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1

The effect of sward height and season on herbage intake of dairy cows in a rotational grazing system  

E-print Network

The effect of sward height and season on herbage intake of dairy cows in a rotational grazing) of dairy cows in rotational grazing systems. Pi was estimated using chromic oxide as a marker. Data growth. Therefore, during Y two and three, pastures were grazed when planned target H was obtained. As H

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

2

Development of a Lifetime Merit-based selection index for US dairy grazing systems.  

PubMed

Pasture-based dairy producers in the United States face costs, revenue streams, and management challenges that may differ from those associated with confinement dairy production systems. Three Grazing Merit indices (GM$1, GM$2, and GM$3), parallel to the US Lifetime Net Merit (NM$) index, were constructed using economic values appropriate for grazing production in the United States. Milk prices based on averages from the previous 5 yr were used for GM$1, whereas GM$2 and GM$3 used milk prices found in NM$. Cull prices and interest rates from NM$ were used in GM$3 but were updated for GM$1 and GM$2. All other inputs remained constant among GM$1, GM$2, and GM$3. Economic costs and revenues were obtained from surveys, recent literature, and farm financial record summaries. Derived weights for GM$ were then multiplied by the predicted transmitting abilities of 584 active artificial insemination Holstein bulls to compare with NM$. Spearman rank correlations for NM$ were 0.93 with GM$1, 0.98 with GM$2, and 0.98 with GM$3. Traits (and their percentages of weight) comprising GM$1, GM$2, and GM$3, respectively, included milk volume (24, 0, 0%), Fat yield (16, 21, 21%), protein yield (4, 17, 17%), productive life (7, 8, 7%), somatic cell count (-8, -9, -9%), feet and legs composite (4, 4, 4%), body size composite (-3, -4, -4%), udder composite (7, 8, 8%), daughter pregnancy rate (18, 20, 20%), calving ability (3, 3, 3%), and dairy form (6, 6, 6%). These weights compared with NM$ weights of 0, 19, 16, 22, 10, 4, 6, 7, 11, 5, and 0% for the same traits, respectively. Dairy form was added to GM$ to offset the decrease in strength associated with selection to reduce stature through selection against body size. Emphasis on productive life decreased in GM$ because grazing cattle are estimated to remain in the herd considerably longer, diminishing the marginal value of productive life. Although NM$ provides guidance for grazing dairy producers, a GM$ index based upon appropriate costs and revenues allows for selection of cows and bulls for more optimal genetic progress. PMID:24792796

Gay, K D; Widmar, N J O; Nennich, T D; Schinckel, A P; Cole, J B; Schutz, M M

2014-07-01

3

Effect of silage from ryegrass intercropped with winter or common vetch for grazing dairy cows in small-scale dairy systems in Mexico.  

PubMed

The objective was to determine the effect of including silages of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) intercropped with winter vetch (Vicia villosa) (ARG-VV) or with common vetch (Vicia sativa) (ARG-VS) compared with maize silage (MS) on milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows grazing cultivated perennial ryegrass-white clover pastures with supplemented concentrate during the dry season. Six Holstein dairy cows with a mean yield of 19.0 kg/cow/day at the beginning of the experiment were randomly assigned to a 3?×?3 repeated Latin square. Treatments were: 8 h/day intensive grazing, 3.6 kg of dry matter (DM) per cow per day of concentrate plus MS, and ARG-VV or ARG-VS ad libitum at a stocking rate of 3.0 cows/ha for three experimental periods of 3 weeks each. Milk yield (MY) and milk composition, live weight and body condition score as well as silage and concentrate intakes were recorded during the third week of each experimental period, and pasture intake was estimated indirectly from utilised metabolisable energy. Economic analysis was obtained by preparing partial budgets. There were no statistical differences (P?>?0.10) in MY, milk fat or protein content nor for live weight, but there was significant difference (P?grazed herbage intake whilst no differences for total DM intake. Slightly higher economic returns (10%) were obtained with ARG-VS over MS, and this was 7% higher than ARG-VV. It is concluded that ARG-VS could be an option for complementing grazing for small-scale dairy production systems in the dry season as it is comparable to MS in animal performance and slightly better in economic terms. PMID:21327716

Hernández-Ortega, Martha; Heredia-Nava, Darwin; Espinoza-Ortega, Angelica; Sánchez-Vera, Ernesto; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M

2011-06-01

4

Rotational grazing of dairy cows : effect of grazing intervals on animal and grass production  

E-print Network

Rotational grazing of dairy cows : effect of grazing intervals on animal and grass production F'Armor, BP 540, 22195 Plérin Cedex, France With rotational grazing, short grazing intervals allow to feed for grazing in summer, which could lower the acreage of grass to be cut for silage in spring ; - a longer

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

5

Economic and Environmental Impact of Four Levels of Concentrate Supplementation in Grazing Dairy Herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low-cost, pasture-based forage systems are a viable management alternative for small to moderately sized dairy farms in the Northeast United States. A whole farm analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential long-term environmental impact and economic benefit of varying the level of concentrate supplementation on seasonal grazing dairies. A representative dairy farm was simulated with various production strategies over 25

K. J. Soder; C. A. Rotz

2001-01-01

6

Dietary Preference of Dairy Cows Grazing Ryegrass and White Clover  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thedietarypreferenceoflactatingdairycowsgrazing perennialryegrass(LoliumperenneL.)andwhiteclover (Trifolium repens L.) was studied. Twelve groups of 2 lactating, Holstein-Friesian dairy cows grazed 1.2-ha plots containing conterminal monocultures of clover and grass. Half of the groups grazed a plot containing 75% clover and 25% grass (by ground area), with the remaining groups grazing a plot containing 25% clover and 75% grass. The intake rates of clover were

S. M. Rutter; R. J. Orr; N. H. Yarrow; R. A. Champion

2004-01-01

7

Effects of herbage allowance on performances of dairy cows grazing alfalfa swards  

E-print Network

Effects of herbage allowance on performances of dairy cows grazing alfalfa swards E Comer�n L sward, herbage allowance (HA) greatly affect milk production and herbage intake by grazing dairy cows of HA when cows grazed pure alfalfa swards. Three levels of daily herbage allowance : 100 (SG10), 20 (SG

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

8

Effects of nitrogen fertilization and protein supplementation on dairy cow nutrition at grazing  

E-print Network

Effects of nitrogen fertilization and protein supplementation on dairy cow nutrition at grazing JL on intake and digestion in grazing dairy cows. Two levels of N fertilisation (Low N (0), High N (60 kg N. Fertilization levels were applied on perennial ryegrass swards over 2 years. The swards were strip-grazed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

9

A PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS OF DAIRY FEEDING SYSTEMS IN THE NORTHEAST  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the use and profitability of three distinct feeding systems; confinement feeding, traditional grazing, and management-intensive grazing from a randomly selected sample of northeastern dairy farms. The confinement feeding farms were significantly larger and produced more milk per cow, while the farms using management-intensive grazing incurred the lowest production costs. Both confinement feeding and management-intensive grazing generated significantly

Jonathan R. Winsten; Robert L. Parsons; Gregory D. Hanson

2000-01-01

10

Effects of sward structure upon herbage intake by grazing dairy cows  

E-print Network

Effects of sward structure upon herbage intake by grazing dairy cows L Astigarraga JL Peyraud 'INRA was strip-grazed at a high daily herbage allowance of 28 kg OM/cow. HOMI was estimated as described Peyraud et al (this issue). Grazing time (GT), rumination time (RT), extended tiller height (ETH) and leaf

Boyer, Edmond

11

Effect of level of nitrogen fertilization and protein supplementation on herbage utilization by grazing dairy cows.  

E-print Network

by grazing dairy cows. I. Herbage intake and feeding behaviour JL Peyraud, L Astigarraga, P Faverdin, L meal (1 kg pro- tected cake) (SBM) supplementation when cows grazed the LN sward (LN + S treatment). The sward was strip grazed at a high daily herbage allowance of 28 kg OM/cow (cut by motor scythe). Each

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

12

Grazing Systems for Profitable Ranching  

E-print Network

for animals to graze regrowth before plants recover. All domestic livestock must be removed from pastures being rested. 7. Numbers of wildlife animals should be controlled to prevent overuse of desired plants, provide higher quality diets and improve...-February third cycle The dates and periods of deferment should be selected for the specific area in which the system is to be used. The pasture being grazed should be observed often for signs of excessive overuse or deterioration. Seasonal Grazing Seasonal...

Hanselka, C. Wayne; Ragsdale, Bobby; Rector, Barron S.

2000-05-03

13

Changes in soil carbon cycling accompanying conversion of row-crop fields to grazing dairy pastures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasingly, the dairy industry in the eastern US is transitioning from total confinement dairy systems (TCD) toward pasture-based, management intensive grazing dairy (MiGD) systems. This transition is driven by the fact that MiGDs require substantially less operating capital and are more economically efficient than TCD systems. Consequently, the impact of this transition and shift in land-use practice on carbon dynamics may be considerable. Land-use in a Management intensive Grazing Dairy (MiGD) system is fundamentally different than conventional confinement dairies and conventional no-till pastures. The forage system involves rotational grazing at optimal digestibility, when the plants are immature (~20-days) and consequently protein-rich. MiGD cows spend >90% of their time in the field and deposit > 90% of their waste directly to the soil surface. Thus, little above ground plant residues are directly returned to the soil, but rather substantial C inputs derive from bovine manure. We sampled a MiGD-chronosequence of row-crop to MiGD conversion established in 2007 in eastern Georgia. All soils across the MiGD-chronosequence, all occur in relative (40 km) close proximity to one another, are deep, well-drained, fine and fine sandy loam Ultisols formed on Coastal Plain sediments. Prior to MiGD established, the soils were farmed for > 50 yrs using conventional tillage techniques. Our current sampling to 1m depths captures fields at 0, 2, 3, and 5 yrs since conversion. Total soil carbon (C) and the carbon concentration of the clay fraction increased following conversion, with the greatest increases occurring between 3 and 5 yrs since conversion. These C increases were limited to the upper 40cm of the soil, with minimal change occurring at depth. Characterization of the protein and ligand content of these soils via 13C NMR and chemolytic techniques as a function of soil particle density and size is in progress and will be presented along with estimates of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes across the MiGD chronosequence. Our broad goal is to quantify ruminal methane emissions and changes to soil C-stocks and stability associated with this land-use shift. Our preliminary data suggest such a land-use change will likely improve soil health and increase C-stocks. Balancing this against potential increases in methane emissions is a key knowledge gap for future southeastern U.S. C-cycling estimates.

Thompson, A.; Kramer, M. G.; Hill, N.; Machmuller, M. B.; Cyle, K.

2011-12-01

14

Lactational responses of grazing dairy cows to Na or K fertilization of pastures  

E-print Network

Lactational responses of grazing dairy cows to Na or K fertilization of pastures D Arney PC Chiy2 of Na fertilizer supply to pasture have only recently been studied and beneficial effects on dairy cow fertilizer also produced a 26 % reduction in milk bacteria cell counts below the average of the N and K

Boyer, Edmond

15

Competitiveness of management-intensive grazing dairies in the mid-Atlantic region from 1995 to 2009.  

PubMed

This paper used farm income tax returns (Schedule F) data from 62 dairy farmers who milked 200 cows or fewer in western and central Maryland and southwestern Pennsylvania (hereafter, the mid-Atlantic region) to assess the relative financial performance of management-intensive grazing (MIG) and confinement dairy operations over the 15-yr period from 1995 through 2009. Data were not available from all farmers in all years; on average, the sample analyzed contained 11 MIG farms and 26 confinement farms. Management-intensive grazing operators were more profitable on a per hundredweight, per cow, and per acre basis, and no less profitable on a whole-farm basis. Even though the confinement operators had higher gross income than MIG operators, their expenses exceeded those of MIG operators. Profits of MIG operations were less variable as well, so that MIG operators faced less income risk. Increased reliance on grazing has other benefits as well. Grazing seems to be a much healthier practice for dairy cows. Veterinary, breeding, and medicine costs per cow are much less for cows that are pastured than those raised in confinement systems. Because they are healthier, cows that are grazed can be milked longer (or culled less frequently). As a result, MIG operators have a larger number of higher quality animals for sale (e.g., bred heifers). Management-intensive operations are also less labor intensive. Reductions in crop production and in the time cows spend in the barn led to significant reductions in field work and cleaning operations in the barn. Costs of hired labor were thus substantially lower in MIG operations than in confinement operations. Land requirements likely impose the principal limitation on the size of intensive grazing operations. In the mid-Atlantic, for instance, grazing operations need 1.5 to 2.0 acres of pasture for every dairy cow/calf equivalent to provide sufficient grass to support a dairy operation. Pasture land for MIG operators must be contiguous to the milking parlor and located no farther than a cow can walk to and from twice a day. That requirement likely limits the maximum size of an intensive grazing operation, especially in areas where land prices and rents are high, as they are in much of the mid-Atlantic. PMID:23313000

Hanson, J C; Johnson, D M; Lichtenberg, E; Minegishi, K

2013-03-01

16

RESEARCH ARTICLE Higher sustainability performance of intensive grazing versus  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Higher sustainability performance of intensive grazing versus zero-grazing dairy /Published online: 12 January 2012 # INRA and Springer-Verlag, France 2011 Abstract Although grazing of dairy for zero-grazing systems, where cows are housed throughout the year. Some studies already compared grazing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

17

Effect of pre-grazing herbage mass on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures.  

PubMed

A grazing study was undertaken to examine the effect of maintaining three levels of pre-grazing herbage mass (HM) on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter (DM) production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures. Cows were randomly assigned to one of three pre-grazing HM treatments: 1150 - Low HM (L), 1400 - Medium HM (M) or 2000 kg DM/ha - High HM (H). Herbage accumulation under grazing was lowest (P<0.01) on the L treatment and cows grazing the L pastures required more grass silage supplementation during the grazing season (+73 kg DM/cow) to overcome pasture deficits due to lower pasture growth rates (P<0.05). Treatment did not affect daily milk production or pasture intake, although cows grazing the L pastures had to graze a greater daily area (P<0.01) and increase grazing time (P<0.05) to compensate for a lower pre-grazing HM (P<0.01). The results indicate that, while pre-grazing HM did not influence daily milk yield per cow, adapting the practise of grazing low HM (1150 kg DM/ha) pasture reduces pasture DM production and at a system level may increase the requirement for imported feed. PMID:24229787

Wims, C M; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

2014-01-01

18

Effect of level of nitrogen fertilization and protein supplementation on herbage utilization by grazing dairy cows.  

E-print Network

Effect of level of nitrogen fertilization and protein supplementation on herbage utilization, Station de Recherches sur la Vache Laitière, 35590 Saint-Gilles, France Heavily fertilized grasses led fertilization and feeding protected prctein on N balance of grazing dairy cows. Three treatments were compared

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

19

Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in grazing Irish dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a significant production disease of dairy cattle. Previous concerns have been raised over the occurrence of SARA in pasture-fed dairy cattle and the potential consequences of laminitis and lameness. Highly digestible perennial rye grass contains high concentrations of rapidly fermentable carbohydrate and low concentrations of physical effective fibre that may result in SARA. This study

Luke O’Grady; Michael L. Doherty; Finbar J. Mulligan

2008-01-01

20

Effects of co-grazing dairy heifers with goats on animal performance, dry matter yield, and pasture forage composition.  

PubMed

Mixed livestock grazing can offer an alternative management system for rearing dairy replacement heifers (Bos taurus). A 2-yr study was conducted during 2009 (yr 1) and 2010 (yr 2) to determine the effects of co-grazing Holstein heifers under rotational stocking with Boer × Kiko goats on animal performance, pasture DM yield, and botanical composition. Each year, 24 heifers (134 ± 6 d of age and 147.4 ± 31.2 kg BW in yr 1; 166 ± 11 d of age and 168.0 ± 27.6 kg BW in yr 2) and 6 goats (2 yr old and 39.7 ± 16.2 kg BW in yr 1; 1 yr old and 33.7 ± 7.4 kg BW in yr 2) were divided into 6 paddocks with 4 heifers and 2 goats, where applicable, per group. Low endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pastures were used to evaluate 2 grazing strategies (heifers grazed alone [HO] or heifers co-grazed with goats [HG]). In addition, 6 goats were assigned to 2 paddocks and grazed alone (GO) each year to estimate goat pasture forage intake and compare Haemonchus contortus infection to co-grazed goats. Forage samples were taken monthly to assess DM yield and botanical composition. Samples collected for botanical composition were manually sorted into grass, legume, and weed species. Forage DMI was estimated using a rising plate meter before and after grazing. Heifer BW at the conclusion of yr 1 and yr 2 did not differ between HO and HG (P = 0.40 and P = 0.12, respectively). Likewise, overall ADG did not differ between HO and HG, averaging 0.65 kg/d and 0.63 kg/d over both grazing seasons (P = 0.70). Grazing strategy did not affect forage or total DMI in yr 1; however, HO consumed 2.3 kg/d more forage DM than HG (P < 0.01), resulting in greater total DMI for HO in yr 2 (P < 0.01). Heights at the hip and withers were greater for HO than for HG during both grazing seasons (P < 0.05). Weed presence did not differ between grazing strategies over both grazing seasons as determined by manual harvesting, but visual estimation of botanical composition at the end of yr 2 showed that HO paddocks had 3.5 times more weed presence than HG pastures (P < 0.01). Within the confines of this study, co-grazing did not affect overall heifer BW gain, but it decreased DMI, suggesting that dairy heifers can be co-grazed with goats without negative effects on ADG or feed efficiency. PMID:22952353

Dennis, T S; Unruh-Snyder, L J; Neary, M K; Nennich, T D

2012-12-01

21

Dairy cows increase ingestive mastication and reduce ruminative chewing when grazing chicory and plantain.  

PubMed

Although the nutritive value of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) has been thoroughly studied, little is known about the grazing behavior of cattle feeding on chicory and plantain swards. The objective of the present study was to assess and describe the grazing behavior of dairy cows as affected by dietary proportions of chicory and plantain fed as monocultures for part of the day. Ninety Holstein-Friesian cows (489±42 kg of body weight; 4.1±0.3 body condition score, and 216±15 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 15 groups (6 cows per group) and grazed according to 7 treatments: control (CTL, 3 groups), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) dominant sward (24-h pasture strip); 3 chicory treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of chicory to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment); and 3 plantain treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of plantain to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment). Four focal animals per group were equipped with 3-dimensional motion sensors, which provided the number of steps taken at each minute of the day. These cows were also fitted with automatic jaw-movement recorders that identified bites, mastication during ingestion, chewing during rumination, and determined grazing, rumination and idling times and bouts. Daily grazing time and bouts were not affected by treatments but rumination time differed and was reduced by up to 90 min when cows were allocated to chicory and plantain as 60% of their diet. Ruminative chewing was reduced in cows grazing chicory and plantain by up to 20% in cows allocated to the 60% treatments. Compared with perennial ryegrass, as the dietary proportion of chicory and plantain increased, cows spent more time idling and less time ruminating, and increased ingestive mastications 5 and 3 times for chicory and plantain, respectively. Cows allocated to chicory and plantain reduced bite rate and bites per grazing step linearly, and increased the number of mastications per bite of pasture dry matter intake while grazing pasture after having grazed chicory and plantain. These results indicate that cows grazing chicory and plantain masticate more during ingestion and reduce rumination time and chewing. They also suggest that chicory presents greater constraints to ingestion than does plantain. Thus, although chicory has been considered to have a greater nutritive value than plantain, its overall feeding value may be no greater than that of plantain. PMID:24119808

Gregorini, P; Minnee, E M K; Griffiths, W; Lee, J M

2013-12-01

22

Grazing behaviour, physical activity and metabolic profile of two Holstein strains in an organic grazing system.  

PubMed

The challenge for sustainable organic dairy farming is identification of cows that are well adapted to forage-based production systems. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the grazing behaviour, physical activity and metabolic profile of two different Holstein strains kept in an organic grazing system without concentrate supplementation. Twelve Swiss (HCH ; 566 kg body weight (BW) and 12 New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HNZ ; 530 kg BW) cows in mid-lactation were kept in a rotational grazing system. After an adaptation period, the milk yield, nutrient intake, physical activity and grazing behaviour were recorded for each cow for 7 days. On three consecutive days, blood was sampled at 07:00, 12:00 and 17:00 h from each cow by jugular vein puncture. Data were analysed using linear mixed models. No differences were found in milk yield, but milk fat (3.69 vs. 4.05%, P = 0.05) and milk protein percentage (2.92 vs. 3.20%, P < 0.01) were lower in HCH than in HNZ cows. Herbage intake did not differ between strains, but organic matter digestibility was greater (P = 0.01) in HCH compared to HNZ cows. The HCH cows spent less (P = 0.04) time ruminating (439 vs. 469 min/day) and had a lower (P = 0.02) number of ruminating boli when compared to the HNZ cows. The time spent eating and physical activity did not differ between strains. Concentrations of IGF-1 and T3 were lower (P ? 0.05) in HCH than HNZ cows. In conclusion, HCH cows were not able to increase dry matter intake in order to express their full genetic potential for milk production when kept in an organic grazing system without concentrate supplementation. On the other hand, HNZ cows seem to compensate for the reduced nutrient availability better than HCH cows but could not use that advantage for increased production efficiency. PMID:24548047

Thanner, S; Schori, F; Bruckmaier, R M; Dohme-Meier, F

2014-12-01

23

Systems In Organic Dairy Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to explore stakeholder perceptions of the contribution of an Automatic Milking System (AMS) to sustainable\\u000a development of organic dairy production in Denmark and the Netherlands. In addition, reasons for the current difference in\\u000a AMS use on organic dairy farms between both countries were explored. To answer above mentioned aims, farmers and advisors\\u000a in both

Frank W. Oudshoorn; Reint Jan Renes; Imke J. M. De Boer

2008-01-01

24

N leaching to groundwater from dairy production involving grazing over the winter on a clay-loam soil.  

PubMed

This study investigated concentrations of various N species in shallow groundwater (<2.2m below ground level) and N losses from dairy production involving grazing over the winter period on a clay loam soil with a high natural attenuation capacity in southern Ireland (52°51'N, 08°21'W) over a 2-year period. A dense network of shallow groundwater piezometers was installed to determine groundwater flow direction and N spatial and temporal variation. Estimated vertical travel times through the unsaturated zone (<0.5 yr, time lag) allowed the correlation of management with groundwater N within a short space of time. There was a two way interaction of the system and sampling date (P<0.05) on concentrations of DON, oxidised N and NO(3)(-)-N. In contrast, concentrations of NH(4)(+)-N and NO(2)(-)-N were unaffected by the dairy system. Grazing over the winter had no effect on N losses to groundwater. Mean concentrations of DON, NH(4)(+)-N, NO(2)(-)-N and NO(3)(-)-N were 2.16, 0.35, 0.01 and 0.37 mg L(-1) respectively. Soil attenuation processes such as denitrification and DNRA resulted in increased NH(4)(+)-N levels. For this reason, DON and NH(4)(+)-N represented the highest proportion of N losses from the site. Some of the spatial and temporal variation of N concentrations was explained by correlations with selected chemical and hydro-topographical parameters (NO(3)(-)-N/Cl(-) ratio, distance of the sampling point from the closest receptor, watertable depth, depth of sampling piezometer, DOC concentration). A high explanatory power of NO(3)(-)-N/Cl(-) ratio and the distance of the sampling point from the closest receptor indicated the influence of point sources and groundwater-surface water interactions. PMID:22728303

Necpalova, M; Fenton, O; Casey, I; Humphreys, J

2012-08-15

25

Grazing Analysis for Synchronization of chaotic hybrid systems  

E-print Network

Grazing Analysis for Synchronization of chaotic hybrid systems D. Benmerzouk and J-P Barbot October 30, 2007 Abstract In this paper, a Grazing bifurcation analysis is proposed and a way to chaos which undergo a specific relied bifurcation named grazing bifurcation. The grazing phenomena and non

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

26

Does multifunctionality matter to US farmers? Farmer motivations and conceptions of multifunctionality in dairy systems.  

PubMed

The concept of multifunctionality describes and promotes the multiple non-production benefits that emerge from agricultural systems. The notion of multifunctional agriculture was conceived in a European context and largely has been used in European policy arenas to promote and protect the non-production goods emerging from European agriculture. Thus scholars and policy-makers disagree about the relevance of multifunctionality for United States agricultural policy and US farmers. In this study, we explore lived expressions of multifunctional agriculture at the farm-level to examine the salience of the multifunctionality concept in the US. In particular, we investigate rotational grazing and confinement dairy farms in the eastern United States as case studies of multifunctional and productivist agriculture. We also analyze farmer motivations for transitioning from confinement dairy to rotational grazing systems. Through interviews with a range of dairy producers in Wisconsin, Pennsylvania, and New York, we found that farmers were motivated by multiple factors - including improved cow health and profitability - to transition to rotational grazing systems to achieve greater farm-level multifunctionality. Additionally, rotational grazing farmers attributed a broader range of production and non-production benefits to their farm practice than confinement dairy farmers. Further, rotational grazing dairy farmers described a system-level notion of multifunctionality based on the interdependence of multiple benefits across scales - from the farm to the national level - emerging from grazing operations. We find that the concept of multifunctionality could be expanded in the US to address the interdependence of benefits emerging from farming practices, as well as private benefits to farmers. We contend that understanding agricultural benefits as experienced by the farmer is an important contribution to enriching the multifunctionality concept in the US context, informing agri-environmental policy and programs, and ultimately expanding multifunctional agricultural practice in the US. PMID:25139106

Brummel, Rachel F; Nelson, Kristen C

2014-12-15

27

GRAZING BIFURCATIONS IN PERIODIC HYBRID SYSTEMS Vaibhav Donde  

E-print Network

GRAZING BIFURCATIONS IN PERIODIC HYBRID SYSTEMS Vaibhav Donde Dept. of Elec. and Comp. Engineering. Engineering University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, WI 53706 hiskens@engr.wisc.edu ABSTRACT Grazing. At such a bifurcation, the system trajectory makes tan- gential contact with (grazes) an event triggering hypersurface

Hiskens, Ian A.

28

Gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland.  

PubMed

This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and the intensity of infection in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland. The level of antibodies against Ostertagia ostertagi in the bulk tank milk (BTM) from the animals was also assessed. Rectal fecal samples collected from 361 cows on 20 farms were examined using Willis-Schlaaf flotation and the McMaster method. BTM samples were tested for the presence of O. ostertagi antibodies using ELISA. Multiplex PCR was used to identify the third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes derived from the culture of pooled fecal samples from sampled farms. Gastrointestinal nematode eggs were found in the samples from 18 of the 20 herds with a prevalence range from 20.4 to 94.5%. The average number of eggs excreted in the feces of the herds was 200 eggs per gram (EPG). Antibodies to O. ostertagi were found in 20 of the examined herds (100%), of which 6 had optical density ratios (ODR) greater than 0.5. PCR results showed the presence of three nematode species: Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora and Oesophagostomum radiatum. PMID:23958284

Piekarska, J; P?oneczka-Janeczko, K; Kantyka, M; Kuczaj, M; Gorczykowski, M; Janeczko, K

2013-11-15

29

Husbandry factors and the resumption of luteal activity in open and zero-grazed dairy cows in urban and peri-urban kampala, Uganda.  

PubMed

The study investigated the influence of selected husbandry factors on interval to resumption of post-partum cyclicity among dairy cows in urban and peri-urban Kampala. A prospective study of 85 day post-partum period of 59 dairy cows in open (n = 38) and zero grazing (n = 21) systems was conducted on 24 farms. Cows of parity 1-6 were recruited starting 15-30 days post-partum. Progesterone (P4) content in milk taken at 10-12 day intervals was analysed using ELISA. The cow P4 profiles were classified into 'normal' (< 56 days), 'delayed' (> 56 days), 'ceased' or 'prolonged' (if started < 56 days but with abnormal P4 displays) resumption of luteal activity and tested for association with husbandry and cow factors. Of the 59 cows, luteal activity in 81.4% resumed normally and in 18.6%, delayed. Only 23.7% maintained regular luteal activity, while the others had ceased (10.2%), prolonged (37.3%) or unclear luteal activity (20.3%). There were no differences between open and zero-grazed cows. Milk production was higher (p < 0.05) in zero than open grazing, in urban than peri-urban and in cows fed on brew waste (p < 0.001) compared with mill products and banana peels. Results suggest that luteal activity resumes normally in a majority of cows, although only a minority experienced continued normal cyclicity once ovulation had occurred, in the two farming systems irrespective of feed supplements or water, and that supplementing with brew waste is beneficial for milk production. PMID:24930481

Kanyima, B M; Båge, R; Owiny, D O; Ntallaris, T; Lindahl, J; Magnusson, U; Nassuna-Musoke, M G

2014-08-01

30

Effect of total mixed ration composition and daily grazing pattern on milk production, composition and fatty acids profile of dairy cows.  

PubMed

The possibilities of using high quality pastures in conjunction with total mixed ration (TMR) during the grazing season have been examined. An experiment with sixteen Holstein cows blocked and randomly assigned to four treatments in a factorial arrangement was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of grazing time of day (day or night) and type of silage (maize or Italian ryegrass) included in the TMR of dairy cows grazing 12 h daily on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile. The silage type had no effect on the dry matter intake, milk yield and fat and protein proportions. However, cows grazing during the night ate more grass than cows grazing during the day (8·53 vs. 5·65 kg DM/d; P<0·05). No differences were seen between grazing-time with respect to milk production, fat and protein contents. However, the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acid was higher in milk of dairy cows grazing at night-time than grazing at day-time, especially 18:2n-6 (2·37 vs. 2·12 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05) and 18:2cis9trans11 (2·08 vs. 1·74 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05). PMID:25263635

Hernández-Ortega, Martha; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; González, Amelia; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M; Argamentería, Alejandro; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña; Vicente, Fernando

2014-11-01

31

Environmental efficiency of alternative dairy systems: a productive efficiency approach.  

PubMed

Agriculture across the globe needs to produce "more with less." Productivity should be increased in a sustainable manner so that the environment is not further degraded, management practices are both socially acceptable and economically favorable, and future generations are not disadvantaged. The objective of this paper was to compare the environmental efficiency of 2 divergent strains of Holstein-Friesian cows across 2 contrasting dairy management systems (grazing and nongrazing) over multiple years and so expose any genetic × environment (G × E) interaction. The models were an extension of the traditional efficiency analysis to account for undesirable outputs (pollutants), and estimate efficiency measures that allow for the asymmetric treatment of desirable outputs (i.e., milk production) and undesirable outputs. Two types of models were estimated, one considering production inputs (land, nitrogen fertilizers, feed, and cows) and the other not, thus allowing the assessment of the effect of inputs by comparing efficiency values and rankings between models. Each model type had 2 versions, one including 2 types of pollutants (greenhouse gas emissions, nitrogen surplus) and the other 3 (greenhouse gas emissions, nitrogen surplus, and phosphorus surplus). Significant differences were found between efficiency scores among the systems. Results indicated no G × E interaction; however, even though the select genetic merit herd consuming a diet with a higher proportion of concentrated feeds was most efficient in the majority of models, cows of the same genetic merit on higher forage diets could be just as efficient. Efficiency scores for the low forage groups were less variable from year to year, which reflected the uniformity of purchased concentrate feeds. The results also indicate that inputs play an important role in the measurement of environmental efficiency of dairy systems and that animal health variables (incidence of udder health disorders and body condition score) have a significant effect on the environmental efficiency of each dairy system. We conclude that traditional narrow measures of performance may not always distinguish dairy farming systems best fitted to future requirements. PMID:24054279

Toma, L; March, M; Stott, A W; Roberts, D J

2013-11-01

32

Endometrial cytology, biopsy, and bacteriology for the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis in grazing dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to assess the agreement between endometrial cytology and uterine biopsy for the diagnosis of subclinical endometritis (SEND) in grazing dairy cows, the interobserver agreement of the biopsy's readings, and the bacterial population isolated from the uterus of cows having SEND. In experiment 1, lactating Holstein cows (n=44) 31 to 59 d in milk (DIM) at sampling were enrolled. Clinical endometritis was diagnosed by direct evaluation of vaginal discharge and SEND by endometrial cytology evaluation. Two hundred cells per smear were counted to determine the percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNL). Cut-off values used were ?8% PMNL at ?33 DIM, ?6% PMNL at 34 to 47 DIM, and ?4% PMNL at ?48 DIM. Biopsies were assessed blindly by 2 observers who categorized them into 4 groups according to their inflammatory changes: none, minimal, moderate, and severe inflammatory changes. Data were analyzed using the kappa coefficient and logistic regression. In experiment 2, lactating Holstein cows (n=60) 21 to 62 DIM were enrolled. Clinical endometritis and SEND were diagnosed as previously described. Samples were cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria by routine methods of bacteriological testing. Data were analyzed with logistic regression. In experiment 1, little agreement was observed between cytology and biopsy outputs (kappa=0.151), and strong agreement between the 2 operators (kappa=0.854). The likelihood of having a normal biopsy (no inflammatory change) was greater for healthy cows than for those having SEND (odds ratio=13.145). The probability for getting normal uterine tissue decreased 2.1% for every increasing percentage point in PMNL. In experiment 2, no bacteria were isolated from cows with SEND, coagulase-negative staphylococci were commonly isolated from healthy cows, and Trueperella pyogenes was frequently isolated from cows with clinical endometritis. The likelihood of isolating T. pyogenes from uterine samples increased with the percentage of PMNL (odds ratio=1.100). In conclusion, biopsy showed low agreement with cytology for the diagnosis of SEND. Nevertheless, fertility trials using uterine biopsies to predict pregnancy outcomes are needed to determine its diagnostic usefulness. Finally, bacteriology would not be recommended as a diagnostic tool because no bacteria were isolated from cows with SEND. PMID:24183683

Madoz, L V; Giuliodori, M J; Migliorisi, A L; Jaureguiberry, M; de la Sota, R L

2014-01-01

33

Adaptation and evaluation of the GrazeIn model of grass dry matter intake and milk yield prediction for grazing dairy cows.  

PubMed

The prediction of grass dry matter intake (GDMI) and milk yield (MY) are important to aid sward and grazing management decision making. Previous evaluations of the GrazeIn model identified weaknesses in the prediction of GDMI and MY for grazing dairy cows. To increase the accuracy of GDMI and MY prediction, GrazeIn was adapted, and then re-evaluated, using a data set of 3960 individual cow measurements. The adaptation process was completed in four additive steps with different components of the model reparameterised or altered. These components were: (1) intake capacity (IC) that was increased by 5% to reduce a general GDMI underprediction. This resulted in a correction of the GDMI mean and a lower relative prediction error (RPE) for the total data set, and at all stages of lactation, compared with the original model; (2) body fat reserve (BFR) deposition from 84 days in milk to next calving that was included in the model. This partitioned some energy to BFR deposition after body condition score nadir had been reached. This reduced total energy available for milk production, reducing the overprediction of MY and reducing RPE for MY in mid and late lactation, compared with the previous step. There was no effect on predicted GDMI; (3) The potential milk curve was reparameterised by optimising the rate of decrease in the theoretical hormone related to secretory cell differentiation and the basal rate of secretory cell death to achieve the lowest possible mean prediction error (MPE) for MY. This resulted in a reduction in the RPE for MY and an increase in the RPE for GDMI in all stages of lactation compared with the previous step; and (4) finally, IC was optimised, for GDMI, to achieve the lowest possible MPE. This resulted in an IC correction coefficient of 1.11. This increased the RPE for MY but decreased the RPE for GDMI compared with the previous step. Compared with the original model, modifying this combination of four model components improved the prediction accuracy of MY, particularly in late lactation with a decrease in RPE from 27.8% in the original model to 22.1% in the adapted model. However, testing of the adapted model using an independent data set would be beneficial and necessary to make definitive conclusions on improved predictions. PMID:24438821

O'Neill, B F; Ruelle, E; O'Donovan, M; Shalloo, L; Mulligan, F J; Boland, T M; Delaby, L; Delagarde, R; Lewis, E

2014-04-01

34

Effect of supplementation of grazing dairy ewes with a cereal concentrate on animal performance and milk fatty acid profile.  

PubMed

This work was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementing grazing ewes on pasture with a cereal concentrate on the milk fatty acid (FA) profile. Ninety Assaf ewes in mid lactation were distributed in 9 lots of 10 animals each and allocated to 3 feeding regimens: 1) pasture--ewes were only allowed to graze pasture (an irrigated sward of Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense, and Dactylis glomerata); 2) PS--grazing ewes were supplemented with oat grain (700 g/animal and day); and 3) TMR--ewes were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration (TMR; 80:20 concentrate/forage ratio). Milk yield and composition were recorded for 5 wk. The highest milk yield was observed in ewes receiving the TMR and the lowest in grazing ewes supplemented with oat grain. Productions of milk fat, protein, and total solids showed the lowest values in treatment PS. The atherogenicity index, which comprises C12:0, C14:0, and C16:0, in PS milk fat was no different from that observed in milk from animals on pasture (1.53 for pasture, 1.54 for PS, and 3.22 for TMR). Oat grain supplementation generated higher amounts of C18:0 and cis-9 C18:1 in milk fat than the pasture-only diet, but significantly decreased the levels of alpha-linolenic acid and most of intermediates of the process of biohydrogenation of this FA. Cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 and trans-11 C18:1, its precursor for endogenous synthesis in the mammary gland, were lower in PS (0.58 and 1.59 g/100 g of total FA) than in TMR (0.72 and 1.92 g/100 g of total FA) and very different from the results observed in grazing ewes receiving no supplement (1.21 and 3.88 g/100 g of total FA). Furthermore, the lowest levels of trans-10 C18:1 and trans-10 cis-12 C18:2 were detected in the milk fat of ewes fed pasture. It is concluded that, when pasture quality and availability do not limit dairy production, supplementation of grazing ewes with oat grain compromised the milk FA profile without any significant positive effect on milk production. PMID:19620680

Gómez-Cortés, P; Frutos, P; Mantecón, A R; Juárez, M; de la Fuente, M A; Hervás, G

2009-08-01

35

Knowledge and tools to enhance resilience of beef grazing systems for sustainable animal protein production.  

PubMed

Ruminant livestock provides meat and dairy products that sustain health and livelihood for much of the world's population. Grazing lands that support ruminant livestock provide numerous ecosystem services, including provision of food, water, and genetic resources; climate and water regulation; support of soil formation; nutrient cycling; and cultural services. In the U.S. southern Great Plains, beef production on pastures, rangelands, and hay is a major economic activity. The region's climate is characterized by extremes of heat and cold and extremes of drought and flooding. Grazing lands occupy a large portion of the region's land, significantly affecting carbon, nitrogen, and water budgets. To understand vulnerabilities and enhance resilience of beef production, a multi-institutional Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP), the "grazing CAP," was established. Integrative research and extension spanning biophysical, socioeconomic, and agricultural disciplines address management effects on productivity and environmental footprints of production systems. Knowledge and tools being developed will allow farmers and ranchers to evaluate risks and increase resilience to dynamic conditions. The knowledge and tools developed will also have relevance to grazing lands in semiarid and subhumid regions of the world. PMID:25376887

Steiner, Jean L; Engle, David M; Xiao, Xiangming; Saleh, Ali; Tomlinson, Peter; Rice, Charles W; Cole, N Andy; Coleman, Samuel W; Osei, Edward; Basara, Jeffrey; Middendorf, Gerad; Gowda, Prasanna; Todd, Richard; Moffet, Corey; Anandhi, Aavudai; Starks, Patrick J; Ocshner, Tyson; Reuter, Ryan; Devlin, Daniel

2014-11-01

36

Dairy Performance and Intensification under Traditional and Economic Efficiency Farm Plans in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was motivated by the realisation that although public and civil society projects interventions emphasize dairy intensification, dairy producers adopt systems that exhibit a continuum of intensification stretching from extensive to intensive levels. De-intensification of zero grazing, downgrading of herds in other grazing systems and adoption of extensive or intensive systems on farmers' own accord have been observed. The

W. N. Nanyeenya; J. Mugisha; S. J. Staal; Baltenweck Romney; N. Halberg

37

Dairy goat production systems: status quo, perspectives and challenges.  

PubMed

Goat production concentrated in developing countries (tropics, dry areas), contributes largely to the livelihoods of low and medium income farmers. Farming systems in these areas have evolved to cope with the formidable constraints imposed by harsh natural and economic conditions by adapting integrated crop/livestock production strategies. In Asia, Africa and Latin America, due to its almost exclusive extensive nature, goat production relies mainly on grazing on communal lands that hardly provide the minimum nutrient requirements due to overstocking and degradation. While some of these production systems are becoming semi-intensive, appropriate breeding strategies should be designed to promote conservation and improvement of their unique attributes, such as adaptability, water use efficiency and suitability under harsh climatic conditions. In Europe, dairy goat production is more common around the Mediterranean basin, where it is important from an economic, environmental and sociological perspective to the Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy and Greece. Europe owns only 5.1 % of the world's dairy goat herds, but produces 15.6 % of the world's goat milk; this is the only continent where goat milk has such an economic importance and organization. In developing countries the dairy goat sector requires a systemic approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, know-how, inputs and technologies must be assembled. This would allow the optimization of natural and local resources and would promote the transition from a risk reduction strategy towards an increased productivity strategy. Such an increase would privilege production efficiency based on clean, green and ethical practices for responsible innovation. PMID:22890482

Escareño, Luis; Salinas-Gonzalez, Homero; Wurzinger, Maria; Iñiguez, Luiz; Sölkner, Johann; Meza-Herrera, Cesar

2012-12-01

38

Wisconsin Agricultural and Food Systems Network: Dairy Systems Sustainability Metrics  

E-print Network

Wisconsin Agricultural and Food Systems Network: Dairy Systems Sustainability Metrics Request and metrics in the Wisconsin dairy and cheese manufacturing industry. The information generated by this applied research will be used as a baseline to inform decisions primarily in cheese manufacturing industry

Bohnhoff, David

39

Probabilistic Risk Assessment for dairy waste management systems  

E-print Network

Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) techniques were used to evaluate the risk of contamination of surface and ground water with wastewater from an open lot dairy in Erath County, Texas. The dairy supported a complex waste management system...

Leigh, Edward Marshall

2012-06-07

40

Modelling nitrous oxide emissions from grazed grassland systems.  

PubMed

Grazed grassland systems are an important component of the global carbon cycle and also influence global climate change through their emissions of nitrous oxide and methane. However, there are huge uncertainties and challenges in the development and parameterisation of process-based models for grazed grassland systems because of the wide diversity of vegetation and impacts of grazing animals. A process-based biogeochemistry model, DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC), has been modified to describe N(2)O emissions for the UK from regional conditions. This paper reports a new development of UK-DNDC in which the animal grazing practices were modified to track their contributions to the soil nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry. The new version of UK-DNDC was tested against datasets of N(2)O fluxes measured at three contrasting field sites. The results showed that the responses of the model to changes in grazing parameters were generally in agreement with observations, showing that N(2)O emissions increased as the grazing intensity increased. PMID:22243868

Wang, Junye; Cardenas, Laura M; Misselbrook, Tom H; Cuttle, Steve; Thorman, Rachel E; Li, Changsheng

2012-03-01

41

Invited review: Genetic considerations for various pasture-based dairy systems.  

PubMed

Pasture-based dairy systems use grazing to supply significant percentages of the dry matter intake of cows and heifers. Such systems vary from those for which pasture is used only as a supplemental feed for cows primarily fed a total mixed ration to those for which pasture is the primary source of dry matter for the herd. Cows that are optimal in a pasture system share many general characteristics with cows that are appropriate for a nonpasture system, including feed efficiency, maintenance of body condition, reproductive fitness, udder health, longevity, and the ability to adapt to various management systems. However, in such divergent feeding systems, the relative importance of various traits can differ. In pasture systems where cow nutrient demand intentionally coincides with seasonal forage availability, the focus of selection has emphasized fertility and other fitness traits, as well as yields of milk or milk components. Breeds or strains with higher yields of protein and fat typically have advantages in grazing systems that supply milk to solids-based or cheese markets. Holstein cows with high percentages of North American ancestry can work well in grazing systems that include supplemental concentrates or partial mixed rations, particularly if calving intervals are less restrictive. Crossbred cows can be selected for use in specific grazing systems as well as for specific milk markets, with the added advantage of heterosis. Breeds and crosses with high fertility are important for seasonal breeding and calving. The ability of cattle to both milk and maintain sufficient body condition for reproduction is important for any dairy production system but is critical in a seasonal system. Dairy farms that depend on pasture for most of dry matter for cows typically have lower production per cow than nongrazing dairies but have the potential to be economically competitive because of lower operating and overhead costs. Although the principles of selection are similar across a variety of pasture-based and nonpasture systems, we document from studies and observations covered herein that optimal breeds, breed strains, and selection strategies can differ based on varying management constraints and objectives. PMID:25151878

Washburn, S P; Mullen, K A E

2014-10-01

42

Transfer function characterization of grazing incidence optical systems.  

PubMed

By using Fourier techniques and linear systems theory we have derived an analytic expression for a generalized transfer function for grazing incidence optical systems operating at ultraviolet and x-ray wavelengths that includes the effects of optical fabrication errors over the entire range of relevant spatial frequencies. The Fourier transform of this transfer function yields the image distribution (or point spread function) from which encircled energy characteristics or other image quality criteria can be obtained. This transfer function characterization of grazing incidence optical systems allows parametric trade studies and sensitivity analyses to be performed as well as the derivation of fabrication tolerances necessary to satisfy a given image quality requirement. PMID:20531608

Harvey, J E; Moran, E C; Zmek, W P

1988-04-15

43

Components of dairy manure management systems.  

PubMed

Dairy manure management systems should account for the fate of excreted nutrients that may be of environmental concern. Currently, regulatory oversight is directed primarily at the assurance of water quality; N is the most monitored element. Land application of manure at acceptable fertilizer levels to crops produced on the farm by hauling or by pumping flushed manure effluent through irrigation systems is the basis of most systems. Nutrient losses to surface and groundwaters can be avoided, and significant economic value can be obtained from manure as fertilizer if adequate crop production is possible. Dairies with insufficient crop production potential need affordable systems to concentrate manure nutrients, thereby reducing hauling costs and possibly producing a salable product. Precipitation of additional nutrients from flushed manures with sedimented solids may be possible. Composting of separated manure solids offers a possible method to stabilize solids for distribution, but, most often, solids separated from dairy manures are fibrous and low in fertility. Manure solids combined with wastes from other sources may have potential if a marketable product can be produced or if sufficient subsidy is received for processing supplementary wastes. Solutions to odor problems are needed. Energy generated from manure organic matter, via anaerobic digestion, reduces atmospheric emissions of methane and odorous compounds. Use of constructed wetlands or harvesting of photosynthetic biomass from wastewater has the potential to improve water quality, making extensive recycling possible. PMID:7929962

Van Horn, H H; Wilkie, A C; Powers, W J; Nordstedt, R A

1994-07-01

44

Modelling of grazing systems at the farm level John Milne Alan Sibbald  

E-print Network

Review Modelling of grazing systems at the farm level John Milne Alan Sibbald Macaulay Land Use) Abstract - A simplified description of a model of a grazing system suitable for implementation of the soil, plant and animal processes within grazing systems is described and research areas are identified

Boyer, Edmond

45

Grazing systems for year-round beef production CP Bagley DG Morrison  

E-print Network

Grazing systems for year-round beef production CP Bagley DG Morrison 'North Mississippi Research was undertaken to evaluate the production of slaughter weight beef grazing pastures to estimate productive efficiency and economic feasibility of forage-based systems. Grazed forages were used as the primary nutrient

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

46

TESTING DAIRY BULLS UNDER THE PENKEEPING SYSTEM IN BRAZIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the prevailing systems of dairy cattle management in the dairy region of Minas Gerais is the so-called penkceping system or sistema de retiros. Briefly, the general management is as follows: The calves are with the cows during the day and are shut away from them at night. The cows are milked only once a day. This is in

ERALDO G. CARNEIRO

47

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 20, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2005 1967 Dynamic Performance Assessment: Grazing  

E-print Network

Assessment: Grazing and Related Phenomena Vaibhav Donde, Member, IEEE, and Ian A. Hiskens, Senior Member be related to grazing phenomena, where the system trajectory makes tangential contact with a performance Terms--Boundary value problems, dynamic performance assessment, grazing phenomena, nonlinear nonsmooth

Hiskens, Ian A.

48

Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa.  

PubMed

Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive. PMID:25026955

Manzana, N Patience; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Sebei, P Julius; Prozesky, Leon

2014-01-01

49

Vitamin and trace element supplementation in grazing dairy ewe during the dry season: effect on milk yield, composition, and clotting aptitude.  

PubMed

A study was carried out to evaluate the influence of vitamin and trace mineral supplementation on milk production and composition in grazing dairy ewes during the dry season. Ewes (n?=?50) were assigned at weaning to blocks and treatments. Ewes were daily conducted (8 h/day) on a pasture based on Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum). At fold, ewes received a basal diet composed by ad libitum oat hay and a definite amount of a pelleted concentrate. Dietary treatments included: (1) the control concentrate containing background of vitamin and trace mineral only, and (2) the experimental concentrate containing the premix supplement (10 g/kg of dry matter). Vitamin and trace mineral supplementation did not affect ewes' body weight. Milk, fat- and protein-corrected milk, fat percentage, and clotting properties were improved in ewes fed supplemented concentrate. There was a week?×?treatment interaction (P?grazing dairy ewe, the dietary vitamin and trace mineral supplementation during dry season led to an increase of milk production and quality, with positive improvement in milk clotting aptitude. PMID:21331497

Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Khan, R U; Laudadio, Vito

2011-06-01

50

Energy Integrated Dairy Farm digester and cogeneration system installation  

SciTech Connect

Georgia Tech finished in December, 1983 Phase II (system installation and startup) of its four year Energy Integrated Dairy Farm System (EIDFS) program. This paper outlines the selection and installation of the anaerobic digestion and cogeneration components of the EIDFS.

Ross, C.C.; Walsh, J.L.

1984-01-01

51

Trace Element Supplementation of Livestock in New Zealand: Meeting the Challenges of Free-Range Grazing Systems  

PubMed Central

Managing the mineral nutrition of free-range grazing livestock can be challenging. On farms where grazing animals are infrequently yarded, there are limited opportunities to administer trace element supplements via feeds and concentrates. In New Zealand, where the majority of sheep, cattle, and deer graze pasture year round, inadequate intake of cobalt, copper, iodine and selenium is prevalent. Scientists and farmers have developed efficient strategies to monitor and treat these dietary deficiencies. Supplementation methods suited to grazing livestock include long-acting injections, slow-release intraruminal boluses, trace element-amended fertilisers, and reticulated water supplies on dairy farms. PMID:23316417

Grace, Neville D.; Knowles, Scott O.

2012-01-01

52

Emergy evaluation of contrasting dairy systems at multiple levels.  

PubMed

Emergy accounting (EmA) was applied to a range of dairy systems, from low-input smallholder systems in South Mali (SM), to intermediate-input systems in two regions of France, Poitou-Charentes (PC) and Bretagne (BR), to high-input systems on Reunion Island (RI). These systems were studied at three different levels: whole-farm (dairy system and cropping system), dairy-system (dairy herd and forage land), and herd (animals only). Dairy farms in SM used the lowest total emergy at all levels and was the highest user of renewable resources. Despite the low quality of resources consumed (crop residues and natural pasture), efficiency of their use was similar to that of industrialised inputs by intensive systems in RI, PC and BR. In addition, among the systems studied, SM dairy farms lay closest to environmental sustainability, contradicting the usual image of high environmental impact of cattle production in developing countries. EmA also revealed characteristics of the three intensive systems. Systems from RI and PC had lower resource transformation efficiency and higher environmental impacts than those from BR, due mainly to feeding strategies that differed due to differing socio-climatic constraints. Application of EmA at multiple levels revealed the importance of a multi-level analysis. While the whole-farm level assesses the overall contribution of the system to its environment, the dairy-system level is suitable for comparison of multi-product systems. In contrast, the herd level focuses on herd management and bypasses debates about definition of system boundaries by excluding land management. Combining all levels highlights the contribution of livestock to the global agricultural system and identifies inefficiencies and influences of system components on the environment. PMID:23792889

Vigne, Mathieu; Peyraud, Jean-Louis; Lecomte, Philippe; Corson, Michael S; Wilfart, Aurélie

2013-11-15

53

Energy integrated dairy farm system in New York: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This technical manual was developed from the experiences and results gained from Cornell University's Energy Integrated Dairy System Project (EIDS). Goal of the project was to reduce fossil fuels and fossil fuel-based inputs into an income producing dairy farm by substituting energy efficient processes and practices for energy-intensive ones, and using solar-based energy sources - wind, active solar, and biomass.

Walker, L.P.; Ludington, D.C.; Merrill, W.G.; Pellerin, R.A.; Reid, W.S.; Space, R.; Space, R. II; White, S.A.; Heisler, M.G.; Farmer, G.S.

1985-09-01

54

Close stellar binary systems by grazing envelope evolution  

E-print Network

I suggest a spiral-in process by which a stellar companion graze the envelope of a giant star while both the orbital separation and the giant radius shrink simultaneously, and a close binary system is formed. The binary system might be viewed as evolving in a constant state of `just entering a common envelope (CE) phase'. In cases where this process takes place it can be an alternative to the CE evolution where the secondary star is immerses in the giant's envelope. The grazing envelope evolution (GEE) is made possible only if the companion manages to accreted mass at a high rate and launch jets that remove the outskirts of the giant envelope, hence preventing the formation of a CE . The high accretion rate is made possible by the accretion disk that launches jets that efficiently carry the excess angular momentum and energy from the accreted mass. Mass loss through the second Lagrangian point can carry additional angular momentum and envelope mass. The GEE lasts for tens to hundreds of years. The high accret...

Soker, Noam

2014-01-01

55

Ecohydrological Relationships in Dryland Grazing Systems of the Sahel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In water-limited environments like the Sahel, rangelands function as strongly coupled ecological-hydrological systems. Rainfall and soil moisture availability are the main forces driving vegetation structure and composition, and vegetation exerts strong controls on the redistribution and infiltration of rainfall. The presence and duration of surface waters in the landscape, however, determines livestock access to and consumption of pasture resources, with feedbacks on vegetation structure and ecohydrology. In this study, we use the Tree Grass Vegetation Model (TGVM) to study the interactions between climate, vegetation, grazing and lake volume in the watersheds surrounding 260 ponds in the Sahel. Analyses focus on 4 regions (Southwestern Niger, Eastern Mali, Western Mali and Northern Senegal) representing a range of bioclimatic, edaphic and land use conditions and were performed during the period 1972-2011. Unsupervised land cover classification maps using Landsat time series data were used to provide soil information, assuming a strong correlation between vegetation type and the underlying soil type, and the curve number method was used to estimate runoff during rainfall. We will explore the socio-ecohydrological relationships in response to grazing disturbances and climate variability, and discuss how feedbacks mediated by anthropogenic control of herbivore density could be significant for the sustainable management of Sahelian and other dryland regions.

Kaptue, A.; Prihodko, L.; Hanan, N. P.

2013-12-01

56

Grazing management and supplementation effects on forage and dairy cow performance on cool-season pastures in the southeastern United States.  

PubMed

Cool-season annual forages provide high-quality herbage for up to 5 mo in the US Gulf Coast states, but their management in pasture-based dairy systems has received little attention. Objectives of this study were to evaluate pasture and animal responses when lactating Holstein cows (n=32, mean DIM=184±21) grazed either N-fertilized rye (Secale cereale L.)-annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) mixed pastures or rye-annual ryegrass-crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L.)-red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) pastures at 2 stocking rates (5 vs. 2.5 cows/ha) and 2 rates of concentrate supplementation [0.29 or 0.40 kg of supplement (as is)/kg of daily milk production]. Two cows paired by parity (one multiparous and one primiparous) were assigned randomly to each pasture. The 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was replicated twice in a completely randomized design. Forage mixture and supplementation rate did not affect milk production during three 28-d periods. Greater milk production occurred at the low (19.7 kg/d) than the high (14.7 kg/d) stocking rate during periods 2 and 3, but production was similar during period 1. Despite lower production per cow, milk production per hectare was generally greater at the high stocking rate (81.6 vs. 49.5 kg/ha). Generally, greater pregraze herbage mass on pastures at the lower stocking rate (1,400 vs. 1,150 kg/ha) accounted for greater herbage allowance. Both forage (8.0 vs. 5.9 kg/d) and total (14.1 vs. 11.6) organic matter intake were greater at the low stocking rate. Cows fed less supplement had greater forage organic matter intake (8.0 vs. 6.1 kg/d). Greater herbage mass was associated with the greater intake and subsequent greater milk production. Differences in forage nutritive value, blood metabolites and milk composition, although showing some response to treatments, may not be of sufficient magnitude to affect choice of pasture species or other management practices. Animal performance was not improved by adding clovers to mixed cool-season grass pastures like those in this study. Stocking rate had a major effect on pasture and animal performance. During the cool season, supplementation with concentrates should be planned based on estimated energy intake from forages to achieve optimum milk production and ensure maintenance of body condition. PMID:21787931

Macoon, B; Sollenberger, L E; Staples, C R; Portier, K M; Fike, J H; Moore, J E

2011-08-01

57

The Use of Global Positioning and Geographical Information Systems in the Management of Extensive Cattle Grazing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a study aimed at verifying the possible use of global positioning system (GPS) and geographical information system (GIS) technologies to understand the behaviour of domestic and wild animals bred for extensive grazing are presented. For this purpose an experimental survey was carried out in order to track animal location in the various grazing areas at the Animal

M. Barbari; L. Conti; B. K. Koostra; G. Masi; F. Sorbetti Guerri; S. R. Workman

2006-01-01

58

Effects of grazing management system on plant community structure and functioning in a semiarid steppe: scaling from species to community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the aim of searching for a more sustainable grazing management system, a mixed management system (grazing and haymaking\\u000a alternate annually) was proposed and tested against traditional management system (used consistently either for grazing or\\u000a haymaking) in the semiarid grassland of Inner Mongolia with a field manipulation experiment. The responses of aboveground\\u000a biomass to the two grazing management systems were

Hongwei Wan; Yongfei Bai; Philipp Schönbach; Martin Gierus; Friedhelm Taube

2011-01-01

59

Milk production and enteric methane emissions by dairy cows grazing fertilized perennial ryegrass pasture with or without inclusion of white clover.  

PubMed

An experiment was undertaken to investigate the effect of white clover inclusion in grass swards (GWc) compared with grass-only (GO) swards receiving high nitrogen fertilization and subjected to frequent and tight grazing on herbage and dairy cow productivity and enteric methane (CH4) emissions. Thirty cows were allocated to graze either a GO or GWc sward (n=15) from April 17 to October 31, 2011. Fresh herbage [16 kg of dry matter (DM)/cow] and 1 kg of concentrate/cow were offered daily. Herbage DM intake (DMI) was estimated on 3 occasions (May, July, and September) during which 17 kg of DM/cow per day was offered (and concentrate supplementation was withdrawn). In September, an additional 5 cows were added to each sward treatment (n=20) and individual CH4 emissions were estimated using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) technique. Annual clover proportion (± SE) in the GWc swards was 0.20 ± 0.011. Swards had similar pregrazing herbage mass (1,800 ± 96 kg of DM/ha) and herbage production (13,110 ± 80 kg of DM/ha). The GWc swards tended to have lower DM and NDF contents but greater CP content than GO swards, but only significant differences were observed in the last part of the grazing season. Cows had similar milk and milk solids yields (19.4 ± 0.59 and 1.49 ± 0.049 kg/d, respectively) and similar milk composition. Cows also had similar DMI in the 3 measurement periods (16.0 ± 0.70 kg DM/cow per d). Similar sward and animal performance was observed during the CH4 estimation period, but GWc swards had 7.4% less NDF than GO swards. Cows had similar daily and per-unit-of-output CH4 emissions (357.1 ± 13.6g of CH4/cow per day, 26.3 ± 1.14 g of CH4/kg of milk, and 312.3 ± 11.5 g of CH4/kg of milk solids) but cows grazing GWc swards had 11.9% lower CH4 emissions per unit of feed intake than cows grazing GO swards due to the numerically lower CH4 per cow per day and a tendency for the GWc cows to have greater DMI compared with the GO cows. As a conclusion, under the conditions of this study, sward clover content in the GWc swards was not sufficient to improve overall sward herbage production and quality, or dairy cow productivity. Although GWc cows had a tendency to consume more and emitted less CH4 per unit of feed intake than GO cows, no difference was observed in daily or per-unit-of-output CH4 emissions. PMID:24393178

Enriquez-Hidalgo, D; Gilliland, T; Deighton, M H; O'Donovan, M; Hennessy, D

2014-03-01

60

A trans-disciplinary study on the health risks of cryptosporidiosis from dairy systems in Dagoretti, Nairobi, Kenya: study background and farming system characteristics.  

PubMed

This paper characterises the dairy farming system in Dagoretti, Nairobi. Characterisation was part of a broader ecohealth project to estimate the prevalence and risk of cryptosporidiosis and develop risk mitigation strategies. In the project a trans-disciplinary team addressed epidemiological, socioeconomic, environmental and policy aspects of cryptosporidiosis, an emerging zoonosis. This paper also provides background and describes sampling methods for the wider project. Three hundred dairy households were probabilistically sampled from a sampling frame of all dairy households in five of the six locations of Dagoretti, one of the eight districts of Nairobi Province. Randomly selected households identified 100 non-dairy-keeping households who also took part in the study. A household questionnaire was developed, pre-tested and administered in the dry and wet seasons of 2006. An additional study on livelihood and economic benefits of dairying took place with 100 dairy farmers randomly selected from the 300 farms (as well as 40 non-dairy neighbours as a control group), and a risk-targeted survey of environmental contamination with Cryptosporidium was conducted with 20 farmers randomly selected from the 29 farmers in the wider survey who were considered at high risk because of farming system. We found that around 1 in 80 urban households kept dairy cattle with an average of three cattle per household. Cross-breeds of exotic and local cattle predominate. Heads of dairy-keeping households were significantly less educated than the heads of non-dairy neighbours, had lived in Dagoretti for significantly longer and had significantly larger households. There was a high turnover of 10 % of the cattle population in the 3-month period of the study. Cattle were zero grazed, but productivity parameters were sub-optimal as were hygiene and husbandry practices. In conclusion, dairy keeping is a minor activity in urban Nairobi but important to households involved and their community. Ecohealth approaches are well suited to tackling the complex problem of assessing and managing emerging zoonoses in urban settings. PMID:22886442

Kang'ethe, Erastus K; Kimani, Violet N; McDermott, Brigid; Grace, Delia; Lang'at, Alfred K; Kiragu, Monica W; Karanja, Nancy; Njehu, Alice N; Randolph, Thomas; Mbugua, Gabriel; Irungu, Tabitha W; Ombutu, Peninnah

2012-09-01

61

Grazing bifurcation in aeroelastic systems with freeplay nonlinearity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A nonlinear analysis is performed to characterize the effects of a nonsmooth freeplay nonlinearity on the response of an aeroelastic system. This system consists of a plunging and pitching rigid airfoil supported by a linear spring in the plunge degree of freedom and a nonlinear spring in the pitch degree of freedom. The nonsmooth freeplay nonlinearity is associated with the pitch degree of freedom. The aerodynamic loads are modeled using the unsteady formulation. Linear analysis is first performed to determine the coupled damping and frequencies and the associated linear flutter speed. Then, a nonlinear analysis is performed to determine the effects of the size of the freeplay gap on the response of the aeroelastic system. To this end, two different sizes are considered. The results show that, for both considered freeplay gaps, there are two different transitions or sudden jumps in the system's response when varying the freestream velocity (below linear flutter speed) with the appearance and disappearance of quadratic nonlinearity induced by discontinuity. It is demonstrated that these sudden transitions are associated with a tangential contact between the trajectory and the freeplay boundaries (grazing bifurcation). At the first transition, it is demonstrated that increasing the freestream velocity is accompanied by the appearance of a superharmonic frequency of order 2 of the main oscillating frequency. At the second transition, the results show that an increase in the freestream velocity is followed by the disappearance of the superharmonic frequency of order 2 and a return to a simple periodic response (main oscillating frequency).

Vasconcellos, R.; Abdelkefi, A.; Hajj, M. R.; Marques, F. D.

2014-05-01

62

Relationships among rotational and conventional grazing systems, stream channels, and macroinvertebrates  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Cattle grazing in riparian areas can reduce water quality, alter stream channel characteristics, and alter fish and macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Services has recommended Rotational Grazing (RG) as an alternative management method on livestock and dairy operations to protect riparian areas and water quality. We evaluated 13 stream channel characteristics, benthic macroinvertebrate larvae (BML), and chironomid pupal exuviae (CPE) from 18 sites in the Upper Midwest of the United States in relation to RG and conventional grazing (CG). A Biotic Composite Score comprised of several macroinvertebrate metrics was developed for both the BML assemblage and the CPE assemblage. Multi-Response Permutation Procedures (MRPP) indicated a significant difference in stream channel characteristics between RG and CG. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling indicated that RG sites were associated with more stable stream banks, higher quality aquatic habitat, lower soil compaction, and larger particles in the streambed. However, neither MRPP nor Mann-Whitney U tests demonstrated a difference in Biotic Composite Scores for BML or CPE along RG and CG sites. The BML and CPE metrics were significantly correlated, indicating that they were likely responding to similar variables among the study sites. Although stream channel characteristics appeared to respond to grazing management, BML and CPE may have responded to land use throughout the watershed, as well as local land use. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

Raymond, K.L.; Vondracek, B.

2011-01-01

63

Performance and limitation of two dairy production systems in the North western Ethiopian highlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to characterise the dairy production systems as well as the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows\\u000a in the study area, a total of 256 and 54 dairy farms were used for survey and monitoring data collection, respectively. Based\\u000a on breed, land size, feed and market accessibility, two major dairy production systems were identified: a rather specialized,\\u000a urban,

Yitaye Alemayehu Ayenew; Maria Wurzinger; Azage Tegegne; Werner Zollitsch

2009-01-01

64

Evaluation of the effect of accounting method, IPCC v. LCA, on grass-based and confinement dairy systems' greenhouse gas emissions.  

PubMed

Life cycle assessment (LCA) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guideline methodology, which are the principal greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification methods, were evaluated in this study using a dairy farm GHG model. The model was applied to estimate GHG emissions from two contrasting dairy systems: a seasonal calving pasture-based dairy farm and a total confinement dairy system. Data used to quantify emissions from these systems originated from a research study carried out over a 1-year period in Ireland. The genetic merit of cows modelled was similar for both systems. Total mixed ration was fed in the Confinement system, whereas grazed grass was mainly fed in the grass-based system. GHG emissions from these systems were quantified per unit of product and area. The results of both methods showed that the dairy system that emitted the lowest GHG emissions per unit area did not necessarily emit the lowest GHG emissions possible for a given level of product. Consequently, a recommendation from this study is that GHG emissions be evaluated per unit of product given the growing affluent human population and increasing demand for dairy products. The IPCC and LCA methods ranked dairy systems' GHG emissions differently. For instance, the IPCC method quantified that the Confinement system reduced GHG emissions per unit of product by 8% compared with the grass-based system, but the LCA approach calculated that the Confinement system increased emissions by 16% when off-farm emissions associated with primary dairy production were included. Thus, GHG emissions should be quantified using approaches that quantify the total GHG emissions associated with the production system, so as to determine whether the dairy system was causing emissions displacement. The IPCC and LCA methods were also used in this study to simulate, through a dairy farm GHG model, what effect management changes within both production systems have on GHG emissions. The findings suggest that single changes have a small mitigating effect on GHG emissions (<5%), except for strategies used to control emissions from manure storage in the Confinement system (14% to 24%). However, when several management strategies were combined, GHG emissions per unit of product could be reduced significantly (15% to 30%). The LCA method was identified as the preferred approach to assess the effect of management changes on GHG emissions, but the analysis indicated that further standardisation of the approach is needed given the sensitivity of the approach to allocation decisions regarding milk and meat. PMID:23031525

O'Brien, D; Shalloo, L; Patton, J; Buckley, F; Grainger, C; Wallace, M

2012-09-01

65

The Expanding Dairy Industry: Impact on Ground Water Quality and Quantity with Emphasis on Waste Management System Evaluation for Open Lot Dairies  

E-print Network

TR-155 1993 The Expanding Dairy Industry: Impact on Ground Water Quality and Quantity With Emphasis on Waste Management System Evaluation for Open Lot Dairies J.M. Sweeten M.L. Wolfe Texas Water...TR-155 1993 The Expanding Dairy Industry: Impact on Ground Water Quality and Quantity With Emphasis on Waste Management System Evaluation for Open Lot Dairies J.M. Sweeten M.L. Wolfe Texas Water...

Sweeten, John M.; Wolfe, Mary Leigh

66

Wavefront Sensing Analysis of Grazing Incidence Optical Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Wavefront sensing is a process by which optical system errors are deduced from the aberrations in the image of an ideal source. The method has been used successfully in near-normal incidence, but not for grazing incidence systems. This innovation highlights the ability to examine out-of-focus images from grazing incidence telescopes (typically operating in the x-ray wavelengths, but integrated using optical wavelengths) and determine the lower-order deformations. This is important because as a metrology tool, this method would allow the integration of high angular resolution optics without the use of normal incidence interferometry, which requires direct access to the front surface of each mirror. Measuring the surface figure of mirror segments in a highly nested x-ray telescope mirror assembly is difficult due to the tight packing of elements and blockage of all but the innermost elements to normal incidence light. While this can be done on an individual basis in a metrology mount, once the element is installed and permanently bonded into the assembly, it is impossible to verify the figure of each element and ensure that the necessary imaging quality will be maintained. By examining on-axis images of an ideal point source, one can gauge the low-order figure errors of individual elements, even when integrated into an assembly. This technique is known as wavefront sensing (WFS). By shining collimated light down the optical axis of the telescope and looking at out-of-focus images, the blur due to low-order figure errors of individual elements can be seen, and the figure error necessary to produce that blur can be calculated. The method avoids the problem of requiring normal incidence access to the surface of each mirror segment. Mirror figure errors span a wide range of spatial frequencies, from the lowest-order bending to the highest order micro-roughness. While all of these can be measured in normal incidence, only the lowest-order contributors can be determined through this WFS technique.

Rohrbach, Scott; Saha, Timo

2012-01-01

67

Original article The effect of two contrasting grazing managements  

E-print Network

Original article The effect of two contrasting grazing managements and level of concentrate supplementation on the performance of grazing dairy cows Luc DELABYa*, Jean-Louis PEYRAUDa with the technical 17 February 2003; accepted 16 July 2003) Abstract -- The grazing management of dairy cows

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

68

Feasibility of vermicomposting dairy biosolids using a modified system to avoid earthworm mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study was conducted to examine the feasibility of vermicomposting dairy biosolids (dairy sludge), either alone or with either of the bulking agents ? cereal straw or wood shavings, using the epigeic earthworm ? Eisinea andrei. Earthworms added directly to these three substrates died within 48 hours. A system was developed to overcome the toxic effect of unprocessed dairy

R. Nogales; C. Elvira; E. Benítez; R. Thompson; M. Gomez

1999-01-01

69

Effect of agro-ecological zone and grazing system on incidence of East Coast Fever in calves in Mbale and Sironko Districts of Eastern Uganda.  

PubMed

Between May 2002 and February 2003 a longitudinal survey was carried out in Mbale and Sironko Districts of Eastern Uganda to determine the influence of agro-ecological zones (AEZ) and grazing systems on tick infestation patterns and incidence of East Coast Fever (ECF) in bovine calves. The study area was stratified into AEZ (lowland, midland and upland) and grazing systems {zero grazing (ZG), restricted-outdoor grazing (ROG) and communal grazing (CG)}, whose strata had previously been shown to influence the prevalence of ECF, babesiosis and anaplasmosis. One hundred and eighty-five smallholder dairy farms with a total of 198 calves of both sexes, between the ages of 1 day and 6 weeks, were purposively selected from the AEZ-grazing system strata. Nine dynamic cohorts (11-51 calves in each) of these calves were examined and sampled monthly. Ticks infesting the calves were counted from one side of the animal body and categorized into the different species, sex and feeding status. Sera were collected at recruitment and monthly thereafter and antibodies against Theileria parva, T. mutans, Babesia bigemina, B. bovis and Anaplasma marginale were measured using ELISA. Tick challenge (total and specific) varied with AEZ and grazing system. The risk of infection with T. parva was higher in the lowland zone compared to the upland zone (hazard ratio (HR)=2.59; 95% CI: 1.00-6.34). The risk of infection with T. parva was higher in the CG system than the ZG system (HR=10.00; 95% CI: 3.61-27.92). The incidence risk for sero-conversion, over the 10 months study period, was 62, 16 and 9% in the lowland, midland and upland zones, respectively. Ninety-eight percent of the calves in lowland-CG stratum sero-converted by the age of 6 months, while 56 and 8% did so in the lowland-ROG and the lowland-ZG stratum, respectively. The results of this study show the need to consider farm circumstances and the variation in ECF risk, both spatially and temporally when designing control strategies for ECF. PMID:16797092

Rubaire-Akiiki, Christopher M; Okello-Onen, Joseph; Musunga, David; Kabagambe, Edmond K; Vaarst, Mettee; Okello, David; Opolot, Charles; Bisagaya, A; Okori, C; Bisagati, C; Ongyera, S; Mwayi, M T

2006-08-17

70

White clover utilisation on dairy farms in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keywords<\\/strong>botanical composition, carbon, cutting frequency, dairy system, energy, fixation, gross margin, herbage quality, milk production, MINAS, nitrate leaching, nitrogen, nutrient balance, nutrient efficiency, perennial ryegrass, phosphorus, rotational grazing, soil, strategic nitrogen application, sward utilisation, white clover The present efforts to reduce the nitrogen (N) losses on dairy farms have reduced the use of fertiliser N and consequently renewed interest in white

R. L. M. Schils

2002-01-01

71

Modelling parasite transmission in a grazing system: the importance of host behaviour and immunity.  

PubMed

Parasitic helminths present one of the most pervasive challenges to grazing herbivores. Many macro-parasite transmission models focus on host physiological defence strategies, omitting more complex interactions between hosts and their environments. This work represents the first model that integrates both the behavioural and physiological elements of gastro-intestinal nematode transmission dynamics in a managed grazing system. A spatially explicit, individual-based, stochastic model is developed, that incorporates both the hosts' immunological responses to parasitism, and key grazing behaviours including faecal avoidance. The results demonstrate that grazing behaviour affects both the timing and intensity of parasite outbreaks, through generating spatial heterogeneity in parasite risk and nutritional resources, and changing the timing of exposure to the parasites' free-living stages. The influence of grazing behaviour varies with the host-parasite combination, dependent on the development times of different parasite species and variations in host immune response. Our outputs include the counterintuitive finding that under certain conditions perceived parasite avoidance behaviours (faecal avoidance) can increase parasite risk, for certain host-parasite combinations. Through incorporating the two-way interaction between infection dynamics and grazing behaviour, the potential benefits of parasite-induced anorexia are also demonstrated. Hosts with phenotypic plasticity in grazing behaviour, that make grazing decisions dependent on current parasite burden, can reduce infection with minimal loss of intake over the grazing season. This paper explores how both host behaviours and immunity influence macro-parasite transmission in a spatially and temporally heterogeneous environment. The magnitude and timing of parasite outbreaks is influenced by host immunity and behaviour, and the interactions between them; the incorporation of both regulatory processes is required to fully understand transmission dynamics. Understanding of both physiological and behavioural defence strategies will aid the development of novel approaches for control. PMID:24223133

Fox, Naomi J; Marion, Glenn; Davidson, Ross S; White, Piran C L; Hutchings, Michael R

2013-01-01

72

Modelling Parasite Transmission in a Grazing System: The Importance of Host Behaviour and Immunity  

PubMed Central

Parasitic helminths present one of the most pervasive challenges to grazing herbivores. Many macro-parasite transmission models focus on host physiological defence strategies, omitting more complex interactions between hosts and their environments. This work represents the first model that integrates both the behavioural and physiological elements of gastro-intestinal nematode transmission dynamics in a managed grazing system. A spatially explicit, individual-based, stochastic model is developed, that incorporates both the hosts’ immunological responses to parasitism, and key grazing behaviours including faecal avoidance. The results demonstrate that grazing behaviour affects both the timing and intensity of parasite outbreaks, through generating spatial heterogeneity in parasite risk and nutritional resources, and changing the timing of exposure to the parasites’ free-living stages. The influence of grazing behaviour varies with the host-parasite combination, dependent on the development times of different parasite species and variations in host immune response. Our outputs include the counterintuitive finding that under certain conditions perceived parasite avoidance behaviours (faecal avoidance) can increase parasite risk, for certain host-parasite combinations. Through incorporating the two-way interaction between infection dynamics and grazing behaviour, the potential benefits of parasite-induced anorexia are also demonstrated. Hosts with phenotypic plasticity in grazing behaviour, that make grazing decisions dependent on current parasite burden, can reduce infection with minimal loss of intake over the grazing season. This paper explores how both host behaviours and immunity influence macro-parasite transmission in a spatially and temporally heterogeneous environment. The magnitude and timing of parasite outbreaks is influenced by host immunity and behaviour, and the interactions between them; the incorporation of both regulatory processes is required to fully understand transmission dynamics. Understanding of both physiological and behavioural defence strategies will aid the development of novel approaches for control. PMID:24223133

Fox, Naomi J.; Marion, Glenn; Davidson, Ross S.; White, Piran C. L.; Hutchings, Michael R.

2013-01-01

73

Implications of dairy systems on enteric methane and postulated effects on total greenhouse gas emission.  

PubMed

The effects of feeding total mixed ration (TMR) or pasture forage from a perennial sward under a management intensive grazing (MIG) regimen on grain intake and enteric methane (EM) emission were measured using chambers. Chamber measurement of EM was compared with that of SF6 employed both within chamber and when cows grazed in the field. The impacts of the diet on farm gate greenhouse gas (GHG) emission were also postulated using the results of existing life cycle assessments. Emission of EM was measured in gas collection chambers in Spring and Fall. In Spring, pasture forage fiber quality was higher than that of the silage used in the TMR (47.5% v. 56.3% NDF; 24.3% v. 37.9% ADF). Higher forage quality from MIG subsequently resulted in 25% less grain use relative to TMR (0.24 v. 0.32 kg dry matter/kg milk) for MIG compared with TMR. The Fall forage fiber quality was still better, but the higher quality of MIG pasture was not as pronounced as that in Spring. Neither yield of fat-corrected milk (FCM) which averaged 28.3 kg/day, nor EM emission which averaged 18.9 g/kg dry matter intake (DMI) were significantly affected by diet in Spring. However, in the Fall, FCM from MIG (21.3 kg/day) was significantly lower than that from TMR (23.4 kg/day). Despite the differences in FCM yield, in terms of EM emission that averaged 21.9 g/kg DMI was not significantly different between the diets. In this study, grain requirement, but not EM, was a distinguishing feature of pasture and confinement systems. Considering the increased predicted GHG emissions arising from the production and use of grain needed to boost milk yield in confinement systems, EM intensity alone is a poor predictor of the potential impact of a dairy system on climate forcing. PMID:23896042

Fredeen, A; Juurlink, S; Main, M; Astatkie, T; Martin, R C

2013-11-01

74

Reproduction in grazing dairy cows treated with 14-day controlled internal drug release for presynchronization before timed artificial insemination compared with artificial insemination after observed estrus.  

PubMed

Progesterone-releasing (controlled internal drug release, CIDR) devices inserted for 14 d are used to presynchronize the estrous cycle for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef heifers (14-d CIDR-PGF(2?) program). The objective was to test a similar program in dairy cows by measuring first-service conception rates (FSCR), pregnancy rates after 2 AI, and time to pregnancy compared with a control (AI after observed estrus). Postpartum cows (Holstein, Jersey, or crossbred; n=1,363) from 4 grazing dairy farms were assigned to 1 of 2 programs: 14dCIDR_TAI [CIDR in for 14 d, CIDR out, PGF(2?) injection at 19 d after CIDR removal, GnRH injection 56 h later, and then TAI 16 h later; n=737] or control [AI after observed estrus; reproductive program with PGF(2?) (cycling cows) and CIDR (noncycling cows) to synchronize estrus with the start of the breeding season; n=626]. Body condition was scored (1 to 5; thin to fat) at the start of the trial. The interval from the start of the breeding period (final PGF(2?) injection of either program) to first AI was shorter for 14dCIDR_TAI compared with the control (3.0±0.2 vs. 5.3±0.2 d; mean ± SEM) but 14dCIDR_TAI cows had lesser FSCR than controls (48 vs. 61%). Farm affected FSCR (50, 51, 67, and 58% for farms 1 to 4). The BCS affected FSCR (50, 55, and 62% for BCS=2, 2.5, and 3, respectively). Cows that either calved the year before (carryover) or that calved early in the calving season had greater FSCR than cows that calved later in the calving season (55, 61, and 42%, respectively). The percentage of cows pregnant to AI (first and second inseminations within 31-d breeding season) was similar for 14dCIDR_TAI and control (64 vs. 70%) cows, but farm (64, 62, 80, and 69%) and time of calving (70, 76, and 56%: carryover, early, and late, respectively) affected the percentage. Survival analyses showed an initial advantage for 14dCIDR_TAI (more cows inseminated and more pregnancies achieved early in the breeding season) that was not maintained over time. Conclusions were that the 14dCIDR_TAI program achieved acceptable FSCR (48%) and overall AI pregnancy rates (64%), but did not surpass a control program that used AI after observed estrus (61 and 70%, respectively). PMID:23141825

Escalante, R C; Poock, S E; Mathew, D J; Martin, W R; Newsom, E M; Hamilton, S A; Pohler, K G; Lucy, M C

2013-01-01

75

Energy Integrated dairy Farm System in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Principles of energy-integrated farming were applied to the Rio Canas Dairy Farm, a privately-owned dairy farm and one of the largest dairy farms in Puerto Rico with a milking herd of 400 cows. Animal wastes were fed to two anaerobic digesters where methane gas was produced by bacterial degradation of organic material. The methane gas fueled an engine-generator to produce electricity for farm use and for sale to the public utility. The Wastes were partially stabilized by bacterial action with the digesters and the digester effluent passed to a liquid-solid separator. Solid fraction was composted and either used as bedding material for the cows or marketed as soil conditioner. The liquid fraction flowed to a storage pond and was used in the Greenfeed subsystem to fertilize forage crops for the cows. Estimated energy savings of the system were 1705 MBtu for the first two subsystems and 7,718 MBtu's for all three subsystems. Simple payback for the first two subsystems was very long (20 years) because facilities for effective manure recovery did not exist on the farm at the outset of the project, operational costs for manure collection were charged against the project, and system components were oversized. Including the Greenfeed subsystem, simple payback for the project was 8.2 years. Assuming that manure collection facilities and practices already existed and assuming proper sizing of all components, simple payback for the Anaerobic Digestion and Electrical Production subsystem and the Farm Waste Management subsystem was 5.8 years. Using data from this project, an estimate of the return on investment was projected for different herd sizes. Results suggested that for dairy farms with less than 500 cows, anaerobic digester systems are only marginally profitable.

Sasscer, D.S.; Morgan, T.O.

1986-10-01

76

Emergy analysis of cropping–grazing system in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecological energetic evaluation is presented in this paper as a complement to economic account for the cropping–grazing system in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in China in the year 2000. Based on Odum's well-known concept of emergy in terms of embodied solar energy as a unified measure for environmental resources, human or animal labors and industrial products, a systems

L. X. Zhang; Z. F. Yang; G. Q. Chen

2007-01-01

77

A lameness scoring system that uses posture and gait to predict dairy cattle reproductive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lameness has contributed to reproductive inefficiency and increased the risk of culling in dairy cows. We developed a 5-point lameness scoring system that assessed gait and placed a novel emphasis on back posture. Our objective was to determine if this system predicted future reproductive performance and the risk of culling. The study was conducted at a commercial dairy farm with

D. J. Sprecher; D. E. Hostetler; J. B. Kaneene

1997-01-01

78

THE MILK QUOTA SYSTEM - EFFECTS ON STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN DAIRY PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The milk quota system had been introduced in 1984 as reaction of the Agricul- tural Council for the critical situation on the dairy market, disturbed by overpro- duction and increasing intervention costs. The main objective of the research was to answer the question what effects had implementation of the milk quota system on EU dairy market with particular regard to

AGATA MALAK-RAWLIKOWSKA

79

A comparison of frontal and continuous systems of grazing  

E-print Network

/ha respectively. In 1990, gain/ha was greater than in 1989, but neither SD nor grazing methods differed significantly. ADG was 1. 08, 1, 0. 72, and 0. 72 kg/ha for CGs SD of 5, 5, 7. 5, 11. 5, and 14 head/ha respectively, and 0. 78 kg/ha for FG. Liveweight... for the first cycle was 544 and for the second cycle 50%. During the first cycle, there was so much SC that forage made a wall of grass against the FG 37 k 4000 9 3"00 3000 ' M 2 00 / 2{IQO I 00 8 1000 16/6 28/6 12/7 Zr/7 08/8 ZI /8 RC CC- o+03 OCIO...

Achaval O'Farrell, Fabian de

2012-06-07

80

High Nature Value (HNV) Grazing Systems in Europe: A Link between Biodiversity and Farm Economics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large tracts of the European rural land, most frequently in the Less Favoured Areas (LFA) are devoted to low- input and Large Scale Grazing Systems (LSGS) under severe environmental constraints. A small part of the rural popula- tion strives to make a living under a risk of abandonment. Paradoxically, these areas harbour a great part of the European High Nature

Rafael Caballero

2007-01-01

81

Grazing Strategies for Beef Production Escalating energy costs and alternative cropping systems for biofuels production have  

E-print Network

Grazing Strategies for Beef Production Escalating energy costs and alternative cropping systems for biofuels production have dramatically increased costs of fertilizer, seed, and feed grains. These increased pri- mary costs for beef production have created a shift in models previously used to man- age both

82

Intensive grazing system for small ruminants in the Tropics: The French West Indies experience and perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The French West Indies and Caribbean authorities have the objective of increasing small ruminant production to match market demand and develop local economies. This paper highlights research results obtained in the French West Indies over the last 25 years in small ruminant farming. The accumulated knowledge enabled the design of an intensive grazing system whose main characteristics are: (i) three

M. Mahieu; H. Archimède; J. Fleury; N. Mandonnet; G. Alexandre

2008-01-01

83

Short-term application of prestimulation and increased automatic cluster remover threshold affect milking characteristics of grazing dairy cows in late lactation.  

PubMed

It was hypothesized that reducing cow cluster-on time by increasing automatic cluster remover (ACR) thresholds above 0.4 kg/min would require premilking stimulation of the mammary gland to maintain milk yield. This was tested by examining the interaction between 4 ACR thresholds and 3 premilking treatments over an 8-wk period with 96 mixed-age Friesian-Jersey cross cows being milked twice per day in late lactation (average production: 13.9 kg/d). The 3 premilking treatments were attach cluster immediately (control), attach cluster 60s after entering the dairy (delay), or remove 2 squirts of foremilk from each quarter and attach cluster 60s after entering the dairy (Prep). Four ACR thresholds were chosen, where the cluster was removed after the milk flow rate was less than 0.2 (ACR2), 0.4 (ACR4), 0.6 (ACR6), and 0.8 kg/min (ACR8). Measurements included individual cow milk yield, cluster-on time, average milk flow rate, maximum milk flow rate, time from cluster attachment to average milk flow rate, milk yield in the first 2 min, time from maximum milk flow rate to end of milking, and the milk flow rate at predetermined intervals during each milking session. Composite milk samples were collected weekly at a.m. and p.m. milkings to determine composition and somatic cell count (SCC). On 3 occasions during the experiment, postmilking strip yield was measured. No interactions were detected between premilking treatment and ACR threshold in any of the measured variables. Cows receiving the Prep treatment had a 5 to 9% shorter cluster-on time than the control treatment. Milk yield, SCC, postmilking strip yield, and maximum flow rate were not different between the 3 premilking treatments. Cluster-on time of the ACR8 cows was 21 to 29% less than ACR2, but SCC and milk production variables were not different between the 4 end-of-milking treatments despite higher strip yields as ACR threshold increased. Increasing ACR threshold offers the potential to reduce the duration of milking without detriment to overall productivity. The results of the premilking treatments indicate that to achieve the most efficient routine, the operator should attach clusters as close as possible to the first bail in rotary dairies to increase bail utilization in pasture-based systems. If cluster attachment can be sped up and ACR threshold lifted, significant potential exists to decrease herd milking duration and improve labor productivity. PMID:23332836

Edwards, J P; Jago, J G; Lopez-Villalobos, N

2013-03-01

84

Winter grazing system and supplementation during late gestation influence performance of beef cows and steer progeny.  

PubMed

A 2 x 2 factorial study evaluated effects of cow wintering system and last trimester CP supplementation on performance of beef cows and steer progeny over a 3-yr period. Pregnant composite cows (Red Angus x Simmental) grazed winter range (WR; n = 4/yr) or corn residue (CR; n = 4/yr) during winter and within grazing treatment received 0.45 kg/d (DM) 28% CP cubes (PS; n = 4/yr) or no supplement (NS; n = 4/yr). Offspring steer calves entered the feedlot 14 d postweaning and were slaughtered 222 d later. Precalving BW was greater (P = 0.02) for PS than NS cows grazing WR, whereas precalving BCS was greater (P < 0.001) for cows grazing CR compared with WR. Calf birth BW was greater (P = 0.02) for CR than WR and tended to be greater (P = 0.11) for PS than NS cows. Prebreeding BW and BCS were greater (P 0.32) by PS. Calf weaning BW was less (P = 0.01) for calves from NS cows grazing WR compared with all other treatments. Pregnancy rate was unaffected by treatment (P > 0.39). Steer ADG, 12th-rib fat, yield grade, and LM area (P > 0.10) were similar among all treatments. However, final BW and HCW (P = 0.02) were greater for steers from PS-WR than NS-WR cows. Compared with steers from NS cows, steers from PS cows had greater marbling scores (P = 0.004) and a greater (P = 0.04) proportion graded USDA Choice or greater. Protein supplementation of dams increased the value of calves at weaning (P = 0.03) and of steers at slaughter regardless of winter grazing treatment (P = 0.005). Calf birth and weaning BW were increased by grazing CR during the winter. Calf weaning BW was increased by PS of the dam if the dam grazed WR. Compared with steers from NS cows, steer progeny from PS cows had a greater quality grade with no (P = 0.26) effect on yield grade. These data support a late gestation dam nutrition effect on calf production via fetal programming. PMID:18997078

Larson, D M; Martin, J L; Adams, D C; Funston, R N

2009-03-01

85

The dynamics of daily milk production and sward height under paddock grazing conditions  

E-print Network

The dynamics of daily milk production and sward height under paddock grazing conditions MH Wade1 JL individual tillers in paddocks grazed by dairy cows. The trial was carried out at the Station de Recherche Lolium perenne were grazed for five days by six lactating dairy cows. DHI was measured by means

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

86

Energy Integrated Dairy Farm System in North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

The EIFS project at North Dakota State University, located at Fargo, North Dakota, is an effort to show how a Northern Great Plains EIFS might be operated. This farm used a combination of energy conservation, energy capture, and energy production. Energy conservation was demonstrated using reduced tillage in a typical cropping system and by using heat reclamation equipment on the ventilation system and the milk cooler in the dairy barn. Energy capture was demonstrated with a solar collector used to preheat ventilation air. Energy production was demonstrated with the construction of an anaerobic digester to produce methane from manure. This manual describes the design, construction, operation, and performance of the EIFS developed at North Dakota State University.

Pratt, G.; Lindley, J.; Hirning, H.; Giles, J.

1986-11-01

87

Beef Species Symposium: potential limitations of NRC in predicting energetic requirements of beef females within western U.S. grazing systems.  

PubMed

Assessment of beef cow energy balance and efficiency in grazing-extensive rangelands has occurred on a nominal basis over short time intervals and has not accounted for the complexity of metabolic and digestive responses; behavioral adaptations to climatic, terrain, and vegetation variables; and documentation of the effects of nutrient form and supply to grazing cattle. Previous research using pen-fed cows demonstrated differences (P < 0.01) in efficiency of weight change ranging from 135 to 58 g/Mcal ME intake. Furthermore, variation in efficiency of ME use for tissue energy gain or loss ranged from 36% to 80%. In general, energy costs for maintenance, tissue accretion, and mobilization were greatest in Angus-based cows, intermediate in Brahman- and Hereford-based cows, and least in dairy-based cows. The most efficient cattle may reflect the types that are successful in semiarid grazing environments with low input management. Successful range cattle systems are likely the result of retention of animals that best adapted to the grazing environment and thus were potentially more efficient. Animals exposed to a variety of stressors may continually adapt, so energy expenditure is reduced and may tend to depart from the modeled beef cow in the 1996 NRC Beef Cattle Requirements. Critical factors comprising cow lifetime achievement, including reproductive success, disease resistance, and calf weaning weight, may be driven by cow total energy utilization in energy-limiting environments. Therefore, energy adjustments for adapted cattle within these landscapes and seasonal BW changes can alter seasonal NEm requirements. Evaluated studies indicate that in static grazing environments, NRC prediction fitness was improved compared with predictions from dynamic systems where cattle were influenced less by management and more by environmental conditions. Preliminary herd analyses cast doubt on the accuracy of NRC BCS descriptions representing NEm requirements of adapted females utilizing semiarid rangelands. Possible gaps are proposed that could be the basis for prediction inaccuracies. A more complete understanding of mechanisms contributing to productivity in the field than the current model predicts will improve future models to better simulate energetic accountability and subsequent female performance. PMID:24492551

Petersen, M K; Mueller, C J; Mulliniks, J T; Roberts, A J; DelCurto, T; Waterman, R C

2014-07-01

88

Grazing Occultations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A "grazing occultation" occurs when a star or other astronomical body is covered up by the extreme northern or southern limb of the moon in its easterly motion about the earth. Graze phenomena, organizing a graze expedition, and the scientific/educational value of observing grazes are among the topics discussed. (JN)

Cunningham, Doug; Hlynialuk, John

1983-01-01

89

Tree windbreaks and shelter benefits to pasture in temperate grazing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of windbreaks on pastures are reviewed, with an emphasis on temperate grazing systems. Mechanisms of plant response\\u000a to shelter are dealt with in brief. Few papers on measured responses of pasture species to shelter were located in a search\\u000a of the global literature for the period 1972–97. Except in cold climates, where the benefits of snow-trapping on water

P. R. Bird

1998-01-01

90

Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing in a subtropical coastal upwelling system in the Taiwan Strait  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing were measured in a coastal upwelling system in the southern Taiwan Strait during the summers of 2004–2007, with emphasis on a comparison between upwelling and non-upwelling areas. Diatoms significantly dominated the phytoplankton community (49–92%, by pigment content) in the coastal upwelling area, while the prevailing groups varied, with Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae and diatoms, in the different

Bangqin Huang; Weiguo Xiang; Xiangbo Zeng; Kuo-Ping Chiang; Haojie Tian; Jun Hu; Wenlu Lan; Huasheng Hong

2011-01-01

91

Lamb eimeriosis: applied treatment protocols in dairy sheep production systems.  

PubMed

The effect of different treatment protocols using the triazinone compounds diclazuril and toltrazuril on Eimeria oocyst excretion, diarrhoea and weight gain was evaluated in the present study. The protocols were designed in order to best fit to common management practices in dairy production systems as applied in Greece. During the first two trials comparative preventive (11 days after birth) and therapeutic (18 days after birth) single treatments using either drug were performed on an intensive farm. In Trial 3 the efficacy of a repeated diclazuril treatment after weaning (at the start and 4 weeks later) of the animals in a semi-intensive farm was tested. The last trial was performed in order to assess the effect of a single oral dose of toltrazuril after weaning of the animals on the same farm. During an observation period of 6-7 weeks after treatment animals in all trials were clinically examined for diarrhoea and faecal samples were regularly monitored for Eimeria oocysts at weekly intervals. Body weight was also determined at the start and end of each trial. A single treatment with toltrazuril resulted in a significant reduction of oocyst excretion over the study period compared to the control, with very high efficacy values during the first 2-3 weeks after treatment, irrespective of the treatment protocol and the management system applied. This in general could not be confirmed in the protocols using diclazuril, which showed a much lower and mostly variable efficacy pattern. PMID:23428203

Saratsis, Anastasios; Karagiannis, Isidoros; Brozos, Christos; Kiossis, Evagellos; Tzanidakis, Nikolaos; Joachim, Anja; Sotiraki, Smaragda

2013-09-01

92

Feeding strategies for small-scale dairy systems based on perennial ( Lolium perenne ) or annual ( Lolium multiflorum ) ryegrass in the central highlands of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale dairying is an option for campesinos in Mexico. The costs of feeding are high and strategies based on quality forages are a priority. The performance, agronomic\\u000a variables and feeding costs were evaluated for dairy cows continuously grazing perennial ryegrass–white clover for 9 h\\/day\\u000a (PRG) or fed cut herbage from annual ryegrass for 8 weeks followed by 9 h\\/day for 6 weeks

D. Heredia-Nava; A. Espinoza-Ortega; C. E. González-Esquivel; C. M. Arriaga-Jordán

2007-01-01

93

Growth and persistence of perennial and hybrid ryegrasses when grazed by dairy cows in the central Waikato region of New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 3?year plot trial was conducted at the Dairying Research Corporation, Hamilton, New Zealand to compare herbage production, persistence, and crown rust (Puccinia coronatd) resistance in 13 newly released cultivars or coded ryegrass lines. These included perennial (Lolium perenne) and hybrid (Lolium × boucheanum syn. Lolium hybridum) lines being compared with the standard perennial ryegrass varieties ‘Yatsyn 1’ and ‘Grasslands

E. R. Thom; C. D. Waugh; R. J. McCabe

1998-01-01

94

Performance and limitation of two dairy production systems in the North western Ethiopian highlands.  

PubMed

In order to characterise the dairy production systems as well as the productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows in the study area, a total of 256 and 54 dairy farms were used for survey and monitoring data collection, respectively. Based on breed, land size, feed and market accessibility, two major dairy production systems were identified: a rather specialized, urban, and a peri-urban dairy production system. Urban farmers owned larger herds but farmed less land, and sold a greater proportion of liquid milk than peri-urban farmers, who processed more milk. Purchased feed played a more important role for the feed supply of urban than peri-urban farms. Significant breed effects were found for productive and reproductive performance traits. It is concluded that improved breeding and health management, genetic improvement of local breeds and supplementation of poor quality feed resources are the key factors for enhancing productivity of dairy cows and thereby increasing family income from milk production. PMID:19083118

Ayenew, Yitaye Alemayehu; Wurzinger, Maria; Tegegne, Azage; Zollitsch, Werner

2009-10-01

95

Intensive cattle grazing affects pasture litter-fall: an unrecognized nitrous oxide source.  

PubMed

The rationale for this study came from observing grazing dairy cattle dropping freshly harvested plant material onto the soil surface, hereafter called litter-fall. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines include NO emissions during pasture renewal but do not consider NO emissions that may result from litter-fall. The objectives of this study were to determine litter-fall rates and to assess indicative NO emission factors (EFs) for the dominant pasture species (perennial ryegrass [ L.] and white clover [ L.]). Herbage was vacuumed from intensively managed dairy pastures before and after 30 different grazing events when cows (84 cows ha) grazed for 24 h according to a rotational system; the interval between grazing events ranged from 21 to 30 d. A laboratory incubation study was performed to assess potential EF values for the pasture species at two soil moisture contents. Finely ground pasture material was incubated under controlled laboratory conditions with soil, and the NO emissions were measured until rates returned to control levels. On average, pre- and postgrazing dry matter yields per grazing event were 2516 ± 636 and 1167 ± 265 kg DM ha (±SD), respectively. Pregrazing litter was absent, whereas postgrazing fresh and senesced litter-fall rates were 53 ± 24 and 19 ± 18 kg DM ha, respectively. Annually, the rotational grazing system resulted in 12 grazing events where fresh litter-fall equaed to 16 kg N ha yr to the soil. Emission factors in the laboratory experiment indicated that the EF for perennial ryegrass and white clover ranged from 0.7 to 3.1%. If such EF values should also occur under field conditions, then we estimate that litter-fall induces an NO emission rate of 0.3 kg NO ha yr. Litter-fall as a source of NO in grazed pastures requires further assessment. PMID:22370407

Pal, Pranoy; Clough, Tim J; Kelliher, Francis M; van Koten, Chikako; Sherlock, Robert R

2012-01-01

96

Potential of closed water systems on dairy farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

A more sustainable water management on dairy farms is necessary because of rising tap water production costs and exhaustion of groundwater resources in an increasing number of areas. Alternative water sources like rain water collected from roofs and yards and effluents from on-site wastewater treatment should be considered. The objective of this paper is to discuss options for closed water

H. C. Willers; X. N. Karamanlis; D. D. Schulte

1999-01-01

97

The effect of improving cow productivity, fertility, and longevity on the global warming potential of dairy systems.  

PubMed

This study compared the environmental impact of a range of dairy production systems in terms of their global warming potential (GWP, expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents, CO(2)-eq.) and associated land use, and explored the efficacy of reducing said impact. Models were developed using the unique data generated from a long-term genetic line × feeding system experiment. Holstein-Friesian cows were selected to represent the UK average for milk fat plus protein production (control line) or were selected for increased milk fat plus protein production (select line). In addition, cows received a low forage diet (50% forage) with no grazing or were on a high forage (75% forage) diet with summer grazing. A Markov chain approach was used to describe the herd structure and help estimate the GWP per year and land required per cow for the 4 alternative systems and the herd average using a partial life cycle assessment. The CO(2)-eq. emissions were expressed per kilogram of energy-corrected milk (ECM) and per hectare of land use, as well as land required per kilogram of ECM. The effects of a phenotypic and genetic standard deviation unit improvement on herd feed utilization efficiency, ECM yield, calving interval length, and incidence of involuntary culling were assessed. The low forage (nongrazing) feeding system with select cows produced the lowest CO(2)-eq. emissions of 1.1 kg/kg of ECM and land use of 0.65 m(2)/kg of ECM but the highest CO(2)-eq. emissions of 16.1t/ha of the production systems studied. Within the herd, an improvement of 1 standard deviation in feed utilization efficiency was the only trait of those studied that would significantly reduce the reliance of the farming system on bought-in synthetic fertilizer and concentrate feed, as well as reduce the average CO(2)-eq. emissions and land use of the herd (both by about 6.5%, of which about 4% would be achievable through selective breeding). Within production systems, reductions in CO(2)-eq. emissions per kilogram of ECM and CO(2)-eq. emissions per hectare were also achievable by an improvement in feed utilization. This study allowed development of models that harness the biological trait variation in the animal to improve the environmental impact of the farming system. Genetic selection for efficient feed use for milk production according to feeding system can bring about reductions in system nutrient requirements, CO(2)-eq. emissions, and land use per unit product. PMID:21700056

Bell, M J; Wall, E; Russell, G; Simm, G; Stott, A W

2011-07-01

98

Liver functional genomics in beef cows on grazing systems: novel genes and pathways revealed.  

PubMed

The adaptation of the liver to periods of negative energy balance is largely unknown in beef cattle on grazing systems. We evaluated liver transcriptome throughout gestation and early lactation of purebred and crossbred beef cows [Angus, Hereford, and their F1 crossbreeds (CR)], grazing high or low herbage allowances (HA) of native grasslands (4 and 2.5 kg dry matter/kg body wt annual mean; n = 16) using an Agilent 4 × 44k bovine array. A total of 4,661 transcripts were affected by days [272 ? 2.5-fold difference, false discovery rate (FDR) ? 0.10] and 47 pathways were altered during winter gestation (-165 to -15 days relative to calving), when cows experienced decreased body condition score, decreased insulin, and increased nonesterified fatty acid concentrations. Gluconeogenesis and fatty acid oxidation pathways were upregulated, while cell growth, DNA replication, and transcription pathways were downregulated (FDR ? 0.25). We observed only small changes in the liver transcriptome during early lactation (+15 to +60 days). A total of 225 genes were differentially expressed (47 ? 2-fold difference, FDR ? 0.10) between HA. The majority of those were related to glucose and pyruvate metabolism and were upregulated in high HA, reflecting their better metabolic status. Two genes were upregulated in CR cows, but 148 transcripts (74 ? 2-fold change difference, FDR ? 0.10) were affected by the HA and cow genotype interaction. The transcriptional changes observed indicated a complex and previously unrecognized, hepatic adaptive program of grazing beef cows in different nutritional environments. Novel target candidate genes, metabolic pathways, and regulatory mechanisms were reported. PMID:24326346

Laporta, Jimena; Rosa, Guilherme J M; Naya, Hugo; Carriquiry, Mariana

2014-02-15

99

Evaluating Technologies for Reducing Nutrients in Dairy Effluent The Geotube Dewatering System  

E-print Network

Evaluating Technologies for Reducing Nutrients in Dairy Effluent The Geotube® Dewatering System in the North Bosque and Leon River Watersheds. In 2005, they evaluated the Geotube® de-watering system The Geotube® dewatering system was demonstrated by the Miratech Division of Ten Cate Nicolon and General

Mukhtar, Saqib

100

Minimising surface water pollution resulting from farm?dairy effluent application to mole?pipe drained soils. II. The contribution of preferential flow of effluent to whole?farm pollutant losses in subsurface drainage from a West Otago dairy farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the role of artificial drainage systems in the transfer of nutrients and faecal organisms from soil to waterways, mole?pipe drainage flows were monitored from two large (27 × 40 m), hydrologically isolated field plots that were part of a long?term dairy pasture in West Otago, New Zealand. One plot was grazed only whilst the other plot was spray

R. M. Monaghan; L. C. Smith

2004-01-01

101

Evaluation of Factors Associated with Increased Dairy Cow Mortality on United States Dairy Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy cow mortality is an increasingly severe problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this study was to examine a variety of herd management practices and herd characteristics to identify factors associated with increased cow mortality in US dairy herds. The National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2002 study surveyed dairy operations in 21 major dairy states. The

C. S. McConnel; J. E. Lombard; B. A. Wagner; F. B. Garry

2008-01-01

102

Grazing Rental Appraisal Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The 'Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978' required the Secretaries of Agriculture and the Department of Interior to conduct a study of grazing fees in the Western United States and make recommendations for alternative fee systems before January 1986....

C. E. Brownell, P. B. Tittman, G. Jackson

1983-01-01

103

Targeted grazing to reduce tillage in organic dryland systems: Environmental, ecological, and economic assessment of reintegrating animal and crop production  

E-print Network

of management system on lamb performance, health and quality. The successful candidate will evaluate the impact networks. As part of this project, the successful candidate will assess insect diversity and impactTargeted grazing to reduce tillage in organic dryland systems: Environmental, ecological

Lawrence, Rick L.

104

Polymer Science Concepts in Dairy Systems—an Overview of Milk Protein and Food Hydrocolloid Interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of food hydrocolloids in dairy products is reviewed considering the basic aspects of the mixing behaviour of biopolymer solutions and polymer interactions with colloidal particles. Polymer adsorption and depletion phenomena are important for most casein-hydrocolloid systems, while the behaviour of whey protein-hydrocolloid systems is dominated by the rules of ternary polymer solutions.

A. Syrbe; W. J. Bauer; H. Klostermeyer

1998-01-01

105

A Dairy Cow Body Condition Scoring System and Its Relationship to Selected Production Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scoring system with 1 to 5 scale was devised to measure body condition of dairy cows at any point during the lactation cycle. Cows were scored on appearance and palpation of back and hind quarters only. Relationships of body weight, frame size measurements, milk production, and characteristics related to the body condition scoring system were determined. During 18 too,

E. E. Wildman; G. M. Jones; P. E. Wagner; R. L. Boman; H. F. Troutt Jr.; T. N. Lesch

1982-01-01

106

Energy integrated dairy farm system in Georgia: Technical manual, Mathis/P and M Dairy Farm, Social Circle, Georgia. [Cogeneration using biogas; heat recovery  

SciTech Connect

This manual describes a project sponsored to optimize energy generation and utilization in the agricultural or food processing industry. The particular project involves the Mathis/P and M Dairy Farm located in Social Circle, Georgia (about 60 miles east of Atlanta). The farm is designed for a 550 milking cow herd and produces certified raw milk for sale to a processing plant located in Atlanta. The project converted the Mathis/P and and M Dairy into an energy integrated dairy farm system (EIDFS) in which the interaction of the subsystems and components are modified such that the energy resources of the farm are optimized. This manual is a description of the system, subsystems and components composing the Mathis EIDFS and is primarily intended for farmers, extension agents, and equipment manufacturers who might be involved in future EIDFS projects. Cogeneration using biogas from manures and heat recovery from the refrigeration machinery were among the options chosen.

Walsh, J.L. Jr.; Ross, C.C.; Lamade, R.M.

1986-09-01

107

Study on Intelligent Multi-concentrates Feeding System for Dairy Cow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To implement precision feeding for dairy cow, an intelligent multi-concentrates feeding system was developed. The system consists of two parts, one is precision ingredients control subsystem, the other is multi-concentrates discharge subsystem. The former controls the latter with 4 stepper motors. The precision ingredients control subsystem was designed based on Samsung S3C2440 ARM9 microprocessor and WinCE5.0 embedded operating system. The feeding system identifies the dairy cow with passive transponder using RFID (Radio frequency identification) reader. According to the differences of based diet intake and individual dairy cow milk yield, the system can automatically and quantificationally discharge 4 kinds of different concentrates on the basis of the cow identification ID. The intelligent multi-concentrates feeding system for dairy cow has been designed and implemented. According to the experiment results, the concentrate feeding error is less than 5%, the cow inditification delay time is less than 0.5s and the cow inditification error rate is less than 0.01%.

Yan, Yinfa; Wang, Ranran; Song, Zhanhua; Yan, Shitao; Li, Fa-De

108

A note on eating behaviour of dairy cows at different stocking systems—diurnal rhythm and effects of ambient temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment was aimed at studying the diurnal rhythm of dairy cows eating behaviour at different stocking systems, and quantifying the effect of daily ambient temperature on this diurnal rhythm. In two experiments carried out in the summer of 2003 in The Netherlands, eight dairy cows were offered fresh pasture of perennial ryegrass. In the first experiment, four cows were

H. Z. Taweel; B. M. Tas; H. J. Smit; S. Tamminga; A. Elgersma

2006-01-01

109

Welfare-positive management and nutrition for the dairy herd: a European perspective.  

PubMed

As European dairy farms become larger and diverge between grass-based and fully housed systems, interest in the welfare of the dairy cow and related environmental issues by consumers and legislators is increasing. These pressures mean that good nutrition and management, which underpin much dairy cow welfare, is critical. Despite considerable research into the management and nutrition of the dairy cow from calf to adulthood there is much on-farm variability in its application. While the incidences of many endemic diseases are reduced most are still significant, for example lameness. In addition, trade and climate change are bringing a more diverse range of pathogens, parasites and pests into Northern Europe. Housing aspects are limited in application by economics and in most cases still do not match grazing for welfare in temperate climates. Genomic technologies offer increased opportunities to breed for 'robustness' but like 'precision animal management systems' have still to be fully exploited. PMID:24360757

Logue, David N; Mayne, C Sinclair

2014-01-01

110

Sustainability evaluation of automatic and conventional milking systems on organic dairy farms in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic dairy farmers in Denmark currently are implementing automatic milking systems (AMS) to save labour costs. As organic agriculture aims at sustainable production, the introduction of a new technology such as AMS should be evaluated regarding its economic viability, environmental impact, and social acceptability, i.e., its contribution to sustainable development. The objective of this research, therefore, was to evaluate sustainability

F. W. Oudshoorn; T. Kristensen; A. J. van der Zijpp; I. J. M. de Boer

111

Sustainability evaluation of automatic and conventional milking systems on organic dairy farms in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic dairy farmers in Denmark currently are implementing automatic milking systems (AMS) to save labour costs. As organic agriculture aims at sustainable production, the introduction of a new technology such as AMS should be evaluated regarding its economic viability, environmental impact, and social acceptability, i.e., its contribution to sustainable development. The objective of this research, therefore, was to evaluate sustainability

F. W. Oudshoorn; T. Kristensen; Zijpp van der A. J; Boer de I. J. M

2012-01-01

112

Energy conservation and alternate energy resources for a dairy utilizing a water flush waste disposal system  

SciTech Connect

Electricity use and costs were evaluated for a dairy farm using a water flush disposal system. Electricity conservastion, reducing the peak electrical demand, and alternative energy production from animal waste can be reduce purchased electrical costs while still maintaining the benefits derived from mechanization. ref.

Erdman, M.D.; Bryan, W.L.; Johnson, J.C. Jr.; Newton, G.L.

1981-01-01

113

One-dimensional simulation of co-current, dairy spray drying systems pros and cons  

E-print Network

Review One-dimensional simulation of co-current, dairy spray drying systems ­ pros and cons Kamlesh PATEL 1 , Xiao Dong CHEN 1*, Romain JEANTET 2,3 , Pierre SCHUCK 2,3 1 Biotechnology and Food Engineering parameters and product properties before conducting real spray drying trials. The main advantage of a 1-D

Boyer, Edmond

114

Energy recovery from dairy waste-waters: impacts of biofilm support systems on anaerobic CST reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic digestion is one of the major steps involved in the treatment of dairy industry waste-waters and many CSTRs (continuously-stirred tank reactors) are functioning for this purpose all over the world. In this paper, the authors describe their attempts to upgrade a CSTR's performance by incorporating a biofilm support system (BSS) within the existing reactor. The focus of the work

E. V. Ramasamy; S. A. Abbasi

2000-01-01

115

Progress in the use of computerised recording systems in dairy cow monitoring and extension in Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emphasis on cow records in Malaysian diary extension programmes reflects the importance of herd fertility in the economics of dairying. Manual record keeping has not been able to make an impact on management due to difficulties experienced in quality control of the data and in analysing the data to produce useful information for farm managers. Computerised recording systems have

H. J. Pharo; M. J. Sopian; M. Kamaruddin; M. A. Abu Hassan; P. F. Cheah; T. W. Choo

1990-01-01

116

GRAZPLAN: Decision support systems for Australian grazing enterprises—II. The animal biology model for feed intake, production and reproduction and the GrazFeed DSS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper specifies the animal biology module of a model for simulating grazing systems for ruminants on pasture. The program predicts the intake of energy and protein, allowing for selective grazing and substitution by supplementary feeds, and estimates the use of the diet for maintenance and production, according to current feeding standards. Conception and death rates are predicted from the

M. Freer; A. D. Moore; J. R. Donnelly

1997-01-01

117

Production level, feed conversion efficiency, and nitrogen use efficiency of dairy production systems in China.  

PubMed

A study was conducted in China to evaluate the feed conversion efficiency, nitrogen use efficiency, and the amount of human-edible grains fed under different dairy systems. Three dairy systems were defined and studied: (i) smallholder subsistence farms (SH), (ii) peri-urban farms (PR), and iii) cooperative farms (CO). The PR system had the highest milk yield, better feed conversion efficiency, better nitrogen use efficiency, and used lower proportion of grains in the diet. Within a system, different farms had wide variations in feed conversion efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency, suggesting the need to improve management practices within the system. Among the three systems, SH and CO systems require the most improvements in the management practices. PMID:24510199

Wang, Chong; Liu, Jian-Xin; Makkar, Harinder Paul Singh; Wei, Ning-bo; Xu, Qun-mei

2014-04-01

118

Socioeconomic characteristics of urban and peri-urban dairy production systems in the North western Ethiopian highlands.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate the socio-economic characteristics of urban and peri-urban dairy production systems in the North western Ethiopian highlands, a field survey was conducted which included 256 farms. It is concluded that urban farmers tend to specialize on dairy production and support the family income from non-agricultural activities, while agricultural activities other than milk production forms an additional source of income in peri-urban farms. The specialization of urban dairy producers includes the more frequent use of crossbred cows with higher milk yield. Urban and peri-urban dairy production contributes to food security of the population and family income of the farmers' families, but also provides a job opportunity for otherwise unemployed people. Access to farm land, level of education and access to certain input services such as training, veterinary and credit services were identified as the major constraints for the future development of the dairy sector. PMID:21448780

Ayenew, Yitaye Alemayehu; Wurzinger, Maria; Tegegne, Azage; Zollitsch, Werner

2011-08-01

119

36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Changes in grazing permits. 222.4 Section 222...OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing permits. (a) The Chief,...

2013-07-01

120

36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Changes in grazing permits. 222.4 Section 222...OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing permits. (a) The Chief,...

2010-07-01

121

36 CFR 222.11 - Grazing advisory boards.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grazing advisory boards. 222.11 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.11 Grazing advisory boards. (a)...

2014-07-01

122

36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Changes in grazing permits. 222.4 Section 222...OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing permits. (a) The Chief,...

2011-07-01

123

36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.  

...2014-07-01 false Changes in grazing permits. 222.4 Section 222...OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing permits. (a) The Chief,...

2014-07-01

124

36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Changes in grazing permits. 222.4 Section 222...OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing permits. (a) The Chief,...

2012-07-01

125

Grazing dynamics and dependence on initial conditions in certain systems with impacts  

E-print Network

Dynamics near the grazing manifold and basins of attraction for a motion of a material point in a gravitational field, colliding with a moving motion-limiting stop, are investigated. The Poincare map, describing evolution from an impact to the next impact, is derived. Periodic points are found and their stability is determined. The grazing manifold is computed and dynamics is approximated in its vicinity. It is shown that on the grazing manifold there are trapping as well as forbidden regions. Finally, basins of attraction are studied.

Andrzej Okninski; Boguslaw Radziszewski

2007-06-02

126

Impairment of O-antigen production confers resistance to grazing in a model amoeba-cyanobacterium predator-prey system  

PubMed Central

The grazing activity of predators on photosynthetic organisms is a major mechanism of mortality and population restructuring in natural environments. Grazing is also one of the primary difficulties in growing cyanobacteria and other microalgae in large, open ponds for the production of biofuels, as contaminants destroy valuable biomass and prevent stable, continuous production of biofuel crops. To address this problem, we have isolated a heterolobosean amoeba, HGG1, that grazes upon unicellular and filamentous freshwater cyanobacterial species. We have established a model predator–prey system using this amoeba and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. Application of amoebae to a library of mutants of S. elongatus led to the identification of a grazer-resistant knockout mutant of the wzm ABC O-antigen transporter gene, SynPCC7942_1126. Mutations in three other genes involved in O-antigen synthesis and transport also prevented the expression of O-antigen and conferred resistance to HGG1. Complementation of these rough mutants returned O-antigen expression and susceptibility to amoebae. Rough mutants are easily identifiable by appearance, are capable of autoflocculation, and do not display growth defects under standard laboratory growth conditions, all of which are desired traits for a biofuel production strain. Thus, preventing the production of O-antigen is a pathway for producing resistance to grazing by certain amoebae. PMID:23012457

Simkovsky, Ryan; Daniels, Emy F.; Tang, Karen; Huynh, Stacey C.; Golden, Susan S.; Brahamsha, Bianca

2012-01-01

127

Extending grazing and reducing  

E-print Network

Extending grazing and reducing stored feed needs Don Ball Ed Ballard Mark Kennedy Garry Lacefield Dan Undersander #12;CONTENTS WHY EXTEND THE GRAZING SEASON?. . . . . . . 1 EXPLOIT FORAGE GROWTH OF UNIQUE GRAZING OPPORTUNITIES . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Graze crop residues. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Jones, Michelle

128

Global versus local environmental impacts of grazing and confined beef production systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon footprint is a key indicator of the contribution of food production to climate change and its importance is increasing worldwide. Although it has been used as a sustainability index for assessing production systems, it does not take into account many other biophysical environmental dimensions more relevant at the local scale, such as soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, and pesticide contamination. We estimated carbon footprint, fossil fuel energy use, soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, and risk of pesticide contamination for five real beef background-finishing systems with increasing levels of intensification in Uruguay, which were combinations of grazing rangelands (RL), seeded pastures (SP), and confined in feedlot (FL). Carbon footprint decreased from 16.7 (RL-RL) to 6.9 kg (SP-FL) CO2 eq kg body weight-1 (BW; ‘eq’: equivalent). Energy use was zero for RL-RL and increased up to 17.3 MJ kg BW-1 for SP-FL. Soil erosion values varied from 7.7 (RL-RL) to 14.8 kg of soil kg BW-1 (SP-FL). Nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient balances showed surpluses for systems with seeded pastures and feedlots while RL-RL was deficient. Pesticide contamination risk was zero for RL-RL, and increased up to 21.2 for SP-FL. For the range of systems studied with increasing use of inputs, trade-offs were observed between global and local environmental problems. These results demonstrate that several indicators are needed to evaluate the sustainability of livestock production systems.

Modernel, P.; Astigarraga, L.; Picasso, V.

2013-09-01

129

A new Nordic structure evaluation system for diets fed to dairy cows: a meta analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The overall aim was to establish a model for predicting chewing index (CI) values for ranking the fibrousnesses of feeds fed\\u000a to dairy cows within the Nordic Chewing index system. The CI values are predicted as the sum of the eating (EI) and ruminating\\u000a time index (RI) values. The EI values are assumed to be proportional with the NDF content

P. Nørgaard; E. Nadeau; Å. T. Randby

130

Dynamic variation of supernatant quality in a dairy shed waste stabilisation pond system.  

PubMed

An intensive monitoring program of a standard two-stage dairy shed waste stabilisation pond system was undertaken to determine the incidence and extent of spatial and temporal variation of basic physio-chemical parameters, and to shed light on the longer term dynamic nature of in-pond conditions. The anaerobic-facultative pond system, located in a remote rural area, treats wastewater from the hosing down and hydraulic flushing of the milking parlour and holding yard at the farm dairy shed. A number of multi-parameter water quality field monitoring probes were permanently deployed at various locations within the two ponds to enable continuous measurement of temperature, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen. In addition, profiling of the supernatant of both ponds was undertaken at different times of the year to examine vertical variation of the same parameters. Continuous monitoring revealed spatial homogeneity in EC and pH levels in the upper metre of both ponds. Physio-chemical parameters also appear to change uniformly across the ponds in response to external stimuli such as rainfall. Neither pond, however, exhibits homogeneity down the profile of the supernatant. Seasonal stratification is prevalent in the facultative pond suggesting poor vertical mixing, while the anaerobic pond is notably affected by sludge accumulation. A long-term pattern of rising conductivity in both ponds indicated accumulation of dissolved salt species in the system due to recirculation of reclaimed effluent for hydraulic flushing of the dairy shed. In the facultative pond, diurnal fluctuations in dissolved oxygen, oxidation-reduction potential and turbidity during warmer months of the year closely followed temperature swings. The extensive data collected in this study provides a detailed picture of the physio-chemical dynamics of two-stage stabilisation pond systems treating dairy shed wastewater. PMID:17591218

Fyfe, J; Sivakumar, M; Hagare, D; Jenkins, A

2007-01-01

131

Invited Review: Production and Digestion of Supplemented Dairy Cows on Pasture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature with data from dairy cows on pasture was reviewed to evaluate the effects of supplementation on intake, milk production and composition, and ruminal and postruminal digestion. Low dry matter intake (DMI) of pasture has been identified as a major factor limiting milk production by high producing dairy cows. Pasture DMI in grazing cows is a function of grazing time,

F. Bargo; L. D. Muller; E. S. Kolver; J. E. Delahoy

2003-01-01

132

Socioeconomic characteristics of urban and peri-urban dairy production systems in the North western Ethiopian highlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the socio-economic characteristics of urban and peri-urban dairy production systems in the North western\\u000a Ethiopian highlands, a field survey was conducted which included 256 farms. It is concluded that urban farmers tend to specialize\\u000a on dairy production and support the family income from non-agricultural activities, while agricultural activities other than\\u000a milk production forms an additional source

Yitaye Alemayehu Ayenew; Maria Wurzinger; Azage Tegegne; Werner Zollitsch

2011-01-01

133

Amazing Grazing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Countless acres of grasslands stretch across the American West. Centuries ago, bison roamed the range freely and lived off the grass. By the 19th century, herds of cattle grazed the same land. Over time, much of the original grassland was either plowed and planted or trampled to dust, causing the topsoil to dry up and blow away. Today many…

Peterson, Cris

134

Review article Spatial heterogeneity and grazing processes  

E-print Network

Review article Spatial heterogeneity and grazing processes Anthony J. PARSONSa*, Bertrand DUMONTb a demonstrable and widely recognised features of heterogeneity in large herbivore grazing systems. But to understand how their existence relates to grazing processes, and what the implications of the patterns

Boyer, Edmond

135

Society for Range Management Livestock Grazing, Wildlife  

E-print Network

Society for Range Management Rangelands Livestock Grazing, Wildlife Habitat, and Rangeland Values Management Livestock Grazing, Wildlife Habitat, and Rangeland Values By Paul R. Krausman, David E. Naugle and conservationists in the West realize that debates over grazing systems and stocking rates are of little consequence

Wallace, Mark C.

136

Short communication: A food-systems approach to assessing dairy product waste.  

PubMed

Concern about world population increase, food security, and the environmental burdens of food production have made food-waste reduction a social and environmental priority. In this context, the quantification of dairy product waste is especially difficult due to the varied means of disposal, by solid and liquid waste streams, and due to inclusion as an ingredient in many processed foods. In this study, food intake data from the Australian National Nutrition Survey (>13,000 participants; >4,500 food items) were disaggregated into basic foods and total national dairy product intake was expressed in whole-milk equivalents. This result was compared with total domestic milk supply, indicating a level of waste of 29% for dairy products in the Australian food system. With national food-waste reduction targets becoming increasingly common, reliable estimates of food waste at the national scale are important for goal setting, baseline reporting, and performance monitoring. For this purpose, the systems approach to assessing food waste demonstrated in this project is deemed to have advantages over other common methods of food-waste assessment, such as bin audits, waste diaries, and surveys. PMID:25064645

Ridoutt, B G; Baird, D L; Bastiaans, K; Darnell, R; Hendrie, G A; Riley, M; Sanguansri, P; Syrette, J; Noakes, M; Keating, B A

2014-10-01

137

Food safety systems in a small dairy factory: implementation, major challenges, and assessment of systems' performances.  

PubMed

The present study describes the implementation of a food safety system in a dairy processing plant located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and the challenges found during the process. In addition, microbiological indicators have been used to assess system's implementation performance. The steps involved in the implementation of a food safety system included a diagnosis of the prerequisites, implementation of the good manufacturing practices (GMPs), sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOPs), training of the food handlers, and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP). In the initial diagnosis, conformity with 70.7% (n=106) of the items analyzed was observed. A total of 12 critical control points (CCPs) were identified: (1) reception of the raw milk, (2) storage of the raw milk, (3 and 4) reception of the ingredients and packaging, (5) milk pasteurization, (6 and 7) fermentation and cooling, (8) addition of ingredients, (9) filling, (10) storage of the finished product, (11) dispatching of the product, and (12) sanitization of the equipment. After implementation of the food safety system, a significant reduction in the yeast and mold count was observed (p<0.05). The main difficulties encountered for the implementation of food safety system were related to the implementation of actions established in the flow chart and to the need for constant training/adherence of the workers to the system. Despite this, the implementation of the food safety system was shown to be challenging, but feasible to be reached by small-scale food industries. PMID:23153286

Cusato, Sueli; Gameiro, Augusto H; Corassin, Carlos H; Sant'ana, Anderson S; Cruz, Adriano G; Faria, José de Assis F; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto F

2013-01-01

138

Vegetation and cow-calf response to several grazing systems in the rolling plains of Texas  

E-print Network

of threeawn (Aristida spp. ) and perennial forbs was different in grazed compared to ungrazed pastures. Grazing treatment did not significantly affect frequency of s)d ts g (g t 1 ~ti d 1 ), *th p 1 1 grasses, and annual forbs. Heavy broomweed infestat1on... nd 4-pasture 91 43 Livestock reproduction from graz supplementation treatments on th Experimental Ranch ing and e Texas 94 LIST OF FI6URES Figure Page Monthly precipitation on the Texas Experimental Ranch. Mean f requency of treatments...

Knight, Jan Carol

2012-06-07

139

Productivity of grasslands under continuous and rotational grazing  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Netherlands, rotational grazing, with grazing periods of 2 to 5 days, is the most common grazing system at present. In contrast with other countries of North-western Europe, the continuous grazing system is used here only to a limited extent. However, the results of numerous comparative trials at high nitrogen fertilization levels and high stocking rates, carried out in

E. A. Lantinga

1985-01-01

140

Interactive computer simulation of dairy farm systems as a method for making energy management decisions  

SciTech Connect

To facilitate management decisions an analytical model was developed to predict energy and labor requirements and costs for milking and feed handling systems. The Dairy Farm Simulation Model was based on detailed time and motion studies, and energy audits of 21 dairy farms in Michigan. Data included labor hours and energy consumption per month for each operation required for milking and feed handling and charges based on Detroit Edison electrical rate schedules. The result of optimizing the electrical rate charges for simulated milking systems is indicated by the Time-of-Day Rate Schedule which provides the lowest cost to farm operators willing to adjust milking times. Simulation of mobile and stationary feeding systems for six herd sizes includes calculations of capital investment and operating costs in addition to labor and energy cost. Results indicate that mobile systems required a lower investment cost while stationary systems realize lower energy costs. Labor requirements per cow decreased as herd size increased for mobile systems, but remained the same for stationary systems regardless of herd size. The energy required to operate each system, based on the number of oil barrel equivalents, indicates the stationary system required less energy for herd sizes up to and including 150 cows, while mobile systems indicate a lower energy requirement for herd sizes greater than 150 cows. In general, no single system emerged as the best, rather it depended on the operator's personal preference.

Hewett, E.J. III

1983-01-01

141

Dairy Wastes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of wastes from the dairy industry covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) government regulations; (2) ion-plant control of dairy effluents; (3) dairy effluent treatment methods; and (4) research on dairy effluents. A list of 26 references is also presented. (HM)

Pico, Richard F.

1978-01-01

142

Zooplankton community structure, micro-zooplankton grazing impact, and seston energy content in the St. Johns river system, Florida as influenced by the toxic cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zooplankton can influence the phytoplankton community through preferential grazing. In turn, nuisance cyanobacteria may affect zooplankton community structure by allowing certain species to out-compete others. We examined zooplankton-phytoplankton interactions, micro-zooplankton (m) grazing, and biochemical components of the seston in the St. Johns River System (SJR), Florida in the presence and absence of the toxin-producing cyanobacterium Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii. We tested whether

Jeremy A. Leonard; Hans W. Paerl

2005-01-01

143

Treatment of anaerobically digested dairy manure in a two-stage biofiltration system.  

PubMed

High concentrations of ammonium and phosphate present a challenge to cost-effective treatment of anaerobically digested dairy manure. This study investigated the efficacy of a two-stage biofiltration system for passive treatment of digested dairy manure. The first stage pebble filters were batch loaded. When the slurry-like digested dairy manure was retained on pebble beds, soluble contaminants were removed before liquid infiltrated over 8-17 days. The pebble filters removed 70% of soluble chemical oxygen demand, 71% of soluble biochemical oxygen demand, 75% of ammonium, and 68% of orthophosphate. Nitrogen removal was attributed to the conventional nitrification - denitrification process and novel nitritation - anammox process. Aerobic ammonium oxidizing and anammox bacteria accounted for 25 and 23% of all bacteria, respectively, in the filtrate of the pebble filters. The longer it took for filtration, the greater the removal efficiency of soluble contaminants. The second stage sand filters had removal efficiencies of 17% for soluble chemical oxygen demand, 45% for soluble biochemical oxygen demand, 43% for ammonium, and 16% for orthophosphate during batch operations at a hydraulic retention time of 7 days. Aerobic ammonium oxidation and anammox were primarily responsible for nitrogen removal in the sand filters. Vegetation made an insignificant difference in treatment performance of the sand filters. PMID:22592467

Xia, Mengjing; Tao, Wendong; Wang, Ziyuan; Pei, Yuansheng

2012-01-01

144

Components of grazing behaviour of 3 breeds of heifers P D'Hour, M Petit JP Garel  

E-print Network

Components of grazing behaviour of 3 breeds of heifers P D'Hour, M Petit JP Garel INRA, LAHM, Theix Anim Sci, 68, 3578-3587). The aim of this study was to compare the grazing behaviour of heifers belonging to Holstein dairy, Limousine beef and Salers hardy breeds, grazing under 2 sward conditions. Eight

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

145

MODELING THE POTENTIAL SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF BEEF CATTLE GRAZING USING A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Data regarding grazing utilization in the western United States are typically compiled within administrative boundaries(e.g. allotment,pasture). For large areas, an assumption of uniform distribution is seldom valid. Previous studies show that vegetation type, degree of slope, an...

146

Implementation and use of a microcomputer-based management information system to monitor dairy herd performance  

PubMed Central

A microcomputer-based herd management information system was implemented as part of the herd health program provided to 13 dairy clients by the Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph. The study was conducted over a two year period. Data were collected from on-farm event diaries, veterinary visit reports, and production testing information. Selected indices of reproduction, udder health, production, and heifer performance were reported. It was concluded that the implementation of a microcomputer-based information management system, operated as a bureau service, was feasible. However, limitations to the implementation in veterinary practice were identified. PMID:17423945

Lissemore, Kerry D.; Leslie, Ken E.; Menzies, Paula I.; Martin, S. Wayne; Meek, Alan H.; Etherington, Wayne G.

1992-01-01

147

DESIGN OF AN ANAEROBIC DIGESTER AND FUEL CELL SYSTEM FOR ENERGY GENERATION FROM DAIRY WASTE  

EPA Science Inventory

Dairy waste was found to have a natural population of microorganisms capable of seeding an MFC. Dairy wastewater also proved to be a very effective substrate. Different graphite electrode materials provided varying levels of electrical energy generation, demonstrating with gr...

148

Profitabilities of some mating systems for dairy herds in New Zealand.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the profitability of dairy herds under three mating systems involving the Holstein-Friesian, Jersey, and Ayrshire breeds. Mating systems were straight breeding and rotational cross-breeding using two or three breeds. A deterministic model was developed to simulate the nutritional, biological, and economic performance of dairy herds under New Zealand conditions. Expected performances per cow were obtained using estimates of breed group and heterosis effects, age effects, and age distribution in the herd. Requirements for dry matter in feed were estimated per cow for maintenance, lactation, pregnancy, and growth of the replacements. Stocking rate was calculated by assuming 12,000 kg of dry matter utilized annually per hectare. Productivity per hectare was calculated as performance per cow multiplied by stocking rate. Profitability was the difference between income (sale of milk and salvage value of animals) and costs (related to the number of cows in the herd and the land area farmed). Under current market values for milk and meat, all of the rotational crossbred herds showed superior profitability to the straightbred herds (Holstein-Friesian x Jersey, NZ$505/ha; Holstein-Friesian x Jersey x Ayrshire NZ$493/ha; Jersey x Ayrshire, NZ$466/ha; Holstein-Friesian x Ayrshire, NZ$430/ha; Jersey, NZ$430/ha; Holstein-Friesian, NZ$398/ha; and Ayrshire, NZ$338/ha). Changes in the value for fat relative to protein affected profitability more significantly in herds using the Jersey breed, and changes in the value for meat affected profitabiity more significantly in herds using the Holstein-Friesian and Ayrshire breeds. Results suggested that, under New Zealand conditions, the use of rotational crossbreeding systems could increase profitability of dairy herds under the conceivable market conditions. PMID:10659974

Lopez-Villalobos, N; Garrick, D J; Holmes, C W; Blair, H T; Spelman, R J

2000-01-01

149

Variations in grazing behaviour of Salers and Limousin heifers during time spent in the paddock in a rotational system  

E-print Network

Variations in grazing behaviour of Salers and Limousin heifers during time spent in the paddock of the variations in grass intake between dif- ferent cattle breeds may result from differences in grazing behaviour (Funston et al, 1991The daily grazing time and bite rate were studied in Salers and Limousin heifers

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

150

Intercropped oats (Avena sativa) - common vetch (Vicia sativa) silage in the dry season for small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of central Mexico.  

PubMed

Small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of central Mexico require feeding strategies based on quality home-grown forage that may reduce high concentrate costs. Eight Holstein cows paired by parity and date of calving were used in a split-plot experiment to evaluate supplementing 6 kg DM/cow/d of oat-vetch silage (OVS) in comparison to maize silage (MS) as dry season feeding, for a more intensive use of the land through an oat-vetch catch crop. Cows had 9 h/d access to continuous grazing of perennial ryegrass - white clover pasture and 4 kg/d of commercial concentrate. The 9 week experiment, recorded weekly milk yield and composition, and body condition score and live-weight every fortnight. Milk yield was 20.1 kg/cow/d for OVS and 15.4 for MS (SEM +/-2.9, P > 0.05), with no differences for fat or protein content, body condition score, or live-weight (P > 0.05). The economic analysis showed that although feeding costs were higher for OVS, margins were greater than for MS, with feeding cost per litre of $0.21 for MS and $0.16 for OVS. OVS is a viable catch crop after the MS harvest that can substitute MS in the dry season enabling a more intensive use of the land. PMID:19002599

Garduño-Castro, Y; Espinoza-Ortega, A; González-Esquivel, C E; Mateo-Salazar, B; Arriaga-Jordán, C M

2009-06-01

151

Effects of cattle grazing systems on shrub-grassland birds in south Texas  

E-print Network

of grazing pedods. Birds and other wildlife select territories or use habitat based in part on the density and structure of the vegetation. Community characteristics of birds and vegetation were monitored in a mesquite-grassland plant community... characteristics in the Mesquite-Mixedgrass plant community (Drawe et al. 1978); and (2) to determine the influence of livestock induced changes to the vegetation on abundance, distribution, and community composition of shrub-grassland birds on the Welder...

Swanson, Douglas Wayne

2012-06-07

152

Financing the Dairy System on a Central Blackland Farm.  

E-print Network

confining and allows less time for recreation and other family activities. Expenses in Table 2 amount to $1,726 which, when taken from the $5,779 gross income, leave $4,053 returns to the cash-crop system. While this figure excludes expenses that likely... confining and allows less time for recreation and other family activities. Expenses in Table 2 amount to $1,726 which, when taken from the $5,779 gross income, leave $4,053 returns to the cash-crop system. While this figure excludes expenses that likely...

Moore, Clarence A.; Magee, A. C.

1956-01-01

153

Effects of stored feed cropping systems and farm size on the profitability of Maine organic dairy farm simulations.  

PubMed

United States organic dairy production has increased to meet the growing demand for organic milk. Despite higher prices received for milk, organic dairy farmers have come under increasing financial stress due to increases in concentrated feed prices over the past few years, which can make up one-third of variable costs. Market demand for milk has also leveled in the last year, resulting in some downward pressure on prices paid to dairy farmers. Organic dairy farmers in the Northeast United States have experimented with growing different forage and grain crops to maximize on-farm production of protein and energy to improve profitability. Three representative organic feed systems were simulated using the integrated farm system model for farms with 30, 120, and 220 milk cows. Increasing intensity of equipment use was represented by organic dairy farms growing only perennial sod (low) to those with corn-based forage systems, which purchase supplemental grain (medium) or which produce and feed soybeans (high). The relative profitability of these 3 organic feed systems was strongly dependent on dairy farm size. From results, we suggest smaller organic dairy farms can be more profitable with perennial sod-based rather than corn-based forage systems due to lower fixed costs from using only equipment associated with perennial forage harvest and storage. The largest farm size was more profitable using a corn-based system due to greater economies of scale for growing soybeans, corn grain, winter cereals, and corn silages. At an intermediate farm size of 120 cows, corn-based forage systems were more profitable if perennial sod was not harvested at optimum quality, corn was grown on better soils, or if milk yield was 10% higher. Delayed harvest decreased the protein and energy content of perennial sod crops, requiring more purchased grain to balance the ration and resulting in lower profits. Corn-based systems were less affected by lower perennial forage quality, as corn silage is part of the forage base. Growing on better soils increased corn yields more than perennial forage yields. Large corn-based organic dairy farms that produced and fed soybeans minimized off-farm grain purchases and were the most profitable among large farms. Although perennial sod-based systems purchased more grain, these organic systems were more profitable under timely forage harvest, decreased soil quality, and relatively lower purchased energy prices and higher protein supplement prices. PMID:22032396

Hoshide, A K; Halloran, J M; Kersbergen, R J; Griffin, T S; DeFauw, S L; LaGasse, B J; Jain, S

2011-11-01

154

Methane emission from dairy cows and wether sheep fed subtropical grass?dominant pastures in midsummer in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane emission was measured from 10 dairy cows and 12 wether sheep grazing kikuyu grass? (Pennisetum clandestinum) dominant pastures at Waimate North, Northland, in February 1997 and March 1999, and from 10 dairy cows grazing summer grass? (Digitaria sanguinalis) dominant pasture at Edgecumbe, Bay of Plenty, in March 2000. Methane emission was measured from each animal for 5 consecutive days

M. J. Ulyatt; K. R. Lassey; I. D. Shelton; C. F. Walker

2002-01-01

155

Microbial transport from dairying under two spray-irrigation systems in Canterbury, New Zealand.  

PubMed

Transport through the soil and vadose zone to groundwater of Escherichia coli, fecal coliforms, and Campylobacter spp. from pasturing of dairy cows was studied on two working dairy farms under a traveling irrigator and a center pivot system. Leachate was collected from 1.5 m depth using a large linear lysimeter over a period of 4 yr after rainfall or irrigation applied using a traveling irrigator. There was little transport of fecal coliforms or Campylobacter from irrigation applications of 55 mm. There was some transport of fecal coliforms at applications of 80 mm (corresponding to irrigation plus heavy rainfall) but no detectable Campylobacter. When fresh cow pats were placed on half of the lysimeter plots with an 80-mm water application, there was transport of fecal coliforms and Campylobacter, but levels of Campylobacter were low (or=1 cfu 100 mL(-1). Campylobacter was detected in 0.7% of samples over the study period, with equal percentages from up- and downgradient wells. The results indicate minimal impact of dairying at these sites on microbial quality of groundwater as a result of spray irrigation using traveling irrigators at rates of approximately 55 mm every 2 wk or center pivot irrigators at 18 mm every 3 to 4 d. PMID:20400578

Close, Murray; Noonan, Mike; Hector, Ross; Bright, John

2010-01-01

156

Locoweed grazing.  

PubMed

Locoweed is the most widespread poisonous plant problem in the western U. S. Eleven species of Astragalus and Oxytropis (and many varieties within these species) cause locoism. Many locoweed species are endemic and are restricted to a narrow niche or habitat. Other locoweed species experience extreme population cycles; the population explodes in wet years and dies off in drought. A few species, such as O. sericea, are relatively stable and cause persistent poisoning problems. Knowledge of where locoweeds grow and the environmental conditions when they become a threat is important to manage livestock and avoid poisoning. Locoweeds are relatively palatable. Many locoweeds are the first plants to begin growth in the spring and regrow in the fall. Livestock generally prefer the green-growing locoweeds to other forage that is dormant in the late fall, winter, and spring. The most effective management strategy is to deny livestock access to locoweeds during critical periods when they are more palatable than the associated forage. Herbicides can control existing locoweed populations and provide "safe" pastures for critical periods. However, locoweed seed in soil will germinate and re-establish when environmental condition are favorable. Good range management and wise grazing strategies can provide adequate forage for livestock and prevent them from grazing locoweed during non-critical periods of the year when it is relatively less palatable than associated forages. PMID:10091127

Ralphs, M H; James, L F

1999-02-01

157

The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: the effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle.  

PubMed

Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60%) was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50%) were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified. PMID:15861224

Rubaire-Akiiki, C; Okello-Onen, J; Nasinyama, G W; Vaarst, M; Kabagambe, E K; Mwayi, W; Musunga, D; Wandukwa, W

2004-01-01

158

Polyphosphate- and glycogen-accumulating organisms in one EBPR system for liquid dairy manure.  

PubMed

Two enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) sequencing batch reactors (SBR1, SBR2) treating liquid dairy manure were operated with the same hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids retention time (SRT), but with different aeration cycles. During eight months of operation, both SBRs achieved good removal of total phosphorus (P) (TP; 56.8 and 73.5% for SBR1 and SBR2 respectively) and of orthophosphate (OP; 76.2 vs. 82.7%, P < 0.05). Growth dynamics of presumptive phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) were examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). SBR1 was enriched with a greater abundance of PAOs while SBR2 was characterized by a greater abundance of GAOs. These results demonstrate the capability of EBPR of dairy manure and challenge conventional wisdom, since greater abundance of PAOs in EBPR system was not associated with improved OP removal and greater abundance of GAOs did not indicate deterioration of the EBPR system. PMID:25112034

Liu, Ze-Hua; Pruden, Amy; Ogejo, Jactone Arogo; Knowlton, Katharine F

2014-07-01

159

A comparative study of production performance and animal health practices in organic and conventional dairy systems.  

PubMed

Health and production management strategies influence environmental impacts of dairies. The objective of this paper was to measure risk factors on health and production parameters on six organic and conventional bovine, caprine, and ovine dairy herds in southeastern Brazil over six consecutive years (2006-2011). The organic operations had lower milk production per animal (P???0.05), lower calf mortality (P???0.05), less incidence of mastitis (P???0.05), fewer rates of spontaneous abortions (P???0.05), and reduced ectoparasite loads (P???0.05) compared to conventional herds and flocks. Organic herds, however, had greater prevalence of internal parasitism (P???0.05) than conventional herds. In all management systems, calves, kids, and lambs had greater oocyte counts than adults. However, calves in the organic group showed lower prevalence of coccidiosis. In addition, animals in the organic system exhibited lower parasitic resistance to anthelmintics. Herd genetic potential, nutritive value of forage, feed intake, and pasture parasite loads, however, may have influenced productive and health parameters. Thus, although conventional herds showed greater milk production and less disease prevalence, future research might quantify the potential implications of these unreported factors. PMID:25015183

Silva, Jenevaldo B; Fagundes, Gisele M; Soares, João P G; Fonseca, Adivaldo H; Muir, James P

2014-10-01

160

The effect of grazing management systems on performance of beef animals and on the yield and chemical and botanical composition of Texas coast prairie pastures  

E-print Network

LtBRARY A A M COLLEGE OF TEXAS THE EFFECT OF GRAZING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ON PERFORMATtCE OF BEEF ANIMALS AND ON THE YIELD AND CHEMICAL AND BOTANICAL COMPOSITION OF TEXAS COAST PRAIRIE PASTURES A Thesis Marvin Edmund Hiewe Submitted... to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1959 Major Sub5ectc Agronomy THE EFFECT OF GRAZING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ON PERFORMANCE OF BEEF...

Riewe, Marvin Edmund

2012-06-07

161

Ammonia losses from urine and dung of grazing cattle. effect of N intake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen excretion by cattle during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric ammonia. In this study the relation between NH 3 volatilization and N intake was investigated in wind tunnel experiments with simulated urine patches and dung pats. Excreta were collected from four groups of dairy cattle grazing continuously on either ryegrass fertilized with 300 kg N ha -1 or unfertilized white clover-ryegrass. The two groups of cattle in each grazing system received either 139 or 304 g N cow -1 d -1 in concentrates, corresponding to average total N intakes in the range of 500-700 g N cow -1 d -1. Ammonia losses from dung were insignificant, while total losses from urine, which were estimated by curve-fitting, ranged from 3 to 52% of urinary N. Urea-N in the urine applied in the experiments constituted, with one exception, 64-94% of urinary N. The fraction of urea-N increased significantly with total N concentration in subsamples from individual animals. In the soil, hydrolysis of urea to NH 3 was almost complete within 24 h, and release of NH 3 was indicated by scorching. Milk yield and the production of milk protein was not related to N intake or grazing system, while estimated NH 3 losses were significantly reduced at the lower N intake level within the range of N intakes obtained.

Petersen, Søren O.; Sommer, Sven G.; Aaes, Ole; Søegaard, Karen

162

Evaluating mountain goat dairy systems for conversion to the organic model, using a multicriteria method.  

PubMed

Organic farming conserves natural resources, promotes biodiversity, guarantees animal welfare and obtains healthy products from raw materials through natural processes. In order to evaluate possibilities of increasing organic animal production, this study proposes a farm-scale multicriteria method for assessing the conversion of dairy goat systems to the organic model. In addition, a case study in the Northern Sierra of Seville, southern Spain, is analysed. A consensus of expert opinions and a field survey are used to validate a list of potential indicators and issues for assessing the conversion, which consider not only the European Community regulations for organic livestock farming, but also agroecological principles. As a result, the method includes 56 variables integrated in nine indicators: Nutritional management, Sustainable pasture management, Soil fertility and contamination, Weed and pest control, Disease prevention, Breeds and reproduction, Animal welfare, Food safety and Marketing and management. The nine indicators are finally integrated in a global index named OLPI (Organic Livestock Proximity Index). Application of the method to a case study with 24 goat farms reveals an OLPI value of 46.5% for dairy goat farms located in mountain areas of southern Spain. The aspects that differ most from the agroecological model include soil management, animal nutrition and product marketing. Results of the case study indicate that the proposed method is easy to implement and is useful for quantifying the approximation of conventional farms to an organic model. PMID:22436287

Mena, Y; Nahed, J; Ruiz, F A; Sánchez-Muñoz, J B; Ruiz-Rojas, J L; Castel, J M

2012-04-01

163

The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally.

Dumortier, Jerome; Hayes, Dermot J.; Carriquiry, Miguel; Dong, Fengxia; Du, Xiaodong; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Martin, Pamela A.; Mulik, Kranti

2012-06-01

164

Effects of manure treatment and soil compaction on plant production of a dairy farm system converting to organic farming practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a dairy farm system during conversion from conventional to organic farming practice, the effects of different cattle manure treatment methods, fertilisation level and soil compaction were studied over a period of 6 years. Yields, botanical composition, earthworm quantity and soil porosity were monitored. The manure was treated as diluted, aerated and mechanically separated slurry (solid compost on tilled land

Sissel Hansen

1996-01-01

165

A whole farm systems analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of 60 Tasmanian dairy farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Australian dairy industry contributes ?1.6% of the nation's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, emitting an estimated 8.9 million tonnes of CO2 equivalents (tCO2e)\\/annum (DCC, 2008). This study examined GHG emissions of 60 Tasmanian dairy farms using the Dairy Greenhouse gas Abatement Strategies (DGAS) calculator, which incorporates International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and Australian inventory methodologies, algorithms and emission factors.

K. M. Christie; R. P. Rawnsley; R. J. Eckard

2011-01-01

166

36 CFR 222.3 - Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits. 222...OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.3 Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits....

2011-07-01

167

36 CFR 222.3 - Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits. 222...OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.3 Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits....

2013-07-01

168

36 CFR 222.3 - Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits.  

...2014-07-01 false Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits. 222...OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.3 Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits....

2014-07-01

169

Microbiological performance of dairy processing plants is influenced by scale of production and the implemented food safety management system: a case study.  

PubMed

The effects of existing food safety management systems and size of the production facility on microbiological quality in the dairy industry in Kenya were studied. A microbial assessment scheme was used to evaluate 14 dairies in Nairobi and its environs, and their performance was compared based on their size and on whether they were implementing hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 22000 recommendations. Environmental samples from critical sampling locations, i.e., workers' hands and food contact surfaces, and from end products were analyzed for microbial quality, including hygiene indicators and pathogens. Microbial safety level profiles (MSLPs) were constructed from the microbiological data to obtain an overview of contamination. The maximum MSLP score for environmental samples was 18 (six microbiological parameters, each with a maximum MSLP score of 3) and that for end products was 15 (five microbiological parameters). Three dairies (two large scale and one medium scale; 21% of total) achieved the maximum MSLP scores of 18 for environmental samples and 15 for the end product. Escherichia coli was detected on food contact surfaces in three dairies, all of which were small scale dairies, and the microorganism was also present in end product samples from two of these dairies, an indication of cross-contamination. Microbial quality was poorest in small scale dairies. Most operations in these dairies were manual, with minimal system documentation. Noncompliance with hygienic practices such as hand washing and cleaning and disinfection procedures, which is common in small dairies, directly affects the microbial quality of the end products. Dairies implementing HACCP systems or ISO 22000 recommendations achieved maximum MSLP scores and hence produced safer products. PMID:23726192

Opiyo, Beatrice Atieno; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau

2013-06-01

170

Diffraction of swift atoms after grazing scattering from metal surfaces: N/Ag(111) system  

SciTech Connect

Diffraction patterns produced by grazing scattering of fast N atoms from a Ag(111) surface are investigated by employing the surface eikonal approximation. This method is a distorted-wave theory that takes into account the coherent addition of contributions coming from different projectile paths. In the model the projectile-surface potential is obtained from an accurate density-functional theory calculation. The dependence of the scattered projectile spectra on impact energy and incidence channel is analyzed, and possible incident direction and energy range for the observation of the interference patterns are predicted. In addition, it is found that as a result of the high reactivity of N atoms, asymmetries of the surface potential might be detected through their effects on diffraction patterns.

Gravielle, M. S. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA) and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bocan, G. A. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, S.C. de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Diez Muino, R. [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC) and Centro de Fisica de Materiales CSIC-UPV/EHU, San Sebastian (Spain)

2010-11-15

171

Design of a covered lagoon methane recovery system for a flush dairy  

SciTech Connect

A lagoon-type methane recovery system was designed for the Cal Poly Dairy, which milks 130 cows with a total population of 296 animals. Most of the herd is housed in freestall barns where the manure is deposited on concrete and flushed with fresh or recycled water to an existing lagoon with a volume of 19,300 cubic meters. The design includes a new, primary covered lagoon of 17,000 cubic meters volume. The floating cover will be made of very low density polyethylene (VLDPE), with an area of 4,500 square meters. The predicted output of the lagoon is an average of over 310 cubic meters of biogas per day containing 60 percent methane. The methane production from the covered lagoon is adequate to produce 18 to 24 kW on a continuous basis from the present cow population. In order to account for future herd size increases, a 40 kW engine generator was specified to operate in parallel with the utility system at a varying level of output controlled by the biogas supply. The non-economic benefits of this covered lagoon include the demonstration of its operation to the students and visitors at Cal Poly which in turn will serve the California Dairy Community. Odor control is the most important non-economic benefit. Conversion of volatile solids to biogas and recovery and use of the biogas limits odor to surrounding areas. The economic benefits of the methane recovery system include the approximately 160,000 kWh of electricity produced annually, worth almost $13,000. Financial analyses for the project showed a payback of 13.7 years with a 4% internal rate of return.

Williams, D.W. [ICF, Inc., Universal City, CA (United States); Moser, M. [Resource Conservation Management, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States); Smith, J. [BioResource and Ag. Engineering Dept., San Luis Obispo, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

172

Livestock Grazing and Wildlife: Developing Compatibilities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Livestock grazing has been considered detrimental to wildlife habitat. Managed gazing programs, however, have the potential to maintain habitat diversity and quality. In cases in which single-species management,predominates (sage-grouse [Centrocercus urophasianus] or elk [Cervus elaphus nelsoni] winter range), grazing systems specific to species' needs can be jmplemented. Managed livestock grazing can have 4 general impacts on vegetation: 1) alter

Martin Vavra

2005-01-01

173

Composition, coagulation properties, and cheesemaking potential of milk from cows undergoing extended lactations in a pasture-based dairying system.  

PubMed

Extending the lactation length of dairy cows beyond the traditional 10 mo toward lactations of up to 22 mo has attracted interest in the pasture-based seasonal dairying systems of Australia and New Zealand as a way of alleviating the need for cows to conceive during peak lactation, such as is required to maintain seasonally concentrated calving systems. Lactation lengths longer than 10 mo instead provide cows with more time to cycle and conceive after parturition and may therefore be more suitable systems for high-producing Holstein-Friesian cows. Before recommending such systems there is a need to evaluate the effects of long lactations on the suitability of milk for manufacture of high-quality dairy products. In the current experiment, the composition of milk from cows entering the second half of a 22-mo lactation was examined in detail and compared with that from cows undergoing a traditional 10-mo lactation. On 2 occasions, coagulation properties were measured using low amplitude strain oscillation rheometry, and Cheddar cheese was made in 250-L pilot-scale vats. Results showed that milk from extended lactations had higher concentrations of fat and protein than cows undergoing 10-mo lactations under similar management conditions and at the same time of year. The ratio of casein to true protein was not affected by lactation length and neither were the proportions of individual caseins. The increase in milk solids during extended lactations translated into a more rapid rate of coagulation and ultimately a firmer curd on one of the two occasions. Milk from extended lactations yielded more cheese per 100 kg of milk, and there were few differences in the composition or organoleptic properties of the cheese. These data are the first to show that pasture-based dairy industries could embrace the use of extended lactations without compromising the core business of producing high-quality dairy products. PMID:20338417

Auldist, M J; Grainger, C; Houlihan, A V; Mayes, J J; Williams, R P W

2010-04-01

174

Lesions associated with subclinical laminitis of the claws of dairy calves in two management systems.  

PubMed

Claws of ten 6 to 7-month-old dairy calves in two management systems were examined for lesions associated with subclinical laminitis. Sole haemorrhages were found only in claws of calves maintained out of doors. No significant differences in number and severity of haemorrhages were found between left and right or lateral and medial claws, but haemorrhages were more frequent and more severe in hind claws than in front claws (P < 0.05). More haemorrhages of greater severity were present in the white zone at the toe than in all other areas of the weight-bearing surface combined (P < 0.05). No lesions of interdigital dermatitis and heel horn erosion were found in either indoor-housed or outdoor-housed calves. All calves kept indoors on deep bedding developed overgrown claws. PMID:7552195

Vermunt, J J; Greenough, P R

1995-01-01

175

Productive and reproductive performance of crossbred and indigenous dairy cows under smallholder farming system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was undertaken to investigate productive and reproductive performances of crossbreds and Indigenous dairy cows. A total of 400 dairy cows each are equal number of Friesian x indigenous (FI), Sahiwal x indigenous (SaI), Sindhi x indigenous (SiI) and indigenous (I) were selected from eight thanas in Jessore district. The study found that the daily milk yield from

M. Rokonuzzaman; M. R. Hassan; S. Islam; S. Sultana

2009-01-01

176

Moving Ethiopian smallholder dairy along a sustainable commercialization path: missing links in the innovation systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethiopian needs to achieve accelerated agricultural development along a sustainable commercialization path to alleviate poverty and ensure overall national development. In this regard, sustainable commercial of smallholder dairying provides a viable and growing opportunity; with deliberate, appropriate and sustained policy support. A recent empirical analysis concludes however, that Ethiopian smallholder dairy sub-sector has not been able to take-off despite decades

Tesfaye Lemma Tefera; Azage Tegegne; Ranjitha Puskur; Dirk Hoekstra

177

Organic Dairy Production: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic farming aims to create an integrated, humane, environmentally and economically sustainable agricultural system. For organic dairy systems, the fulfilment of these aims requires the understanding and integration of a number of systems components including land use (mixed or dairy only) and stocking rate; grassland and forage production, including quantity and quality; potential milk yield and milk quality; animal nutrition

P. K. Nicholas; S. Padel; S. P. Cuttle; S. M. Fowler; M. Hovi; N. H. Lampkin; R. F. Weller

2004-01-01

178

Grazing regime as a tool to assess positive side effects of livestock farming systems on wading birds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wet grasslands support large populations of waders. As these birds are very sensitive to sward height and heterogeneity, grazing management is a key issue to their conservation. On a French coastal marsh consisting of 816 fields of wet grasslands, birds were monitored in spring and grazing regimes were assessed at three periods: year, spring, autumn. Each species was associated with

Muriel Tichit; Olivier Renault; Thomas Potter

2005-01-01

179

Does body size of dairy cows, at constant ratio of maintenance to production requirements, affect productivity in a pasture-based production system?  

PubMed

This study compared productivity of dairy cows with different body weight (BW), but a constant ratio of maintenance to production requirements in their first lactation, in a pasture-based production system with spring calving. Two herds, Herd L (13 and 14 large cows in 2003 and 2004 respectively; average BW after calving, 721 kg) and Herd S (16 small cows in both years; 606 kg) [Correction added after online publication 14 January 2011: 16 small cows in both years; 621 kg was changed to 16 small cows in both years; 606 kg], all in their second or following lactations, were each allocated 6 ha of pasture and rotationally grazed on 10 parallel paddocks with equal herbage offer and nutritional values. Winter hay, harvested from the same pastures, was offered ad libitum in the indoor periods in a tied stall barn. Each herd received, per lactation and year, approximately 2000 kg dry matter (DM) of concentrates and of fodder beets, equally distributed to every individual. Indoors, the L-cows ingested more DM than the S-cows (18.7 vs. 16.3 kg DM/cow per day; p < 0.01), but DM intake per 100 kg of metabolic BW was similar (13.0 vs. 13.1 kg DM/cow per day). Estimates based on the n-alkane technique gave similar results on pasture (17.9 vs. 15.5 kg DM/cow per day; p < 0.001). Roughage intakes per 100 kg of metabolic BW, at 13.5 kg DM/cow per day, were similar. Mean annual yield of energy-corrected milk (ECM)/ha was slightly higher for the S-herd than the L-herd (13,026 vs. 12,284 kg) but was associated with a higher stocking rate (on average +20%) for the S-herd. Feed conversion efficiency (1.2 vs. 1.3 kg ECM/kg DM intake) and overall milk production efficiency (45.3 vs. 47.3 kg ECM/kg metabolic BW) were similar in L- and S-cows. Thus, both dairy cow types were equally efficient in utilising pasture-based forage. PMID:21114551

Hofstetter, P; Steiger Burgos, M; Petermann, R; Münger, A; Blum, J W; Thomet, P; Menzi, H; Kohler, S; Kunz, P

2011-12-01

180

Access to pasture for dairy cows: Responses from an online engagement.  

PubMed

An online engagement exercise documented the views of Canadian and U.S. participants affiliated and unaffiliated with the dairy industry on the issue of pasture access for dairy cows. A total of 414 people participated in 10 independent web forums. Providing access to more natural living conditions, including pasture, was viewed as important for the large majority of participants, including those affiliated with the dairy industry. This finding is at odds with current practice on the majority of farms in North America that provide little or no access to pasture. Participant comments showed that the perceived value of pasture access for dairy cattle went beyond the benefits of eating grass; participants cited as benefits exposure to fresh air, ability to move freely, ability to live in social groups, improved health, and healthier milk products. To accommodate the challenges of allowing pasture access on farms, some participants argued in favor of hybrid systems that provide a mixture of indoor confinement housing and grazing. Understanding the beliefs and concerns of participants affiliated and unaffiliated with the dairy industry allows for the identification of contentious topics as well as areas of agreement; this is important in efforts to better harmonize industry practices with societal expectations. PMID:25261215

Schuppli, C A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

2014-11-01

181

Hock lesion epidemiology in cubicle housed dairy cows across two breeds, farming systems and countries.  

PubMed

This cross-sectional study examined various aspects of cubicle design and management in terms of their potential as risk factors for hock lesions, using an epidemiological approach. Cubicle dairy farms in Germany and Austria with Holstein Friesian or Simmental cows were visited during the winter housing season. 105 farms and 3691 cows were included in the analysis which consisted of three steps: bifactorial regression, regression trees and multiple linear regression. The mean farm prevalence of hock lesions, i.e. scabs, wounds, and swellings was 50%, with a range from 0 to 100%. The final model contained eight factors which were largely related to lying comfort and explained 75% of the variance. The presence of a curb turned out to be the most influential beneficial factor. Additionally, there were fewer hock lesions when cows were housed with deep bedded cubicles compared to cubicles without deep bedding. Other factors in the regression model were softness and length of the lying surface and height of free space under cubicle partitions, the proportion of overconditioned cows and a variable encoding three different combinations of region, husbandry system (organic and conventional) and breed. Independently from the risk factor model hock lesions were positively correlated with lameness at herd level as well as at animal level. This probably results from related risk factors for both conditions. It can be concluded that lying comfort of dairy cows should be improved in order to prevent hock lesions. In addition, preventive measures for hock lesions at the same time have a potential of reducing lameness and thus to improve cow welfare in several aspects. PMID:23174217

Brenninkmeyer, Christine; Dippel, Sabine; Brinkmann, Jan; March, Solveig; Winckler, Christoph; Knierim, Ute

2013-05-01

182

Grazing and Riparian Management-.In Southwestern Montana  

E-print Network

Grazing and Riparian Management- .In Southwestern Montana LEWIS H. MYERS Bureau of Land Management Dillon, Montana 59725 USA Abstract.-A subjective analysis of riparian vegetation I.esponse in 34 grazing systems was completed. Most traditional grazing systems developed for uplands did not accommodate riparian

183

Rangeland Risk Management for Texans: Patch Grazing and Sustainable Rangeland Production  

E-print Network

, Texas A&M University System E-172 10-02 Grazing distribution is a major concern to livestock produc- ers because uneven grazing reduces grazeable acres and carrying capacity. Patch grazing is the close and repeated grazing of small patches and..., Texas A&M University System E-172 10-02 Grazing distribution is a major concern to livestock produc- ers because uneven grazing reduces grazeable acres and carrying capacity. Patch grazing is the close and repeated grazing of small patches and...

Hanselka, C. Wayne; Lyons, Robert K.; Teague, Richard

2002-10-28

184

Comparison of the disease incidences of dairy cows kept in cold and warm loose-housing systems.  

PubMed

Finland's cold loose-housing systems for dairy cows were compared with the more traditional warm loose-housing systems regarding the incidences of ketosis, mastitis, metritis, parturient paresis and ovarian disorders. Approximately 5000 calvings on 210 farms during the years 1996 and 1997 were modelled, using multilevel Poisson regression and multilevel logistic-regression in a retrospective observational cohort study. Cows in a cold loose-housing system were at lower odds for developing late mastitis (15-305 days in milk), and metritis (Friesian breed); of the same odds for ketosis and early mastitis (0-14 days in milk); but at higher odds for developing parturient paresis and metritis (Ayrshire breed). The estimated odds ratio for ovarian disorders depended on the definition for exposure. Although one of the differences was statistically significant and many of them of veterinary interest, none of them appear to be substantial for the economy of a median-sized dairy farm in Finland. PMID:11937232

Schnier, C; Hielm, S; Saloniemi, H S

2002-04-15

185

MEASURING INVERTEBRATE GRAZING ON SEAGRASSES AND EPIPHYTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The chapter describes methods to assess grazing rates, grazer preferences, and grazer impacts, by mobile organisms living in the canopy or in the rhizome layer in any seagrass system. One set of methods quantifies grazing activity in small to medium sized, mobile organisms livin...

186

Non-systemic erosive stomatitis of unknown aetiology in a dairy cow herd in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

CASE HISTORY: Veterinarians from the Investigation and Diagnostic Centre (IDC), Wallaceville, New Zealand, investigated a novel vesicular disease in a 397-cow dairy herd, characterised by erosive stomatitis.CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS: The investigation commenced with a report of erosive stomatitis in four dairy cows. The herd was examined that day and 30\\/397 (8%) adult cows were found to be affected. Two

AMJ McFadden; J Wang; GF Mackereth; RR Clough; LH Loth; JJ Vermunt; CM King; Alley

2007-01-01

187

Diet quality and diet selection of steers grazing in a rotational system at four levels of forage  

E-print Network

A grazing experiment was conducted on a rangeland (mainly Stypa ssp, Paspalum ssp) oversowed with Lotus corniculatus L. at the Experimental Agronomic Station EEMAC, Uruguay, to study diet quality and to provide

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

188

Estimating Forage Yields For Pastures Management Intensive Grazing  

E-print Network

Estimating Forage Yields For Pastures Management Intensive Grazing The following are expected yield ranges for different soils and fertility levels when utilizing management intensive grazing systems/ac/yr 3.5 tons/ac/yr Rotational Grazing The following are expected yield ranges for management and soil

Guiltinan, Mark

189

Comparison of two automatic methods for measuring grazing behaviour  

E-print Network

Comparison of two automatic methods for measuring grazing behaviour F Blanc A Berger 1INRA, LAHM-Kowalke Str 17, 10315 Berlin, Germany Visual observation of grazing behaviour is time consuming and not easy during night. So, automatic recording systems of grazing activities are interesting insofar as they allow

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

190

Assessment of herd management on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate management characteristics on organic and similarly sized conventional dairy farms located in New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon. Data from 192 organic farms (ORG), 64 conventional nongrazing farms (CON-NG), and 36 conventional grazing farms (CON-GR) were collected during farm visits and were size-matched and analyzed. The average lactation number of animals on ORG and CON-GR farms was 2.6 lactations, which was greater than that on CON-NG farms (2.3 lactations). A greater percentage of first-lactation heifers were found on conventional farms than on ORG farms. Facilities used by adult animals, including housing and milking facilities, did not differ among the grazing systems. Cattle on conventional farms were fed approximately twice as much grain as cattle on ORG farms and had greater milk production. Little difference was found for the average reported somatic cell count and standard plate count, suggesting that milk quality is not dependent on grazing system. Milking procedures were similar across all 3 grazing systems, indicating that an industry standard now exists for milking and that milk quality problems will need to be addressed with other management problems in mind. Although some disease prevention measures were commonly utilized on ORG farms, such as keeping a closed herd and having a written record of treatments administered to the animals, the use of outside support and vaccinations were found to be less prevalent on organic farms than on conventional farms. PMID:23219118

Stiglbauer, K E; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Richert, R; Schukken, Y H; Ruegg, P L; Gamroth, M

2013-02-01

191

A physical and economic comparison of grazing management systems on livestock production and profitability - western Edwards Plateau of Texas  

E-print Network

: (1) reduce the stock- ing rate to achieve proper degree of use, (2) deferred grazing~ and (3) adjust kinds of livestock according to vegetation, Extensive research has been centered around the first alternative, proper degree of use. The general... of rotation grazing and dual use at a moderate stocking rate ss an alternative for improving the net income of ranching enter- prises in the western Edwards Plateau. With this in mi. nd, the specific objectives of this study were: (l) to determine...

Allen, Jerry Vedder

2012-06-07

192

Dairy wastewater treatment using an activated sludge-microalgae system at different light intensities.  

PubMed

A microalgae-bacteria system was used for dairy industry wastewater treatment in sequenced batch mode in a photobioreactor. The research investigated the influence of two light intensities: 360 and 820 ?mol m(-2)s(-1) on treatment performances, microalgal cell recovery and dynamics of the protozoan community. Results showed that the light intensity of 360 ?mol m(-2)s(-1) was found to be insufficient to support photosynthetic activity after the increase of bacterial biomass leading to the decrease of organic matter and ammonium removal efficiencies from 95 to 78% and 95 to 41%, respectively. Maximum microalgal cells recovery was about 63%. Continuous modification in the protozoan community was also noticed during this test. Increasing the light intensity to 820 ?mol m(-2)s(-1) led to better microalgal cells recovery (up to 88%) and improved treatment performances. However, the decrease of protozoan richness to small flagellates and free-swimming ciliates was noticed. Moreover, the developed protozoan trophic network was found to be different from that identified in the conventional activated sludge system. The study emphasized that high increase of bacterial biomass promoted in nutrient- and organic matter-rich wastewater can strongly affect the treatment performances as a result of the shadow effect produced on the photoautotrophic microalgae aggregates. PMID:24759517

Tricolici, O; Bumbac, C; Patroescu, V; Postolache, C

2014-01-01

193

Prediction of Breeding Values for Dairy Cattle Using Artificial Neural Networks and Neuro-Fuzzy Systems  

PubMed Central

Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV) of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production. PMID:22991575

Shahinfar, Saleh; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Lucas, Caro; Kalhor, Ahmad; Kazemian, Majid; Weigel, Kent A.

2012-01-01

194

Near--grazing behaviour of oscillators impacting with rigid and compliant obstacles  

E-print Network

Near--grazing behaviour of oscillators impacting with rigid and compliant obstacles Jaap Molenaary it is shown how near--grazing systems, i.e. systems in which the impacts take place at low speed, can, so--called grazing impacts. For impacts that are close to grazing, it is possible to condense

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

195

Hyperketonemia during lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis affects systemic and local intramammary metabolism in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Hyperketonemia interferes with the metabolic regulation in dairy cows. It is assumed that metabolic and endocrine changes during hyperketonemia also affect metabolic adaptations during inflammatory processes. We therefore studied systemic and local intramammary effects of elevated plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) before and during the response to an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Thirteen dairy cows received intravenously either a Na-DL-?-OH-butyrate infusion (n = 5) to achieve a constant plasma BHBA concentration (1.7 ± 0.1 mmol/L), with adjustments of the infusion rates made based on immediate measurements of plasma BHBA every 15 min, or an infusion with a 0.9% NaCl solution (control; n = 8) for 56 h. Infusions started at 0900 h on d 1 and continued until 1700 h 2 d later. Two udder quarters were challenged with 200 ?g of Escherichia coli LPS and 2 udder quarters were treated with 0.9% saline solution as control quarters at 48 h after the start of infusion. Blood samples were taken at 1 wk and 2h before the start of infusions as reference samples and hourly during the infusion. Mammary gland biopsies were taken 1 wk before, and 48 and 56 h (8h after LPS challenge) after the start of infusions. The mRNA abundance of key factors related to BHBA and fatty acid metabolism, and glucose transporters was determined in mammary tissue biopsies. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma glucose, BHBA, nonesterified fatty acid, urea, insulin, glucagon, and cortisol concentrations. Differences were not different for effects of BHBA infusion on the mRNA abundance of any of the measured target genes in the mammary gland before LPS challenge. Intramammary LPS challenge increased plasma glucose, cortisol, glucagon, and insulin concentrations in both groups but increases in plasma glucose and glucagon concentration were less pronounced in the Na-DL-?-OH-butyrate infusion group than in controls. In response to LPS challenge, plasma BHBA concentration decreased in controls and decreased also slightly in the BHBA-infused animals because the BHBA concentration could not be fully maintained despite a rapid increase in BHBA infusion rate. The change in mRNA abundance of citrate synthase in LPS quarters was significant between the 2 treatment groups. The results indicate that elevated circulating BHBA concentration inhibits gluconeogenesis before and during immune response to LPS challenge, likely because BHBA can replace glucose as an energy source. PMID:24679930

Zarrin, M; Wellnitz, O; van Dorland, H A; Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M

2014-06-01

196

Physical and hydrodynamic characteristics of a dairy shed waste stabilisation pond system.  

PubMed

Waste stabilization pond systems are widely used to treat animal wastes under highly variable hydraulic loading regimes. These systems have received limited research attention with regard to their hydrodynamic behaviour and the potential impact of shock hydraulic loading on their performance. In this study a two-stage dairy shed waste stabilisation pond system was topographically surveyed to determine the physical shape and the theoretical hydraulic retention time (HRT) of each pond, as well as the extent of sludge accumulation in the primary pond. The primary pond was then subjected to a series of drogue tracking runs whereby weighted floating survey targets with submerged 'sails' were tracked during their movement through the pond at times of peak flow in order to characterise the hydrodynamic behaviour of the pond. The full capacity volumes of the primary and secondary ponds were calculated to be 1285 m3 and 2391 m3, respectively. Sludge had been accumulating in the primary pond at a rate of 0.73 m3/d over a period of 2.4 years and this has reduced the active treatment volume of the pond to 657 m3. Based on mean outflow, the HRTs of the ponds were 40 d and 137 d, respectively. The drogue runs revealed a vortex-like mixing pattern within the pond with higher velocities around the perimeter of the pond between the inlet and outlet, and lower velocities in the centre of the pond. In-pond velocities seemed relatively high in comparison with those from other drogue studies of larger ponds and the surging inflow caused the formation of a flow 'jet' that potentially contributed to significant short-circuiting. The range of influence of this flow jet, however, was limited to within 15 m of the inlet, suggesting that short-circuiting would be likely to occur only under certain high inflow conditions. PMID:17591191

Fyfe, J; Smalley, J; Hagare, D; Sivakumar, M

2007-01-01

197

Cogeneration on a southeastern dairy  

SciTech Connect

The results of a 5 year study on cogeneration on a dairy operation in Georgia are summarized. Details of system operation and performance are given. Discussion of practical and economic viability of a cogeneration system is provided.

Ross, C.C.; Walsh, J.L.

1987-01-01

198

Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003 Sponsored by  

E-print Network

Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003 Sponsored by and the California Dairy Herd Improvement Association DepartmentofAnimalScience UniversityofCalifornia One University of California Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003Dairy Goat Day 2003 And

Schladow, S. Geoffrey

199

Effect of weaning system on commercial milk production and lamb growth of East Friesian dairy sheep.  

PubMed

East Friesian crossbred ewes (n = 99) and their lambs (n = 232) were used to study the effects of three weaning systems on milk production and lamb growth. Prior to parturition, a ewe and her lambs were assigned to one of the following three treatments for the first 28 +/- 3 d of lactation: 1) ewes weaned from their lambs at 24 h postpartum, ewes machine milked twice daily, and their lambs raised artificially (DY1); or 2) beginning 24 h postpartum, ewes separated from their lambs for 15 h during the evening, ewes machine milked once daily in the morning, and their lambs allowed to suckle for 9 h during the day (MIX); or 3) ewes not machine milked and exclusively suckled by their lambs (DY30). After the treatment period, lambs were weaned from MIX and DY30 ewes, and all three groups were machine milked twice daily. Daily commercial milk yield and milk composition were recorded weekly or twice monthly, and lambs were weighed at weaning or at 28 d and at approximately 120 d of age. Average lactation length (suckling + milking period) was 183 +/- 5 d and was similar among weaning systems. Differences among weaning systems for milk yield, milk fat and protein percentages, and somatic cell count were highly significant prior to and around weaning, and became nonsignificant by 6 wk in lactation. Total commercial milk production was greatest for DY1 and MIX ewes (261 +/- 10 and 236 +/- 10 kg/ewe, respectively) and least for DY30 ewes (172 +/- 10 kg/ewe). Daily gain of lambs to 30 d and weight at 30 d were similar regardless of weaning system; however, by 120 d, DY30 lambs tended to be heaviest, MIX lambs intermediate, and DY1 lambs lightest (47.3 +/- 1.6, 45.9 +/- 1.8, and 43.7 +/- 1.2 kg, respectively). Overall financial returns for milk and lamb sales were greatest for the MIX system because of the increase in marketable milk during the first 30 d of lactation compared with the DY30 system and because of acceptable 120-d lamb weights without the expenses of artificial rearing compared with the DY1 system. A mixed system of suckling and milking during early lactation appears to be a valuable management tool for dairy sheep production. PMID:11467816

McKusick, B C; Thomas, D L; Berger, Y M

2001-07-01

200

Grazing Incidence Optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When a beam of light is reflected from a mirror or DIFFRACTION GRATING the angle of incidence (?) is measured from the surface normal (perpendicular to the surface) to the light ray. If this angle is greater than about 80° the reflection is said to be at grazing incidence and the angle between the surface and the ray is called the grazing angle. The grazing angle is therefore ?g=90°-?. Optical sy...

Willingale, R.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

201

MULTIDISCIPLINARY EVALUATION OF NO-TILL CORN GRAZING SYSTEMS IN MISSISSIPPI.  

E-print Network

??To ascertain potential ecological and landowner benefits of non-conventional agricultural systems, this project was designed to monitor cattle production and mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) utilization… (more)

Manning, Dawn Holland

2009-01-01

202

Comparison of manual versus semiautomatic milk recording systems in dairy goats.  

PubMed

A total of 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in early-midlactation were used to compare the labor time and data collection efficiency of using manual (M) vs. semiautomated (SA) systems for milk recording. Goats were milked once daily in a 2 x 12 parallel platform, with 6 milking units on each side. The M system used visual identification (ID) by large plastic ear tags, on-paper data recording, and data manually uploaded to a computer. The SA system used electronic ID, automatic ID, manual data recording on reader keyboard, and automatic data uploading to computer by Bluetooth connection. Data were collected for groups of 2 x 12 goats for 15 test days of each system during a period of 70 d. Time data were converted to a decimal scale. No difference in milk recording time between M and SA (1.32 +/- 0.03 and 1.34 +/- 0.03 min/goat, respectively) was observed. Time needed for transferring data to the computer was greater for M when compared with SA (0.20 +/- 0.01 and 0.05 +/- 0.01 min/goat). Overall milk recording time was greater in M than in SA (1.52 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.39 +/- 0.04 min/goat), the latter decreasing with operator training. Time for transferring milk recording data to the computer was 4.81 +/- 0.34 and 1.09 +/- 0.10 min for M and SA groups of 24 goats, respectively, but only increased by 0.19 min in SA for each additional 24 goats. No difference in errors of data acquisition was detected between M and SA systems during milk recording (0.6%), but an additional 1.1% error was found in the M system during data uploading. Predicted differences between M and SA increased with the number of goats processed on the test-day. Reduction in labor time cost ranged from euro0.5 to 12.9 (US$0.7 to 17.4) per milk recording, according to number of goats from 24 to 480 goats and accounted for 40% of the electronic ID costs. In conclusion, electronic ID was more efficient for labor costs and resulted in fewer data errors, the benefit being greater with trained operators and larger goat herds. PMID:18349236

Ait-Saidi, A; Caja, G; Carné, S; Salama, A A K; Ghirardi, J J

2008-04-01

203

Economics of fertility in high-yielding dairy cows on confined TMR systems.  

PubMed

The objective of this review paper was to summarise the latest findings in dairy cattle reproductive economics with an emphasis on high yielding, confined total mixed ration systems. The economic gain increases as the reproductive efficiency improves. These increments follow the law of diminishing returns, but are still positive even at high reproductive performance. Reproductive improvement results in higher milk productivity and, therefore, higher milk income over feed cost, more calf sales and lower culling and breeding expenses. Most high-yielding herds in the United States use a combination of timed artificial insemination (TAI) and oestrous detection (OD) reproductive programme. The ratio of achievable pregnancies between OD and TAI determines the economic value difference between both and their combinations. Nonetheless, complex interactions between reproductive programme, herd relative milk yield, and type of reproductive programme are reported. For example, higher herd relative milk yield would favour programme relying more on TAI. In addition, improved reproductive efficiency produces extra replacements. The availability of additional replacements could allow more aggressive culling policies (e.g. less services for non-pregnant cows) to balance on-farm supply and demand of replacements. Balancing heifer replacement availability in an efficient reproductive programme brings additional economic benefits. New technologies such as the use of earlier chemical tests for pregnancy diagnosis could be economically effective depending on the goals and characteristics of the farm. Opportunities for individual cow reproductive management within defined reproductive programme exist. These decisions would be based on economic metrics derived from the value of a cow such as the value of a new pregnancy, the cost of a pregnancy loss, or the cost of an extra day open. PMID:24679357

Cabrera, V E

2014-05-01

204

Grazing and Border--Collision in Piecewisesmooth Systems: A Unified Analytical Framework  

E-print Network

Sciences University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, U. K. (July 24, 2000) A new comprehensive derivation of normal] or of C­bifurcations [4]. In contrast, if the system states are discontinuous, such as for a restitution

Bath, University of

205

Utilization of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in an organic dairy farming system in Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inputs of N and P, flows through the soil–plant–animal pathway and removals by products were recorded for 3 years at the organically managed prototype dairy farm ‘Frydenhaug’ in Norway to assess the transfer efficiencies of N and P within and at the farm level. Nutrient balances and efficiency (N or P in products divided by N or P in inputs)

Håvard Steinshamn; Erling Thuen; Marina Azzaroli Bleken; Ulrik Tutein Brenøe; Georg Ekerholt; Cecilie Yri

2004-01-01

206

Reproductive performance of crossbred dairy cows under smallholder production system in Kurdistan province of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sustainability and improving of milk production and the profitability of smallholder dairy units require integrated assessment of reproductive performance. The purpose of this study is to identify reproductive performance, and genetic and non-genetic factors affecting the performance of Kurdi crosses with Holstein and Brown Swiss, developed in recent years, under rural smallholder management. The cross breeding data were related

Hamid Reza Bahmani; Ali Asghar Aslaminejad; Mojtaba Tahmoorespur; Saleh Salehi

2011-01-01

207

The Use and Value of Information Systems as Evaluated by Dairy and Specialty Crop Farm Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little recent research is available about where specific types of farm managers search for information about better production practices. The objective of this study was to investigate what information sources managers used and how they rated the usefulness of each source. The authors administered mail questionnaires to probability samples from sampling frames they developed for four groups: dairy and fresh

Larry J. Chapman; Astrid C. Newenhouse; Ben-Tzion Karsh; Alvaro D. Taveira

2009-01-01

208

The validation of a computer simulation model for use in organic dairy farm systems in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

On organic dairy farms, computer simulation models can be used to predict more rapidly and at less cost than field trials the outcome of changes to management strategies or physical resource inputs. Such models need to be validated with data from existing organic dairy farms to ensure that the predictions made are realistic. As part of a larger organic dairy

Phillipa K. Nicholas; Susanne Padel; Sue Fowler; Nic Lampkin; Richard Weller

209

Induced Fungal Resistance to Insect Grazing: Reciprocal Fitness Consequences and Fungal Gene Expression in the Drosophila-Aspergillus Model System  

PubMed Central

Background Fungi are key dietary resources for many animals. Fungi, in consequence, have evolved sophisticated physical and chemical defences for repelling and impairing fungivores. Expression of such defences may entail costs, requiring diversion of energy and nutrients away from fungal growth and reproduction. Inducible resistance that is mounted after attack by fungivores may allow fungi to circumvent the potential costs of defence when not needed. However, no information exists on whether fungi display inducible resistance. We combined organism and fungal gene expression approaches to investigate whether fungivory induces resistance in fungi. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that grazing by larval fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, induces resistance in the filamentous mould, Aspergillus nidulans, to subsequent feeding by larvae of the same insect. Larval grazing triggered the expression of various putative fungal resistance genes, including the secondary metabolite master regulator gene laeA. Compared to the severe pathological effects of wild type A. nidulans, which led to 100% insect mortality, larval feeding on a laeA loss-of-function mutant resulted in normal insect development. Whereas the wild type fungus recovered from larval grazing, larvae eradicated the chemically deficient mutant. In contrast, mutualistic dietary yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, reached higher population densities when exposed to Drosophila larval feeding. Conclusions/Significance Our study presents novel evidence that insect grazing is capable of inducing resistance to further grazing in a filamentous fungus. This phenotypic shift in resistance to fungivory is accompanied by changes in the expression of genes involved in signal transduction, epigenetic regulation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways. Depending on reciprocal insect-fungus fitness consequences, fungi may be selected for inducible resistance to maintain high fitness in fungivore-rich habitats. Induced fungal defence responses thus need to be included if we wish to have a complete conception of animal-fungus co-evolution, fungal gene regulation, and multitrophic interactions. PMID:24023705

Caballero Ortiz, Silvia; Trienens, Monika; Rohlfs, Marko

2013-01-01

210

The Bioeconomic Potential for Agroforestry in Australia’s Northern Grazing Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although agriculture generates 16% of Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions, it also has the potential to sequester large quantities\\u000a of emissions through land use management options such as agroforestry. Whilst there is an extensive amount of agroforestry\\u000a literature, little has been written on the economic consequences of adopting silvopastoral systems in northern Australia.\\u000a This paper reports the financial viability of adopting

Peter Donaghy; Steven Bray; Rebecca Gowen; John Rolfe; Michael Stephens; Madonna Hoffmann; Anne Stunzer

2010-01-01

211

Nutritional regulation of body condition score at the initiation of the transition period in primiparous and multiparous dairy cows under grazing conditions: milk production, resumption of post-partum ovarian cyclicity and metabolic parameters.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different body condition score (BCS) at 30 days before calving (-30 days) induced by a differential nutritional management from -100 days until -30 days on productive parameters, the interval to first ovulation and blood parameters in primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows under grazing conditions until 60 days post partum. The experimental arrangement was a randomized complete block design, where cows were blocked according to BW and expected calving date and then randomly assigned to different nutritional treatments from -100 to -30 days relative to calving to induce different BCS. As the assignment of cows to treatments was random, cows had to lose, maintain or gain BCS; thus, different planes of nutrition were offered with approximately 7, 14 or 20 kg dry matter per day. The BCS score was assessed every 15 days and animals were reassigned in order to achieve the desired BCS at -30 days. Only animals that responded to nutritional treatment were considered and this was defined as follows: primiparous and multiparous high cows (PH and MH) had to gain 0.5 points of BCS, primiparous low (PL) had to lose 0.5 points of BCS and multiparous low (ML) had to maintain BCS at least in two subsequent observations from -100 to -30 days. From -30 days to calving, primiparous and multiparous cows (P and M cows) were managed separately and cows were offered a diet once a day. From calving to 60 days post partum, cows of different groups grazed in separate plots a second year pasture. Cows were also supplemented individually with whole-plant maize silage and commercial concentrate. Cows had similar BCS at -100 days and differed after the nutritional treatment; however, all groups presented similar BCS at 21 days post partum. The daily milk production and milk yield at 60 days post partum was higher in M than P cows. The percentage of milk fat was higher in PH cows compared with PL cows. Concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) were affected by the BCS at -30 days within parity, and in PH cows the concentration of NEFA was higher than in PL cows. The concentrations of total protein were higher in M cows. A lower probability of cycling was found in PL than in PH cows (P < 0.05) and in ML than in MH cows (P < 0.05). Treatment affected various endocrine/metabolic profiles according to parity, suggesting that the metabolic reserves signal the productive/reproductive axis so as to induce a differential nutrient partitioning in adult v. first-calving cows. PMID:22436187

Adrien, M L; Mattiauda, D A; Artegoitia, V; Carriquiry, M; Motta, G; Bentancur, O; Meikle, A

2012-02-01

212

Comparison of a classical with a highly formularized body condition scoring system for dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Body condition scoring is a common tool to assess the subcutaneous fat reserves of dairy cows. Because of its subjectivity, which causes limits in repeatability, it is often discussed controversially. Aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of considering the cows overall appearance on the scoring process and on the validity of the results. Therefore, two different methods to reveal body condition scores (BCS), 'independent BCS' (iBCS) and 'dependent BCS' (dBCS), were used to assess 1111 Swiss Brown Cattle. The iBCS and the dBCS systems were both working with the same flowchart with a decision tree structure for visual and palpatory assessment using a scale from 2 to 5 with increment units of 0.25. The iBCS was created strictly complying with the defined frames of the decision tree structure. The system was chosen due to its formularized approach to reduce the influence of subjective impressions. By contrast, the dBCS system, which was in line with common practice, had a more open approach, where - besides the decision tree - the overall impression of the cow's physical appearance was taken into account for generating the final score. Ultrasound measurement of the back fat thickness (BFT) was applied as a validation method. The dBCS turned out to be the better predictor of BFT, explaining 67.3% of the variance. The iBCS was only able to explain 47.3% of the BFT variance. Within the whole data set, only 31.3% of the animals received identical dBCS and iBCS. The pin bone region caused the most deviations between dBCS and iBCS, but also assessing the pelvis line, the hook bones and the ligaments led to divergences in around 20% of the scored animals. The study showed that during the assessment of body condition a strict adherence to a decision tree is a possible source of inexact classifications. Some body regions, especially the pin bones, proved to be particularly challenging for scoring due to difficulties in assessing them. All the more, the inclusion of the overall appearance of the cow into the assessment process counteracted these errors and led to a fair predictability of BFT with the flowchart-based BCS. This might be particularly important, if different cattle types and breeds are assessed. PMID:25076185

Isensee, A; Leiber, F; Bieber, A; Spengler, A; Ivemeyer, S; Maurer, V; Klocke, P

2014-12-01

213

Effects of breeding date, weaning date, and grazing season length on profitability of cow-calf production systems in southeastern Montana.  

PubMed

Production data from 11 southeastern Montana ranches were used to parameterize a bio-economic computer model of cow/calf range production. Effects of changes in breeding date, weaning date, and range removal date on system performance for a ranch with a fixed forage resource base (3,060 animal unit months of range forage and 744 t of hay) were simulated. Input costs were locally established in 1994. Cattle prices were determined by week from 13-yr averages. For the base scenario, breeding season was 66 d with breeding starting on June 9. Weaning, range removal, and calf sales occurred on November 3. Cows were fed stored forages from November 3 until turnout to grazing (May 1). Five replications were simulated for combinations of breeding, weaning, and range removal dates in a factorial design. Each factor was deviated from the base scenario by +/- 14 and 28 d. Production efficiency was measured by break-even steer price. Gross margin (gross revenue - variable costs) was used as a measure of profitability. Increasing calf age (and weight) at sale time, by decreasing breeding date and(or) increasing weaning date, improved ranch efficiency and profitability. Increasing range removal date improved system performance even though extending the grazing season led to decreased herd size. Compared to the base system, the best system increased gross margin by approximately 17%. Responses for gross margin reflect the dynamics of herd size, purchased feed expense, and production efficiency. Results suggest that for range-based cow-calf enterprises in the northern Great Plains, production efficiency and profitability may be improved by increasing calf weaning age and extending the grazing season, even if herd size must be reduced. PMID:12078725

Julien, D J; Tess, M W

2002-06-01

214

WASHINGTON DAIRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The dairy_wa.zip file is a zip file containing an Arc/Info export file and a text document. Note the DISCLAIM.TXT file as these data are not verified. Map extent: statewide. Input Source: Address database obtained from Wa Dept of Agriculture. Data was originally developed und...

215

Control of Mesquite on Grazing Lands.  

E-print Network

by the dissemination of large numbers of ... viable seed by cattle, horses, sheep and rodents, the apparent lack of palatibility of mesquite foliage to most grazing animals and the failure to maintain a heavy competitive cover of perennial grasses be- cause... the annual rainfall is more than 30 inches. Mesquite typically has a tap root with an ex- tensive lateral root system that enables it to with- stand drouths, severe competition from perennial grasses ancl adverse conditions due to prolonged over- grazing...

Fisher, C. E.; Meadors, C. H.; Behrens, R.; Robinson, E. D.; Marion, P. T.; Morton, H. L.

1959-01-01

216

Traditional vs Modern: Role of Breed Type in Determining Enteric Methane Emissions from Cattle Grazing as Part of Contrasting Grassland-Based Systems  

PubMed Central

Ruminant livestock turn forages and poor-quality feeds into human edible products, but enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants are a significant contributor to greenhouse gases (GHGs) and hence to climate change. Despite the predominance of pasture-based beef production systems in many parts of Europe there are little data available regarding enteric CH4 emissions from free-ranging grazing cattle. It is possible that differences in physiology or behaviour could influence comparative emissions intensities for traditional and modern breed types depending on the nutritional characteristics of the herbage grazed. This study investigated the role of breed type in influencing CH4 emissions from growing beef steers managed on contrasting grasslands typical of intensive (lowland) and extensive (upland) production systems. Using the SF6 dilution technique CH4 emissions were estimated for a modern, fast-growing crossbred (Limousin cross) and a smaller and hardier native breed (Welsh Black) when grazing lowland perennial ryegrass (high nutritional density, low sward heterogeneity) and semi-improved upland pasture (low/medium nutritional density, high sward heterogeneity). Live-weight gain was substantially lower for steers on the upland system compared to the lowland system (0.31 vs. 1.04 kg d?1; s.e.d.?=?0.085 kg d?1; P<0.001), leading to significant differences in estimated dry matter intakes (8.0 vs. 11.1 kg DM d?1 for upland and lowland respectively; s.e.d.?=?0.68 kg DM d?1; P<0.001). While emissions per unit feed intake were similar for the lowland and upland systems, CH4 emissions per unit of live-weight gain (LWG) were substantially higher when the steers grazed the poorer quality hill pasture (760 vs 214 g kg?1 LWG; s.e.d.?=?133.5 g kg?1 LWG; P<0.001). Overall any effects of breed type were relatively small relative to the combined influence of pasture type and location. PMID:25259617

Fraser, Mariecia D.; Fleming, Hannah R.; Moorby, Jon M.

2014-01-01

217

Manual and automatic locomotion scoring systems in dairy cows: a review.  

PubMed

The objective of this review was to describe, compare and evaluate agreement, reliability, and validity of manual and automatic locomotion scoring systems (MLSSs and ALSSs, respectively) used in dairy cattle lameness research. There are many different types of MLSSs and ALSSs. Twenty-five MLSSs were found in 244 articles. MLSSs use different types of scale (ordinal or continuous) and different gait and posture traits need to be observed. The most used MLSS (used in 28% of the references) is based on asymmetric gait, reluctance to bear weight, and arched back, and is scored on a five-level scale. Fifteen ALSSs were found that could be categorized according to three approaches: (a) the kinetic approach measures forces involved in locomotion, (b) the kinematic approach measures time and distance of variables associated to limb movement and some specific posture variables, and (c) the indirect approach uses behavioural variables or production variables as indicators for impaired locomotion. Agreement and reliability estimates were scarcely reported in articles related to MLSSs. When reported, inappropriate statistical methods such as PABAK and Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were commonly used. Some of the most frequently used MLSSs were poorly evaluated for agreement and reliability. Agreement and reliability estimates for the original four-, five- or nine-level MLSS, expressed in percentage of agreement, kappa and weighted kappa, showed large ranges among and sometimes also within articles. After the transformation into a two-level scale, agreement and reliability estimates showed acceptable estimates (percentage of agreement ? 75%; kappa and weighted kappa ? 0.6), but still estimates showed a large variation between articles. Agreement and reliability estimates for ALSSs were not reported in any article. Several ALSSs use MLSSs as a reference for model calibration and validation. However, varying agreement and reliability estimates of MLSSs make a clear definition of a lameness case difficult, and thus affect the validity of ALSSs. MLSSs and ALSSs showed limited validity for hoof lesion detection and pain assessment. The utilization of MLSSs and ALSSs should aim to the prevention and efficient management of conditions that induce impaired locomotion. Long-term studies comparing MLSSs and ALSSs while applying various strategies to detect and control unfavourable conditions leading to impaired locomotion are required to determine the usefulness of MLSSs and ALSSs for securing optimal production and animal welfare in practice. PMID:25000863

Schlageter-Tello, Andrés; Bokkers, Eddie A M; Koerkamp, Peter W G Groot; Van Hertem, Tom; Viazzi, Stefano; Romanini, Carlos E B; Halachmi, Ilan; Bahr, Claudia; Berckmans, Daniël; Lokhorst, Kees

2014-09-01

218

Effects of butter from mountain-pasture grazing cows on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome compared with conventional Danish butter: a randomized controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background There is considerable interest in dairy products from low-input systems, such as mountain-pasture grazing cows, because these products are believed to be healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. This may be due to a higher content of bioactive components, such as phytanic acid, a PPAR-agonist derived from chlorophyll. However, the effects of such products on human health have been poorly investigated. Objective To compare the effect of milk-fat from mountain-pasture grazing cows (G) and conventionally fed cows (C) on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome. Design In a double-blind, randomized, 12-week, parallel intervention study, 38 healthy subjects replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 39 g fat from test butter made from milk from mountain-pasture grazing cows or from cows fed conventional winter fodder. Glucose-tolerance and circulating risk markers were analysed before and after the intervention. Results No differences in blood lipids, lipoproteins, hsCRP, insulin, glucose or glucose-tolerance were observed. Interestingly, strong correlations between phytanic acid at baseline and total (P<0.0001) and LDL cholesterol (P=0.0001) were observed. Conclusions Lack of effects on blood lipids and inflammation indicates that dairy products from mountain-pasture grazing cows are not healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. Considering the strong correlation between LDL cholesterol and phytanic acid at baseline, it may be suggested that phytanic acid increases total and LDL cholesterol. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01343589 PMID:23842081

2013-01-01

219

Methane emissions measured directly from grazing livestock in New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report measurements of methane emissions from individual ruminant livestock-both sheep and dairy cows-grazing pasture typical of New Zealand lowlands in the temperate southwest Pacific. These are the first measurements reported from grazing sheep, and among the first from grazing cattle. The measurement technique, developed at Washington State University, enables emission rates to be determined from analyses of "breath" samples collected while grazing. More than 250 measurements of daily methane emission from 50 sheep (8 months old) were made, with flock-mean emission 18.9 ± 0.8 g hd -1 d -1. Although emissions were weakly correlated with feed intake, they represented a 4.6 ± 0.1 % average loss of gross dietary energy. The corresponding mean emission based on 40 measurements of daily emissions from 10 lactating dairy cows was 263 ± 10 g hd -1 d -1, approximately 6.2% of estimated gross energy intake. A notable feature was the large inter-sheep variability in daily methane emission (factor of 1.4 range) that could not be attributed to variable intake. This would appear to suggest an appreciable diversity of methanogenetic response to digestion, and may be significant in the search for strategies to control emissions of this greenhouse gas.

Lassey, Keith R.; Ulyatt, Marcus J.; Martin, Ross J.; Walker, Carolyn F.; David Shelton, I.

220

Children and Dairy Chemicals  

MedlinePLUS

Children & Dairy Chemicals Chemicals used to clean dairy facilities and equipment, especially dairy pipeline cleaners, pose a special risk for children. Rapid medical assessment and treatment is critical in preventing long ...

221

Risk factors for lameness in freestall-housed dairy cows across two breeds, farming systems, and countries.  

PubMed

Lameness poses a considerable problem in modern dairy farming. Several new developments (e.g., herd health plans) strive to help farmers improve the health and welfare of their herd. It was thus our aim to identify lameness risk factors common across regions, breeds, and farming systems for freestall-housed dairy cows. We analyzed data from 103 nonorganic and organic dairy farms in Germany and Austria that kept 24 to 145 Holstein Friesian or Fleckvieh cows in the milking herd (mean = 48). Data on housing, management, behavior, and lameness scores for a total of 3,514 cows were collected through direct observations and an interview. Mean lameness prevalence was 34% (range = 0-81%). Data were analyzed applying logistic regression with generalized estimating equations in a split-sample design. The final model contained 1 animal-based parameter and 3 risk factors related to lying as well as 1 nutritional animal-based parameter, while correcting for the significant confounders parity and data subset. Risk for lameness increased with decreasing lying comfort, that is, more frequent abnormal lying behavior, mats or mattresses used as a stall base compared with deep-bedded stall bases, the presence of head lunge impediments, or neck rail-curb diagonals that were too short. Cows in the lowest body condition quartile (1.25-2.50 for Holstein Friesian and 2.50-3.50 for Fleckvieh) had the highest risk of being lame. In cross-validation the model correctly classified 71 and 70% of observations in the model-building and validation samples, respectively. Only 2 out of 15 significant odds ratios (including contrasts) changed direction. They pertained to the 2 variables with the highest P-values in the model. In conclusion, lying comfort and nutrition are key risk areas for lameness in freestall-housed dairy cows. Abnormal lying behavior in particular proved to be a good predictor of lameness risk and should thus be included in on-farm protocols. The study is part of the European Commission's Welfare Quality project. PMID:19841210

Dippel, S; Dolezal, M; Brenninkmeyer, C; Brinkmann, J; March, S; Knierim, U; Winckler, C

2009-11-01

222

Fate and occurrence of steroids in swine and dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems.  

PubMed

Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (dairy cattle and human sources, respectively. PMID:22835499

Liu, Shan; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Zhou, Li-Jun; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Feng

2012-11-01

223

Impacts of future climate scenarios on the balance between productivity and total greenhouse gas emissions from pasture based dairy systems in south-eastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The challenge for agriculture is to increase production in warmer climates in order to meet the demands of an increasing global population, while also meeting targets for reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Our aim was to quantify the net effect of future climate scenarios on the productivity and total GHG emissions from pasture based dairy systems in 4 regions of

B. R. Cullen; R. J. Eckard

2011-01-01

224

This workshop will provide an overview of the science related to rotational grazing and associated costs. Additionally, experienced farmers will giver their perspective on rotational grazing and demonstrate a  

E-print Network

This workshop will provide an overview of the science related to rotational grazing and associated costs. Additionally, experienced farmers will giver their perspective on rotational grazing and demonstrate a working rotational grazing system. As a result, participants will understand general grazing

Watson, Craig A.

225

Effectiveness of dairy wastewater treatment in a bioreactor based on the integrated technology of activated sludge and hydrophyte system.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of dairy wastewater treatment in the integrated technology based on the simultaneous use of the activated sludge method (AS) and a hydrophyte system (HS) (AS-HS), in this case, common reed (Phragmites australis) or common cattail (Typha latifolia). Experiments were conducted in an innovative reactor exploited in the fractional-technical scale at the loads of 0.05 mg BOD5/mg.d.m. d (biochemical oxygen demand) and 0.10 mg BOD5/mg.d.m d. The AS--HS enabled improving the removal effectiveness ofbiogenes characterized by concentrations of Ntot., N-NH4 and Ptot. In contrast, the integrated system had no significant reducing effect either on concentrations of organic compounds characterized by BOD5 and chemical oxygen demand parameters or on the structure of AS in the sequencing batch-type reactors. PMID:24701933

Debowski, M; Zieli?ski, M; Krzemieniewski, M; Rokicka, M; Kupczyk, K

2014-01-01

226

313USDA Forest Service Gen.Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-160. 1997. Effects of Livestock Grazing on Blue  

E-print Network

313USDA Forest Service Gen.Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-160. 1997. Effects of Livestock Grazing on Blue Oak systems of livestock grazing and no grazing on the growth of blue oak (Quercus douglasii H. & A.) saplings were examined over a 4-year period in western Colusa County, California. In grazed plots, base

Standiford, Richard B.

227

36 CFR 222.54 - Grazing fees in the East-competitive bidding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...subpart A of this part. These rules also do not apply to grazing fees on National Forest System lands in Oklahoma or National Grasslands in Texas. (2) Allowable Bidders. Bids for grazing permits shall be accepted from individuals, partnerships,...

2011-07-01

228

36 CFR 222.54 - Grazing fees in the East-competitive bidding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...subpart A of this part. These rules also do not apply to grazing fees on National Forest System lands in Oklahoma or National Grasslands in Texas. (2) Allowable Bidders. Bids for grazing permits shall be accepted from individuals, partnerships,...

2012-07-01

229

36 CFR 222.54 - Grazing fees in the East-competitive bidding.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...subpart A of this part. These rules also do not apply to grazing fees on National Forest System lands in Oklahoma or National Grasslands in Texas. (2) Allowable Bidders. Bids for grazing permits shall be accepted from individuals, partnerships,...

2013-07-01

230

25 CFR 700.711 - Grazing permits.  

... 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grazing permits. 700.711 Section 700.711 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.711 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the...

2014-04-01

231

25 CFR 700.711 - Grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grazing permits. 700.711 Section 700.711 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.711 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the...

2011-04-01

232

25 CFR 700.711 - Grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grazing permits. 700.711 Section 700.711 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.711 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the...

2013-04-01

233

25 CFR 700.711 - Grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grazing permits. 700.711 Section 700.711 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.711 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the...

2012-04-01

234

25 CFR 700.711 - Grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing permits. 700.711 Section 700.711 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.711 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the...

2010-04-01

235

Effects of stored feed cropping systems and farm size on the profitability of Maine organic dairy farm simulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

United States organic dairy production has increased to meet the growing demand for organic milk. Despite higher prices received for milk, organic dairy farmers have come under increasing financial stress due to increases in concentrated feed prices over the past few years, which can make up one-third of variable costs. Market demand for milk has also leveled in the last

A. K. Hoshide; J. M. Halloran; R. J. Kersbergen; T. S. Griffin; S. L. DeFauw; B. J. LaGasse; S. Jain

2011-01-01

236

The detectability of nitrous oxide mitigation efficacy in intensively grazed pastures using a multiple plot micrometeorological technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methodologies are required to verify agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation at scales relevant to farm management. Micrometeorological techniques provide a viable approach for comparing fluxes between fields receiving mitigation treatments and control fields. However, they have rarely been applied to spatially verifying treatments aimed at mitigating nitrous oxide emission from intensively grazed pastoral systems. We deployed a micrometeorological system to compare N2O flux among several ~ 1.5 ha plots in intensively grazed dairy pasture. The sample collection and measurement system is referred to as the Field-Scale Nitrous Oxide Mitigation Assessment System (FS-NOMAS) and used a tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometer to measure N2O gradients to high precision at four locations along a 300 m transect. The utility of the FS-NOMAS to assess mitigation efficacy depends largely on its ability to resolve very small vertical N2O gradients. The performance of the FS-NOMAS was assessed in this respect in laboratory and field-based studies. The FS-NOMAS could reliably resolve gradients of 0.039 ppb between a height of 0.5 m and 1.0 m. The gradient resolution achieved corresponded to the ability to detect an inter-plot N2O flux difference of 26.4 ?g N2O-N m-2 h-1 under the most commonly encountered conditions of atmospheric mixing (quantified here by a turbulent transfer coefficient), but this ranged from 11 to 59 ?g N2O-N m-2 h-1 as the transfer coefficient ranged between its 5th and 95th percentile. Assuming a likely value of 100 ?g N2O-N m-2 h-1 for post-grazing N2O fluxes from intensively grazed New Zealand dairy pasture, the system described here would be capable of detecting a mitigation efficacy of 26% for a single (40 min) comparison. We demonstrate that the system has considerably greater sensitivity to treatment effects by measuring cumulative fluxes over extended periods.

McMillan, A. M. S.; Harvey, M. J.; Martin, R. J.; Bromley, A. M.; Evans, M. J.; Mukherjee, S.; Laubach, J.

2013-10-01

237

Novel in vitro systems for prediction of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products.  

PubMed

A new in vitro tool was developed for the identification of veterinary substrates of the main drug transporter in the mammary gland. These drugs have a much higher chance of being concentrated into ovine milk and thus should be detectable in dairy products. Complementarily, a cell model for the identification of compounds that can inhibit the secretion of drugs into ovine milk, and thus reduce milk residues, was also generated. The ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2) is responsible for the concentration of its substrates into milk. The need to predict potential drug residues in ruminant milk has prompted the development of in vitro cell models over-expressing ABCG2 for these species to detect veterinary drugs that interact with this transporter. Using these models, several substrates for bovine and caprine ABCG2 have been found, and differences in activity between species have been reported. However, despite being of great toxicological relevance, no suitable in vitro model to predict substrates of ovine ABCG2 was available. New MDCKII and MEF3.8 cell models over-expressing ovine ABCG2 were generated for the identification of substrates and inhibitors of ovine ABCG2. Five widely used veterinary antibiotics (marbofloxacin, orbifloxacin, sarafloxacin, danofloxacin and difloxacin) were discovered as new substrates of ovine ABCG2. These results were confirmed for the bovine transporter and its Y581S variant using previously generated cell models. In addition, the avermectin doramectin was described as a new inhibitor of ruminant ABCG2. This new rapid assay to identify veterinary drugs that can be concentrated into ovine milk will potentially improve detection and monitoring of veterinary drug residues in ovine milk and dairy products. PMID:24679113

González-Lobato, L; Real, R; Herrero, D; de la Fuente, A; Prieto, J G; Marqués, M M; Alvarez, A I; Merino, G

2014-01-01

238

The effect of target postgrazing height on sward clover content, herbage yield, and dairy production from grass-white clover pasture.  

PubMed

White clover (Trifolium repens) is an important legume for grazed grassland that can increase the profitability and environmental sustainability of milk production. Previous experiments on mown grass-clover plots suggest that low postgrazing heights (PGH) can increase sward clover content and herbage production. However, this has not been tested in actual strip or rotational grazing systems with dairy cows. Furthermore, lowering PGH in grass-only swards (typically perennial ryegrass without white clover) has previously been associated with reduced milk yields per cow. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of PGH by dairy cows on clover content, herbage production, and milk production from strip-grazed grass-white clover swards in Ireland. Three target PGH treatments of 4, 5, and 6 cm were in place for entire grazing seasons (February to November) for 3 consecutive years (2007 to 2009). Each treatment had a mean of 21 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows that strip-grazed a mean annual area of 10.2 ha. Postgrazing height was measured twice a day with a rising plate meter, and cows were moved to the next strip once the target PGH was reached. Annual fertilizer nitrogen input was 90 kg of N/ha for each treatment. The PGH treatment did not significantly affect annual milk yield (6,202 kg/cow), solids-corrected milk yield (6,148 kg/cow), fat, protein, or lactose yields (265, 222, and 289 kg/cow, respectively), cow liveweight (592 kg) or body condition score (3.01). The PGH treatment also had no significant effect on sward white clover content (196 g/kg). However, herbage production of both grass and clover were significantly higher with the 4-cm PGH treatment compared with the 6-cm treatment. Mean annual herbage yields were 11.1, 10.2, and 9.1 t of organic matter (OM)/ha for the 4-, 5-, and 6-cm PGH treatments, respectively. The lower herbage production in the 6-cm PGH treatment resulted in lower annual silage production, greater housing requirements, and a substantially higher net silage deficit (-1,917 kg of OM/cow) compared with the 5- or 4-cm treatments (-868 and -192 kg of OM/cow, respectively). Grazing to a PGH of 4 cm is therefore recommended for grass-white clover swards. PMID:23332838

Phelan, P; Casey, I A; Humphreys, J

2013-03-01

239

Factors that influence the efficiency of beef and dairy cattle recording system in Kenya: A SWOT-AHP analysis.  

PubMed

Animal recording in Kenya is characterised by erratic producer participation and high drop-out rates from the national recording scheme. This study evaluates factors influencing efficiency of beef and dairy cattle recording system. Factors influencing efficiency of animal identification and registration, pedigree and performance recording, and genetic evaluation and information utilisation were generated using qualitative and participatory methods. Pairwise comparison of factors was done by strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats-analytical hierarchical process analysis and priority scores to determine their relative importance to the system calculated using Eigenvalue method. For identification and registration, and evaluation and information utilisation, external factors had high priority scores. For pedigree and performance recording, threats and weaknesses had the highest priority scores. Strengths factors could not sustain the required efficiency of the system. Weaknesses of the system predisposed it to threats. Available opportunities could be explored as interventions to restore efficiency in the system. Defensive strategies such as reorienting the system to offer utility benefits to recording, forming symbiotic and binding collaboration between recording organisations and NARS, and development of institutions to support recording were feasible. PMID:20676763

Wasike, Chrilukovian B; Magothe, Thomas M; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

2011-01-01

240

Emergy evaluation of grazing cattle in Argentina's Pampas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argentina has a tradition of grazing livestock and the Pampas region produces 61% of the total beef cattle, with more than 80% allocated to internal consumption. Potential for expanding exports has created incentives for increasing production, yet national decisions should include an assessment of natural resources and environmental impacts of the grazing system. The aim of this study was to

G. C. Rótolo; T. Rydberg; G. Lieblein; C. Francis

2007-01-01

241

Modeling yak production under grazing conditions in Tibet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper describes the first attempt to use systematic approches in modeling the Tibetan yak production systems. In spite of the huge data gap, the general knowledge on livestock production was used to assemble a process-based simulation model for grazing yak. The model was based on energy metabolism, which is also the main limiting factor of grazing yak in

Ji Qiumei; Roberot Quiroz; Raúl Cañas

242

Children's exposures to farm worksite hazards on management-intensive grazing operations.  

PubMed

Agricultural injuries continue to be an important source of childhood mortality and morbidity. There is an agreement within the injury prevention community that environmental modification is the most effective strategy for injury prevention. A growing trend among dairy farmers in the upper Midwest and Northeast regions of the United States is the adoption of management-intensive grazing (MIG) as a new technique for dairy management that actually encompasses environmental modification, decreasing the reliance on and use of tractors and machinery (major sources of fatal and nonfatal injuries to children). The purpose of this study was to explore how restructuring the work and the work environment through the use of MIG may affect children's exposure to farm worksite hazards. The study specifically focused on the most hazardous farm worksite exposures for children based on injury surveillance data (tractors, machinery, large animals, heights, and water sources). An online survey was sent to 68 Wisconsin agricultural extension agents knowledgeable about dairy operations in their counties to collect data regarding their perceptions of potential childhood farm safety hazards on MIG operations. A total of 31 surveys were returned using the online survey system, resulting in a 46% response rate. Survey results suggest that children on MIG operations do in fact have decreased exposure to farm machinery. However, there was a perceived increase in children's overall worksite exposure, in addition to specific increases in exposure to all-terrain vehicles and animals. Adoption of a MIG system clearly involves changes in exposures for children, and understanding the full impact of these changes will require further study of the effects of these exposure tradeoffs on the risks for injuries of varying nature and severity. PMID:19437277

Fisher, Regina M; Berg, Richard L; Marlenga, Barbara

2009-01-01

243

Nitrous oxide and greenhouse gas emissions from grazed pastures as affected by use of nitrification inhibitor and restricted grazing regime.  

PubMed

Integration of a restricted grazing regime in winter with the use of a nitrification inhibitor can potentially reduce N2O emissions from grazed pasture systems. A three year field study was conducted to compare annual N2O emission rates from a "tight nitrogen" grazed farmlet with those from a control farmlet. The control farmlet was managed under a conventional rotational all-year grazing regime, while the "tight nitrogen" farmlet was under a similar grazing regime, except during winter and early spring seasons when cows grazed for about 6h per day. A nitrification inhibitor (dicyandiamide, DCD) was applied onto the "tight nitrogen" farmlet immediately after grazing through winter and early spring. A chamber technique was used to measure N2O emissions in several paddocks from each farmlet during three contrasting seasons each year. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) inventory methodology was used to estimate CH4 and indirect N2O emissions and the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to calculate CO2 emissions from the farm systems. The individual and combined effects of restricted grazing and DCD use on N2O emissions were also determined. During the late spring/summer and autumn periods, N2O emission rates were generally similar between the two farmlets. The use of a restricted grazing regime and DCD reduced N2O emissions from the grazed farmlet during the winter/early spring seasons by 43-55%, 64-79% and 45-60% over each of the three years, respectively. The use of restricted grazing and DCD both resulted in a similar reduction in N2O emissions, but there was no significant further reduction from the combination of these technologies. For the three study years, the annual N2O emission rate from the "tight nitrogen" farmlet was 20% lower, on average, than from the control. Total annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, however, were only 5% less in the "tight nitrogen" system. PMID:23374420

Luo, Jiafa; Ledgard, Stewart F; Lindsey, Stuart B

2013-11-01

244

Tillage Requirements of Sweet Corn, Field Pea, and Watermelon Following Stocker Cattle Grazing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter annual grazing combined with vegetable production can potentially improve the sustainability of farming operations, particularly in the Southeast. However, winter grazing creates excessive soil compaction, which can adversely affect yields of subsequent summer crops. We initiated a study to determine the optimal tillage system following winter grazing for production of sweet corn (Zea mays, L.), Southern field pea (Vigna

K. S. Balkcom; D. W. Reeves; J. M. Kemble; R. A. Dawkins; R. L. Raper

2010-01-01

245

Ruminant Grazing of Cover Crops: Effects on Soil Properties and Agricultural Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Integrating livestock into a cropping system by allowing ruminant animals to graze cover crops may yield economic and environmental benefits. The effects of grazing on soil physical properties, soil organic matter, nitrogen cycling and agricultural production are presented in this literature review. The review found that grazing cover crops…

Poffenbarger, Hanna

2010-01-01

246

Near-Grazing Dynamics in Tapping-Mode Atomic Force Harry Dankowicza  

E-print Network

Near-Grazing Dynamics in Tapping-Mode Atomic Force Microscopy Harry Dankowicza , Xiaopeng Zhaob for purposes of preventing such a loss of stability. Keywords: Tapping-mode, atomic force microscopy, grazing for system parameters, for which a periodic trajectory exists that achieves zero-normal-velocity (grazing

Zhao, Xiaopeng

247

Parasite control practices on pasture-based dairy farms in the Republic of Ireland.  

PubMed

Dictyocaulus viviparus, Ostertagia ostertagi (nematode parasites), and Fasciola hepatica (trematode parasite) result in productivity losses on dairy farms and impact on animal health through clinical and sub-clinical disease. Parasite control in livestock systems is largely based on the use of chemoprophylactic agents (anthelmintics), grazing management, or a combination of both. The objective of this study was to document current parasite control measures employed by Irish dairy farmers in a predominantly pasture-based livestock system. A questionnaire survey of 312 geographically representative farmers was completed in 2009 with a follow up survey completed in 2011. Statistical analysis highlighted significant differences in chemoprophylactic usage between 2009 and 2011. In particular, an increase in the use of albendazole for both trematode (19% in 2009 to 36% in 2011) and nematode (30% in 2009 to 58% in 2011) control was observed. This was most likely due to flukicide restrictions introduced in the Republic of Ireland in 2010 for dairy animals. Logistic regression highlighted regional differences in chemoprophylactic use. Farmers in southern parts of Ireland, an area with good quality soil, less rainfall, and a higher density of dairy farms than other regions, were approximately half as likely to dose for F. hepatica and were more likely (OR>2.0) to use albendazole for both nematode and fluke control. Approximately 30% of respondents who used a chemoprophylactic treatment for nematodes, used a product which was 'unsuitable for purpose' (e.g. ivermectin for the treatment of F. hepatica), highlighting the need for increased awareness, continuing research, and regionally targeted education tools regarding optimal parasite control. PMID:24924698

Bloemhoff, Yris; Danaher, Martin; Andrew Forbes; Morgan, Eric; Mulcahy, Grace; Power, Clare; Sayers, Ríona

2014-08-29

248

Constraints on smallholder market oriented dairy systems in the north eastern coastal region of Tanzania.  

PubMed

Twenty five smallholder dairy farmers and other stakeholders, through a Participatory Rural Appraisal in three wards of the Tanga township of north east coastal Tanzania, ranked their perceived constraints in descending order of importance: Low milk price and marketing, feed shortage in the dry season, poor management, low animal productivity, poor reproductive performance and diseases. Tick borne diseases were reported on a majority of farms. An Economic Opportunity Survey revealed wide ranges in management indices and improvement in annual milk production, age at first calving and lactation length to represent the best potential for gain. Performance generally was below locally set targets. Farmers spent on average in the three wards between 39% and 77% of income from milk on feed costs yearly. Interventions were instituted emphasising those that farmers could afford immediately. They included farmer training, dry season feed supplementation, tick control, improvement of animal shed/ house cleanliness and the formation of a cooperative for milk marketing. Partial budgeting is being used to monitor success. Follow-up meetings and regular visits to farms by field officers are disseminating information on outcomes to encourage farmers to continue with interventions and spread useful knowledge to friends and neighbours. PMID:18265872

Nkya, R; Kessy, B M; Lyimo, Z C; Msangi, B S J; Turuka, F; Mtenga, K

2007-12-01

249

Technologies for Reducing Nutrients in Dairy Effluent  

E-print Network

Dairy operations are looking for new ways to meet new, higher standards set by the state for water quality. This publication explains research results on the effectiveness of two technologies -- a dewatering system and an electrocoagulation system...

Mukhtar, Saqib; Wagner, Kevin; Gregory, Lucas

2007-01-31

250

The relationship among current management systems, production, disease and drug usage on Ontario dairy farms.  

PubMed Central

The study involved 110 randomly selected dairy farms located in the Ontario, Canada counties of Bruce, Grey, Huron, Oxford, Perth, Waterloo and Wellington. Herds were classified as "intensive" and "extensive". On extensive farms, data were collected at the herd level only, while on intensive farms, data were recorded at both the individual animal and herd level. Data collection continued for approximately two and one-half years. At each visit, technicians collected production data from the most recent production recording scheme report and from the "daily log" maintained by each producer. As well as the ongoing data collection procedures, a number of supplementary data collections were made. The average 305 day milk production increased gradually during the three calendar years from 6224.6 kg in 1981 to 6443.7 kg in 1983. The average calving interval was stable at 13.2 months for all three years. The majority of cows removed from the herds were culled for beef (0.243 per animal year). The next highest removal rate was for domestic sale, followed by death, export sale and destroyed. The highest disease rate, for those conditions whose rates were based on calving, was for retained placenta (0.09 per calving), while clinical mastitis was highest for those conditions whose rates were based on animal years (0.37 per animal year). The overall crude antimicrobial dosage rate, that is, including any antimicrobial used for either prophylactic or therapeutic purposes, was 3.85 doses per animal year. The rate for therapeutic purposes only was 3.6 doses per animal year. Penicillin/streptomycin was used most often with a rate of 1.45 doses per animal year. PMID:3742360

Meek, A H; Martin, S W; Stone, J B; McMillan, I; Britney, J B; Grieve, D G

1986-01-01

251

Rangeland Risk Management for Texans: Managing Climatic and Financial Risk with Grazing  

E-print Network

Specialists, The Texas A&M University System; and Professor of Animal Science, New Mexico State University. Rangeland Risk Management for Texans Figure 1. Controlling the timing, intensity and frequency of graz- ing promotes healthy forage plants and better.... Livestock do not graze at random; they choose preferred sites and plants, which leads to patch grazing. The management goal is to have cattle graze as much of a pasture or ranch as they safe- ly can. The Principle of Rest and Graze Grazing systems help...

Hanselka, C. Wayne; Lyons, Robert K.; Holechek, Jerry L.

2002-03-04

252

Ammonia volatilization following dairy slurry application to a permanent grassland on a volcanic soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agriculture is the largest source of ammonia (NH3) emission to the atmosphere. Within the agricultural sector, the application of slurry to grasslands as fertilizer is one of the main emission sources. This is a common practice in southern Chile, where most dairy production systems are grazing-based. In Chile, there are few published data of gaseous emissions following slurry application to grassland. The aim of this study was to evaluate NH3 volatilization following dairy slurry application to a permanent grassland on an Andosol soil. Ammonia volatilization was measured in four field experiments (winters of 2009 and 2011 and early and late springs of 2011) using a micrometeorological mass balance method with passive flux samplers following dairy slurry application at a target rate of 100 kg total N ha-1. The accumulated N loss was equivalent to 7, 8, 16 and 21% of the total N applied and 22, 34, 88 and 74% of total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) applied for winters 2009 and 2011, and early and late spring 2011, respectively. Ammonia emission rates were high immediately after application and declined rapidly with time, with more than 50% of the total emissions within the first 24 h. Losses were highly influenced by environmental conditions, increasing with temperature and lack of rainfall. Taking into consideration the low N losses via leaching and nitrous oxide emissions reported for the study area, results indicate that NH3 volatilization is the main pathway of N loss in fertilized grasslands of southern Chile. However, dairy slurry application could be an important source of nutrients, if applied at a suitable time, rate and using an appropriate technique, and if soil and climate conditions are taken into consideration. This could improve N use efficiency and reduce N losses to the wider environment.

Martínez-Lagos, J.; Salazar, F.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.

2013-12-01

253

Minimising surface water pollution resulting from farm?dairy effluent application to mole?pipe drained soils. I. An evaluation of the deferred irrigation system for sustainable land treatment in the Manawatu  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little information available on the magnitude of nutrient losses to surface water from the two?pond and daily irrigation treatment systems for farm?dairy effluent (FDE). A research site has been established on a mole?pipe drained Tokomaru silt loam at Massey University's No. 4 Dairy Farm (475 cows) to investigate some of these issues. The site consists of four plots

D. J. Houlbrooke; D. J. Horne; M. J. Hedley; J. A. Hanly; D. R. Scotter; V. O. Snow

2004-01-01

254

Dairy Judging Terminology  

E-print Network

Dairy Judging Terminology A Guide to Saying What She Is Not What She Isn't! Cooperative Extension Dairy Character . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 #12;3 Dairy Judging Terminology A Guide to Saying What She Is and Not What She Isn't W.M. Graves

Hamza, Iqbal

255

Influences of short-duration grazing systems and stocking density on sediment production and infiltration rates on the rolling plains of Texas  

E-print Network

treatments. Data were also collected during the rest portion of the SDG grazing cycle, three times at 10 day intervals during 1984 and twice at 14 day intervals in the suminer of 1985. Data were collected from the MCG twice per year, concurrent with SDG... grazing periods. Within each of the treatment sample dates, eight midgrass and eight shortgrass plots were selected for data collection. The 1984 sampling season was preceded by a prolonged winter and spring drought which induced plant dormancy...

Mings, Thomas Scott

2012-06-07

256

The Use of Rose Bengal Plate Test to Asses Cattle Exposure to Brucella Infection in Traditional and Smallholder Dairy Production Systems of Tanga Region of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in traditional and smallholder dairy cattle production systems in the Tanga region of North-eastern Tanzania. The study populations comprised 246 indigenous and 409 crossbred cattle, randomly selected from 105 smallholder dairy and 25 traditional managed herds, respectively. Individual animal and herd-level data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Serum samples were screened for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal Plate Test The overall seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies in the smallholder dairy and traditional managed cattle was 4.1% and 7.3% respectively. The corresponding overall herd prevalence was 10.5% and 20% respectively. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, closeness to stock route, access to surface drinking water and location were identified as the major risk factors for individual herd seroprevalence. Older animals (?6 years) were associated with increased risk of sero-positivity compared to animals of age category of ?6 years. The results showed that brucellosis is prevalent and widely distributed locally, underscoring the need for further studies including surveillance and institution of preventive and control measures particularly among female young-stock and the general public who are at high risk of contracting brucellosis. PMID:20953382

Swai, Emanuel Senyael; Schoonman, Luuk

2010-01-01

257

Comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions between Two Dairy Farm Systems (Conventional vs. Organic Management) in New Hampshire Using the Manure DNDC Biogeochemical Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agriculture contributes 20 to 25 % of the total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. These agricultural emissions are primarily in the form of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) with these GHG accounting for roughly 40 and 80 % of the total anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and N2O, respectively. Due to varied management and the complexities of agricultural ecosystems, it is difficult to estimate these CH4 and N2O emissions. The IPCC emission factors can be used to yield rough estimates of CH4 and N2O emissions but they are often based on limited data. Accurate modeling validated by measurements is needed in order to identify potential mitigation areas, reduce GHG emissions from agriculture, and improve sustainability of farming practices. The biogeochemical model Manure DNDC was validated using measurements from two dairy farms in New Hampshire, USA in order to quantify GHG emissions under different management systems. One organic and one conventional dairy farm operated by the University of New Hampshire's Agriculture Experiment Station were utilized as the study sites for validation of Manure DNDC. Compilation of management records started in 2011 to provide model inputs. Model results were then compared to field collected samples of soil carbon and nitrogen, above-ground biomass, and GHG fluxes. Fluxes were measured in crop, animal, housing, and waste management sites on the farms in order to examine the entire farm ecosystem and test the validity of the model. Fluxes were measured by static flux chambers, with enteric fermentation measurements being conducted by the SF6 tracer test as well as a new method called Greenfeeder. Our preliminary GHG flux analysis suggests higher emissions than predicted by IPCC emission factors and equations. Results suggest that emissions from manure management is a key concern at the conventional dairy farm while bedded housing at the organic dairy produced large quantities of GHG.

Dorich, C.; Contosta, A.; Li, C.; Brito, A.; Varner, R. K.

2013-12-01

258

Vitamin E Status of Dairy Cows Fed Stored Feeds Continuously or Pastured during Summer1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parameters indicative of vitamin E status were monitored for over 4 yr in dairy cows to determine if feeding cows only stored feeds could cause deficiency of vitamin E. Low-E cows were fed stored feeds all year whereas the pastured cows grazed during summer. A third group pastured only while dry also was moni- tored the 4th yr. There were

D. J. Schingoethe; J. G. Parsons; F. C. Ludens; W. L. Tucker; H. J. Shave

1978-01-01

259

Effects of fat supplementation on milk production and composition by dairy cows on pasture: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen experiments involving 25 comparisons were reviewed to describe the main effects of fat supplementation on milk production and composition with grazing dairy cows. Results were analyzed comparing the fat supplemented and the control groups without supplemental fat, and were segmented according to the stage of lactation (early- or mid-lactation) and the degree of saturation of the fat supplement (unsaturated

G. F. Schroeder; G. A. Gagliostro; F. Bargo; J. E. Delahoy; L. D. Muller

2004-01-01

260

25 CFR 700.722 - Grazing associations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Grazing associations. 700.722 Section 700.722 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION...AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.722 Grazing associations. (a) The...

2010-04-01

261

25 CFR 168.5 - Grazing capacity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grazing capacity. 168.5 Section 168...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.5 Grazing capacity. (a) The Area...

2011-04-01

262

25 CFR 700.709 - Grazing privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grazing privileges. 700.709 Section 700.709 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.709 Grazing privileges. (a) A list of permittees...

2013-04-01

263

50 CFR 35.9 - Livestock grazing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Livestock grazing. 35.9 Section 35.9 Wildlife and Fisheries...MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.9 Livestock grazing. (a) The grazing of livestock, where established prior...

2011-10-01

264

25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167.8 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.8 Grazing rights. (a) The Superintendent shall...

2013-04-01

265

50 CFR 35.9 - Livestock grazing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Livestock grazing. 35.9 Section 35.9 Wildlife and Fisheries...MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.9 Livestock grazing. (a) The grazing of livestock, where established prior...

2012-10-01

266

25 CFR 700.709 - Grazing privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grazing privileges. 700.709 Section 700.709 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.709 Grazing privileges. (a) A list of permittees...

2011-04-01

267

25 CFR 168.5 - Grazing capacity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grazing capacity. 168.5 Section 168...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.5 Grazing capacity. (a) The Area...

2013-04-01

268

50 CFR 35.9 - Livestock grazing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Livestock grazing. 35.9 Section 35.9 Wildlife and Fisheries...MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.9 Livestock grazing. (a) The grazing of livestock, where established prior...

2010-10-01

269

25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167.8 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.8 Grazing rights. (a) The Superintendent shall...

2011-04-01

270

25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.  

...1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167.8 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.8 Grazing rights. (a) The Superintendent shall...

2014-04-01

271

25 CFR 168.5 - Grazing capacity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing capacity. 168.5 Section 168...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.5 Grazing capacity. (a) The Area...

2010-04-01

272

25 CFR 168.5 - Grazing capacity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Grazing capacity. 168.5 Section 168...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.5 Grazing capacity. (a) The Area...

2012-04-01

273

25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167.8 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.8 Grazing rights. (a) The Superintendent shall...

2010-04-01

274

25 CFR 700.709 - Grazing privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing privileges. 700.709 Section 700.709 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.709 Grazing privileges. (a) A list of permittees...

2010-04-01

275

25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167.8 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.8 Grazing rights. (a) The Superintendent shall...

2012-04-01

276

25 CFR 168.5 - Grazing capacity.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grazing capacity. 168.5 Section 168...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.5 Grazing capacity. (a) The Area...

2014-04-01

277

50 CFR 35.9 - Livestock grazing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Livestock grazing. 35.9 Section 35.9 Wildlife and Fisheries...MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.9 Livestock grazing. (a) The grazing of livestock, where established prior...

2013-10-01

278

25 CFR 700.709 - Grazing privileges.  

... 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grazing privileges. 700.709 Section 700.709 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.709 Grazing privileges. (a) A list of permittees...

2014-04-01

279

25 CFR 700.709 - Grazing privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grazing privileges. 700.709 Section 700.709 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.709 Grazing privileges. (a) A list of permittees...

2012-04-01

280

Effect of cereal-based concentrates on productivity of Holstein–Friesian cows grazing short-rotation ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum) or kikuyu ( Pennesitum clandestinum) pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effect of increasing the proportion of concentrate in the diet, on efficiency of feed utilisation, was determined when Holstein–Friesian cows grazed short-rotation ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) or kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum) pastures. The concentrates were energy-dense dairy pellets fed twice-a-day at milking and the roughage component was lucerne hay and the pasture.When cows grazed ryegrass, there was no

W. J. Fulkerson; K. S. Nandra; C. F. Clark; I. Barchia

2006-01-01

281

Effect of dairy production system, breed and co-product handling methods on environmental impacts at farm level.  

PubMed

Six dairy farms with the same on-farm area and milk production were compared. One farm (G-No) used grass as the sole forage for a herd of Normande cows, a dual-purpose breed. Three farms, with Holstein cows, varied forage for the herd from grass only (G-Ho) to low (G/LM-Ho) or high (G/HM-Ho) proportion of maize silage in the total forage area. Finally, two farms based on G/LM-Ho and G/HM-Ho systems aimed to increase omega-3 fatty acids in the winter diets of cows (G/LM/O3-Ho, G/HM/O3-Ho). Allocation methods (biophysical, protein, economic allocation) and system expansion applied for co-product (milk and meat) handling were examined. The impact categories considered were climate change, climate change including the effects of land use and land use change (CC/LULUC), cumulative energy demand, eutrophication, acidification and land occupation. The impacts per kg of fat-and-protein-corrected milk (FPCM) of G-No were highest, followed by those of G-Ho, G/LM-Ho and G/HM-Ho, regardless co-product handling methods and impact categories (except for eutrophication). CC/LULUC per kg FPCM of G/LM/O3-Ho and G/HM/O3-Ho were both 1% and 3% lower than those of G/LM-Ho and G/HM-Ho, respectively, but other impacts were higher. With system expansion, impacts per kg FPCM were lower than when allocation methods were used. Enteric fermentation was the greatest contributor (45-50%) to CC/LULUC, while grass production was the most important contributor to other impacts. The highest CC/LULUC (for G-No) can be explained by (1) G-No having the lowest milk yield/cow (though it produced the most meat) and (2) the fact that grass required more N fertiliser, but had lower yields than silage maize, even though grassland sequestered C. Among Holstein systems, increasing cow productivity by increasing feed intake (including maize silage and supplementing with concentrate) decreased impacts of milk. Reducing replacement rate and age of first calving also decreased impacts of milk. Increasing cow productivity reduced the amount of on-farm area required to produce a given amount of milk. Thus, the "liberated" on-farm area of Holstein systems was used to produce cash crops, and total impacts of these systems were lower than those of G-No (except for eutrophication and land occupation). PMID:23507252

Nguyen, T T H; Doreau, M; Corson, M S; Eugène, M; Delaby, L; Chesneau, G; Gallard, Y; van der Werf, H M G

2013-05-15

282

Grazing Management: An Ecological Perspective  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Originally published in 1991 by Timber Press, this out of print book is now available on the Web. Edited by Rodney Heitschmidt and Jerry Stuth, Grazing Management: An Ecological Perspective includes ten chapters, ranging from "Range Animal Nutrition" to "Social and Economic influences on grazing management." Also included are animal and plant species lists.

283

Persistent, Toxin-Antitoxin System-Independent, Tetracycline Resistance-Encoding Plasmid from a Dairy Enterococcus faecium Isolate?  

PubMed Central

A tetracycline-resistant (Tetr) dairy Enterococcus faecium isolate designated M7M2 was found to carry both tet(M) and tet(L) genes on a 19.6-kb plasmid. After consecutive transfer in the absence of tetracycline, the resistance-encoding plasmid persisted in 99% of the progenies. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the 19.6-kb plasmid contained 28 open reading frames (ORFs), including a tet(M)-tet(L)-mob gene cluster, as well as a 10.6-kb backbone highly homologous (99.9%) to the reported plasmid pRE25, but without an identified toxin-antitoxin (TA) plasmid stabilization system. The derived backbone plasmid without the Tetr determinants exhibited a 100% retention rate in the presence of acridine orange, suggesting the presence of a TA-independent plasmid stabilization mechanism, with its impact on the persistence of a broad spectrum of resistance-encoding traits still to be elucidated. The tet(M)-tet(L) gene cluster from M7M2 was functional and transmissible and led to acquired resistance in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF by electroporation and in Streptococcus mutans UA159 by natural transformation. Southern hybridization showed that both the tet(M) and tet(L) genes were integrated into the chromosome of S. mutans UA159, while the whole plasmid was transferred to and retained in E. faecalis OG1RF. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) indicated tetracycline-induced transcription of both the tet(M) and tet(L) genes of pM7M2. The results indicated that multiple mechanisms might have contributed to the persistence of antibiotic resistance-encoding genes and that the plasmids pM7M2, pIP816, and pRE25 are likely correlated evolutionarily. PMID:21784909

Li, Xinhui; Alvarez, Valente; Harper, Willis James; Wang, Hua H.

2011-01-01

284

Cooling Dairy Cattle by a Combination of Sprinkling and Forced Ventilation and Its Implementation in the Shelter System  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for cooling dairy cattle based on repeated wetting to attain maximal water trapping in the coat, fol- lowed by its rapid evaporation by using forced ventilation has been examined. Effects examined include duration of wetting, duration of cooling, and density of the animals in the holding area. The coat was wetted by inverted static sprin- klers. Also examined

I. Flamenbaum; D. Wolfenson; M. Mamen; A. Berman

1986-01-01

285

Attitudes and expectations of producers to the use of a microcomputer-based management information system to monitor dairy herd performance  

PubMed Central

The attitudes and expectations of producers toward the use of a microcomputer-based herd management information system were assessed. The study was conducted over a two-year period, beginning in January 1986, and was operated as a bureau service. The implementation and use of the program are described elsewhere. Pre- and posttrial questionnaires were administered to assess producer attitudes. We found that the monthly analysis reports were used in the management of the dairy farms and were found to be a useful management tool. The majority of producers indicated a willingness to pay, on average, $6.86/cow/year for such a service. PMID:17423946

Lissemore, Kerry D.; Leslie, Ken E.; Martin, S. Wayne; Menzies, Paula I.; Meek, Alan H.

1992-01-01

286

Effect of Grazing on Plant Attributes and Hydrological Properties in the Sloping Lands of the East African Highlands  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extending livestock grazing to the steep slopes has led to unstable grazing systems in the East African Highlands, and new solutions and approaches are needed to ameliorate the current situation. This work was aimed at studying the effect of livestock grazing on plant attributes and hydrological properties. The study was conducted from 1996 to 2000 at the International Livestock Research Institute at Debre Ziet Research Station. Two sites were selected: one at 0-4% slope, and the other at 4-8% slope. The treatments were: (1) no grazing (control); (2) light grazing, 0.6 animal unit months per hectare (aum/ha); (3) moderate grazing, 1.8 aum/ha; (4) heavy grazing, 3.0 aum/ha; (5) very heavy grazing, 4.2 aum/ha; (6) initially plowed and continuously very heavily grazed, 4.2 aum/ha. The result showed that species richness, infiltration rate, bare ground, and soil loss significantly varied with grazing pressure. Species richness was higher in grazed plots compared to nongrazed plots. Biomass yield improved on heavily grazed plots as cow dung accumulated over years. Cynodon dactylon plant species persisted with livestock grazing pressure in both sites. Infiltration rate improved and soil erosion declined in all treatments after the first year.

Taddese, Girma; Saleem, M. A. Mohamed; Astatke, Abyie; Ayaleneh, Wagnew

2002-09-01

287

SIMS DAIRY: A modelling framework to identify sustainable dairy farms in the UK. Framework description and test for organic systems and N fertiliser optimisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple demands are placed on farming systems today. Society, national legislation and market forces seek what could be seen as conflicting outcomes from our agricultural systems, e.g. food quality, affordable prices, a healthy environmental, consideration of animal welfare, biodiversity etc., Many of these demands, or desirable outcomes, are interrelated, so reaching one goal may often compromise another and, importantly, pose

A. Del Prado; T. Misselbrook; D. Chadwick; A. Hopkins; R. J. Dewhurst; P. Davison; A. Butler; J. J. Schroder; D. Scholefield

2011-01-01

288

Maternal Effects of Japanese Shorthorn Cows on the Growth of Embryo-transferred Japanese Black Calves in a Cow-calf Grazing System.  

PubMed

The growth performance of embryo-transferred Japanese Black calves that were born from, and suckled by, Japanese Shorthorn cows in a cow-calf grazing system (BS-group, n = 5) was compared to that of Japanese Black calves from Japanese Black cows in a cowshed (BB-group, n = 5). The daily weight gain from birth to 1 month was higher in the BS-group than in the BB-group (p<0.01), and the same trend (p<0.05) was observed at 2 and 3 months of age. This resulted in body weight that was significantly higher for the BS-group between 1 and 3 months of age than what was observed for the BB-group (p<0.05). Heart girth was significantly greater in the BS-group than in the BB-group throughout the experimental period (p<0.01), and chest depth and withers height in the BS-group were significantly greater from 2 to 4 months of age (p<0.05) and at 4 months of age only (p<0.05). No difference in body length (p>0.05) was observed between the groups. These results suggest that the maternal effect of Japanese Shorthorn cows was positive for embryo-transferred Japanese Black calf growth during the early suckling stage. As Japanese Black calves are traded at a high price on the Japanese market, we conclude that this proposed production system is likely to improve the profitability of herd management in upland Japan. PMID:25049870

Yamaguchi, Manabu; Ikeda, Kentaro; Takenouchi, Naoki; Higashiyama, Masakazu; Watanabe, Akira

2013-07-01

289

Maternal Effects of Japanese Shorthorn Cows on the Growth of Embryo-transferred Japanese Black Calves in a Cow-calf Grazing System  

PubMed Central

The growth performance of embryo-transferred Japanese Black calves that were born from, and suckled by, Japanese Shorthorn cows in a cow-calf grazing system (BS-group, n = 5) was compared to that of Japanese Black calves from Japanese Black cows in a cowshed (BB-group, n = 5). The daily weight gain from birth to 1 month was higher in the BS-group than in the BB-group (p<0.01), and the same trend (p<0.05) was observed at 2 and 3 months of age. This resulted in body weight that was significantly higher for the BS-group between 1 and 3 months of age than what was observed for the BB-group (p<0.05). Heart girth was significantly greater in the BS-group than in the BB-group throughout the experimental period (p<0.01), and chest depth and withers height in the BS-group were significantly greater from 2 to 4 months of age (p<0.05) and at 4 months of age only (p<0.05). No difference in body length (p>0.05) was observed between the groups. These results suggest that the maternal effect of Japanese Shorthorn cows was positive for embryo-transferred Japanese Black calf growth during the early suckling stage. As Japanese Black calves are traded at a high price on the Japanese market, we conclude that this proposed production system is likely to improve the profitability of herd management in upland Japan. PMID:25049870

Yamaguchi, Manabu; Ikeda, Kentaro; Takenouchi, Naoki; Higashiyama, Masakazu; Watanabe, Akira

2013-01-01

290

Effect of weaning system on lamb growth and commercial milk production of Awassi dairy sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effect of weaning system on Awassi sheep milk production and lamb growth, 68 Awassi ewes and their lambs ( n = 104) were assigned to one of the following treatment groups a) after 3 days from birth (MIX), ewes were separated from their lambs during the evening for 15 h and milked once daily in the morning,

S. Dikmen; I. I. Turkmen; H. Ustuner; F. Alpay; F. Balci; M. Petek; M. Ogan

291

25 CFR 167.9 - Grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Grazing permits. 167.9 Section 167.9 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.9 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on...

2012-04-01

292

Patch Burning: Integrating Fire and Grazing  

E-print Network

Patch Burning: Integrating Fire and Grazing to Promote Heterogeneity Patch Burning: Integrating Fire and Grazing to Promote Heterogeneity E-998 Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management: Integrating Fire and Grazing to Promote Heterogeneity Patch Burning: Integrating Fire and Grazing to Promote

Balasundaram, Balabhaskar "Baski"

293

25 CFR 167.12 - Grazing fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Grazing fees. 167.12 Section 167.12 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.12 Grazing fees. Grazing fees shall not be charged...

2012-04-01

294

25 CFR 167.9 - Grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grazing permits. 167.9 Section 167.9 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.9 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on...

2013-04-01

295

25 CFR 167.9 - Grazing permits.  

...1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grazing permits. 167.9 Section 167.9 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.9 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on...

2014-04-01

296

25 CFR 167.9 - Grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing permits. 167.9 Section 167.9 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.9 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on...

2010-04-01

297

25 CFR 167.9 - Grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grazing permits. 167.9 Section 167.9 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.9 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on...

2011-04-01

298

Reframing the Grazing Debate: Evaluating Ecological Sustainability  

E-print Network

Reframing the Grazing Debate: Evaluating Ecological Sustainability and Bioregional Food Production. The majority of these ecosystems have been altered by human land use, primarily through the grazing of domestic of livestock grazing in bioregional food production and the effect of that grazing on ecological sustainability

Sisk, Thomas D.

299

An integrated membrane system for the biocatalytic production of 3'-sialyllactose from dairy by-products.  

PubMed

An integrated membrane system was investigated for the production of 3'-sialyllactose by an engineered sialidase using casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) and lactose as substrates. CGMP was purified by ultrafiltration (UF) to remove any small molecules present and then an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) was used to separate the product and reuse the enzyme. A PLCC regenerated cellulose membrane was found to be the most suitable for both the UF purification and EMR. Subsequently, nanofiltration (NF) was conducted to increase the purity of the 3'-sialyllactose by removing the excess lactose present. The NTR7450 membrane outperformed others in NF due to its high retention of 3'-sialyllactose (98%) and relatively low rejection of lactose (40%). The lactose in the permeate could be concentrated by the NF45 membrane and recycled into the EMR. The described integrated membrane system enables a more economic and efficient enzymatic production of 3'-sialyllactose. PMID:24880807

Luo, Jianquan; Nordvang, Rune T; Morthensen, Sofie T; Zeuner, Birgitte; Meyer, Anne S; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Pinelo, Manuel

2014-08-01

300

Sole disorders in conventionally managed and organic dairy herds using different housing systems.  

PubMed

Records of claw trimmings were analysed in seven organic and six conventional Danish herds (a total of 974 cows). The housing systems represented were tie stall systems, loose housing system with slatted floor (one organic herd), and deep litter systems (deep straw bedding). Occurrence of sole disorders was analysed separately for cows in first lactation and for cows in later lactations. Three different responses (acute haemorrhage, sole ulcer in one leg and sole ulcer in two or more legs) were analysed using three binomial logistic regression analyses for each group. Herd analysed as a fixed effect was a strong risk factor for all kinds of sole ulcer. Lactation stage was a risk factor for acute haemorrhage in both groups of cows, and for sole ulcer in first parity cows. In general, there was a strong positive association between the period 61-120 d post partum and the presence of sole disorders. Breed was associated with acute haemorrhage in cows in second and later parities, and sole ulcer in one leg only in first parity cows in an interaction with lactation stage in both conditions. Danish Friesian cows were strongly associated with sole disorder, although the combination of lactation stage from 61 to 120 d post partum in cows of other dual purpose breeds was positively associated with the presence of sole ulcer in one leg only in first parity cows. The time of year for claw trimming was a risk factor for acute haemorrhage in first parity cows, with the period from December to January most strongly associated with acute haemorrhage. Previous disease treatment was a risk factor for sole ulcer in two or more legs in second and later parities. Udder related disorders and disorders other than reproductive problems were positively associated with the occurrence of sole ulcer. Body weight at calving was associated with acute haemorrhage in cows in second and subsequent parities. Body weight lower than the mean herd level by > 50 kg was negatively associated with acute haemorrhage. PMID:9627837

Vaarst, M; Hindhede, J; Enevoldsen, C

1998-05-01

301

Comparative efficacy of homeopathic and allopathic systems of medicine in the management of clinical mastitis of Indian dairy cows.  

PubMed

Mastitis is the major problem of dairy animals despite a number of preventive and therapeutic approaches. Treatment is costly and out of reach of farmers of developing countries like India. The treatment cost of bovine mastitis with conventional treatment has been calculated. Good results have been claimed with homeopathic treatment however, treatment costs are not available. This article reports the treatment economics of homeopathic drugs conventional drugs for the management of bovine mastitis. Ninety-six mastitic quarters (non-fibrosed 67 and fibrosed 29) were treated with a homeopathic combination medicine. Another 96 quarters with acute mastitis (non-fibrosed) treated with different antibiotics were included in the study. The animals were selected from dairy farm of the Indian Veterinary Research Institute and from private dairy farms. The overall effectiveness of homeopathic combination medicine in the treatment of acute non-fibrosed mastitis was 86.6% with a mean recovery period of 7.7 days (range 3-28), and total cost of therapy as Indian Rupees 21.4 (0.39 Euros, US$ 0.47). The corresponding cure rate for the antibiotic group was 59.2% with a mean recovery period of 4.5 days (range 2-15) and an average treatment cost of Rs.149.20 (2.69 Euros, US$ 3.28). We conclude that the combination of Phytolacca, Calcarea fluorica., Silica, Belladonna, Bryonia, Arnica, Conium and Ipecacuanha (Healwell VT-6) was effective and economical in the management of mastitis in lactating dairy cows. PMID:15892487

Varshney, J P; Naresh, R

2005-04-01

302

Anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction of dairy manure  

SciTech Connect

The authors tested several solid liquid separation systems suitable for processing dairy manure prior to anaerobic digestion. None of the systems tried have completely satisfied the requirements. Evaluated effects of separation on biogas production. Unseparated dairy manure produced more biogas than the liquid fraction.

Haugen, V.; Dahlberg, S.; Lindley, J.A.

1983-06-01

303

Dairy Herd Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph, designed to help secondary students recognize symptoms of major dairy cattle diseases, stresses the need for preventative management practices and cooperation between the dairy farmer and the veterinarian. The first of three parts, The Healthy Animal, is divided into five units: body parts, vital signs, excretions, behavior, and…

Wolanyk, Alison M.; Bishop, Natalie

304

Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System  

PubMed Central

Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance. PMID:25049992

Clark, C. E. F.; Kwinten, N. B. P.; van Gastel, D. A. J. M.; Kerrisk, K. L.; Lyons, N. A.; Garcia, S. C.

2014-01-01

305

Practical use of a uterine score system for predicting effects on interval from calving to first insemination and non-return rate 56 in Danish dairy herds.  

PubMed

A detailed study of 398,237 lactations of Danish Holstein dairy cows was undertaken. The objective was to investigate the information gained by evaluating vaginal discharge in cows from 5 to 19 days post-partum (p.p.) using an ordinal scale from 0 to 9. The study focused on the interval from calving to first insemination (CFI) and the non-return rate 56 days after first insemination (NR56), adjusted for the confounders milk production and body condition score (BCS). For the analyses, BCS was evaluated on the same day that the uterine score was made. Milk production was defined as test-day milk yield in the first month p.p. The study showed that the evaluation of vaginal discharge according to this score system permitted ranking of cows according to CFI and NR56, i.e. an increasing uterine score was associated with a significantly longer time from calving to first insemination and significantly reduced the probability of success of the first insemination. Reproductive success was already affected if the uterine score had reached 4 (i.e. before the discharge smelled abnormally). The negative effect on CFI and NR56 increased as the uterine score increased, which suggested that the uterine scoring system was a useful guide to dairy producers. PMID:24144773

Elkjær, Karina; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Ancker, Marie-Louise; Gustafsson, Hans; Callesen, Henrik

2013-12-01

306

Environmental Management of Grazing Lands  

E-print Network

Bacteria levels are the number one cause of water quality impairment in Texas. Several recent Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in Texas, such as those implemented in the Peach Creek and Leon River watersheds, have identified grazing cattle as a...

Wagner, K.; Redmon, L.; Gentry, T.; Harmel, D.; Jones, C. A.

307

Multiscale effects of management, environmental conditions, and land use on nitrate leaching in dairy farms.  

PubMed

Nitrate leaching in intensive grassland- and silage maize-based dairy farming systems on sandy soil is a main environmental concern. Here, statistical relationships are presented between management practices and environmental conditions and nitrate concentration in shallow groundwater (0.8 m depth) at farm, field, and point scales in The Netherlands, based on data collected in a participatory approach over a 7-yr period at one experimental and eight pilot commercial dairy farms on sandy soil. Farm milk production ranged from 10 to 24 Mg ha(-1). Soil and hydrological characteristics were derived from surveys and weather conditions from meteorological stations. Statistical analyses were performed with multiple regression models. Mean nitrate concentration at farm scale decreased from 79 mg L(-1) in 1999 to 63 in 2006, with average nitrate concentration in groundwater decreasing under grassland but increasing under maize land over the monitoring period. The effects of management practices on nitrate concentration varied with spatial scale. At farm scale, nitrogen surplus, grazing intensity, and the relative areas of grassland and maize land significantly contributed to explaining the variance in nitrate concentration in groundwater. Mean nitrate concentration was negatively correlated to the concentration of dissolved organic carbon in the shallow groundwater. At field scale, management practices and soil, hydrological, and climatic conditions significantly contributed to explaining the variance in nitrate concentration in groundwater under grassland and maize land. We conclude that, on these intensive dairy farms, additional measures are needed to comply with the European Union water quality standard in groundwater of 50 mg nitrate L(-1). The most promising measures are omitting fertilization of catch crops and reducing fertilization levels of first-year maize in the rotation. PMID:21284299

Oenema, Jouke; Burgers, Saskia; Verloop, Koos; Hooijboer, Arno; Boumans, Leo; ten Berge, Hein

2010-01-01

308

Corn stubble grazing by steers after mechanical grain harvest 2. Animal diet selectivity through grazing periods  

E-print Network

Corn stubble grazing by steers after mechanical grain harvest 2. Animal diet selectivity through grazing periods JA Josifovich OJ Scheneiter Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria Pergamino, INTA, Buenos. To evaluate the grazing animal selectivity, oesophageal fistulated steers were used. There were two

Boyer, Edmond

309

Questionnaire-based study to assess the association between management practices and mastitis within tie-stall and free-stall dairy housing systems in Switzerland  

PubMed Central

Background Prophylactic measures are key components of dairy herd mastitis control programs, but some are only relevant in specific housing systems. To assess the association between management practices and mastitis incidence, data collected in 2011 by a survey among 979 randomly selected Swiss dairy farms, and information from the regular test day recordings from 680 of these farms was analyzed. Results The median incidence of farmer-reported clinical mastitis (ICM) was 11.6 (mean 14.7) cases per 100 cows per year. The median annual proportion of milk samples with a composite somatic cell count (PSCC) above 200,000 cells/ml was 16.1 (mean 17.3) %. A multivariable negative binomial regression model was fitted for each of the mastitis indicators for farms with tie-stall and free-stall housing systems separately to study the effect of other (than housing system) management practices on the ICM and PSCC events (above 200,000 cells/ml). The results differed substantially by housing system and outcome. In tie-stall systems, clinical mastitis incidence was mainly affected by region (mountainous production zone; incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.73), the dairy herd replacement system (1.27) and farmers age (0.81). The proportion of high SCC was mainly associated with dry cow udder controls (IRR = 0.67), clean bedding material at calving (IRR = 1.72), using total merit values to select bulls (IRR = 1.57) and body condition scoring (IRR = 0.74). In free-stall systems, the IRR for clinical mastitis was mainly associated with stall climate/temperature (IRR = 1.65), comfort mats as resting surface (IRR = 0.75) and when no feed analysis was carried out (IRR = 1.18). The proportion of high SSC was only associated with hand and arm cleaning after calving (IRR = 0.81) and beef producing value to select bulls (IRR = 0.66). Conclusions There were substantial differences in identified risk factors in the four models. Some of the factors were in agreement with the reported literature while others were not. This highlights the multifactorial nature of the disease and the differences in the risks for both mastitis manifestations. Attempting to understand these multifactorial associations for mastitis within larger management groups continues to play an important role in mastitis control programs. PMID:24107254

2013-01-01

310

The impact of grazing management on Orthoptera abundance varies over the season in Mediterranean steppe-like grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As semi-natural grassland has a high level of biological diversity, understanding the effects of grazing and its variation over time is important in order to identify sustainable grazing practices. We measured temporal variation in Orthoptera abundance and spatial vegetation structure during seasonal grazing in an extensive sheep-farming system. We studied five grazed pasture areas (pre-grazing and post-grazing) and two adjacent ungrazed grasslands. We recorded the total abundance of Orthoptera and described the vegetation structure of 175 replicate plots (25 per pasture/grassland) during six field sampling sessions. We demonstrated that the impact of grazing on Orthoptera abundance is species-specific and greatly varies over the grazing season. The decrease of phytovolume is significant after 4-7 weeks of sheep grazing. Total Orthoptera abundance was higher in pre-grazed plots than in ungrazed plots, and higher in ungrazed plots than in post-grazed plots. These differences were particularly high during the peak of adult abundance. No difference in species richness was observed between grazing intensities. Total Orthoptera abundance positively correlated to phytovolume only when grazing pressure was high. However, the relationship between abundance and phytovolume differed between species. Extensive grazing by sheep tends to homogenize spatial vegetation structure and to temporarily reduce total Orthoptera abundance at pasture scale. However, rotational grazing allows spatial and temporal heterogeneity in vegetation structure to be maintained at farm scale, heterogeneity that is beneficial for Orthoptera. In contrast, absence of grazing has a negative impact on Orthoptera abundance as it favours the accumulation of litter, which is detrimental for a high proportion of xerothermophilic Orthoptera associated with bare ground and short vegetation.

Fonderflick, Jocelyn; Besnard, Aurélien; Beuret, Aurore; Dalmais, Mathieux; Schatz, Bertrand

2014-10-01

311

Towards optimum grazing management for sheep production on crownvetch (Coronilla varia L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of wether lambs on crownvetch (Coronilla varia L.) pasture was determined for three seasons under five grazing procedures. These included continuous grazing and rotational grazing with a 7?day period?of stay and periods?of?absence of 7, 21, 35 or 49 days. Performance was the same with all five systems. Supplementary measurements involving oesophageal?fistula samples and quadrat harvests indicated that the

D. L. Barnes; C. P. Dempsey

1992-01-01

312

Risk factors for clinical mastitis, ketosis, and pneumonia in dairy cattle on organic and small conventional farms in the United States.  

PubMed

The US regulations for production of organic milk include a strict prohibition against the use of antimicrobials and other synthetic substances. The effect of these regulations on dairy animal health has not been previously reported. The objective of this study was to characterize disease detection and identify risk factors for selected diseases on organic (ORG) and similarly sized conventional (CON) farms. Dairy herds (n=292) were enrolled across 3 states (New York, Oregon, Wisconsin) with CON herds matched to ORG herds based on location and herd size. During a single herd visit, information was collected about herd management practices and animal disease occurring in the previous 60 d, and paperwork was left for recording disease occurrences during 60 d after the visit. For analysis, CON herds were further divided into grazing and nongrazing. Poisson regression models were used to assess risk factors for rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of clinical mastitis, ketosis, and pneumonia. An increased rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of clinical mastitis was associated with use of CON management, use of forestripping, presence of contagious pathogens in the bulk tank culture, proactive detection of mastitis in postpartum cows, and stall barn housing. An increased rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of ketosis was associated with having a more sensitive definition of ketosis, using stall barn housing, and feeding a greater amount of concentrates. An increased rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of pneumonia was associated with a lack of grazing, small or medium herd size, and Jersey as the predominant breed. Overall, disease definitions and perceptions were similar among grazing systems and were associated with the rate of farmer-identified and recorded cases of disease. PMID:23684015

Richert, R M; Cicconi, K M; Gamroth, M J; Schukken, Y H; Stiglbauer, K E; Ruegg, P L

2013-07-01

313

A coordinated research programme to develop methodologies for an integrated approach to improve small scale market oriented dairy systems in developing countries.  

PubMed

A five-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled 'Integrated approach for improving small scale market oriented dairy systems' is currently being implemented by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency, through their Joint Programme on 'Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture'. The objectives are to (a) identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms; (b) determine the most important limiting factors; (c) develop intervention strategies; (c) assess the economic impact of the interventions; (d) develop methodologies for recording and demonstrating the economic impact; and (e) promote the adoption and dissemination of proven strategies and methodologies. Fifteen institutes in developing as well as developed countries are participating in the project, through ten research contracts (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Tunisia and Venezuela), one technical contract (Peru) and four research agreements (Malaysia, U.K., U.S.A. and Uruguay). The initial phase of the project, which focused on the conduct of Participatory Rural Appraisals and Economic Opportunity Surveys in the countries of the research contract holders, has now been completed. This paper describes the background to the CRP approach and the procedures used for developing, initiating and implementing this project. PMID:18265863

Perera, B M A O

2007-12-01

314

Increased concentration of water-soluble carbohydrate in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Evaluation in dairy cows in early lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in early lactation were used to investigate the potential of using perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) with a high concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) to increase the efficiency of milk production. Ad libitum access to one of two varieties of zero- grazed herbage was given continuously for 3 weeks: treatment High Sugar (HS), an experimental peren-

J. M. Moorby; R. T. Evans; N. D. Scollan; J. C. MacRae; M. K. Theodorou

2006-01-01

315

Herd-level economic losses associated with Johne's disease on US dairy operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Johne's disease (`paratuberculosis') is a chronic, infectious, wasting disease that affects dairy cattle. Estimation of its impact on herd productivity and corresponding economic loss on US dairy operations was part of the USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System's (NAHMS) 1996 national dairy study. Johne's-positive herds experience an economic loss of almost US$ 100 per cow when compared to Johne's-negative herds

Stephen L. Ott; Scott J. Wells; Bruce A. Wagner

1999-01-01

316

High-temperature, air-blown gasification of dairy-farm wastes for energy production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to investigate the feasibility of integrating an advanced gasifier into the operation of a dairy farm for converting biomass wastes into fuel gas that can be used for power production. The disposal\\/utilization of excess animal wastes is a serious problem facing the dairy industry. Implementation of a gasification system on the dairy farm may provide

Lincoln Young; Carlson C. P. Pian

2003-01-01

317

Animal Model Evaluation of Dairy Goats for Milk, Fat, and Protein Yields with Crossbred Animals Included  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic evaluation of dairy goats was extended to include evaluation of protein yield and evaluation of Oberhasli and experimental breeds. Diverse genetic background of parents of crossbred ani- mals can be accounted for with an animal model that includes all relationships. The animal model system implemented for dairy goats differed from the one for dairy cattle in that all breeds

G. R. Wiggans

1989-01-01

318

Systemic prepartum treatment of end-term dairy heifers with penethamate hydriodide: effect on udder health, milk yield, and culling until 120 days in milk.  

PubMed

Prepartum intramammary treatment with antimicrobials of end-term dairy heifers has frequently been proposed as a practice to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) at calving. From a safety standpoint for both animal and administrator, systemic treatment is preferred. A clinical trial was conducted on heifers from 10 well-managed, commercial dairy farms with a low prevalence of heifer mastitis. The aim was to assess both the short- and long-term effects of a systemic prepartum therapy with penethamate hydriodide on udder health and milk production. Because it was hypothesized that some herds would benefit more from this treatment than others, specific herd-level information was collected before the start of the actual trial to screen for and explain potential herd-specific treatment effects. Further, the effect of treatment on antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococcal isolates was monitored. End-term heifers were either treated systemically (over 3 consecutive days) 2 wk before expected calving date with penethamate hydriodide (n=76) or remained untreated (n=73). Systemic prepartum treatment of end-term heifers with penethamate hydriodide resulted in fewer IMI in early lactation. However, all 6 cases of clinical mastitis in early lactation occurred in the treatment group [Streptococcus uberis (n=1), Corynebacterium bovis (n=1), Staphylococcus aureus (n=1); 1 sample was contaminated; 2 samples remained culture negative]. No long-term treatment effects (from 4 to 120 d in milk) on milk production, udder health, or culling hazard during later lactation were detected, although treated heifers belonging to herds classified as having low-yielding heifers out-produced the control heifers. Moreover, penicillin susceptibility of staphylococci isolated from milk samples of treated or control heifers did not differ. Herds with a low prevalence of heifer mastitis are not likely to benefit from prepartum systemic antimicrobial treatment of the end-term heifers. PMID:23932138

Passchyn, P; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S

2013-10-01

319

A Microeconomic Analysis of Dairy Farming in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unified framework for analyzing the short-term production relationships between outputs and inputs on Dutch dairy farms before and after the introduction of the milk quota system is presented. It is derived from duality theory and estimated using an incomplete panel of Dutch dairy farms. The theoretical framework fits the data well. The supply of unrestricted outputs and the demand

John Helming; Arie Oskam; Geert Thijssen

1993-01-01

320

Study of focused-ion-beam-induced structural and compositional modifications in nanoscale bilayer systems by combined grazing incidence x ray reflectivity and fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

A detailed analysis of the structural and compositional changes in NiFe/Au bilayers induced by a focused ion beam (FIB) is presented. NiFe/Au bilayers with different thickness were irradiated with a focused 30 keV Ga{sup +} ion beam, and the evaluation of the individual layers and interfaces were investigated systematically as a function of a broad range of irradiation fluence using grazing incidence x ray reflectivity (GIXRR) and angular dependent x ray fluorescence (ADXRF) techniques carried out at synchrotron radiation sources. Experimental data were collected from 1.3 mm x 4.5 mm structures, and irradiation of such a broad areas with a 100-nm-wide focused ion beam is a challenging task. Two irradiation regimes were identified: For Ga{sup +} fluences < 15.6 x 10{sup 14} ion/cm{sup 2} (low dose regime), the main influence of the focused ion beam is on the interface and, beyond this dose (high dose regime), sputtering effects and ion implantation becomes significant, eventually causing amorphization of the bilayer system. The broadening of the NiFe/Au interface occurs even at the lowest dose, and above a critical fluence ({Phi} = 1.56 x 10{sup 14} ion/cm{sup 2}) can be represented by an interfacial-intermixed layer (Ni{sub x}Fe{sub y}Au{sub (1-x-y)}; x = 0.5-0.6, y 0.1-0.15) formed between the NiFe and Au layers. The thickness of this layer increases with irradiation fluence in the low dose regime. A linear relationship is found between the squared intermixing length and irradiation fluence, indicating that FIB-induced mixing is diffusion controlled. The ballistic model fails to describe FIB-induced intermixing, indicating that thermodynamical factors, which might be originated from FIB specific features, should be taken into account. Despite the complexity of the chemical and structural formation, good agreement between the experiment and theory highlights the functionality of the combined GIXRR and ADXRF techniques for studying intermixing in high resolution.

Arac, Erhan; Burn, David M.; Eastwood, David S.; Atkinson, Del [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hase, Thomas P. A. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2012-02-15

321

43 CFR 4130.2 - Grazing permits or leases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grazing permits or leases. 4130.2 Section...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Authorizing Grazing Use § 4130.2 Grazing permits or...

2012-10-01

322

43 CFR 4130.2 - Grazing permits or leases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grazing permits or leases. 4130.2 Section...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Authorizing Grazing Use § 4130.2 Grazing permits or...

2013-10-01

323

43 CFR 4130.6 - Other grazing authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Other grazing authorizations. 4130.6 Section 4130...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Authorizing Grazing Use § 4130.6 Other grazing...

2011-10-01

324

43 CFR 4110.2-2 - Specifying grazing preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Specifying grazing preference. 4110.2-2 Section...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA...Preference § 4110.2-2 Specifying grazing preference. (a) All grazing...

2013-10-01

325

43 CFR 4110.2-2 - Specifying grazing preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Specifying grazing preference. 4110.2-2 Section...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA...Preference § 4110.2-2 Specifying grazing preference. (a) All grazing...

2011-10-01

326

43 CFR 4130.6 - Other grazing authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Other grazing authorizations. 4130.6 Section 4130...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Authorizing Grazing Use § 4130.6 Other grazing...

2012-10-01

327

43 CFR 4130.6 - Other grazing authorizations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Other grazing authorizations. 4130.6 Section 4130...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Authorizing Grazing Use § 4130.6 Other grazing...

2013-10-01

328

43 CFR 4130.2 - Grazing permits or leases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grazing permits or leases. 4130.2 Section...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Authorizing Grazing Use § 4130.2 Grazing permits or...

2011-10-01

329

43 CFR 4110.2-2 - Specifying grazing preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Specifying grazing preference. 4110.2-2 Section...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA...Preference § 4110.2-2 Specifying grazing preference. (a) All grazing...

2012-10-01

330

Indicators of grazing impact in Inner Mongolian steppe ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DFG research group 536 MAGIM (Matter fluxes in grasslands of Inner Mongolia as influenced by stocking rate) investigates the influence of grazing intensity on matter and water cycles in grazed steppe ecosystems of Inner Mongolia. This Sino-German co-operation applies an interdisciplinary approach to investigate major ecosystem functions and how they are affected by grazing and overgrazing. Within the research group an indicator system is developed to systemize the feedback of ecosystem parameters to the influence of grazing and to analyse, which parameter or parameter group reacts most sensitively. Parameters were measured at up to five different grazing intensities (from ungrazed to heavy grazed) and are related to four thematic indicator groups (plant productivity, atmosphere, pedosphere, hydrosphere). The parameters were scaled to allow assessing the influence of grazing intensity between different sets of parameters. For this the average value of a parameter at the lowest grazing intensity (ungrazed) was set 100%, so that the values at the other intensities could be scaled scaled adequately. Then the difference between highest and lowest grazing intensity was determined. According to this difference the influence of grazing was characterized as weak (< 20% difference), medium (20-40%), strong (40-60%) and very strong (> 60%). Impact of grazing on the parameters will be marked as weak (w), medium (m), strong (s) and very strong (vs) in the text. The group plant productivity includes the vegetation parameters aboveground biomass and belowground biomass. Belowground biomass (s) was significantly different between grazing treatments with the highest value at the ungrazed site (399.00 g m-2 a-1) and the lowest at the heavy grazed site (208.00 g m-2 a-1). Aboveground biomass (m) ranged between 91.33-131.67 g m-2 a-1 and differed significantly between the ungrazed and the heavy grazed site, again with higher values at the ungrazed site (Gao et al. 2008). The group atmosphere consists of micrometeorological parameters, dust flux and deposition as measure of erosive processes and trace gas fluxes. Available energy and soil temperature were always significantly different between two simultaneously measured grazing intensities. Available energy was higher at the ungrazed site in all years measured (mean difference of about 19 W m-2). Soil temperature was lower at the ungrazed site (Ketzer et al. 2008). Dust deposition is important for the C and N balance in semi-arid grasslands and was investigated during the dust storm period from March to May. The largest matter deposition of C (vs) and N (vs) was measured at the ungrazed site with 328.7 (mg Corg m-2 d-1) and 30.30 (mg Nt m-2 d-1) on average. Heavy grazing resulted in average organic carbon and nitrogen deposition of 106.67 (mg Corg m-2 d-1) and 9.8 (mg N m-2 d-1) in average (Hoffmann et al. 2008). Wind driven soil deposition and erosion were influenced heavily by grazing. The critical vegetation cover is about 20-30%, at which net soil losses occur. No significant differences in N trace gas fluxes were found between plots. Mean values of N2O fluxes (s) varied between 0.39 and 1.60 ?g N2O-N m-2 h-1 (Holst et al. 2007). During all measuring periods, significantly lower mean soil CH4 uptake at moderate grazing (28 mg C m-2 h-1) as compared to ungrazed (56 ?g C m-2 h-1) was found (Liu et al. 2007). The pedosphere indicator group includes soil chemical, soil physical and microbiological parameters. Organic carbon (s) and total N (s) concentrations decreased significantly with increasing grazing intensity. No effect of grazing on pH (w) or soil C/N ratio (w) was detected. Bulk density (m) significantly increased with increasing grazing intensity, from 0.94 g cm-3 at the ungrazed site to 1.28 g cm-3 at the heavily grazed site (Steffens et al. 2008). Also shear strength (m) increased with increasing grazing intensity (Zhao et al. 2007). Gross rates of N mineralization (vs) and nitrification (vs) determined at in situ soil moisture and soil temperature conditions were i

Blank, B.; Breuer, L.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Frede, H.-G.

2009-04-01

331

Preparing Dairy Technologists  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The size of modern dairy plant operations has led to extreme specialization in product manufacturing, milk processing, microbiological analysis, chemical and mathematical computations. Morrisville Agricultural and Technical College, New York, has modernized its curricula to meet these changes. (HD)

Sliva, William R.

1977-01-01

332

The effects of two out-wintering pad systems compared with free-stalls on dairy cow hoof and limb health.  

PubMed

Lameness is one of the most serious health and welfare problems for dairy cows. This study compared hoof health, limb health and locomotion of dairy cows in three over-winter management systems. Treatments were: (1) an indoor free-stall system (FS), (2) outdoors on an uncovered woodchip pad (UP) and (3) outdoors on a covered woodchip pad (CP). Animals were assigned to treatments at drying off, remained on treatment until parturition, then turned out to pasture. Sole lesions were scored on assignment to treatment, at calving, and 6 weeks and 12 weeks post partum. Locomotion and skin lesions were scored on assignment to treatment, and every 2 weeks until parturition. Post-partum locomotion was scored weekly for 13 weeks. More FS cows were affected by limb lesions than CP cows, and these animals had the worst locomotion scores post calving. There was an effect of inspection, and interactive effect of inspection and treatment on sole lesion scores. UP cows had the highest sole lesion scores 12 weeks post partum probably due to softening of the hooves arising from exposure to moisture while on the woodchip pad. However, post partum, UP cows had better locomotion scores, and CP cows tended to have better scores than cows in FS. Both of these treatments were less likely to have a high tracking-up score than cows in FS. It is possible that cows in this treatment were able to exercise more, owing to the secure underfoot surface and lack of barriers, and this promoted limb flexibility. Although woodchip pads provided benefits for limb health and locomotion, the wood chip surface in both outdoor systems did not offer protective benefits to the hooves relative to housing on concrete. However, the provision of shelter on the pad somewhat overcame the problem of high sole lesion scores in the post-partum period. PMID:18922200

O'Driscoll, Keelin Km; Hanlon, Alison; French, Padraig; Boyle, Laura A

2009-02-01

333

Comparison between dairy cow disease incidence in data registered by farmers and in data from a disease-recording system based on veterinary reporting.  

PubMed

Sweden has a national disease-recording system based on veterinary reporting. From this system, all cattle-disease records are transferred to the dairy industry cattle database (DDD) where they are used for several purposes including research and dairy-health statistics. Our objective was to evaluate the completeness of this data source by comparing it with disease data registered by dairy farmers. The proportion of veterinary-treated disease events was estimated, by diagnosis. Disease incidence in the DDD was compared, by diagnosis and age, with disease data registered by the farmers. Comparison was made, by diagnosis, for (i) all disease events and (ii) those reported as veterinary-treated. Disease events, defined as "observed deviations in health, from the normal" were recorded by the farmers during January, April, July and October 2004. For the diagnoses calving problems, peripartum disorders, puerperal paresis and retained placenta, incidence proportions (IP) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated. For all other disease problems, incidence rates (IR) were used. In total, 177 farmers reported at least 1 month and 148 reported all 4 months. Fifty-four percent of all disease events in the farmers' data were reported as veterinary-treated. For several of the most common diagnoses, the IRs and IPs for all events were significantly higher in farmers' data than in the DDD. Examples are, in cows: clinical mastitis, cough, gastro-intestinal disorders and lameness in hoof and limb; and in young stock: cough and gastro-intestinal disorders. For veterinary-treated events only, significant differences with higher IR in the farmers' data were found in young stock for sporadic cough and sporadic gastro-intestinal disorders. The diagnosis "other disorders" had significantly more events in the DDD than in farmers' data, i.e. veterinarians tended to choose more unspecific diagnoses than the farmers. This result indicates that the true completeness is likely to be higher than our estimate. We conclude that for the time period studied there was differential under-reporting associated with the diagnosis, the age of the animal and whether the herd was served by a state-employed or private veterinarian. PMID:19178966

Mörk, M; Lindberg, A; Alenius, S; Vågsholm, I; Egenvall, A

2009-04-01

334

Farm management factors associated with bulk tank total bacterial count in Irish dairy herds during 2006/07  

PubMed Central

Research has shown that total bacterial count (TBC), which is the bacterial growth per ml of milk over a fixed period of time, can be decreased by good hygiene and farm management practices. The objective of the current study was to quantify the associations between herd management factors and bulk tank TBC in Irish spring calving, grass-based dairy herds. The relationship between bulk tank TBC and farm management and infrastructure was examined using data from 400 randomly selected Irish dairy farms where the basal diet was grazed grass. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC were identified using linear models with herd annual total bacterial score (i.e., arithmetic mean of the natural logarithm of bulk tank TBC) included as the dependent variable. All herd management factors were individually analysed in a separate regression model, that included an adjustment for geographical location of the farm. A multiple stepwise regression model was subsequently developed. Median bulk tank TBC for the sample herds was 18,483 cells/ml ranging from 10,441 to 130,458 cells/ml. Results from the multivariate analysis indicated that the following management practices were associated with low TBC; use of heated water in the milking parlour; participation in a milk recording scheme; and tail clipping of cows at a frequency greater than once per year. Increased level of hygiene of the parlour and cubicles were also associated with lower TBC. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank TBC in Irish grazing herds were generally in agreement with most previous studies from confinement systems of milk production. PMID:21851723

2009-01-01

335

Suboptimal reproductive performance of dairy cattle kept in smallholder herds in a rural highland area of northern Tanzania.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present study were to assess the reproductive performance and cumulative incidence risk of reproductive disorders and to compare the success of artificial insemination (AI) to natural service (by handmating; NS) in dairy cattle kept in smallholder herds under a zero-grazing system in a rural highland area of Tanzania. Data on occurrence of all normal and abnormal reproductive events were collected for 215 adult animals belonging to 74 households. The median and range of the intervals: intercalving, calving to first service, and calving to pregnancy were 477 (335-860), 154 (38-486) and 206 (61-567) days, respectively. Breed and parity did not affect the reproductive parameters (P>0.05). However, cows in the milked group had a shorter median calving interval than those in the suckled group (P<0.001). The overall percentage pregnant and the percentage pregnant to first service were higher in the NS than in the AI group (49 vs. 32%; P=0.007) and (67 vs. 25%; P<0.001), respectively. The median numbers of services per pregnancy were not different between the AI (3) and NS (2) groups (P=0.17). The cumulative incidence risk of abortion, dystocia, prolapse, retained fetal membranes, mastitis, milk fever and cyclic non-breeders were 16.0, 1.7, 2.5, 4.2, 5.0, 1.7, and 6.1%, respectively. Hoof overgrowth (4.6%) and hoof deviation (4.6%) were the most-frequent digital problems. We concluded that reproductive parameters and cumulative incidence risk of abortion show suboptimal reproductive performance in rural-based, zero-grazed smallholder dairy herds in Tanzania particularly those using AI. PMID:10821959

Kanuya, N L; Kessy, B M; Bittegeko, S B; Mdoe, N S; Aboud, A A

2000-06-12

336

25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER CONCESSIONS, PERMITS AND LEASES ON LANDS WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such permits, such stock as may be...

2010-04-01

337

Ruminal environment and forage ruminal digestion in milking cows under grazing and zero-grazing  

E-print Network

Ruminal environment and forage ruminal digestion in milking cows under grazing and zero-grazing ML) ; 21NTA, Dpto Prod Animal, Balcarce, CC 276 (7620), Argentina Cows grazing high quality temperate. A trial was run to study the effect of zero grazing on rumen environment and protein and fiber digestion

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

338

The co-grazing of cattle and sheep under rotational and continuous grazing  

E-print Network

The co-grazing of cattle and sheep under rotational and continuous grazing SM Kitessa AM Nicol grazing, Nolan and Connolly (1977, Herbage Abstracts, 47, 367- 374) showed considerable variation in the response of cattle and sheep to mixed grazing. They identified a number of factors as potential sources

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

339

Grazing of attached bacteria by heterotrophic microflagellates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four species of heterotrophic microflagellates were examined for their ability to graze attached and unattached bacteria. The species tested displayed pronounced differences in their ability to graze the bacteriumPseudomonas halodurans attached to chitin particles. Two species of microflagellates (Monas andCryptobia sp.) efficiently grazed unattached bacteria but showed little or no ability to graze attached or aggregated cells. In contrast,Rhynchomonas nasuta

David A. Caron

1987-01-01

340

THE INFLUENCE OF CATTLE GRAZING ON POCKET GOPHERS IN THE CENTRAL SIERRA NEVADA MOUNTAINS, CALIFORNIA  

E-print Network

ADAM RICH Stanislaus National Forest, Pinecrest, CA 95364 ABSTRACT--Great Gray Owls (Strix nebulosa of the potential effects of grazing in these systems. The Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) is of particular Gopher, cattle grazing, Great Gray Owl, meadows, Mountain Pocket Gopher, Sierra Nevada Mountains, Strix

Johnson, Matthew

341

Results from a Grazing Incidence X-Ray Interferometer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype grazing incidence interferometer has been built and tested at EUV and X-ray wavelengths using a 120 meter long vacuum test facility at Marshall Space Flight Center. We describe the design and construction of the interferometer, the EUV and x-ray sources, the detector systems, and compare the interferometric fringe measurements with theoretical predictions. We also describe the next-generation grazing incidence system which is designed to provide laboratory demonstration of key technologies that will be needed for a space-based x-ray interferometer.

Joy, Marshall K.; Shipley, Ann; Cash, Webster; Carter, James

2000-01-01

342

Local feeding strategies and milk composition in small-scale dairy production systems during the rainy season in the highlands of Mexico.  

PubMed

The objective of the work was to identify local feeding strategies in small-scale dairy production systems during the rainy season in the highlands of Mexico, and to determine their effects on milk yields (MY), milk composition and economic viability. Twenty-two dairy farms were monitored by monthly visits, recording and sampling milk from between two and six cows in each farm, live-weight was also recorded. Samples from feeds used in that month were taken and feeds given to the dairy herd were weighed. Economic data was also recorded. Milk composition and milk urea nitrogen were determined, as well as chemical composition of feeds. Eighteen feedstuffs were identified, grouped in: HNH feeds-high in neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and in DM matter; HNL feeds-high in NDF but low in DM; HCh feeds-high in non-fibrous carbohydrates; and HCP feeds-high in crude protein. Four feeding strategies were identified: strategy 1 uses HND, HNL and HCP; strategy 2-HND, HNL, HCh and HCP; strategy 3 HNH and HCP; and strategy 4 HNL and HCP. Of participating farms, 73.4% followed strategy 1, 11.3% strategy 2, 11.3% strategy 4 and 3.8% strategy 3. There were no statistical differences (P?>?0.05) between strategies for MY and milk composition, but there were differences (P??0.05) model relating intake of feed groups and milk fat content, but milk protein and SNF contents were significantly explained by intake of HCP. When expressed as MY and milk components yield, milk fat yield was significantly explained by intake of all four feed groups, but milk protein and SNF yields were explained only by intake of HCP and LW. MUN excretion was explained also by HCP intake. All feeding strategies produced positive economic returns, on average generating the equivalent of 3.45 minimum wages of the area. PMID:21822985

Alfonso-Ávila, Ángel René; Wattiaux, Michel A; Espinoza-Ortega, Angélica; Sánchez-Vera, Ernesto; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M

2012-03-01

343

Universal grazing bifurcations in impact oscillators  

SciTech Connect

We examine the bifurcations of a piecewise smooth map that captures the universal properties of impact oscillators near grazing. In particular, we study periodic orbits with one impact per period and the way they are involved in the grazing bifurcations. We also show some phenomena that these orbits exhibit at grazing for some families of parameter values. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Casas, F.; Chin, W.; Grebogi, C.; Ott, E. [Institute for Plasma Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)] [Institute for Plasma Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

1996-01-01

344

36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grazing activities. 292.48 Section 292...Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.48 Grazing activities. The following standards and guidelines apply to domestic livestock grazing activities on Other Lands, Wild...

2012-07-01

345

43 CFR 9239.3 - Grazing, Alaska.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grazing, Alaska. 9239.3 Section 9239...TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.3 Grazing, Alaska. (a) Reindeer. (1) Any use of the Federal lands for reindeer grazing purposes, unless authorized by a...

2013-10-01

346

25 CFR 168.8 - Grazing fees.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grazing fees. 168.8 Section 168.8 ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.8 Grazing fees. (a) The rental...

2014-04-01

347

Review article Grazing and pasture management  

E-print Network

Review article Grazing and pasture management for biodiversity benefit Andrew J. ROOK*, Jeremy R) Abstract -- The primary role of grazing animals in grassland biodiversity management is mainte- nance. Grazing animals' diets are constrained by temporal and spatial changes in sward structure, plant defence

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

348

43 CFR 9239.3 - Grazing, Alaska.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grazing, Alaska. 9239.3 Section 9239...TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.3 Grazing, Alaska. (a) Reindeer. (1) Any use of the Federal lands for reindeer grazing purposes, unless authorized by a...

2012-10-01

349

25 CFR 168.8 - Grazing fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grazing fees. 168.8 Section 168.8 ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.8 Grazing fees. (a) The rental...

2011-04-01

350

Grazing -Simulator for horses kept in stalls  

E-print Network

Grazing - Simulator for horses kept in stalls key words: keeping horses stabling movement apparatus floor-treadmill moving platens The Grazing Simulator, as developed by Vienna University, it enables a horse confined to stables to simulate its natural behaviour, ie grazing in the fields, whereby

Szmolyan, Peter

351

25 CFR 168.8 - Grazing fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grazing fees. 168.8 Section 168.8 ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.8 Grazing fees. (a) The rental...

2013-04-01

352

36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grazing activities. 292.48 Section 292...Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.48 Grazing activities. The following standards and guidelines apply to domestic livestock grazing activities on Other Lands, Wild...

2014-07-01

353

A finite element approximation of grazing collisions #  

E-print Network

A finite element approximation of grazing collisions # B. Lucquin­Desreux, S.Mancini Laboratoire element discretization of the Boltzmann­ Lorentz operator for which it is possible to define a grazing#cient, which is independent on the grazing collision parameter. Finally, the focaliza­ tion of a beam

Mancini, Simona

354

25 CFR 168.8 - Grazing fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing fees. 168.8 Section 168.8 ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.8 Grazing fees. (a) The rental...

2010-04-01

355

36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grazing activities. 292.48 Section 292...Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.48 Grazing activities. The following standards and guidelines apply to domestic livestock grazing activities on Other Lands, Wild...

2010-07-01

356

25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.  

...Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN...CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such...

2014-04-01

357

25 CFR 168.8 - Grazing fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Grazing fees. 168.8 Section 168.8 ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.8 Grazing fees. (a) The rental...

2012-04-01

358

25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN...CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such...

2013-04-01

359

Effective Grazing Land Conservation Supporting Research  

E-print Network

10/28/2010 1 Effective Grazing Land Conservation Supporting Research Ken Tate, UCD Plant Sciences'Geen, D. Lewis, B. Jones, D. Lile, N. McDougald, D. Dudley October 27, 2010 · Grazing conservation practices: under scrutiny. · Report some current research results. · Introduce some new projects. · Grazing

Tate, Kenneth

360

36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grazing activities. 292.48 Section 292...Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.48 Grazing activities. The following standards and guidelines apply to domestic livestock grazing activities on Other Lands, Wild...

2013-07-01

361

43 CFR 9239.3 - Grazing, Alaska.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grazing, Alaska. 9239.3 Section 9239...TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.3 Grazing, Alaska. (a) Reindeer. (1) Any use of the Federal lands for reindeer grazing purposes, unless authorized by a...

2011-10-01

362

25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN...CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such...

2012-04-01

363

25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN...CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such...

2011-04-01

364

36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grazing activities. 292.48 Section 292...Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.48 Grazing activities. The following standards and guidelines apply to domestic livestock grazing activities on Other Lands, Wild...

2011-07-01

365

Contribution of family labour to the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy production systems in central Mexico.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to determine the effect of family labour on the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy farms in the highlands of Central Mexico. Economic data from 37 farms were analysed from a stratified statistical sampling with a Neyman assignment. Three strata were defined taking herd size as criterion. Stratum 1: herds from 3 to 9 cows plus replacements, Stratum 2: herds from 10 to 19 cows and Stratum 3: herds from 20 to 30 cows. The policy analysis matrix was used as the method to determine profitability and competitiveness. The coefficient of private profitability (CPP) when the economic cost of family labour is included in the cost structure was 8.0 %, 31.0 % and 46.0 %. When the economic cost of family labour is not included, CPP increase to 47.0 %, 57.0 % and 66.0 % for each strata, respectively. The private cost ratio (PCR) when family labour is included was 0.79, 0.51 and 0.42 for strata 1, 2 and 3, respectively. When family labour is not included, the PCR was 0.07, 0.25 and 0.26. Net profit per litre of milk including family labour was US$0.03 l(-1) for Stratum 1, US$0.09 for Stratum 2 and US$0.12 l(-1) for Stratum 3; but increased to $0.12, 0.14 and 0.15, respectively, when the economic cost of family labour is not included. It is concluded that family labour is a crucial factor in the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy production. PMID:24097246

Posadas-Domínguez, Rodolfo Rogelio; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Martínez-Castañeda, Francisco Ernesto

2014-01-01

366

Grazing-incidence telescopes for X-ray astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review the progress made at our laboratory over the past several years in developing grazing-incidence imaging X-ray optics. Mirrors, detection systems and dispersion techniques are discussed and experimental results are given. We discuss the application of two telescope systems to a number of experimental observations in X-ray astronomy.

R. Giacconi; W. P. Reidy; G. S. Vaiana; L. P. Van Speybroeck; T. F. Zehnpfennig

1969-01-01

367

Simulation of grazing-incidence coherent imaging  

SciTech Connect

A method is proposed for simulating optical object images formed by oblique or grazing-incidence coherent beams. The theoretical approach relies on the solution of a parabolic equation, which generalises the Fresnel integral. Our numerical results are given for experimental conditions close to those realised when use is made of modern soft X-ray lasers. The newly developed method may also be employed to simulate X-ray imaging systems developed around synchrotron and free-electron laser beams. (x-ray optics)

Artyukov, I A; Vinogradov, Aleksandr V; Popov, N L; Seleznev, V N

2012-02-28

368

Influence Of Fall Grazing By Sheep On Plant Productivity, Shrub Age Class Structure And Herbaceous Species Diversity In Sagebrush Steppe.  

E-print Network

??Managing Wyoming Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) systems biologically with grazing can potentially reduce costs and increase both biodiversity and understory production as well… (more)

Woodland, Ryan Duncan

2004-01-01

369

Grazing effects on species composition in different vegetation types (La Palma, Canary Islands)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grazing management is probably one of the most extensive land uses, but its effects on plant communities have in many cases been revealed to be contradictory. Some authors have related these contradictions to the stochastic character of grazing systems. Because of that, it is necessary to implement specific analyses of grazing effects on each community, especially in natural protected areas, in order to provide the best information to managers. We studied the effects of grazing on the species composition of the main vegetation types where it takes place (grasslands, shrublands and pine forests) on the island of La Palma, Canary Islands. We used the point-quadrat intersect method to study the species composition of grazed and ungrazed areas, which also were characterized by their altitude, distance to farms, distance to settlements, year of sampling, herbaceous aboveground biomass and soil organic matter. The variables organic matter, productivity and species richness were not significantly affected by grazing. The species composition of the analyzed plant communities was affected more by variables such as altitude or distance to farms than by extensive grazing that has been traditionally carried out on the island of La Palma involving certain practices such as continuous monitoring of animals by goat keepers, medium stocking rates adjusted to the availability of natural pastures, supplementation during the dry season using local forage shrubs or mown pastures and rotating animals within grazing areas Although some studies have shown a negative effect of grazing on endangered plant species, these results cannot be freely extrapolated to the traditional grazing systems that exert a low pressure on plant communities (as has been found in this study). We consider extensive grazing as a viable way of ensuring sustainable management of the studied ecosystems.

Arévalo, J. R.; de Nascimento, L.; Fernández-Lugo, S.; Mata, J.; Bermejo, L.

2011-05-01

370

Short communication: Comparison of the newly developed DVE/OEB (2010) system and the National Research Council (2001) model in modeling metabolic characteristics of proteins in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

The truly absorbed protein in the small intestine/degraded protein balance (DVE/OEB)2010 system is a recently developed protein evaluation system for ruminants. The objective of this study was to compare the DVE/OEB2010 system with the National Research Council (2001) model in determining the metabolic characteristics of proteins in dairy cattle. The metabolic characteristics of proteins in bioethanol feedstock and their co-products were compared in terms of (1) truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein in the small intestine; (2) truly absorbed rumen undegraded feed protein in the small intestine; (3) endogenous protein in the digestive tract; (4) total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine; and (5) protein degraded balance. The DVE/OEB2010 system predicted 30% more truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein in the small intestine, 4% more truly absorbed rumen undegraded feed protein in the small intestine, 64% more endogenous protein, 9% more total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine, but 27% less degraded protein balance. PMID:23810592

Gamage, I H; Yu, Peiqiang

2013-09-01

371

Grazing season and forage type influence goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties.  

PubMed

Two different types of pasture (cultivated and rangeland) and 2 different hay qualities (high and low quality) were examined for their effects on goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties. Furthermore, the effect of dietary treatments in both the early and late grazing season was studied. As lactation stage is known to influence milk composition, the goats in the early and late grazing season were in the same lactation stage at the start of the experiment. The milk composition was influenced both by dietary treatment and season. Milk from goats on pasture was superior to those on hay by containing a higher content of protein and casein, and the goats on cultivated pasture had the highest milk yield. Casein composition was significantly influenced by forage treatment. Goats grazing on cultivated pasture had higher contents of ?s1-casein and also of ?-casein compared with the other treatments, whereas goats grazing on rangeland had the highest content of ?-casein. Factors such as milk yield, casein micelle size, ?s2-casein, and calcium content were reduced in late compared with early season. More favorable rennet coagulation properties were achieved in milk from the early grazing season, with shorter firming time and higher curd firmness compared with milk from the late grazing season, but the firming time and curd firmness were not prominently influenced by forage treatment. The content of ?s2-casein and calcium in the milk affected the firming time and the curd firmness positively. The influence of season and forage treatment on especially milk yield, casein content, and rennet coagulation properties is of economic importance for both the dairy industry and goat milk farmers. PMID:24704223

Inglingstad, R A; Steinshamn, H; Dagnachew, B S; Valenti, B; Criscione, A; Rukke, E O; Devold, T G; Skeie, S B; Vegarud, G E

2014-06-01

372

Electrostatic application of black flocking for reducing grazing incidence reflections  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grazing incidence reflections as a source of stray light are a problem which continues to beleaguer optical systems and instrumentation. These reflections tend to be specular and are a primary cause of ghosting. Traditional means of blackening (absorption) fail miserably. Techniques of scattering the undesirable\\/problem light into a larger (and more benign) solid angle, while successful, are often impractical. Furthermore,

David Vaughnn; Jay A. Tome

1996-01-01

373

Effect of gender on meat quality in lamb from extensive and intensive grazing systems when slaughtered at the end of the growing season.  

PubMed

In Norway, most lambs are slaughtered at the end of the grazing season in September. An increased demand for fresh meat during the off-season may change this pattern. Castration of male lambs is not permitted, and off-season slaughtering may affect the acceptability of the meat. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of gender and the interaction between gender and diet on meat quality from Norwegian White Sheep lambs slaughtered in September. In two different experiments, 22 and 29 males compared with 22 and 46 female lambs, respectively, were used. Loin samples of M. Longissimus dorsi were analysed for sensory profile and fatty acid composition. Meat from male lambs in Experiment 2 had higher scores for cloying and rancid flavour, and lower scores for sour and sweet taste compared to meat from female lambs. It is concluded that even at the normal slaughtering time in September, significant differences between genders may occur. PMID:21295920

Lind, Vibeke; Berg, Jan; Eilertsen, Svein Morten; Hersleth, Margrethe; Eik, Lars Olav

2011-06-01

374

Increased concentration of water-soluble carbohydrate in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.): milk production from late-lactation dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in late lactation were used to investigate the potential of using perennial ryegrass with a high concentration of water- soluble carbohydrate (WSC) to increase the efficiency of milk production. After a pretreatment period on a common pasture, the cows were each given ad libitum access to one of two varieties of zero-grazed grass continuously for

L. A. Miller; J. M. Moorby; D. R. Davies; M. O. Humphreys; N. D. Scollan; J. C. MacRae; M. K. Theodorou

2001-01-01

375

Development of a novel clinical scoring system for on-farm diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease in pre-weaned dairy calves  

PubMed Central

Several clinical scoring systems for diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in calves have been proposed. However, such systems were based on subjective judgment, rather than statistical methods, to weight scores. Data from a pair-matched case-control study on a California calf raising facility was used to develop three novel scoring systems to diagnose BRD in preweaned dairy calves. Disease status was assigned using both clinical signs and diagnostic test results for BRD-associated pathogens. Regression coefficients were used to weight score values. The systems presented use nasal and ocular discharge, rectal temperature, ear and head carriage, coughing, and respiratory quality as predictors. The systems developed in this research utilize fewer severity categories of clinical signs, require less calf handling, and had excellent agreement (Kappa > 0.8) when compared to an earlier scoring system. The first scoring system dichotomized all clinical predictors but required inducing a cough. The second scoring system removed induced cough as a clinical abnormality but required distinguishing between three levels of nasal discharge severity. The third system removed induced cough and forced a dichotomized variable for nasal discharge. The first system presented in this study used the following predictors and assigned values: coughing (induced or spontaneous coughing, 2 points), nasal discharge (any discharge, 3 points), ocular discharge (any discharge, 2 points), ear and head carriage (ear droop or head tilt, 5 points), fever (?39.2°C or 102.5°F, 2 points), and respiratory quality (abnormal respiration, 2 points). Calves were categorized “BRD positive” if their total score was ?4. This system correctly classified 95.4% cases and 88.6% controls. The second presented system categorized the predictors and assigned weights as follows: coughing (spontaneous only, 2 points), mild nasal discharge (unilateral, serous, or watery discharge, 3 points), moderate to severe nasal discharge (bilateral, cloudy, mucoid, mucopurlent, or copious discharge, 5 points), ocular discharge (any discharge, 1 point), ear and head carriage (ear droop or head tilt, 5 points), fever (?39.2°C, 2 points), and respiratory quality (abnormal respiration, 2 points). Calves were categorized “BRD positive” if their total score was ?4. This system correctly classified 89.3% cases and 92.8% controls. The third presented system used the following predictors and scores: coughing (spontaneous only, 2 points), nasal discharge (any, 4 points), ocular discharge (any, 2 points), ear and head carriage (ear droop or head tilt, 5 points), fever (?39.2°C, 2 points), and respiratory quality (abnormal respiration, 2 points). Calves were categorized “BRD positive” if their total score was ?5. This system correctly classified 89.4% cases and 90.8% controls. Each of the proposed systems offer few levels of clinical signs and data-based weights for on-farm diagnosis of BRD in dairy calves. PMID:24482759

Love, William J.; Lehenbauer, Terry W.; Kass, Philip H.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.

2014-01-01

376

Julie Berry From: PRO-DAIRY  

E-print Network

1 Julie Berry From: PRO-DAIRY Sent: Monday, August 19, 2013 4:46 PM To: Julie Berry Subject: PRO-DAIRY e-Alert DAP Announced PRO-DAIRY e-Alert: Dairy Acceleration Program Announced of Agriculture and Markets and the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation, has announced the Dairy

Walter, M.Todd

377

Test-retest repeatability of the National Animal Health monitoring system dairy heifer health report in New York and Pennsylvania, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We did a test-retest study on 21 farms to assess the repeatability of the Dairy Heifer Health Report of the National Dairy Heifer Evaluation Project. The median retest interval was 42 days (range 14–63 days), retest interviewers were blinded as to responses on the first visits, and all date-specific questions were anchored to the dates of the first tests. The

H. N. Erb; A. J. Heinrichs; R. E. Woods; W. M. Sischo

1996-01-01

378

Carrion odor and cattle grazing  

PubMed Central

Recently, it has been proposed on theoretical grounds that carrion odor from flowers may not only attract pollinators, but also repel mammalian herbivores. Two grazing experiments involving 16 to 26 cattle heads per year, one for eight years (1982–1989) and the other for seven (1994–2000), in a region with no large carnivores that could influence cattle behavior, show that cattle avoid areas where dead cattle have recently been dumped. They grazed much less in these unfenced plots that were used to dump dead cattle each year. In the first experiment, with an area of ca. 20,000 m2 per head, the average grass biomass at the end of the season was 124.6 gr/m2 for the regular grazing area, whereas it was 236.5 gr/m2 for the carcass dumping area. In the second experiment, with a higher stocking level, with ca. 9,000 m2 per head, the average grass biomass at the end of the season was 61.7 gr/m2 for the regular grazing area, and 153.7 gr/m2 for the carcass dumping area. These significant differences existed throughout the 15 y of the experiments. We propose that these results are clear evidence of necrophobia in cattle, a character that might defend them from both pathogenic microbes and predators. This in turn demonstrates that carrion odor, primarily used by plants to attract pollinators, can simultaneously defend plants from herbivory by mammals as proposed.

Lev-Yadun, Simcha; Gutman, Mario

2013-01-01

379

Response of Organic and Inorganic Carbon and Nitrogen to Long-Term Grazing of the Shortgrass Steppe  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the influence of long-term (56 years) grazing on organic and inorganic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents of the plant–soil system (to 90 cm depth) in shortgrass steppe of northeastern Colorado. Grazing treatments included continuous season-long (May–October) grazing by yearling heifers at heavy (60–75% utilization) and light (20–35% utilization) stocking rates, and nongrazed exclosures. The heavy stocking rate

Jean D. Reeder; Gerald E. Schuman; Jack A. Morgan; Daniel R. LeCain

2004-01-01

380

Mycotoxicoses of grazing animals in New Zealand.  

PubMed

Mycotoxicoses are some of the most important diseases of animals grazing pastures in New Zealand, especially in northern areas where the disease, facial eczema, occurs. New Zealand scientists have led the world in research on facial eczema and endophyte-related diseases associated with tremoring. Facial eczema (pithomycotoxicosis) was one of the first mycotoxicoses to be studied systematically and successful methods for its control now exist. Toxicity is caused by the concentration of sporidesmin in the biliary system and its redox cycling which leads to the formation of toxic free-radicals. Zinc salts are capable of preventing facial eczema. Their efficacy and safety for farm use has been demonstrated and intraruminal boluses containing zinc have been developed for use in sheep and cattle. Endophyte-related diseases have received special attention over the last 15 years. It is now recognised that Neotyphodium spp and grasses (especially ryegrass and fescue) are an essential symbiosis, making control of these diseases in grazing animals difficult. New Zealand research has demonstrated inhibitory effects of zearalenone, from Fusarium spp growing on pasture litter, on sheep fertility. PMID:16032233

Smith, B L; Towers, N R

2002-01-01

381

Dairy Products, 2010 Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Special Note - Total production by State will no longer be published on an annual basis for the following tables: Yogurt, Total Lowfat Hard Ice Cream, Hard Sherbet, Water and Juice Ices, Sherbet Mix, Frozen Yogurt Mix, and Other Frozen Dairy Products. Ind...

2011-01-01

382

Managing Grazing to Restore and Conserve Sierra Meadows and  

E-print Network

12/13/2011 1 Managing Grazing to Restore and Conserve Sierra Meadows and Aquatic Resources KTopics Grazing Case Studies Riparian "Health" Yosemite Toad Water QualityWater Quality USFS Public Grazing grazing lands Connectivity of Sierra foothill ranches and high elevation Sierra grazing lands These sites

Tate, Kenneth

383

Track way distance and cover as risk factors for lameness in Danish dairy cows.  

PubMed

This study investigates the effect of length and cover of track ways between barn and pasture on lameness in Danish dairy cows. We hypothesised that short track distances would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows compared to longer distances and that track ways with prepared cover (asphalt, gravel, slag, concrete, rubber) compared to no prepared cover (sand, soil and/or grass) would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows in grazing herds. In total, 2084 dairy cows from 36 herds, grazing their dairy cows during summer, were individually assessed for their lameness status. The cows were further clinically examined for claw conformation and hock integument. Information on breed and parity per cow and size per herd was extracted from a national data base. Track way distance ranged from 0 to 700 m and was categorised as (1) <165 m or (2) ?165 m. Cover of track way was categorised as (1) prepared (asphalt, gravel, slag, concrete, and/or rubber), (2) partly prepared or (3) not prepared (soil, sand, grass) for the surface of the majority of tracks used. The effect of track way distance and cover was evaluated for their impact on lameness using logistic analysis with a multi-level model structure. The probability for lameness did not change with track distance but increased with no (odds 4.0 times higher) or only partly prepared (odds 3.8 times higher) cover compared to prepared cover. In conclusion, we found that having a cover on the track way was associated with decreased severe lameness in Danish dairy cows. PMID:24387936

Burow, E; Thomsen, P T; Rousing, T; Sørensen, J T

2014-03-01

384

75 FR 14564 - Dairy Industry Advisory Committee; Public Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Agriculture (USDA) and Federal dairy policy, hear proposals from the dairy industry, and hear public comments. The Dairy Committee is responsible...current USDA programs and Federal dairy policy, Hear proposals from dairy industry groups, and...

2010-03-26

385

Infiltration and sediment production of Edwards Plateau rangeland as affectd by soil characteristics and grazing management  

E-print Network

to 5. 4), a 4-pasture, 3-herd deferred rotation grazing system (5. 2 ha/A. U. ) and a livestock exclosure that has been ungrazed for 27 years. Infiltration rates were determined with a drip infiltro- meter on deep, intermediate and shallow soil... and on an area protected from grazing. One pasture (4) ? studied is under a heavily stocked continu- 2/ ously grazed system (heavy continuous sytem). It has been stocked at 4. 6 to 5. 4 ha/A. U. for the past 27 years with a combination of cattle, sheep...

McGinty, William Allan

2012-06-07

386

Weed selection by sheep grazing dryland lucerne  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diet selection by sheep grazing dryland lucerne with a high proportion of weeds was assessed in two consecutive years (2005\\/2006). The study was performed on 2.66 ha of pasture divided in two homogeneous paddocks subjected to a stocking rate of either 10 or 20 sheep\\/paddock, and grazed for 17 days. Before and after each grazing trial, an inventory was conducted

E. Pérez; A. de Vega; I. Delgado; Y. Pueyo

387

Grazing dynamics of cattle under heavily stocked continuous and short-duration grazing  

E-print Network

by changes in forage quality. Grazing time per unit area is a relatively new approach to studying animal grazing behavior and may prove to be a valuable tool for increasing our understanding of plant-animal relationships. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author... by changes in forage quality. Grazing time per unit area is a relatively new approach to studying animal grazing behavior and may prove to be a valuable tool for increasing our understanding of plant-animal relationships. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author...

Grose, Paul Stephen

2012-06-07

388

7 CFR 1150.112 - Dairy products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dairy products. 1150.112 Section 1150.112 Agriculture...and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions §...

2011-01-01

389

7 CFR 1150.112 - Dairy products.  

...Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Dairy products. 1150.112 Section 1150.112 Agriculture...AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions §...

2014-01-01

390

7 CFR 1150.112 - Dairy products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dairy products. 1150.112 Section 1150.112 Agriculture...AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions §...

2013-01-01

391

7 CFR 1150.112 - Dairy products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Dairy products. 1150.112 Section 1150.112 Agriculture...and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions §...

2010-01-01

392

7 CFR 1150.112 - Dairy products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dairy products. 1150.112 Section 1150.112 Agriculture...and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions §...

2012-01-01

393

Development and evaluation of equations in the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System to predict nitrogen excretion in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

Nitrogen excretion is of particular concern on dairy farms, not only because of its effects on water quality, but also because of the subsequent release of gases such as ammonia to the atmosphere. To manage N excretion, accurate estimates of urinary N (UN) and fecal N (FN) are needed. On commercial farms, directly measuring UN and FN is impractical, meaning that quantification must be based on predictions rather than measured data. The purpose of this study was to use a statistical approach to develop equations and evaluate the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System's (CNCPS) ability to predict N excretion in lactating dairy cows, and to compare CNCPS predictions to other equations in the literature. Urinary N was over-predicted by the CNCPS due to inconsistencies in N accounting within the model that partitioned more N to feces than urine, although predicted total N excretion was reasonable. Data to refine model predictions were compiled from published studies (n=32) that reported total collection N balance results. Considerable care was taken to ensure the data included in the development data set (n=104) accounted for >90% of the N intake (NI). Unaccounted N for the compiled data set was 1.47±4.60% (mean ± SD). The results showed that FN predictions could be improved by using a modification of a previously published equation: FN (g/d) = [[NI (g/kg of organic matter) × (1 - 0.842)] + 4.3 × organic matter intake (kg/d)] × 1.20, which, when evaluated against the compiled N balance data, had a squared coefficient of determination based on a mean study effect R(MP)(2) of 0.73, concurrent correlation coefficient (CCC) of 0.83 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 10.38 g/d. Urinary N is calculated in the CNCPS as the difference between NI and other N excretion and losses. Incorporating the more accurate FN prediction into the current CNCPS framework and correcting an internal calculation error considerably improved UN predictions (RMSE=12.73 g/d, R(MP)(2)=0.86, CCC=0.90). The changes to FN and UN translated into an improved prediction of total manure N excretion (RMSE=12.42 g/d, R(MP)(2)=0.96, CCC=0.97) and allows nutritionists and farm advisors to evaluate these factors during the ration formulation process. PMID:22459846

Higgs, R J; Chase, L E; Van Amburgh, M E

2012-04-01

394

Corn stubble grazing by steers after mechanical grain harvest 1. Stubble fractions changing through grazing periods  

E-print Network

Corn stubble grazing by steers after mechanical grain harvest 1. Stubble fractions changing through grazing periods JA Josifovich, OJ Scheneiter Estacion Experimental Agropecuaria Pergamino, INTA, Buenos Aires, Argentine Amounts of corn stubble fractions were evaluated at the start of the grazing period

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

395

Housing, Feeding and Management of Calves and Replacement Heifers in Swedish Dairy Herds  

PubMed Central

A questionnaire was sent to 1500 randomly selected dairy herds in Sweden, asking for general information about the herds, including routines from birth to first calving and also routines at breeding, calving and during the grazing period. Fifty-eight percent of the questionnaires were returned. The preweaned calves were kept in individual calf pens in 68% and in group housing systems in 28% of the herds. Pens with slatted floors were the main housing system for replacement heifers from weaning to breeding, and tie stalls from breeding to first calving. Whole milk was used in 44% and milk replacements in 42% of the herds. The calves received, as a median, 2.5 litres of milk per meal and 2 meals per day. The median age at weaning was 8 weeks. Age was the single most common criteria used for deciding both weaning and breeding time. The median age when the heifers were first turned out to pasture was 6 months. Prophylactic anthelmintic treatment was used by 65% of the herds. The most common diet for replacement heifers before calving was a combination of grain, hay and silage. PMID:11957375

Pettersson, K; Svensson, C; Liberg, P

2001-01-01

396

Safely Coupling Livestock and Crop Production Systems: How Rapidly Do Antibiotic Resistance Genes Dissipate in Soil following a Commercial Application of Swine or Dairy Manure?  

PubMed Central

Animal manures recycled onto crop production land carry antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The present study evaluated the fate in soil of selected genes associated with antibiotic resistance or genetic mobility in field plots cropped to vegetables and managed according to normal farming practice. Referenced to unmanured soil, fertilization with swine or dairy manure increased the relative abundance of the gene targets sul1, erm(B), str(B), int1, and IncW repA. Following manure application in the spring of 2012, gene copy number decayed exponentially, reaching background levels by the fall of 2012. In contrast, gene copy number following manure application in the fall of 2012 or spring of 2013 increased significantly in the weeks following application and then declined. In both cases, the relative abundance of gene copy numbers had not returned to background levels by the fall of 2013. Overall, these results suggest that under conditions characteristic of agriculture in a humid continental climate, a 1-year period following a commercial application of raw manure is sufficient to ensure that an additional soil burden of antibiotic resistance genes approaches background. The relative abundance of several gene targets exceeded background during the growing season following a spring application or an application done the previous fall. Results from the present study reinforce the advisability of treating manure prior to use in crop production systems. PMID:24632259

Marti, Romain; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Scott, Andrew; Sabourin, Lyne

2014-01-01

397

25 CFR 166.305 - When is grazing capacity determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is grazing capacity determined? 166.305 ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.305 When is grazing capacity determined? Before...

2010-04-01

398

25 CFR 700.713 - Tenure of grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tenure of grazing permits. 700.713 Section 700.713 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.713 Tenure of grazing permits. (a) All active regular...

2011-04-01

399

25 CFR 700.713 - Tenure of grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tenure of grazing permits. 700.713 Section 700.713 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.713 Tenure of grazing permits. (a) All active regular...

2012-04-01

400

43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3 Section...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA...Preference § 4110.2-3 Transfer of grazing preference. (a) Transfers of...

2013-10-01

401

43 CFR 4200.1 - Authority for grazing privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Authority for grazing privileges. 4200.1 Section 4200...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION; ALASKA; LIVESTOCK § 4200.1 Authority for grazing privileges. The BLM is...

2011-10-01

402

43 CFR 4200.1 - Authority for grazing privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Authority for grazing privileges. 4200.1 Section 4200...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION; ALASKA; LIVESTOCK § 4200.1 Authority for grazing privileges. The BLM is...

2013-10-01

403

25 CFR 166.305 - When is grazing capacity determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When is grazing capacity determined? 166.305 ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.305 When is grazing capacity determined? Before...

2013-04-01

404

43 CFR 2711.4-1 - Grazing improvements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grazing improvements. 2711.4-1 Section 2711...ACT Sales: Procedures § 2711.4-1 Grazing improvements. No public lands in a grazing lease or permit may be conveyed until...

2012-10-01

405

43 CFR 4200.1 - Authority for grazing privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Authority for grazing privileges. 4200.1 Section 4200...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION; ALASKA; LIVESTOCK § 4200.1 Authority for grazing privileges. The BLM is...

2012-10-01

406

25 CFR 700.713 - Tenure of grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tenure of grazing permits. 700.713 Section 700.713 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.713 Tenure of grazing permits. (a) All active regular...

2010-04-01

407

25 CFR 700.719 - Establishment of grazing fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-04-01 false Establishment of grazing fees. 700.719 Section 700.719 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.719 Establishment of grazing fees. The Commissioner may establish a...

2012-04-01

408

43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3 Section...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA...Preference § 4110.2-3 Transfer of grazing preference. (a) Transfers of...

2011-10-01

409

43 CFR 2711.4-1 - Grazing improvements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Grazing improvements. 2711.4-1 Section 2711...ACT Sales: Procedures § 2711.4-1 Grazing improvements. No public lands in a grazing lease or permit may be conveyed until...

2013-10-01

410

25 CFR 166.305 - When is grazing capacity determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When is grazing capacity determined? 166.305 ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.305 When is grazing capacity determined? Before...

2011-04-01

411

43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3 Section...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA...Preference § 4110.2-3 Transfer of grazing preference. (a) Transfers of...

2012-10-01

412

43 CFR 4110.3 - Changes in grazing preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 false Changes in grazing preference. 4110.3 Section 4110...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA...and Preference § 4110.3 Changes in grazing preference. (a) The authorized...

2011-10-01

413

25 CFR 700.719 - Establishment of grazing fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-04-01 false Establishment of grazing fees. 700.719 Section 700.719 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.719 Establishment of grazing fees. The Commissioner may establish a...

2011-04-01

414

25 CFR 700.719 - Establishment of grazing fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Establishment of grazing fees. 700.719 Section 700.719 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.719 Establishment of grazing fees. The Commissioner may establish a...

2013-04-01

415

25 CFR 700.713 - Tenure of grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tenure of grazing permits. 700.713 Section 700.713 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.713 Tenure of grazing permits. (a) All active regular...

2013-04-01

416

76 FR 80329 - Information Collection; Grazing Permit Administration Forms  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Forest Service Information Collection; Grazing Permit Administration Forms AGENCY: Forest...currently approved information collection, Grazing Permit Administration Forms. DATES...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Grazing Permit Administration Forms. OMB...

2011-12-23

417

25 CFR 700.719 - Establishment of grazing fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-04-01 false Establishment of grazing fees. 700.719 Section 700.719 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.719 Establishment of grazing fees. The Commissioner may establish a...

2010-04-01

418

43 CFR 4110.3 - Changes in grazing preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Changes in grazing preference. 4110.3 Section 4110...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA...and Preference § 4110.3 Changes in grazing preference. (a) The authorized...

2012-10-01

419

25 CFR 166.305 - When is grazing capacity determined?  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When is grazing capacity determined? 166.305 ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.305 When is grazing capacity determined? Before...

2014-04-01

420

43 CFR 2711.4-1 - Grazing improvements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grazing improvements. 2711.4-1 Section 2711...ACT Sales: Procedures § 2711.4-1 Grazing improvements. No public lands in a grazing lease or permit may be conveyed until...

2011-10-01

421

25 CFR 700.713 - Tenure of grazing permits.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tenure of grazing permits. 700.713 Section 700.713 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.713 Tenure of grazing permits. (a) All active regular...

2014-04-01

422

43 CFR 4110.3 - Changes in grazing preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-10-01 false Changes in grazing preference. 4110.3 Section 4110...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA...and Preference § 4110.3 Changes in grazing preference. (a) The authorized...

2013-10-01

423

25 CFR 166.305 - When is grazing capacity determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true When is grazing capacity determined? 166.305 ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.305 When is grazing capacity determined? Before...

2012-04-01

424

25 CFR 700.719 - Establishment of grazing fees.  

... 2014-04-01 false Establishment of grazing fees. 700.719 Section 700.719 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.719 Establishment of grazing fees. The Commissioner may establish a...

2014-04-01

425

Freeze concentration of dairy products Phase 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An efficient, electrically driven freeze concentration system offers potential for substantially increasing electricity demand while providing the mature dairy industry with new products for domestic and export markets together with enhanced production efficiencies. Consumer tests indicate that dairy products manufactured from freeze-concentrated ingredients are either preferred or considered equivalent in quality to fresh milk-based products. Economic analyses indicate that this technology should be competitive with thermal evaporation processes on a commercial basis.

Best, D.E.; Vasavada, K.C.

1993-09-01

426

Determining Critical Nitrogen Application Rates to Reduce Nitrate Leaching in Dairy Pastures  

E-print Network

Over the past decade, there has been a rapid increase in dairy farming in New Zealand. Nitrate leaching from intensive agricultural systems, e.g. dairy farms, is suspected to cause increased nitrate concentrations in ground and surface waters. The objective of this research programme was to determine nitrate leaching losses on dairy pasture systems as affected by the application of dairy shed effluent (DSE), nitrogen (N) fertilizers and cow urine on free-draining soils. The data obtained were used to develop a simple, semi-empirical computer model to estimate nitrate leaching losses and establish critical N application rates to minimize nitrate leaching.

Hong J. Di; Keith C. Cameron

427

Tracking Dairy Efficiency  

E-print Network

the loss of 400 pounds of milk per cow per lactation in second-lactation and older cows (Table 2). Quality premiums are easily calculat- ed by multiplying pounds shipped by quality premium paid at goal. Target areas to evaluate include: n Milking procedure... performance and feed costs by choosing the proper ration ingredients and grouping cows according to size, production, lactation stage and gestation. Forages: High-quality forages are the foundation of balancing animal health and performance in dairy cows...

Stokes, Sandra R.

1998-02-10

428

Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors  

SciTech Connect

Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

Takacs, P.Z. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA)); Church, E.L. (Picatinny Arsenal, Dover, NJ (USA). Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center)

1989-08-01

429

Seropositivity and risk factors for Brucella in dairy cows in urban and peri-urban small-scale farming in Tajikistan.  

PubMed

In this cross-sectional study, we assessed and mapped the seroprevalence of brucellosis in small-scale dairy farming in an urban and peri-urban area of Tajikistan and investigated factors associated with seropositivity. As urban and peri-urban farming is both an opportunity to improve the livelihood for small-scale farmers and a potential public health hazard, studies are warranted to reveal possible peculiarities in the epidemiology of brucellosis in this type of dairy farming. In total, 904 cows of breeding age belonging to 443 herds in 32 villages were serologically tested with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and positive samples confirmed with competitive ELISA. Two logistic regression models were used to investigate an association between seropositivity and risk factors at herd and individual level. The herd and individual seroprevalences were 4.1 and 2.0 %, respectively. Herds with a history of abortions were found to be associated with seropositivity [odds ratio (OR)?=?5.3; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.3-21.3]. Large herds with more than eight cattle were more likely to be seropositive compared to smaller herds with one to two cattle (OR?=?13.9; 95 % CI, 1.6-119). The number of calves produced per cow (indicating age) was found to be associated with seropositivity. Younger cows with one to two produced calves were less likely to be seropositive compared to older cows with more than six produced calves (OR?=?0.24; 95 % CI, 0.06-1.0). Neither introduction of new cattle to the herd nor communal grazing was associated with seropositivity. This study shows that infection with Brucella (1) is present in small-scale urban and peri-urban dairy farming in Tajikistan and (2) has significant negative effects on reproductive performance in this farming system and (3) that some previously known risk factors for seropositivity in rural farming system were absent here. PMID:24414248

Lindahl, Elisabeth; Sattorov, Nosirjon; Boqvist, Sofia; Sattori, Izzatullo; Magnusson, Ulf

2014-03-01

430

Evaluation of rainfall and epic simulations for estimating probabilities of nutrient loss from dairies  

E-print Network

dairy would accumulate approximately 7. 4 Mg of manure per day. In addition to manure, more than 20 m' of wastewater per day is typically flushed Irom milking parlors and holding alleys into earthen storage ponds or wastewater lagoons of a dairy... dimensions and estimated depth (Table I): Table L Dairy P lagoon system information. Surface Area (m ) Max. Capacity (m ) Initial Volume (m ) Lagoon Holding Pond 1 Holding Pond 2 830 11700 8250 3750 28300 23500 3750 23500 4500 There are four...

Jiang, Yue

2012-06-07

431

Strategies to limit (minimize) nitrogen leaching on dairy farms driven by seasonal climate forecasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy farmers in Florida are required to limit nitrogen leaching into the ground water below 10mgL?1. Literature shows that nitrogen leaching on a dairy farm varies greatly with forage systems, amount of manure N applied, seasonal rainfall amounts, and soil characteristics. The purpose of this study was to devise dairy-specific strategies for forage crops and manure effluent application rates conditioned

V. E. Cabrera; S. S. Jagtap; P. E. Hildebrand

2007-01-01

432

Stream Fish Responses to Grazing Exclosures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight paired reaches of northeastern Oregon streams were selected such that one reach was an established livestock exclosure and a neighboring, geomorphologically similar reach was open to grazing. Exclosures varied in length from 123 to 436 m. Teams of snorkelers recorded fish species and size-groups in the exclosure and grazed reaches simultaneously so that diurnal changes in fish behavior did

Peter B. Bayley; Hiram W. Li

2008-01-01

433

Grazing function g and collimation angular acceptance  

SciTech Connect

The grazing function g is introduced - a synchrobetatron optical quantity that is analogous (and closely connected) to the Twiss and dispersion functions {beta}, {alpha}, {eta}, and {eta}'. It parametrizes the rate of change of total angle with respect to synchrotron amplitude for grazing particles, which just touch the surface of an aperture when their synchrotron and betatron oscillations are simultaneously (in time) at their extreme displacements. The grazing function can be important at collimators with limited acceptance angles. For example, it is important in both modes of crystal collimation operation - in channeling and in volume reflection. The grazing function is independent of the collimator type - crystal or amorphous - but can depend strongly on its azimuthal location. The rigorous synchrobetatron condition g = 0 is solved, by invoking the close connection between the grazing function and the slope of the normalized dispersion. Propagation of the grazing function is described, through drifts, dipoles, and quadrupoles. Analytic expressions are developed for g in perfectly matched periodic FODO cells, and in the presence of {beta} or {eta} error waves. These analytic approximations are shown to be, in general, in good agreement with realistic numerical examples. The grazing function is shown to scale linearly with FODO cell bend angle, but to be independent of FODO cell length. The ideal value is g = 0 at the collimator, but finite nonzero values are acceptable. Practically achievable grazing functions are described and evaluated, for both amorphous and crystal primary collimators, at RHIC, the SPS (UA9), the Tevatron (T-980), and the LHC.

Peggs, S.G.; Previtali, V.

2009-11-02

434

Grazed Riparian Management and Stream Channel Response in Southeastern Minnesota (USA) Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service has recommended domestic cattle grazing exclusion from riparian corridors for decades. This recommendation was based on a belief that domestic cattle grazing would typically destroy stream bank vegetation and in-channel habitat. Continuous grazing (CG) has caused adverse environmental damage, but along cohesive-sediment stream banks of disturbed catchments in southeastern Minnesota, short-duration grazing (SDG), a rotational grazing system, may offer a better riparian management practice than CG. Over 30 physical and biological metrics were gathered at 26 sites to evaluate differences between SDG, CG, and nongrazed sites (NG). Ordinations produced with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated a gradient with a benthic macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI) and riparian site management; low IBI scores associated with CG sites and higher IBI scores associated with NG sites. Nongrazed sites were associated with reduced soil compaction and higher bank stability, as measured by the Pfankuch stability index; whereas CG sites were associated with increased soil compaction and lower bank stability, SDG sites were intermediate. Bedrock geology influenced NMS results: sites with carbonate derived cobble were associated with more stable channels and higher IBI scores. Though current riparian grazing practices in southeastern Minnesota present pollution problems, short duration grazing could reduce sediment pollution if managed in an environmentally sustainable fashion that considers stream channel response.

Magner, Joseph A.; Vondracek, Bruce; Brooks, Kenneth N.

2008-09-01

435

Grazed riparian management and stream channel response in southeastern Minnesota (USA) streams.  

PubMed

The U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service has recommended domestic cattle grazing exclusion from riparian corridors for decades. This recommendation was based on a belief that domestic cattle grazing would typically destroy stream bank vegetation and in-channel habitat. Continuous grazing (CG) has caused adverse environmental damage, but along cohesive-sediment stream banks of disturbed catchments in southeastern Minnesota, short-duration grazing (SDG), a rotational grazing system, may offer a better riparian management practice than CG. Over 30 physical and biological metrics were gathered at 26 sites to evaluate differences between SDG, CG, and nongrazed sites (NG). Ordinations produced with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated a gradient with a benthic macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI) and riparian site management; low IBI scores associated with CG sites and higher IBI scores associated with NG sites. Nongrazed sites were associated with reduced soil compaction and higher bank stability, as measured by the Pfankuch stability index; whereas CG sites were associated with increased soil compaction and lower bank stability, SDG sites were intermediate. Bedrock geology influenced NMS results: sites with carbonate derived cobble were associated with more stable channels and higher IBI scores. Though current riparian grazing practices in southeastern Minnesota present pollution problems, short duration grazing could reduce sediment pollution if managed in an environmentally sustainable fashion that considers stream channel response. PMID:18481141

Magner, Joseph A; Vondracek, Bruce; Brooks, Kenneth N

2008-09-01

436

Grazed riparian management and stream channel response in southeastern Minnesota (USA) streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service has recommended domestic cattle grazing exclusion from riparian corridors for decades. This recommendation was based on a belief that domestic cattle grazing would typically destroy stream bank vegetation and in-channel habitat. Continuous grazing (CG) has caused adverse environmental damage, but along cohesive-sediment stream banks of disturbed catchments in southeastern Minnesota, short-duration grazing (SDG), a rotational grazing system, may offer a better riparian management practice than CG. Over 30 physical and biological metrics were gathered at 26 sites to evaluate differences between SDG, CG, and nongrazed sites (NG). Ordinations produced with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated a gradient with a benthic macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI) and riparian site management; low IBI scores associated with CG sites and higher IBI scores associated with NG sites. Nongrazed sites were associated with reduced soil compaction and higher bank stability, as measured by the Pfankuch stability index; whereas CG sites were associated with increased soil compaction and lower bank stability, SDG sites were intermediate. Bedrock geology influenced NMS results: sites with carbonate derived cobble were associated with more stable channels and higher IBI scores. Though current riparian grazing practices in southeastern Minnesota present pollution problems, short duration grazing could reduce sediment pollution if managed in an environmentally sustainable fashion that considers stream channel response. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Magner, J.A.; Vondracek, B.; Brooks, K.N.

2008-01-01

437

Effects of grazing and experimental warming on DOC concentrations in the soil solution on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little information is available about the effects of global warming and land management on dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration in soil solution in the field. Here, for the first time, we used a free-air temperature enhancement (FATE) system in a controlled warming-grazing experiment in 2006 and 2007 to test the hypothesis that grazing modifies the response of soil solution DOC

Caiyun Luo; Guangping Xu; Yanfen Wang; Shiping Wang; Xingwu Lin; Yigang Hu; Zhenhua Zhang; Xiaofeng Chang; Jichuang Duan; Ailing Su; Xinquan Zhao

2009-01-01

438

Grazing incidence optics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 3, 4, 1986  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers are presented on the diffraction-limited performance of grazing incidence optical systems; transverse ray aberrations of Wolter type 1 telescopes; hybrid X-ray telescope systems; surface characterization of grazing incidence optics in the extreme UV and X-ray regions; and the surface roughness properties of synchrotron radiation optics. Topics discussed include the simulation of free-abrasive grinding of grazing incidence mirrors with vertical-honing and flexible blades; mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer; the design and development of conical X-ray imaging mirrors; thermal loading considerations for synchrotron radiation mirrors; and grazing incidence optics for synchrotron radiation insertion-device beams. Consideration is given to the interpretation of glancing incidence scattering measurements; damage processes in short wavelength coated FEL optics; the replication of grain incidence optics; and the assembly and alignment of the Technology Mirror Assembly.

Osantowski, John F. (editor); Van Speybroeck, Leon (editor)

1986-01-01

439

An economic impact analysis of alternative dairy polices: the case of US and German dairy farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of dairy market imbalances facing the US government and European Community has led to speculation as to which dairy policy is most effective in controlling dairy surpluses. The focus of this duty is to evaluate the financial impact of alternative dairy policies on representative German (to represent EC farms)and US dairy farms. A new procedure is developed to

Conrado M. Gempesaw II; G. Joachim Elterich; Vivek Shivani; Daniel A. Lass

1993-01-01

440

A comprehensive dairy valorization model.  

PubMed

Dairy processors face numerous challenges resulting from both unsteady dairy markets and some specific characteristics of dairy supply chains. To maintain a competitive position on the market, companies must look beyond standard solutions currently used in practice. This paper presents a comprehensive dairy valorization model that serves as a decision support tool for mid-term allocation of raw milk to end products and production planning. The developed model was used to identify the optimal product portfolio composition. The model allocates raw milk to the most profitable dairy products while accounting for important constraints (i.e., recipes, composition variations, dairy production interdependencies, seasonality, demand, supply, capacities, and transportation flows). The inclusion of all relevant constraints and the ease of understanding dairy production dynamics make the model comprehensive. The developed model was tested at the international dairy processor FrieslandCampina (Amersfoort, the Netherlands). The structure of the model and its output were discussed in multiple sessions with and approved by relevant FrieslandCampina employees. The elements included in the model were considered necessary to optimally valorize raw milk. To illustrate the comprehensiveness and functionality of the model, we analyzed the effect of seasonality on milk valorization. A large difference in profit and a shift in the allocation of milk showed that seasonality has a considerable impact on the valorization of raw milk. PMID:23200469

Banaszewska, A; Cruijssen, F; van der Vorst, J G A J; Claassen, G D H; Kampman, J L

2013-02-01

441

Biosecurity Practices for Dairy Operations  

E-print Network

:Ananimalisbittenbyaninfectedinsectorarthropod orinjuredbycontaminatedequipmentsuchasaneedle, nosetongs,earnotcher,dehornerorballinggun. Immunity Immunityisananimal?sabilitytoresistadisease.Anani- malisimmuneifitsbodypreventsapathogenfromdevelop- Ellen Jordan, Professor and Extension Dairy Specialist Angela I. Dement, Extension Assistant...:Ananimalisbittenbyaninfectedinsectorarthropod orinjuredbycontaminatedequipmentsuchasaneedle, nosetongs,earnotcher,dehornerorballinggun. Immunity Immunityisananimal?sabilitytoresistadisease.Anani- malisimmuneifitsbodypreventsapathogenfromdevelop- Ellen Jordan, Professor and Extension Dairy Specialist Angela I. Dement, Extension Assistant...

Jordan, Ellen R.; Dement, Angela; Faries Jr., Floron C.

2008-10-06

442

DAIRY SHEEP BASICS FOR BEGINNERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

History Sheep have been raised for their milk for thousands of years. Today the commercial dairy sheep industry is concentrated in the European and Mideastern countries on or near the Mediterranean Sea. France alone has almost one million ewes in dairy production. Most of the world's sheep milk is processed into cheese. Roquefort, the blue cheese of south central France,

David L. Thomas

443

Usual Intake of Total dairy  

Cancer.gov

Usual Intake of Total dairy Table A33. Total dairy: Means, percentiles and standard errors of usual intake, 2007-2010 Age (Years) N1 cup equivalents3 Mean (SE)2 5% (SE) 10% (SE) 25% (SE) 50% (SE) 75% (SE) 90% (SE) 95% (SE) Males 1-3 774 2.5 (0.07) 1.0

444

Production and reproduction of Fleckvieh, Brown Swiss, and 2 strains of Holstein-Friesian cows in a pasture-based, seasonal-calving dairy system.  

PubMed

The first objective of this study was to compare the productive and reproductive performance of Holstein-Friesian (CH HF), Fleckvieh (CH FV), and Brown Swiss (CH BS) cows of Swiss origin with New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (NZ HF) cows in pasture-based compact-calving systems; NZ HF cows were chosen as the reference population for such grazing systems. The second objective was to analyze the relationships within and between breeds regarding reproductive performance, milk yield, and body condition score (BCS) dynamics. On 15 commercial Swiss farms, NZ HF cows were paired with Swiss cows over 3 yr. Overall, the study involved 259 complete lactations from 134 cows: 131 from 58 NZ HF, 40 from 24 CH HF, 43 from 27 CH FV, and 45 from 25 CH BS cows. All production parameters were affected by cow breed. Milk and energy-corrected milk yield over 270 d of lactation differed by 1,000 kg between the 2 extreme groups; CH HF having the highest yield and CH BS the lowest. The NZ HF cows had the greatest milk fat and protein concentrations over the lactation and exhibited the highest lactation persistency. Body weight differed by 90 kg between extreme groups; NZ HF and CH BS being the lightest and CH HF and CH FV the heaviest. As a result, the 2 HF strains achieved the highest milk production efficiency (270-d energy-corrected milk/body weight(0.75)). Although less efficient at milk production, CH FV had a high 21-d submission rate (86%) and a high conception rate within 2 inseminations (89%), achieving high pregnancy rates within the first 3 and 6 wk of the breeding period (65 and 81%, respectively). Conversely, poorer reproductive performance was recorded for CH HF cows, with NZ HF and CH BS being intermediate. Both BCS at nadir and at 100 d postpartum had a positive effect on the 6-wk pregnancy rate, even when breed was included in the model. The BCS at 100 d of lactation also positively affected first service conception rate. In conclusion, despite their high milk production efficiency, even in low-input systems, CH HF were not suited to pasture-based seasonal-calving production systems due to poor reproductive performance. On the contrary, CH FV fulfilled the compact-calving reproduction objectives and deserve further consideration in seasonal calving systems, despite their lower milk production potential. PMID:23769375

Piccand, V; Cutullic, E; Meier, S; Schori, F; Kunz, P L; Roche, J R; Thomet, P

2013-08-01

445

Record keeping and economics of dairy heifers.  

PubMed

Calves represent the future of the dairy enterprise. Like in any other business, a careful allocation of resources and planning is needed to ensure the production of a new line, new products, and so forth. This article describes the most important objectives while rearing heifers, reviews the main aspects of implementing a record system, and provides examples of some of the decisions that can be taken by analyzing records. PMID:18299035

Bach, Alex; Ahedo, José

2008-03-01

446

Labour organisation on robotic milking dairy farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

<\\/strong>1. Research issues<\\/strong>The research described in this dissertation is focused on the effects of the integration of the milking robot in a dairy farm on the labour organisation at operational and tactical level. Attention was paid to the future requirements concerning human labour and labour (re)organisation with respect to the complex interaction between the cows and an automatic milking system

B. R. Sonck

1996-01-01

447

The Effects of Livestock Grazing and Recreation on Irish Machair Grassland Vegetation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Machair grassland uniquely occurs over sandy, calcareous soils of coastal sand-plains in dune systems of north-western Scotland and Ireland. This study assesses the plant species composition of Irish machair grassland at a landscape-scale. Machair sites were sampled with quadrats and multivariate analysis was used to assess relationships between species abundance, soil physical variables, livestock grazing and recreation activity. Grazing by

A. Cooper; T. McCann; E. Ballard

2005-01-01

448

FIRESIDE CHAT MANAGING DURING A DAIRY CRISIS  

E-print Network

FIRESIDE CHAT ON MANAGING DURING A DAIRY CRISIS (1) We have had dairy crises before. The crisis of the mid-1980's and in the early 1990's being the most serious in memory. Some dairy farmers of the crisis. (2) Significantly lower milk prices and therefore, dairy farm profits, combined with lower asset

Walter, M.Todd

449

Iowa State University Dairy Farm—2005 Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Iowa State University Dairy Farm continues to be a vital and vibrant asset to all 3 missions of our land grant heritage (learning, discovery, and engagement) as well as the Iowa Dairy Industry and the national and international dairy communities. Learning opportunities have abounded for ISU students in Animal and Dairy Science, College of Veterinary Medicine, as well as

Leo L. Timms

2006-01-01

450

Simulation of Long-Term Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Grassland-Based Dairy Farming Systems to Evaluate Mitigation Strategies for Nutrient Losses  

PubMed Central

Many measures have been proposed to mitigate gaseous emissions and other nutrient losses from agroecosystems, which can have large detrimental effects for the quality of soils, water and air, and contribute to eutrophication and global warming. Due to complexities in farm management, biological interactions and emission measurements, most experiments focus on analysis of short-term effects of isolated mitigation practices. Here we present a model that allows simulating long-term effects at the whole-farm level of combined measures related to grassland management, animal housing and manure handling after excretion, during storage and after field application. The model describes the dynamics of pools of organic carbon and nitrogen (N), and of inorganic N, as affected by farm management in grassland-based dairy systems. We assessed the long-term effects of delayed grass mowing, housing type (cubicle and sloping floor barns, resulting in production of slurry and solid cattle manure, respectively), manure additives, contrasting manure storage methods and irrigation after application of covered manure. Simulations demonstrated that individually applied practices often result in compensatory loss pathways. For instance, methods to reduce ammonia emissions during storage like roofing or covering of manure led to larger losses through ammonia volatilization, nitrate leaching or denitrification after application, unless extra measures like irrigation were used. A strategy of combined management practices of delayed mowing and fertilization with solid cattle manure that is treated with zeolite, stored under an impermeable sheet and irrigated after application was effective to increase soil carbon stocks, increase feed self-sufficiency and reduce losses by ammonia volatilization and soil N losses. Although long-term datasets (>25 years) of farm nutrient dynamics and loss flows are not available to validate the model, the model is firmly based on knowledge of processes and measured effects of individual practices, and allows the integrated exploration of effective emission mitigation strategies. PMID:23826255

Shah, Ghulam Abbas; Groot, Jeroen C.J.; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Lantinga, Egbert A.

2013-01-01

451

Occurrence and molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in sheep and goats reared under dairy husbandry systems in Greece.  

PubMed

Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are gastro-intestinal protozoa known to infect small ruminants. Both protozoa are also considered as a potential public health concern. The objective of this study was to determine their prevalence in lambs and goat kids kept under common Mediterranean dairy husbandry systems and to identify the species and genotypes infecting these small ruminants. In total, 684 faecal samples (429 from lambs and 255 from goat kids) were collected on 21 farms in Greece and examined using a quantitative immunofluorescence assay. G. duodenalis was detected in 37.3% of the lambs and 40.4% of the goat kids. On all but one of the farms G. duodenalis was detected. Most samples were typed as a mono-infection with G. duodenalis assemblage E, both on the ?-giardin gene and the triose phosphate isomerase gene. Only 10% of samples were typed as mixed assemblage A and E infections. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 5.1% in lambs and 7.1% in goat kids. In total, 8 out of the 14 farms with a sheep flock and 7 out of the 14 farms with a goat flock were positive. Cryptosporidium parvum (subtype IId), C. ubiquitum and C. xiaoi were identified, the latter especially in goat kids. In conclusion, the results of the present study illustrate that G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. occur frequently on both sheep and goats farms. The prevalence of zoonotic genotypes or species was low, indicating a limited but existing risk for zoonotic infections. PMID:25187088

Tzanidakis, Nikolaos; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Claerebout, Edwin; Ehsan, Amimul; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Kostopoulou, Despoina; Stijn, Casaert; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geurden, Thomas

2014-01-01

452

Using packrat middens to assess grazing effects on vegetation change  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on grazing effects usually compares the same sites through time or grazed and ungrazed sites over the same time period. Both approaches are complicated in arid environments where grazing can have a long undocumented history and landscapes can be spatially heterogenous. This work employs both approaches simultaneously by comparing grazed and ungrazed samples through both time and space using

J. Fisher; K. L. Cole; R. S. Anderson

2009-01-01

453

Effects of fencing, alternative water, grazing management & other ag BMPs  

E-print Network

Management #12;E. coli not correlated w/ grazing mgt. (in rotationally grazed pastures) #12;E. coli 100 1000 E. coli Conc. (cfu/100 mL) 12 Month Stocking Rate (ac/AUY) Ungrazed #12;E. coli correlated w at BB3 99% reduction at SW17 #12;Effect of grazing management on E. coli levels in rotationally grazed

454

43 CFR 4130.5 - Free-use grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Free-use grazing permits. 4130.5 Section 4130.5...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Authorizing Grazing Use § 4130.5 Free-use grazing...

2013-10-01

455

43 CFR 4130.5 - Free-use grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Free-use grazing permits. 4130.5 Section 4130.5...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSIVE OF ALASKA Authorizing Grazing Use § 4130.5 Free-use grazing...

2012-10-01

456

43 CFR 4130.5 - Free-use grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Free-use grazing permits. 4130.5 Section 4130.5...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION-EXCLUSI