces and urine to the soil. We evaluated the effect of sheep grazing compared to herbicide application for weed control on soil temperature and water content at the 0- t...

  7. Tillage systems for cotton-peanut rotations following winter-annual grazing: impact on soil carbon, nitrogen and physical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integrating livestock with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) production systems by grazing winter-annuals can offer additional income for producers provided it does not result in excessive soil compaction. We conducted a 3-yr field study on a Dothan loamy sand (fine-loa...

  8. Grazing Soybean to Increase Voluntary Cow Traffic in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

    PubMed Central

    Clark, C. E. F.; Horadagoda, A.; Kerrisk, K. L.; Scott, V.; Islam, M. R.; Kaur, R.; Garcia, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Pasture-based automatic milking systems (AMS) require cow traffic to enable cows to be milked. The interval between milkings can be manipulated by strategically allocating pasture. The current experiment investigated the effect of replacing an allocation of grazed pasture with grazed soybean (Glycine max) with the hypothesis that incorporating soybean would increase voluntary cow traffic and milk production. One hundred and eighty mixed age, primiparous and multiparous Holstein-Friesian/Illawarra cows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (n = 90/group) with a 22 Latin square design. Each group was either offered treatments of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hoach ex Chiov.) pasture (pasture) or soybean from 0900 h to 1500 h during the experimental period which consisted of 2 periods of 3 days following 5 days of training and adaptation in each period with groups crossing over treatments after the first period. The number of cows trafficking to each treatment was similar together with milk yield (mean ?18 L/cow/d) in this experiment. For the cows that arrived at soybean or pasture there were significant differences in their behaviour and consequently the number of cows exiting each treatment paddock. There was greater cow traffic (more cows and sooner) exiting pasture allocations. Cows that arrived at soybean stayed on the allocation for 25% more time and ate more forage (8.5 kg/cow/d/allocation) relative to pasture (4.7 kg/cow/d/allocation). Pasture cows predominantly replaced eating time with rumination. These findings suggest that replacing pasture with alternative grazeable forages provides no additional incentive to increase voluntary cow traffic to an allocation of feed in AMS. This work highlights the opportunity to increase forage intakes in AMS through the incorporation of alternative forages. PMID:25049970

  9. An economic comparison of typical dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Hemme, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    Population growth, urbanisation and increased per capita milk consumption are main reasons for recent increasing milk demand in Africa. Due to globalisation, it is important to know how competitive various production systems are, especially as most governments promote local production and disfavour dairy imports. The TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact, Policy Impact Calculations model) was used to analyse and compare costs and returns of predominant dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon. Results show that, as farms grew larger in size, family resources (especially land and labour) became insufficient and there was need for their acquisition from external sources. Though extensive dairy farming systems had the lowest cost of milk production (<20 US-$ per 100 kg milk), their input productivities and milk yields were lower, leading to very low net cash returns from dairying. Large intensive farms in South Africa had relatively low costs (<30 US-$ per 100 kg milk) and a high Return on Investment (ROI) due to a higher efficiency of input utilisation. It was concluded that, intensification of dairy farming and simultaneously increasing the scale of production will greatly increase productivity of farm inputs, thus recommended for development of the dairy sector in African countries. PMID:19082756

  10. Methane emissions of beef cattle on forages: efficiency of grazing management systems.

    PubMed

    DeRamus, H Alan; Clement, Terry C; Giampola, Dean D; Dickison, Peter C

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation in the rumen of cattle produces methane (CH4). Methane may play a role in global warming scenarios. The linking of grazing management strategies to more efficient beef production while reducing the CH4 emitted by beef cattle is important. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique was used to determine the effects of best management practices (BMP) grazing compared with continuous grazing on CH4 production in several Louisiana forages during 1996-1998. Cows and heifers (Bos taurus) grazed common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pastures and were wintered on bahiagrass hay with supplements of protein molasses blocks (PMB), cottonseed meal and corn (CSMC), urea and corn (URC), or limited ryegrass grazing (LRG). Daily CH4 emissions were between 89 and 180 g d(-1) for young growing heifers and 165 to 294 g d(-1) for mature Simbrah cows. Heifers on "ad lib" ryegrass in March and April produced only one-tenth the CH4 per kg of gain as heifers on LRG of 1 h. Using BMP significantly reduced the emission of CH4 per unit of animal weight gain. Management-intensive grazing (MIG) is a BMP that offers the potential for more efficient utilization of grazed forage crops via controlled rotational grazing and more efficient conversion of forage into meat and milk. Projected CH4 annual emissions in cows reflect a 22% reduction from BMP when compared with continuous grazing in this study. With the BMP application of MIG, less methane was produced per kilogram of beef gain. PMID:12549566

  11. Toward improved postpartum cyclicity of primiparous dairy cows: Effects of genetic merit for production traits under contrasting feeding systems.

    PubMed

    Bedere, N; Delaby, L; Ducrocq, V; Leurent-Colette, S; Disenhaus, C

    2016-02-01

    Milk genetic merit is known to affect commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) in dairy cows. This effect is considered to be due to energy exported in milk production. The present study aimed to identify and quantify the effects of genetic characteristics [breed and estimated breeding value (EBV) for milk yield and fat and protein contents] and feeding system on C-LA of primiparous cows. From 2006 to 2013, an experiment was conducted on 97 primiparous dairy (Holstein) and 97 primiparous dual-purpose (Normande) cows. Within breed, cows were classified into 2 groups: cows with high EBV for milk yield were included in a "milk group" and those with high EBV for fat and protein contents were included in a "content group." Within breed, exported energy in milk and body weight (BW) loss were similar for both genetic groups. Two grazing-based strategies were used, a high feeding system (maize silage in winter and grazing plus concentrate) and a low feeding system (grass silage in winter and grazing with no concentrate). Interval from calving to C-LA was studied performing survival analyses. Milk progesterone profile, milk yield, and body condition were analyzed using ?(2)-test and analysis of covariance. Holstein cows produced more milk (+1,810kg in the high feeding system and +1,120kg in the low feeding system) and lost more BW from wk 1 to 14 of lactation (-1.4kg/wk) than Normande cows, whereas Normande cows had earlier C-LA than Holstein cows. Within breed, cows in the content group had earlier C-LA (associated hazard ratio=2.0) than cows in the milk group. Body weight at calving and loss from wk 1 to 14 of lactation tended to be associated with later C-LA. Cows in the high feeding system produced more milk (+2,040kg for the Holstein cows and +1,350kg for Normande cows) and lost less BW from wk 1 to 14 of lactation (+3.8kg/wk) than cows in the low feeding system. No effect of feeding system or milk yield was observed on C-LA. Prolonged luteal phases were frequent (18% of cows) and were not associated with either breed or genetic group. Ovarian cycles were longer for Holstein than for Normande cows (+1.7d) because of a longer luteal phase and a longer interluteal interval. Results of the study could be useful to establish strategies to manage declining reproductive performances at genetic and environmental levels. This study showed that cows with a genetic predisposition to export milk energy through fat and protein contents had earlier C-LA than predisposed to export milk energy through yield. PMID:26709173

  12. Prevalence of genital campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis in crossbred breeding bulls kept on zero-grazed smallholder dairy farms in the Tanga region of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Swai, E S; Hulsebosch, J; Van der Heijden, W

    2005-12-01

    A survey to demonstrate the presence or absence of genital campylobacteriosis and trichomonosis in cross-bred breeding bulls kept under smallholding dairy farms in the Tanga region of Tanzania was carried out during the period of January-June 1996. Sheath washings, swabs and preputial scrapings were collected from 58 randomly selected bulls. Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis was demonstrated in 3/58 (5.1%) and Tritrichomonas foetus in 0/58 (0%) of all bulls tested. Bull-level variables of level of taurine genes (62.5% taurine genes, F2; 75% taurine genes, F3) and age were not significantly associated with campylobacteriosis (P > 0.05). The result of the study identifies Campylobacterfetus subsp. venerelias as the agent of enzootic infertility in smallholder herds and suggests that may be a significant problem. PMID:16642720

  13. Impairment of O-antigen production confers resistance to grazing in a model amoeba–cyanobacterium predator–prey system

    PubMed Central

    Simkovsky, Ryan; Daniels, Emy F.; Tang, Karen; Huynh, Stacey C.; Golden, Susan S.; Brahamsha, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    The grazing activity of predators on photosynthetic organisms is a major mechanism of mortality and population restructuring in natural environments. Grazing is also one of the primary difficulties in growing cyanobacteria and other microalgae in large, open ponds for the production of biofuels, as contaminants destroy valuable biomass and prevent stable, continuous production of biofuel crops. To address this problem, we have isolated a heterolobosean amoeba, HGG1, that grazes upon unicellular and filamentous freshwater cyanobacterial species. We have established a model predator–prey system using this amoeba and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. Application of amoebae to a library of mutants of S. elongatus led to the identification of a grazer-resistant knockout mutant of the wzm ABC O-antigen transporter gene, SynPCC7942_1126. Mutations in three other genes involved in O-antigen synthesis and transport also prevented the expression of O-antigen and conferred resistance to HGG1. Complementation of these rough mutants returned O-antigen expression and susceptibility to amoebae. Rough mutants are easily identifiable by appearance, are capable of autoflocculation, and do not display growth defects under standard laboratory growth conditions, all of which are desired traits for a biofuel production strain. Thus, preventing the production of O-antigen is a pathway for producing resistance to grazing by certain amoebae. PMID:23012457

  14. Methane emissions from a New Mexico dairy lagoon system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methane is a greenhouse gas with a global warming potential 25 times that of carbon dioxide. Animal agriculture is recognized as a significant source of methane to the atmosphere. Dairies on the Southern High Plains of New Mexico and Texas are typically open lot, and major sources of methane are the...

  15. Organic dairy production systems in Pennsylvania: a case study evaluation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current market demand and price for organic milk is encouraging dairy producers, particularly those on smaller farms, to consider organic production as a means for improving long-term economic sustainability. Extensive production information was collected from four case-study organic farms throu...

  16. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on soil nutrient concentration and phosphatase activity and forage nutrient uptake from a grazed pasture system.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Sandra Leanne; Wood, Charles Wesley; Wood, Brenda Hall; Feng, Yucheng; Owsley, Walter Frank; Muntifering, Russell Brian

    2015-05-01

    Over a 3-year period, the effect of differing N-application regimes on soil extractable-P concentration, soil phosphatase activity, and forage P uptake in a P-enriched grazed-pasture system was investigated. In the fall of each year, six 0.28-ha plots were overseeded with triticale ( × Triticosecale rimpaui Wittm.) and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum) into a tall fescue (Lolium arundinacea)/bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) sod and assigned to 1 of 3 N-fertilizer treatments (n = 2): 100% of N recommendation in a split application (100N), 50% in a single application (50N), and 0% of N recommendation (0N) for triticale. Cattle commenced grazing the following spring and grazed until May. In the summer, plots were overseeded with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), fertilized at the same rates by reference to N recommendations for bermudagrass, and grazed by cattle until September. There were no effects of N fertilization on soil phosphatase activity, electrical conductivity, or concentrations of water-soluble P. Concentrations of extractable P decreased in plots receiving 50N, but increasing N fertilization to 100N resulted in no further reduction in extractable P. Forage biomass, foliar P concentrations, and forage P mass were not affected by N fertilization rates at the plant-community level, but responses were observed within individual forage species. Results are interpreted to mean that N fertilization at 50% of the agronomic recommendation for the grass component can increase forage P mass of specific forages and decrease soil extractable P, thus providing opportunity for decreasing P losses from grazed pasture. PMID:25728918

  17. Sustainability of meat production beyond carbon footprint: a synthesis of case studies from grazing systems in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Picasso, Valentn D; Modernel, Pablo D; Becoa, Gonzalo; Salvo, Luca; Gutirrez, Luca; Astigarraga, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Livestock production has been challenged as a large contributor to climate change, and carbon footprint has become a widely used measure of cattle environmental impact. This analysis of fifteen beef grazing systems in Uruguay quantifies the range of variation of carbon footprint, and the trade-offs with other relevant environmental variables, using a partial life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Using carbon footprint as the primary environmental indicator has several limitations: different metrics (GWP vs. GTP) may lead to different conclusions, carbon sequestration from soils may drastically affect the results, and systems with lower carbon footprint may have higher energy use, soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, pesticide ecotoxicity, and impact on biodiversity. A multidimensional assessment of sustainability of meat production is therefore needed to inform decision makers. There is great potential to improve grazing livestock systems productivity while reducing carbon footprint and other environmental impacts, and conserving biodiversity. PMID:25048094

  18. Calf's sex, parity and the hour of harvest after calving affect colostrum quality of dairy cows grazing under high tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Joaquin; Gmez, Luis Miguel; Mahecha, Liliana; Meja, Estefana; Henao, Javier; Mesa, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    High-quality colostrum is an important factor influencing neonatal calf health, and quality assessment is essential to obtain good health results. This research evaluated the effects of the calf's sex, the parity of the cow and the hour of colostrum harvest after parity on the fat, nonfat solids, protein and Ig contents in Holstein colostrum for cows under high grazing conditions in the tropics. The effects of the calf's sex and parity on somatic cell count (SCC) at the first milking postpartum were determined. A comparison was made between a laboratory method and a farm method for the estimation of the fat and protein content of colostrum. Thirty-three cows were sampled in the study. The calf's sex was shown to have an effect on the amount of colostrum, on the concentration of fat, and on the amount of milk produced by lactating Holstein cows; all were higher in cows that gave birth to a female calf. Colostrum protein decreased after the first hour postpartum, and the Ig concentration had a tendency to decrease after 4h. The cows that had parity 1-2 had lower Ig concentrations and total production of Igs, and higher SCC at the first milking postpartum. Ekomilk was a reliable method to measure the colostrum fat on the farm. PMID:25708565

  19. Global versus local environmental impacts of grazing and confined beef production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modernel, P.; Astigarraga, L.; Picasso, V.

    2013-09-01

    Carbon footprint is a key indicator of the contribution of food production to climate change and its importance is increasing worldwide. Although it has been used as a sustainability index for assessing production systems, it does not take into account many other biophysical environmental dimensions more relevant at the local scale, such as soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, and pesticide contamination. We estimated carbon footprint, fossil fuel energy use, soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, and risk of pesticide contamination for five real beef background-finishing systems with increasing levels of intensification in Uruguay, which were combinations of grazing rangelands (RL), seeded pastures (SP), and confined in feedlot (FL). Carbon footprint decreased from 16.7 (RL-RL) to 6.9 kg (SP-FL) CO2 eq kg body weight-1 (BW; ‘eq’: equivalent). Energy use was zero for RL-RL and increased up to 17.3 MJ kg BW-1 for SP-FL. Soil erosion values varied from 7.7 (RL-RL) to 14.8 kg of soil kg BW-1 (SP-FL). Nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient balances showed surpluses for systems with seeded pastures and feedlots while RL-RL was deficient. Pesticide contamination risk was zero for RL-RL, and increased up to 21.2 for SP-FL. For the range of systems studied with increasing use of inputs, trade-offs were observed between global and local environmental problems. These results demonstrate that several indicators are needed to evaluate the sustainability of livestock production systems.

  20. Pasture quality variation throughout the grazing season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is important for dairy producers and their nutritionists to have an idea of the nutritional quality of the pasture they are providing to their cows. This article uses data gathered from several on-going pasture research projects to demonstrate how pasture quality varies during the grazing season,...

  1. Response of a depleted sagebrush steppe riparian system to grazing control and woody plantings. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Clary, W.P.; Shaw, N.L.; Dudley, J.G.; Saab, V.A.; Kinney, J.W.

    1996-12-01

    To find out if a depleted riparian system in the sagebrush steppe of eastern Oregon would respond quickly to improved management, five management treatments were applied for 7 years, ranging from ungrazed to heavily grazed treatments, including, in some cases, planting of woody species. While the results varied, all treatments were too limited to significantly restore the damaged areas within the 7-year span. Although some improvements were made in woody plant densities, little meaningful change occurred in the frequencies of herbaceous wetland plants, densities of small wildlife, or stream channel morphology. We concluded the restoration would take many years, possibly decades, without increased revegetation efforts and continued reductions in grazing in this riparian system damaged over 150 years.

  2. Current trends in British dairy management regimens.

    PubMed

    March, M D; Haskell, M J; Chagunda, M G G; Langford, F M; Roberts, D J

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a summary of results from a 2012 survey that investigated feeding and housing management regimens currently adopted by dairy farmers in Britain. Responses from 863 farms provide a snapshot of dairy industry structure and a description of the range of management systems currently in operation. Outcomes highlight a diversity of management practices, showing that 31% of farms maintained a traditional grazing system with no forage feeding indoors during the summer, whereas 38% of farmers indicated that all their milking cows received some feeding indoors during the summer. A system of housing dairy cows for 24 h/d while they are lactating was implemented by 8% of farms, whereas 1% of farms did not house their cows at any time of the year. Statistical analyses were carried out on 3 distinct groups identified from survey responses: (1) farmers who did not undertake any indoor feeding during the summer; (2) farmers who fed all their milking cows indoors during the summer; and (3) farmers who continuously housed their cows for 24h/d while lactating. Results showed a significant relationship between management type and herd size, and between management type and breed type; on average, herd sizes were larger within systems that feed indoors. No significant relationship was found between management type and farm location when classified by estimated grassland productivity. The results indicate that traditional all-summer grazing is no longer the predominant system adopted by dairy farmers and that other systems such as all-year-round indoor feeding and continuous housing are becoming more prevalent in Britain. PMID:25306285

  3. Amazing Grazing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Cris

    Countless acres of grasslands stretch across the American West. Centuries ago, bison roamed the range freely and lived off the grass. By the 19th century, herds of cattle grazed the same land. Over time, much of the original grassland was either plowed and planted or trampled to dust, causing the topsoil to dry up and blow away. Today many…

  4. Amazing Grazing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Cris

    Countless acres of grasslands stretch across the American West. Centuries ago, bison roamed the range freely and lived off the grass. By the 19th century, herds of cattle grazed the same land. Over time, much of the original grassland was either plowed and planted or trampled to dust, causing the topsoil to dry up and blow away. Today many

  5. Supplementation of grazing dairy cows with rumen-protected tuna oil enriches milk fat with n-3 fatty acids without affecting milk production or sensory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kitessa, Soressa M; Gulati, Suresh K; Simos, Gillian C; Ashes, John R; Scott, Trevor W; Fleck, Eva; Wynn, Peter C

    2004-02-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the pattern of incorporation of dietary EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) into milk, and to evaluate consequent changes in milk fat composition and sensory characteristics. Fourteen multiparous cows in early lactation were divided into two groups and were offered supplements for 10 d. While individual stalls after each morning milking, one group was offered a mixture of rumen-protected tuna oil (RPTO)-soyabean supplement (2 kg; 30:70, w/w; +RPTO) and the second group was offered the basal ration without RPTO (-RPTO). Both groups grazed together on a spring pasture after supplementation. Feeding supplemental RPTO increased the concentrations of EPA and DHA in milk fat from undetectable levels in -RPTO cows to 6.9 and 10.1 g/kg milk fat respectively. Total n-3 PUFA concentration in milk fat was increased three- to fourfold by tuna-oil supplementation (8.4 to 32.0 g/kg milk fat). There were no significant effects on milk production (35.4 v. 33.9 l/d), milk protein (28.2 v. 30.1 g/kg) or milk fat (36.2 v. 40.4 g/kg for -RPTO and +RPTO respectively). The concentration of total saturated fatty acids in milk fat was significantly reduced (568 v. 520 g/kg total fatty acids) and there was a 17 % reduction in the atherosclerotic index of milk after tuna-oil supplementation. Untrained consumer panellists (n 61) rated milk from both groups of cows similarly for taste and smell. We conclude that it is possible to enrich milk with n-3 PUFA without deleterious effects on yield, milk composition or sensory characteristics. PMID:14756913

  6. Feasibility of vermicomposting dairy biosolids using a modified system to avoid earthworm mortality.

    PubMed

    Nogales, R; Elvira, C; Bentez, E; Thompson, R; Gomez, M

    1999-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to examine the feasibility of vermicomposting dairy biosolids (dairy sludge), either alone or with either of the bulking agents-cereal straw or wood shavings, using the epigeic earthworm-Eisinea andrei. Earthworms added directly to these three substrates died within 48 hours. A system was developed to overcome the toxic effect of unprocessed dairy biosolids. The substrates were placed over a layer of vermicomposted sheep manure into which the earthworms were inoculated. Within two weeks, all earthworms were within the upper layer of substrate. Compared to sheep manure which is a favourable substrate for vermicomposting, the three substrates containing dairy biosolids were more effective in supporting earthworm growth and reproduction. The final products obtained after 63 days of vermicomposting had 39-53% less organic carbon than the initial substrates. Organic fractionation indicated that vermicomposting increased the stability of the materials to biological decomposition. The vermicomposts obtained from the three substrates with dairy biosolids had low heavy metal contents and electrical conductivities, and did not inhibit plant growth when compared with a commercial vermicompost in a bioassay. PMID:10048210

  7. Treatment with a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug after calving did not improve milk production, health, or reproduction parameters in pasture-grazed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Meier, S; Priest, N V; Burke, C R; Kay, J K; McDougall, S; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Heiser, A; Loor, J J; Roche, J R

    2014-05-01

    Previous research results have indicated an increase in pregnancy rate in pasture-grazed cows treated with a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) 3 to 4 wk postcalving, when a high proportion of nucleated cells from within the uterus were polymorphonucleated; however, no effect on milk production was detected. It was hypothesized that this lack of effect on milk production was because the administration of the NSAID was too late after calving. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the timing of administering a propionic acid-derived NSAID (i.e., carprofen) on milk production, metabolic status, uterine health, and reproductive performance. Six-hundred and thirty-nine cows (134 primiparous and 505 multiparous) calving between July 4 and September 5, 2012, in 2 herds (herd 1: n=228; herd 2: n=411) were enrolled. Using a randomized block design, cows were allocated to 1 of 3 treatment groups as they calved: (1) no treatment (control; n=221), (2) NSAID administered on d 1, 3, and 5 postcalving (early; n=214), and (3) NSAID administered on d 19, 21, and 23 postcalving (late; n=204). Milk production and composition, and body condition were determined weekly. Blood was sampled at 4 time points (1 precalving and 3 postcalving) to determine the effects of treatment on indicators of metabolic health and energy status. Uterine health was determined by measuring the proportion of nucleated cells that were polymorphonucleated following cytobrush sampling of the uterus between d 13 to 24 and d 30 to 49 postcalving. Irrespective of timing of application, NSAID did not affect milk production, body weight, or body condition during early lactation. Treatment with an NSAID 19 to 23 d postcalving increased the proportion of cows submitted for breeding during the first 3 wk of the seasonal breeding program (control: 85%, early: 83%, and late: 92%), but did not affect conception or pregnancy rates. No detectable effect of treatment on uterine health or circulating metabolites and minerals existed, although cows in the early NSAID treatment group had marginally lower serum ?-hydroxybutyrate concentrations (0.1 mmol/L) than the other groups between 2 and 26 d in milk. In conclusion, administration of this particular NSAID at either 1 or 3 wk after calving did not improve milk production, indicators of health, or reproductive performance. PMID:24630655

  8. Energy integrated dairy farm system in Georgia: Technical manual, Mathis/P and M Dairy Farm, Social Circle, Georgia. [Cogeneration using biogas; heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J.L. Jr.; Ross, C.C.; Lamade, R.M.

    1986-09-01

    This manual describes a project sponsored to optimize energy generation and utilization in the agricultural or food processing industry. The particular project involves the Mathis/P and M Dairy Farm located in Social Circle, Georgia (about 60 miles east of Atlanta). The farm is designed for a 550 milking cow herd and produces certified raw milk for sale to a processing plant located in Atlanta. The project converted the Mathis/P and and M Dairy into an energy integrated dairy farm system (EIDFS) in which the interaction of the subsystems and components are modified such that the energy resources of the farm are optimized. This manual is a description of the system, subsystems and components composing the Mathis EIDFS and is primarily intended for farmers, extension agents, and equipment manufacturers who might be involved in future EIDFS projects. Cogeneration using biogas from manures and heat recovery from the refrigeration machinery were among the options chosen.

  9. Study on Intelligent Multi-concentrates Feeding System for Dairy Cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yinfa; Wang, Ranran; Song, Zhanhua; Yan, Shitao; Li, Fa-De

    To implement precision feeding for dairy cow, an intelligent multi-concentrates feeding system was developed. The system consists of two parts, one is precision ingredients control subsystem, the other is multi-concentrates discharge subsystem. The former controls the latter with 4 stepper motors. The precision ingredients control subsystem was designed based on Samsung S3C2440 ARM9 microprocessor and WinCE5.0 embedded operating system. The feeding system identifies the dairy cow with passive transponder using RFID (Radio frequency identification) reader. According to the differences of based diet intake and individual dairy cow milk yield, the system can automatically and quantificationally discharge 4 kinds of different concentrates on the basis of the cow identification ID. The intelligent multi-concentrates feeding system for dairy cow has been designed and implemented. According to the experiment results, the concentrate feeding error is less than 5%, the cow inditification delay time is less than 0.5s and the cow inditification error rate is less than 0.01%.

  10. Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

  11. Particulate and active soil nitrogen fractions are reduced by sheep grazing in dryland cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep (Ovis aries L.) grazing, a cost-effective method of weed control compared to herbicide application and tillage, may influence N cycling by consuming crop residue and weeds and returning N through feces and urine to the soil. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of sheep ...

  12. Remote sensing of forage quality: prediction and application to Southern Plains grazing systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments was conducted with the objective of determining if forage quality could be predicted by remote sensing and to apply this technology to increase productivity of grazing livestock. The first experiment demonstrated that remotely sensed estimates of crude protein (CP), neutral d...

  13. Non-traditional forages in a Managed Grazing System for Control of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project compared forage chicory with brown mid-rib sorghum x sudangrass (BMR) to determine if anti-parasitic effects of chicory could be demonstrated. We evaluated changes in fecal egg counts in two groups of lambs before and after grazing these forages for periods of two to three weeks. Body...

  14. PROFITABILITY OF PRODUCTION SYSTEMS WITH COTTON AND PEANUTS INCORPORATING WINTER ANNUAL GRAZING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of contracts in livestock production has been widespread since at least the 1950s. Under grazing contracts, cattle owners usually place stocker cattle on pasture, owned or leased by a caretaker (e.g. farmer or landowner). These contacts provide farmers an increase in revenue by utilizing win...

  15. [Grazing systems, rotenone and parasites control in crossbred calves: effect on live weight gain and on parasites burdens].

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Catto JB; Bianchin I; Santurio JM; Feijó GL; Kichel AN; Silva JM

    2009-10-01

    Practices for endo and ectoparasite control in beef cattle were evaluated in two independent experiments. First, the effects of rotenone on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were evaluated in vitro and in experimentally infected calves. In the second trial, the effects of grazing systems associated with endo and ectoparasite treatments on parasite burden and weight gain of naturally parasited animals were evaluated. Rotenone showed acaricide action on larvae and engorged ticks during in vitro tests and on larvae in experimentally infected calves. Three treatments with endectocide decreased (P < .05) the number of EPG and ticks and increased (P < .05) the weight gain in the dry season. Animals treated with only one application of levamisole showed EPG intermediate and different (P < .05) from the groups treated with endectocide (lower) and control (higher) in the dry season, but the weight gain obtained with this treatment did not differ from the control group. During the raining season the animals treated with fipronil were significantly less parasited by horn fly, tick and larvae of Dermatobia hominis and the group treated with rotenone were significantly less parasited by horn fly in relation to control. Animals under rotational grazing showed significantly higher EPG than those under continuous grazing. Three treatments with endectocide in the dry season plus three acaricide treatments with fipronil in the raining season reduced EPG, tick, and screw worm larva counts, and provided a significant increase (23 kg) of live weight gain in relation to untreated animals.

  16. [Grazing systems, rotenone and parasites control in crossbred calves: effect on live weight gain and on parasites burdens].

    PubMed

    Catto, Joo B; Bianchin, Ivo; Santurio, Jnio M; Feij, Gelson L D; Kichel, Armindo N; Silva, Jos M da

    2009-01-01

    Practices for endo and ectoparasite control in beef cattle were evaluated in two independent experiments. First, the effects of rotenone on Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks were evaluated in vitro and in experimentally infected calves. In the second trial, the effects of grazing systems associated with endo and ectoparasite treatments on parasite burden and weight gain of naturally parasited animals were evaluated. Rotenone showed acaricide action on larvae and engorged ticks during in vitro tests and on larvae in experimentally infected calves. Three treatments with endectocide decreased (P < .05) the number of EPG and ticks and increased (P < .05) the weight gain in the dry season. Animals treated with only one application of levamisole showed EPG intermediate and different (P < .05) from the groups treated with endectocide (lower) and control (higher) in the dry season, but the weight gain obtained with this treatment did not differ from the control group. During the raining season the animals treated with fipronil were significantly less parasited by horn fly, tick and larvae of Dermatobia hominis and the group treated with rotenone were significantly less parasited by horn fly in relation to control. Animals under rotational grazing showed significantly higher EPG than those under continuous grazing. Three treatments with endectocide in the dry season plus three acaricide treatments with fipronil in the raining season reduced EPG, tick, and screw worm larva counts, and provided a significant increase (23 kg) of live weight gain in relation to untreated animals. PMID:20040207

  17. Welfare-positive management and nutrition for the dairy herd: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Logue, David N; Mayne, C Sinclair

    2014-01-01

    As European dairy farms become larger and diverge between grass-based and fully housed systems, interest in the welfare of the dairy cow and related environmental issues by consumers and legislators is increasing. These pressures mean that good nutrition and management, which underpin much dairy cow welfare, is critical. Despite considerable research into the management and nutrition of the dairy cow from calf to adulthood there is much on-farm variability in its application. While the incidences of many endemic diseases are reduced most are still significant, for example lameness. In addition, trade and climate change are bringing a more diverse range of pathogens, parasites and pests into Northern Europe. Housing aspects are limited in application by economics and in most cases still do not match grazing for welfare in temperate climates. Genomic technologies offer increased opportunities to breed for 'robustness' but like 'precision animal management systems' have still to be fully exploited. PMID:24360757

  18. Measures of nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen loss from dairy production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excessive N use in agriculture can impair air and water quality. The purpose of this paper is to examine how stocking rate, feed imports, fertilizer N use and different measures of N use and N loss impact nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) in dairy production systems. First, determinations of NUE and N l...

  19. Modification of digestive system microbiome of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine: effect on ruminal fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) on the digestive system microbiome of dairy cattle during late lactation (average DIM = 202). To unveil the underlying mechanisms, ...

  20. Diversity of Bacterial Biofilm Communities on Sprinklers from Dairy Farm Cooling Systems in Israel

    PubMed Central

    Shpigel, Nahum Y.; Pasternak, Zohar; Factor, Gilad; Gottlieb, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    On dairy farms in hot climates worldwide, cows suffer from heat stress, which is alleviated by the use of water cooling systems. Sprinklers and showerheads are known to support the development of microbial biofilms, which can be a source of infection by pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of microbial biofilms in dairy cooling systems, and to analyze their population compositions using culture-independent technique, 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Biofilm samples were collected on eight dairy farms from 40 sprinklers and the microbial constituents were identified by deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 9,374 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was obtained from all samples. The mean richness of the samples was 465 ± 268 OTUs which were classified into 26 different phyla; 76% of the reads belonged to only three phyla: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Although the most prevalent OTUs (Paracoccus, Methyloversatilis, Brevundimonas, Porphyrobacter, Gp4, Mycobacterium, Hyphomicrobium, Corynebacterium and Clostridium) were shared by all farms, each farm formed a unique microbial pattern. Some known potential human and livestock pathogens were found to be closely related to the OTUs found in this study. This work demonstrates the presence of biofilm in dairy cooling systems which may potentially serve as a live source for microbial pathogens. PMID:26407190

  1. Diversity of Bacterial Biofilm Communities on Sprinklers from Dairy Farm Cooling Systems in Israel.

    PubMed

    Shpigel, Nahum Y; Pasternak, Zohar; Factor, Gilad; Gottlieb, Yuval

    2015-01-01

    On dairy farms in hot climates worldwide, cows suffer from heat stress, which is alleviated by the use of water cooling systems. Sprinklers and showerheads are known to support the development of microbial biofilms, which can be a source of infection by pathogenic microorganisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of microbial biofilms in dairy cooling systems, and to analyze their population compositions using culture-independent technique, 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Biofilm samples were collected on eight dairy farms from 40 sprinklers and the microbial constituents were identified by deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 9,374 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was obtained from all samples. The mean richness of the samples was 465 268 OTUs which were classified into 26 different phyla; 76% of the reads belonged to only three phyla: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes. Although the most prevalent OTUs (Paracoccus, Methyloversatilis, Brevundimonas, Porphyrobacter, Gp4, Mycobacterium, Hyphomicrobium, Corynebacterium and Clostridium) were shared by all farms, each farm formed a unique microbial pattern. Some known potential human and livestock pathogens were found to be closely related to the OTUs found in this study. This work demonstrates the presence of biofilm in dairy cooling systems which may potentially serve as a live source for microbial pathogens. PMID:26407190

  2. Applications and cost benefits of sexed semen in pasture-based dairy production systems.

    PubMed

    Butler, S T; Hutchinson, I A; Cromie, A R; Shalloo, L

    2014-05-01

    Sexed semen technology is now commercially available in many countries around the world, and is primarily used in dairy cattle breeding. Sperm are sorted by flow cytometry on the basis of a 4% difference in DNA content between sperm containing X and Y chromosomes. Despite reliably producing a 90% gender bias, the fertility of the sexed semen product is compromised compared with conventional semen. The negative implications of the reduced fertility of sexed semen are amplified in seasonal systems of dairy production, as the importance of fertility is greater in these systems compared with year-round calving systems. A review of the literature indicates that conception rates (CR) to 1st service with frozen-thawed sexed semen are ~75% to 80% of those achieved with conventional frozen-thawed semen. Preliminary results from a large-scale field trial carried out in Ireland in 2013 suggest that significant improvements in the performance of sexed semen have been made, with CR of 87% of those achieved with conventional semen. The improved fertility of a sexed semen product that delivers a 90% gender bias has considerable implications for the future of breeding management in pasture-based dairy production systems. Sexed semen may facilitate faster, more profitable dairy herd expansion by increasing the number of dairy heifer replacements born. Biosecurity can be improved by maintaining a closed herd during the period of herd expansion. In a non-expansion scenario, sexed semen may be used to increase the value of beef output from the dairy herd. The replacement heifer requirements for a herd could be met by using sexed semen in the 1st 3 weeks of the breeding season, with the remaining animals bred to beef sires, increasing the sale value over that of a dairy bull calf. Alternatively, very short gestation sires could be used to shorten the calving interval. Market prices have a considerable effect on the economics of sexed semen use, and widespread use of sexed semen should be restricted to well managed herds that already achieve acceptable herd fertility performance. PMID:24679704

  3. Non-traditional Forages in a Managed Grazing System for Control of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Sheep: Preliminary Work

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project compared lambs grazing forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) with lambs grazing brown mid-rib forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench.) x sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense Piper) hybrid (BMR) to determine if anti-parasitic effects of chicory could be demonstrated. Lambs grazed these fo...

  4. Locoweed grazing.

    PubMed

    Ralphs, M H; James, L F

    1999-02-01

    Locoweed is the most widespread poisonous plant problem in the western U. S. Eleven species of Astragalus and Oxytropis (and many varieties within these species) cause locoism. Many locoweed species are endemic and are restricted to a narrow niche or habitat. Other locoweed species experience extreme population cycles; the population explodes in wet years and dies off in drought. A few species, such as O. sericea, are relatively stable and cause persistent poisoning problems. Knowledge of where locoweeds grow and the environmental conditions when they become a threat is important to manage livestock and avoid poisoning. Locoweeds are relatively palatable. Many locoweeds are the first plants to begin growth in the spring and regrow in the fall. Livestock generally prefer the green-growing locoweeds to other forage that is dormant in the late fall, winter, and spring. The most effective management strategy is to deny livestock access to locoweeds during critical periods when they are more palatable than the associated forage. Herbicides can control existing locoweed populations and provide "safe" pastures for critical periods. However, locoweed seed in soil will germinate and re-establish when environmental condition are favorable. Good range management and wise grazing strategies can provide adequate forage for livestock and prevent them from grazing locoweed during non-critical periods of the year when it is relatively less palatable than associated forages. PMID:10091127

  5. Multilevel systems biology modeling characterized the atheroprotective efficiencies of modified dairy fats in a hamster model.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jean-Charles; Berton, Amlie; Ginies, Christian; Bott, Romain; Scheercousse, Pierre; Saddi, Alessandra; Gripois, Daniel; Landrier, Jean-Franois; Dalemans, Daniel; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Delplanque, Bernadette

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the atheroprotective efficiency of modified dairy fats in hyperlipidemic hamsters. A systems biology approach was implemented to reveal and quantify the dietary fat-related components of the disease. Three modified dairy fats (40% energy) were prepared from regular butter by mixing with a plant oil mixture, by removing cholesterol alone, or by removing cholesterol in combination with reducing saturated fatty acids. A plant oil mixture and a regular butter were used as control diets. The atherosclerosis severity (aortic cholesteryl-ester level) was higher in the regular butter-fed hamsters than in the other four groups (P < 0.05). Eighty-seven of the 1,666 variables measured from multiplatform analysis were found to be strongly associated with the disease. When aggregated into 10 biological clusters combined into a multivariate predictive equation, these 87 variables explained 81% of the disease variability. The biological cluster "regulation of lipid transport and metabolism" appeared central to atherogenic development relative to diets. The "vitamin E metabolism" cluster was the main driver of atheroprotection with the best performing transformed dairy fat. Under conditions that promote atherosclerosis, the impact of dairy fats on atherogenesis could be greatly ameliorated by technological modifications. Our modeling approach allowed for identifying and quantifying the contribution of complex factors to atherogenic development in each dietary setup. PMID:26071539

  6. Effects of dairy system, herd within dairy system, and individual cow characteristics on the volatile organic compound profile of ripened model cheeses.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, M; Aprea, E; Betta, E; Biasioli, F; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G; Gasperi, F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of dairy system, herd within dairy system, and characteristics of individual cows (parity, days in milk, and daily milk yield) on the volatile organic compound profile of model cheeses produced under controlled conditions from the milk of individual cows of the Brown Swiss breed. One hundred fifty model cheeses were selected from 1,272 produced for a wider study of the phenotypic and genetic variability of Brown Swiss cows. In our study, we selected 30 herds representing 5 different dairy systems. The cows sampled presented different milk yields (12.3-43.2kg/d), stages of lactation (10-412 d in milk), and parity (1-7). In total, 55 volatile compounds were detected by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including 14 alcohols, 13 esters, 11 free fatty acids, 8 ketones, 4 aldehydes, 3 lactones, 1 terpene, and 1 pyrazine. The most important sources of variation in the volatile organic profiles of model cheeses were dairy system (18 compounds) and days in milk (10 compounds), followed by parity (3 compounds) and milk yield (5 compounds). The model cheeses produced from the milk of tied cows reared on traditional farms had lower quantities of 3-methyl-butan-1-ol, 6-pentyloxan-2-one, 2-phenylethanol, and dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one compared with those reared in freestalls on modern farms. Of these, milk from farms using total mixed rations had higher contents of alcohols (hexan-1-ol, octan-1-ol) and esters (ethyl butanoate, ethyl pentanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate) and lower contents of acetic acid compared with those using separate feeds. Moreover, dairy systems that added silage to the total mixed ration produced cheeses with lower levels of volatile organic compounds, in particular alcohols (butan-1-ol, pentan-1-ol, heptan-1-ol), compared with those that did not. The amounts of butan-2-ol, butanoic acid, ethyl-2-methylpropanoate, ethyl-3-methylbutanoate, and 6-propyloxan-2-one increased linearly during lactation, whereas octan-1-ol, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, 2-butoxyethanol, 6-pentyloxan-2-one, and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine showed a more complex pattern during lactation. The effect of the number of lactations (parity) was significant for octan-1-ol, butanoic acid, and heptanoic acid. Finally, concentrations of octan-1-ol, 2-phenylethanol, pentanoic acid, and heptanoic acid increased with increasing daily milk yield, whereas dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one decreased. In conclusion, the volatile organic compound profile of model cheeses from the milk of individual cows was affected by dairy farming system and stage of lactation and, to lesser extent, by parity and daily milk yield. PMID:25682146

  7. European organic dairy farmers' preference for animal health management within the farm management system.

    PubMed

    van Soest, F J S; Mourits, M C M; Hogeveen, H

    2015-11-01

    The expertise and knowledge of veterinary advisors on improving animal health management is key towards a better herd health status. However, veterinary advisors are not always aware of the goals and priorities of dairy farmers. To dairy farmers animal health is only one aspect of farm management and resources may be allocated to other more preferred areas. Veterinary advisors may experience this as non-compliant with their advice. To explore the preferences of European Union (EU) organic dairy farmers for improved animal health management relative to other farm management areas an adaptive conjoint analysis (ACA) was performed. A total of 215 farmers participated originating from organic dairy farms in France (n = 70), Germany (n = 60), Spain (n = 28) and Sweden (n = 57). The management areas udder health and claw health represented animal health management whereas barn, calf and pasture management represented potential conflicting management areas. Results indicate that EU organic dairy farmers differ in their preferences for improved animal health management within the farming system. In general, improved calf management was the most preferred area and improved claw health management was found to be least preferred, the remaining areas were of intermediate interest. Cluster analyses on claw health measures and udder health measures resulted in respectively seven and nine distinct preference profiles. The results indicate a high degree of variation in farmers' preference, which cannot be explained by the typical herd characteristics. With the individual preferences revealed by ACA, a veterinary advisor can now find out whether his intended advice is directed at a favourable or unfavourable management area of the farmer. If the latter is the case the veterinarian should first create awareness of the problem to the farmer. Insights in individual farmers preferences will allow veterinary advisors to better understand why farmers were incompliant with their advice and improve their advice by showing, for example, the potential benefits of their advice. PMID:26179079

  8. Dairy Herd Management Program.

    PubMed

    Lehenbauer, T W

    1987-11-01

    The Dairy Herd Management Program has served both dairymen and veterinarians very well over the past several years under a variety of conditions. A number of veterinarians have used the Dairy Herd Management Program to provide computerized dairy record service to their clients. In many of these situations, clients have decided to purchase a computer system of their own after discovering the value of having improved, computerized dairy records. The Dairy Herd Management Program is able to efficiently handle data from large dairies without disrupting daily record-keeping routines. With this data, useful reports are generated that measure actual reproductive performance against target levels or goals. Because the Dairy Herd Management Program focuses on specific time intervals and includes data from culled cows, trends or drops in reproductive performance are more quickly detected so that corrective action can be taken to minimize economic losses. The Dairy Herd Management Program's strong points include batch entry of data, an inclusive yet flexible Vet Check List of cows to be examined, and a detailed, comprehensive Reproductive Summary report. Its major weakness is the lack of a custom report generator for specific situations or conditions. This problem is being addressed in the new version. With the improvements scheduled for the new version, the Dairy Herd Management Program should be able to meet all of the needs of dairy managers and veterinarians alike, as well as become a powerful tool for conducting dairy reproductive field trials and research. PMID:3319081

  9. Removal of bacterial indicators and pathogens from dairy wastewater by a multi-component treatment system.

    PubMed

    Karpiscak, M M; Sanchez, L R; Freitas, R J; Gerba, C P

    2001-01-01

    Microbial removal by a multi-component treatment system for dairy and municipal wastewater is being studied in Arizona, USA. The system consists of paired solids separators, anaerobic lagoons, aerobic ponds and constructed wetlands cells. The organisms under study include: total coliform, fecal coliform, enterovirus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, coliphage, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. Organism removal rates from dairy wastewater varied from 13.2 per cent for fecal coliform to 94.9 per cent for coliphage. It appears that the much higher turbidity of the dairy wastewater, nearly 1,300 NTU, decreased the treatment systems' ability to remove some microbial indicators and pathogens. Information from this study can be used to determine the adequacy of multi-component treatment systems for the control of wastewater-borne pathogens, both in municipal treatment systems as well as in confined animal feeding operations (CAFO). This information also can assist municipalities and the CAFO industry in the implementation of rational and efficient treatment strategies for appropriate reuse of wastewaters. PMID:11804092

  10. An economic decision-making support system for selection of reproductive management programs on dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Giordano, J O; Fricke, P M; Wiltbank, M C; Cabrera, V E

    2011-12-01

    Because the reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows influences the profitability of dairy operations, predicting the future reproductive and economic performance of dairy herds through decision support systems would be valuable to dairy producers and consultants. In this study, we present a highly adaptable tool created based on a mathematical model combining Markov chain simulation with partial budgeting to obtain the net present value (NPV; $/cow per year) of different reproductive management programs. The growing complexity of reproductive programs used by dairy farms demands that new decision support systems precisely reflect the events that occur on the farm. Therefore, the model requires productive, reproductive, and economic input data used for simulation of farm conditions to account for all factors related to reproductive management that increase costs and generate revenue. The economic performance of 3 different reproductive programs can be simultaneously compared with the current model. A program utilizing 100% visual estrous detection (ED) for artificial insemination (AI) is used as a baseline for comparison with 2 other programs that may include 100% timed AI (TAI) as well as any combination of TAI and ED. A case study is presented in which the model was used to compare 3 different reproductive management strategies (100% ED baseline compared with two 100% TAI options) using data from a commercial farm in Wisconsin. Sensitivity analysis was then used to assess the effect of varying specific reproductive parameters on the NPV. Under the simulated conditions of the case study, the model indicated that the two 100% TAI programs were superior to the 100% ED program and, of the 100% TAI programs, the one with the higher conception rate (CR) for resynchronized AI services was economically superior despite having higher costs and a longer interbreeding interval. A 4% increase in CR for resynchronized AI was sufficient for the inferior 100% TAI to outperform the superior program. Adding ED to the 100% TAI programs was only beneficial for the program with the lower CR. The improvement in service rate required for the 100% ED program to have the same NPV as the superior 100% TAI program was 12%. The decision support system developed in this study is a valuable tool that may be used to assist dairy producers and industry consultants in selecting the best farm-specific reproductive management strategy. PMID:22118110

  11. Ultraviolet Spectra of Star-Grazing Comets in the 49 Ceti Disk System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Brittany E.; Roberge, Aki; Welsh, Barry

    2015-01-01

    49 Ceti is a young star that hosts a debris disk with an unusually large amount of carbon monoxide gas. This excess gas has been attributed to frequent collisions of comets within the disk. (Zuckerman & Song, 2012). Since 49 Ceti disk is nearly edge-on to our line of sight, it is a prime target to observe disk gas and evaporated material from star-grazing comets using absorption spectroscopy, as shown by detection of time-variable circumstellar absorption in optical spectra of the star (Montgomery & Welsh 2012). Here we discuss ultraviolet spectra of 49 Ceti taken using the Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) during two separate visits six days apart. The spectra show time-variable and highly Doppler shifted absorption features from ionized gaseous species. The maximum velocity of the time-variable gas corresponds to a minimum distance from the star of 0.06 AU. These features very likely come from star-grazing comets. Lower limits on element abundances in the gas were found using the apparent optical depth method. The variable comet gas appears carbon rich, despite the disk gas as a whole showing strong absorption features from both carbon and oxygen (Roberge et al., 2014, in press).

  12. DairyGHG: a tool for evaluating the greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impact on the environment have become important national and international concerns. Dairy production, along with all other animal agriculture, is a recognized source of GHG emissions, but little information exists on the net emissions from our farm...

  13. Food safety systems in a small dairy factory: implementation, major challenges, and assessment of systems' performances.

    PubMed

    Cusato, Sueli; Gameiro, Augusto H; Corassin, Carlos H; Sant'ana, Anderson S; Cruz, Adriano G; Faria, José de Assis F; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto F

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the implementation of a food safety system in a dairy processing plant located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and the challenges found during the process. In addition, microbiological indicators have been used to assess system's implementation performance. The steps involved in the implementation of a food safety system included a diagnosis of the prerequisites, implementation of the good manufacturing practices (GMPs), sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOPs), training of the food handlers, and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP). In the initial diagnosis, conformity with 70.7% (n=106) of the items analyzed was observed. A total of 12 critical control points (CCPs) were identified: (1) reception of the raw milk, (2) storage of the raw milk, (3 and 4) reception of the ingredients and packaging, (5) milk pasteurization, (6 and 7) fermentation and cooling, (8) addition of ingredients, (9) filling, (10) storage of the finished product, (11) dispatching of the product, and (12) sanitization of the equipment. After implementation of the food safety system, a significant reduction in the yeast and mold count was observed (p<0.05). The main difficulties encountered for the implementation of food safety system were related to the implementation of actions established in the flow chart and to the need for constant training/adherence of the workers to the system. Despite this, the implementation of the food safety system was shown to be challenging, but feasible to be reached by small-scale food industries. PMID:23153286

  14. Short communication: a food-systems approach to assessing dairy product waste.

    PubMed

    Ridoutt, B G; Baird, D L; Bastiaans, K; Darnell, R; Hendrie, G A; Riley, M; Sanguansri, P; Syrette, J; Noakes, M; Keating, B A

    2014-10-01

    Concern about world population increase, food security, and the environmental burdens of food production have made food-waste reduction a social and environmental priority. In this context, the quantification of dairy product waste is especially difficult due to the varied means of disposal, by solid and liquid waste streams, and due to inclusion as an ingredient in many processed foods. In this study, food intake data from the Australian National Nutrition Survey (>13,000 participants; >4,500 food items) were disaggregated into basic foods and total national dairy product intake was expressed in whole-milk equivalents. This result was compared with total domestic milk supply, indicating a level of waste of 29% for dairy products in the Australian food system. With national food-waste reduction targets becoming increasingly common, reliable estimates of food waste at the national scale are important for goal setting, baseline reporting, and performance monitoring. For this purpose, the systems approach to assessing food waste demonstrated in this project is deemed to have advantages over other common methods of food-waste assessment, such as bin audits, waste diaries, and surveys. PMID:25064645

  15. Diffraction of swift atoms after grazing scattering from metal surfaces: N/Ag(111) system

    SciTech Connect

    Gravielle, M. S.; Bocan, G. A.; Diez Muino, R.

    2010-11-15

    Diffraction patterns produced by grazing scattering of fast N atoms from a Ag(111) surface are investigated by employing the surface eikonal approximation. This method is a distorted-wave theory that takes into account the coherent addition of contributions coming from different projectile paths. In the model the projectile-surface potential is obtained from an accurate density-functional theory calculation. The dependence of the scattered projectile spectra on impact energy and incidence channel is analyzed, and possible incident direction and energy range for the observation of the interference patterns are predicted. In addition, it is found that as a result of the high reactivity of N atoms, asymmetries of the surface potential might be detected through their effects on diffraction patterns.

  16. A comparison of 2 evaporative cooling systems on a commercial dairy farm in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, X A; Smith, J F; Villar, F; Hall, L; Allen, J; Oddy, A; Al-Haddad, A; Lyle, P; Collier, R J

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of 2 cooling systems (Korral Kool, KK, Korral Kool Inc., Mesa, AZ; FlipFan dairy system, FF, Schaefer Ventilation Equipment LLC, Sauk Rapids, MN) was estimated utilizing 400 multiparous Holstein dairy cows randomly assigned to 1 of 4 cooled California-style shade pens (2 shade pens per cooling system). Each shaded pen contained 100 cows (days in milk=5839, milk production=5618 kg/d, and lactation=31). Production data (milk yield and reproductive performance) were collected during 3mo (June-August, 2013) and physiological responses (core body temperature, respiration rates, surface temperatures, and resting time) were measured in June and July to estimate responses of cows to the 2 different cooling systems. Water and electricity consumption were recorded for each system. Cows in the KK system displayed slightly lower respiration rates in the month of June and lower surface temperatures in June and July. However, no differences were observed in the core body temperature of cows, resting time, feed intake, milk yield, services/cow, and conception rate between systems. The FF system used less water and electricity during this study. In conclusion, both cooling systems (KK and FF) were effective in mitigating the negative effects of heat stress on cows housed in arid environments, whereas the FF system consumed less water and electricity and did not require use of curtains on the shade structure. PMID:26409968

  17. Treatment of anaerobically digested dairy manure in a two-stage biofiltration system.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mengjing; Tao, Wendong; Wang, Ziyuan; Pei, Yuansheng

    2012-01-01

    High concentrations of ammonium and phosphate present a challenge to cost-effective treatment of anaerobically digested dairy manure. This study investigated the efficacy of a two-stage biofiltration system for passive treatment of digested dairy manure. The first stage pebble filters were batch loaded. When the slurry-like digested dairy manure was retained on pebble beds, soluble contaminants were removed before liquid infiltrated over 8-17 days. The pebble filters removed 70% of soluble chemical oxygen demand, 71% of soluble biochemical oxygen demand, 75% of ammonium, and 68% of orthophosphate. Nitrogen removal was attributed to the conventional nitrification - denitrification process and novel nitritation - anammox process. Aerobic ammonium oxidizing and anammox bacteria accounted for 25 and 23% of all bacteria, respectively, in the filtrate of the pebble filters. The longer it took for filtration, the greater the removal efficiency of soluble contaminants. The second stage sand filters had removal efficiencies of 17% for soluble chemical oxygen demand, 45% for soluble biochemical oxygen demand, 43% for ammonium, and 16% for orthophosphate during batch operations at a hydraulic retention time of 7 days. Aerobic ammonium oxidation and anammox were primarily responsible for nitrogen removal in the sand filters. Vegetation made an insignificant difference in treatment performance of the sand filters. PMID:22592467

  18. Co-treatment of domestic and dairy wastewater in an activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Sparchez, E; Elefsiniotis, P; Wareham, D G; Fongsatitkul, P

    2015-01-01

    This research assesses the potential for co-treatment of a dairy wastewater with a domestic wastewater in a lab-scale, continuous-flow, activated sludge system. To evaluate the influence of the dairy waste contribution, seven runs were conducted with each run being a mixture of dairy wastewater (either cheese or milk) in different ratios ranging from 1:0.01 to 1:0.30 by volume. More than 87% of the carbon was removed for both waste additions; however, while 95% ammonia-nitrogen removal was recorded for the cheese waste, only 75% removal was obtained for the milk. Kinetic studies for carbon consumption revealed a first-order model with lower kinetic constants as the cheese waste proportion increased. Specific carbon consumption rates indicated that the biomass had not reached its maximum potential to degrade carbon. The ability of the biomass to settle was hindered when the Gram negative to Gram positive filamentous bacteria ratio increased to approximately 1.5. PMID:25204524

  19. Body condition score at calving affects systemic and hepatic transcriptome indicators of inflammation and nutrient metabolism in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Akbar, H; Grala, T M; Vailati Riboni, M; Cardoso, F C; Verkerk, G; McGowan, J; Macdonald, K; Webster, J; Schutz, K; Meier, S; Matthews, L; Roche, J R; Loor, J J

    2015-02-01

    Calving body condition score (BCS) is an important determinant of early-lactation dry matter intake, milk yield, and disease incidence. The current study investigated the metabolic and molecular changes induced by the change in BCS. A group of cows of mixed age and breed were managed from the second half of the previous lactation to achieve mean group BCS (10-point scale) that were high (HBCS, 5.5; n=20), medium (MBCS, 4.5; n=18), or low (LBCS, 3.5; n=19). Blood was sampled at wk -4, -3, -2, 1, 3, 5, and 6 relative to parturition to measure biomarkers of energy balance, inflammation, and liver function. Liver was biopsied on wk 1, 3, and 5 relative to parturition, and 10 cows per BCS group were used for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR. Cows in HBCS and MBCS produced more milk and had greater concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and ?-hydroxybutyrate postpartum than LBCS. Peak concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and ?-hydroxybutyrate and greater hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations were recorded in HBCS at wk 3. Consistent with blood biomarkers, HBCS and MBCS had greater expression of genes associated with fatty acid oxidation (CPT1A, ACOX1), ketogenesis (HMGCS2), and hepatokines (FGF21, ANGPTL4), whereas HBCS had the lowest expression of APOB (lipoprotein transport). Greater expression during early lactation of BBOX1 in MBCS and LBCS suggested greater de novo carnitine synthesis. The greater BCS was associated with lower expression of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling axis genes (GHR1A, IGF1, and IGFALS) and greater expression of gluconeogenic genes. These likely contributed to the higher milk production and greater gluconeogenesis. Despite greater serum haptoglobin around calving, cows in HBCS and MBCS had greater blood albumin. Cows in MBCS, however, had a higher albumin:globulin ratio, probably indicating a less pronounced inflammatory status and better liver function. The marked decrease in expression of NFKB1, STAT3, HP, and SAA3 coupled with the increase in ALB on wk 3 in MBCS cows were consistent with blood measures. Overall, results suggest that the greater milk production of cows with higher calving BCS is associated with a proinflammatory response without negatively affecting expression of genes related to metabolism and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis. Results highlight the sensitivity of indicators of metabolic health and inflammatory state to subtle changes in calving BCS and, collectively, indicate a suboptimal health status in cows calving at either BCS 3.5 or 5.5 relative to BCS 4.5. PMID:25497809

  20. Rotational grazing on rangelands: Reconciliation of perception and experimental evidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experimental evaluation of grazing systems represents a highly visible and lengthy chapter in the history of the rangeland profession. Although experimentation has largely concluded, contrasting interpretations still remain regarding the potential benefits of rotational grazing systems on rangel...

  1. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: The effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle

    PubMed Central

    Rubaire-Akiiki, C.; Okello-Onen, J.; Nasinyama, G.W.; Vaarst, M.; Kabagambe, E. K.; Mwayi, W.; Musunga, D.; Wandukwa, W.

    2004-01-01

    Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60%) was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50%) were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified. Abbreviation: zone agro-ecological zone PMID:15861224

  2. Environmental performances of Sardinian dairy sheep production systems at different input levels.

    PubMed

    Vagnoni, E; Franca, A; Breedveld, L; Porqueddu, C; Ferrara, R; Duce, P

    2015-01-01

    Although sheep milk production is a significant sector for the European Mediterranean countries, it shows serious competitiveness gaps. Minimizing the ecological impacts of dairy sheep farming systems could represent a key factor for farmers to bridging the gaps in competitiveness of such systems and also obtaining public incentives. However, scarce is the knowledge about the environmental performance of Mediterranean dairy sheep farms. The main objectives of this paper were (i) to compare the environmental impacts of sheep milk production from three dairy farms in Sardinia (Italy), characterized by different input levels, and (ii) to identify the hotspots for improving the environmental performances of each farm, by using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The LCA was conducted using two different assessment methods: Carbon Footprint-IPCC and ReCiPe end-point. The analysis, conducted "from cradle to gate", was based on the functional unit 1 kg of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM). The observed trends of the environmental performances of the studied farming systems were similar for both evaluation methods. The GHG emissions revealed a little range of variation (from 2.0 to 2.3 kg CO2-eq per kg of FPCM) with differences between farming systems being not significant. The ReCiPe end-point analysis showed a larger range of values and environmental performances of the low-input farm were significantly different compared to the medium- and high-input farms. In general, enteric methane emissions, field operations, electricity and production of agricultural machineries were the most relevant processes in determining the overall environmental performances of farms. Future research will be dedicated to (i) explore and better define the environmental implications of the land use impact category in the Mediterranean sheep farming systems, and (ii) contribute to revising and improving the existing LCA dataset for Mediterranean farming systems. PMID:25265396

  3. Effect of preweaned dairy calf housing system on antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, R. V.; Siler, J. D.; Ng, J. C.; Davis, M. A.; Warnick, L. D.

    2015-01-01

    Group housing of preweaned dairy calves is a growing practice in the United States. The objective of this practice is to increase the average daily gain of calves in a healthy and humane environment while reducing labor requirements. However, feeding protocols, commingling of calves, and occurrence of disease in different calf-housing systems may affect the prevalence of antimicrobial drug-resistant bacteria. This study evaluated the effect of a group pen-housing system and individual pen-housing system on antimicrobial resistance trends in fecal Escherichia coli of preweaned dairy calves and on the prevalence of environmental Salmonella. Twelve farms from central New York participated in the study: 6 farms using an individual pen-housing system (IP), and 6 farms using a group pen-housing system (GP). A maximum of 3 fecal E. coli isolates per calf was tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial drugs using a Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay. Calves in GP had a significantly higher proportion of E. coli resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid, whereas calves in IP had a significantly higher proportion of E. coli resistant to ampicillin, ceftiofur, gentamycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline. Calf-housing system had an effect on resistance to individual antimicrobial drugs in E. coli, but no clear-cut advantage to either system was noted with regard to overall resistance frequency. No outstanding difference in the richness and diversity of resistant phenotypes was observed between the 2 calf-housing systems. PMID:25306277

  4. Effect of preweaned dairy calf housing system on antimicrobial resistance in commensal Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R V; Siler, J D; Ng, J C; Davis, M A; Warnick, L D

    2014-12-01

    Group housing of preweaned dairy calves is a growing practice in the United States. The objective of this practice is to increase the average daily gain of calves in a healthy and humane environment while reducing labor requirements. However, feeding protocols, commingling of calves, and occurrence of disease in different calf-housing systems may affect the prevalence of antimicrobial drug-resistant bacteria. This study evaluated the effect of a group pen-housing system and individual pen-housing system on antimicrobial resistance trends in fecal Escherichia coli of preweaned dairy calves and on the prevalence of environmental Salmonella. Twelve farms from central New York participated in the study: 6 farms using an individual pen-housing system (IP), and 6 farms using a group pen-housing system (GP). A maximum of 3 fecal E. coli isolates per calf was tested for susceptibility to 12 antimicrobial drugs using a Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion assay. Calves in GP had a significantly higher proportion of E. coli resistant to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid, whereas calves in IP had a significantly higher proportion of E. coli resistant to ampicillin, ceftiofur, gentamycin, streptomycin, and tetracycline. Calf-housing system had an effect on resistance to individual antimicrobial drugs in E. coli, but no clear-cut advantage to either system was noted with regard to overall resistance frequency. No outstanding difference in the richness and diversity of resistant phenotypes was observed between the 2 calf-housing systems. PMID:25306277

  5. Grazing: From the farm to research and back to the farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of grazing-based dairy producers is to manage pastures to be a sustainable and economical feed source. Pasture management issues that are frequently raised include the effect of residue height of vegetative grass, mob-stocking of mature grass, and grazing stressed grass on yield distributio...

  6. Ammonia losses from urine and dung of grazing cattle. effect of N intake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Sren O.; Sommer, Sven G.; Aaes, Ole; Segaard, Karen

    Nitrogen excretion by cattle during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric ammonia. In this study the relation between NH 3 volatilization and N intake was investigated in wind tunnel experiments with simulated urine patches and dung pats. Excreta were collected from four groups of dairy cattle grazing continuously on either ryegrass fertilized with 300 kg N ha -1 or unfertilized white clover-ryegrass. The two groups of cattle in each grazing system received either 139 or 304 g N cow -1 d -1 in concentrates, corresponding to average total N intakes in the range of 500-700 g N cow -1 d -1. Ammonia losses from dung were insignificant, while total losses from urine, which were estimated by curve-fitting, ranged from 3 to 52% of urinary N. Urea-N in the urine applied in the experiments constituted, with one exception, 64-94% of urinary N. The fraction of urea-N increased significantly with total N concentration in subsamples from individual animals. In the soil, hydrolysis of urea to NH 3 was almost complete within 24 h, and release of NH 3 was indicated by scorching. Milk yield and the production of milk protein was not related to N intake or grazing system, while estimated NH 3 losses were significantly reduced at the lower N intake level within the range of N intakes obtained.

  7. Dairy Wastes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pico, Richard F.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the dairy industry covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) government regulations; (2) ion-plant control of dairy effluents; (3) dairy effluent treatment methods; and (4) research on dairy effluents. A list of 26 references is also presented. (HM)

  8. Performance and welfare of dairy cows in an alternative housing system in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Barberg, A E; Endres, M I; Salfer, J A; Reneau, J K

    2007-03-01

    The compost bedded pack dairy barn is an alternative housing system for lactating cows that has received increased attention in the last 2 yr. No descriptive data were available about this housing system. Therefore, a study of 12 compost dairy barns in Minnesota was conducted between late June 2005 and September 2005. The objectives of this study were to describe the housing system, identify management practices used in these herds, observe cow welfare, analyze herd performance and udder health prior to and following the change in housing system, and measure producer satisfaction with the system. Producers were interviewed on various aspects related to the housing system and herd management, samples of milk were collected, and cows were scored for locomotion, body condition, hygiene, and hock lesions. In addition, historical bulk tank information and Dairy Herd Improvement Association data were collected when available. At the time of the visit, the Dairy Herd Improvement Association somatic cell count (SCC) was 325,000 +/- 172,000 cells/mL, rolling herd average was 10,457 +/- 1,138 kg per cow, and herd size was 73 +/- 35.5 lactating cows. The body condition score was 3.04 +/- 0.11, the cow hygiene score was 2.66 +/- 0.19, and 7.8% of all cows were clinically lame (locomotion score > or = 3 on a 1 to 5 scale). No hock lesions were present on 74.9% of the cows; 24.1% of cows had a mild lesion (hair loss), and 1.0% had a severe lesion (swollen hock). Historical analysis of the bulk tank SCC showed that 3 out of the 7 herds analyzed had a significant reduction in bulk tank SCC when compared with the previous housing system. Mastitis infection rates decreased significantly by 12% on 6 of the 9 farms analyzed. Reproductive performance significantly improved for 4 out of the 7 herds analyzed, with 25.9 and 34.5% improvement in heat detection rates and pregnancy rates, respectively. The main reasons producers reported for building this type of housing system were for improved cow comfort, cow health and longevity, and ease of completing daily chores. The largest concern was the cost and availability of bedding, especially as additional compost barns are built. Overall, all producers were satisfied with their decision to build a compost barn. PMID:17297131

  9. Implementation and use of a microcomputer-based management information system to monitor dairy herd performance

    PubMed Central

    Lissemore, Kerry D.; Leslie, Ken E.; Menzies, Paula I.; Martin, S. Wayne; Meek, Alan H.; Etherington, Wayne G.

    1992-01-01

    A microcomputer-based herd management information system was implemented as part of the herd health program provided to 13 dairy clients by the Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph. The study was conducted over a two year period. Data were collected from on-farm event diaries, veterinary visit reports, and production testing information. Selected indices of reproduction, udder health, production, and heifer performance were reported. It was concluded that the implementation of a microcomputer-based information management system, operated as a bureau service, was feasible. However, limitations to the implementation in veterinary practice were identified. PMID:17423945

  10. 36 CFR 222.11 - Grazing advisory boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System 222.11 Grazing advisory boards. (a) Establishment. Persons holding term permits to graze livestock on National Forest System lands with headquarters... established under this authority shall consist of members who are National Forest System term permittees......

  11. 36 CFR 222.11 - Grazing advisory boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System 222.11 Grazing advisory boards. (a) Establishment. Persons holding term permits to graze livestock on National Forest System lands with headquarters... established under this authority shall consist of members who are National Forest System term permittees......

  12. Eddy covariance methane flux measurements over a grazed pasture: effect of cows as moving point sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Münger, A.; Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.

    2015-02-01

    Methane (CH4) from ruminants contributes one third to global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. Eddy covariance (EC) technique has been extensively used at various flux sites to investigate carbon dioxide exchange of ecosystems. Since the development of fast CH4 analysers the instrumentation at many flux sites have been amended for these gases. However the application of EC over pastures is challenging due to the spatial and temporal uneven distribution of CH4 point sources induced by the grazing animals. We applied EC measurements during one grazing season over a pasture with 20 dairy cows (mean milk yield: 22.7 kg d-1) managed in a rotational grazing system. Individual cow positions were recorded by GPS trackers to attribute fluxes to animal emissions using a footprint model. Methane fluxes with cows in the footprint were up to two orders of magnitude higher than ecosystem fluxes without cows. Mean cow emissions of 423 ± 24 g CH4 head-1 d-1 (best guess of this study) correspond well to animal respiration chamber measurements reported in the literature. However a systematic effect of the distance between source and EC tower on cow emissions was found which is attributed to the analytical footprint model used. We show that the EC method allows to determine CH4 emissions of grazing cows if the data evaluation is adjusted for this purpose and if some cow distribution information is available.

  13. Feasibility of a "leader-follower" grazing system instead of specialised paddocks with regard to integrated gastrointestinal control in small ruminant farming.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, Maurice; Gauthier, Valrie; Arquet, Rmy; Calif, Brigitte; Archimde, Harry; Mandonnet, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    In the humid tropics, small ruminant farmers have to deal with gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes (GIN), among which anthelmintic resistant (AR) populations are rapidly spreading. Although targeted selective treatments (TSTs) are being increasingly used in breeding stock, suppressive drenchings remain the rule in younger animals, for safety and ease of implementation. Until now, the weaned animals are grazed on dedicated plots, making the selection and spread of AR parasites inevitable. Given that GINs disseminate through pastures, we compared the usual grazing system (control) to a "leader-follower" grazing system (LF) for managing the entire GIN population at the farm scale. There were no significant differences between treatments for the dam reproductive parameters and level of GIN infection nor for the pre-weaning death rate of the kids. The 70-day weight of the litter was significantly lower for LF than for control goats (9.71 vs. 11.64kg, P?grazing systems, respectively. Additionally, the LF grazing system would make the stocking rate easier to manage. Therefore, it is to be recommended as a complement of TSTs in sustainable small ruminant farming. PMID:25681011

  14. 36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing..., executive order, development or revision of an allotment management plan, or other management needs....

  15. 36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing..., executive order, development or revision of an allotment management plan, or other management needs....

  16. Tall, Short, Tall, Short Which Way Should You Graze?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass pastures must reliably provide sufficient forage of appropriate quality to meet the intake and nutritional needs of livestock during the grazing season over a range of environmental conditions. This study is being conducted at the U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center farm at Prairie du Sac, WI. ...

  17. The effect of changing cow production and fitness traits on net income and greenhouse gas emissions from Australian dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Bell, M J; Eckard, R J; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of changing a range of biological traits on farm net income and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq.) in the Australian dairy cow population. An average cow was modeled, using breed-average information for Holsteins and Jerseys from the Australian Dairy Herd Improvement Scheme. A Markov chain approach was used to describe the steady-state herd structure, as well as estimate the CO2-eq. emissions per cow and per kilogram of milk solids. The effects of a single unit change in herd milk volume, fat and protein yields, live weight, survival, dry matter intake, somatic cell count, and calving interval were assessed. With the traits studied, the only single-unit change that would bring about a desirable increase in both net income and reduced emissions intensity per cow and per kilogram of milk solids in Australian dairy herds would be an increase in survival and reductions in milk volume, live weight, DMI, SCC, and calving interval. The models developed can be used to assess lifetime dairy system abatement options by breeding, feeding, and management. Selective breeding and appropriate management can both improve health, fertility, and feed utilization of Australian dairy systems and reduce its environmental impact. PMID:24140333

  18. MEASURING INVERTEBRATE GRAZING ON SEAGRASSES AND EPIPHYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes methods to assess grazing rates, grazer preferences, and grazer impacts, by mobile organisms living in the canopy or in the rhizome layer in any seagrass system. One set of methods quantifies grazing activity in small to medium sized, mobile organisms livin...

  19. Microbial transport from dairying under two spray-irrigation systems in Canterbury, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Close, Murray; Noonan, Mike; Hector, Ross; Bright, John

    2010-01-01

    Transport through the soil and vadose zone to groundwater of Escherichia coli, fecal coliforms, and Campylobacter spp. from pasturing of dairy cows was studied on two working dairy farms under a traveling irrigator and a center pivot system. Leachate was collected from 1.5 m depth using a large linear lysimeter over a period of 4 yr after rainfall or irrigation applied using a traveling irrigator. There was little transport of fecal coliforms or Campylobacter from irrigation applications of 55 mm. There was some transport of fecal coliforms at applications of 80 mm (corresponding to irrigation plus heavy rainfall) but no detectable Campylobacter. When fresh cow pats were placed on half of the lysimeter plots with an 80-mm water application, there was transport of fecal coliforms and Campylobacter, but levels of Campylobacter were low (or=1 cfu 100 mL(-1). Campylobacter was detected in 0.7% of samples over the study period, with equal percentages from up- and downgradient wells. The results indicate minimal impact of dairying at these sites on microbial quality of groundwater as a result of spray irrigation using traveling irrigators at rates of approximately 55 mm every 2 wk or center pivot irrigators at 18 mm every 3 to 4 d. PMID:20400578

  20. Modelling carbon and water exchange of a grazed pasture in New Zealand constrained by eddy covariance measurements.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, Miko U F; Rutledge, Susanna; Kuijper, Isoude A; Mudge, Paul L; Puche, Nicolas; Wall, Aaron M; Roach, Chris G; Schipper, Louis A; Campbell, David I

    2015-04-15

    We used two years of eddy covariance (EC) measurements collected over an intensively grazed dairy pasture to better understand the key drivers of changes in soil organic carbon stocks. Analysing grazing systems with EC measurements poses significant challenges as the respiration from grazing animals can result in large short-term CO2 fluxes. As paddocks are grazed only periodically, EC observations derive from a mosaic of paddocks with very different exchange rates. This violates the assumptions implicit in the use of EC methodology. To test whether these challenges could be overcome, and to develop a tool for wider scenario testing, we compared EC measurements with simulation runs with the detailed ecosystem model CenW 4.1. Simulations were run separately for 26 paddocks around the EC tower and coupled to a footprint analysis to estimate net fluxes at the EC tower. Overall, we obtained good agreement between modelled and measured fluxes, especially for the comparison of evapotranspiration rates, with model efficiency of 0.96 for weekly averaged values of the validation data. For net ecosystem productivity (NEP) comparisons, observations were omitted when cattle grazed the paddocks immediately around the tower. With those points omitted, model efficiencies for weekly averaged values of the validation data were 0.78, 0.67 and 0.54 for daytime, night-time and 24-hour NEP, respectively. While not included for model parameterisation, simulated gross primary production also agreed closely with values inferred from eddy covariance measurements (model efficiency of 0.84 for weekly averages). The study confirmed that CenW simulations could adequately model carbon and water exchange in grazed pastures. It highlighted the critical role of animal respiration for net CO2 fluxes, and showed that EC studies of grazed pastures need to consider the best approach of accounting for this important flux to avoid unbalanced accounting. PMID:25634732

  1. Influence of Restricted Grazing Time Systems on Productive Performance and Fatty Acid Composition of Longissimus dorsi in Growing Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yong; Luo, Hailing; Liu, Xueliang; Liu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Fifty 3-month-old male Tan lambs (similar in body weight) were divided into 5 groups to investigate the effects of different restricted pasture grazing times and indoor supplementation on the productive performances and fatty acid composition of the intramuscular fat in growing lambs. The lambs grazed for different periods of time (12 h/d, 8 h/d, 4 h/d, 2 h/d, and 0 h) and received various amounts of supplementary feedings during the 120-day trial. Pasture dry matter intake (DMI), total DMI, average daily gains and the live body weights of the lambs were measured during the experiment. The animals were slaughtered at the end of the study, their carcass traits were measured, and their longissimus dorsi muscles were sampled to analyze the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid profiles. The results indicated that the different durations of grazing and supplementary feedings affected the animal performances and the composition of fatty acids. Grazing for 8 h/d or 2 h/d with the corresponding supplementary concentrate resulted in lambs with higher body weights, carcass weights and IMF contents. Lambs with longer grazing times and less concentrate accumulated more healthy fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and had higher n-3/n-6 ratios. Overall, a grazing allowance of 8 h/d and the corresponding concentrate was recommended to maintain a high quantity and quality of lamb meat. PMID:26104518

  2. Polyphosphate- and glycogen-accumulating organisms in one EBPR system for liquid dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Pruden, Amy; Ogejo, Jactone Arogo; Knowlton, Katharine F

    2014-07-01

    Two enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) sequencing batch reactors (SBR1, SBR2) treating liquid dairy manure were operated with the same hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids retention time (SRT), but with different aeration cycles. During eight months of operation, both SBRs achieved good removal of total phosphorus (P) (TP; 56.8 and 73.5% for SBR1 and SBR2 respectively) and of orthophosphate (OP; 76.2 vs. 82.7%, P < 0.05). Growth dynamics of presumptive phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) were examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). SBR1 was enriched with a greater abundance of PAOs while SBR2 was characterized by a greater abundance of GAOs. These results demonstrate the capability of EBPR of dairy manure and challenge conventional wisdom, since greater abundance of PAOs in EBPR system was not associated with improved OP removal and greater abundance of GAOs did not indicate deterioration of the EBPR system. PMID:25112034

  3. Evaluating mountain goat dairy systems for conversion to the organic model, using a multicriteria method.

    PubMed

    Mena, Y; Nahed, J; Ruiz, F A; Sánchez-Muñoz, J B; Ruiz-Rojas, J L; Castel, J M

    2012-04-01

    Organic farming conserves natural resources, promotes biodiversity, guarantees animal welfare and obtains healthy products from raw materials through natural processes. In order to evaluate possibilities of increasing organic animal production, this study proposes a farm-scale multicriteria method for assessing the conversion of dairy goat systems to the organic model. In addition, a case study in the Northern Sierra of Seville, southern Spain, is analysed. A consensus of expert opinions and a field survey are used to validate a list of potential indicators and issues for assessing the conversion, which consider not only the European Community regulations for organic livestock farming, but also agroecological principles. As a result, the method includes 56 variables integrated in nine indicators: Nutritional management, Sustainable pasture management, Soil fertility and contamination, Weed and pest control, Disease prevention, Breeds and reproduction, Animal welfare, Food safety and Marketing and management. The nine indicators are finally integrated in a global index named OLPI (Organic Livestock Proximity Index). Application of the method to a case study with 24 goat farms reveals an OLPI value of 46.5% for dairy goat farms located in mountain areas of southern Spain. The aspects that differ most from the agroecological model include soil management, animal nutrition and product marketing. Results of the case study indicate that the proposed method is easy to implement and is useful for quantifying the approximation of conventional farms to an organic model. PMID:22436287

  4. Copepod communities, production and grazing in the Turkish Straits System and the adjacent northern Aegean Sea during spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zervoudaki, S.; Christou, E. D.; Assimakopoulou, G.; rek, H.; Gucu, A. C.; Giannakourou, A.; Pitta, P.; Terbiyik, T.; Y?cel, N.; Moutsopoulos, T.; Pagou, K.; Psarra, S.; zsoy, E.; Papathanassiou, E.

    2011-06-01

    The Mediterranean and the Black Seas are connected through Bosphorus, Marmara Sea and Dardanelles (Turkish Straits System, TSS). In this study, we examined the spatial distribution of copepods and investigate their production and grazing. The aim was to understand the transfer of phytoplankton/microzooplankton production up the food chain in TSS and Aegean Sea during spring. The phytoplankton and microzooplankton biomass and production showed a clear decreasing trend from Bosphorus to the Aegean Sea, whereas copepod biomass did not reveal any distinct trend and only the number of copepod species increased from Bosphorus to the Aegean Sea. Production of copepods and egg production showed similar trends except for the Bosphorus, where production of copepods was very low due to the low copepod biomass in this area. In all areas, the copepod carbon demand was largely met by phytoplankton and microzooplankton production. However, only a low amount of primary production was consumed by copepods and production appeared to flow mostly through other pathways (microbial loop) and/or sediment on the bottom. The results of this study confirm the hypothesis that there is a substantial differentiation within pelagic food web structure and carbon flow from Bosphorus to the Aegean Sea.

  5. Can we graze 300+ days?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The grazing season can be extended by using a system of forages that will require an intensification of the overall management of both the cattle and pastures. Fertilization and weed control should be done when needed, and pasture composition should be monitored and inventoried to determine if weed...

  6. The challenges – and some solutions – to process-based modelling of grazed agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pastoral systems are characterised by a number of features, not present in arable cropping systems, which present significant challenges to the simulation modelling of pastoral systems. These challenges include: (i) pastures are biologically diverse so interactions between plant species must be con...

  7. Milk composition and flavor under different feeding systems: a survey of dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Yayota, M; Tsukamoto, M; Yamada, Y; Ohtani, S

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the influence of regional dietary factors on the flavors of milk and dairy products will provide consumers with more options and promote the conservation of regional resources and the original terroir. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of regional differences in feeding systems on the composition, fatty acid content, and flavor of pasteurized milk at the farm level. Nine dairy farms using grass silage (GS), 6 farms using maize silage (MS), and 4 farms using by-products (BP) as the characteristic feed components were chosen for this survey. Fresh milk was sampled once per month from September 2008 to February 2009 at each dairy farm. The percentages of GS, MS, and BP (soybean curd residue or brewer's grain) in the feed were 32.4, 22.1, and 15.1%, respectively. The milk fat, protein, and lactose contents did not differ among the milks from farms with different feeding systems. Fatty acids with chain lengths of less than C16 and saturated fatty acids were present at higher concentrations in the milks from the GS and MS farms than in the milk from the BP farms; conversely, fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), including mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were present at higher concentrations in the milks from the BP farms than in the milks from the GS farms. No significant differences were detected in milk flavor, evaluated as sweetness, body, texture, aftertaste, and palatability, between the milks from the farms with different feeding systems. The proportion of BP in the cow's diet was positively correlated with the concentrations of fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 and with UFA, MUFA, and PUFA. In contrast, the proportion of GS in the diet was positively associated with the levels of milk fat, protein, fatty acids with chain lengths less than C16, and SFA. The MUFA, PUFA, UFA, and fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 were not associated with any of the milk flavors. These results suggest the regional differences in feeding systems contribute to the differences in the fatty acid compositions of milk at the farm level. However, these differences do not influence the flavor of pasteurized milk. Thus, more specific feed profiles will be required to provide a specific regional flavor to pasteurized milk. PMID:23769370

  8. Cooling systems of the resting area in free stall dairy barn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calegari, F.; Calamari, L.; Frazzi, E.

    2015-09-01

    A study during the summer season evaluated the effect of different cooling systems on behavioral and productive responses of Italian Friesian dairy cows kept in an experimental-free stall barn located in the Po Valley in Italy. The study involved 30 lactating dairy cows subdivided into two groups kept in two pens with external hard court paddock in each free stall. The same cooling system was applied in the feeding area in both pens. A different cooling system in the resting area was applied to the two pens: in the pen SW, the resting area was equipped with fans and misters; in the other, there was simple ventilation (SV). Breathing rate, rectal temperature, milk yield, and milk characteristics (fat, protein, and somatic cell count) were measured. Behavioral activities (standing and lying cows in the different areas, as well as the animals in the feed bunk) were recorded. Mild to moderate heat waves during the trial were observed. On average, the breathing rate was numerically greater in SV compared with SW cows (60.2 and 55.8 breath/min, respectively), and mean rectal temperature remained below 39 °C in both groups during the trial (on average 38.7 and 38.8 °C in SV and SW, respectively. During the hotter periods of the trial, the time spent lying indoor in the free stall was greater in SW (11.8 h/day) than SV (10.7 h/day). Conversely, the time spent standing indoor without feeding was greater in SV (4.3 h/day) than SW (3.8 h/day). Milk yield was slightly better maintained during hotter period in SW compared with SV and somatic cell count was also slightly greater in the former. In conclusion, the adoption of the cooling system by means of evaporative cooling also in the resting area reduces the alteration of time budget caused by heat stress.

  9. Microbiological performance of dairy processing plants is influenced by scale of production and the implemented food safety management system: a case study.

    PubMed

    Opiyo, Beatrice Atieno; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau

    2013-06-01

    The effects of existing food safety management systems and size of the production facility on microbiological quality in the dairy industry in Kenya were studied. A microbial assessment scheme was used to evaluate 14 dairies in Nairobi and its environs, and their performance was compared based on their size and on whether they were implementing hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 22000 recommendations. Environmental samples from critical sampling locations, i.e., workers' hands and food contact surfaces, and from end products were analyzed for microbial quality, including hygiene indicators and pathogens. Microbial safety level profiles (MSLPs) were constructed from the microbiological data to obtain an overview of contamination. The maximum MSLP score for environmental samples was 18 (six microbiological parameters, each with a maximum MSLP score of 3) and that for end products was 15 (five microbiological parameters). Three dairies (two large scale and one medium scale; 21% of total) achieved the maximum MSLP scores of 18 for environmental samples and 15 for the end product. Escherichia coli was detected on food contact surfaces in three dairies, all of which were small scale dairies, and the microorganism was also present in end product samples from two of these dairies, an indication of cross-contamination. Microbial quality was poorest in small scale dairies. Most operations in these dairies were manual, with minimal system documentation. Noncompliance with hygienic practices such as hand washing and cleaning and disinfection procedures, which is common in small dairies, directly affects the microbial quality of the end products. Dairies implementing HACCP systems or ISO 22000 recommendations achieved maximum MSLP scores and hence produced safer products. PMID:23726192

  10. Design of a covered lagoon methane recovery system for a flush dairy

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.W.; Moser, M.; Smith, J.

    1996-12-31

    A lagoon-type methane recovery system was designed for the Cal Poly Dairy, which milks 130 cows with a total population of 296 animals. Most of the herd is housed in freestall barns where the manure is deposited on concrete and flushed with fresh or recycled water to an existing lagoon with a volume of 19,300 cubic meters. The design includes a new, primary covered lagoon of 17,000 cubic meters volume. The floating cover will be made of very low density polyethylene (VLDPE), with an area of 4,500 square meters. The predicted output of the lagoon is an average of over 310 cubic meters of biogas per day containing 60 percent methane. The methane production from the covered lagoon is adequate to produce 18 to 24 kW on a continuous basis from the present cow population. In order to account for future herd size increases, a 40 kW engine generator was specified to operate in parallel with the utility system at a varying level of output controlled by the biogas supply. The non-economic benefits of this covered lagoon include the demonstration of its operation to the students and visitors at Cal Poly which in turn will serve the California Dairy Community. Odor control is the most important non-economic benefit. Conversion of volatile solids to biogas and recovery and use of the biogas limits odor to surrounding areas. The economic benefits of the methane recovery system include the approximately 160,000 kWh of electricity produced annually, worth almost $13,000. Financial analyses for the project showed a payback of 13.7 years with a 4% internal rate of return.

  11. Software for evaluating greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abstract: Dairy production, along with all other types of animal agriculture, is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but little information exists on the net emissions from our farms. Component models for representing all important sources and sinks of CH4, N2O, and CO2 in dairy p...

  12. DESIGN OF AN ANAEROBIC DIGESTER AND FUEL CELL SYSTEM FOR ENERGY GENERATION FROM DAIRY WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dairy waste was found to have a natural population of microorganisms capable of seeding an MFC. Dairy wastewater also proved to be a very effective substrate. Different graphite electrode materials provided varying levels of electrical energy generation, demonstrating with gr...

  13. The challenges of incorporating random animal-mediated nitrogen transfers in process-based modelling of grazed agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animals are well known to be important in lateral transfers of nitrogen within the farm boundary. Those transfers can be categorised into those that are: (a) primarily random and small-scale dung and urine patches within a grazed paddock, (b) larger and systematic transfers resulting from preferred...

  14. Environmental vulnerability, assessment, and monitoring of grazing systems under index-based livestock insurance programs in East Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal is to characterize and monitor feedbacks between innovative insurance products and ecosystem services in resource poor environments. Our team is integrating longitudinal field-based measurements and monitoring protocols to quantify grazing animal impact related to the implementation of an ...

  15. Potential limitations of NRC in predicting energetic requirements of beef females within western U.S. grazing systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of beef cow energy balance and efficiency in grazing-extensive rangelands has occurred on a nominal basis over short time intervals and has not accounted for the complexity of metabolic and digestive responses; behavioral adaptations to climatic, terrain, and vegetation variables; and doc...

  16. Assessment of heifer grazing experience on short-term adaptation to pasture and performance as lactating cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 3-yr study evaluated the carryover effects of dairy heifer grazing experience on behavior and first lactation performance as dairy cows. Forty-one Holstein and 23 Holstein-Jersey crossbred calves born between January and April 2008 were randomly assigned to one of four treatments (PP, PC, CP and C...

  17. Reduction of pathogen indicator organisms in dairy wastewater using an ecological treatment system.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Jennifer A; Hoet, Armando E; Wittum, Thomas E; Monahan, Clifton M; Martin, Jay F

    2008-01-01

    Ecological treatment systems can provide a sustainable, plant-based alternative to traditional wastewater treatment. One factor essential to the success of these systems is ensuring their ability to reduce coliform concentrations in wastewater. Wastewater is the primary source of fecal contamination in aquatic ecosystems, containing total and fecal coliforms on the order of 10(8)-10(10) and 10(7)-10(9) CFU L(-1), respectively. This study assessed the ability of an ecological treatment system to reduce concentrations of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from dairy wastewater. Low strength wastewater was pumped into the system during July of 2005 and high strength in September 2005. Wastewater passes through a series of anaerobic, aerobic, and clarifier reactors and wetland cells before exiting the system. Regardless of wastewater strength, average total coliform and E. coli concentrations were consistently reduced by at least 99% from influent to effluent, with the majority of the reduction (76%) occurring in the first two reactors. Relationships between internal concentrations of solids and coliforms indicated that increased reduction of solids may further reduce coliform concentrations. Although U.S. Environmental Protection Agency discharge requirements for E. coli were not always met, the substantial reductions achieved indicate that ecological treatment systems have the potential to successfully reduce coliforms in wastewater to meet discharge limits. The results from this study will be used to guide design and management of future ecological treatment systems, so that larger and more consistent coliform reductions can be achieved. PMID:18178901

  18. MONITORING GRAZING LANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important step in developing a ranch or allotment management plan for grazing lands is defining a rangeland monitoring program to evaluate progress toward achieving management objectives. A monitoring program can: 1) help determine the benefits gained from changes in grazing management or invest...

  19. Prescribed grazing on pasturelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Principles of grazing management center round the temporal and spatial distribution of various kinds and number of livestock. Within the context of this chapter, management of grazing or browsing will be characterized in terms of intensity, method, and season (timing), and as a function of the type ...

  20. Degenerate Grazing Bifurcations in a Simple Bilinear Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Tingting; Du, Zhengdong

    Degenerate grazing bifurcation occurring in a simple bilinear oscillator, namely the limit discontinuous case of the smooth and discontinuous (SD) oscillator, is investigated by numerical simulations. The unperturbed system has a saddle-like singularity at the origin with two periodic orbits grazing at the same point. The matrix in the leading-order truncation of the Poincar map at a grazing bifurcation for either of the two periodic orbits has a zero eigenvalue. Our numerical experiments suggest that the near-grazing dynamics are much more complicated than previously found. The results obtained in this paper is expected to be useful in developing analytical methods of this type of degenerate grazing bifurcations.

  1. Induced Fungal Resistance to Insect Grazing: Reciprocal Fitness Consequences and Fungal Gene Expression in the Drosophila-Aspergillus Model System

    PubMed Central

    Caballero Ortiz, Silvia; Trienens, Monika; Rohlfs, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Background Fungi are key dietary resources for many animals. Fungi, in consequence, have evolved sophisticated physical and chemical defences for repelling and impairing fungivores. Expression of such defences may entail costs, requiring diversion of energy and nutrients away from fungal growth and reproduction. Inducible resistance that is mounted after attack by fungivores may allow fungi to circumvent the potential costs of defence when not needed. However, no information exists on whether fungi display inducible resistance. We combined organism and fungal gene expression approaches to investigate whether fungivory induces resistance in fungi. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that grazing by larval fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, induces resistance in the filamentous mould, Aspergillus nidulans, to subsequent feeding by larvae of the same insect. Larval grazing triggered the expression of various putative fungal resistance genes, including the secondary metabolite master regulator gene laeA. Compared to the severe pathological effects of wild type A. nidulans, which led to 100% insect mortality, larval feeding on a laeA loss-of-function mutant resulted in normal insect development. Whereas the wild type fungus recovered from larval grazing, larvae eradicated the chemically deficient mutant. In contrast, mutualistic dietary yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, reached higher population densities when exposed to Drosophila larval feeding. Conclusions/Significance Our study presents novel evidence that insect grazing is capable of inducing resistance to further grazing in a filamentous fungus. This phenotypic shift in resistance to fungivory is accompanied by changes in the expression of genes involved in signal transduction, epigenetic regulation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways. Depending on reciprocal insect-fungus fitness consequences, fungi may be selected for inducible resistance to maintain high fitness in fungivore-rich habitats. Induced fungal defence responses thus need to be included if we wish to have a complete conception of animal-fungus co-evolution, fungal gene regulation, and multitrophic interactions. PMID:24023705

  2. On-Farm Welfare Assessment Protocol for Adult Dairy Goats in Intensive Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Battini, Monica; Stilwell, George; Vieira, Ana; Barbieri, Sara; Canali, Elisabetta; Mattiello, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary The Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) project developed a practical welfare assessment protocol for lactating dairy goats in intensive husbandry systems, using animal-based indicators that cover the whole multidimensional concept of animal welfare. The strict collaboration between scientists and stakeholders resulted in an easy-to-use protocol that provides farmers or veterinarians with comprehensive but clear feedback on the welfare status of the herd in less than three hours. The protocol, which highlights key points and motivates farmers to achieve improvements, has received much attention from interested parties. Abstract Within the European AWIN project, a protocol for assessing dairy goats’ welfare on the farm was developed. Starting from a literature review, a prototype including animal-based indicators covering four welfare principles and 12 welfare criteria was set up. The prototype was tested in 60 farms for validity, reliability, and feasibility. After testing the prototype, a two-level assessment protocol was proposed in order to increase acceptability among stakeholders. The first level offers a more general overview of the welfare status, based on group assessment of a few indicators (e.g., hair coat condition, latency to the first contact test, severe lameness, Qualitative Behavior Assessment), with no or minimal handling of goats and short assessment time required. The second level starts if welfare problems are encountered in the first level and adds a comprehensive and detailed individual evaluation (e.g., Body Condition Score, udder asymmetry, overgrown claws), supported by an effective sampling strategy. The assessment can be carried out using the AWIN Goat app. The app results in a clear visual output, which provides positive feedback on welfare conditions in comparison with a benchmark of a reference population. The protocol may be a valuable tool for both veterinarians and technicians and a self-assessment instrument for farmers. PMID:26479477

  3. Future consequences and challenges for dairy cow production systems arising from climate change in Central Europe - a review.

    PubMed

    Gauly, M; Bollwein, H; Breves, G; Brgemann, K; Dnicke, S; Da?, G; Demeler, J; Hansen, H; Isselstein, J; Knig, S; Lohlter, M; Martinsohn, M; Meyer, U; Potthoff, M; Sanker, C; Schrder, B; Wrage, N; Meibaum, B; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G; Stinshoff, H; Wrenzycki, C

    2013-05-01

    It is well documented that global warming is unequivocal. Dairy production systems are considered as important sources of greenhouse gas emissions; however, little is known about the sensitivity and vulnerability of these production systems themselves to climate warming. This review brings different aspects of dairy cow production in Central Europe into focus, with a holistic approach to emphasize potential future consequences and challenges arising from climate change. With the current understanding of the effects of climate change, it is expected that yield of forage per hectare will be influenced positively, whereas quality will mainly depend on water availability and soil characteristics. Thus, the botanical composition of future grassland should include species that are able to withstand the changing conditions (e.g. lucerne and bird's foot trefoil). Changes in nutrient concentration of forage plants, elevated heat loads and altered feeding patterns of animals may influence rumen physiology. Several promising nutritional strategies are available to lower potential negative impacts of climate change on dairy cow nutrition and performance. Adjustment of feeding and drinking regimes, diet composition and additive supplementation can contribute to the maintenance of adequate dairy cow nutrition and performance. Provision of adequate shade and cooling will reduce the direct effects of heat stress. As estimated genetic parameters are promising, heat stress tolerance as a functional trait may be included into breeding programmes. Indirect effects of global warming on the health and welfare of animals seem to be more complicated and thus are less predictable. As the epidemiology of certain gastrointestinal nematodes and liver fluke is favourably influenced by increased temperature and humidity, relations between climate change and disease dynamics should be followed closely. Under current conditions, climate change associated economic impacts are estimated to be neutral if some form of adaptation is integrated. Therefore, it is essential to establish and adopt mitigation strategies covering available tools from management, nutrition, health and plant and animal breeding to cope with the future consequences of climate change on dairy farming. PMID:23253935

  4. Access to pasture for dairy cows: responses from an online engagement.

    PubMed

    Schuppli, C A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2014-11-01

    An online engagement exercise documented the views of Canadian and U.S. participants affiliated and unaffiliated with the dairy industry on the issue of pasture access for dairy cows. A total of 414 people participated in 10 independent web forums. Providing access to more natural living conditions, including pasture, was viewed as important for the large majority of participants, including those affiliated with the dairy industry. This finding is at odds with current practice on the majority of farms in North America that provide little or no access to pasture. Participant comments showed that the perceived value of pasture access for dairy cattle went beyond the benefits of eating grass; participants cited as benefits exposure to fresh air, ability to move freely, ability to live in social groups, improved health, and healthier milk products. To accommodate the challenges of allowing pasture access on farms, some participants argued in favor of hybrid systems that provide a mixture of indoor confinement housing and grazing. Understanding the beliefs and concerns of participants affiliated and unaffiliated with the dairy industry allows for the identification of contentious topics as well as areas of agreement; this is important in efforts to better harmonize industry practices with societal expectations. PMID:25261215

  5. Participatory rural appraisal to identify needs and prospects of market-oriented dairy industries in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shamsuddin, M; Alam, M M; Hossein, M S; Goodger, W J; Bari, F Y; Ahmed, T U; Hossain, M M; Khan, A H M S I

    2007-12-01

    We assessed resources, challenges and prospects of the dairy industries in four districts of Bangladesh (Mymensingh, Satkhira, Chittagong and Sirajganj) with the participation of 8 to 12 dairy farm families in each district. We used ten participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools, namely social mapping, semistructured interview, activity profiles, seasonal calendar, pie charts, mobility diagram, matrix ranking, preference ranking and scoring, system analysis diagram and focus group discussion in 57 PRA sessions from September through October 2002. Dairying contributed more to family income (63 to 74%) and utilized a smaller portion of land than did crops. Twenty seven to 49% of cattle feed is rice straw. Only Sirajganj and Chittagong had limited, periodic grazing facilities. Fodder (Napier; Pennisetum purpureum) cultivation was practiced in Sirajganj and Satkhira. Fodder availability increased milk production and decreased disease occurrence. Friesian crossbred cows were ranked best as dairy cattle. The present utilization of veterinary and AI services was ranked highly. Farmers outside the milk union desired milk purchasing centres as the most required service in the future. They identified veterinary and AI services as inadequate and desired significant improvements. The PRA tools effectively identified resources, constraints, opportunities and farmers' perspectives related to the dairy industries in Bangladesh. PMID:18265866

  6. Development of knowledge and tools to enhance resilience of beef grazing systems for sustainable animal protein production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminant livestock provide an important source of meat and dairy protein that sustain the health and livelihoods for much of the world’s population. Grazinglands that support ruminant livestock provide numerous other ecosystem services, including provision of food, water, and genetic resources; regu...

  7. Study of fuel cell co-generation systems applied to a dairy industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, Elisngela M.; Silveira, Jos Luz

    This paper presents a methodology for the study of a molten carbonate fuel cell co-generation system. This system is applied to a dairy industry of medium size that typically demands 2100 kW of electricity, 8500 kg/h of saturated steam ( P=1.08 MPa) and 2725 kW of cold water production. Depending on the associated recuperation equipment, the co-generation system permits the recovery of waste heat, which can be used for the production of steam, hot and cold water, hot and cold air. In this study, a comparison is made between two configurations of fuel cell co-generation systems (FCCS). The plant performance has been evaluated on the basis of fuel utilisation efficiency and each system component evaluated on the basis of second law efficiency. The energy analysis presented shows a fuel utilisation efficiency of about 87% and exergy analysis shows that the irreversibilities in the combustion chamber of the plant are significant. Further, the payback period estimated for the fuel cell investment between US 1000 and US 1500/kW is about 3 and 6 years, respectively.

  8. Constraint analysis to improve integrated dairy production systems in developing countries: the importance of participatory rural appraisal.

    PubMed

    Devendra, C

    2007-12-01

    The paper describes the rationale and importance of the approaches and methodologies of Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) to enable constraint analysis, to understand the complexities of farming systems and to improve integrated dairy productivity. Implicit in this objective is Farming Systems Research (FSR), which focused on cropping systems in the 1970's, with the subsequent addition of animal components. The methodology for FSR involves the following sequential components: site selection, site description and characterization (diagnosis), planning of on-farm research, on-farm testing and validation of alternatives, diffusion of results, and impact assessment. PRA is the development of FSR, which involves the active participation of farmers to identify constraints and plan appropriate solutions. In the Coordinated Research Project (CRP), the approach was adapted to 10 different country situations and led to Economic Opportunity Surveys (EOS) and Diagnostic Surveillance Studies (DSS), allowing the planning and implantation of integrated interventions to improve dairy productivity. PMID:18265864

  9. Eddy covariance methane flux measurements over a grazed pasture: effect of cows as moving point sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Münger, A.; Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.

    2015-06-01

    Methane (CH4) from ruminants contributes one-third of global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. Eddy covariance (EC) technique has been extensively used at various flux sites to investigate carbon dioxide exchange of ecosystems. Since the development of fast CH4 analyzers, the instrumentation at many flux sites has been amended for these gases. However, the application of EC over pastures is challenging due to the spatially and temporally uneven distribution of CH4 point sources induced by the grazing animals. We applied EC measurements during one grazing season over a pasture with 20 dairy cows (mean milk yield: 22.7 kg d-1) managed in a rotational grazing system. Individual cow positions were recorded by GPS trackers to attribute fluxes to animal emissions using a footprint model. Methane fluxes with cows in the footprint were up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than ecosystem fluxes without cows. Mean cow emissions of 423 ± 24 g CH4 head-1 d-1 (best estimate from this study) correspond well to animal respiration chamber measurements reported in the literature. However, a systematic effect of the distance between source and EC tower on cow emissions was found, which is attributed to the analytical footprint model used. We show that the EC method allows one to determine CH4 emissions of cows on a pasture if the data evaluation is adjusted for this purpose and if some cow distribution information is available.

  10. [Livestock diseases in periurban dairy systems of sub-Saharan Africa: ILCA's approach].

    PubMed

    Lahlou-Kassi, A; Rey, B; Faye, B

    1994-01-01

    Dairy production to supply African urban centers is one of the dynamic livestock sectors in sub-Saharan Africa (periurban dairy farms). There is a modification in the relative impact of economically important diseases: these farms have an increased capacity to control the major traditional African diseases through genetic or health interventions, hence favouring the emergence of diseases of intensification, which affect dairy production. In this framework, the International Livestock Centre for Africa is starting a research programme which aims, by an ecopathological approach, to judge the true existence of this pathology as opposed to the major African diseases, and to compare its economic importance in various agroecological zones. PMID:8038810

  11. Timely diagnosis of dairy calf respiratory disease using a standardized scoring system.

    PubMed

    McGuirk, Sheila M; Peek, Simon F

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory disease of young dairy calves is a significant cause of morbidity, mortality, economic loss, and animal welfare concern but there is no gold standard diagnostic test for antemortem diagnosis. Clinical signs typically used to make a diagnosis of respiratory disease of calves are fever, cough, ocular or nasal discharge, abnormal breathing, and auscultation of abnormal lung sounds. Unfortunately, routine screening of calves for respiratory disease on the farm is rarely performed and until more comprehensive, practical and affordable respiratory disease-screening tools such as accelerometers, pedometers, appetite monitors, feed consumption detection systems, remote temperature recording devices, radiant heat detectors, electronic stethoscopes, and thoracic ultrasound are validated, timely diagnosis of respiratory disease can be facilitated using a standardized scoring system. We have developed a scoring system that attributes severity scores to each of four clinical parameters; rectal temperature, cough, nasal discharge, ocular discharge or ear position. A total respiratory score of five points or higher (provided that at least two abnormal parameters are observed) can be used to distinguish affected from unaffected calves. This can be applied as a screening tool twice-weekly to identify pre-weaned calves with respiratory disease thereby facilitating early detection. Coupled with effective treatment protocols, this scoring system will reduce post-weaning pneumonia, chronic pneumonia, and otitis media. PMID:25410122

  12. Environmental and economic assessment of integrated systems for dairy manure treatment coupled with algae bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongli; White, Mark A; Colosi, Lisa M

    2013-02-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) are used to investigate integrated algae bioenergy production and nutrient management on small dairy farms. Four cases are considered: a reference land-application scenario (REF), anaerobic digestion with land-application of liquid digestate (AD), and anaerobic digestion with recycling of liquid digestate to either an open-pond algae cultivation system (OPS) or an algae turf scrubber (ATS). LCA indicates that all three "improved" scenarios (AD, OPS, and ATS) are environmentally favorable compared to REF, exhibiting increases in net energy output up to 854GJ/yr, reductions in net eutrophication potential up to 2700kg PO(4)-eq/yr, and reductions in global warming potential up to 196Mg CO(2)-eq/yr. LCC reveals that the integrated algae systems are much more financially attractive than either AD or REF, whereby net present values (NPV) are as follows: $853,250 for OPS, $790,280 for ATS, -$62,279 for REF, and -$211,126 for AD. However, these results are highly dependent on the sale price for nutrient credits. Comparison of LCA and LCC results indicates that robust nutrient credit markets or other policy tools are required to align financial and environmental preferability of energy production systems and foster widespread adoption of sustainable nutrient management systems. PMID:23313697

  13. The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Matthew J.; Cullen, Brendan R.; Eckard, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Livestock production systems and the agricultural industries in general face challenges to meet the global demand for food, whilst also minimizing their environmental impact through the production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Livestock grazing systems in southern Australia are low input and reliant on pasture as a low-cost source of feed. The balance between productivity and GHG emission intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems was studied at sites chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. While the climatic and edaphic characteristics of a location may impact on the emissions from a grazing system, management to efficiently use pasture can reduce emissions per unit product. Abstract A biophysical whole farm system model was used to simulate the interaction between the historical climate, soil and pasture type at sites in southern Australia and assess the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq.) intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems. Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. Poorer feed quality and supply limited the annual carrying capacity of the kikuyu pasture compared to phalaris pastures, with an average long-term carrying capacity across sites estimated to be 0.6 to 0.9 cows/ha. A relative reduction in level of feed intake to productivity of calf live weight/ha at weaning by feeding supplementary feed reduced the average CO2-eq. emissions/kg calf live weight at weaning of cows on the kikuyu pasture (18.4 and 18.9 kg/kg with and without supplementation, respectively), whereas at the other sites studied an increase in intake level to productivity and emission intensity was seen (between 10.4 to 12.5 kg/kg without and with supplementary feed, respectively). Enteric fermentationand nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity, particularly at the lower rainfall sites. Emissions per unit product of low input systems can be minimized by efficient utilization of pasture to maximize the annual turnoff of weaned calves and diluting resource input per unit product. PMID:26487163

  14. Feed and manure use in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J. Mark

    2014-11-01

    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU-1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU-1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2-5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120-300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha-1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350-580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle systems impact milk production, manure N excretion, manure N capture, N recycling and environmental N loss.

  15. Effects of breeding date, weaning date, and grazing season length on profitability of cow-calf production systems in southeastern Montana.

    PubMed

    Julien, D J; Tess, M W

    2002-06-01

    Production data from 11 southeastern Montana ranches were used to parameterize a bio-economic computer model of cow/calf range production. Effects of changes in breeding date, weaning date, and range removal date on system performance for a ranch with a fixed forage resource base (3,060 animal unit months of range forage and 744 t of hay) were simulated. Input costs were locally established in 1994. Cattle prices were determined by week from 13-yr averages. For the base scenario, breeding season was 66 d with breeding starting on June 9. Weaning, range removal, and calf sales occurred on November 3. Cows were fed stored forages from November 3 until turnout to grazing (May 1). Five replications were simulated for combinations of breeding, weaning, and range removal dates in a factorial design. Each factor was deviated from the base scenario by +/- 14 and 28 d. Production efficiency was measured by break-even steer price. Gross margin (gross revenue - variable costs) was used as a measure of profitability. Increasing calf age (and weight) at sale time, by decreasing breeding date and(or) increasing weaning date, improved ranch efficiency and profitability. Increasing range removal date improved system performance even though extending the grazing season led to decreased herd size. Compared to the base system, the best system increased gross margin by approximately 17%. Responses for gross margin reflect the dynamics of herd size, purchased feed expense, and production efficiency. Results suggest that for range-based cow-calf enterprises in the northern Great Plains, production efficiency and profitability may be improved by increasing calf weaning age and extending the grazing season, even if herd size must be reduced. PMID:12078725

  16. Traditional vs modern: role of breed type in determining enteric methane emissions from cattle grazing as part of contrasting grassland-based systems.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Mariecia D; Fleming, Hannah R; Moorby, Jon M

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant livestock turn forages and poor-quality feeds into human edible products, but enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants are a significant contributor to greenhouse gases (GHGs) and hence to climate change. Despite the predominance of pasture-based beef production systems in many parts of Europe there are little data available regarding enteric CH4 emissions from free-ranging grazing cattle. It is possible that differences in physiology or behaviour could influence comparative emissions intensities for traditional and modern breed types depending on the nutritional characteristics of the herbage grazed. This study investigated the role of breed type in influencing CH4 emissions from growing beef steers managed on contrasting grasslands typical of intensive (lowland) and extensive (upland) production systems. Using the SF6 dilution technique CH4 emissions were estimated for a modern, fast-growing crossbred (Limousin cross) and a smaller and hardier native breed (Welsh Black) when grazing lowland perennial ryegrass (high nutritional density, low sward heterogeneity) and semi-improved upland pasture (low/medium nutritional density, high sward heterogeneity). Live-weight gain was substantially lower for steers on the upland system compared to the lowland system (0.31 vs. 1.04 kg d-1; s.e.d.?=?0.085 kg d-1; P<0.001), leading to significant differences in estimated dry matter intakes (8.0 vs. 11.1 kg DM d-1 for upland and lowland respectively; s.e.d.?=?0.68 kg DM d-1; P<0.001). While emissions per unit feed intake were similar for the lowland and upland systems, CH4 emissions per unit of live-weight gain (LWG) were substantially higher when the steers grazed the poorer quality hill pasture (760 vs 214 g kg-1 LWG; s.e.d.?=?133.5 g kg-1 LWG; P<0.001). Overall any effects of breed type were relatively small relative to the combined influence of pasture type and location. PMID:25259617

  17. Traditional vs Modern: Role of Breed Type in Determining Enteric Methane Emissions from Cattle Grazing as Part of Contrasting Grassland-Based Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Mariecia D.; Fleming, Hannah R.; Moorby, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant livestock turn forages and poor-quality feeds into human edible products, but enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants are a significant contributor to greenhouse gases (GHGs) and hence to climate change. Despite the predominance of pasture-based beef production systems in many parts of Europe there are little data available regarding enteric CH4 emissions from free-ranging grazing cattle. It is possible that differences in physiology or behaviour could influence comparative emissions intensities for traditional and modern breed types depending on the nutritional characteristics of the herbage grazed. This study investigated the role of breed type in influencing CH4 emissions from growing beef steers managed on contrasting grasslands typical of intensive (lowland) and extensive (upland) production systems. Using the SF6 dilution technique CH4 emissions were estimated for a modern, fast-growing crossbred (Limousin cross) and a smaller and hardier native breed (Welsh Black) when grazing lowland perennial ryegrass (high nutritional density, low sward heterogeneity) and semi-improved upland pasture (low/medium nutritional density, high sward heterogeneity). Live-weight gain was substantially lower for steers on the upland system compared to the lowland system (0.31 vs. 1.04 kg d−1; s.e.d. = 0.085 kg d−1; P<0.001), leading to significant differences in estimated dry matter intakes (8.0 vs. 11.1 kg DM d−1 for upland and lowland respectively; s.e.d. = 0.68 kg DM d−1; P<0.001). While emissions per unit feed intake were similar for the lowland and upland systems, CH4 emissions per unit of live-weight gain (LWG) were substantially higher when the steers grazed the poorer quality hill pasture (760 vs 214 g kg−1 LWG; s.e.d. = 133.5 g kg−1 LWG; P<0.001). Overall any effects of breed type were relatively small relative to the combined influence of pasture type and location. PMID:25259617

  18. The effect of lameness on the environmental performance of milk production by rotational grazing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenhao; White, Eoin; Holden, Nicholas M

    2016-05-01

    Dairy production leads to significant environmental impacts and increased production will only be feasible if the environmental performance at farm level permits a sustainable milk supply. Lameness is believed to become more prevalent and severe as herd sizes increase, and can significantly reduce milk output per cow while not influencing other attributes of the production system. The objective of this work was to quantify the effect of lameness on the environmental performance of a typical grazed grass dairy farm and evaluate the theoretical value of sensor-based real-time lameness management. Life cycle assessment was used to compare a typical baseline farm with scenarios assuming increased lameness severity and prevalence. It was found that lameness could increase the farm level global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and fossil fuel depletion by 7-9%. As increased herd sizes will increase cow: handler ratio, this result was interpreted to suggest that the use of sensors and information and communication technology for lameness detection could improve management on dairy farms to reduce the adverse impact on environmental performance that is associated with lameness. PMID:26934643

  19. Green cheese: partial life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity of integrated dairy production and bioenergy systems.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Armentano, L E; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Norman, J M; Larson, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A reference dairy farm system representative of Wisconsin was compared with a system that produces dairy and bioenergy products. This integrated system investigates the effects at the farm level when the cow diet and manure management practices are varied. The diets evaluated were supplemented with varying amounts of dry distillers grains with solubles and soybean meal and were balanced with different types of forages. The manure-management scenarios included manure land application, which is the most common manure disposal method in Wisconsin, and manure anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. A partial life cycle assessment from cradle to farm gate was conducted, where the system boundaries were expanded to include the production of biofuels in the analysis and the environmental burdens between milk and bioenergy products were partitioned by system expansion. Milk was considered the primary product and the functional unit, with ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas considered co-products. The production of the co-products was scaled according to milk production to meet the dietary requirements of each selected dairy ration. Results indicated that land use was 1.6 m2, NEI was 3.86 MJ, and GHG emissions were 1.02 kg of CO2-equivalents per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) for the reference system. Within the integrated dairy and bioenergy system, diet scenarios that maximize dry distillers grains with solubles and implement AD had the largest reduction of GHG emissions and NEI, but the greatest increase in land use compared with the reference system. Average land use ranged from 1.68 to 2.01 m2/kg of FPCM; NEI ranged from -5.62 to -0.73 MJ/kg of FPCM; and GHG emissions ranged from 0.63 to 0.77 kg of CO2-equivalents/kg of FPCM. The AD contributed 65% of the NEI and 77% of the GHG emission reductions. PMID:25597974

  20. Prediction of Breeding Values for Dairy Cattle Using Artificial Neural Networks and Neuro-Fuzzy Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shahinfar, Saleh; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Lucas, Caro; Kalhor, Ahmad; Kazemian, Majid; Weigel, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV) of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production. PMID:22991575

  1. Reductions in livestock gain with rotational grazing and heavy stocking rates in northern mixed-grass prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of stocking rate and grazing system on gains of yearling beef cattle grazing rangelands have largely been addressed in short-term (<10 yr) studies, and often stocking rates are confounded within grazing systems with higher stocking rates for short-duration rotational grazing systems comp...

  2. Design of axisymmetric multi-mirror grazing incidence system to increase the numerical aperture of neutron and X-ray microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, Sadao; Watanabe, Norio; Asami, Hiroshi; Shimada, Akihiro

    2016-02-01

    An axisymmetric multi-mirror system for neutron and X-ray microscopes is proposed to increase their numerical aperture and collection efficiency. A Wolter type-I mirror is used as the basis of the multi-mirror system at grazing incidence. The addition of an even number of hyperboloid mirrors to the Wolter type-I mirror can satisfy both an equal optical path length and Abbe's sine condition. The numerical aperture increases in proportion to the number of mirrors. The optical parameters of the system with four tandem mirrors are calculated for neutrons and X-rays with a wavelength of 0.4 nm by assuming that the average grazing angle of incidence is 5.4 mrad and the magnification is 10. The inner diameters of the mirrors are limited to <10 mm considering the total length of the optical system. Tolerance of off-axis distance was calculated using a ray-tracing computer simulation. Ray tracing shows that a blur size <14 nm will be possible at an off-axis displacement of 10 μm.

  3. A novel behavioral model of the pasture-based dairy cow from GPS data using data mining and machine learning techniques.

    PubMed

    Williams, M L; Mac Parthaláin, N; Brewer, P; James, W P J; Rose, M T

    2016-03-01

    A better understanding of the behavior of individual grazing dairy cattle will assist in improving productivity and welfare. Global positioning systems (GPS) applied to cows could provide a means of monitoring grazing herds while overcoming the substantial efforts required for manual observation. Any model of behavioral prediction using GPS needs to be accurate and robust by accounting for inter-cow variation as well as atmospheric effects. We evaluated the performance using a series of machine learning algorithms on GPS data collected from 40 pasture-based dairy cows over 4mo. A feature extraction step was performed on the collected raw GPS data, which resulted in 43 different attributes. The evaluated behaviors were grazing, resting, and walking. Classifier learners were built using 10 times 10-fold cross validation and tested on an independent test set. Results were evaluated using a variety of statistical significance tests across all parameters. We found that final model selection depended upon level of performance and model complexity. The classifier learner deemed most suitable for this particular problem was JRip, a rule-based learner (classification accuracy=0.85; false positive rate=0.10; F-measure=0.76; area under the receiver operating curve=0.87). This model will be used in further studies to assess the behavior and welfare of pasture-based dairy cows. PMID:26805984

  4. Comparison of three estrus detection systems during summer in a large commercial dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Peralta, O A; Pearson, R E; Nebel, R L

    2005-06-01

    The objective of the study was to compare three systems for estrus detection and combinations of these systems on a large commercial dairy (1075 lactating cows) during stress of summer heat. At 37-45 days in milk (DIM), 255 cows were fitted with a HeatWatch device (HW; DDx Inc., Denver, CO), an activity sensor ALPRO (ALPRO; DeLaval Inc., Kansas City, MO), and visually observed (VO) three times daily. Pregnancy status was determined by uterine palpation per rectum 35-49 days following artificial insemination (AI). Effects of DIM, parity, standing events, inseminator, and interval between onset of estrus and AI on conception rates were determined using logistic regression. Efficiencies for detection of estrus, determined by comparing detected periods of estrus with a theoretical total of 570 periods, were 49.3% (VO), 37.2% (ALPRO), 48.0% (HW), and 80.2% for all three systems simultaneously. Conception rates (LSM+/-S.E.) for cows detected by one or more of the three systems were 6.2+/-3.9 for VO, 19.8+/-5.6 for ALPRO, 17.3+/-5.0 for HW, 22.8+/-7.0 for VO+ALPRO, 26.9+/-4.6 for VO+HW, 23.2+/-5.2 for ALPRO+HW, and 18.4+/-4.7 for VO+ALPRO+HW. Inseminations performed during no and mild heat stress (temperature-humidity index; THI< or =76) had greater conception rate (P<0.05; 38.8%) compared to AI performed during moderated heat stress conditions (THI>76; 17.6%). Number of mounts were higher for primiparous versus multiparous cows (P<0.05). Cows over 80 DIM during estrus exhibited fewer (P<0.05) standing events. The highest conception rate occurred with the combination of VO+HW, which confirms the premise that combination of multiple systems enhances both the efficiency and accuracy of estrus detection. PMID:15885441

  5. Grazing phenomena in a periodically forced, friction-induced, linear oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Albert C. J.; Gegg, Brandon C.

    2006-10-01

    The criterion for grazing motions in a dry-friction oscillator is obtained from the local theory of non-smooth dynamical systems on the connectable and accessible domains. The generic mappings for such a dry-friction oscillator are also introduced. The sufficient and necessary conditions for grazing at the final states of mappings are expressed. The initial and final switching sets of grazing mapping, varying with system parameters, are illustrated for the grazing parametric characteristics. The initial and grazing, switching manifolds in the switching sets are defined through grazing mappings. Finally, numerical illustrations of grazing motions are very easily carried out with help of the analytical predictions. This paper provides a comprehensive investigation of grazing motions in the dry-friction oscillator for a better understanding of the grazing mechanism of such a discontinuous system. The investigation based on the local singularity theory is more intuitive and efficient than the discontinuous mapping techniques.

  6. Physical and hydrodynamic characteristics of a dairy shed waste stabilisation pond system.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, J; Smalley, J; Hagare, D; Sivakumar, M

    2007-01-01

    Waste stabilization pond systems are widely used to treat animal wastes under highly variable hydraulic loading regimes. These systems have received limited research attention with regard to their hydrodynamic behaviour and the potential impact of shock hydraulic loading on their performance. In this study a two-stage dairy shed waste stabilisation pond system was topographically surveyed to determine the physical shape and the theoretical hydraulic retention time (HRT) of each pond, as well as the extent of sludge accumulation in the primary pond. The primary pond was then subjected to a series of drogue tracking runs whereby weighted floating survey targets with submerged 'sails' were tracked during their movement through the pond at times of peak flow in order to characterise the hydrodynamic behaviour of the pond. The full capacity volumes of the primary and secondary ponds were calculated to be 1285 m3 and 2391 m3, respectively. Sludge had been accumulating in the primary pond at a rate of 0.73 m3/d over a period of 2.4 years and this has reduced the active treatment volume of the pond to 657 m3. Based on mean outflow, the HRTs of the ponds were 40 d and 137 d, respectively. The drogue runs revealed a vortex-like mixing pattern within the pond with higher velocities around the perimeter of the pond between the inlet and outlet, and lower velocities in the centre of the pond. In-pond velocities seemed relatively high in comparison with those from other drogue studies of larger ponds and the surging inflow caused the formation of a flow 'jet' that potentially contributed to significant short-circuiting. The range of influence of this flow jet, however, was limited to within 15 m of the inlet, suggesting that short-circuiting would be likely to occur only under certain high inflow conditions. PMID:17591191

  7. Evaluation of the usefulness at national level of the dairy cattle health and production recording systems in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Velasova, M; Drewe, J A; Gibbons, J; Green, M; Guitian, J

    2015-09-26

    The aim of this study was to formally evaluate, qualitatively, the ability of existing recording systems to generate accurate and reliable estimates of the frequency of selected health conditions in the dairy herd of Great Britain. Fifty-nine recording systems were identified, of which 36 had their key characteristics defined through a web-based questionnaire. Nineteen of them were further assessed following the SERVAL, a SuRveillance EVALuation framework against a set of 12 attributes: benefit, bias, communication, coverage, data collection, data management, data analysis, data completeness, flexibility, multiple utility, representativeness and stability/sustainability. The evaluated systems showed considerable differences in their coverage, implementation and objectives. There were overlaps in recorded conditions, with Johne's disease, bovine viral diarrhoea, mastitis and lameness being recorded by most of the systems. Selection bias, data ownership and lack of integration of data from different systems appeared to be a key limitation on the future use of existing systems for nationwide monitoring. The results showed that even though the individual systems can provide reliable estimates of dairy health for individual farmers, none of the systems alone could provide accurate and reliable estimates for any of the conditions of interest at national level. PMID:26374779

  8. Effects of butter from mountain-pasture grazing cows on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome compared with conventional Danish butter: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is considerable interest in dairy products from low-input systems, such as mountain-pasture grazing cows, because these products are believed to be healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. This may be due to a higher content of bioactive components, such as phytanic acid, a PPAR-agonist derived from chlorophyll. However, the effects of such products on human health have been poorly investigated. Objective To compare the effect of milk-fat from mountain-pasture grazing cows (G) and conventionally fed cows (C) on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome. Design In a double-blind, randomized, 12-week, parallel intervention study, 38 healthy subjects replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 39 g fat from test butter made from milk from mountain-pasture grazing cows or from cows fed conventional winter fodder. Glucose-tolerance and circulating risk markers were analysed before and after the intervention. Results No differences in blood lipids, lipoproteins, hsCRP, insulin, glucose or glucose-tolerance were observed. Interestingly, strong correlations between phytanic acid at baseline and total (P<0.0001) and LDL cholesterol (P=0.0001) were observed. Conclusions Lack of effects on blood lipids and inflammation indicates that dairy products from mountain-pasture grazing cows are not healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. Considering the strong correlation between LDL cholesterol and phytanic acid at baseline, it may be suggested that phytanic acid increases total and LDL cholesterol. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01343589 PMID:23842081

  9. Cogeneration on a southeastern dairy

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.C.; Walsh, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a 5 year study on cogeneration on a dairy operation in Georgia are summarized. Details of system operation and performance are given. Discussion of practical and economic viability of a cogeneration system is provided.

  10. Prediction of Second Parity Milk Yield and Fat Percentage of Dairy Cows Based on First Parity Information Using Neural Network System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinia, P.; Edrisi, M.; Edriss, M. A.; Nilforooshan, M. A.

    Neural network system can be used as a decision making support system in dairy industry as well as other industries. It can help breeders to predict future yield of dairy cows based on uncorrelated and orthogonalized available information and making selection decisions. Data from 4 medium to large sized dairy farms in Isfahan, Iran, were used. From 1880 available records of first and second parities, 1850 records were used for training a back propagation artificial neural network system and 30 randomly chosen records (not used in the system training step) were introduced to the trained neural network system for its evaluation. The results of the simulation showed that there was no significant difference between the observed and the predicted second parity milk yield and fat percentage (p>0.05). The major use of this predictive process is to make accurate selection decisions which are based on prior knowledge of the outcomes.

  11. An international terminology for grazing lands and grazing animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1991, Terminology for Grazing Lands and Grazing Animals was published with the objective of developing a consensus of clear definitions of terms used in the grazing of animals. During the XVIII International Grassland Congress, held in Canada in 1997, a new Terminology working group was formed ...

  12. The effects of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence and the current internal parasite control measures employed on Irish dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; Phelan, Paul; O'Kiely, Padraig; de Waal, Theo

    2015-01-30

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is responsible for major production losses in cattle farms. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence on Irish dairy farms and to document the current control measures against parasitic diseases. In total, 369 dairy farms throughout Ireland were sampled from October to December 2013, each providing a single bulk tank milk (BTM) sample for liver fluke antibody-detection ELISA testing and completing a questionnaire on their farm management. The analysis of samples showed that cows on 78% (n=288) of dairy farms had been exposed to liver fluke. There was a difference (P<0.05) between farms where cows were positive or negative for liver fluke antibodies in (a) the total number of adult dairy cows in herds, (b) the number of adult dairy cows contributing to BTM samples, and (c) the size of the total area of grassland, with positive farms having larger numbers in each case. There was no difference (P>0.05) between positive and negative farms in (a) the grazing of dry cows together with replacement cows, (b) whether or not grazed grassland was mowed for conservation, (c) the type of drinking water provision system, (d) spreading of cattle manure on grassland or (e) for grazing season length (GSL; mean=262.5 days). Also, there were differences (P<0.001) between drainage statuses for GSL with farms on good drainage having longer GSL than moderately drained farms. The GSL for dairy cows on farms with good drainage was 11 days longer than for those with moderate drainage (P<0.001). The percentage of farmers that used an active ingredient during the non-lactating period against liver fluke, gastrointestinal nematodes, lungworm, and rumen fluke was 96%, 85%, 77% and 90%, respectively. Albendazole was the most frequently used active ingredient for treatment against gastrointestinal nematodes (57%), liver fluke (40%) and lungworm (47%), respectively. There was a difference (P<0.05) in the use of triclabendazole and albendazole between positive and negative farms, with triclabendazole use being more common in positive farms. This study highlighted differences in dairy management practices between Irish farms with dairy herds exposed or not exposed to liver fluke and stressed the need of fine-scale mapping of the disease patterns even at farm level to increase the accuracy of risk models. Also, comprehensive advice and professional support services to farmers on appropriate farm management practices are very important for an effective anthelmintic control strategy. PMID:25591405

  13. The Carbon Footprint of Dairy Production Systems through Partial Life Cycle Assessment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impact on the environment has become an important national and international concern. Dairy production, along with all other types of animal agriculture, is a recognized source of GHG emissions, but little information exists on the net emissions fro...

  14. Advances in grazing distribution practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing distribution management practices are intended to improve livestock production efficiency while conserving or enhancing environmental conditions, and sustaining or promoting other ecosystem services on grazed lands. Ancient practices such as herding, fencing, vegetation treatment (e.g., fi...

  15. Unfolding degenerate grazing dynamics in impact actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xiaopeng; Dankowicz, Harry

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, a selected analysis of the dynamics in an example impact microactuator is performed through a combination of numerical simulations and local analysis. Here, emphasis is placed on investigating the system response in the vicinity of the so-called grazing trajectories, i.e. motions that include zero-relative-velocity contact of the actuator parts, using the concept of discontinuity mappings that account for the effects of low-relative-velocity impacts and brief episodes of stick-slip motion. The analysis highlights the existence of isolated co-dimension-two grazing bifurcation points and the way in which these organize the behaviour of the impacting dynamics. In particular, it is shown how higher-order truncations of local maps of the near-grazing dynamics predict and enable the computation of global bifurcation curves emanating from such degenerate bifurcation points, thereby unfolding the near-grazing dynamics. Although the numerical results presented here are specific for the chosen model of an electrically driven and previously experimentally realized impact microactuator, the methodology generalizes naturally to arbitrary systems with impacts. Moreover, the qualitative nature of the near-grazing dynamics is expected to generalize to systems with similar nonlinearities.

  16. The cost of feeding bred dairy heifers on native warm-season grasses and harvested feedstuffs.

    PubMed

    Lowe, J K; Boyer, C N; Griffith, A P; Waller, J C; Bates, G E; Keyser, P D; Larson, J A; Holcomb, E

    2016-01-01

    Heifer rearing is one of the largest production expenses for dairy cattle operations, which is one reason milking operations outsource heifer rearing to custom developers. The cost of harvested feedstuffs is a major expense in heifer rearing. A possible way to lower feed costs is to graze dairy heifers, but little research exists on this topic in the mid-south United States. The objectives of this research were to determine the cost of feeding bred dairy heifers grazing native warm-season grasses (NWSG), with and without legumes, and compare the cost of grazing with the cost of rearing heifers using 3 traditional rations. The 3 rations were corn silage with soybean meal, corn silage with dry distillers grain, and a wet distillers grain-based ration. Bred Holstein heifers between 15- and 20-mo-old continuously grazed switchgrass (SG), SG with red clover (SG+RC), a big bluestem and Indiangrass mixture (BBIG), and BBIG with red clover (BBIG+RC) in Tennessee during the summer months. Total grazing days were calculated for each NWSG to determine the average cost/animal per grazing day. The average daily gain (ADG) was calculated for each NWSG to develop 3 harvested feed rations that would result in the same ADG over the same number of grazing day as each NWSG treatment. The average cost/animal per grazing day was lowest for SG ($0.48/animal/grazing d) and highest for BBIG+RC ($1.10/animal/grazing d). For both BBIG and SG, legumes increased the average cost/animal per grazing day because grazing days did not increase enough to account for the additional cost of the legumes. No difference was observed in ADG for heifers grazing BBIG (0.85kg/d) and BBIG+RC (0.94kg/d), and no difference was observed in ADG for heifers grazing SG (0.71kg/d) and SG+RC (0.70kg/d). However, the ADG for heifers grazing SG and SG+RC was lower than the ADG for heifers grazing either BBIG or BBIG+RC. The average cost/animal per grazing day was lower for all NWSG treatments than the average cost/animal per day for all comparable feed rations at a low, average, and high yardage fee. Results of this study suggest that SG was the most cost-effective NWSG alternative to harvested feeds for bred dairy heifer rearing. PMID:26506548

  17. Modeling the grazing effect on dry grassland carbon cycling with modified Biome-BGC grazing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Geping; Han, Qifei; Li, Chaofan; Yang, Liao

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the factors that determine the carbon source/sink strength of ecosystems is important for reducing uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. Arid grassland ecosystems are a widely distributed biome type in Xinjiang, Northwest China, covering approximately one-fourth the country's land surface. These grasslands are the habitat for many endemic and rare plant and animal species and are also used as pastoral land for livestock. Using the modified Biome-BGC grazing model, we modeled carbon dynamics in Xinjiang for grasslands that varied in grazing intensity. In general, this regional simulation estimated that the grassland ecosystems in Xinjiang acted as a net carbon source, with a value of 0.38 Pg C over the period 1979-2007. There were significant effects of grazing on carbon dynamics. An over-compensatory effect in net primary productivity (NPP) and vegetation carbon (C) stock was observed when grazing intensity was lower than 0.40 head/ha. Grazing resulted in a net carbon source of 23.45 g C m-2 yr-1, which equaled 0.37 Pg in Xinjiang in the last 29 years. In general, grazing decreased vegetation C stock, while an increasing trend was observed with low grazing intensity. The soil C increased significantly (17%) with long-term grazing, while the soil C stock exhibited a steady trend without grazing. These findings have implications for grassland ecosystem management as it relates to carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation, e.g., removal of grazing should be considered in strategies that aim to increase terrestrial carbon sequestrations at local and regional scales. One of the greatest limitations in quantifying the effects of herbivores on carbon cycling is identifying the grazing systems and intensities within a given region. We hope our study emphasizes the need for large-scale assessments of how grazing impacts carbon cycling. Most terrestrial ecosystems in Xinjiang have been affected by disturbances to a greater or lesser extent in the past several decades (e.g., land-use change, timber exploitation, and air pollution). However, regional evaluations that account for all of the local disturbances have been difficult. Data from field measurements play a pivotal role in comparing model simulations with observations.

  18. Impacts of stored feed cropping systems and farm size on the profitability of Maine organic dairy farm simulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. organic dairy production has increased to meet demand for organic milk. Organic dairy farmers have come under increasing financial stress due to increases in concentrated feed prices. Organic dairies in the Northeast U.S. have experimented with different forage and grain crops to maximize on-fa...

  19. Cheatgrass and Grazing Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charles Elliot Fleming was one of the first scientists to work on the western range. In 1946 he published a series of questions concerning grazing of the exotic annual cheatgrass (Bromus tectorm), which had invaded millions of acres of the western rangelands. The introduction and subsequent invasi...

  20. Rangelands and Grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands are a type of land cover dominated by grasses, grass-like plants, forbs, and shrubs, where the land is managed as a natural ecosystem for multiple uses including wildlife habitat, biodiversity, recreation, and grazing by livestock. The area cover by rangelands is 48.2% of the land surfac...

  1. Teasing Apart the Effects of Atmospheric Nitrogen Deposition from Grazing and Drought in Vernal Pool Wetlands and Adjacent Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogel, M. L.; Araiza, D. N.; Nakamoto, B. J.; Vega, M. C.; Bradley, C. J.; Swarth, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    The remaining vernal pools flanking California's Central Valley may be protected from development, but they are not pristine environments. At UC Merced's Vernal Pools and Grassland Reserve, dairy cattle grazing is a fact of life, needed to keep non-native grasses from encroaching on and dominating these low lying, ephemeral pools. In addition to grazing, atmospheric deposition of nitrogen from adjacent agricultural farms and dairies has affected the biogeochemical cycling here, in particular because the area has never been ploughed and is essentially a terminal, interior catchment with almost no outputs. For the past two years, the region has been subjected to extreme drought resulting in altered patterns in vernal pool development and nutrient exchange. We are using stable nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen isotopes in organic and inorganic reservoirs to understand which of the three stressors (e.g. N loading, grazing, or drought) affects the ecosystem functioning the most. Simple measurements of residual dry matter (the rancher's standard) coupled with soil analyses and plant distribution, isotopic composition, and productivity will be presented at a landscape scale. Atmospheric deposition, as rain in winter and early spring and as dust in summer and fall, delivers substantial ammonium and nitrate to the Reserve and could be traced back to nearby hotspots, as well as from major storm systems. Concentrations and compositions of N in precipitation were highly variable depending on when the last storm event had occurred. Ammonia/ammonium in rainwater ranged from δ15N= -24 to +7‰, probably explaining the large range in the δ15N of plant tissues collected in winter/spring (-4.3 to +10.9‰,) and that of extractable ammonium from surface soils (δ15N = -7 to +13‰). Interior grassland and vernal pool ecosystems, with substantial inputs and little to no outputs, host biogeochemical processes that amplify heterogeneity on relative small scales.

  2. Agriculture. Dairy Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for dairy livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  3. Agriculture. Dairy Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for dairy livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task

  4. Persistence of Grazed Red Clover Varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, red clover (Trifolium pratense) has been limited by its lack of stand persistence in hay and grazed systems compared to other small-seeded forage legumes. Breeding over the past 50 years has extended red clover persistence in a hay management system to four years. This study examined g...

  5. Persistence of rotationally grazed red clover in mixed stands.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) is an important forage legume in grazing pastures. Historically red clover was limited by its comparatively lower stand persistence in hay and grazed systems. Smith (2000) demonstrated increased persistence under hay management achieved through over 30 years of bree...

  6. Dairy Cattle: Breeding and Genetics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five primary factors affect breeding genetically improved dairy cattle: 1) identification, 2) pedigree, 3) performance recording, 4) artificial insemination, and 5) genetic evaluation systems (traditional and genomic). Genetic progress can be measured as increased efficiency (higher performance with...

  7. Manual and automatic locomotion scoring systems in dairy cows: a review.

    PubMed

    Schlageter-Tello, Andrs; Bokkers, Eddie A M; Koerkamp, Peter W G Groot; Van Hertem, Tom; Viazzi, Stefano; Romanini, Carlos E B; Halachmi, Ilan; Bahr, Claudia; Berckmans, Danil; Lokhorst, Kees

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this review was to describe, compare and evaluate agreement, reliability, and validity of manual and automatic locomotion scoring systems (MLSSs and ALSSs, respectively) used in dairy cattle lameness research. There are many different types of MLSSs and ALSSs. Twenty-five MLSSs were found in 244 articles. MLSSs use different types of scale (ordinal or continuous) and different gait and posture traits need to be observed. The most used MLSS (used in 28% of the references) is based on asymmetric gait, reluctance to bear weight, and arched back, and is scored on a five-level scale. Fifteen ALSSs were found that could be categorized according to three approaches: (a) the kinetic approach measures forces involved in locomotion, (b) the kinematic approach measures time and distance of variables associated to limb movement and some specific posture variables, and (c) the indirect approach uses behavioural variables or production variables as indicators for impaired locomotion. Agreement and reliability estimates were scarcely reported in articles related to MLSSs. When reported, inappropriate statistical methods such as PABAK and Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were commonly used. Some of the most frequently used MLSSs were poorly evaluated for agreement and reliability. Agreement and reliability estimates for the original four-, five- or nine-level MLSS, expressed in percentage of agreement, kappa and weighted kappa, showed large ranges among and sometimes also within articles. After the transformation into a two-level scale, agreement and reliability estimates showed acceptable estimates (percentage of agreement ? 75%; kappa and weighted kappa ? 0.6), but still estimates showed a large variation between articles. Agreement and reliability estimates for ALSSs were not reported in any article. Several ALSSs use MLSSs as a reference for model calibration and validation. However, varying agreement and reliability estimates of MLSSs make a clear definition of a lameness case difficult, and thus affect the validity of ALSSs. MLSSs and ALSSs showed limited validity for hoof lesion detection and pain assessment. The utilization of MLSSs and ALSSs should aim to the prevention and efficient management of conditions that induce impaired locomotion. Long-term studies comparing MLSSs and ALSSs while applying various strategies to detect and control unfavourable conditions leading to impaired locomotion are required to determine the usefulness of MLSSs and ALSSs for securing optimal production and animal welfare in practice. PMID:25000863

  8. Nitrous oxide and greenhouse gas emissions from grazed pastures as affected by use of nitrification inhibitor and restricted grazing regime.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiafa; Ledgard, Stewart F; Lindsey, Stuart B

    2013-11-01

    Integration of a restricted grazing regime in winter with the use of a nitrification inhibitor can potentially reduce N2O emissions from grazed pasture systems. A three year field study was conducted to compare annual N2O emission rates from a "tight nitrogen" grazed farmlet with those from a control farmlet. The control farmlet was managed under a conventional rotational all-year grazing regime, while the "tight nitrogen" farmlet was under a similar grazing regime, except during winter and early spring seasons when cows grazed for about 6h per day. A nitrification inhibitor (dicyandiamide, DCD) was applied onto the "tight nitrogen" farmlet immediately after grazing through winter and early spring. A chamber technique was used to measure N2O emissions in several paddocks from each farmlet during three contrasting seasons each year. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) inventory methodology was used to estimate CH4 and indirect N2O emissions and the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to calculate CO2 emissions from the farm systems. The individual and combined effects of restricted grazing and DCD use on N2O emissions were also determined. During the late spring/summer and autumn periods, N2O emission rates were generally similar between the two farmlets. The use of a restricted grazing regime and DCD reduced N2O emissions from the grazed farmlet during the winter/early spring seasons by 43-55%, 64-79% and 45-60% over each of the three years, respectively. The use of restricted grazing and DCD both resulted in a similar reduction in N2O emissions, but there was no significant further reduction from the combination of these technologies. For the three study years, the annual N2O emission rate from the "tight nitrogen" farmlet was 20% lower, on average, than from the control. Total annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, however, were only 5% less in the "tight nitrogen" system. PMID:23374420

  9. Risk factors for lameness in freestall-housed dairy cows across two breeds, farming systems, and countries.

    PubMed

    Dippel, S; Dolezal, M; Brenninkmeyer, C; Brinkmann, J; March, S; Knierim, U; Winckler, C

    2009-11-01

    Lameness poses a considerable problem in modern dairy farming. Several new developments (e.g., herd health plans) strive to help farmers improve the health and welfare of their herd. It was thus our aim to identify lameness risk factors common across regions, breeds, and farming systems for freestall-housed dairy cows. We analyzed data from 103 nonorganic and organic dairy farms in Germany and Austria that kept 24 to 145 Holstein Friesian or Fleckvieh cows in the milking herd (mean = 48). Data on housing, management, behavior, and lameness scores for a total of 3,514 cows were collected through direct observations and an interview. Mean lameness prevalence was 34% (range = 0-81%). Data were analyzed applying logistic regression with generalized estimating equations in a split-sample design. The final model contained 1 animal-based parameter and 3 risk factors related to lying as well as 1 nutritional animal-based parameter, while correcting for the significant confounders parity and data subset. Risk for lameness increased with decreasing lying comfort, that is, more frequent abnormal lying behavior, mats or mattresses used as a stall base compared with deep-bedded stall bases, the presence of head lunge impediments, or neck rail-curb diagonals that were too short. Cows in the lowest body condition quartile (1.25-2.50 for Holstein Friesian and 2.50-3.50 for Fleckvieh) had the highest risk of being lame. In cross-validation the model correctly classified 71 and 70% of observations in the model-building and validation samples, respectively. Only 2 out of 15 significant odds ratios (including contrasts) changed direction. They pertained to the 2 variables with the highest P-values in the model. In conclusion, lying comfort and nutrition are key risk areas for lameness in freestall-housed dairy cows. Abnormal lying behavior in particular proved to be a good predictor of lameness risk and should thus be included in on-farm protocols. The study is part of the European Commission's Welfare Quality project. PMID:19841210

  10. The detectability of nitrous oxide mitigation efficacy in intensively grazed pastures using a multiple-plot micrometeorological technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, A. M. S.; Harvey, M. J.; Martin, R. J.; Bromley, A. M.; Evans, M. J.; Mukherjee, S.; Laubach, J.

    2014-05-01

    Methodologies are required to verify agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation at scales relevant to farm management. Micrometeorological techniques provide a viable approach for comparing fluxes between fields receiving mitigation treatments and control fields. However, they have rarely been applied to spatially verifying treatments aimed at mitigating nitrous oxide emission from intensively grazed pastoral systems. We deployed a micrometeorological system to compare N2O flux among several ~1.5 ha plots in intensively grazed dairy pasture. The sample collection and measurement system is referred to as the Field-Scale Nitrous Oxide Mitigation Assessment System (FS-NOMAS) and used a tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometer to measure N2O gradients to high precision at four locations along a 300 m transect. The utility of the FS-NOMAS to assess mitigation efficacy depends largely on its ability to resolve very small vertical N2O gradients. The performance of the FS-NOMAS was assessed in this respect in laboratory and field-based studies. The FS-NOMAS could reliably resolve gradients of 0.039 ppb between a height of 0.5 and 1.0 m. The gradient resolution achieved corresponded to the ability to detect an inter-plot N2O flux difference of 26 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 under the most commonly encountered conditions of atmospheric mixing (quantified here by a turbulent transfer coefficient), but this ranged from 11 to 59 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 as the transfer coefficient ranged between its 5th and 95th percentile. Assuming a likely value of 100 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 for post-grazing N2O fluxes from intensively grazed New Zealand dairy pasture, the system described here would be capable of detecting a mitigation efficacy of 26% for a single (40 min) comparison. We demonstrate that the system has considerably greater sensitivity to treatment effects by measuring cumulative fluxes over extended periods.

  11. The detectability of nitrous oxide mitigation efficacy in intensively grazed pastures using a multiple plot micrometeorological technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, A. M. S.; Harvey, M. J.; Martin, R. J.; Bromley, A. M.; Evans, M. J.; Mukherjee, S.; Laubach, J.

    2013-10-01

    Methodologies are required to verify agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation at scales relevant to farm management. Micrometeorological techniques provide a viable approach for comparing fluxes between fields receiving mitigation treatments and control fields. However, they have rarely been applied to spatially verifying treatments aimed at mitigating nitrous oxide emission from intensively grazed pastoral systems. We deployed a micrometeorological system to compare N2O flux among several ~ 1.5 ha plots in intensively grazed dairy pasture. The sample collection and measurement system is referred to as the Field-Scale Nitrous Oxide Mitigation Assessment System (FS-NOMAS) and used a tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometer to measure N2O gradients to high precision at four locations along a 300 m transect. The utility of the FS-NOMAS to assess mitigation efficacy depends largely on its ability to resolve very small vertical N2O gradients. The performance of the FS-NOMAS was assessed in this respect in laboratory and field-based studies. The FS-NOMAS could reliably resolve gradients of 0.039 ppb between a height of 0.5 m and 1.0 m. The gradient resolution achieved corresponded to the ability to detect an inter-plot N2O flux difference of 26.4 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 under the most commonly encountered conditions of atmospheric mixing (quantified here by a turbulent transfer coefficient), but this ranged from 11 to 59 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 as the transfer coefficient ranged between its 5th and 95th percentile. Assuming a likely value of 100 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 for post-grazing N2O fluxes from intensively grazed New Zealand dairy pasture, the system described here would be capable of detecting a mitigation efficacy of 26% for a single (40 min) comparison. We demonstrate that the system has considerably greater sensitivity to treatment effects by measuring cumulative fluxes over extended periods.

  12. CALIFORNIA DAIRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    These dairy records were collected by the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) as part of a trial for disease surveillance and prevention purposes. Some records contain GPS coordinates, while the remaining records were obtained through address matching methods u...

  13. WASHINGTON DAIRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dairy_wa.zip file is a zip file containing an Arc/Info export file and a text document. Note the DISCLAIM.TXT file as these data are not verified. Map extent: statewide. Input Source: Address database obtained from Wa Dept of Agriculture. Data was originally developed und...

  14. Ruminant Grazing of Cover Crops: Effects on Soil Properties and Agricultural Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poffenbarger, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Integrating livestock into a cropping system by allowing ruminant animals to graze cover crops may yield economic and environmental benefits. The effects of grazing on soil physical properties, soil organic matter, nitrogen cycling and agricultural production are presented in this literature review. The review found that grazing cover crops

  15. GRAZING-INDUCED MODIFICATIONS TO THE PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY OF NORTHERN MIXED-GRASS PRAIRIE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective grazing can modify the productive capacity of rangelands by reducing competitiveness of productive, palatable species and increasing the composition of more grazing-resistant species. A stocking rate (light, moderate and heavy) X grazing system (season-long continuous and short-duration r...

  16. Ruminant Grazing of Cover Crops: Effects on Soil Properties and Agricultural Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poffenbarger, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Integrating livestock into a cropping system by allowing ruminant animals to graze cover crops may yield economic and environmental benefits. The effects of grazing on soil physical properties, soil organic matter, nitrogen cycling and agricultural production are presented in this literature review. The review found that grazing cover crops…

  17. Options in dairy data management.

    PubMed Central

    Etherington, W G; Kinsel, M L; Marsh, W E

    1995-01-01

    A great deal of progress has been made in the development of dairy herd management software in the last few years. At the same time, the speed, capacity, and portability of computer hardware have increased, while costs have decreased, thus encouraging use by veterinarians, dairy herd managers, and other industry support groups. A review of the literature indicates that an increasing number of producers, veterinarians, and other dairy industry service personnel are using computers and dairy herd management software in the delivery of their services (1-3,5,9-11,26-30,38,39). Wider adoption will occur if information generated through the use of these systems is directed towards the improvement of the profitability of dairy production. The quality of a decision is only as good as the information used to make it. In the past, the limited availability of reliable herd data has restricted our understanding of factors that influence herd performance. In essence, we must define what is normal before we can determine what is abnormal. More importantly, we must define what management practices are profitable and to what extent they increase revenue (31,32). Improved record keeping will benefit the dairy industry by allowing producers and dairy consultants to make profitable decisions based on more accurate and complete information. The ability to merge biological, management, and economic data may prove valuable in the evaluation of intervention at the herd and individual animal level.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7859210

  18. Community responses of arthropods to a range of traditional and manipulated grazing in shortgrass steppe.

    PubMed

    Newbold, T A Scott; Stapp, Paul; Levensailor, Katherine E; Derner, Justin D; Lauenroth, William K

    2014-06-01

    Responses of plants to grazing are better understood, and more predictable, than those of consumers in North American grasslands. In 2003, we began a large-scale, replicated experiment that examined the effects of grazing on three important arthropod groups-beetles, spiders, and grasshoppers-in shortgrass steppe of north-central Colorado. We investigated whether modifications of the intensity and seasonality of livestock grazing alter the structure and diversity of macroarthropod communities compared with traditional grazing practices. Treatments represented a gradient of grazing intensity by cattle and native herbivores: long-term grazing exclosures; moderate summer grazing (the traditional regime); intensive spring grazing; intensive summer grazing; and moderately summer-grazed pastures also inhabited by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus Ord). Beetles and spiders were the most common groups captured, comprising 60% and 21%, respectively, of 4,378 total pitfall captures. Grasshopper counts were generally low, with 3,799 individuals observed and densities <4 m(-2). Two years after treatments were applied, vegetation structure differed among grazing treatments, responding not only to long-term grazing conditions, but also to the short-term, more-intensive grazing manipulations. In response, arthropods were, in general, relatively insensitive to these grazing-induced structural changes. However, species-level analyses of one group (Tenebrionidae) revealed both positive and negative effects of grazing treatments on beetle richness and activity-density. Importantly, these responses to grazing were more pronounced in a year when spring-summer rainfall was low, suggesting that both grazing and precipitation-which together may create the greatest heterogeneity in vegetation structure-are drivers of consumer responses in this system. PMID:24780073

  19. Local and Systemic Immune Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Colitis Effects of the Dairy Bacterium Lactobacillus delbrueckii

    PubMed Central

    Santos Rocha, Clarissa; Gomes-Santos, Ana Cristina; Garcias Moreira, Thais; de Azevedo, Marcela; Diniz Luerce, Tessalia; Mariadassou, Mahendra; Longaray Delamare, Ana Paula; Langella, Philippe; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Azevedo, Vasco; Caetano de Faria, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Several probiotic bacteria have been proposed for treatment or prevention of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), showing a protective effect in animal models of experimental colitis and for some of them also in human clinical trials. While most of these probiotic bacteria are isolated from the digestive tract, we recently reported that a Lactobacillus strain isolated from cheese, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CNRZ327 (Lb CNRZ327), also possesses anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating that common dairy bacteria may be useful in the treatment or prevention of IBD. Here, we studied the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of Lb CNRZ327 in vivo, in a mouse dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis model. During colitis, Lb CNRZ327 modulated the production of TGF-β, IL-6, and IL-12 in colonic tissue and of TGF-β and IL-6 in the spleen, and caused an expansion of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the cecal lymph nodes. Moreover, a strong tendency to CD4+Foxp3+ expansion was also observed in the spleen. The results of this study for the first time show that orally administered dairy lactobacilli can not only modulate mucosal but also systemic immune responses and constitute an effective treatment of IBD. PMID:24465791

  20. Prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli isolated from Zambian dairy cattle across different production systems

    PubMed Central

    Mainda, Geoffrey; Bessell, Paul B.; Muma, John B.; McAteer, Sean P.; Chase-Topping, Margo E.; Gibbons, James; Stevens, Mark P.; Gally, David L.; deC. Bronsvoort, Barend M.

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the use of antibiotics on small, medium and commercial-sized dairy farms in the central region of Zambia and its relationship to antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli. A stratified random sample of 104 farms was studied, representing approximately 20% of all dairy farms in the region. On each farm, faecal samples were collected from a random sample of animals and a standardised questionnaire on the usage of antibiotics was completed. An E. coli isolate was obtained from 98.67% (371/376) of the sampled animals and tested for resistance to six classes of antibiotics. The estimated prevalence of resistance across the different farming systems was: tetracycline (10.61; 95%CI: 7.40–13.82), ampicillin (6.02; 95%CI: 3.31–8.73), sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim (4.49; 95%CI: 2.42–6.56), cefpodoxime (1.91; 95%CI: 0.46–3.36), gentamicin (0.89; 95%CI: 0.06–1.84) and ciprofloxacin (0%). Univariate analyses indicated certain diseases, exotic breeds, location, farm size and certain management practices as risk factors for detection of resistance, whereas multivariate analyses showed an association with lumpy skin disease and a protective effect for older animals (>25 months). This study has provided novel insights into the drivers of antibiotic use and their association with antibiotic resistance in an under-studied region of Southern Africa. PMID:26211388

  1. Prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli isolated from Zambian dairy cattle across different production systems.

    PubMed

    Mainda, Geoffrey; Bessell, Paul R; Bessell, Paul B; Muma, John B; McAteer, Sean P; Chase-Topping, Margo E; Gibbons, James; Stevens, Mark P; Gally, David L; deC Bronsvoort, Barend M

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on the use of antibiotics on small, medium and commercial-sized dairy farms in the central region of Zambia and its relationship to antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli. A stratified random sample of 104 farms was studied, representing approximately 20% of all dairy farms in the region. On each farm, faecal samples were collected from a random sample of animals and a standardised questionnaire on the usage of antibiotics was completed. An E. coli isolate was obtained from 98.67% (371/376) of the sampled animals and tested for resistance to six classes of antibiotics. The estimated prevalence of resistance across the different farming systems was: tetracycline (10.61; 95%CI: 7.40-13.82), ampicillin (6.02; 95%CI: 3.31-8.73), sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim (4.49; 95%CI: 2.42-6.56), cefpodoxime (1.91; 95%CI: 0.46-3.36), gentamicin (0.89; 95%CI: 0.06-1.84) and ciprofloxacin (0%). Univariate analyses indicated certain diseases, exotic breeds, location, farm size and certain management practices as risk factors for detection of resistance, whereas multivariate analyses showed an association with lumpy skin disease and a protective effect for older animals (>25 months). This study has provided novel insights into the drivers of antibiotic use and their association with antibiotic resistance in an under-studied region of Southern Africa. PMID:26211388

  2. [Effects of irrigation using dairy effluent on grain yield, phosphorus utilization and distribu- tion in soil profile in winter wheat-summer maize rotation system].

    PubMed

    Du, Hui-ying; Feng, Jie; Guo, Hai-gang; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Ke-qiang

    2015-08-01

    Field experiments of winter wheat-summer maize rotation were conducted in North China Plain irrigation area to explore the effects of wheat season irrigation with dairy effluent on grain yield, phosphorus uptake, accumulative phosphorus usage efficiency and phosphorus accumulation in soil. The results showed that the irrigation with dairy effluent significantly improved the yields of winter wheat and summer maize. With the increasing of P2O5 carried by dairy effluent into soil, winter wheat yield increased at first and then decreased. When the P2O5 increased 137 kg hm(-2), winter wheat yield increased to the maximum (7646.4 kg hm(-2)) and the phosphorus utilization rate was the highest (24.8%). But excessive phosphorus decreased the winter wheat yield and phosphorus utilization efficiency. Summer maize yield and phosphorus uptake increased with the increase of P2O5 carried by dairy effluent. The summer maize yield increased by 2222.4-2628.6 kg hm(-2) and the phosphorus uptake increased by 13.9-21.1 kg hm(-2) in contrast to the control (CK). Under conventional phosphorus fertilization at 88 kg hm(-2), and the summer maize yield increased by 2235.0 kg hm(-2) compared with CK. As the time of irrigation with dairy effluent increasing, the grain yield increased more significantly. The cumulative phosphorus utilization in this rotation system increased year by year. After six seasons of crop harvest, the cumulative phosphorus utilization rate increased into 40.0%-47.7%. Under the experimental condition, two times of irrigation with the dairy effluents in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation system was the best operating mode. PMID:26685601

  3. Step behaviour and autonomic nervous system activity in multiparous dairy cows during milking in a herringbone milking system.

    PubMed

    Kézér, F L; Kovács, L; Tőzsér, J

    2015-08-01

    Behavioural and cardiac responses of multiparous dairy cows (n=24) during milking in a 2×4 stall herringbone milking system were evaluated in this study. Heart rate (HR), parasympathetic tone index (high frequency component, HF) of heart rate variability and sympathovagal balance indicator LF/HF ratio (the ratio of the low frequency (LF) and the HF component) were analysed. Measurement periods were established as follows: (1) standing calm (baseline), (2) udder preparation, (3) milking, (4) waiting after milking in the milking stall and (5) in the night (2 h after milking). Step behaviour was recorded and calculated per minute for the three phases of the milking process (udder preparation, milking and waiting after milking). HR was higher during udder preparation and milking compared with baseline (P=0.03, 0.027, respectively). HF was significantly lower than baseline levels during waiting in the milking stall after milking (P=0.009), however, during udder preparation, milking and 2 h after milking did not differ from baseline (P>0.05, in either case). LF/HF during the three phases of the milking process differed neither from baseline levels nor from each other. Steps occurred more often during waiting after milking than during udder preparation (P=0.042) or during milking (23; P=0.017). Our results suggest that the milking procedure itself was not stressful for these animals. After milking (following the removal of the last teat cup and before leaving the milking stall), both decreased parasympathetic tone (lower HF) and increased stepping rate indicated a sensitive period for animals during this phase. PMID:25686697

  4. 25 CFR 167.9 - Grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grazing permits. 167.9 Section 167.9 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS 167.9 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the Navajo Reservation must be covered by an authorized grazing permit issued by the Superintendent based upon...

  5. 25 CFR 700.711 - Grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grazing permits. 700.711 Section 700.711 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.711 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the New Lands must be covered by a grazing permit authorized and issued by...

  6. 25 CFR 700.711 - Grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grazing permits. 700.711 Section 700.711 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.711 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the New Lands must be covered by a grazing permit authorized and issued by...

  7. Guidance on offsite emergency radiation measurement systems. Phase 3. Water and non-dairy food pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Salmonson, B.J.; Hoffman, L.G.; Honkus, R.J.; Keller, J.H.

    1984-10-01

    This document provides guidance to State and local governments and to federal agencies on offsite emergency measurement of radionuclides in non-dairy food and potable water to determine dose commitment after an accident involving a light-water nuclear power plant. In the early emergency phase of an accident, monitoring of the ingestion pathway should be primarily directed toward controlling the human ingestion of deposited airborne contamination. Ingestion of edible plants is the non-dairy food pathway of primary concern. The importance of this pathway is dependent on the time of year the nuclide release occurs (e.g. deposition of radionuclides on plants just prior to or during harvest presents the greatest hazard). The greatest immediate concern following a release may be from the radioiodines; however, because of their short half-life, the hazard diminishes rapidly and the longer lived radionuclides of strontium and cesium become important. Protective actions and monitoring requirements are discussed. Several alternatives for field monitoring of foodstuffs and water are presented. However, the recommended procedure for monitoring foodstuffs is field sampling in predetermined areas followed by laboratory analyses. The recommended procedure for monitoring water is collection of samples at water purification plants followed by analyses performed by experienced technical personnel. 32 references, 2 figures, 9 tables.

  8. Sprinklers and shade cool cows and reduce insect-avoidance behavior in pasture-based dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Kendall, P E; Verkerk, G A; Webster, J R; Tucker, C B

    2007-08-01

    The body temperature of dairy cows in pastoral systems during summer reaches a peak during and following the p.m. milking. Shade and sprinklers can be used separately or in combination at the milking parlor to reduce heat load. Farmers anecdotally report that the use of sprinklers reduces irritation from insects that occurs while cows are waiting for milking. Once daily, we assessed the effectiveness of short-term exposure to shade and sprinklers for cooling cows [via respiration rate and body (vaginal) temperature] and reducing insect-avoidance behaviors before the p.m. milking in a pasture-based dairy system. Head position was measured as an indicator of whether cattle were avoiding water from the sprinklers. Forty-eight Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were divided into 12 groups (4 cows per group, n = 3 groups/treatment) and were exposed to 1 of 4 treatments for 90 min before the p.m. milking: 1) shade, 2) sprinklers, 3) shade and sprinklers, or 4) uncooled control. Respiration rate was reduced by 30% with shade alone compared with controls [54 vs. 78 +/- 2.3 ( +/- SED) breaths/min, respectively]. Sprinklers alone (30 +/- 2.3 breaths/min) and the combined effects of shade and sprinklers (24 +/- 2.3 breaths/min) reduced the respiration rate by 60 and 67%, respectively, compared with controls. Shaded cows had lower body temperatures during the 90-min treatment period compared with controls (shade: 38.6 degrees C; shade and sprinklers: 38.6 degrees C; control: 38.9 +/- 0.09 degrees C). The decrease in body temperature of cows under sprinklers was more marked than for shade alone and remained lower for at least 4 h after milking (sprinklers: 38.7 degrees C; shade and sprinklers: 38.6 degrees C; shade: 38.9 degrees C; control: 39.2 +/- 0.10 degrees C). The sprinkler treatment reduced the number of tail flicks (control: 12.6 vs. sprinklers: 6.6 +/- 2.4 flicks/min) and hoof stamps (control: 4.4 vs. sprinkler: 2.2 +/- 0.5 stamps/min). Cows exposed to sprinklers spent more time with their heads lowered compared with cows in the shaded and control treatments. The reductions in body temperature and respiration rate attributable to shade and sprinklers were greatest when the temperature-humidity index and heat-load index were > or = 69 and 77, respectively, and cows benefited from cooling when these levels were exceeded. PMID:17638978

  9. Simulating Grazing Impacts on Ecosystem Carbon Dynamics in the Green River Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    li, Z.; Liu, S.; Tan, Z.; Young, C.

    2011-12-01

    Grazing is one of the key disturbances on semi-arid grasslands. To understand the grazing impacts on carbon (C ) dynamics in these grasslands can help to create livestock management in a sustainable way. We used the General Ensemble Biogeochemical Modeling System (GEMS) to study the effects of grazing intensity on ecosystem carbon dynamics between 1970 and 1999 across the Green River Basin (GRB) in southwest Wyoming. The National Land Cover Database and multi-year MODIS Net Primary Production (NPP) data were used as inputs to produce the spatial maps of carbon dynamics in GRB. We set three scenarios based on different levels of grazing intensity: no grazing, light grazing, and moderate grazing. Our results indicate that if potential vegetation production (which is defined by the biological traits of the grass species) does not change, excluding grazing on semi-arid grasslands reduces grassland production. The moderate-grazing scenario resulted in the highest production (5.1 TgC), followed by the light-grazing scenario (4.6 TgC) and no-grazing scenario (4.3 TgC). The NPP differences between grazing and no-grazing scenarios varied annually and were significantly affected by annual precipitation and temperature. Excluding grazing for 30 years on the grasslands increased the ecosystem carbon by 6.7% while reducing grazing to light-grazing increased 3.6%. The spatial distribution of ecosystem carbon change wereas significantly impacted by initial ecosystem carbon storage, vegetation production, and carbon removed from ecosystem. The carbon dynamic maps generated by our approach can be used as a diagnostic tool for rangeland managements.

  10. Dairy farm cost efficiency.

    PubMed

    Tauer, L W; Mishra, A K

    2006-12-01

    A stochastic cost equation was estimated for US dairy farms using national data from the production year 2000 to determine how farmers might reduce their cost of production. Cost of producing a unit of milk was estimated into separate frontier (efficient) and inefficiency components, with both components estimated as a function of management and causation variables. Variables were entered as impacting the frontier component as well as the efficiency component of the stochastic curve because a priori both components could be impacted. A factor that has an impact on the cost frontier was the number of hours per day the milking facility is used. Using the milking facility for more hours per day decreased frontier costs; however, inefficiency increased with increased hours of milking facility use. Thus, farmers can decrease costs with increased utilization of the milking facility, but only if they are efficient in this strategy. Parlors compared with stanchions used for milking did not decrease frontier costs, but decreased costs because of increased efficiency, as did the use of a nutritionist. Use of rotational grazing decreased frontier costs but also increased inefficiency. Older farmers were less efficient. PMID:17106126

  11. Imagining the ideal dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Clarissa S; Hötzel, Maria José; Weary, Daniel M; Robbins, Jesse A; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2016-02-01

    Practices in agriculture can have negative effects on the environment, rural communities, food safety, and animal welfare. Although disagreements are possible about specific issues and potential solutions, it is widely recognized that public input is needed in the development of socially sustainable agriculture systems. The aim of this study was to assess the views of people not affiliated with the dairy industry on what they perceived to be the ideal dairy farm and their associated reasons. Through an online survey, participants were invited to respond to the following open-ended question: "What do you consider to be an ideal dairy farm and why are these characteristics important to you?" Although participants referenced social, economic, and ecological aspects of dairy farming, animal welfare was the primary issue raised. Concern was expressed directly about the quality of life for the animals, and the indirect effect of animal welfare on milk quality. Thus participants appeared to hold an ethic for dairy farming that included concern for the animal, as well as economic, social, and environmental aspects of the dairy system. PMID:26709190

  12. Identifying Host Sources of Fecal Pollution: Diversity of Escherichia coli in Confined Dairy and Swine Production Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zexun; Lapen, David; Scott, Andrew; Dang, Angela; Topp, Edward

    2005-01-01

    Repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR fingerprinting of Escherichia coli is one microbial source tracking approach for identifying the host source origin of fecal pollution in aquatic systems. The construction of robust known-source libraries is expensive and requires an informed sampling strategy. In many types of farming systems, waste is stored for several months before being released into the environment. In this study we analyzed, by means of repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR using the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus primers and comparative analysis using the Bionumerics software, collections of E. coli obtained from a dairy farm and from a swine farm, both of which stored their waste as a slurry in holding tanks. In all fecal samples, obtained from either barns or holding tanks, the diversity of the E. coli populations was underrepresented by collections of 500 isolates. In both the dairy and the swine farms, the diversity of the E.?coli community was greater in the manure holding tank than in the barn, when they were sampled on the same date. In both farms, a comparison of stored manure samples collected several months apart suggested that the community composition changed substantially in terms of the detected number, absolute identity, and relative abundance of genotypes. Comparison of E. coli populations obtained from 10 different locations in either holding tank suggested that spatial variability in the E. coli community should be accounted for when sampling. Overall, the diversity in E. coli populations in manure slurry storage facilities is significant and likely is problematic with respect to library construction for microbial source tracking applications. PMID:16204513

  13. Novel in vitro systems for prediction of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products.

    PubMed

    González-Lobato, L; Real, R; Herrero, D; de la Fuente, A; Prieto, J G; Marqués, M M; Alvarez, A I; Merino, G

    2014-01-01

    A new in vitro tool was developed for the identification of veterinary substrates of the main drug transporter in the mammary gland. These drugs have a much higher chance of being concentrated into ovine milk and thus should be detectable in dairy products. Complementarily, a cell model for the identification of compounds that can inhibit the secretion of drugs into ovine milk, and thus reduce milk residues, was also generated. The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) is responsible for the concentration of its substrates into milk. The need to predict potential drug residues in ruminant milk has prompted the development of in vitro cell models over-expressing ABCG2 for these species to detect veterinary drugs that interact with this transporter. Using these models, several substrates for bovine and caprine ABCG2 have been found, and differences in activity between species have been reported. However, despite being of great toxicological relevance, no suitable in vitro model to predict substrates of ovine ABCG2 was available. New MDCKII and MEF3.8 cell models over-expressing ovine ABCG2 were generated for the identification of substrates and inhibitors of ovine ABCG2. Five widely used veterinary antibiotics (marbofloxacin, orbifloxacin, sarafloxacin, danofloxacin and difloxacin) were discovered as new substrates of ovine ABCG2. These results were confirmed for the bovine transporter and its Y581S variant using previously generated cell models. In addition, the avermectin doramectin was described as a new inhibitor of ruminant ABCG2. This new rapid assay to identify veterinary drugs that can be concentrated into ovine milk will potentially improve detection and monitoring of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products. PMID:24679113

  14. Diet Selection and Grazing Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing behavior and diet selection of grazing ruminants can be influenced by a lot of factors. Firstly, they learn from their dams. Secondly, they learn from peers. Thirdly, they learn by trial and error. Work at our USDA-ARS lab showed that ‘ruminal fill’, or how ‘hungry’ the cow is, can affect gr...

  15. How Supplementation Affects Grazing Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Researchers are still in the early stages of understanding how supplementation affects grazing behavior. Conventional nutrition wisdom, including early research with grazing cattle, has been based almost entirely upon stored feeds fed in confinement. In these situations, most dietary choices were ...

  16. Managing forage and grazing lands for multiple ecosystem services

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage and grazing land systems are increasingly expected to provide services beyond food, feed, and fiber. The concept of multifunctionality in grassland agriculture recognizes ecosystem services beyond these traditional functions to include emerging services such as carbon sequestration, greenhous...

  17. Development and validation of a visual body condition scoring system for dairy goats with picture-based training.

    PubMed

    Vieira, A; Brandão, S; Monteiro, A; Ajuda, I; Stilwell, G

    2015-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is the most widely used method to assess changes in body fat reserves, which reflects its high potential to be included in on-farm welfare assessment protocols. Currently used scoring systems in dairy goats require animal restraint for body palpation. In this study, the Animal Welfare Indicators project (AWIN) proposes to overcome this constraint by developing a scoring system based only on visual assessment. The AWIN visual body condition scoring system highlights representative animals from 3 categories: very thin, normal, and very fat, and was built from data sets with photographs of animals scored by a commonly used 6-point scoring system that requires palpation in 2 anatomical regions. Development of the AWIN scoring system required 3 steps: (1) identification and validation of a body region of interest; (2) sketching the region from photographs; and (3) creation of training material. The scoring system's reliability was statistically confirmed. An initial study identified features in the rump region from which we could compute a set of body measurements (i.e., measures based on anatomical references of the rump region) that showed a strong correlation with the assigned BCS. To validate the result, we collected a final data set from 171 goats. To account for variability in animal size and camera position, we mapped a subset of features to a standard template and aligned all the rump images before computing the body measurements. Scientific illustrations were created from the aligned images of animals identified as representative of each category to increase clarity and reproducibility. For training material, we created sketches representing the threshold between consecutive categories. Finally, we conducted 2 field reliability studies. In the first test, no training was given to 4 observers, whereas in the second, training using the threshold images was delivered to the same observers. In the first experiment, interobserver results was substantial, showing that the visual scoring system is clear and unambiguous. Moreover, results improved after training, reaching almost perfect agreement for the very fat category. The visual body condition scoring system is not only a practical tool for BCS in dairy goats but also shows potential to be fully automated, which would enhance its use in welfare assessment schemes and farm management. PMID:26162790

  18. A LYSIMETER STUDY TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF DAIRY EFFLUENT AND UREA ON CATTLE URIN N LOSSES, PLANT UPTAKE, AND SOIL RETENTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Loss of nitrate (NO3-) from grazing land is a major cause for surface and ground water contamination. These losses can further increase when other N sources apply to grazing land. The objectives of this work were 1) to study the impact of either dairy effl...

  19. Emissions of ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide from dairy cattle housing and manure management systems.

    PubMed

    Leytem, April B; Dungan, Robert S; Bjorneberg, David L; Koehn, Anita C

    2011-01-01

    Concentrated animal feeding operations emit trace gases such as ammonia (NH₃), methane (CH₄), carbon dioxide (CO₂), and nitrous oxide (N₂O). The implementation of air quality regulations in livestock-producing states increases the need for accurate on-farm determination of emission rates. The objective of this study was to determine the emission rates of NH₃, CH₄, CO₂, and N₂O from three source areas (open lots, wastewater pond, compost) on a commercial dairy located in southern Idaho. Gas concentrations and wind statistics were measured each month and used with an inverse dispersion model to calculate emission rates. Average emissions per cow per day from the open lots were 0.13 kg NH₃, 0.49 kg CH₄, 28.1 kg CO₂, and 0.01 kg N₂O. Average emissions from the wastewater pond (g m(-2) d(-1)) were 2.0 g NH₃, 103 g CH₄, 637 g CO₂, and 0.49 g N₂O. Average emissions from the compost facility (g m(-2) d(-1)) were 1.6 g NH₃, 13.5 g CH₄, 516 g CO₂, and 0.90 g N₂O. The combined emissions of NH₃, CH₄, CO₂, and N₂O from the lots, wastewater pond and compost averaged 0.15, 1.4, 30.0, and 0.02 kg cow(-1) d(-1), respectively. The open lot areas generated the greatest emissions of NH₃, CO₂, and N₂O, contributing 78, 80, and 57%, respectively, to total farm emissions. Methane emissions were greatest from the lots in the spring (74% of total), after which the wastewater pond became the largest source of emissions (55% of total) for the remainder of the year. Data from this study can be used to develop trace gas emissions factors from open-lot dairies in southern Idaho and potentially other open-lot production systems in similar climatic regions. PMID:21869500

  20. Soil ingestion by dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Darwin, R.

    1990-02-15

    Ingested soil may be a source of minerals to grazing cattle; it may also be a source of radionuclides, heavy metals, and organic toxins. The importance of soil ingestion in the milk pathway depends on the amount of soil ingested, the ratio of the mineral concentration in soil to that in herbage, and the ability of the cattle to solubilize and absorb the soil-derived minerals. The amount of soil ingested by cattle on pasture, in turn, depends upon the stocking level, the quantity of forage available, and the soil ingesting propensity of individual cows. The objective of this note is to summarize some of the information about soil ingestion by dairy cattle and to suggest methods for incorporating soil ingestion into the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Phase I milk model. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  1. Bivalve grazing can shape phytoplankton communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucas, Lisa; Cloern, James E.; Thompson, Janet K.; Stacey, Mark T.; Koseff, Jeffrey K.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of bivalve filter feeders to limit phytoplankton biomass in shallow waters is well-documented, but the role of bivalves in shaping phytoplankton communities is not. The coupled effect of bivalve grazing at the sediment-water interface and sinking of phytoplankton cells to that bottom filtration zone could influence the relative biomass of sinking (diatoms) and non-sinking phytoplankton. Simulations with a pseudo-2D numerical model showed that benthic filter feeding can interact with sinking to alter diatom:non-diatom ratios. Cases with the smallest proportion of diatom biomass were those with the fastest sinking speeds and strongest bivalve grazing rates. Hydrodynamics modulated the coupled sinking-grazing influence on phytoplankton communities. For example, in simulations with persistent stratification, the non-sinking forms accumulated in the surface layer away from bottom grazers while the sinking forms dropped out of the surface layer toward bottom grazers. Tidal-scale stratification also influenced vertical gradients of the two groups in opposite ways. The model was applied to Suisun Bay, a low-salinity habitat of the San Francisco Bay system that was transformed by the introduction of the exotic clam Potamocorbula amurensis. Simulation results for this Bay were similar to (but more muted than) those for generic habitats, indicating that P. amurensis grazing could have caused a disproportionate loss of diatoms after its introduction. Our model simulations suggest bivalve grazing affects both phytoplankton biomass and community composition in shallow waters. We view these results as hypotheses to be tested with experiments and more complex modeling approaches.

  2. Grazing incidence beam expander

    SciTech Connect

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  3. Optimising stocking rate and grazing management to enhance environmental and production outcomes for native temperate grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badgery, Warwick; Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Broadfoot, Kim; Kemp, David; Mitchell, David

    2015-04-01

    Stocking rate and grazing management can be altered to enhance the sustainable production of grasslands but the relative influence of each has not often been determined for native temperate grasslands. Grazing management can range from seasonal rests through to intensive rotational grazing involving >30 paddocks. In large scale grazing, it can be difficult to segregate the influence of grazing pressure from the timing of utilisation. Moreover, relative grazing pressure can change between years as seasonal conditions influence grassland production compared to the relative constant requirements of animals. This paper reports on two studies in temperate native grasslands of northern China and south eastern Australia that examined stocking rate and regionally relevant grazing management strategies. In China, the grazing experiment involved combinations of a rest, moderate or heavy grazing pressure of sheep in spring, then moderate or heavy grazing in summer and autumn. Moderate grazing pressure at 50% of the current district average, resulted in the better balance between maintaining productive and diverse grasslands, a profitable livestock system, and mitigation of greenhouse gases through increased soil carbon, methane uptake by the soil, and efficient methane emissions per unit of weight gain. Spring rests best maintained a desirable grassland composition, but had few other benefits and reduced livestock productivity due to lower feed quality from grazing later in the season. In Australia, the grazing experiment compared continuous grazing to flexible 4- and 20-paddock rotational grazing systems with sheep. Stocking rates were adjusted between systems biannually based on the average herbage mass of the grassland. No treatment degraded the perennial pasture composition, but ground cover was maintained at higher levels in the 20-paddock system even though this treatment had a higher stocking rate. Overall there was little difference in livestock production (e.g. kg lamb/ha), because individual animal performance was greater for continuous grazing than higher intensity grazing systems (4-Paddock and 20-Paddock). Differences in SOC, CO2 flux and erosion were determined by landscape position rather than grazing treatment. To remove the confounding influences of stocking rate and grazing management, the Ausfarm biophysical model, calibrated to the experimental treatments, examined the interaction between grazing management and stocking rates. Ground cover and profitability were similar between grazing systems at lower stocking rates (3 ewes per ha), but continuous grazing had higher profitability and lower ground cover above the optimum stocking rate of 4 ewes per ha. The findings of these two studies suggest that optimising stocking rate is more important than grazing management for a sustainable and profitable grazing system. Grazing management can further enhance environmental outcomes for an optimal stocking rate, but the findings from the Chinese study particularly highlight the need to look at multiple ecosystem services, when optimising systems. The Australian study also suggests the optimum stocking rate is dependent on the intensity of grazing management. Further work is required to understand the influence of landscape on grassland production and how stocking rates and grazing management can be sustainably optimised for different landscape areas to utilise this variation more effectively.

  4. Tracking Zoonotic Pathogens in Dairy Production Chains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy farming is a highly productive system producing ample amounts of high-quality milk and meat from fewer cows on less land on fewer, but larger, farms. Despite this consolidation and modernization zoonotic pathogenic bacteria and protozoans remain problems on the modern dairy farm. Although past...

  5. Productive performance and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep grazing in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos; Solorio-Sánchez, Javier; Ku-Vera, Juan; Ayala-Burgos, Armín; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Solís-Pérez, Georgina

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate daily weight gain (DWG), total dry matter (DM) intake, rumen degradability of forage, and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala. A completely randomized design was carried out with two treatments: treatment 1 (T1) silvopastoral system with leucaena at a density of 35,000 plants/ha and treatment 2 (T2), leucaena at a density of 55,000 plants/ha. Leucaena was associated with tropical grasses Panicum maximum and Cynodon nlemfluensis. Twenty-four male Pelibuey lambs of 23.2 ± 3.4 kg live weight (LW) were used (12 lambs per treatment). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in DWG of T1 (106.41 ± 11.66 g(-1) sheep(-1)) with respect to that of T2 (81.33 ± 11.81 g(-1) sheep). Voluntary intake was higher in lambs from T1 (83.81 ± 04.07 g DM/kg LW(0.75)) with respect to that from T2 (71.67 ± 8.12 g DM/kg LW(0.75)). There was a difference in color of urine between sheep of T1 and T2, the latter giving positive results for the presence of metabolites derived from mimosine (3-4 dihydroxypyridine and 2-3 dihydroxy pyridone). Rumen degradability of DM of L. leucocephala was higher (P < 0.05) compared to that of P. maximum and C. nlemfluensis (72.94 ± 0.40 vs. 67.06 ± 1.50 and 63.25 ± 1.51 %, respectively). It is concluded that grazing at high densities of L. leucocephala affects daily weight gain of hair sheep, possibly due to ingestion of high amounts of mimosine which may exert an adverse effect on voluntary intake. PMID:22528536

  6. On-FarmWelfare Assessment Protocol for Adult Dairy Goats in Intensive Production Systems.

    PubMed

    Battini, Monica; Stilwell, George; Vieira, Ana; Barbieri, Sara; Canali, Elisabetta; Mattiello, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Within the European AWIN project, a protocol for assessing dairy goats' welfareon the farm was developed. Starting from a literature review, a prototype includinganimal-based indicators covering four welfare principles and 12 welfare criteria was set up.The prototype was tested in 60 farms for validity, reliability, and feasibility. After testing theprototype, a two-level assessment protocol was proposed in order to increase acceptabilityamong stakeholders. The first level offers a more general overview of the welfare status,based on group assessment of a few indicators (e.g., hair coat condition, latency to thefirst contact test, severe lameness, Qualitative Behavior Assessment), with no or minimalhandling of goats and short assessment time required. The second level starts if welfareAnimals 2015, 5 935problems are encountered in the first level and adds a comprehensive and detailed individualevaluation (e.g., Body Condition Score, udder asymmetry, overgrown claws), supported byan effective sampling strategy. The assessment can be carried out using the AWIN Goatapp. The app results in a clear visual output, which provides positive feedback on welfareconditions in comparison with a benchmark of a reference population. The protocol maybe a valuable tool for both veterinarians and technicians and a self-assessment instrumentfor farmers. PMID:26479477

  7. Cow hair allergen concentrations in dairy farms with automatic and conventional milking systems: From stable to bedroom.

    PubMed

    Böhlandt, A; Schierl, R; Heizinger, J; Dietrich-Gümperlein, G; Zahradnik, E; Bruckmaier, L; Sültz, J; Raulf, M; Nowak, D

    2016-01-01

    Bovine hair and dander are considered to be a notable risk factor for sensitization and allergic symptoms in occupationally exposed cattle farmers due to various IgE binding proteins. Farmers are suspected not only to be exposed during their work inside the stables but also inside their homes as allergens could be transferred via hair and clothes resulting in continued bovine allergen exposure in private areas. In recent years a new sensitive sandwich ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay) test has been developed to measure the cow hair allergen (CHA) concentration in dust. The aim of the present study was to determine the CHA concentration in airborne and settled dust samples in stables and private rooms of dairy cattle farms with automatic milking systems (AM) and conventional milking systems (CM), also with respect to questionnaire data on farming characteristics. For this purpose different sampling techniques were applied, and results and practicability of the techniques were compared. Dust sampling was performed in the stable, computer room (only AM), changing room, living room and bedroom (mattress) of 12 dairy farms with automatic milking systems (AM group) and eight dairy farms with conventional milking systems (CM group). Altogether, 90 samples were taken by ALK filter dust collectors from all locations, while 32 samples were collected by an ion charging device (ICD) and 24 samples by an electronic dust fall collector (EDC) in computer rooms (AM) and/or changing and living rooms (not stables). The dust samples were extracted and analyzed for CHA content with a sandwich ELISA. At all investigated locations, CHA concentrations were above the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 ng/ml dust extract. The median CHA concentrations in dust collected by ALK filters ranged from 63 to 7154 μg/g dust in AM farms and from 121 to 5627 μg/g dust in CM farms with a steep concentration gradient from stables to bedrooms. ICD sampling revealed median CHA contents of 112 μg/g airborne dust in the computer rooms of the AM farms and median CHA loads of 5.6 μg/g (AM farms) and 19.8 μg/g (CM farms) in the living rooms. Passive dust sampling by EDC was performed only at two locations in the AM group resulting in median CHA values of 116 μg/m(2) (computer room) and 55.0 μg/m(2) (changing room). Except for the stable samples the median CHA load was lower in AM farms compared to CM farms. The CHA contents of ALK filter samples were significantly correlated in most locations. Differences between the farming types were not significant. Although allergen transfer to the private area of the farmers has been found and results from several locations were correlated, differences in CHA concentrations were not significant with respect to questionnaire data such as the wearing of stable clothes in living room, free access of pets to stable and home, frequency of hair washing. All sampling techniques seem to being practicable for simple and effective CHA measurement. PMID:26424445

  8. Invited review: An evaluation of the likely effects of individualized feeding of concentrate supplements to pasture-based dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hills, J L; Wales, W J; Dunshea, F R; Garcia, S C; Roche, J R

    2015-03-01

    In pasture-based dairy systems, supplementary feeds are used to increase dry matter intake and milk production. Historically, supplementation involved the provision of the same amount of feed (usually a grain-based concentrate feed) to each cow in the herd during milking (i.e., flat-rate feeding). The increasing availability of computerized feeding and milk monitoring technology in milking parlors, however, has led to increased interest in the potential benefits of feeding individual cows (i.e., individualized or differential feeding) different amounts and types of supplements according to one or more parameters (e.g., breeding value for milk yield, current milk yield, days in milk, body condition score, reproduction status, parity). In this review, we consider the likely benefits of individualized supplementary feeding strategies for pasture-based dairy cows fed supplements in the bail during milking. A unique feature of our review compared with earlier publications is the focus on individualized feeding strategies under practical grazing management. Previous reviews focused primarily on research undertaken in situations where cows were offered ad libitum forage, whereas we consider the likely benefits of individualized supplementary feeding strategies under rotational grazing management, wherein pasture is often restricted to all or part of a herd. The review provides compelling evidence that between-cow differences in response to concentrate supplements support the concept of individualized supplementary feeding. PMID:25582585

  9. Technical note: test of a low-cost and animal-friendly system for measuring methane emissions from dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hellwing, A L F; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R; Brask, M; Hvelplund, T

    2012-10-01

    Methane is a greenhouse gas with a significant anthropogenic contribution from cattle production. A demand exists for techniques that facilitate evaluation of mitigation strategies for dairy cows. Therefore, a low-cost system facilitating the highest possible animal welfare was constructed and validated. The system uses the same principles as systems for open-circuit indirect calorimetry, but to lower the costs, the chamber construction and air-conditioning system were simpler than described for other open-circuit systems. To secure the highest possible animal welfare, the system is located in the cow's daily environment. The system consists of 4 transparent polycarbonate chambers placed in a square so that the cows are facing each other. The chamber dimensions are 183 (width), 382 (length), and 245 cm (height) with a volume of 17 m(3). Flow and concentrations of O(2), CO(2), CH(4), and H(2) are measured continuously in the outlet. Flow is measured with a mass flow meter, O(2) with a paramagnetic sensor, CO(2) and CH(4) with infrared sensors, and H(2) with an electrochemical sensor. Chamber inlet is placed in the barn and background concentrations may differ between chambers, but delta values between background and outlet concentrations for all chambers were within instrument tolerance. Average recovery rates of CO(2) and CH(4) were (mean SD) 101 4 and 99 7%, respectively. This is within the expected tolerance of the whole system (gas sensors and flow meters). Feed dry matter intakes were not affected by confining the animals in chambers, as dry matter intake before and during chamber stay were similar. It was concluded that the system delivers reliable values, and the transparent construction in combination with the location in the barn environment prevent negative impact on animal welfare and, thereby, data quality. PMID:22901487

  10. Parasite control practices on pasture-based dairy farms in the Republic of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Bloemhoff, Yris; Danaher, Martin; Andrew Forbes; Morgan, Eric; Mulcahy, Grace; Power, Clare; Sayers, Ríona

    2014-08-29

    Dictyocaulus viviparus, Ostertagia ostertagi (nematode parasites), and Fasciola hepatica (trematode parasite) result in productivity losses on dairy farms and impact on animal health through clinical and sub-clinical disease. Parasite control in livestock systems is largely based on the use of chemoprophylactic agents (anthelmintics), grazing management, or a combination of both. The objective of this study was to document current parasite control measures employed by Irish dairy farmers in a predominantly pasture-based livestock system. A questionnaire survey of 312 geographically representative farmers was completed in 2009 with a follow up survey completed in 2011. Statistical analysis highlighted significant differences in chemoprophylactic usage between 2009 and 2011. In particular, an increase in the use of albendazole for both trematode (19% in 2009 to 36% in 2011) and nematode (30% in 2009 to 58% in 2011) control was observed. This was most likely due to flukicide restrictions introduced in the Republic of Ireland in 2010 for dairy animals. Logistic regression highlighted regional differences in chemoprophylactic use. Farmers in southern parts of Ireland, an area with good quality soil, less rainfall, and a higher density of dairy farms than other regions, were approximately half as likely to dose for F. hepatica and were more likely (OR>2.0) to use albendazole for both nematode and fluke control. Approximately 30% of respondents who used a chemoprophylactic treatment for nematodes, used a product which was 'unsuitable for purpose' (e.g. ivermectin for the treatment of F. hepatica), highlighting the need for increased awareness, continuing research, and regionally targeted education tools regarding optimal parasite control. PMID:24924698

  11. 25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167.8 Indians BUREAU OF... rights. (a) The Superintendent shall determine grazing rights of bona fide live-stock owners based on recommendations of District Grazing Committees. Grazing rights shall be recognized for those permittees...

  12. 25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167.8 Indians BUREAU OF... rights. (a) The Superintendent shall determine grazing rights of bona fide live-stock owners based on recommendations of District Grazing Committees. Grazing rights shall be recognized for those permittees...

  13. 25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167.8 Indians BUREAU OF... rights. (a) The Superintendent shall determine grazing rights of bona fide live-stock owners based on recommendations of District Grazing Committees. Grazing rights shall be recognized for those permittees...

  14. 25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167.8 Indians BUREAU OF... rights. (a) The Superintendent shall determine grazing rights of bona fide live-stock owners based on recommendations of District Grazing Committees. Grazing rights shall be recognized for those permittees...

  15. 25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167.8 Indians BUREAU OF... rights. (a) The Superintendent shall determine grazing rights of bona fide live-stock owners based on recommendations of District Grazing Committees. Grazing rights shall be recognized for those permittees...

  16. Thermoregulatory responses of Holstein and Brown Swiss Heat-Stressed dairy cows to two different cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Calderon, Abelardo; Armstrong, Dennis; Ray, Donald; DeNise, Sue; Enns, Mark; Howison, Christine

    . Thirty-seven Holstein and 26 Brown Swiss dairy cows were used to evaluate the effect of two different cooling systems on physiological and hormonal responses during the summer. A control group of cows had access only to shade (C). A second group was cooled with spray and fans (S/F) and the third group was under an evaporative cooling system called Korral Kool (KK). The maximum temperature humidity index during the trial was from 73 to 85. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of the C group were higher (P < 0.05) than those of the S/F and KK groups in both Holstein and Brown Swiss cows. Triiodothyronine levels in milk were higher (P < 0.05) in the KK group than in the S/F and C groups, while cortisol levels were lower (P < 0.05) in the C group than in S/F and KK. There was no significant difference in the hormonal response of the two breeds. These results demonstrate that both cooling systems may be used increase the comfort of Holstein and Brown Swiss cows during summer in hot, dry climates.

  17. Characterization and typification of small ruminant farms providing fuelbreak grazing services for wildfire prevention in Andalusia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Mena, Y; Ruiz-Mirazo, J; Ruiz, F A; Castel, J M

    2016-02-15

    Several wildfire prevention programs in Spain are using grazing livestock to maintain fuelbreaks with low levels of biomass. Even though shepherds are remunerated for these services, many of their farms are hardly viable in the current socio-economic context. By analyzing 54 small ruminant farms participating in the Grazed Fuelbreak Network in Andalusia (southern Spain), this research aimed to identify the main types and characteristics of such farms and, considering the challenges they are facing, propose strategies to improve both their economic viability and their effectiveness in fuelbreak grazing. Based on data collected through a survey on key farm management aspects, a multivariate analysis was performed and four main types of farm were identified: two clusters of dairy goat farms and two composed mostly of meat-purpose sheep farms. Farms in all clusters could benefit from improvements in the feeding and reproductive management of livestock, either to enhance their productivity or to make better use of the pasture resources available. Dairy goat farms remain more dependent on external animal feed to ensure a better lactation, therefore they should either diminish their workforce costs per animal or sell transformed products directly to consumers to improve their economic viability. Best fuelbreak grazing results were related to larger flocks combining sheep and goats, lower ratios of fuelbreak surface area per animal, and longer (year-long) grazing periods on fuelbreaks. Therefore, such farm features and adjusted fuelbreak assignments should be favored in wildfire prevention programs using grazing services. PMID:26657367

  18. The relationship among current management systems, production, disease and drug usage on Ontario dairy farms.

    PubMed Central

    Meek, A H; Martin, S W; Stone, J B; McMillan, I; Britney, J B; Grieve, D G

    1986-01-01

    The study involved 110 randomly selected dairy farms located in the Ontario, Canada counties of Bruce, Grey, Huron, Oxford, Perth, Waterloo and Wellington. Herds were classified as "intensive" and "extensive". On extensive farms, data were collected at the herd level only, while on intensive farms, data were recorded at both the individual animal and herd level. Data collection continued for approximately two and one-half years. At each visit, technicians collected production data from the most recent production recording scheme report and from the "daily log" maintained by each producer. As well as the ongoing data collection procedures, a number of supplementary data collections were made. The average 305 day milk production increased gradually during the three calendar years from 6224.6 kg in 1981 to 6443.7 kg in 1983. The average calving interval was stable at 13.2 months for all three years. The majority of cows removed from the herds were culled for beef (0.243 per animal year). The next highest removal rate was for domestic sale, followed by death, export sale and destroyed. The highest disease rate, for those conditions whose rates were based on calving, was for retained placenta (0.09 per calving), while clinical mastitis was highest for those conditions whose rates were based on animal years (0.37 per animal year). The overall crude antimicrobial dosage rate, that is, including any antimicrobial used for either prophylactic or therapeutic purposes, was 3.85 doses per animal year. The rate for therapeutic purposes only was 3.6 doses per animal year. Penicillin/streptomycin was used most often with a rate of 1.45 doses per animal year. PMID:3742360

  19. Nutritional and ecological evaluation of dairy farming systems based on concentrate feeding regimes in semi-arid environments of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alqaisi, Othman; Hemme, Torsten; Hagemann, Martin; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and ecological aspects of feeding systems practiced under semi-arid environments in Jordan. Nine dairy farms representing the different dairy farming systems were selected for this study. Feed samples (n=58), fecal samples (n=108), and milk samples (n=78) were collected from the farms and analysed for chemical composition. Feed samples were also analysed for metabolisable energy (ME) contents and in vitro organic matter digestibility according to Hohenheim-Feed-Test. Furthermore, fecal nitrogen concentration was determined to estimate in vivo organic matter digestibility. ME and nutrient intakes were calculated based on the farmer's estimate of dry matter intake and the analysed composition of the feed ingredients. ME and nutrient intakes were compared to recommended standard values for adequate supply of ME, utilizable crude protein, rumen undegradable crude protein (RUCP), phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca). Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculation model complemented with a partial life cycle assessment model was used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions of milk production at farm gate. The model predicts CH4, N2O and CO2 gases emitted either directly or indirectly. Average daily energy corrected milk yield (ECM) was 19kg and ranged between 11 and 27kg. The mean of ME intake of all farms was 184MJ/d with a range between 115 and 225MJ/d. Intake of RUCP was lower than the standard requirements in six farms ranging between 19 and 137g/d, was higher (32 and 93g/d) in two farms, and matched the requirements in one farm. P intake was higher than the requirements in all farms (mean oversupply=19g/d) and ranged between 3 and 30g/d. Ca intake was significantly below the requirements in small scale farms. Milk nitrogen efficiency N-eff (milk N/intake N) varied between 19% and 28% and was mainly driven by the level of milk yield. Total CO2 equivalent (CO2 equ) emission ranged between 0.90 and 1.88kg CO2/kg ECM milk, where the enteric and manure CH4 contributed to 52% of the total CO2 equ emissions, followed by the indirect emissions of N2O and the direct emissions of CO2 gases which comprises 17% and 15%, respectively, from total CO2 equ emissions. Emissions per kg of milk were significantly driven by the level of milk production (r (2)=0.93) and of eDMI (r (2)=0.88), while the total emissions were not influenced by diet composition. A difference of 16kg ECM/d in milk yield, 9% in N-eff and of 0.9kg CO2 equ/kg in ECM milk observed between low and high yielding animals. To improve the nutritional status of the animals, protein requirements have to be met. Furthermore, low price by-products with a low carbon credit should be included in the diets to replace the high proportion of imported concentrate feeds and consequently improve the economic situation of dairy farms and mitigate CO2 equ emissions. PMID:24596499

  20. Nutritional and ecological evaluation of dairy farming systems based on concentrate feeding regimes in semi-arid environments of Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Alqaisi, Othman; Hemme, Torsten; Hagemann, Martin; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and ecological aspects of feeding systems practiced under semi-arid environments in Jordan. Nine dairy farms representing the different dairy farming systems were selected for this study. Feed samples (n = 58), fecal samples (n = 108), and milk samples (n = 78) were collected from the farms and analysed for chemical composition. Feed samples were also analysed for metabolisable energy (ME) contents and in vitro organic matter digestibility according to Hohenheim-Feed-Test. Furthermore, fecal nitrogen concentration was determined to estimate in vivo organic matter digestibility. ME and nutrient intakes were calculated based on the farmer’s estimate of dry matter intake and the analysed composition of the feed ingredients. ME and nutrient intakes were compared to recommended standard values for adequate supply of ME, utilizable crude protein, rumen undegradable crude protein (RUCP), phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca). Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculation model complemented with a partial life cycle assessment model was used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions of milk production at farm gate. The model predicts CH4, N2O and CO2 gases emitted either directly or indirectly. Average daily energy corrected milk yield (ECM) was 19 kg and ranged between 11 and 27 kg. The mean of ME intake of all farms was 184 MJ/d with a range between 115 and 225 MJ/d. Intake of RUCP was lower than the standard requirements in six farms ranging between 19 and 137 g/d, was higher (32 and 93 g/d) in two farms, and matched the requirements in one farm. P intake was higher than the requirements in all farms (mean oversupply = 19 g/d) and ranged between 3 and 30 g/d. Ca intake was significantly below the requirements in small scale farms. Milk nitrogen efficiency N-eff (milk N/intake N) varied between 19% and 28% and was mainly driven by the level of milk yield. Total CO2 equivalent (CO2 equ) emission ranged between 0.90 and 1.88 kg CO2/kg ECM milk, where the enteric and manure CH4 contributed to 52% of the total CO2 equ emissions, followed by the indirect emissions of N2O and the direct emissions of CO2 gases which comprises 17% and 15%, respectively, from total CO2 equ emissions. Emissions per kg of milk were significantly driven by the level of milk production (r2 = 0.93) and of eDMI (r2 = 0.88), while the total emissions were not influenced by diet composition. A difference of 16 kg ECM/d in milk yield, 9% in N-eff and of 0.9 kg CO2 equ/kg in ECM milk observed between low and high yielding animals. To improve the nutritional status of the animals, protein requirements have to be met. Furthermore, low price by-products with a low carbon credit should be included in the diets to replace the high proportion of imported concentrate feeds and consequently improve the economic situation of dairy farms and mitigate CO2 equ emissions. PMID:24596499

  1. Development of a laboratory scale clean-in-place system to test the effectiveness of "natural" antimicrobials against dairy biofilms.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Muriel; Simmonds, Robin S; Bremer, Phil J

    2004-07-01

    A laboratory scale system, partially reproducing dairy plant conditions, was developed to quantify the effectiveness of chlorine and alternative sanitizers in reducing the number of viable bacteria attached to stainless steel surfaces. Stainless steel tubes fouled in a continuous flow reactor were exposed to a standard clean-in-place regime (water rinse, 1% sodium hydroxide at 70 degrees C for 10 min, water rinse, 0.8% nitric acid at 70 degrees C for 10 min, water rinse) followed by exposure to either chlorine (200 ppm) or combinations of nisin (500 ppm), lauricidin (100 ppm), and the lactoperoxidase system (LPS) (200 ppm) for 10 min or 2, 4, 8, 18, or 24 h. There was significant variation in the effectiveness of the alkaline-acid wash steps in reducing cell numbers (log reduction between 0 and 2). Following a 10-min treatment, none of the sanitizers significantly reduced the number of attached cells. Two hours of exposure to chlorine, nisin + the LPS, or lauricidin + the LPS achieved 2.8, 2.2, and 1.6 log reductions, respectively. Exposure times > 2 h did not further decrease the number of viable bacteria attached to the stainless steel. The effectiveness of combinations of nisin, lauricidin, and the LPS was similar to that of chlorine (P > 0.05), and these sanitizers could be used to decontaminate the surfaces of small-volume or critical hard-to-clean milk processing equipment. PMID:15270498

  2. Environmental and Economic Impacts of Localizing Food Systems: The Case of Dairy Supply Chains in the Northeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Charles F; He, Xi; Gmez, Miguel I; Gao, H O; Hill, Elaine

    2015-10-20

    We developed and evaluated an empirical model of the U.S. dairy supply chain with a high degree of spatial and product disaggregation to assess the impacts of increasing localization of the northeast region's fluid milk supply on food miles, supply chain costs, greenhouse gas and criteria pollutant emissions, economic activity, and employment. Evaluation included comparison to regional production values and sensitivity analysis of demand and unit cost assumptions. Our analysis compares a baseline to two localization scenarios based on state boundaries and multiple-state subregions. Localization scenarios increased total distances fluid milk traveled by 7-15%, overall supply chain costs by 1-2%, and emissions of greenhouse gases (CO2 equivalent) criteria pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter smaller than 2.5 ?m associated with fluid milk transportation by 7-15% per month. The impacts of localization on employment and economic activity are positive, but changes are small on a percentage basis. Our analyses indicate that the definition used for localization has an impact on outcomes and that efforts to localize food systems may benefit from a more systems-oriented approach. PMID:26401757

  3. Oxidative stability of an extended shelf-life dairy-based beverage system designed to contribute to heart health.

    PubMed

    Moore, R L; Duncan, S E; Rasor, A S; Eigel, W N; O'Keefe, S F

    2012-11-01

    Skim milk, butter-derived aqueous phase, butter oil, and fish oil (3 levels) were used to produce UHT pasteurized n-3 fatty acid-fortified beverages (3.1% fat, 3.9% protein, and 11.5% total solids) with targeted deliveries of 200, 500, and 800 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (combined total) per 250 mL (8 fl oz) serving. Microbial quality, emulsion stability, and oxidation of lipids over 35 d of storage at 4 C were evaluated. Conjugated diene hydroperoxides were below 1% throughout storage and were found at highest concentrations around d 21 of storage for all formulations. Volatile analysis indicated an increase in 1-penten-3-ol in the n-3 fortified dairy-based beverage systems during storage. Triangle tests were conducted to determine if consumers could detect a difference in aroma, compared with commercially processed aseptically packaged milk. The beverage system with targeted delivery of 500 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid per 250-mL serving was not different in aroma compared with commercially available UHT processed milk. This formulation delivered 432 mg of heart-healthy n-3 fatty acids per 250-mL serving on d 35 and was microbiologically and physically stable throughout the 35-d refrigerated storage period. PMID:22981572

  4. The effect of high and low levels of supplementation on milk production, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and milk protein fractions in late-lactation dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Reid, M; O'Donovan, M; Murphy, J P; Fleming, C; Kennedy, E; Lewis, E

    2015-08-01

    To fill the feed deficit in the autumn/late lactation period in a seasonal grazing system, supplementation is required. This study aimed to investigate the use of baled grass silage or concentrate as supplementation to grazing dairy cows in late lactation. Eighty-four grass-based spring-calving dairy cows, averaging 212d in milk, were allocated to 1 of 6 treatments [high grass allowance (HG), low grass allowance (LG), grass with a low concentrate allocation (GCL), grass with a low grass silage allocation (GSL), grass with a high concentrate allocation (GCH), and grass with a high grass silage allocation (GSH)] to measure the effects of using baled grass silage or concentrate as supplements to grazed grass. Effects on intake, milk yield, milk composition and N fractions, and N utilization efficiency were measured. Treatments HG and LG received 17 and 14kg of dry matter (DM) grass/cow per d, respectively. Treatments GCL and GSL were offered 14kg of DM grass/cow per d and 3kg of DM of supplementation/cow per d. Treatments GCH and GSH were offered 11kg of DM grass/cow per d and 6kg of DM of supplementation/cow per d. Milk yield was greatest in the GCH treatment and milk solids yield was greatest in both concentrate-supplemented treatments. The HG and LG treatments excreted a greater quantity of N as a proportion of N intake than the supplemented treatments. The HG treatment also excreted the greatest total quantity of N. This indicates an improvement in N utilization efficiency when supplementation is offered compared with grazing only. Offering 6kg of DM of either grass silage or concentrate as supplementation decreased milk true protein concentration compared with offering a grass-only diet. This suggests that increasing the proportion of supplementation relative to grass may negatively affect milk processability, which is associated with milk true protein concentration. PMID:26051314

  5. Effect of Grazing on Plant Attributes and Hydrological Properties in the Sloping Lands of the East African Highlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddese, Girma; Saleem, M. A. Mohamed; Astatke, Abyie; Ayaleneh, Wagnew

    2002-09-01

    Extending livestock grazing to the steep slopes has led to unstable grazing systems in the East African Highlands, and new solutions and approaches are needed to ameliorate the current situation. This work was aimed at studying the effect of livestock grazing on plant attributes and hydrological properties. The study was conducted from 1996 to 2000 at the International Livestock Research Institute at Debre Ziet Research Station. Two sites were selected: one at 0-4% slope, and the other at 4-8% slope. The treatments were: (1) no grazing (control); (2) light grazing, 0.6 animal unit months per hectare (aum/ha); (3) moderate grazing, 1.8 aum/ha; (4) heavy grazing, 3.0 aum/ha; (5) very heavy grazing, 4.2 aum/ha; (6) initially plowed and continuously very heavily grazed, 4.2 aum/ha. The result showed that species richness, infiltration rate, bare ground, and soil loss significantly varied with grazing pressure. Species richness was higher in grazed plots compared to nongrazed plots. Biomass yield improved on heavily grazed plots as cow dung accumulated over years. Cynodon dactylon plant species persisted with livestock grazing pressure in both sites. Infiltration rate improved and soil erosion declined in all treatments after the first year.

  6. Ammonia volatilization following dairy slurry application to a permanent grassland on a volcanic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martnez-Lagos, J.; Salazar, F.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture is the largest source of ammonia (NH3) emission to the atmosphere. Within the agricultural sector, the application of slurry to grasslands as fertilizer is one of the main emission sources. This is a common practice in southern Chile, where most dairy production systems are grazing-based. In Chile, there are few published data of gaseous emissions following slurry application to grassland. The aim of this study was to evaluate NH3 volatilization following dairy slurry application to a permanent grassland on an Andosol soil. Ammonia volatilization was measured in four field experiments (winters of 2009 and 2011 and early and late springs of 2011) using a micrometeorological mass balance method with passive flux samplers following dairy slurry application at a target rate of 100 kg total N ha-1. The accumulated N loss was equivalent to 7, 8, 16 and 21% of the total N applied and 22, 34, 88 and 74% of total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) applied for winters 2009 and 2011, and early and late spring 2011, respectively. Ammonia emission rates were high immediately after application and declined rapidly with time, with more than 50% of the total emissions within the first 24 h. Losses were highly influenced by environmental conditions, increasing with temperature and lack of rainfall. Taking into consideration the low N losses via leaching and nitrous oxide emissions reported for the study area, results indicate that NH3 volatilization is the main pathway of N loss in fertilized grasslands of southern Chile. However, dairy slurry application could be an important source of nutrients, if applied at a suitable time, rate and using an appropriate technique, and if soil and climate conditions are taken into consideration. This could improve N use efficiency and reduce N losses to the wider environment.

  7. [Influence of floor surface and access to pasture on claw characteristics in dairy cows kept in cubicle housing systems].

    PubMed

    Haufe, H C; Friedli, K; Gygax, L; Wechsler, B

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the floor type used in the walking area of cubicle housing systems and of access to pasture on claw dimensions and claw shape in dairy cows. Data were collected on 36 farms, 12 farms each fitted with mastic asphalt, slatted concrete or solid rubber flooring. With each floor type, cows on half of the farms had access to pasture in summer. The farms were visited three times at intervals of about 6 months and data were collected from 10 cows during each visit. Net growth of the claw horn was highest on rubber flooring and lowest on mastic asphalt. On all floor types, claw angles were larger after the winter period and smaller after the summer period. With regard to claw shape, floor type had an effect on the occurrence of flat, concave and overgrown claw soles. In conclusion, none of the investigated floor types was clearly superior to the others with regard to claw dimensions and claw shape, and access to pasture during summer (median 4 h per day) had only little influence on the investigated claw characteristics. PMID:24686817

  8. Meat Production in a Feedlot System of ZebuHolstein Steers and Heifers with Dairy Genetics: Productive and Biological Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Gustavo Chamon de Castro; Valadares Filho, Sebastio de Campos; Ruas, Jos Reinaldo Mendes; Detmann, Edenio; Menezes, Arismar de Castro; Zanett, Diego; Mariz, Lays Dbora Silva; Renn, Luciana Navajas; da Silva Junior, Jarbas Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive and biological efficiency of steers and heifers from dairy genetics in a feedlot system in terms of meat production. Twenty-four steers and 24 heifers at 10 monthes of age, (3/4) Zebu (1/4) Holstein were utilized. They were distributed over four feedlot times, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days with four replications for each sex, and were slaughtered at the end of each period. The productive and biological analyses were performed through comparative slaughter to determine the body composition. Heifers presented with greater intakes (P < 0.05) of dry matter in grams per kg of body weight. Steers presented with a greater (P < 0.05) final empty body weight, carcass gain, cold carcass weight, and meat proportion in the carcass; however, heifers presented with a greater subcutaneous fat thickness (P < 0.05) and, consequently, a greater (P < 0.05) fat proportion in the carcass. We conclude that steers are more efficient in their productive performance than heifers in a feedlot. For the finishing carcass fat cover, heifers need 90 days in the feedlot. The net energy requirements for maintenance are 67?kcal/EBW0.75/d, and the net requirements of energy (NEg) and protein (NPg) for gain can be estimated by the following equations: NEg(Mcal/d) = 0.067 EBW0.75 EBG1.095 and NPg = 162 EBG ? 5.62 RE for the two sexes. PMID:25574483

  9. The influence of genetic selection and feed system on the reproductive performance of spring-calving dairy cows within future pasture-based production systems.

    PubMed

    Coleman, J; Pierce, K M; Berry, D P; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2009-10-01

    Three genetic groups of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were established from within the Moorepark (Teagasc, Ireland) dairy research herd: LowNA, indicative of the Irish national average-genetic-merit North American Holstein-Friesian; HighNA, high-genetic-merit North American Holstein-Friesian; HighNZ, high-genetic-merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Genetic merit in this study was based on the Irish total merit index, the Economic Breeding Index. Animals from within each genetic group were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible post-European Union-milk-quota pasture-based feeding systems (FS): 1) The Moorepark (MP) pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare (HC) pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 126, 128, and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2006, 2007, and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genetic group, FS, and the interaction between genetic group and FS on reproductive performance, body weight, body condition score, and blood metabolite concentrations were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genetic groups and FS. Odds ratios were used in the analysis of binary fertility traits, and survival analysis was used in the analysis of survival after first calving. When treatment means were compared, the HighNA and HighNZ genotypes (with greater genetic merit for fertility performance) had greater first-service pregnancy rates and had a greater proportion of cows pregnant after 42 d of the breeding season than the LowNA group. Both HighNA and HighNZ genotypes were submitted for artificial insemination earlier in the breeding season and had greater survival than the LowNA genotype. There was no significant FS or genotype by FS interactions for any of the reproductive, blood metabolite, body weight, or body condition score measures. The results demonstrate that increased genetic merit for fertility traits resulted in improved reproductive performance and that the poor reproductive capacity of inferior-genetic-merit animals for fertility was not improved through concentrate supplementation at pasture. PMID:19762844

  10. Comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions between Two Dairy Farm Systems (Conventional vs. Organic Management) in New Hampshire Using the Manure DNDC Biogeochemical Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorich, C.; Contosta, A.; Li, C.; Brito, A.; Varner, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture contributes 20 to 25 % of the total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. These agricultural emissions are primarily in the form of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) with these GHG accounting for roughly 40 and 80 % of the total anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and N2O, respectively. Due to varied management and the complexities of agricultural ecosystems, it is difficult to estimate these CH4 and N2O emissions. The IPCC emission factors can be used to yield rough estimates of CH4 and N2O emissions but they are often based on limited data. Accurate modeling validated by measurements is needed in order to identify potential mitigation areas, reduce GHG emissions from agriculture, and improve sustainability of farming practices. The biogeochemical model Manure DNDC was validated using measurements from two dairy farms in New Hampshire, USA in order to quantify GHG emissions under different management systems. One organic and one conventional dairy farm operated by the University of New Hampshire's Agriculture Experiment Station were utilized as the study sites for validation of Manure DNDC. Compilation of management records started in 2011 to provide model inputs. Model results were then compared to field collected samples of soil carbon and nitrogen, above-ground biomass, and GHG fluxes. Fluxes were measured in crop, animal, housing, and waste management sites on the farms in order to examine the entire farm ecosystem and test the validity of the model. Fluxes were measured by static flux chambers, with enteric fermentation measurements being conducted by the SF6 tracer test as well as a new method called Greenfeeder. Our preliminary GHG flux analysis suggests higher emissions than predicted by IPCC emission factors and equations. Results suggest that emissions from manure management is a key concern at the conventional dairy farm while bedded housing at the organic dairy produced large quantities of GHG.

  11. Effects of Application of Dairy Slurry on Voluntary Intake of Orchardgrass Hays by Growing Dairy Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many dairy production systems have a critical need for available sites to land apply dairy slurry after spring planting and during the summer months. One potential option is to apply these nutrients on perennial grass sods; however, this approach is viable only if voluntary intake by livestock is no...

  12. Dental pathology in conventionally fed and pasture managed dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M

    2016-01-01

    Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO. PMID:26700105

  13. The impact of grazing management on Orthoptera abundance varies over the season in Mediterranean steppe-like grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonderflick, Jocelyn; Besnard, Aurélien; Beuret, Aurore; Dalmais, Mathieux; Schatz, Bertrand

    2014-10-01

    As semi-natural grassland has a high level of biological diversity, understanding the effects of grazing and its variation over time is important in order to identify sustainable grazing practices. We measured temporal variation in Orthoptera abundance and spatial vegetation structure during seasonal grazing in an extensive sheep-farming system. We studied five grazed pasture areas (pre-grazing and post-grazing) and two adjacent ungrazed grasslands. We recorded the total abundance of Orthoptera and described the vegetation structure of 175 replicate plots (25 per pasture/grassland) during six field sampling sessions. We demonstrated that the impact of grazing on Orthoptera abundance is species-specific and greatly varies over the grazing season. The decrease of phytovolume is significant after 4-7 weeks of sheep grazing. Total Orthoptera abundance was higher in pre-grazed plots than in ungrazed plots, and higher in ungrazed plots than in post-grazed plots. These differences were particularly high during the peak of adult abundance. No difference in species richness was observed between grazing intensities. Total Orthoptera abundance positively correlated to phytovolume only when grazing pressure was high. However, the relationship between abundance and phytovolume differed between species. Extensive grazing by sheep tends to homogenize spatial vegetation structure and to temporarily reduce total Orthoptera abundance at pasture scale. However, rotational grazing allows spatial and temporal heterogeneity in vegetation structure to be maintained at farm scale, heterogeneity that is beneficial for Orthoptera. In contrast, absence of grazing has a negative impact on Orthoptera abundance as it favours the accumulation of litter, which is detrimental for a high proportion of xerothermophilic Orthoptera associated with bare ground and short vegetation.

  14. Soil water response to slope aspect and grazing in silvopasture during drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silvopasture is receiving increasing attention as a robust management system for production of forage for livestock grazing on the diverse landscapes of the Appalachian region. Little knowledge about soil water response to slope aspect and grazing pressure in silvopasture systems of the Region is a...

  15. Grazing Management Effects on Potential Sediment and Phosphorus Loss from Streambanks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal grazing on lands near streams has the potential to contribute sediment and nutrients to surface waters. To minimize the impact of these systems, we must understand the interactions of grazing systems on streambank erosion. In this study, we used six 12-ha grass pastures that were bisected by ...

  16. Sensitivity and specificity of on-farm scoring systems and nasal culture to detect bovine respiratory disease complex in preweaned dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Love, William J; Lehenbauer, Terry W; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Drake, Christiana M; Kass, Philip H; Farver, Thomas B; Aly, Sharif S

    2016-03-01

    The California (CA) and Wisconsin (WI) clinical scoring systems have been proposed for bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) detection in preweaned dairy calves. The screening sensitivity (SSe), for estimating BRDC prevalence in a cohort of calves, diagnostic sensitivity (DSe), for confirming BRDC in ill calves, and specificity (Sp) were estimated for each of the scoring systems, as well as for nasal swab cultures for aerobic bacteria and mycoplasma species. Thoracic ultrasound and auscultation were used as the reference standard tests interpreted in parallel. A total of 536 calves (221 with BRDC and 315 healthy) were sampled from 5 premises in California. The SSe of 46.8%, DSe of 72.6%, and Sp of 87.4% was determined for the CA system. The SSe of 46.0%, DSe of 71.1%, and Sp of 91.2% was determined for the WI system. For aerobic culture, the SSe was 43.4%, DSe was 52.6%, and Sp was 71.3%; for Mycoplasma spp. culture, the SSe was 57.5%, DSe was 68.9%, and Sp was 59.7%. The screening and diagnostic sensitivities of the scoring systems were not significantly different but the Sp of the WI system was greater by 3.8%. Scoring systems can serve as rapid on-farm tools to determine the burden of BRDC in preweaned dairy calves. However, users may expect the SSe to be less than the DSe when confirming BRDC in an ill calf. PMID:26796957

  17. Effect of dairy production system, breed and co-product handling methods on environmental impacts at farm level.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T T H; Doreau, M; Corson, M S; Eugne, M; Delaby, L; Chesneau, G; Gallard, Y; van der Werf, H M G

    2013-05-15

    Six dairy farms with the same on-farm area and milk production were compared. One farm (G-No) used grass as the sole forage for a herd of Normande cows, a dual-purpose breed. Three farms, with Holstein cows, varied forage for the herd from grass only (G-Ho) to low (G/LM-Ho) or high (G/HM-Ho) proportion of maize silage in the total forage area. Finally, two farms based on G/LM-Ho and G/HM-Ho systems aimed to increase omega-3 fatty acids in the winter diets of cows (G/LM/O3-Ho, G/HM/O3-Ho). Allocation methods (biophysical, protein, economic allocation) and system expansion applied for co-product (milk and meat) handling were examined. The impact categories considered were climate change, climate change including the effects of land use and land use change (CC/LULUC), cumulative energy demand, eutrophication, acidification and land occupation. The impacts per kg of fat-and-protein-corrected milk (FPCM) of G-No were highest, followed by those of G-Ho, G/LM-Ho and G/HM-Ho, regardless co-product handling methods and impact categories (except for eutrophication). CC/LULUC per kg FPCM of G/LM/O3-Ho and G/HM/O3-Ho were both 1% and 3% lower than those of G/LM-Ho and G/HM-Ho, respectively, but other impacts were higher. With system expansion, impacts per kg FPCM were lower than when allocation methods were used. Enteric fermentation was the greatest contributor (45-50%) to CC/LULUC, while grass production was the most important contributor to other impacts. The highest CC/LULUC (for G-No) can be explained by (1) G-No having the lowest milk yield/cow (though it produced the most meat) and (2) the fact that grass required more N fertiliser, but had lower yields than silage maize, even though grassland sequestered C. Among Holstein systems, increasing cow productivity by increasing feed intake (including maize silage and supplementing with concentrate) decreased impacts of milk. Reducing replacement rate and age of first calving also decreased impacts of milk. Increasing cow productivity reduced the amount of on-farm area required to produce a given amount of milk. Thus, the "liberated" on-farm area of Holstein systems was used to produce cash crops, and total impacts of these systems were lower than those of G-No (except for eutrophication and land occupation). PMID:23507252

  18. Indicators of grazing impact in Inner Mongolian steppe ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, B.; Breuer, L.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Frede, H.-G.

    2009-04-01

    The DFG research group 536 MAGIM (Matter fluxes in grasslands of Inner Mongolia as influenced by stocking rate) investigates the influence of grazing intensity on matter and water cycles in grazed steppe ecosystems of Inner Mongolia. This Sino-German co-operation applies an interdisciplinary approach to investigate major ecosystem functions and how they are affected by grazing and overgrazing. Within the research group an indicator system is developed to systemize the feedback of ecosystem parameters to the influence of grazing and to analyse, which parameter or parameter group reacts most sensitively. Parameters were measured at up to five different grazing intensities (from ungrazed to heavy grazed) and are related to four thematic indicator groups (plant productivity, atmosphere, pedosphere, hydrosphere). The parameters were scaled to allow assessing the influence of grazing intensity between different sets of parameters. For this the average value of a parameter at the lowest grazing intensity (ungrazed) was set 100%, so that the values at the other intensities could be scaled scaled adequately. Then the difference between highest and lowest grazing intensity was determined. According to this difference the influence of grazing was characterized as weak (< 20% difference), medium (20-40%), strong (40-60%) and very strong (> 60%). Impact of grazing on the parameters will be marked as weak (w), medium (m), strong (s) and very strong (vs) in the text. The group plant productivity includes the vegetation parameters aboveground biomass and belowground biomass. Belowground biomass (s) was significantly different between grazing treatments with the highest value at the ungrazed site (399.00 g m-2 a-1) and the lowest at the heavy grazed site (208.00 g m-2 a-1). Aboveground biomass (m) ranged between 91.33-131.67 g m-2 a-1 and differed significantly between the ungrazed and the heavy grazed site, again with higher values at the ungrazed site (Gao et al. 2008). The group atmosphere consists of micrometeorological parameters, dust flux and deposition as measure of erosive processes and trace gas fluxes. Available energy and soil temperature were always significantly different between two simultaneously measured grazing intensities. Available energy was higher at the ungrazed site in all years measured (mean difference of about 19 W m-2). Soil temperature was lower at the ungrazed site (Ketzer et al. 2008). Dust deposition is important for the C and N balance in semi-arid grasslands and was investigated during the dust storm period from March to May. The largest matter deposition of C (vs) and N (vs) was measured at the ungrazed site with 328.7 (mg Corg m-2 d-1) and 30.30 (mg Nt m-2 d-1) on average. Heavy grazing resulted in average organic carbon and nitrogen deposition of 106.67 (mg Corg m-2 d-1) and 9.8 (mg N m-2 d-1) in average (Hoffmann et al. 2008). Wind driven soil deposition and erosion were influenced heavily by grazing. The critical vegetation cover is about 20-30%, at which net soil losses occur. No significant differences in N trace gas fluxes were found between plots. Mean values of N2O fluxes (s) varied between 0.39 and 1.60 ?g N2O-N m-2 h-1 (Holst et al. 2007). During all measuring periods, significantly lower mean soil CH4 uptake at moderate grazing (28 mg C m-2 h-1) as compared to ungrazed (56 ?g C m-2 h-1) was found (Liu et al. 2007). The pedosphere indicator group includes soil chemical, soil physical and microbiological parameters. Organic carbon (s) and total N (s) concentrations decreased significantly with increasing grazing intensity. No effect of grazing on pH (w) or soil C/N ratio (w) was detected. Bulk density (m) significantly increased with increasing grazing intensity, from 0.94 g cm-3 at the ungrazed site to 1.28 g cm-3 at the heavily grazed site (Steffens et al. 2008). Also shear strength (m) increased with increasing grazing intensity (Zhao et al. 2007). Gross rates of N mineralization (vs) and nitrification (vs) determined at in situ soil moisture and soil temperature conditions were i

  19. Effect of dairy farming system, herd, season, parity, and days in milk on modeling of the coagulation, curd firming, and syneresis of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Bittante, G; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Malchiodi, F; Sturaro, E; Tagliapietra, F; Schiavon, S; Cecchinato, A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the variation in curd firmness model parameters obtained from coagulating bovine milk samples, and to investigate the effects of the dairy system, season, individual farm, and factors related to individual cows (days in milk and parity). Individual milk samples (n = 1,264) were collected during the evening milking of 85 farms representing different environments and farming systems in the northeastern Italian Alps. The dairy herds were classified into 4 farming system categories: traditional system with tied animals (29 herds), modern dairy systems with traditional feeding based on hay and compound feed (30 herds), modern dairy system with total mixed ration (TMR) that included silage as a large proportion of the diet (9 herds), and modern dairy system with silage-free TMR (17 herds). Milk samples were analyzed for milk composition and coagulation properties, and parameters were modeled using curd firmness measures (CFt) collected every 15 s from a lacto-dynamographic analysis of 90 min. When compared with traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP), the curd firming measures showed greater variability and yielded a more accurate description of the milk coagulation process: the model converged for 93.1% of the milk samples, allowing estimation of 4 CFt parameters and 2 derived traits [maximum CF (CF(max)) and time from rennet addition to CF(max) (t(max))] for each sample. The milk samples whose CFt equations did not converge showed longer rennet coagulation times obtained from the model (RCT(eq)) and higher somatic cell score, and came from less-productive cows. Among the sources of variation tested for the CFt parameters, dairy herd system yielded the greatest differences for the contrast between the traditional farm and the 3 modern farms, with the latter showing earlier coagulation and greater instant syneresis rate constant (k(SR)). The use of TMR yielded a greater tmax because of a higher instant curd-firming rate constant (k(CF)). Season of sampling was found to be very important, yielding higher values during winter for all traits except k(CF) and k(SR). All CFt traits were affected by individual cow factors. For parity, milk produced by first-lactation cows showed higher k(CF) and k(SR), but delays in achieving CF(max). With respect to stage of lactation, RCT(eq) and potential asymptotic CF increased during the middle of lactation and stabilized thereafter, whereas the 2 instant rate constants presented the opposite pattern, with the lowest (k(CF)) and highest (k(SR)) values occurring in mid lactation. The new challenge offered by prolonging the test interval and individual modeling of milk technological properties allowed us to study the effects of parameters related to the environment and to individual cows. This novel strategy may be useful for investigating the genetic variability of these new coagulation traits. PMID:25682135

  20. Environmental impacts of innovative dairy farming systems aiming at improved internal nutrient cycling: A multi-scale assessment.

    PubMed

    de Vries, W; Kros, J; Dolman, M A; Vellinga, Th V; de Boer, H C; Gerritsen, A L; Sonneveld, M P W; Bouma, J

    2015-12-01

    Several dairy farms in the Netherlands aim at reducing environmental impacts by improving the internal nutrient cycle (INC) on their farm by optimizing the use of available on-farm resources. This study evaluates the environmental performance of selected INC farms in the Northern Friesian Woodlands in comparison to regular benchmark farms using a Life Cycle Assessment. Regular farms were selected on the basis of comparability in terms of milk production per farm and per hectare, soil type and drainage conditions. In addition, the environmental impacts of INC farming at landscape level were evaluated with the integrated modelling system INITIATOR, using spatially explicit input data on animal numbers, land use, agricultural management, meteorology and soil, assuming that all farms practised the principle of INC farming. Impact categories used at both farm and landscape levels were global warming potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Additional farm level indicators were land occupation and non-renewable energy use, and furthermore all farm level indicators were also expressed per kg fat and protein corrected milk. Results showed that both on-farm and off-farm non-renewable energy use was significantly lower at INC farms as compared with regular farms. Although nearly all other environmental impacts were numerically lower, both on-farm and off-farm, differences were not statistically significant. Nitrogen losses to air and water decreased by on average 5 to 10% when INC farming would be implemented for the whole region. The impact of INC farming on the global warming potential and eutrophication potential was, however, almost negligible (<2%) at regional level. This was due to a negligible impact on the methane emissions and on the surplus and thereby on the soil accumulation and losses of phosphorus to water at INC farms, illustrating the focus of these farms on closing the nitrogen cycle. PMID:26231773

  1. Impact evaluation of a refrigeration control system installed at Vitamilk Dairy, Incorporated under the Energy $avings Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.R.; Dixon, D.R.; Spanner, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    This impact evaluation of a refrigeration control system (RCS) recently installed at Vitamilk Dairy, Inc. (Vitamilk) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The RCS installation at Vitamilk uses microcomputer- based controls to automate refrigeration equipment previously controlled manually. This impact evaluation assessed how much electricity is being saved at Vitamilk as a result of the E$P and to determine how much the savings cost Bonneville and the region. On a unit savings basis, this project will save 9.7 kWh/tonne (8-8 kWh/ton) of milk and ice cream produced, based on the product mix for June 1992 through May 1993, representing a 28% reduction in energy consumption. The project was installed in 1992 for a total cost of $129,330, and Vitamilk received payment of $62,974 from Bonneville in 1993 for the acquisition of energy savings. The real levelized cost of these energy savings to Bonneville is 8.5 mills/kWh (in 1993 dollars) over the project`s assumed 15-year life, and the real levelized cost to the region is 17.9 mills/kWh (in 1993 dollars), not including transmission and distribution effects. Based on the expected project installation costs and energy savings benefits, the RCS would not have been implemented by Vitamilk without the E$P acquisition payment. The expected acquisition payment reduced the estimated payback period from 7.0 to 2.8 years. Although Vitamilk would generally require an energy conservation project to have a payback period of two years or less, the slightly longer payback period was accepted in this case.

  2. Pregnancy and bovine somatotropin in nonlactating dairy cows: I. Ovarian, conceptus, and insulin-like growth factor system responses.

    PubMed

    Bilby, T R; Guzeloglu, A; Kamimura, S; Pancarci, S M; Michel, F; Head, H H; Thatcher, W W

    2004-10-01

    Nonlactating dairy cows were used to examine effects of bovine somatotropin (bST) on components of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system. Estrus was synchronized in cows with a Presynch + Ovsynch protocol and timed AI (TAI; n = 55) or not TAI (cycling, C; n = 23) on d 0 (time of synchronized ovulation). On d 0 and 11, cows received bST (500 mg) or no bST, and were sacrificed on d 17. Pregnancy rates were less in bST cows (27.2%, 9 of 33) than in controls (63.6%; 14 of 22). In contrast, conceptuses were larger in bST-treated cows (39.2 +/- 4.8 cm) than in controls (20 +/- 4.3 cm). Total interferon-tau in uterine luminal flushings (ULF) was greater in bST-treated cows (7.15 > 2.36 microg). Number of class 2 follicles (6 to 9 mm) was less in bST-C cows on d 7 and 16. On d 17, corpus luteum (CL) weight tended to be greater in bST-treated cows. Concentrations of progesterone were greater after d 10 in C than in pregnant (P) cows. In the ULF, IGF-binding protein-3 was greater in bST-P cows than in pregnant cows. A tendency for an increase in IGF-I hormone concentrations in the ULF was detected on d 17 in bST-treated and cyclic cows. Endometrial mRNA for IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 increased in bST-C, but not in bST-P cows. Treatment with bST increased plasma concentrations of insulin, IGF-I, and growth hormone (GH). In conclusion, bST may have hyperstimulated plasma IGF-I and insulin to cause asynchrony between conceptus and uterus that was detrimental to pregnancy. PMID:15377605

  3. Persistent, Toxin-Antitoxin System-Independent, Tetracycline Resistance-Encoding Plasmid from a Dairy Enterococcus faecium Isolate▿

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinhui; Alvarez, Valente; Harper, Willis James; Wang, Hua H.

    2011-01-01

    A tetracycline-resistant (Tetr) dairy Enterococcus faecium isolate designated M7M2 was found to carry both tet(M) and tet(L) genes on a 19.6-kb plasmid. After consecutive transfer in the absence of tetracycline, the resistance-encoding plasmid persisted in 99% of the progenies. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the 19.6-kb plasmid contained 28 open reading frames (ORFs), including a tet(M)-tet(L)-mob gene cluster, as well as a 10.6-kb backbone highly homologous (99.9%) to the reported plasmid pRE25, but without an identified toxin-antitoxin (TA) plasmid stabilization system. The derived backbone plasmid without the Tetr determinants exhibited a 100% retention rate in the presence of acridine orange, suggesting the presence of a TA-independent plasmid stabilization mechanism, with its impact on the persistence of a broad spectrum of resistance-encoding traits still to be elucidated. The tet(M)-tet(L) gene cluster from M7M2 was functional and transmissible and led to acquired resistance in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF by electroporation and in Streptococcus mutans UA159 by natural transformation. Southern hybridization showed that both the tet(M) and tet(L) genes were integrated into the chromosome of S. mutans UA159, while the whole plasmid was transferred to and retained in E. faecalis OG1RF. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) indicated tetracycline-induced transcription of both the tet(M) and tet(L) genes of pM7M2. The results indicated that multiple mechanisms might have contributed to the persistence of antibiotic resistance-encoding genes and that the plasmids pM7M2, pIP816, and pRE25 are likely correlated evolutionarily. PMID:21784909

  4. Modification of immune responses and digestive system microbiota of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine(R)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) fed to Holstein and Jersey dairy cows during late lactation (average DIM = 202.44 days on wk-0). Cows were randomized to treatment g...

  5. Effects of grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression on steers grazing tall fescue pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first year of a 2 yr grazing study was conducted to evaluate use of Chaparral™ to suppress reproductive growth in tall fescue grazed with low and moderate grazing intensities. Chaparral applications (0 and 2.0 oz/acre) and grazing intensities were arranged as RCBD with three replications. Variab...

  6. Sustainability of US organic beef and dairy production systems: soil, plant and cattle interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how this rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and ...

  7. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving soil health and productivity on grasslands using managed grazing of livestock.

    PubMed

    Russell, J R; Bisinger, J J

    2015-06-01

    Beyond grazing, managed grasslands provide ecological services that may offer economic incentives for multifunctional use. Increasing biodiversity of plant communities may maximize net primary production by optimizing utilization of available light, water, and nutrient resources; enhance production stability in response to climatic stress; reduce invasion of exotic species; increase soil OM; reduce nutrient leaching or loading in surface runoff; and provide wildlife habitat. Strategically managed grazing may increase biodiversity of cool-season pastures by creating disturbance in plant communities through herbivory, treading, nutrient cycling, and plant seed dispersal. Soil OM will increase carbon and nutrient sequestration and water-holding capacity of soils and is greater in grazed pastures than nongrazed grasslands or land used for row crop or hay production. However, results of studies evaluating the effects of different grazing management systems on soil OM are limited and inconsistent. Although roots and organic residues of pasture forages create soil macropores that reduce soil compaction, grazing has increased soil bulk density or penetration resistance regardless of stocking rates or systems. But the effects of the duration of grazing and rest periods on soil compaction need further evaluation. Because vegetative cover dissipates the energy of falling raindrops and plant stems and tillers reduce the rate of surface water flow, managing grazing to maintain adequate vegetative cover will minimize the effects of treading on water infiltration in both upland and riparian locations. Through increased diversity of the plant community with alterations of habitat structure, grazing systems can be developed that enhance habitat for wildlife and insect pollinators. Although grazing management may enhance the ecological services provided by grasslands, environmental responses are controlled by variations in climate, soil, landscape position, and plant community resulting in considerable spatial and temporal variation in the responses. Furthermore, a single grazing management system may not maximize livestock productivity and each of the potential ecological services provided by grasslands. Therefore, production and ecological goals must be integrated to identify the optimal grazing management system. PMID:26115251

  8. Expanding the dairy herd in pasture-based systems: the role for sexed semen use on virgin heifers.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, I A; Shalloo, L; Butler, S T

    2013-02-01

    A model was developed to examine the effects of sexed semen use on replacement heifer numbers and rate of herd expansion in a seasonal dairy production system. Three separate herds were established according to the type of semen used on virgin heifers: conventional frozen-thawed (Conv), sexed fresh (SFre), or sexed frozen-thawed (SFro). In the model, sexed semen was used for the first and second inseminations in heifers only. Pregnancy rates achieved with sexed fresh and sexed frozen-thawed semen were assumed to be 94% and 75% of those achieved with conventional frozen-thawed semen, respectively. Initial herd size was 100 cows, which was maintained for the first 2 yr of the 15-yr simulation, after which all available replacement heifers were retained to facilitate herd expansion. Two different scenarios of land availability (S1 and S2) were examined for each of the 3 herds using different semen types: land available allowed expansion to a maximum herd size of 150 cows (S1) or 300 cows (S2). Once maximum herd size was reached, sexed semen use was discontinued and all excess heifer calves were sold at 1 mo of age. All capital expenditure associated with expansion was financed with a 15-yr loan. Each of the different options was evaluated in terms of annual farm profit, annual cash flow, and total discounted net profit. The analysis was completed at a milk price of € 0.27/L, and sensitivity around milk price was carried out at € 0.22/L and € 0.32/L. The use of SFre generated more replacement heifers and thus faster herd expansion compared with SFro and Conv semen. Maximum herd size was reached in yr 5, 6, and 7 under S1, and in yr 10, 12, and 14 under S2 for SFre, SFro, and Conv herds, respectively. Total discounted net profit under S1 for the SFre herd was € 19,929 greater than that of the SFro herd and € 41,852 greater than that of the Conv herd. Under S2, discounted net profit for the SFre herd was € 138,587 greater than that of the SFro herd and € 239,987 greater than that of the Conv herd. All 3 herds suffered negative cash flows for extended periods under both S1 and S2 at the lower milk price of € 0.22/L, although cash flows were most negative in the SFre herd. The use of sexed semen, in particular fresh sexed semen, in dairy heifers facilitates faster and more profitable expansion compared with the use of conventional frozen-thawed semen. Financial pressures caused by low milk price were greatest when the rate of expansion was highest. PMID:23200471

  9. Dairy calf housing systems across Europe and risk for calf infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Marc, C; Guatteo, R; Bareille, N; Fourichon, C

    2010-09-01

    Enteric and respiratory diseases are the most frequent health disorders of calves. They are associated with mortality or lower growth rate and induce treatment costs. Enteric and respiratory pathogens can be transmitted via contacts between calves, which depend on calf housing systems and management. This study aimed at describing the main calf housing systems across Europe and at assessing the consequences of such housing facilities in terms of risk for calf infectious diseases. This was done through the use of a questionnaire distributed to experts in epidemiology and cattle farming systems in each European country. A literature review was performed on the risk factors associated with calf infectious diseases transmission and targeted in the questionnaire. Answers from 14 countries were obtained. A wide range of housing systems were described. However, four main systems could be identified and ranked in ascending order of risk for neonatal diarrhoea and respiratory infectious diseases: individual pen until weaning, individual pen for 4 weeks, individual pen for 2 weeks, and collective pen from the separation of the calf with its dam. Although the housing systems are known to play a role in disease transmission, they are currently not fully described in literature concerning risk factors for calf infectious diseases. In a given farm, the risk assessment for calf infectious diseases should consider classical risk factors such as hygiene, feeding practices and air conditioning, on top of a precise description of the housing system. PMID:22444707

  10. 25 CFR 167.12 - Grazing fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grazing fees. 167.12 Section 167.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS 167.12 Grazing... respective districts with all of the various items of range administration and range management. Also...

  11. How Does Hunger Level Impact Grazing Behavior?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing behavior can be influenced through feeding and grazing management decisions. Research at our USDA-ARS lab showed that ruminal fill, or how hungry the cow is, can affect grazing behavior. Cows that had less ruminal fill took a bigger bite that was shallow and wide, compared to a full cow ...

  12. 25 CFR 167.12 - Grazing fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS 167.12 Grazing... drought of several years has not broken. The Navajo Tribe therefore requests that the matter of... important that other sections of these grazing regulations be adopted and enforced. Resolution of...

  13. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF... WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such permits, such stock as may be required in connection with the...

  14. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF... WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such permits, such stock as may be required in connection with the...

  15. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF... WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such permits, such stock as may be required in connection with the...

  16. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF... WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such permits, such stock as may be required in connection with the...

  17. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF... WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such permits, such stock as may be required in connection with the...

  18. Attitudes and expectations of producers to the use of a microcomputer-based management information system to monitor dairy herd performance

    PubMed Central

    Lissemore, Kerry D.; Leslie, Ken E.; Martin, S. Wayne; Menzies, Paula I.; Meek, Alan H.

    1992-01-01

    The attitudes and expectations of producers toward the use of a microcomputer-based herd management information system were assessed. The study was conducted over a two-year period, beginning in January 1986, and was operated as a bureau service. The implementation and use of the program are described elsewhere. Pre- and posttrial questionnaires were administered to assess producer attitudes. We found that the monthly analysis reports were used in the management of the dairy farms and were found to be a useful management tool. The majority of producers indicated a willingness to pay, on average, $6.86/cow/year for such a service. PMID:17423946

  19. From rags to riches: the story of carbon, nutrients and pasture with dairy compost application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Jess; Cavagnaro, Tim; Patti, Tony; Wilkinson, Kevin; McDonald, Declan; Johnston, Priscilla; Wilson, Katrina; Rose, Mick; Jackson, Roy

    2014-05-01

    Around the world, dairy farmers are transforming dairy waste to compost for land application. In southeastern Australia, farmers are using composted dairy waste to increase production and reduce costs. In addition, the farmers are considering the benefits of compost for increasing sequestration of soil carbon, and on-farm nutrient retention. The "Carbon Farming Initative" in Australia is exploring the option to allow farmers to trade Carbon Credits for carbon stored in the soil. Compost also retains vital nutrients, such as N, on farm rather than importing N in the form of mineral fertilisers. Composting also reduces greenhouse gas emissions, such as CH4, compared to when stored in effluent ponds. This project will investigate if dairy compost applied to pasture improves carbon sequestration, nutrient retention and pasture production. In this project dairy compost, made from dairy effluent, feedpad waste, spoilt sillage and wood mulch, was applied onto a 1Ha field and companion plots at a rate of 0, 3, 6 and 12 t/ha. The field plot is open to grazing and normal farm management practices. The companion plots are being subjected to simulated grazing (mowing). The trials, currently underway will run for 18 months. Along with preliminary soil carbon results, this work will also include preliminary data for total and plant available nutrients, and farm biomass production. The outcomes of this research, and benefits it finds for "Carbon Farming" and nutrient retention has practical, policy and economic applications for world wide markets.

  20. The effects of a ration change from a total mixed ration to pasture on health and production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schären, M; Jostmeier, S; Ruesink, S; Hüther, L; Frahm, J; Bulang, M; Meyer, U; Rehage, J; Isselstein, J; Breves, G; Dänicke, S

    2016-02-01

    In pasture-based dairy production systems, dairy cows often receive a silage- and concentrate-based ration [total mixed ration (TMR)] during wintertime and are gradually introduced to fresh herbage in spring. The present study aimed to investigate how the transition to this new nutritional situation influenced different production and health indicators. A 10-wk trial was performed in spring 2014, including 60 dairy cows of the German Holstein breed (166±23d in milk, 23.5±3.7kg of milk/d; means ± SD). The cows were divided into a pasture and a confinement group (PG and CG, respectively). The CG stayed on a TMR-based diet (35% corn silage, 35% grass silage, 30% concentrate; DM basis), whereas the PG was gradually transitioned from a TMR- to a pasture-based ration (wk 1=TMR-only, wk 2=3 h/d on pasture, wk 3 and 4=12 h/d on pasture, wk 5-10=pasture-only). A continuous grazing system was implemented on a ryegrass dominated pasture and temperature humidity indices were assessed based on continuous recording of temperature and humidity indoors as well as outdoors. Dry matter intake (DMI) from TMR, milk production, body weight (BW), and body condition score decreased as soon as the PG had partial access to pasture. Milk production and BW decreased even further in the first week on a full grazing ration, but thereafter BW increased again and milk production stabilized. The DMI estimation using the n-alkane method in wk 7 and 9 revealed an increase in DMI from pasture between the 2 time points and indicates an adaptation of grazing behavior and metabolism over several weeks. Increased serum β-hydroxybutyrate and fatty acids concentrations at several time points, as well as a continuous body condition score decrease during the whole course of the trial, indicate an energy deficit in the PG. A significant correlation between serum glucose concentrations and the temperature humidity indices was observed. An increase in serum and milk urea concentrations as well as an increase in the urine total N to creatinine ratio occurred in the PG. To assess possible negative effects of the ration change on metabolic and liver health, different clinical chemistry variables and complete blood counts were assessed. No biologically relevant changes were observed for serum albumin, total protein, cholesterol, aspartate transaminase, γ-glutamyltransferase, and glutamate dehydrogenase concentrations, as well as for white and red blood cell counts. PMID:26627855

  1. Intravaginal Lactic Acid Bacteria Modulated Local and Systemic Immune Responses and Lowered the Incidence of Uterine Infections in Periparturient Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Qilan; Odhiambo, John F.; Farooq, Umar; Lam, Tran; Dunn, Suzanna M.; Ametaj, Burim N.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate whether intravaginal infusion of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cocktail around parturition could influence the immune response, incidence rate of uterine infections, and the overall health status of periparturient dairy cows. One hundred pregnant Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 1 of the 3 experimental groups as follows: 1) one dose of LAB on wk -2 and -1, and one dose of carrier (sterile skim milk) on wk +1 relative to the expected day of parturition (TRT1); 2) one dose of LAB on wk -2, -1, and +1 (TRT2), and 3) one dose of carrier on wk -2, -1, and +1 (CTR). The LAB were a lyophilized culture mixture composed of Lactobacillus sakei FUA3089, Pediococcus acidilactici FUA3138, and Pediococcus acidilactici FUA3140 with a cell count of 108-109 cfu/dose. Blood samples and vaginal mucus were collected once a week from wk -2 to +3 and analyzed for content of serum total immunoglobulin G (IgG), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and vaginal mucus secretory IgA (sIgA). Clinical observations including rectal temperature, vaginal discharges, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, and laminitis were monitored from wk -2 to +8 relative to calving. Results showed that intravaginal LAB lowered the incidence of metritis and total uterine infections. Intravaginal LAB also were associated with lower concentrations of systemic LBP, an overall tendency for lower SAA, and greater vaginal mucus sIgA. No differences were observed for serum concentrations of Hp, TNF, IL-1, IL-6 and total IgG among the treatment groups. Administration with LAB had no effect on the incidence rates of other transition cow diseases. Overall intravaginal LAB lowered uterine infections and improved local and systemic immune responses in the treated transition dairy cows. PMID:25919010

  2. Tillage Requirments for integrating winter-annual grazing in peanut production: Plant water status and productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of crop rotation systems involving winter-annual grazing can help peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) producers increase profitability, although winter-annual grazing could result in excessive soil compaction, which can severely limit yields. We conducted a 3-yr field study on a Dothan loamy sand i...

  3. HOW HARD IS IT TO MEASURE CHANGES IN GRAZING LAND SOIL CARBON?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangeland grazing management strategies affect soil properties and the distribution and cycling of nutrients within the plant-soil system, but these effects are not well understood. We studied the effects of 12 years of five livestock grazing management strategies on (C) and nitrogen (N) contents of...

  4. Dairy and bone health.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Robert P

    2009-02-01

    Bone health is the resultant of bone mass, bone architecture, and body mechanics. Nutrition supports all three components, with the principal nutrients concerned being calcium, protein, and vitamin D. Potassium, magnesium, zinc, and several vitamins are also involved to varying extents. Given modern food sources, it is difficult to devise a diet that is "bone healthy" without including three servings of dairy per day, not just because of dairy calcium, but dairy protein and potassium as well. PMID:19571166

  5. Grazing alters the net C sink strength and the net global warming potential of a subtropical pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; DeLucia, E. H.; Boughton, E. H.; Keel, E.; Bernacchi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Grazing profoundly affects climate by altering the exchange of greenhouse gases (GHG; CO2 and CH4) between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Little is known about how this disturbance affects the GHG exchange from subtropical pastures although they account for a substantial portion of global grazing lands. Here, we investigated how cattle grazing affect net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and CH4 emissions in subtropical semi-native pasture using the eddy covariance technique. Soil moisture was greater under grazed than ungrazed pastures but soil temperature was similar between treatments. By removing aboveground biomass, grazing reduced gross primary productivity (GPP, 16%). While ungrazed pastures had higher GPP than grazed pastures, they also had higher ecosystem respiration (Re, 20%) along with higher heterotrophic respiration. As a result, annual sums of NEE were similar in grazed and ungrazed pastures and both systems were net sinks for CO2 (-86 5 gC m-2 yr-1 in grazed pasture, and -76 6 gC m-2 yr-1 in ungrazed pasture). Including C removal by grazers in the C budget, grazing reduced the C sink strength (250%) and grazed pasture became a net source of C to the atmosphere. Increased soil wetness and CH4 production from enteric ruminant fermentation enhanced net ecosystem CH4 emissions (16%) in grazed than in ungrazed pastures. The net global warming potential (GWP) was higher (34%) in grazed than in ungrazed pastures, but both systems were net sources of GHGs when accounting for the radiative forcing of CH4. Our results suggest that grazing reduces the net C sink strength and increases the net GWP of subtropical pastures. Improved understanding of how grazing affects ecosystem GHG fluxes is essential to predicting the role of pastures on the global C cycle.

  6. Implementing electronic identification for performance recording in sheep: I. Manual versus semiautomatic and automatic recording systems in dairy and meat farms.

    PubMed

    Ait-Saidi, A; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Carn, S

    2014-12-01

    With the aim of assessing the secondary benefits of using electronic identification (e-ID) in sheep farms, we compared the use of manual (M), semiautomatic (SA), and automatic (AU) data-collection systems for performance recording (i.e., milk, lambing, and weight) in 3 experiments. Ewes were identified with visual ear tags and electronic rumen boluses. The M system consisted of visual ear tags, on-paper data recording, and manual data uploading to a computer; the use of a personal digital assistant (PDA) for data recording and data uploading was also done in M. The SA system used a handheld reader (HHR) for e-ID, data recording, and uploading. Both PDA and HHR used Bluetooth for uploading. The AU system was only used for body weight recording and consisted of e-ID, data recording in an electronic scale, and data uploading. In experiment 1, M and SA milk-recording systems were compared in a flock of 48 dairy ewes. Ewes were milked once- (1, n=24) or twice- (2, n=24) daily in a 2 12 milking parlor and processed in groups of 24. Milk yield (1.21 0.04 L/d, on average) was 36% lower in 1 than 2 ewes and milk recording time correlated positively with milk yield (R(2)=0.71). Data transfer was markedly faster for PDA and HHR than for M. As a result, overall milk recording time was faster in SA (1=12.1 0.6 min/24 ewes; 2=22.1 0.9 min/24 ewes) than M (1=14.9 0.6 min/24 ewes; 2=27.9 1.0 min/24 ewes). No differences between PDA and HHR were detected. Time savings, with regard to M, were greater for 2 than for 1 (5.6 0.2 vs. 2.8 0.1 min per 24 ewes, respectively), but similar for PDA and HHR. Data transfer errors averaged 3.6% in M, whereas no errors were found in either SA system. In experiment 2, 73 dairy and 80 meat ewes were monitored at lambing using M and SA. Overall time for lambing recording was greater in M than SA in dairy (1.67 0.06 vs. 0.87 0.04 min/ewe) and meat (1.30 0.03 vs. 0.73 0.03 min/ewe) ewes. Recording errors were greater in dairy (9.6%) than in meat (1.9%) ewes. Data uploading errors only occurred in M (4.9%). In experiment 3, 120 dairy and 120 meat ewes were weighed using M and AU systems. In both flocks, mean BW recording and data uploading times, as well as overall BW recording time (0.63 0.02 and 0.25 0.01 min/ewe, respectively) were greater in M than in AU, and uploading errors only occurred in M (8.8%). In conclusion, HHR and PDA systems were time-effective for performance recording, both saving time and improving data accuracy. Working load and time for ewe identification were faster in HHR but it did not affect the performance recording time. The PDA was the fastest device for data download. Further research will evaluate the costs of implementing e-ID for performance recording and other uses in sheep farms. PMID:25282408

  7. Grazing effects on species composition in different vegetation types (La Palma, Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arévalo, J. R.; de Nascimento, L.; Fernández-Lugo, S.; Mata, J.; Bermejo, L.

    2011-05-01

    Grazing management is probably one of the most extensive land uses, but its effects on plant communities have in many cases been revealed to be contradictory. Some authors have related these contradictions to the stochastic character of grazing systems. Because of that, it is necessary to implement specific analyses of grazing effects on each community, especially in natural protected areas, in order to provide the best information to managers. We studied the effects of grazing on the species composition of the main vegetation types where it takes place (grasslands, shrublands and pine forests) on the island of La Palma, Canary Islands. We used the point-quadrat intersect method to study the species composition of grazed and ungrazed areas, which also were characterized by their altitude, distance to farms, distance to settlements, year of sampling, herbaceous aboveground biomass and soil organic matter. The variables organic matter, productivity and species richness were not significantly affected by grazing. The species composition of the analyzed plant communities was affected more by variables such as altitude or distance to farms than by extensive grazing that has been traditionally carried out on the island of La Palma involving certain practices such as continuous monitoring of animals by goat keepers, medium stocking rates adjusted to the availability of natural pastures, supplementation during the dry season using local forage shrubs or mown pastures and rotating animals within grazing areas Although some studies have shown a negative effect of grazing on endangered plant species, these results cannot be freely extrapolated to the traditional grazing systems that exert a low pressure on plant communities (as has been found in this study). We consider extensive grazing as a viable way of ensuring sustainable management of the studied ecosystems.

  8. Multiscale effects of management, environmental conditions, and land use on nitrate leaching in dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Oenema, Jouke; Burgers, Saskia; Verloop, Koos; Hooijboer, Arno; Boumans, Leo; ten Berge, Hein

    2010-01-01

    Nitrate leaching in intensive grassland- and silage maize-based dairy farming systems on sandy soil is a main environmental concern. Here, statistical relationships are presented between management practices and environmental conditions and nitrate concentration in shallow groundwater (0.8 m depth) at farm, field, and point scales in The Netherlands, based on data collected in a participatory approach over a 7-yr period at one experimental and eight pilot commercial dairy farms on sandy soil. Farm milk production ranged from 10 to 24 Mg ha(-1). Soil and hydrological characteristics were derived from surveys and weather conditions from meteorological stations. Statistical analyses were performed with multiple regression models. Mean nitrate concentration at farm scale decreased from 79 mg L(-1) in 1999 to 63 in 2006, with average nitrate concentration in groundwater decreasing under grassland but increasing under maize land over the monitoring period. The effects of management practices on nitrate concentration varied with spatial scale. At farm scale, nitrogen surplus, grazing intensity, and the relative areas of grassland and maize land significantly contributed to explaining the variance in nitrate concentration in groundwater. Mean nitrate concentration was negatively correlated to the concentration of dissolved organic carbon in the shallow groundwater. At field scale, management practices and soil, hydrological, and climatic conditions significantly contributed to explaining the variance in nitrate concentration in groundwater under grassland and maize land. We conclude that, on these intensive dairy farms, additional measures are needed to comply with the European Union water quality standard in groundwater of 50 mg nitrate L(-1). The most promising measures are omitting fertilization of catch crops and reducing fertilization levels of first-year maize in the rotation. PMID:21284299

  9. Anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction of dairy manure

    SciTech Connect

    Haugen, V.; Dahlberg, S.; Lindley, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    The authors tested several solid liquid separation systems suitable for processing dairy manure prior to anaerobic digestion. None of the systems tried have completely satisfied the requirements. Evaluated effects of separation on biogas production. Unseparated dairy manure produced more biogas than the liquid fraction.

  10. Questionnaire-based study to assess the association between management practices and mastitis within tie-stall and free-stall dairy housing systems in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Prophylactic measures are key components of dairy herd mastitis control programs, but some are only relevant in specific housing systems. To assess the association between management practices and mastitis incidence, data collected in 2011 by a survey among 979 randomly selected Swiss dairy farms, and information from the regular test day recordings from 680 of these farms was analyzed. Results The median incidence of farmer-reported clinical mastitis (ICM) was 11.6 (mean 14.7) cases per 100 cows per year. The median annual proportion of milk samples with a composite somatic cell count (PSCC) above 200,000 cells/ml was 16.1 (mean 17.3) %. A multivariable negative binomial regression model was fitted for each of the mastitis indicators for farms with tie-stall and free-stall housing systems separately to study the effect of other (than housing system) management practices on the ICM and PSCC events (above 200,000 cells/ml). The results differed substantially by housing system and outcome. In tie-stall systems, clinical mastitis incidence was mainly affected by region (mountainous production zone; incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.73), the dairy herd replacement system (1.27) and farmers age (0.81). The proportion of high SCC was mainly associated with dry cow udder controls (IRR = 0.67), clean bedding material at calving (IRR = 1.72), using total merit values to select bulls (IRR = 1.57) and body condition scoring (IRR = 0.74). In free-stall systems, the IRR for clinical mastitis was mainly associated with stall climate/temperature (IRR = 1.65), comfort mats as resting surface (IRR = 0.75) and when no feed analysis was carried out (IRR = 1.18). The proportion of high SSC was only associated with hand and arm cleaning after calving (IRR = 0.81) and beef producing value to select bulls (IRR = 0.66). Conclusions There were substantial differences in identified risk factors in the four models. Some of the factors were in agreement with the reported literature while others were not. This highlights the multifactorial nature of the disease and the differences in the risks for both mastitis manifestations. Attempting to understand these multifactorial associations for mastitis within larger management groups continues to play an important role in mastitis control programs. PMID:24107254

  11. Dairy Herd Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolanyk, Alison M.; Bishop, Natalie

    This monograph, designed to help secondary students recognize symptoms of major dairy cattle diseases, stresses the need for preventative management practices and cooperation between the dairy farmer and the veterinarian. The first of three parts, The Healthy Animal, is divided into five units: body parts, vital signs, excretions, behavior, and

  12. Dairy Herd Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolanyk, Alison M.; Bishop, Natalie

    This monograph, designed to help secondary students recognize symptoms of major dairy cattle diseases, stresses the need for preventative management practices and cooperation between the dairy farmer and the veterinarian. The first of three parts, The Healthy Animal, is divided into five units: body parts, vital signs, excretions, behavior, and…

  13. Texturized dairy proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy proteins are amenable to structural modifications induced by high temperature, shear and moisture; in particular, whey proteins can change conformation to new unfolded states. The change in protein state is a basis for creating new foods. The dairy products, nonfat dried milk (NDM), whey prote...

  14. Effects of Introduced Grasses, Grazing and Fire on Regional Biogeochemistry in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmore, A. J.; Asner, G. P.

    2003-12-01

    African grasses introduced for grazing have expanded in geographic extent in mesic tropical systems of Hawaii and other regions of the world. Grassland expansion leads to increases in fire frequency, speeding woodland and forest destruction at greater geographic scales than occurs with grazing alone. At Pu'uwa'awa'a Ranch, Hawaii, restoration of the native woodland habitat has become a critical objective following the introduction and dominance of the African grass species Pennisetum clandestinum and P. setaceum. Grazing and grass-fueled fires have destroyed over 60% of the original forest. To stabilize these communities, managers must balance the combined effects of grazing and fire. Grazing reduces the recruitment success of native tropical trees, but grazing also reduces fire risk by moderating grass fuel conditions and restricting the extent and density of the most flammable grass species. Our study focuses on two questions: (1) What grazing intensity is necessary to change the fire conditions of a region given in situ soil and precipitation conditions? (2) Have long-term grazing conditions altered soil carbon and nitrogen stocks? We used high resolution imaging spectrometer data to measure photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic vegetation cover, analysis of soil carbon and nitrogen stocks, and measurements of plant community composition along gradients in grazing intensity. P. setaceum, the more flammable alien grass, was dominant where grazing intensity was low and at lower elevations where precipitation is low. The less flammable grass, P. clandestinum, occurred in regions of high grazing intensity and higher precipitation. Grazing influenced the dominance of P. setaceum and P. clandestinum only where precipitation and soil characteristics were suitable for both grasses to occur. At suitable sites, grazing reduced fire conditions through a species sift towards P. clandestinum. Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks decreased with grazing intensity, which was correlated with the fractional cover of P. setaceum. Soil carbon also increased with precipitation. These results show how grazing impacts fire conditions and soil chemistry through changes in species composition, and not through removal of carbon inputs (direct removal of biomass).

  15. Relative importance of management, meteorological and environmental factors in the spatial distribution of Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle in a temperate climate zone.

    PubMed

    Bennema, S C; Ducheyne, E; Vercruysse, J; Claerebout, E; Hendrickx, G; Charlier, J

    2011-02-01

    Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution, is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. Diagnosis is hampered by the fact that the infection is mostly subclinical. To increase awareness and develop regionally adapted control methods, knowledge on the spatial distribution of economically important infection levels is needed. Previous studies modelling the spatial distribution of F. hepatica are mostly based on single cross-sectional samplings and have focussed on climatic and environmental factors, often ignoring management factors. This study investigated the associations between management, climatic and environmental factors affecting the spatial distribution of infection with F. hepatica in dairy herds in a temperate climate zone (Flanders, Belgium) over three consecutive years. A bulk-tank milk antibody ELISA was used to measure F. hepatica infection levels in a random sample of 1762 dairy herds in the autumns of 2006, 2007 and 2008. The infection levels were included in a Geographic Information System together with meteorological, environmental and management parameters. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations between possible risk factors and infection levels. The prevalence and spatial distribution of F. hepatica was relatively stable, with small interannual differences in prevalence and location of clusters. The logistic regression model based on both management and climatic/environmental factors included the factors: annual rainfall, mowing of pastures, proportion of grazed grass in the diet and length of grazing season as significant predictors and described the spatial distribution of F. hepatica better than the model based on climatic/environmental factors only (annual rainfall, elevation and slope, soil type), with an Area Under the Curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristic of 0.68 compared with 0.62. The results indicate that in temperate climate zones without large climatic and environmental variation, management factors affect the spatial distribution of F. hepatica, and should be included in future spatial distribution models. PMID:20887726

  16. Feeding strategies and manure management for cost-effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Dutreuil, M; Wattiaux, M; Hardie, C A; Cabrera, V E

    2014-09-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farms are a major concern. Our objectives were to assess the effect of mitigation strategies on GHG emissions and net return to management on 3 distinct farm production systems of Wisconsin. A survey was conducted on 27 conventional farms, 30 grazing farms, and 69 organic farms. The data collected were used to characterize 3 feeding systems scaled to the average farm (85 cows and 127ha). The Integrated Farm System Model was used to simulate the economic and environmental impacts of altering feeding and manure management in those 3 farms. Results showed that incorporation of grazing practices for lactating cows in the conventional farm led to a 27.6% decrease in total GHG emissions [-0.16kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2eq)/kg of energy corrected milk (ECM)] and a 29.3% increase in net return to management (+$7,005/yr) when milk production was assumed constant. For the grazing and organic farms, decreasing the forage-to-concentrate ratio in the diet decreased GHG emissions when milk production was increased by 5 or 10%. The 5% increase in milk production was not sufficient to maintain the net return; however, the 10% increase in milk production increased net return in the organic farm but not on the grazing farm. A 13.7% decrease in GHG emissions (-0.08kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) was observed on the conventional farm when incorporating manure the day of application and adding a 12-mo covered storage unit. However, those same changes led to a 6.1% (+0.04kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) and a 6.9% (+0.06kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) increase in GHG emissions in the grazing and the organic farms, respectively. For the 3 farms, manure management changes led to a decrease in net return to management. Simulation results suggested that the same feeding and manure management mitigation strategies led to different outcomes depending on the farm system, and furthermore, effective mitigation strategies were used to reduce GHG emissions while maintaining profitability within each farm. PMID:24996278

  17. Advantages of a Grazing Incidence Monochromator in the Extreme Ultraviolet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, Sarah; Turley, R. Steven

    2006-10-01

    One of the main goals of the BYU Thin Films group is to find optical constants for materials in the Extreme Ultraviolet. This is accomplished by taking reflection and transmission measurements. The addition of a Grazing Incidence Monochromator to our current system allows us to take reflectance measurements at wavelengths currently unavailable on the Normal Incidence Monochromator (Monarch).

  18. Sheep grazing wheat summer fallow and the impact on soil nitrogen, moisture, and crop yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When incorporating targeted grazing into farming systems, livestock producers and farm operators need assurance that the benefits from their activities are worth their investments. Cropping systems were once integrated with livestock production: livestock gained forage value from crop aftermath, c...

  19. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead dairy cows. The final model also predicted that increased proportions of dairy cows with clinical mastitis and infertility problems were associated with increased mortality. Finally, an increase in mortality was predicted to be associated with an increase in the proportion of lame or injured permanently removed dairy cows. In general terms, this model identified that mortality was associated with reproductive problems, non-infectious postpartum disease, infectious disease and infectious disease prevention, and information derived from postmortem evaluations. Ultimately, addressing excessive mortality levels requires a concerted effort that recognizes and appropriately manages the numerous and diverse underlying risks. PMID:25721925

  20. Effects of Grazing by Estuarine Gammaridean Amphipods on the Microbiota of Allochthonous Detritus

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Susan J.; White, David C.

    1980-01-01

    Estuarine gammaridean amphipods grazing at natural population density on detrital microbiota affected the microbial community composition, biomass, and metabolic activity without affecting the physical structure of the leaves. Total microbial biomass estimated by adenosine triphosphate and lipid phosphate or observed by scanning electron microscopy was greater on grazed than on ungrazed detritus. The rates of oxygen consumption, poly-?-hydroxybutyrate synthesis, total lipid biosynthesis, and release of 14CO2 from radioactively prelabeled microbiota were higher on grazed than on ungrazed leaves, indicating stimulation of the metabolic activity of grazed detrital microbes. This was true with rates based either on the dry leaf weight or microbial biomass. Alkaline phosphatase activity was lower in the grazed system, consistent with enhanced inorganic phosphate cycling. The loss of 14C from both total lipid and poly-?-hydroxybutyrate of microorganisms prelabeled with 14C was greater from grazed than ungrazed microbes. There was a faster decrease in the 14C-glycolipid than in the 14C-neutral lipid or 14C-phospholipid fractions. Analysis of specific phospholipids showed losses of the metabolically stable [14C]glycerolphosphorylcholine derived from phosphatidylcholine and much more rapid metabolism of the bacterial lipid phosphatidylglycerol measured as [14C]glycerolphosphorylglycerol with amphipod grazing. The biochemical data supported scanning electron microscopy observations of a shift as the grazing proceeded from a bacterial/fungal community to one dominated by bacteria. Images PMID:16345641

  1. Grazing season and forage type influence goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties.

    PubMed

    Inglingstad, R A; Steinshamn, H; Dagnachew, B S; Valenti, B; Criscione, A; Rukke, E O; Devold, T G; Skeie, S B; Vegarud, G E

    2014-01-01

    Two different types of pasture (cultivated and rangeland) and 2 different hay qualities (high and low quality) were examined for their effects on goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties. Furthermore, the effect of dietary treatments in both the early and late grazing season was studied. As lactation stage is known to influence milk composition, the goats in the early and late grazing season were in the same lactation stage at the start of the experiment. The milk composition was influenced both by dietary treatment and season. Milk from goats on pasture was superior to those on hay by containing a higher content of protein and casein, and the goats on cultivated pasture had the highest milk yield. Casein composition was significantly influenced by forage treatment. Goats grazing on cultivated pasture had higher contents of ?s1-casein and also of ?-casein compared with the other treatments, whereas goats grazing on rangeland had the highest content of ?-casein. Factors such as milk yield, casein micelle size, ?s2-casein, and calcium content were reduced in late compared with early season. More favorable rennet coagulation properties were achieved in milk from the early grazing season, with shorter firming time and higher curd firmness compared with milk from the late grazing season, but the firming time and curd firmness were not prominently influenced by forage treatment. The content of ?s2-casein and calcium in the milk affected the firming time and the curd firmness positively. The influence of season and forage treatment on especially milk yield, casein content, and rennet coagulation properties is of economic importance for both the dairy industry and goat milk farmers. PMID:24704223

  2. 43 CFR 4130.5 - Free-use grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Free-use grazing permits. 4130.5 Section... Authorizing Grazing Use 4130.5 Free-use grazing permits. (a) A free-use grazing permit shall be issued to... directly and exclusively by the applicant and his family. The issuance of free-use grazing permits...

  3. 43 CFR 4130.5 - Free-use grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Free-use grazing permits. 4130.5 Section... Authorizing Grazing Use 4130.5 Free-use grazing permits. (a) A free-use grazing permit shall be issued to... directly and exclusively by the applicant and his family. The issuance of free-use grazing permits...

  4. 43 CFR 4130.5 - Free-use grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Free-use grazing permits. 4130.5 Section... Authorizing Grazing Use 4130.5 Free-use grazing permits. (a) A free-use grazing permit shall be issued to... directly and exclusively by the applicant and his family. The issuance of free-use grazing permits...

  5. Impacts of 130 years of grazing on ecosystem carbon dynamics in the subalpine zone of the Wasatch Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    Intensive grazing by domestic livestock likely began in the subalpine region of the Wasatch Plateau by 1870, and has been a continuous disturbance since then. Eight sites within the Great Basin Experimental Range were identified, with each site containing an area that has been protected from livestock for 80-90 years and a continuously grazed area. I specifically evaluated the impacts of long-term protection from grazing on soil C dynamics, N-availability, and aboveground net primary production. I found that grazing leads to an accumulation of actively cycling soil organic matter (SOM); isotopic evidence suggests that the accumulation of active SOM may be due to lower soil moisture in long-term grazed areas compared to protected areas. While there is higher labile SOM C in grazed areas than in protected areas, in situ soil respiration rates were significantly higher in protected areas. This evidence of an environmental constraint on decomposition in grazed areas indicates that lower primary production in grazed sites is being offset by lower decomposition rates, with total ecosystem C storage remaining nearly unchanged between grazed and ungrazed plots. However, it does suggest that historically grazed areas have a larger pool of potentially mineralizable C that could be lost from this system if these subalpine areas become warmer and wetter with climate change.

  6. Methane and ammonia emissions from New Mexico dairy lagoons in summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gaseous emissions of concern from commercial dairy operations include methane and ammonia. Dairy wastewater lagoons are sources of emission for both these gases. We quantified emissions of methane and ammonia from a lagoon system at a commercial open lot dairy in eastern New Mexico using open path l...

  7. Dairy Housing and Equipment. A Unit for Teachers of Vocational Agriculture. Production Agriculture Curriculum Materials Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colliver, Jewell B.

    Designed to provide instructional materials for use by vocational agriculture teachers, this unit on dairy housing and equipment contains four lessons based upon competencies needed to be a dairy farmer. The lessons in this unit cover the maintenance of milking systems, the provision of adequate and economical housing for dairy animals, and the…

  8. Exploring new forage options to address emerging dietary and environmental challenges in dairy forage systems: reducing excessive weight gain in dairy replacement heifers fed a corn-silage based diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy and forage producers are always facing new challenges. One of these challenges is to find forages that meet the specific nutritional needs of livestock at different stages of growth or production. In an effort to provide new and improved forage options to meet these emerging challenges, the U....

  9. National and international genomic evaluations for dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic evaluations are rapidly replacing traditional evaluation systems used for dairy cattle selection. More than 35,000 dairy cattle worldwide have been genotyped for 50,000 markers. Reliabilities of 60-70% for young genotyped animals are now possible as compared to 35% for parent average. Gains ...

  10. Stochastic Simulation Using @ Risk for Dairy Business Investment Decisions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dynamic, stochastic, mechanistic simulation model of a dairy business was developed to evaluate the cost and benefit streams coinciding with technology investments. The model was constructed to embody the biological and economical complexities of a dairy farm system within a partial budgeting fram...

  11. Farm management factors associated with bulk tank total bacterial count in Irish dairy herds during 2006/07

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that total bacterial count (TBC), which is the bacterial growth per ml of milk over a fixed period of time, can be decreased by good hygiene and farm management practices. The objective of the current study was to quantify the associations between herd management factors and bulk tank TBC in Irish spring calving, grass-based dairy herds. The relationship between bulk tank TBC and farm management and infrastructure was examined using data from 400 randomly selected Irish dairy farms where the basal diet was grazed grass. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC were identified using linear models with herd annual total bacterial score (i.e., arithmetic mean of the natural logarithm of bulk tank TBC) included as the dependent variable. All herd management factors were individually analysed in a separate regression model, that included an adjustment for geographical location of the farm. A multiple stepwise regression model was subsequently developed. Median bulk tank TBC for the sample herds was 18,483 cells/ml ranging from 10,441 to 130,458 cells/ml. Results from the multivariate analysis indicated that the following management practices were associated with low TBC; use of heated water in the milking parlour; participation in a milk recording scheme; and tail clipping of cows at a frequency greater than once per year. Increased level of hygiene of the parlour and cubicles were also associated with lower TBC. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC in Irish grazing herds were generally in agreement with most previous studies from confinement systems of milk production. PMID:21851723

  12. Effect of organic loading on the microbiota in a temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) system co-digesting dairy manure and waste whey.

    PubMed

    Li, Yueh-Fen; Abraham, Christopher; Nelson, Michael C; Chen, Po-Hsu; Graf, Joerg; Yu, Zhongtang

    2015-10-01

    Temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) has gained increasing attention because it provides the flexibility to operate digesters under conditions that enhance overall digester performance. However, research on impact of organic overloading rate (OLR) to microbiota of TPAD systems was limited. In this study, we investigated the composition and successions of the microbiota in both the thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters of a laboratory-scale TPAD system co-digesting dairy manure and waste whey before and during organic overloading. The thermophilic and the mesophilic digesters were operated at 50 and 35 C, respectively, with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 10 days for each digester. High OLR (dairy manure with 5 % total solid and waste whey of ?60.4 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/l/day) resulted in decrease in pH and in biogas production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in the thermophilic digester, while the mesophilic digester remained unchanged except a transient increase in biogas production. Both denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and Illumina sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene amplicons showed dramatic change in microbiota composition and profound successions of both bacterial and methanogenic communities. During the overloading, Thermotogae was replaced by Proteobacteria, while Methanobrevibacter and archaeon classified as WCHD3-02 grew in predominance at the expense of Methanoculleus in the thermophilic digester, whereas Methanosarcina dominated the methanogenic community, while Methanobacterium and Methanobrevibacter became less predominant in the mesophilic digester. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) revealed that digester temperature and pH were the most influential environmental factors that explained much of the variations of the microbiota in this TPAD system when it was overloaded. PMID:26084892

  13. The effects of two out-wintering pad systems compared with free-stalls on dairy cow hoof and limb health.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, Keelin Km; Hanlon, Alison; French, Padraig; Boyle, Laura A

    2009-02-01

    Lameness is one of the most serious health and welfare problems for dairy cows. This study compared hoof health, limb health and locomotion of dairy cows in three over-winter management systems. Treatments were: (1) an indoor free-stall system (FS), (2) outdoors on an uncovered woodchip pad (UP) and (3) outdoors on a covered woodchip pad (CP). Animals were assigned to treatments at drying off, remained on treatment until parturition, then turned out to pasture. Sole lesions were scored on assignment to treatment, at calving, and 6 weeks and 12 weeks post partum. Locomotion and skin lesions were scored on assignment to treatment, and every 2 weeks until parturition. Post-partum locomotion was scored weekly for 13 weeks. More FS cows were affected by limb lesions than CP cows, and these animals had the worst locomotion scores post calving. There was an effect of inspection, and interactive effect of inspection and treatment on sole lesion scores. UP cows had the highest sole lesion scores 12 weeks post partum probably due to softening of the hooves arising from exposure to moisture while on the woodchip pad. However, post partum, UP cows had better locomotion scores, and CP cows tended to have better scores than cows in FS. Both of these treatments were less likely to have a high tracking-up score than cows in FS. It is possible that cows in this treatment were able to exercise more, owing to the secure underfoot surface and lack of barriers, and this promoted limb flexibility. Although woodchip pads provided benefits for limb health and locomotion, the wood chip surface in both outdoor systems did not offer protective benefits to the hooves relative to housing on concrete. However, the provision of shelter on the pad somewhat overcame the problem of high sole lesion scores in the post-partum period. PMID:18922200

  14. The effect of grazing management on livestock exposure to parasites via the faecal-oral route.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Smith LA; Marion G; Swain DL; White PC; Hutchings MR

    2009-10-01

    In grazing systems, heterogeneous distributions of forage resources and faeces result in localised accumulations of nutrients and parasites (both macroparasites and microparasites), creating trade-offs between the costs of exposure to infestation or infection and the benefits of nutrient intake. Each contact between livestock and faeces in the environment is a potential parasite/pathogen transmission event. Thus, herbivores must make foraging decisions in complex environments which will affect their intake of both nutrients and parasites. However, the pattern of forage and faecal resources in agricultural environments will also be affected by the grazing management system in place. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of grazing management on the risk of infection/infestation to livestock. We used a spatially explicit individual based stochastic foraging model to simulate livestock contact (both grazing and investigative) with faeces in the environment. The model was parameterised to simulate cattle grazing under three types of grazing management: set stock (i.e. where sward growth and cattle intake are in equilibrium in a single field); a two pasture rotation grazing system with increasing number of rotations; and a rotational grazing system with two rotations and increasing subdivisions of the pasture. Overall the amount of cattle contact with faecal-contaminated patches was similar in both set stocking and rotational grazing scenarios, suggesting no difference in the risk of infection or infestation between the different systems. However, the timing and absolute amounts of peak contact varied greatly indicating that different grazing management systems expose livestock to risks of different types of parasites at different times of the grazing season. Intensive rotational systems with small pasture blocks (especially the first grazing period) maximised livestock contact with fresh faeces, and thus exposure to microparasites (e.g. bacterial pathogens). Livestock re-entering pasture blocks in rotational systems and set stocked livestock had the highest contact with old faeces and thus have a greater risk of macroparasite transmission (gastrointestinal nematodes). This study highlights how livestock management affects the highly dynamic interaction between livestock and distributions of parasites in the environment and thus the levels of livestock exposure to parasites and pathogens via the faecal-oral route.

  15. A systems approach to assess farm-scale nutrient and trace element dynamics: a case study at the Ojebyn dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Oborn, Ingrid; Modin-Edman, Anna-Karin; Bengtsson, Helena; Gustafson, Gunnela M; Salomon, Eva; Nilsson, S Ingvar; Holmqvist, Johan; Jonsson, Simon; Sverdrup, Harald

    2005-06-01

    A systems analysis approach was used to assess farmscale nutrient and trace element sustainability by combining full-scale field experiments with specific studies of nutrient release from mineral weathering and trace-element cycling. At the Ojebyn dairy farm in northern Sweden, a farm-scale case study including phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and zinc (Zn) was run to compare organic and conventional agricultural management practices. By combining different element-balance approaches (at farmgate, barn, and field scales) and further adapting these to the FARMFLOW model, we were able to combine mass flows and pools within the subsystems and establish links between subsystems in order to make farm-scale predictions. It was found that internal element flows on the farm are large and that there are farm internal sources (Zn) and loss terms (K). The approaches developed and tested at the Ojebyn farm are promising and considered generally adaptable to any farm. PMID:16092260

  16. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z. ); Church, E.L. . Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center)

    1989-08-01

    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Preparing Dairy Technologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sliva, William R.

    1977-01-01

    The size of modern dairy plant operations has led to extreme specialization in product manufacturing, milk processing, microbiological analysis, chemical and mathematical computations. Morrisville Agricultural and Technical College, New York, has modernized its curricula to meet these changes. (HD)

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF LIVESTOCK ON GRAZING LANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Properly managed grazing lands provide several positive environmental benefits. The key to sustainability of grazing lands is perennial vegetative cover, which holds soil in place, filters water, and recycles nutrients. Significant changes in vegetation can have subtle to dramatic effects on the pr...

  19. Acoustic grazing flow impedance using waveguide principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, D. L.

    1971-01-01

    A grazing flow apparatus was designed to measure the impedance of acoustic materials when installed in environments that subject the material to grazing airflow. The design of the apparatus and the data analysis technique is based on the solution of the convected wave equation in an infinite length waveguide.

  20. Waterfowl production in relation to grazing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirsch, L.M.

    1969-01-01

    A 4-year production study of upland nesting waterfowl on the Missouri Coteau area of North Dakota showed that pair numbers, nesting densities and nest success were generally reduced by grazing. It is suggested that cover removal such as regular grazing and mowing be discontinued on areas managed primarily for waterfowl production and that management practices which create dense rank cover be substituted.

  1. 36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grazing activities. 292.48 Section 292.48 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.48 Grazing activities....

  2. 36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grazing activities. 292.48 Section 292.48 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.48 Grazing activities....

  3. 36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grazing activities. 292.48 Section 292.48 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.48 Grazing activities....

  4. 36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grazing activities. 292.48 Section 292.48 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.48 Grazing activities....

  5. 36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grazing activities. 292.48 Section 292.48 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.48 Grazing activities....

  6. TILLAGE AND GRAZING EFFECTS ON SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND CROP YIELD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water conservation using deficit irrigation and dryland cropping systems are being implemented where the Ogallala aquifer limits irrigation capacity. Decreased crop productivity and profitability has encouraged integration of cattle grazing to supplement crop income, but potential soil compaction ma...

  7. Traditional Indonesian dairy foods.

    PubMed

    Surono, Ingrid S

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia is the largest archipelago blessed with one of the richest mega-biodiversities and also home to one of the most diverse cuisines and traditional fermented foods. There are 3 types of traditional dairy foods, namely the butter-like product minyak samin; yogurt-like product dadih; and cheese-like products dali or bagot in horbo, dangke, litsusu, and cologanti, which reflect the culture of dairy product consumption in Indonesia. PMID:26715081

  8. Methane emissions from beef cattle grazing on semi-natural upland and improved lowland grasslands.

    PubMed

    Richmond, A S; Wylie, A R G; Laidlaw, A S; Lively, F O

    2015-01-01

    In ruminants, methane (CH4) is a by-product of digestion and contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas emissions attributed to agriculture. Grazed grass is a relatively cheap and nutritious feed but herbage species and nutritional quality vary between pastures, with management, land type and season all potentially impacting on animal performance and CH4 production. The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and compare CH4 emissions from cattle of dairy and beef origin grazing two grassland ecosystems: lowland improved grassland (LG) and upland semi-natural grassland (UG). Forty-eight spring-born beef cattle (24 Holstein-Friesian steers, 14 Charolais crossbred steers and 10 Charolais crossbred heifers of 407 (s.d. 29), 469 (s.d. 36) and 422 (s.d. 50) kg BW, respectively), were distributed across two balanced groups that grazed the UG and LG sites from 1 June to 29 September at stocking rates (number of animals per hectare) of 1.4 and 6.7, respectively. Methane emissions and feed dry matter (DM) intake were estimated by the SF6 tracer and n-alkane techniques, respectively, and BW was recorded across three experimental periods that reflected the progression of the grazing season. Overall, cattle grazed on UG had significantly lower (P<0.001) mean daily DM intake (8.68 v. 9.55 kg/day), CH4 emissions (176 v. 202 g/day) and BW gain (BWG; 0.73 v. 1.08 kg/day) than the cattle grazed on LG but there was no difference (P>0.05) in CH4 emissions per unit of feed intake when expressed either on a DM basis (20.7 and 21.6 g CH4 per kg DM intake for UG and LG, respectively) or as a percentage of the gross energy intake (6.0% v. 6.5% for UG and LG, respectively). However, cattle grazing UG had significantly (P<0.001) greater mean daily CH4 emissions than those grazing LG when expressed relative to BWG (261 v. 197 g CH4/kg, respectively). The greater DM intake and BWG of cattle grazing LG than UG reflected the poorer nutritive value of the UG grassland. Although absolute rates of CH4 emissions (g/day) were lower from cattle grazing UG than LG, cattle grazing UG would be expected to take longer to reach an acceptable finishing weight, thereby potentially off-setting this apparent advantage. Methane emissions constitute an adverse environmental impact of grazing by cattle but the contribution of cattle to ecosystem management (i.e. promoting biodiversity) should also be considered when evaluating the usefulness of different breeds for grazing semi-natural or unimproved grassland. PMID:25167210

  9. Using Simulation to Interpret a Discrete Time Survival Model in a Complex Biological System: Fertility and Lameness in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Christopher D.; Huxley, Jonathan N.; Green, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    The ever-growing volume of data routinely collected and stored in everyday life presents researchers with a number of opportunities to gain insight and make predictions. This study aimed to demonstrate the usefulness in a specific clinical context of a simulation-based technique called probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) in interpreting the results of a discrete time survival model based on a large dataset of routinely collected dairy herd management data. Data from 12,515 dairy cows (from 39 herds) were used to construct a multilevel discrete time survival model in which the outcome was the probability of a cow becoming pregnant during a given two day period of risk, and presence or absence of a recorded lameness event during various time frames relative to the risk period amongst the potential explanatory variables. A separate simulation model was then constructed to evaluate the wider clinical implications of the model results (i.e. the potential for a herds incidence rate of lameness to influence its overall reproductive performance) using PSA. Although the discrete time survival analysis revealed some relatively large associations between lameness events and risk of pregnancy (for example, occurrence of a lameness case within 14 days of a risk period was associated with a 25% reduction in the risk of the cow becoming pregnant during that risk period), PSA revealed that, when viewed in the context of a realistic clinical situation, a herds lameness incidence rate is highly unlikely to influence its overall reproductive performance to a meaningful extent in the vast majority of situations. Construction of a simulation model within a PSA framework proved to be a very useful additional step to aid contextualisation of the results from a discrete time survival model, especially where the research is designed to guide on-farm management decisions at population (i.e. herd) rather than individual level. PMID:25101997

  10. [Performance and parasitologic infestation of male dairy cattle supplemented with proteic salt containing or not homeopathic medicines].

    PubMed

    Signoretti, Ricardo D; Veríssimo, Cecília José; De Souza, Fernando Henrique M; Garcia, Tamires Da S; De Oliveira, Elisa Marcela; De Souza, Karen G; Mourão, Gerson Barreto

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and parasitologic infection of male dairy cattle submitted to supplemental proteic salt with and without the use of homeopathic medicines. Were used crossbred Gir x Holstein castrated males calves, with 10 months of age and live weight of 150.75 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design with eight replicates per treatment, totaling 16 animals. The calves of each treatment remained in a pasture of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, managed in continuous grazing system for 8 months. The treatments employed were: supplementation with 300 g/animal/day of protein (40% of crude protein (CP) and 25% CP in the dry and rainy season, respectively) added or not with 5 g/animal/day of the homeopathic medicines FATOR PRO® and C & MC®. The addition of homeopathic medicines in the protein supplement did not affect (P > 0.05) the development of body male crossbred to pasture. The counting of the larvae and adults of ticks in scrapings were lower (P < 0.05) in animals that did not receive homeopathic medicines in the protein supplement. The females tick in the body anterior third (simplifying counting), nymphs in scrapings and the number of eggs per gram of helminths were not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatments. It was concluded that the use of homeopathic medicines did not affect the development of male crossbred Gir x Holstein dairy cattle neither their parasitic infection. PMID:20059813

  11. Parasites and parasite management practices of organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Sorge, U S; Moon, R D; Stromberg, B E; Schroth, S L; Michels, L; Wolff, L J; Kelton, D F; Heins, B J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence and practices used to manage internal helminth parasites and external arthropod parasites on organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota. All organic (ORG) dairy herds in Minnesota (n=114) and a convenience sample of conventional herds were invited to participate in the study. Thirty-five ORG herds and 28 conventional herds were visited once in summer and fall of 2012. Conventional dairy herds were split into small conventional (SC,<200 cows) and medium-sized conventional herds (MC, ?200 cows) so that SC herds were comparable in size to the ORG herds. Dairy managers were surveyed to assess their farm management practices and perceptions about parasites, hygiene scores were recorded for adult stock, and fecal samples were collected from a nominal 20 breeding-age heifers to characterize abundance of internal parasites. Nonparametric tests were used to compare fecal egg counts per gram (FEC) among farms grouped by management systems and practices. Organic farms had more designated pasture and were more likely to use rotational grazing compared with conventional farms, but the stocking densities of animals on pasture were similar among farm types. The overall FEC were very low, and only a few individual ORG heifers had FEC >500 eggs/gram. Samples from heifers on ORG farms had significantly more strongyle-type eggs than those on SC and MC farms (ORG: 6.62.1; SC: 0.50.3; MC: 0.80.7), but egg counts of other types of gastrointestinal parasites did not differ significantly among the 3 herd groups. Fly control measures were applied mainly to milking cows and preweaned calves and were used on 88.6% of ORG herds, 60.0% of SC herds, and 91.7% of MC herds. Approximately half of the producers reported having seen skin conditions suggestive of lice or tail mange in their cattle during the previous winter (ORG: 48.6%, SC: 57.1%, MC: 53.9%). Although most conventional producers reported treating these skin conditions, most organic producers stated they had not treated them. In conclusion, gastrointestinal parasite egg counts were low overall at the time of the survey, and most surveyed producers did not perceive gastrointestinal parasites to be a problem for their animals' health. Independent of the herd type, fly control was mostly targeted at the lactating herd and preweaned calves. PMID:25726119

  12. Biodegradability evaluation of dairy effluents originated in selected sections of dairy production.

    PubMed

    Janczukowicz, W; Zieliński, M; Debowski, M

    2008-07-01

    Main goal of the study was present the results of some respirometric measurements of activated sludge biodegrading the substrate in the wastewater originated in selected sections of the dairy processing line. The following dairy production effluents were analyzed in the research: the pumping station wastewater (combined wastewater from all the sections of the dairy factory), the apparatus room wastewater, the butter section wastewater, the milk reception point wastewater, the cheese section wastewater and the cottage cheese section wastewater. Apart from that, sweet and sour whey, which are secondary products of hard cheese and cottage cheese production, respectively, was the subject of the research. The amount of organic matter being oxidized during a 5-day measurement session was calculated on 1g of the activated sludge biomass. The research was conducted at the temperature of 20 degrees C and 35 degrees C at the applied sludge loading rate of A'=0.2 g BOD g(-1) dry mass d(-1), which ensured complete biodegradation. The results indicated a correlation between a technological process of dairy processing, an ultimate outcome of which was the wastewater analyzed, and dairy wastewater biodegradability. The results confirmed that all dairy processing effluents can be treated together, with the exception of whey, whose complex biodegradation demands may cause too much burden to any wastewater treatment technological system and thus should be managed within a separate installation. PMID:17976980

  13. Spatial and Temporal Alterations on Carbon and Water Cycles Due to Grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimowicz, M. M.; Brunsell, N. A.; Ham, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    Grasslands are vital in the carbon cycle, as large amounts of carbon are stored in the soils of the prairie. As climate change affects the carbon cycle, it is essential for the agricultural communities to understand the impacts of these changes on farming practices such as grazing and meat production. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of grazing on the carbon cycle by characterizing the surface boundary layer of both a grazed field and an ungrazed field. Data were collected from open path eddy covariance systems over Rannells Flint Hills Prairie Preserve in north-central Kansas, one over an ungrazed field and one over a grazed field. Cospectra of fluxes of CO2, heat, water, and momentum for July 2007 were compared to assess the size of eddies contributing energy to each field. For CO2, the cospectra for both the ungrazed and the ungrazed field were similar. For all of the other fluxes, lower frequency eddies contributed more energy in the grazed field than the ungrazed field. By using a footprint model, the contributing source areas were determined for fluxes from May through October of 2007. The grazed field had a larger distance of contribution in both stable and unstable atmospheric conditions. Implications of this study include the alterations on fields and impacts on the carbon and water cycles as a result of grazing.

  14. Grazed Riparian Management and Stream Channel Response in Southeastern Minnesota (USA) Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magner, Joseph A.; Vondracek, Bruce; Brooks, Kenneth N.

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service has recommended domestic cattle grazing exclusion from riparian corridors for decades. This recommendation was based on a belief that domestic cattle grazing would typically destroy stream bank vegetation and in-channel habitat. Continuous grazing (CG) has caused adverse environmental damage, but along cohesive-sediment stream banks of disturbed catchments in southeastern Minnesota, short-duration grazing (SDG), a rotational grazing system, may offer a better riparian management practice than CG. Over 30 physical and biological metrics were gathered at 26 sites to evaluate differences between SDG, CG, and nongrazed sites (NG). Ordinations produced with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated a gradient with a benthic macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI) and riparian site management; low IBI scores associated with CG sites and higher IBI scores associated with NG sites. Nongrazed sites were associated with reduced soil compaction and higher bank stability, as measured by the Pfankuch stability index; whereas CG sites were associated with increased soil compaction and lower bank stability, SDG sites were intermediate. Bedrock geology influenced NMS results: sites with carbonate derived cobble were associated with more stable channels and higher IBI scores. Though current riparian grazing practices in southeastern Minnesota present pollution problems, short duration grazing could reduce sediment pollution if managed in an environmentally sustainable fashion that considers stream channel response.

  15. Grazed riparian management and stream channel response in southeastern Minnesota (USA) streams.

    PubMed

    Magner, Joseph A; Vondracek, Bruce; Brooks, Kenneth N

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service has recommended domestic cattle grazing exclusion from riparian corridors for decades. This recommendation was based on a belief that domestic cattle grazing would typically destroy stream bank vegetation and in-channel habitat. Continuous grazing (CG) has caused adverse environmental damage, but along cohesive-sediment stream banks of disturbed catchments in southeastern Minnesota, short-duration grazing (SDG), a rotational grazing system, may offer a better riparian management practice than CG. Over 30 physical and biological metrics were gathered at 26 sites to evaluate differences between SDG, CG, and nongrazed sites (NG). Ordinations produced with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated a gradient with a benthic macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI) and riparian site management; low IBI scores associated with CG sites and higher IBI scores associated with NG sites. Nongrazed sites were associated with reduced soil compaction and higher bank stability, as measured by the Pfankuch stability index; whereas CG sites were associated with increased soil compaction and lower bank stability, SDG sites were intermediate. Bedrock geology influenced NMS results: sites with carbonate derived cobble were associated with more stable channels and higher IBI scores. Though current riparian grazing practices in southeastern Minnesota present pollution problems, short duration grazing could reduce sediment pollution if managed in an environmentally sustainable fashion that considers stream channel response. PMID:18481141

  16. Reduced grazing pressure delivers production and environmental benefits for the typical steppe of north China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Badgery, Warwick B; Kemp, David R; Chen, Wenqing; Wang, Xiaoya; Liu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Degradation by overgrazing is common in many areas of the world and optimising grassland functions depends upon finding suitable grazing tactics. This four-year study on the northern China steppe investigated combinations of rest, moderate or heavy grazing pressure early in the summer growing season, then moderate or heavy grazing in the mid and late season. Results showed that moderate grazing pressure (~550 sheep equivalent (SE) grazing days ha(-1) year(-1)) gave the optimal balance between maintaining a productive and diverse grassland, a profitable livestock system, and greenhouse gas mitigation. Further analyses identified that more conservative stocking (~400 SE grazing days ha(-1) year(-1)) maintained a desirable Leymus chinensis composition and achieved a higher live weight gain of sheep. Early summer rest best maintained a desirable grassland composition, but had few other benefits and reduced incomes. These findings demonstrate that reducing grazing pressure to half the current district stocking rates can deliver improved ecosystem services (lower greenhouse gases and improved grassland composition) while sustaining herder incomes. PMID:26553566

  17. Reduced grazing pressure delivers production and environmental benefits for the typical steppe of north China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Badgery, Warwick B.; Kemp, David R.; Chen, Wenqing; Wang, Xiaoya; Liu, Nan

    2015-01-01

    Degradation by overgrazing is common in many areas of the world and optimising grassland functions depends upon finding suitable grazing tactics. This four-year study on the northern China steppe investigated combinations of rest, moderate or heavy grazing pressure early in the summer growing season, then moderate or heavy grazing in the mid and late season. Results showed that moderate grazing pressure (~550 sheep equivalent (SE) grazing days ha−1 year−1) gave the optimal balance between maintaining a productive and diverse grassland, a profitable livestock system, and greenhouse gas mitigation. Further analyses identified that more conservative stocking (~400 SE grazing days ha−1 year−1) maintained a desirable Leymus chinensis composition and achieved a higher live weight gain of sheep. Early summer rest best maintained a desirable grassland composition, but had few other benefits and reduced incomes. These findings demonstrate that reducing grazing pressure to half the current district stocking rates can deliver improved ecosystem services (lower greenhouse gases and improved grassland composition) while sustaining herder incomes. PMID:26553566

  18. A Review of USDFRC Grazing Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the manner in which cattle are fed, there is often less control of the variables influencing milk production on a pasture-based dairy than on a confinement dairy. Environment and management influence pasture productivity, quality, and utilization, which in turn influence stored feed and supp...

  19. Response of carbon dioxide emissions to sheep grazing and N application in an alpine grassland - Part 1: Effect of sheep grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y. M.; Mohammat, A.; Liu, X. J.; Li, K. H.; Christie, P.; Fang, F.; Song, W.; Chang, Y. H.; Han, W. X.; Lü, X. T.; Liu, Y. Y.; Hu, Y. K.

    2014-04-01

    Previous work has failed to address fully the response of (autotrophic and heterotrophic) respiration to grazing in different ecosystems, particularly in alpine grasslands outside the growing season. From 2010 to 2011 a field experiment combined two methods (static closed chambers and a closed dynamic soil CO2 flux system) in alpine grasslands located in the Tianshan Mountains. We examined the effects of grazing regime on ecosystem respiration (Re) both outside (NGS) and during (GS) the growing season and determined the pattern of Re in relation to climate change. There was no significant change in CO2 emissions under grazing. Heterotrophic respiration (Rh) accounted for 78.5% of Re with short-term grazing exclusion and 93.2% of Re with long-term grazing exclusion. Re, Rh and autotrophic respiration (Ra) fluxes outside the growing season were equivalent to 12.9%, 14.1% and 11.4% of the respective CO2 fluxes during the growing season. In addition, our results indicate that soil water content played a critical role in Ra in the cold and arid environment. Both Rh and Re were sensitive to soil temperature. Moreover, our results suggest that grazing exerted no significant effect on CO2 emissions in these alpine grasslands.

  20. Use of Ground-Based LiDAR to Assess Potential Sediment Loss from Stream Banks in Grazed Pastures.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal grazing on lands near streams has the potential to contribute sediment and nutrients to surface waters. To minimize the impact, we must understand the effects of grazing systems on stream bank erosion. In this study, we used six 12-ha grass pastures that were each bisected by a 141-m stream s...

  1. Dairy products and cancer.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Johanna W

    2011-10-01

    Cancer is a group of more than 100 diseases in which cells display uncontrolled growth, invasion, and sometimes metastasis. Milk and dairy products contain micronutrients and several bioactive constituents that may influence cancer risk and progression. Much of the focus of human, population-based studies has been on the effects of intake of milk and total dairy products or of calcium intake. Based on a systematic review of the epidemiologic literature, the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research report concluded there was a probable association between milk intake and lower risk of colorectal cancer, a probable association between diets high in calcium and increased risk of prostate cancer, and limited evidence of an association between milk intake and lower risk of bladder cancer. For other cancers, the evidence was mixed or lacking. Since the 2007 report, several additional, large-cohort studies have been published, including two that show an inverse association between intake of cultured dairy products and bladder cancer. Little is known about the potential effect of various bioactives produced during rumen microbe metabolism on cancer risk. Furthermore, studies support a role of live microbes present in some dairy products in the modulation of the human gut microbial community and gut metabolism. Given the growing appreciation for the role of the gut microbial community in relation to immune function and health and disease, including cancer, the potential role of various dairy products in the modulation of the human gut microbiome warrants further evaluation. Key teaching points: As a dietary exposure, dairy products are a complex group of foods and composition varies by region, which makes evaluation of their association with disease risk difficult. For most cancers, associations between cancer risk and intake of milk and dairy products have been examined only in a small number of cohort studies, and data are inconsistent or lacking. Meta-analyses of cohort data available to date support an inverse association between milk intake and risk of colorectal and bladder cancer and a positive association between diets high in calcium and risk of prostate cancer. Other constituents of dairy products, such as rumen-derived metabolites, have not been evaluated extensively for cancer-preventive properties. The influence of live microbes in fermented dairy products and certain cheeses on the human gut microbiome and immune function is a growing area of study. PMID:22081693

  2. Herds of methane chambers grazing bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinham, Alistair; Dunbabin, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Water to air methane emissions from freshwater reservoirs can be dominated by sediment bubbling (ebullitive) events. Previous work to quantify methane bubbling from a number of Australian sub-tropical reservoirs has shown that this can contribute as much as 95% of total emissions. These bubbling events are controlled by a variety of different factors including water depth, surface and internal waves, wind seiching, atmospheric pressure changes and water levels changes. Key to quantifying the magnitude of this emission pathway is estimating both the bubbling rate as well as the areal extent of bubbling. Both bubbling rate and areal extent are seldom constant and require persistent monitoring over extended time periods before true estimates can be generated. In this paper we present a novel system for persistent monitoring of both bubbling rate and areal extent using multiple robotic surface chambers and adaptive sampling (grazing) algorithms to automate the quantification process. Individual chambers are self-propelled and guided and communicate between each other without the need for supervised control. They can maintain station at a sampling site for a desired incubation period and continuously monitor, record and report fluxes during the incubation. To exploit the methane sensor detection capabilities, the chamber can be automatically lowered to decrease the head-space and increase concentration. The grazing algorithms assign a hierarchical order to chambers within a preselected zone. Chambers then converge on the individual recording the highest 15 minute bubbling rate. Individuals maintain a specified distance apart from each other during each sampling period before all individuals are then required to move to different locations based on a sampling algorithm (systematic or adaptive) exploiting prior measurements. This system has been field tested on a large-scale subtropical reservoir, Little Nerang Dam, and over monthly timescales. Using this technique, localised bubbling zones on the water storage were found to produce over 50,000 mg m-2 d-1 and the areal extent ranged from 1.8 to 7% of the total reservoir area. The drivers behind these changes as well as lessons learnt from the system implementation are presented. This system exploits relatively cheap materials, sensing and computing and can be applied to a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial systems.

  3. 25 CFR 167.10 - Special grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special grazing permits. 167.10 Section 167.10 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.10 Special grazing permits. The problem of special grazing permits shall be settled by the Bureau of...

  4. Mediterranean dairy sheep and goat products and their quality. A critical review.

    PubMed

    Boyazoglu, J; Morand-Fehr, P

    2001-04-01

    Sheep and goat edible products (mainly meat and dairy products) have interesting characteristics in their levels of flavour, taste, aromas and leanness as well as the specific composition of fats, proteins, amino and fatty acids. Their quality is very much linked to historical and cultural uniqueness right through the production, marketing and consumption chains. This refers, at least in the Mediterranean region, to farming systems with dominant extensive grazing situations, specific technologies and conditions for slaughtering as well as for the transformation processes of cheese-making and its maturing; they are also characterised by traditional nutritional habits of the consumers. While the organoleptic properties of the dairy products are very important, the sanitary aspects become more and more influential and tend to modify the accepted definitions of these products and their quality (e.g. non-pasteurised milk, production chains, hygiene, transformation methodologies, etc.). Today there are major research efforts to ameliorate the production aspects but also the quality of the products; better cheese yield with the work undertaken on alpha-s1-casein, flavour and taste of cheeses is improved by the work on lipolysis and the study of the molecules responsible for the taste of the cheeses, studies on the fattening level of animals including genetic variability, and a better understanding of the fat distribution on carcasses. The future evolution of these products is difficult to foresee. Will quality be the criterion which will give the market direction in the developed countries (standardised products and top quality special products)? In the developing regions will we be able to maintain the actual production which is well adapted to the local demand or will this not be handicapped by the fragility and marginalisation of the existing livestock farming systems and untenable rises in costs? PMID:11259871

  5. Impacts of Rotational Grazing on Soil Carbon in Native Grass-Based Pastures in Southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Sanderman, Jonathan; Reseigh, Jodie; Wurst, Michael; Young, Mary-Anne; Austin, Jenet

    2015-01-01

    Rotational grazing management strategies have been promoted as a way to improve the sustainability of native grass-based pasture systems. From disturbance ecology theory, rotational grazing relative to continuous grazing can increase pasture productivity by allowing vegetation to recover after short intense grazing periods. This project sought to assess whether soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks would also increase with adoption of rotational grazing management. Twelve pairs of rotationally and continuously grazed paddocks were sampled across a rainfall gradient in South Australia. Pasture productivity approximated as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was on average no different between management categories, but when the data from all sites were aggregated as log response ratios (rotational/continuous) a significant positive trend of increasing NDVI under rotational grazing relative to continuous grazing was found (R2 = 0.52). Mean SOC stocks (0-30 cm) were 48.3 Mg C ha-1 with a range of 20-80 Mg C ha-1 across the study area with no differences between grazing management categories. SOC stocks were well correlated with rainfall and temperature (multiple linear regression R2 = 0.61). After removing the influence of climate on SOC stocks, the management variables, rest periods, stocking rate and grazing days, were found to be significantly correlated with SOC, explaining 22% of the variance in SOC, but there were still no clear differences in SOC stocks at paired sites. We suggest three reasons for the lack of SOC response. First, changes in plant productivity and turnover in low-medium rainfall regions due to changes in grazing management are small and slow, so we would only expect at best small incremental changes in SOC stocks. This is compounded by the inherent variability within and between paddocks making detection of a small real change difficult on short timescales. Lastly, the management data suggests that there is a gradation in implementation of rotational grazing and the use of two fixed categories (i.e. rotational v. continuous) may not be the most appropriate method of comparing diverse management styles. PMID:26284658

  6. Impacts of Rotational Grazing on Soil Carbon in Native Grass-Based Pastures in Southern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sanderman, Jonathan; Reseigh, Jodie; Wurst, Michael; Young, Mary-Anne; Austin, Jenet

    2015-01-01

    Rotational grazing management strategies have been promoted as a way to improve the sustainability of native grass-based pasture systems. From disturbance ecology theory, rotational grazing relative to continuous grazing can increase pasture productivity by allowing vegetation to recover after short intense grazing periods. This project sought to assess whether soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks would also increase with adoption of rotational grazing management. Twelve pairs of rotationally and continuously grazed paddocks were sampled across a rainfall gradient in South Australia. Pasture productivity approximated as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was on average no different between management categories, but when the data from all sites were aggregated as log response ratios (rotational/continuous) a significant positive trend of increasing NDVI under rotational grazing relative to continuous grazing was found (R2 = 0.52). Mean SOC stocks (0–30 cm) were 48.3 Mg C ha-1 with a range of 20–80 Mg C ha-1 across the study area with no differences between grazing management categories. SOC stocks were well correlated with rainfall and temperature (multiple linear regression R2 = 0.61). After removing the influence of climate on SOC stocks, the management variables, rest periods, stocking rate and grazing days, were found to be significantly correlated with SOC, explaining 22% of the variance in SOC, but there were still no clear differences in SOC stocks at paired sites. We suggest three reasons for the lack of SOC response. First, changes in plant productivity and turnover in low-medium rainfall regions due to changes in grazing management are small and slow, so we would only expect at best small incremental changes in SOC stocks. This is compounded by the inherent variability within and between paddocks making detection of a small real change difficult on short timescales. Lastly, the management data suggests that there is a gradation in implementation of rotational grazing and the use of two fixed categories (i.e. rotational v. continuous) may not be the most appropriate method of comparing diverse management styles. PMID:26284658

  7. Farm Management in Organic and Conventional Dairy Production Systems Based on Pasture in Southern Brazil and Its Consequences on Production and Milk Quality

    PubMed Central

    Kuhnen, Shirley; Stibuski, Rudinei Butka; Honorato, Luciana Aparecida; Pinheiro Machado Filho, Luiz Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary This study provides the characteristics of the conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based production systems used in Southern Brazil, and its consequences on production and milk quality. C-HI farms had larger farms and herds, annual pasture with higher inputs and milk yield, whereas O-LI had smaller farms and herds, perennial pastures with lowest input and milk yields; C-LI was in between. O-LI farms may contribute to eco-system services, but low milk yield is a major concern. Hygienic and microbiological milk quality was poor for all farms and needs to be improved. Abstract Pasture-based dairy production is used widely on family dairy farms in Southern Brazil. This study investigates conventional high input (C-HI), conventional low input (C-LI), and organic low input (O-LI) pasture-based systems and their effects on quantity and quality of the milk produced. We conducted technical site visits and interviews monthly over one year on 24 family farms (n = 8 per type). C-HI farms had the greatest total area (28.9 ha), greatest percentage of area with annual pasture (38.7%), largest number of lactating animals (26.2) and greatest milk yield per cow (22.8 kg·day−1). O-LI farms had the largest perennial pasture area (52.3%), with the greatest botanical richness during all seasons. Area of perennial pasture was positively correlated with number of species consumed by the animals (R2 = 0.74). Milk from O-LI farms had higher levels of fat and total solids only during the winter. Hygienic and microbiological quality of the milk was poor for all farms and need to be improved. C-HI farms had high milk yield related to high input, C-LI had intermediate characteristics and O-LI utilized a year round perennial pasture as a strategy to diminish the use of supplements in animal diets, which is an important aspect in ensuring production sustainability. PMID:26479369

  8. Development of a novel clinical scoring system for on-farm diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease in pre-weaned dairy calves

    PubMed Central

    Love, William J.; Lehenbauer, Terry W.; Kass, Philip H.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.

    2014-01-01

    Several clinical scoring systems for diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in calves have been proposed. However, such systems were based on subjective judgment, rather than statistical methods, to weight scores. Data from a pair-matched case-control study on a California calf raising facility was used to develop three novel scoring systems to diagnose BRD in preweaned dairy calves. Disease status was assigned using both clinical signs and diagnostic test results for BRD-associated pathogens. Regression coefficients were used to weight score values. The systems presented use nasal and ocular discharge, rectal temperature, ear and head carriage, coughing, and respiratory quality as predictors. The systems developed in this research utilize fewer severity categories of clinical signs, require less calf handling, and had excellent agreement (Kappa > 0.8) when compared to an earlier scoring system. The first scoring system dichotomized all clinical predictors but required inducing a cough. The second scoring system removed induced cough as a clinical abnormality but required distinguishing between three levels of nasal discharge severity. The third system removed induced cough and forced a dichotomized variable for nasal discharge. The first system presented in this study used the following predictors and assigned values: coughing (induced or spontaneous coughing, 2 points), nasal discharge (any discharge, 3 points), ocular discharge (any discharge, 2 points), ear and head carriage (ear droop or head tilt, 5 points), fever (≥39.2°C or 102.5°F, 2 points), and respiratory quality (abnormal respiration, 2 points). Calves were categorized “BRD positive” if their total score was ≥4. This system correctly classified 95.4% cases and 88.6% controls. The second presented system categorized the predictors and assigned weights as follows: coughing (spontaneous only, 2 points), mild nasal discharge (unilateral, serous, or watery discharge, 3 points), moderate to severe nasal discharge (bilateral, cloudy, mucoid, mucopurlent, or copious discharge, 5 points), ocular discharge (any discharge, 1 point), ear and head carriage (ear droop or head tilt, 5 points), fever (≥39.2°C, 2 points), and respiratory quality (abnormal respiration, 2 points). Calves were categorized “BRD positive” if their total score was ≥4. This system correctly classified 89.3% cases and 92.8% controls. The third presented system used the following predictors and scores: coughing (spontaneous only, 2 points), nasal discharge (any, 4 points), ocular discharge (any, 2 points), ear and head carriage (ear droop or head tilt, 5 points), fever (≥39.2°C, 2 points), and respiratory quality (abnormal respiration, 2 points). Calves were categorized “BRD positive” if their total score was ≥5. This system correctly classified 89.4% cases and 90.8% controls. Each of the proposed systems offer few levels of clinical signs and data-based weights for on-farm diagnosis of BRD in dairy calves. PMID:24482759

  9. Characteristics of Stratified Bedded Pack Dairy Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Compost" dairy barns are a relatively new housing system that generates a deep (0.9 to 1.5 m), stratified bedded pack (SBP) manure source. Bedding composed of sawdust, wood chips, or crop residues accumulates as additions are made to maintain a dry surface. Surface drying is promoted by a combinati...

  10. Mitigating GHG emissions in dairy production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options for animal agriculture have been published recently. For dairy production systems, management option include (1) manipulation of dietary components (e.g., forages, concentrates) and use of feed additives (e.g., oils, tannins) to re...

  11. Linear Classification of Dairy Cattle. Slide Script.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipiorski, James; Spike, Peter

    This slide script, part of a series of slide scripts designed for use in vocational agriculture classes, deals with principles of the linear classification of dairy cattle. Included in the guide are narrations for use with 63 slides, which illustrate the following areas that are considered in the linear classification system: stature, strength,…

  12. Dietary unsaturated fatty acids affect the mammary gland integrity and health in lactating dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Information about the effects of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) supplementation on the health and integrity of the mammary gland in lactating dairy cows is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of unprotected dietary UFA on the global expression pattern of genes in the mammary gland tissue of grazing dairy cows, and to translate this information into relevant biological knowledge. Methods Twenty-eight Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were randomly assigned to 4 different concentrated UFA-sources for 23 days after which all cows were switched to a non-UFA-supplemented concentrate for an additional 28 days. On the last day of both periods, mammary gland biopsies were taken to study genome-wide differences in gene expression on Bovine Genome Arrays. Results Supplementation with UFA reduced the concentration of short chain fatty acids (FA), C16 FA and saturated FA in the milk, whereas that of trans-FA increased. One major finding was that canonical pathways associated with remodelling and immune functions of the mammary gland were predominantly down-regulated during UFA supplementation and negatively correlated with the concentration of milk trans-FA. Conclusions Supplementing grazing dairy cows with unprotected dietary UFA can affect the remodelling and immune functions of the mammary gland with potential consequences for its integrity and health, as well as milk quality. PMID:21645316

  13. 25 CFR 167.9 - Grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... horses, he must have his needs evaluated by the District Grazing Committee. Yearling colts will be counted against permitted number on all permits with six or more horses. Yearling colts will not...

  14. Metabolic profile in Chilota lambs grazing Calafatal.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, María Asunción; Noro, Mirela; De la Barra, Rodrigo; Pulido, Rubén

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the productive and metabolic response in Chilota lambs grazing Calafatal or naturalized pasture. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station Butalcura (INIA, Chiloé) during October, November, and December 2011. Eight Chilota and six Suffolk Down 2-month-old lambs, uncastrated males, no twin, were located to graze a typical secondary succession of the Chiloé Archipelago, as a Calafatal (a secondary succession which derivates from human intervention on native forest in Chiloé Archipelago). Simultaneously, eight male 2-month-old Chilota lambs were located to graze a naturalized pasture, another secondary succession derived from human intervention on native forest in Chiloé Archipelago. Animals had free access to water sources. Measurements were performed one time a month, for three consecutive months for productive indicators: live weight, average daily gain and body condition score, and blood indicators of protein and energetic metabolism. Productive and metabolic response was similar between both types of pastures (P > 0.05). However, Chilota and Suffolk Down lambs grazing Calafatal showed higher plasma concentrations of βOH-butyrate, but lower non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) than Chilota lambs grazing naturalized pasture (P < 0.05). Chilota lambs grazing naturalized pasture showed the highest plasma concentrations of NEFA and urea (P < 0.05). It was concluded that, under the conditions of the study, Chilota lambs grazing naturalized pasture, which had higher contents of crude protein and metabolizable energy, showed better metabolic balance, but not performance, than Chilota and Suffolk Down lambs grazing Calafatal. PMID:24420763

  15. Grazing of a Tetrahymena sp. on Adhered Bacteria in Percolated Columns Monitored by In Situ Hybridization with Fluorescent Oligonucleotide Probes

    PubMed Central

    Eisenmann, Heinrich; Harms, Hauke; Meckenstock, Rainer; Meyer, Elisabeth I.; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.

    1998-01-01

    Predation of attached Pseudomonas putida mt2 by the small ciliate Tetrahymena sp. was investigated with a percolated column system. Grazing rates were examined under static and dynamic conditions and were compared to grazing rates in batch systems containing suspended prey. The prey densities were 2 × 108 bacteria per ml of pore space and 2 × 108 bacteria per ml of suspension, respectively. Postingestion in situ hybridization of bacteria with fluorescent oligonucleotide probes was used to quantify ingestion. During 30 min, a grazing rate of 1,382 ± 1,029 bacteria individual−1 h−1 was obtained with suspended prey; this was twice the grazing rate observed with attached bacteria under static conditions. Continuous percolation at a flow rate of 73 cm h−1 further decreased the grazing rate to about 25% of the grazing rate observed with suspended prey. A considerable proportion of the protozoans fed on neither suspended bacteria nor attached bacteria. The transport of ciliates through the columns was monitored at the same time that predation was monitored. Less than 20% of the protozoans passed through the columns without being retained. Most of these organisms ingested no bacteria, whereas the retained protozoans grazed more efficiently. Retardation of ciliate transport was greater in columns containing attached bacteria than in bacterium-free columns. We propose that the correlation between grazing activity and retardation of transport is a consequence of the interaction between active predators and attached bacteria. PMID:9546161

  16. Eaten Out of House and Home: Impacts of Grazing on Ground-Dwelling Reptiles in Australian Grasslands and Grassy Woodlands

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Brett; Stojanovic, Dejan; Gordon, Iain J.; Manning, Adrian D.; Fletcher, Don; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1) density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2) grass structure and reptiles (i.e. abundance, richness, diversity and occurrence) across 18 grassland and grassy Eucalyptus woodland properties in south-eastern Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between kangaroo density and grass structure after controlling for tree canopy cover. We therefore used grass structure as a surrogate for grazing intensity. Changes in grazing intensity (i.e. grass structure) significantly affected reptile abundance, reptile species richness, reptile species diversity, and the occurrence of several ground-dwelling reptiles. Reptile abundance, species richness and diversity were highest where grazing intensity was low. Importantly, no species of reptile was more likely to occur at high grazing intensities. Legless lizards (Delma impar, D. inornata) were more likely to be detected in areas subject to moderate grazing intensity, whereas one species (Hemiergis talbingoensis) was less likely to be detected in areas subject to intense grazing and three species (Menetia greyii, Morethia boulengeri, and Lampropholis delicata) did not appear to be affected by grazing intensity. Our data indicate that to maximize reptile abundance, species richness, species diversity, and occurrence of several individual species of reptile, managers will need to subject different areas of the landscape to moderate and low grazing intensities and limit the occurrence and extent of high grazing. PMID:25501680

  17. Estimation of economic values for traits of dairy sheep: II. Model application to a production system with one lambing per year.

    PubMed

    Wolfov, M; Wolf, J; Krupov, Z; Margetn, M

    2009-05-01

    A bioeconomic model for dairy sheep was applied to a production system with one lambing per year. The classical extensive Carpathian system with indoor winter lambing, traditional weaning, sale of surplus lambs before Easter, and a summer milking period with ewes on pasture was modeled. The economic values of 15 performance and functional traits were calculated for the Slovakian Improved Walachian multi-purpose breed. The economic values per unit increase in the traits were 0.32 euro/kg of milk yield during the standardized milking period of 150 d, 0.29 euro/0.1% milk fat, 0.42 euro/0.1% milk protein, 0.28 euro/% and 0.56 euro/% for conception rates of female lambs and ewes, respectively, 0.20 euro/0.01 lamb born, 0.0036 euro/% and 0.0040 euro/% for lamb survival at birth and until weaning, respectively, 0.65 euro/kg of birth weight, 0.032 euro/g per d daily gain from birth until weaning, -0.030 euro/kg of mature weight, -0.38 euro/0.1 and -0.21 euro/0.1 conformation quality grade for weaned lambs and adult sheep, respectively, 0.42 euro/kg of fleece weight and 11.10 euro/year of productive lifetime for ewes. PMID:19389978

  18. Track way distance and cover as risk factors for lameness in Danish dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burow, E; Thomsen, P T; Rousing, T; Srensen, J T

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of length and cover of track ways between barn and pasture on lameness in Danish dairy cows. We hypothesised that short track distances would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows compared to longer distances and that track ways with prepared cover (asphalt, gravel, slag, concrete, rubber) compared to no prepared cover (sand, soil and/or grass) would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows in grazing herds. In total, 2084 dairy cows from 36 herds, grazing their dairy cows during summer, were individually assessed for their lameness status. The cows were further clinically examined for claw conformation and hock integument. Information on breed and parity per cow and size per herd was extracted from a national data base. Track way distance ranged from 0 to 700 m and was categorised as (1) <165 m or (2) ?165 m. Cover of track way was categorised as (1) prepared (asphalt, gravel, slag, concrete, and/or rubber), (2) partly prepared or (3) not prepared (soil, sand, grass) for the surface of the majority of tracks used. The effect of track way distance and cover was evaluated for their impact on lameness using logistic analysis with a multi-level model structure. The probability for lameness did not change with track distance but increased with no (odds 4.0 times higher) or only partly prepared (odds 3.8 times higher) cover compared to prepared cover. In conclusion, we found that having a cover on the track way was associated with decreased severe lameness in Danish dairy cows. PMID:24387936

  19. A stochastic simulation model for assessment of investments in Precision Dairy Farming technologies: model enhancements and utility demonstration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previously described stochastic simulation model of a dairy enterprise was modified for improved robustness. This model was developed to evaluate investments in Precision Dairy Farming technologies and was constructed to embody the biological and economic complexities of a dairy farm system within...

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF A STOCHASTIC SIMULATION MODEL TO ASSESS THE POTENTIAL ECONOMIC BENEFITS ASSOCIATED WITH INVESTMENTS IN PRECISION DAIRY FARMING TECHNOLOGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A dynamic, stochastic, mechanistic simulation model of a modern dairy enterprise was developed to evaluate the costs and benefits associated with investments in Precision Dairy Farming (PDF) technologies. The model was designed to represent the biological and economic complexities of a dairy system ...

  1. 7 CFR 1170.4 - Dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dairy products. 1170.4 Section 1170.4 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING 1170.4 Dairy products. Dairy Products means: (a) Manufactured dairy products that are used by the Secretary to...

  2. 7 CFR 1170.4 - Dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dairy products. 1170.4 Section 1170.4 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING 1170.4 Dairy products. Dairy Products means: (a) Manufactured dairy products that are used by the Secretary to...

  3. 7 CFR 1170.4 - Dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dairy products. 1170.4 Section 1170.4 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING 1170.4 Dairy products. Dairy Products means: (a) Manufactured dairy products that are used by the Secretary to...

  4. 7 CFR 1170.4 - Dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Dairy products. 1170.4 Section 1170.4 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING 1170.4 Dairy products. Dairy Products means: (a) Manufactured dairy products that are used by the Secretary to...

  5. Restoration of the fire-grazing interaction in Artemisia filifolia shrubland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, S.L.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Goad, C.L.; Davis, C.A.; Hickman, K.R.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of landscape heterogeneity are crucial to the maintenance of biodiversity in shrublands and grasslands, yet management practices in these ecosystems typically seek to homogenize landscapes. Furthermore, there is limited understanding of how the interaction of ecological processes, such as fire and grazing, affects patterns of heterogeneity at different spatial scales. We conducted research in Artemisia filifolia (Asteraceae) shrublands located in the southern Great Plains of North America to determine the effect of restoring the fire-grazing interaction on vegetation structure. Data were collected for 3years in replicated pastures grazed by cattle Bos taurus where the fire-grazing interaction had been restored (fire and grazing=treatment pastures) and in pastures that were grazed but remained unburned (grazing only, no fire=control pastures). The effect of the fire-grazing interaction on heterogeneity (variance) of vegetation structure was assessed at scales from 12??5m 2 to 609ha. Most measurements of vegetation structure within treatment pastures differed from control pastures for 1-3years after being burned but were thereafter similar to the values found in unburned control pastures. Treatment pastures were characterized by a lower amount of total heterogeneity and a lower amount of heterogeneity through time. Heterogeneity of vegetation structure tended to decrease as the scale of measurement increased in both treatment and control pastures. There was deviation from this trend, however, in the treatment pastures that exhibited much higher heterogeneity at the patch scale (mean patch size=202ha) of measurement, the scale at which patch fires were conducted. Synthesis and applications.Vegetation structure in A. filifolia shrublands of our study was readily altered by the fire-grazing interaction but also demonstrated substantial resilience to these effects. The fire-grazing interaction also changed the total amount of heterogeneity characterizing this system, the scale at which heterogeneity in this system was expressed and the amount of heterogeneity expressed through time. Land managers seeking to impose a shifting mosaic of heterogeneity on this vegetation type can do so by restoring the fire-grazing interaction with potential conservation benefits similar to what has been achieved in other ecosystems where historic cycles of disturbance and rest have been restored. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Ecology ?? 2011 British Ecological Society.

  6. Factors associated with the financial performance of spring-calving, pasture-based dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Ramsbottom, G; Horan, B; Berry, D P; Roche, J R

    2015-05-01

    As land becomes a limiting resource for pasture-based dairy farming, the inclusion of purchased supplementary feeds to increase milk production per cow (through greater dry matter intake) and per hectare (through increased stocking rate) is often proposed as a strategy to increase profitability. Although a plausible proposition, virtually no analysis has been done on the effect of such intensification on the profitability of commercial pasture-based dairy farm businesses. The objective of this study was to characterize the average physical and financial performance of dairy systems differing in the proportion of the cow's diet coming from grazed pasture versus purchased supplementary feeds over 4 yr, while accounting for any interaction with geographic region. Physical, genetic, and financial performance data from 1,561 seasonal-calving, pasture-based dairy farms in Ireland were available between the years 2008 and 2011; data from some herds were available for more than 1 yr of the 4-yr study period, providing data from 2,759 dairy farm-years. The data set was divided into geographic regions, based on latitude, rainfall, and soil characteristics that relate to drainage; these factors influence the length of the pasture growth season and the timing of turnout to pasture in spring and rehousing in autumn. Farms were also categorized by the quantity of feed purchased; farms in which cows received <10, 11-20, 21-30, or >30% of their annual feed requirements from purchased feed were considered to be categories representative of increasing levels of system intensification. Geographic region was associated with differences in grazing days, pasture harvested per hectare, milk production per cow and per hectare, and farm profitability. Farms in regions with longer grazing seasons harvested a greater amount of pasture [an additional 19kg of dry matter (DM)/ha per grazing day per hectare], and greater pasture harvested was associated with increased milk component yield per hectare (58.4kg of fat and 51.4kg of protein more per tonne of DM pasture harvested/ha) and net profit per hectare (€268/ha more per tonne of DM harvested). Milk yield and yield of milk components per cow and per hectare increased linearly with increased use of purchased feed (additional 30.6kg of milk fat and 26.7kg of milk protein per tonne of DM purchased feed per hectare), but, on average, pasture harvested/hectare and net profit/hectare declined (-0.60 t of DM/ha and -€78.2/ha, respectively) with every tonne of DM supplementary feed purchased per hectare. The results indicate an effect of purchased feeds not usually accounted for in marginal economic analyses (e.g., milk to feed price ratio): the decline in pasture harvested/hectare, with the costs of producing the unutilized pasture in addition to the cost of feed resulting in a lower profit. In conclusion, greater milk component yields per cow were associated with increased profit per hectare, and a greater use of purchased feeds was associated with an increase in the yield of milk components. However, on average, increasing yield of milk components through the supply of purchased feeds to pasture-based cows was associated with a decline in pasture harvested per hectare and profitability. The decline in pasture harvested per hectare with increased use of purchased supplements per cow is probably the primary reason for the low milk production response and the failure to capitalize on the potential benefits of purchased supplements, with the associated costs of growing the unutilized pasture, in conjunction with increased nonfeed variable and fixed costs outweighing the increased milk production and revenue from supplementation. Farmers considering intensification through use of purchased supplements to increase the stock-carrying capacity of the farm (i.e., stocking rate) must ensure that they focus on management of pasture and total cost control to capture the potential benefits of supplementary feed use. PMID:25747836

  7. Dairy genomics in application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Implementation of genomic evaluation has caused profound changes in dairy cattle breeding. All young bulls bought by major artificial-insemination organizations now are selected based on these evaluation. Evaluation reliability can reach ~75% for yield traits, which is adequate for marketing semen o...

  8. Effects of an evaporative cooling system on plasma cortisol, IGF-I, and milk production in dairy cows in a tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titto, Cristiane Gonçalves; Negrão, João Alberto; Titto, Evaldo Antonio Lencioni; Canaes, Taissa de Souza; Titto, Rafael Martins; Pereira, Alfredo Manuel Franco

    2013-03-01

    Access to an evaporative cooling system can increase production in dairy cows because of improved thermal comfort. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of ambient temperature on thermoregulation, plasma cortisol, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), and productive status, and to determine the efficiency of an evaporative cooling system on physiological responses under different weather patterns. A total of 28 Holstein cows were divided into two groups, one with and the other without access to a cooling system with fans and mist in the free stall. The parameters were analyzed during morning (0700 hours) and afternoon milking (1430 hours) under five different weather patterns throughout the year (fall, winter, spring, dry summer, and rainy summer). Rectal temperature (RT), body surface temperature (BS), base of tail temperature (TT), and respiratory frequency (RF) were lower in the morning ( P < 0.01). The cooling system did not affect RT, and both the groups had values below 38.56 over the year ( P = 0.11). Cortisol and IGF-I may have been influenced by the seasons, in opposite ways. Cortisol concentrations were higher in winter ( P < 0.05) and IGF-I was higher during spring-summer ( P < 0.05). The air temperature and the temperature humidity index showed positive moderate correlations to RT, BS, TT, and RF ( P < 0.001). The ambient temperature was found to have a positive correlation with the physiological variables, independent of the cooling system, but cooled animals exhibited higher milk production during spring and summer ( P < 0.01).

  9. Effects of an evaporative cooling system on plasma cortisol, IGF-I, and milk production in dairy cows in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Titto, Cristiane Gonçalves; Negrão, João Alberto; Titto, Evaldo Antonio Lencioni; Canaes, Taissa de Souza; Titto, Rafael Martins; Pereira, Alfredo Manuel Franco

    2013-03-01

    Access to an evaporative cooling system can increase production in dairy cows because of improved thermal comfort. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of ambient temperature on thermoregulation, plasma cortisol, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), and productive status, and to determine the efficiency of an evaporative cooling system on physiological responses under different weather patterns. A total of 28 Holstein cows were divided into two groups, one with and the other without access to a cooling system with fans and mist in the free stall. The parameters were analyzed during morning (0700 hours) and afternoon milking (1430 hours) under five different weather patterns throughout the year (fall, winter, spring, dry summer, and rainy summer). Rectal temperature (RT), body surface temperature (BS), base of tail temperature (TT), and respiratory frequency (RF) were lower in the morning (P < 0.01). The cooling system did not affect RT, and both the groups had values below 38.56 over the year (P = 0.11). Cortisol and IGF-I may have been influenced by the seasons, in opposite ways. Cortisol concentrations were higher in winter (P < 0.05) and IGF-I was higher during spring-summer (P < 0.05). The air temperature and the temperature humidity index showed positive moderate correlations to RT, BS, TT, and RF (P < 0.001). The ambient temperature was found to have a positive correlation with the physiological variables, independent of the cooling system, but cooled animals exhibited higher milk production during spring and summer (P < 0.01). PMID:22580965

  10. Interactive effects of grazing and burning on wind- and water-driven sediment fluxes: rangeland management implications.

    PubMed

    Field, Jason P; Breshears, David D; Whicker, Jeffrey J; Zou, Chris B

    2011-01-01

    Rangelands are globally extensive, provide fundamental ecosystem services, and are tightly coupled human-ecological systems. Rangeland sustainability depends largely on the implementation and utilization of various grazing and burning practices optimized to protect against soil erosion and transport. In many cases, however, land management practices lead to increased soil erosion and sediment fluxes for reasons that are poorly understood. Because few studies have directly measured both wind and water erosion and transport, an assessment of how they may differentially respond to grazing and burning practices is lacking. Here, we report simultaneous, co-located estimates of wind- and water-driven sediment transport in a semiarid grassland in Arizona, USA, over three years for four land management treatments: control, grazed, burned, and burned + grazed. For all treatments and most years, annual rates of wind-driven sediment transport exceeded that of water due to a combination of ongoing small but nontrivial wind events and larger, less frequent, wind events that generally preceded the monsoon season. Sediment fluxes by both wind and water differed consistently by treatment: burned + grazed > burned > grazed > or = control, with effects immediately apparent after burning but delayed after grazing until the following growing season. Notably, the wind:water sediment transport ratio decreased following burning but increased following grazing. Our results show how rangeland practices disproportionally alter sediment fluxes driven by wind and water, differences that could potentially help explain divergence between rangeland sustainability and degradation. PMID:21516885

  11. Changes in the initial stages of a glucose-proline Maillard reaction model system influences dairy product quality during thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Guan, Y-G; Wang, S-L; Yu, S-J; Yu, S-M; Zhao, Z-G

    2012-02-01

    The Maillard reaction always occurs during the thermal processing of dairy products, which significantly influences their quality. In the present study, the initial stages of a glucose-proline model system were investigated in water and different types of buffer solutions. Results showed that phosphate buffer accelerated the reversible degradation of the initial stages of the reaction. The proposed catalysis mechanism was that hydrogenous and dihydric phosphate radical anions simultaneously accepted and donated protons for the conversion of the intermediates into N-glycosylamine. The catalysis mechanism was confirmed via testing and no reducing of hydrogenous and dihydric phosphate radical anions was observed during the reaction. Moreover, both N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)proline and its degradation compounds were analyzed. Results showed that degradation of N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl)proline to form 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde and formic acid was also accelerated by phosphate buffer. An interesting phenomenon was that citrate decreased 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde formation, which might be because Strecker-type degradation occurred more easily than 1,2-enolization reaction in citrate buffer solution. However, this hypothesis has not been confirmed, and element label experiments should be carried out in the future. PMID:22281323

  12. Proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry: A high-throughput and innovative method to study the influence of dairy system and cow characteristics on the volatile compound fingerprint of cheeses.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, M; Biasioli, F; Cappellin, L; Cecchinato, A; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cornu, A; Gasperi, F; Martin, B; Bittante, G

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of dairy system and individual cow-related factors on the volatile fingerprint of a large number of individual model cheeses analyzed by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS). A total of 1,075 model cheeses were produced using milk samples collected from individual Brown Swiss cows reared in 72 herds located in mountainous areas of Trento province (Italy). The herds belonged to 5 main dairy systems ranging from traditional to modern and the cows presented different daily milk yields (24.67.9kg d(-1)), stages of lactation (199138 d in milk), and parities (2.71.8). The PTR-ToF-MS revealed 619 peaks, of which the 240 most intense were analyzed, and 61 of these were tentatively attributed to relevant volatile organic compounds on the basis of their fragmentation patterns and data from the literature. Principal component analysis was used to convert the multiple responses characterizing the PTR-ToF-MS spectra into 5 synthetic variables representing 62% of the total information. These principal components were related to groups of volatile compounds tentatively attributed to different peaks and used to investigate the relationship of the volatile compound profile obtained by PTR-ToF-MS to animal and farm characteristics. Lactation stage is related to 4 principal components which brought together 52.9% of the total variance and 57.9% of the area of analyzed peaks. In particular, 2 principal components were positively related to peaks tentatively attributed to aldehydes and ketones and negatively related to alcohols, esters, and acids, which displayed a linear increase during lactation. The second principal component was affected by dairy system; it was higher in the modern system in which cows received total mixed rations. The third principal component was positively related to daily milk production. In summary, we report the first application of this innovative, high-throughput technique to study the effects of dairy system and individual animal factors on volatile organic compounds of model cheeses. Individual cheesemaking procedures together with this spectrometric technique open new avenues for genetic selection of dairy species with respect to both milk and cheese quality. PMID:26476950

  13. Can soil change be assessed for the Victorian dairy industry?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarons, Sharon R.; Crawford, Douglas; Imhof, Mark; Gourley, Cameron

    2015-07-01

    Meeting the increased demand for dairy products will require careful management of soils to minimise land degradation and sustain increased production. Key to providing farmers with the tools to manage their soils sustainably, is firstly understanding the soil types currently managed by dairy farmers, and secondly quantifying changes in soil properties in response to management. The Victorian Land Use Information System was interrogated to identify dairy land parcels and these data overlaid on soil survey information to identify the dominant soil orders managed by dairy farmers in the three dairy regions of Victoria. Of the approximately 590,000 hectares of dairy land identified across the state, Sodosols (33%), Chromosols (20%), Dermosols (16%), and Vertosols (11%) are the major soil Orders represented, although the dominant soil Orders vary for each region. Legacy data from research and extension activities undertaken between 1995 and 2010 were collated to understand regional differences in dairy soil properties. All soil properties were significantly and positively skewed with higher median pH, EC and available K in northern Victorian soils. Further analysis compared the 1995 to 2010 data with data from samples analysed by the government analytical laboratory between 1973 and 1980 to assess any differences over 38 years. The older soil chemical data were also positively skewed but had lower median soil pH, Olsen P and available K, consistent with the greater use of inputs by the industry in more recent years.

  14. Grazing maintains native plant diversity and promotes community stability in an annual grassland.

    PubMed

    Beck, Jared J; Hernndez, Daniel L; Pasari, Jae R; Zavaleta, Erika S

    2015-07-01

    Maintaining native biodiversity in grasslands requires management and mitigation of anthropogenic changes that have altered resource availability, grazing regimes, and community composition. In California (USA), high levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition have facilitated the invasion of exotic grasses, posing a threat to the diverse plant and insect communities endemic to serpentine grasslands. Cattle grazing has been employed to mitigate the consequences of exotic grass invasion, but the ecological effects of grazing in this system are not fully understood. To characterize the effects of realistic N deposition on serpentine plant communities and to evaluate the efficacy of grazing as a management tool, we performed a factorial experiment adding N and excluding large herbivores in California's largest serpentine grassland. Although we observed significant interannual variation in community composition related to climate in our six-year study, exotic cover was consistently and negatively correlated with native plant richness. Sustained low-level N addition did not influence plant community composition, but grazing reduced grass abundance while maintaining greater native forb cover, native plant diversity, and species richness in comparison to plots excluding large herbivores. Furthermore, grazing increased the temporal stability of plant communities by decreasing year-to-year variation in native forb cover, native plant diversity, and native species richness. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that moderate-intensity cattle grazing can be used to restrict the invasive potential of exotic grasses and maintain native plant communities in serpentine grasslands. We hypothesize that the reduced temporal variability in serpentine plant communities managed by grazing may directly benefit populations of the threatened Edith's Bay checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas editha bayensis). PMID:26485954

  15. Untangling the roles of fire, grazing and rainfall on small mammal communities in grassland ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, R W; Scott, D M; Chimimba, C T; Metcalfe, D J

    2007-11-01

    In grassland systems across the globe, ecologists have been attempting to understand the complex role of fire, grazing and rainfall in creating habitat heterogeneity and the consequences of anthropogenic control of these factors on ecosystem integrity and functioning. Using a South African grassland ecosystem as a model, we investigated the impact of fire and grazing pressure on small mammal communities during three differing periods of a rainfall cycle. Over 2 years, 15,203 trap nights revealed 1598 captures of 11 species (nine rodents, one macroscelid and one insectivore). Results highlighted the importance of the interplay between factors and showed that the role of fire, grazing and rainfall in determining small mammal abundance was species-dependant. While no two species were affected by the same environmental variables, grass cover or height was important to 56% of species. Considered independently, high rainfall had a positive influence on small mammal abundance and diversity, although the lag period in population response was species-specific. High grazing negatively affected overall abundance, but specifically in Mastomys coucha; fire alone had little immediate impact on small mammal diversity. Six months after the fire, vegetation cover had recovered to similar levels as unburned areas, although small mammal diversity and richness were higher in burned areas than unburned areas. Grazing levels influenced the rate of vegetation recovery. In conclusion, low-level grazing and burning can help to maintain small mammal biodiversity, if conducted under appropriate rainfall levels. A too high grazing pressure, combined with fire, and/or fire conducted under drought conditions can have a negative impact on small mammal biodiversity. To maintain small mammal diversity in grassland ecosystems, the combined effects of the previous year's rainfall and existing population level as well as the inhibition of vegetation recovery via grazing pressure need to be taken into consideration before fire management is applied. PMID:17846799

  16. Taxon-specific growth and selective microzooplankton grazing of phytoplankton in the Northeast Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaul, Wilhelm; Antia, Avan N.

    2001-10-01

    Taxon-specific microzooplankton dynamics were studied along a transect through the North Atlantic Drift from 70°N 04°E to 40°N 20°W during July 1997 using serial dilution and nutrient-enrichment experiments. Nutrient concentrations and microzooplankton composition indicated postbloom conditions at 40°N, 47°N, and 50°N, a transitional system at 54°N, and bloom conditions at 62°N and 70°N. The ratio of microzooplankton to phytoplankton biomass was inversely related to nitrate and phosphate concentrations. Potential grazing thresholds were observed in four of nine experiments at 40-66% of the initial phytoplankton concentration. Grazing losses were determined for six pigment-specific classes of phytoplankton. Selective grazing losses of phytoplankton taxa ranged from 73% to 248% of the nonselective grazing losses predicted according to their biomass contributions. The grazing selectivity varied considerably between communities, with the microherbivores showing positive selection for cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates and predominantly avoidance of chlorophyta and bacillariophyceae. Microzooplankton did not show a preference for the dominant phytoplankton taxa, but grazed preferentially on fast-growing phytoplankton with minor contributions (<15%) to the phytoplankton biomass. However, bacillariophyceae were the major contributors to phytoplankton biomass and accounted for major fractions of the total losses through microzooplankton grazing. Microzooplankton consumed the equivalent of 0.12-5.5 times their own biomass daily on a carbon basis, amounting to 65-197% of gross phytoplankton production. With the conservative assumption that 20% of the consumed phytoplankton was converted to microzooplankton biomass, the latter was estimated to contribute 27-381% to the net production of the entire microzooplankton community. We therefore conclude that the taxonomic structure and the net production of the microzooplankton communities were significantly affected by the intensity and selectivity of herbivorous microzooplankton grazing.

  17. Experimental warming, not grazing, decreases rangeland quality on the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Klein, Julia A; Harte, John; Zhao, Xin-Quan

    2007-03-01

    We investigated experimental warming and simulated grazing (clipping) effects on rangeland quality, as indicated by vegetation production and nutritive quality, in winter-grazed meadows and summer-grazed shrublands on the Tibetan Plateau, a rangeland system experiencing climatic and pastoral land use changes. Warming decreased total aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) by 40 g x m(-2) x yr(-1) at the meadow habitats and decreased palatable ANPP (total ANPP minus non-palatable forb ANPP) by 10 g x m(-2) x yr(-1) at both habitats. The decreased production of the medicinal forb Gentiana straminea and the increased production of the non-palatable forb Stellera chamaejasme with warming also reduced rangeland quality. At the shrubland habitats, warming resulted in less digestible shrubs, whose foliage contains 25% digestible dry matter (DDM), replacing more digestible graminoids, whose foliage contains 60% DDM. This shift from graminoids to shrubs not only results in lower-quality forage, but could also have important consequences for future domestic herd composition. Although warming extended the growing season in non-clipped plots, the reduced rangeland quality due to decreased vegetative production and nutritive quality will likely overwhelm the improved rangeland quality associated with an extended growing season. Grazing maintained or improved rangeland quality by increasing total ANPP by 20-40 g x m(-2) x yr(-1) with no effect on palatable ANPP. Grazing effects on forage nutritive quality, as measured by foliar nitrogen and carbon content and by shifts in plant group ANPP, resulted in improved forage quality. Grazing extended the growing season at both habitats, and it advanced the growing season at the meadows. Synergistic interactions between warming and grazing were present, such that grazing mediated the warming-induced declines in vegetation production and nutritive quality. Moreover, combined treatment effects were nonadditive, suggesting that we cannot predict the combined effect of global changes and human activities from single-factor studies. Our findings suggest that the rangelands on the Tibetan Plateau, and the pastoralists who depend on them, may be vulnerable to future climate changes. Grazing can mitigate the negative warming effects on rangeland quality. For example, grazing management may be an important tool to keep warming-induced shrub expansion in check. Moreover, flexible and opportunistic grazing management will be required in a warmer future. PMID:17489258

  18. Grazing incidence telescopes for x-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenstein, Paul

    2012-01-01

    With grazing incidence telescopes, x-ray astronomy became a major branch of astrophysics. They are an indispensable tool in the study of >106 K thermal and non-thermal high energy phenomena occurring in objects from the solar system to the most distant sites in the universe. They have shed light upon dark matter and dark energy. Four cosmic missions with focusing grazing incidence x-ray telescopes based upon the Wolter 1 geometry are currently in space. They include two observatory class facilities launched in 1999, NASA's high resolution x-ray and ESA's high throughput XMM-Newton. Two others are Japan's Suzaku, performing a variety of studies, and the Swift XRT, which finds precise positions for the x-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. Four new cosmic missions with Wolter-like focusing telescopes are scheduled for launch. They will provide much broader bandwidth (NuSTAR and Astro-H), perform a new sky survey with more exposure time and a broader energy range than previous surveys (eROSITA), have an imaging detector with much better energy resolution (Astro-H), and measure polarization (GEMS). The Kirkpatrick-Baez and the lobster-eye are two types of potentially useful grazing incidence telescopes that have not yet been in orbit. It may not be possible to improve upon Chandra's 0.5 arcsec resolution without new technology.

  19. Case study of a commercial sheep flock under extensive mountain grazing: Pasture derived lipid compounds in milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Valdivielso, I; Bustamante, M A; Aldezabal, A; Amores, G; Virto, M; Ruiz de Gordoa, J C; de Renobales, M; Barron, L J R

    2016-04-15

    Terpenoid, fat-soluble antioxidant and fatty acid (FA) composition of pasture as well as those of milk and cheese from a commercial sheep flock managed under extensive mountain grazing in the east region of the Cantabrian mountain (Northern Spain) was investigated. The grazing period lasted for 2 months and ewes were at late lactation stage. Plants, feces, bulk milk and cheese samples were collected on two sampling dates. The abundance of the dominating botanical families in the mountain pasture prevailed in the sheep diet of the commercial flock. Major terpenoids and tocols in the pasture appeared as major ones in milk and cheese, whereas C18 unsaturated FAs in milk and cheese were derived from the intake of C18 polyunsaturated FAs which were prevalent in the pasture. No carotene was detected in the dairy samples but retinol (free or esterified), derived from the intake of β-carotene present in pasture plants, was found in milk and cheese. PMID:26616996

  20. Ammonia emission from grassland and livestock production systems in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ryden, J C; Whitehead, D C; Lockyer, D R; Thompson, R B; Skinner, J H; Garwood, E A

    1987-01-01

    Emissions of ammonia were measured from livestock excreta and fertilisers applied to grass swards, from grazed paddocks, from decomposing grass herbage and from an animal house containing dairy cows. Emissions from urine, dung, slurry and fertilisers were determined using a system of wind tunnels with each tunnel covering an area of 1 m(2). Emissions from grazed swards were determined using a micrometeorological mass balance method. From the results of these measurements, together with other published information, an inventory for ammonia emissions has been calculated for grassland and livestock production systems over the UK as a whole. It is estimated that emissions from grassland and cattle and sheep production amount to about 230 kt NH(3)-N annually, while emissions from pig and poultry production amount to about 40 kt and 80 kt NH(3)-N, respectively. PMID:15092683

  1. Salmonellae, salmonellosis, and dairy foods: a review.

    PubMed

    el-Gazzar, F E; Marth, E H

    1992-09-01

    Salmonellae continue to be a major concern for the dairy industry because these bacteria have caused recent outbreaks of illness and have been isolated from various dairy products in the market place. Salmonellae are generally not heat resistant and normally grow at 35 to 37 degrees C, but they can grow at much lower temperatures, provided that the incubation time is suitably extended. To minimize problems, foods should be held at or below 2 to 5 degrees C at all times. Both conventional and rapid methods are available to isolate salmonellae from dairy foods and to identify the bacteria. Salmonellae behave differently in different kinds of cheese: they survived in ripening Cheddar cheese for up to 7 mo at 13 degrees C and for 10 mo at 7 degrees C; in coldpack cheese food for several weeks, depending on the pH and preservative used; and in Domiati cheese 13 to 36 d, depending on the manufacturing process used. When Mozzarella cheese was made, temperatures of stretching and molding (60 degrees C) killed all salmonellae present, but, in cottage cheese, survival of the pathogen depended on the cooking temperature of curd. Spray drying of skim milk killed substantial numbers of salmonellae, but some survivors remained. Butter readily supported growth of salmonellae at room temperature, and neither freezing nor refrigeration for brief periods eliminated salmonellae from butter. Use of appropriate hygienic procedures, e.g., Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system, during processing should reduce the likelihood of salmonellosis outbreaks associated with dairy foods. PMID:1452840

  2. Freeze concentration of dairy products Phase 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Best, D.E.; Vasavada, K.C.

    1993-09-01

    An efficient, electrically driven freeze concentration system offers potential for substantially increasing electricity demand while providing the mature dairy industry with new products for domestic and export markets together with enhanced production efficiencies. Consumer tests indicate that dairy products manufactured from freeze-concentrated ingredients are either preferred or considered equivalent in quality to fresh milk-based products. Economic analyses indicate that this technology should be competitive with thermal evaporation processes on a commercial basis.

  3. Modeling dynamics of circum-arctic tundra plant communities in response to climate warming and grazing pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Q.; Epstein, H. E.; Walker, D. A.; Forbes, B. C.; Vors, L. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic is a complex system with strong interconnectedness among system components. Understanding the responses of the arctic tundra biome to a changing climate requires knowledge of the complex interactions among climate, soils, and the biological system. In this study, we investigate the individual and interactive effects of projected climate change and reindeer/caribou grazing across a variety of climate zones and soil nutrient levels on tundra plant community dynamics using an arctic vegetation model - ArcVeg. Our research questions include: 1) How does soil nutrient availability affect tundra vegetation responses to projected climate warming? 2) How does grazing affect tundra vegetation responses? 3) How do interactions of soil nutrients, climate warming and grazing affect tundra vegetation? We based our simulations on A1B scenario temperature data from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), soil organic nitrogen data from Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) simulations and grazing pressure derived from reindeer/caribou population data from the CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment Network (CARMA). We found that in general tundra communities responded to warming with increased plant biomass, but the magnitude of the response is affected by the bioclimate zones, warming magnitude, available soil nutrients and grazing pressures. Regions with greater soil organic nitrogen responded to warming with greater biomass increase, Low Arctic tundra tended to have greater biomass increase than High Arctic tundra due to greater shrub abundance. However, such responses are mitigated by grazing. Regions with greater reindeer population and thus greater grazing intensity tended to have stronger negative effects on plant responses to warming than regions with less grazing. For example, in Subzone D, total biomass and NPP increases due to warming were about 71% and 43% in an Alaskan low grazing-intensity region, but 63% and 36% in a northwestern Canada high grazing-intensity region. In Subzone C, although with similar warming magnitude, Yamal and Taymyr region being intensely grazed by reindeer responded with smaller total biomass increase (~68%) than a northwestern Canada low grazing-intensity region (~93%). Plant responses to warming may be a factor that determines the size of reindeer population and understanding how tundra plants respond to warming, grazing and their interactions will contribute to reindeer management practices.

  4. The economic effects of whole-herd versus selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Charlier, J; Levecke, B; Devleesschauwer, B; Vercruysse, J; Hogeveen, H

    2012-06-01

    Current control practices against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cows rely strongly on anthelmintic use. To reduce the development of anthelmintic resistance or disposition of drug residues in the environment, novel control approaches are currently proposed that target anthelmintic treatment to individual animals instead of the whole herd. However, such selective treatment strategies come with additional costs for labor and diagnostics and, so far, no studies have addressed whether they could be economically sustainable. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the economic effects at farm level of whole-herd versus more selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in adult dairy cows, and (2) determine how these economic effects depend on level of infection and herd size. A Monte Carlo simulation, fed by current epidemiological and economical knowledge, was used to estimate the expected economic effects and possible variation of different control strategies under Belgian conditions. Four treatment strategies were compared with a baseline situation in which no treatments were applied: whole herd at calving (S1), selective at calving with (S2) or without (S3) treatment of the first-calf cows, and whole-herd when animals are moved from grazing to the barn in the fall (housing treatment, S4). The benefit per lactation for an average dairy herd varied between -$2 and $131 (average $64) for S1, between -$2 and $127 (average $62) for S2, between -$17 and $104 (average $43) for S3, and between -$41 and $72 (average $15) for S4. The farmer's risk associated with any treatment strategy, as indicated by the width of the 95% credible intervals of economic benefit of anthelmintic treatment, decreased with increasing level of exposure, as assessed by bulk tank milk ELISA. The order of the different strategies when sorted by expected benefit was robust to changes in economic input parameters. We conclude that, on average, strategies applying anthelmintic treatment at calving outperform a strategy applying treatment at housing. Within the strategies that applied treatment at calving, more selective treatment strategies can be economically sustainable. However, given the large variation in possible benefits within each treatment strategy, decision support systems are needed to account for the multitude of cow, epidemiological, and economic factors that determine the economics of nematode control and select the optimal treatment strategy for a specific farm. PMID:22612935

  5. Grazing management effects on temperate grass growth what, when, and how much makes a difference

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing management significantly impacts pasture productivity and persistence. We determined grass response to residue height when grazed at a vegetative or mature stage, and response to timing of grazing. Meadow fescue, orchardgrass, quackgrass, and reed canarygrass were rotationally grazed when ...

  6. 76 FR 31977 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Domestic Sheep Grazing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... sheep grazing permits on 12 allotments and 1 cattle grazing allotment in the southern San Luis Valley.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Term permits on 12 sheep grazing and 1 cattle grazing allotments located in...

  7. Biogenic production of dimethyl sulfide: Krill grazing

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, K.L.; DiTullio, G.R. )

    1993-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a dominant sulfur compound in sea water, is a possible precursor for cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere and may influence global climate. The primary source of DMS is phytoplankton, but the mechanisms remain uncertain, and concentrations of DMS in the ocean vary spatially and temporally. Laboratory studies suggest zooplankton grazing may be an important process leading to the formation of DMS in the ocean. This paper describes ocean studies which examine the suggestion that grazing by krill may be a significant source for DMS production in the antarctic coastal region. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Production and feeding strategies for phosphorus management on dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Rotz, C A; Sharpley, A N; Satter, L D; Gburek, W J; Sanderson, M A

    2002-11-01

    Long-term accumulation of soil phosphorus (P) is becoming a concern on some watersheds heavily populated with animal feeding facilities, including dairy farms. Management changes in crop production and feeding may help reduce the accumulation of excess P, but farm profitability must be maintained or improved to assure adoption of such changes. Whole-farm simulation was used to evaluate the long-term effects of changes in feeding, cropping, and other production strategies on P loading and the economics of 100-cow and 800-cow dairy farms in southeastern New York. Simulated farms maintained a long-term P balance if the following occurred: 1) animals were fed to meet recommended minimum amounts of dietary P, 2) the cropping strategy and land base supplied all of the forage needed, 3) all animals were fed a high forage diet, and 4) replacement heifers were produced on the farm to utilize more forage. The most easily implemented change was to reduce the supplemental mineral P fed to that required to meet current NRC recommended amounts, and this provided an annual increase in farm profit of about $22/cow. Intensifying the use of grassland and improving grazing practices increased profit along with a small reduction in excess P. Conversion from dairy production to heifer raising or expansion from 100 cows to a 250-cow "state-of-the-art" confinement facility (with a 70% increase in land area) were also profitable options. These options provided a long-term P balance for the farm as long as the production and use of forage was maximized and minimum dietary P amounts were those recommended by the NRC. Thus, management changes can be made to prevent the long-term accumulation of soil P on dairy farms while improving farm profitability. PMID:12487482

  9. Ungulate preference for burned patches reveals strength of fire–grazing interaction

    PubMed Central

    Allred, Brady W; Fuhlendorf, Samuel D; Engle, David M; Elmore, R Dwayne

    2011-01-01

    The interactions between fire and grazing are widespread throughout fire-dependent landscapes. The utilization of burned areas by grazing animals establishes the fire–grazing interaction, but the preference for recently burned areas relative to other influences (water, topography, etc.) is unknown. In this study, we determine the strength of the fire–grazing interaction by quantifying the influence of fire on ungulate site selection. We compare the preference for recently burned patches relative to the influence of other environmental factors that contribute to site selection; compare that preference between native and introduced ungulates; test relationships between area burned and herbivore preference; and determine forage quality and quantity as mechanisms of site selection. We used two large ungulate species at two grassland locations within the southern Great Plains, USA. At each location, spatially distinct patches were burned within larger areas through time, allowing animals to select among burned and unburned areas. Using fine scale ungulate location data, we estimated resource selection functions to examine environmental factors in site selection. Ungulates preferred recently burned areas and avoided areas with greater time since fire, regardless of the size of landscape, herbivore species, or proportion of area burned. Forage quality was inversely related to time since fire, while forage quantity was positively related. We show that fire is an important component of large ungulate behavior with a strong influence on site selection that drives the fire–grazing interaction. This interaction is an ecosystem process that supersedes fire and grazing as separate factors, shaping grassland landscapes. Inclusion of the fire–grazing interaction into ecological studies and conservation practices of fire-prone systems will aid in better understanding and managing these systems. PMID:22393490

  10. 25 CFR 166.305 - When is grazing capacity determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....305 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management 166.305 When is grazing capacity determined? Before we grant, modify, or... season(s) of use on Indian lands....

  11. INFLUENCE OF PROTOZOAN GRAZING ON CONTAMINANT BIODEGRADATION. (R825418)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of protozoan grazing on biodegradation rates in samples from contaminated aquifer sediment was evaluated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Predatorprey biomass ratios suggested that protozoan grazing might be influencing bacterial populations....

  12. DO GRAZING CATTLE SEEK NUTRITIONALLY SUPERIOR PORTIONS OF PASTURES?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that grazing cattle will most often frequent nutritionally superior portions of large pastures. Forage quantity/quality characteristics were mapped among three pastures and cattle grazing patterns subsequently tracked with GPS collars. Cattle preferred locations...

  13. Using an on-line microdialysis/HPLC system for the simultaneous determination of melamine and cyanuric acid in non-dairy creamer.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yu-Ying; Lee, Cheuch-Ting; Wei, Yu-Tzu; Kou, Hwang-Shang; Huang, Yeou-Lih

    2011-09-19

    The recent revelation of melamine (MEL) contamination in foodstuffs in China has rocked the international public health community. Many food categories have been involved in this scandal, including non-dairy creamer (NDC). In this study, we investigated the use of hollow-fiber microdialysis (MD) sampling coupled on-line with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as an alternative to sample pretreatment for the direct determination of MEL and its analogue cyanuric acid (CYA) in NDC. After MD sampling, the dialysate was injected on-line into the chromatographic system for analysis of MEL and CYA with UV detection at 203 nm. We monitored the effects of various parameters affecting the MD efficiency, namely the characteristics of the MD probe membrane, the flow-rate and the nature of the polarity modifier in the perfusion stream, and the addition of salt in the sample solution. The optimal enrichment efficiency for collecting MEL and CYA from aqueous NDC samples occurred with MD sampling using a hollow polysulfone MD fiber and MeOH as the perfusate at a flow rate of 10 ?L min(-1). The optimized chromatographic conditions involved using a reversed-phase phenyl column and a mobile phase of 5 mM phosphate buffer in 10% (v/v) MeOH, buffered at pH 6.5. Detection was linear in the concentration range from 0.02 to 5 ppm for MEL and from 2 to 100 ppm for CYA, with detection limits of 1 ppb for MEL and 30 ppb for CYA. The volume of perfusate required to extract MEL and CYA from the NDC solution was only 21 ?L. The total MD sampling time was 2.1 min. This method allows the sensitive, eco-friendly, and rapid determination of MEL and CYA in NDC-a risk food for economically motivated adulteration. PMID:21819860

  14. Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Song, Yunmei; Petrovski, Kiro; Eats, Patricia; Trott, Darren J; Wong, Hui San; Page, Stephen W; Perry, Jeanette; Garg, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Background Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA) treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS) of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs) of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis. Results Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5–8 μg/mL). The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21–35-fold). Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in tre