Sample records for grazing dairy systems

  1. Nitrogen use efficiency in grazed and confinement dairy production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing and confinement-based dairy operations in industrialised nations continue to intensify. In general, farm numbers are declining, while milk production per cow and reliance on imported feed and fertiliser are increasing. While greater nitrogen (N) input is a key contributor to increasing produ...

  2. Housing System, Milk Production, and Zero-Grazing Effects on Lameness and Leg Injury in Dairy Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Haskell; L. J. Rennie; V. A. Bowell; M. J. Bell; A. B. Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of graz- ing (G) vs. zero-grazing (ZG), level of milk production, and quality and type of housing system (free stalls (FS) and straw yards (SY)) on the prevalence of lameness and leg injuries in dairy cows. Observations were made on 37 commercial dairy farms across Great Britain. A single visit

  3. e-Dairy: a dynamic and stochastic whole-farm model that predicts biophysical and economic performance of grazing dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Baudracco, J; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Comeron, E A; Macdonald, K A; Barry, T N

    2013-05-01

    A whole-farm, stochastic and dynamic simulation model was developed to predict biophysical and economic performance of grazing dairy systems. Several whole-farm models simulate grazing dairy systems, but most of them work at a herd level. This model, named e-Dairy, differs from the few models that work at an animal level, because it allows stochastic behaviour of the genetic merit of individual cows for several traits, namely, yields of milk, fat and protein, live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS) within a whole-farm model. This model accounts for genetic differences between cows, is sensitive to genotype × environment interactions at an animal level and allows pasture growth, milk and supplements price to behave stochastically. The model includes an energy-based animal module that predicts intake at grazing, mammary gland functioning and body lipid change. This whole-farm model simulates a 365-day period for individual cows within a herd, with cow parameters randomly generated on the basis of the mean parameter values, defined as input and variance and co-variances from experimental data sets. The main inputs of e-Dairy are farm area, use of land, type of pasture, type of crops, monthly pasture growth rate, supplements offered, nutritional quality of feeds, herd description including herd size, age structure, calving pattern, BCS and LW at calving, probabilities of pregnancy, average genetic merit and economic values for items of income and costs. The model allows to set management policies to define: dry-off cows (ceasing of lactation), target pre- and post-grazing herbage mass and feed supplementation. The main outputs are herbage dry matter intake, annual pasture utilisation, milk yield, changes in BCS and LW, economic farm profit and return on assets. The model showed satisfactory accuracy of prediction when validated against two data sets from farmlet system experiments. Relative prediction errors were <10% for all variables, and concordance correlation coefficients over 0.80 for annual pasture utilisation, yields of milk and milk solids (MS; fat plus protein), and of 0.69 and 0.48 for LW and BCS, respectively. A simulation of two contrasting dairy systems is presented to show the practical use of the model. The model can be used to explore the effects of feeding level and genetic merit and their interactions for grazing dairy systems, evaluating the trade-offs between profit and the associated risk. PMID:23257214

  4. Subclinical ketosis in dairy cows: prevalence and risk factors in grazing production system.

    PubMed

    Garro, C J; Mian, L; Cobos Roldán, M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Subclinical ketosis (SCK) between 4 and 19 days in milk (DIM) in a grazing production system and investigate the importance of potential risk factors for SCK. This cross-sectional study was conducted in dairy cows (n = 107), which had more of two parities. The concentration of ?-hydroxybutyric (BHB) in blood was quantified through a hand-held meter. Potential risk factors evaluated were calving interval (CI), milk yield in previous lactation, metritis, dystocia, calf sex (male), parity (?3 vs. ?4) and pre-partum body condition score (BCS ? 3.5 vs. ?3.75). Prevalence of SCK was 10.3% (95% CI 4.7-15) between 4 and 19 DIM. Risk factors identified were the occurrence of both metritis and pre-partum BCS ? 3.75. Cows with metritis had 4.9 (95% CI 1.17-20.98) times more risk of developing SCK than cows without metritis. And the cows with pre-partum BCS ? 3.75 had 5.25 (95% CI 1.32-21.11) times more risk of developing SCK than cows with pre-partum BCS ? 3.5. Metritis could induce a lower feed intake and promote the development of SCK. High pre-partum BCS could induce a greater mobilization of body reserves altering liver function and aggravating post-partum NEB. The results are indicative of the expected prevalence of SCK in grazing production system. Factors associated could help to identify cattle at risk of SCK and improve the management of strategies to limit the effects. PMID:24236545

  5. Effect of silage from ryegrass intercropped with winter or common vetch for grazing dairy cows in small-scale dairy systems in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ortega, Martha; Heredia-Nava, Darwin; Espinoza-Ortega, Angelica; Sánchez-Vera, Ernesto; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M

    2011-06-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of including silages of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) intercropped with winter vetch (Vicia villosa) (ARG-VV) or with common vetch (Vicia sativa) (ARG-VS) compared with maize silage (MS) on milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows grazing cultivated perennial ryegrass-white clover pastures with supplemented concentrate during the dry season. Six Holstein dairy cows with a mean yield of 19.0 kg/cow/day at the beginning of the experiment were randomly assigned to a 3?×?3 repeated Latin square. Treatments were: 8 h/day intensive grazing, 3.6 kg of dry matter (DM) per cow per day of concentrate plus MS, and ARG-VV or ARG-VS ad libitum at a stocking rate of 3.0 cows/ha for three experimental periods of 3 weeks each. Milk yield (MY) and milk composition, live weight and body condition score as well as silage and concentrate intakes were recorded during the third week of each experimental period, and pasture intake was estimated indirectly from utilised metabolisable energy. Economic analysis was obtained by preparing partial budgets. There were no statistical differences (P?>?0.10) in MY, milk fat or protein content nor for live weight, but there was significant difference (P?grazed herbage intake whilst no differences for total DM intake. Slightly higher economic returns (10%) were obtained with ARG-VS over MS, and this was 7% higher than ARG-VV. It is concluded that ARG-VS could be an option for complementing grazing for small-scale dairy production systems in the dry season as it is comparable to MS in animal performance and slightly better in economic terms. PMID:21327716

  6. Effect of silage from ryegrass intercropped with winter or common vetch for grazing dairy cows in small-scale dairy systems in Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martha Hernández-Ortega; Darwin Heredia-Nava; Angelica Espinoza-Ortega; Ernesto Sánchez-Vera; Carlos M. Arriaga-Jordán

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of including silages of annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) intercropped with winter vetch (Vicia villosa) (ARG-VV) or with common vetch (Vicia sativa) (ARG-VS) compared with maize silage (MS) on milk yield and milk composition of dairy cows grazing cultivated perennial ryegrass–white\\u000a clover pastures with supplemented concentrate during the dry season. Six Holstein dairy cows

  7. Can We Identify Key Characteristics Associated with Grazing-Management Dairy Systems from Survey Data?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Parsons; A. E. Luloff; G. D. Hanson

    2004-01-01

    Discriminant analysis was used to identify farms us- ing confinement and grazing-production systems from mailsurveydataof2074dairyfarmersinPennsylvania, Vermont, Virginia, and North Carolina. Survey respon- dents included 45.1% of the farms using confinement management; 13.5% of farms practicing intensive graz- ing, defined as moving cows to new pasture at least every 3 d; and 41.4% of farms using nonintensive graz- ing. Farmers using

  8. Silage from maize ( Zea mays ), annual ryegrass ( Lolium multiflorum ) or their mixture in the dry season feeding of grazing dairy cows in small-scale dairy production systems in the Highlands of Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Anaya-Ortega; G. Garduño-Castro; A. Espinoza-Ortega; R. Rojo-Rubio; C. M. Arriaga-Jordán

    2009-01-01

    Small-scale dairy systems based on grazing have dry-season herbage shortages. A repeated 3?×?3 Latin Square experiment evaluated\\u000a grazing with silage from maize (MS), annual ryegrass (ARG) or a mixture (MIX) with 9 cows with 3 week periods; continuously\\u000a grazed at 3.6 cows\\/ha with 3.6 kg DM\\/day of concentrate. Treatments were 7 kg DM of MS, ARG or a 2 MS:1 ARG mixture. Milk

  9. Inclusion of Maize or Oats-vetch Silage for Grazing Dairy Cows in Small-scale Campesino Systems in the Highlands of Central Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Guadarrama-Estrada; A. Espinoza-Ortega; C. E. González-Esquivel; C. M. Arriaga-Jordán

    2007-01-01

    Guadarrama-Estrada, J., Espinoza-Ortega, A., González-Esquivel, C.E. and Arriaga-Jordán, CM. 2007. Inclusion of maize or oats-vetch silage for grazing dairy cows in small-scale campesino systems in the highlands of Central Mexico. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 32: 19–23.The productive and economic response of cows fed 6 kg DM\\/day of maize (Zea mays),(MS) or oats-vetch (Avena sativa-Vicia sativa), (OVS) silage under 9 h\\/day

  10. Silage from maize (Zea mays), annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) or their mixture in the dry season feeding of grazing dairy cows in small-scale dairy production systems in the highlands of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Anaya-Ortega, J P; Garduño-Castro, G; Espinoza-Ortega, A; Rojo-Rubio, R; Arriaga-Jordán, C M

    2009-04-01

    Small-scale dairy systems based on grazing have dry-season herbage shortages. A repeated 3 x 3 Latin Square experiment evaluated grazing with silage from maize (MS), annual ryegrass (ARG) or a mixture (MIX) with 9 cows with 3 week periods; continuously grazed at 3.6 cows/ha with 3.6 kg DM/day of concentrate. Treatments were 7 kg DM of MS, ARG or a 2 MS:1 ARG mixture. Milk yield (MY), milk composition, live-weight, body condition, silage and concentrate intake were recorded. Herbage DM intake was estimated indirectly. Activity budgets were done for economic analysis. MY on MS (21.5 kg/cow/d) was 0.06 higher than on ARG (P < 0.09) with no differences on MIX. There were no differences for milk fat, milk protein, or body condition score. Live-weight on ARG was higher (P < 0.01) than on MS or MIX. Silage intake was higher (P < 0.01) on ARG and MS than on MIX. Herbage intake was lower (P < 0.05) on MS, compared with MIX and ARG. Total DM intake on ARG was higher than MS (P < 0.01), and MIX in between. MS resulted in 0.12 higher economic returns over ARG which had highest costs. Annual ryegrass may have a place in small-scale systems, but not as silage due to higher costs. PMID:18787970

  11. Evaporative cooling for Holstein dairy cows under grazing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtorta, Silvia E.; Gallardo, Miriam R.

    . Twenty-four grazing Holstein cows in mid and late lactation were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: control and cooled. The trial was performed at the Experimental Dairy Unit, Rafaela Agricultural Experimental Station (INTA), Argentina. The objective was to evaluate the effects of sprinkler and fan cooling before milkings on milk production and composition. The effects of the cooling system on rectal temperature and respiration rate were also evaluated. Cooled cows showed higher milk production (1.04 l cow-1 day-1). The concentration and yield of milk fat and protein increased in response to cooling treatment. The cooling system also reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate. No effects were observed on body condition. It was concluded that evaporative cooling, which is efficient for housed animals, is also appropriate to improve yields and animal well-being under grazing systems. These results are impressive since the cooling system was utilized only before milkings, in a system where environmental control is very difficult to achieve. This trial was performed during a mild summer. The results would probably be magnified during hotter weather.

  12. Fishmeal Supplementation to Grazing Dairy Cows in Early Lactation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. F. Schroeder; G. A. Gagliostro

    2000-01-01

    Our objectives were to determine if grazing dairy cows would respond to fishmeal supplementation and to determine if responses could be explained by stimula- tion of adipose tissue lipolysis. Thirty-four multiparous Holstein cows (25 ± 11 DIM) were supplemented with isonitrogenous concentrates containing either fishmeal or pelleted sunflower meal. On a dry matter (DM) basis, concentrates contained fishmeal (14.5%) or

  13. The Impact of Hybrid Dairy Systems on Air, Soil and Water Quality: Focus on Nitrogen and Phosphorus Cycling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spread of management intensive grazing by dairy farmers has created a continuum of dairy farming systems that rely to various degrees on grazing. In addition to improving the profitability of smaller dairy farms by lowering input costs, and improving other aspects of dairy farm management, grazi...

  14. Using grazing systems models to evaluate business options for fattening dairy bulls in a region with a highly variable feed supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Libby Salmon; John R. Donnelly

    2008-01-01

    A major challenge for profitable meat production in grazing systems is to take account of the effects of diet selection on intake, the substitution of pasture for supplements fed and the potential for compensatory weight gains, particularly if the pasture supply and quality varies throughout the production period. Economically successful production outcomes depend on the skill of the farm manager

  15. Determinations of feed-milk-manure relationships on grazing-based dairy farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whereas much is known about relationships between rations, milk production, manure excretion, and environmental risks of confinement dairy production, much less is known about these relationships on grazing-based farms. The objectives of this study were to determine relationships on grazing-based fa...

  16. Changes in soil carbon cycling accompanying conversion of row-crop fields to grazing dairy pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A.; Kramer, M. G.; Hill, N.; Machmuller, M. B.; Cyle, K.

    2011-12-01

    Increasingly, the dairy industry in the eastern US is transitioning from total confinement dairy systems (TCD) toward pasture-based, management intensive grazing dairy (MiGD) systems. This transition is driven by the fact that MiGDs require substantially less operating capital and are more economically efficient than TCD systems. Consequently, the impact of this transition and shift in land-use practice on carbon dynamics may be considerable. Land-use in a Management intensive Grazing Dairy (MiGD) system is fundamentally different than conventional confinement dairies and conventional no-till pastures. The forage system involves rotational grazing at optimal digestibility, when the plants are immature (~20-days) and consequently protein-rich. MiGD cows spend >90% of their time in the field and deposit > 90% of their waste directly to the soil surface. Thus, little above ground plant residues are directly returned to the soil, but rather substantial C inputs derive from bovine manure. We sampled a MiGD-chronosequence of row-crop to MiGD conversion established in 2007 in eastern Georgia. All soils across the MiGD-chronosequence, all occur in relative (40 km) close proximity to one another, are deep, well-drained, fine and fine sandy loam Ultisols formed on Coastal Plain sediments. Prior to MiGD established, the soils were farmed for > 50 yrs using conventional tillage techniques. Our current sampling to 1m depths captures fields at 0, 2, 3, and 5 yrs since conversion. Total soil carbon (C) and the carbon concentration of the clay fraction increased following conversion, with the greatest increases occurring between 3 and 5 yrs since conversion. These C increases were limited to the upper 40cm of the soil, with minimal change occurring at depth. Characterization of the protein and ligand content of these soils via 13C NMR and chemolytic techniques as a function of soil particle density and size is in progress and will be presented along with estimates of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes across the MiGD chronosequence. Our broad goal is to quantify ruminal methane emissions and changes to soil C-stocks and stability associated with this land-use shift. Our preliminary data suggest such a land-use change will likely improve soil health and increase C-stocks. Balancing this against potential increases in methane emissions is a key knowledge gap for future southeastern U.S. C-cycling estimates.

  17. Lactational responses of grazing dairy cows to Na or K fertilization of pastures

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Lactational responses of grazing dairy cows to Na or K fertilization of pastures D Arney PC Chiy2 of Na fertilizer supply to pasture have only recently been studied and beneficial effects on dairy cow fertilizer also produced a 26 % reduction in milk bacteria cell counts below the average of the N and K

  18. Thermal comfort and lactation yields of dairy cows grazed on farms in a pasture-based feed system in eastern New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragovich, D.

    1981-06-01

    A temperature-humidity index (THI) was used to associate varying degrees of “thermal comfort” for livestock with milk yields from dairy herds in eastern New South Wales. A pasture-based feed system was used on farms in the various environments occurring between 28°S and 37°S Lat. Low dairy cow productivity was registered in high-stress (high THI) areas, where the indirect effects of climate on pasture quality and availability compounded the direct stress on livestock; districts recording high lactation yields were located in low-stress areas, as anticipated by the biometeorological index. Fluctuations in lactation yields at THI values between the high and low stress areas were explained in terms of rainfall and temperature effects on pasture species and pasture growth patterns.

  19. Effect of pre-grazing herbage mass on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures.

    PubMed

    Wims, C M; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2014-01-01

    A grazing study was undertaken to examine the effect of maintaining three levels of pre-grazing herbage mass (HM) on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter (DM) production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures. Cows were randomly assigned to one of three pre-grazing HM treatments: 1150 - Low HM (L), 1400 - Medium HM (M) or 2000 kg DM/ha - High HM (H). Herbage accumulation under grazing was lowest (P<0.01) on the L treatment and cows grazing the L pastures required more grass silage supplementation during the grazing season (+73 kg DM/cow) to overcome pasture deficits due to lower pasture growth rates (P<0.05). Treatment did not affect daily milk production or pasture intake, although cows grazing the L pastures had to graze a greater daily area (P<0.01) and increase grazing time (P<0.05) to compensate for a lower pre-grazing HM (P<0.01). The results indicate that, while pre-grazing HM did not influence daily milk yield per cow, adapting the practise of grazing low HM (1150 kg DM/ha) pasture reduces pasture DM production and at a system level may increase the requirement for imported feed. PMID:24229787

  20. Dairy 

    E-print Network

    Sloan

    2009-01-01

    to expand the Lone Star Healthy Streams Program and establish it as the State’s mechanism to provide a coordinated and comprehensive education program designed to increase awareness of the bacteria issues associated with grazing and dairy cattle, poultry...

  1. Criteria for identifying meals from continuous recordings of the behaviour of grazing dairy cows

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of different types of interval. Periods between am and pm milkings and pm and am milkings were analyzedCriteria for identifying meals from continuous recordings of the behaviour of grazing dairy cows AJ also occur. In order to define a meal, a criterion is required by which these two types of interval may

  2. Practices to Reduce Milk Carbon Footprint on Grazing Dairy Farms in Southern Uruguay: Case Studies.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon footprint (CF) is an increasingly relevant indicator to estimate the impact of a product on climate change. This study followed international guidelines to quantify the CF of milk produced on 24 dairy farms in Uruguay. Cows were grazed all year and supplemented with concentrate feeds. These d...

  3. Lactational responses of grazing dairy cows to rumen-protected methionine

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Note Lactational responses of grazing dairy cows to rumen-protected methionine H Rulquin* L Delaby/day rumen-protected methionine according to a reverse design. The response to the methionine supplementation was the same in both cycles. The methionine supplementation reduced milk yield slightly but significantly (26

  4. Supplemental Dietary Protein for Grazing Dairy Cows: Reproduction, Condition Loss, Plasma Metabolites, and Insulin1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Chapa; M. E. McCormick; J. M. Fernandez; D. D. French; J. D. Ward; J. F. Beatty

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted over a 2-yr period to investigate the influence of grain crude protein (CP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP) concentration on reproduction and energy status of dairy cows grazing annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and oats (Avena sativa). Holstein cows (n = 122) were blocked by calving group (partum (0 d postpartum) vs. postpartum (41 ± 19 d

  5. Can Grazing Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Dairy Farms?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gases (GHG) have become a common topic the past few years as more concern is developing over global climate change and the potential impact of these gases on our environment. So do our farms emit GHG? If so, how much and does the use of grazing affect these losses? A study was conducted u...

  6. The effects on claw health of supplement feeding grazing dairy cows on feed pads.

    PubMed

    Coombe, Joanne E; Pyman, Michael F; Mansell, Peter D; Auldist, Martin J; Anderson, Garry A; Wales, William J; Malmo, Jakob; Conley, Melanie J; Fisher, Andrew D

    2013-12-01

    The effects of feeding and management systems on the health and welfare of grazing dairy cows were investigated by comparing the claw health of cows fed grain during milking and pasture silage in the paddock (Control), with cows fed a grain-based partial mixed ration (PMR) on a concrete feed pad. Cows were assessed on three occasions during lactation: (1) early lactation (20-81 days in milk [DIM]) before allocation to feeding treatments; (2) mid-lactation (97-158 DIM) immediately following an intensive feeding experiment, and (3) late lactation (173-243 DIM) several months after return to initial management groups. At the final examination, claw puncture resistance was measured. The results showed that for the most prevalent lesions (white line disease, paintbrush haemorrhage and traumatic bruising), there was no effect of feeding system or amount of supplement on the presence of the moderate to severe forms in early lactation, but cows were more likely to have a particular lesion at the second assessment if it was present in early lactation. Puncture resistance of the claw was not related to presence of a lesion for any of the most prevalent lesion types. It was concluded for this herd that for most indicators of claw health, there was no overall effect of different feeding systems (supplement fed during milking or on a feed pad) or amount of supplement. PMID:24206633

  7. Green leaf allowance and dairy ewe performance grazing on tropical pasture.

    PubMed

    De Souza, J; Batistel, F; Ticiani, E; Sandri, E C; Pedreira, C G S; Oliveira, D E

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to explain the influence of green leaf allowance levels on the performance of dairy ewes grazing a tropical grass. Seventy-two lactating ewes grazed Aruana guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Aruana) for 80 d. The treatments were 4 daily levels of green leaf allowance (GLA) on a DM basis corresponding to 4, 7, 10, and 13 kg DM/100 kg BW, which were named low, medium-low, medium-high, and high level, respectively. The experimental design was completely randomized with 3 replications. During the experimental period, 4 grazing cycles were evaluated in a rotational stocking grazing method (4 d of grazing and 16 d of rest). There was a linear effect of GLA on forage mass, and increasing GLA resulted in increased total leaf mass, reaching an asymptotic plateau around the medium-high GLA level. The stem mass increased with increased GLA, and a pronounced increase was observed between medium-high and high GLAs. Increasing GLA increased both forage disappearance rate and postgrazing forage mass. Leaf proportion increased with GLA, peaking at the medium-high level, and the opposite occurred for stem proportions, which reduced until medium-high GLA level, followed by an increase on high GLA. Forage CP decreased linearly with GLA, and increasing GLA from low to high reduced CP content by 31%. On the other hand, NDF increased 14% and ADF increased 26%, both linearly in response to greater GLA levels. Total digestible nutrients decreased linearly by 8% when GLA increased from low to high level. Milk yield increased, peaking at medium-high GLA (1.75 kg ewe(-1) d(-1)) and decreased at high GLA level (1.40 kg ewe(-1) d(-1)). Milk composition was not affected by the GLA levels. There was a reduction in stocking rate from 72 to 43 ewes/ha when GLA increased from low to high level. Productivity (milk yield kg ha(-1) d(-1)) increased as GLA increased, peaking at medium-low level (115 kg ha(-1) d(-1)). Although this tropical grass showed the same pattern in responses to GLA levels as reported in the literature with temperate pastures, the magnitude of the process changed and the maximum response in milk yield from lactating dairy ewes grazing a tropical pasture would be achieved with higher forage allowances than in temperate pastures. Overall, Aruana guineagrass grazed by lactating dairy ewes should be managed to provide 7 to 10 GLA in kg DM/100 kg BW according to the production goals. PMID:24671589

  8. Determinations of feed-milk-manure relationships on grazing-based dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Powell, J M; Aarons, S R; Gourley, C J P

    2012-10-01

    Feed conversion into milk, nutrient excretion in manure and subsequent environment impacts of manure management are highly influenced by the diets that farmers feed their lactating cows (Bos taurus). On confinement-based dairy farms, determinations of diet composition are relatively straightforward because the types, amounts and nutrients contained in stored feeds are often well known. However, on grazing-based dairy farms, diet composition is more difficult to determine because forage intake during grazing must be estimated. The objectives of this study were to determine relationships between (1) feed N intake (NI), milk production, milk urea N (MUN), feed N use efficiency (FNUE) and excreted manure N (ExN); and (2) between feed P intake (PI), dung P concentrations (g/kg dry matter (DM)) and excreted manure P (ExP) for grazing-based lactating cows having a very wide range of diets and milk production. An additional objective was to evaluate how well these relationships compare with similar relationships based on more direct measurement of feed-milk-manure on confinement-based dairy farms. Four dairy farms located in southeastern Australia were visited during autumn and spring, and data were collected on feed, milk and dung of 18 cows on each farm. Estimated dry matter intake (DMI) from pasture comprised 12% to 75% of total diet DMI, and the crude protein (CP) concentrations in the total diets ranged from 167 to 248 g/kg. During spring, as diet CP increased FNUE declined. Total diet DMI and NI provided the best predictors of ExN, and PI provided the most accurate prediction of ExP. These results indicated accuracy in the study's indirect estimates of pasture DMI. Likely due to high levels and great variability in dietary CP and P concentrations associated with use of diet supplements, MUN did not appear to be a good indicator of dietary CP, and P in dung was not a good indicator of dietary P. PMID:23031567

  9. Successful organic dairy systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Demand for organic dairy products has continually increased and at times outpaced supply for a number of years. This has created favorable milk pricing for certified organic dairy farmers, as the stability of organic milk prices has provided organic dairy farmers with a security not found in the con...

  10. Predicting grass dry matter intake, milk yield and milk fat and protein yield of spring calving grazing dairy cows during the grazing season.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, B F; Lewis, E; O'Donovan, M; Shalloo, L; Galvin, N; Mulligan, F J; Boland, T M; Delagarde, R

    2013-08-01

    Predicting the grass dry matter intake (GDMI), milk yield (MY) or milk fat and protein yield (milk solids yield (MSY)) of the grazing dairy herd is difficult. Decisions with regard to grazing management are based on guesstimates of the GDMI of the herd, yet GDMI is a critical factor influencing MY and MSY. A data set containing animal, sward, grazing management and concentrate supplementation variables recorded during weeks of GDMI measurement was used to develop multiple regression equations to predict GDMI, MY and MSY. The data set contained data from 245 grazing herds from 10 published studies conducted at Teagasc, Moorepark. A forward stepwise multiple regression technique was used to develop the multiple regression equations for each of the dependent variables (GDMI, MY, MSY) for three periods during the grazing season: spring (SP; 5 March to 30 April), summer (SU; 1 May to 31 July) and autumn (AU; 1 August to 31 October). The equations generated highlighted the importance of different variables associated with GDMI, MY and MSY during the grazing season. Peak MY was associated with an increase in GDMI, MY and MSY during the grazing season with the exception of GDMI in SU when BW accounted for more of the variation. A higher body condition score (BCS) at calving was associated with a lower GDMI in SP and SU and a lower MY and MSY in all periods. A higher BCS was associated with a higher GDMI in SP and SU, a higher MY in SU and AU and a higher MSY in all periods. The pre-grazing herbage mass of the sward (PGHM) above 4 cm was associated with a quadratic effect on GDMI in SP, on MY in SP and SU and on MSY in SU. An increase in daily herbage allowance (DHA) above 4 cm was associated with an increase in GDMI in AU, an increase in MY in SU and AU and MSY in AU. Supplementing grazing dairy cows with concentrate reduced GDMI and increased MY and MSY in all periods. The equations generated can be used by the Irish dairy industry during the grazing season to predict the GDMI, MY and MSY of grazing dairy herds. PMID:23570842

  11. Effect of restricted access time to pasture on dairy cow milk production, grazing behavior, and dry matter intake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Kennedy; M. McEvoy; J. P. Murphy; M. O’Donovan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of restricting pasture access time on milk production and composition, body weight and body condition score change, dry matter intake, and grazing behavior of autumn calving dairy cows in midlactation. Fifty-two (19 primiparous and 33 multiparous) Hol- stein-Friesian dairy cows (mean calving date, August 17 ± 91.2 d) were randomly

  12. Methane uptake and emissions in a typical steppe grazing system during the grazing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoya; Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiaoqing

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of livestock grazing on CH4 emissions by testing six grazing conditions at Guyuan State Key Monitoring and Research Station of Grassland Ecosystem (China) in 2011 and 2012. Under all grazing systems, steppe soils were measured to be CH4 sinks. The uptake of CH4 by grassland was primarily determined by topsoil (7 cm) temperature and soil (0-7 cm) moisture in grassland at short-term grazing and non-grazing. The cumulative uptake of CH4 during the grazing period for all conditions was 0.88-3.23 kg hm-2 CH4, and the highest level was observed in the continuously moderate grazing condition. Reducing grazing stocking in the short-term did not significantly change the uptake of CH4 when compared with continuously heavy grazing condition. Enteric CH4 emissions were not significantly affected by the grazing period or conditions. The uptake of CH4 by grassland soil offset 3.1-8.6% of the CH4 emissions from the grazing sheep and was most effective at the continuously moderate grazing condition. These findings imply that continuously moderate grazing is the best approach considered here for optimizing the soil as a sink for atmospheric CH4.

  13. Transition diseases in grazing dairy cows are related to serum cholesterol and other analytes.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda-Varas, Pilar; Weary, Daniel M; Noro, Mirela; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of postpartum disease and to evaluate the association with serum cholesterol concentrations during the first 3 weeks after calving in grazing dairy cows. The association between non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), calcium and postpartum diseases was also evaluated. A total of 307 Holstein dairy cows from 6 commercial grazing herds in Osorno, Chile, were monitored from calving until 21 days in milk. Cases of retained placenta, clinical hypocalcemia and clinical mastitis were recorded by the farmer using established definitions. Twice weekly, cows were evaluated for metritis by the same veterinarian based on vaginal discharge and body temperature. Postpartum blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for serum concentrations of cholesterol, NEFA, BHBA and calcium. Cows were considered as having subclinical ketosis if BHBA >1.2 mmol/L, and subclinical hypocalcemia if calcium <2.0 mmol/L in any of the 3 weekly samples. Overall, 56% of the cows studied developed at least one clinical or subclinical disease after calving. Incidence of individual diseases was 8.8% for retained placenta, 4.2% for clinical hypocalcemia, 11.7% for clinical mastitis, 41.1% for metritis, 19.9% for subclinical hypocalcemia and 16.6% for subclinical ketosis. Lower postpartum cholesterol in cows was associated with developing severe metritis or having more than one clinical disease after calving. For every 0.4 mmol/L decrease in serum cholesterol cows were nearly twice as likely to be diagnosed with multiple clinical diseases after calving. Higher BHBA concentrations and lower calcium concentrations during week 1 were associated with severe cases of metritis. Low serum calcium concentration during week 1 was also associated with developing more than one clinical disorder after calving. In conclusion, the incidence of postpartum diseases can be high even in grazing herds and lower serum cholesterol concentrations were associated with occurrence of clinical postpatum disorders. PMID:25807462

  14. Effect of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars on the milk yield of grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Wims, C M; McEvoy, M; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of four perennial ryegrass cultivars: Bealey, Astonenergy, Spelga and AberMagic on the milk yield and milk composition of grazing dairy cows. Two 4 × 4 latin square experiments were completed, one during the reproductive and the other during the vegetative growth phase of the cultivars. Thirty-two Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were divided into four groups, with each group assigned 17 days on each cultivar during both experiments. Within each observation period, milk yield and milk composition, sward morphology and pasture chemical composition were measured. During the reproductive growth phase, organic matter digestibility (OMD) was greater for Bealey and Astonenergy (P < 0.001; +1.6%). AberMagic contained a higher stem proportion (P < 0.01; +0.06) and a longer sheath height (P < 0.001; +1.9 cm). Consequently, cows grazing AberMagic recorded a lower milk yield (P < 0.001; -1.5 kg/day) and a lower milk solids yield (P < 0.001; -0.13 kg/day). During the vegetative growth phase, OMD was greater (P < 0.001; +1.1%) for Bealey, whereas the differences between the cultivars in terms of sward structure were smaller and did not appear to influence animal performance. As a result, cows grazing Bealey recorded a higher milk yield (P < 0.001; +0.9 kg/day) and a higher milk solids yield (P < 0.01; +0.08 kg/day). It was concluded that grass cultivar did influence milk yield due to variations in sward structure and chemical composition. PMID:23034142

  15. Feeding strategy and pasture quality relative to nutrient requirements of grazing dairy cows in the Northeastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture samples (n = 229) collected during the grazing season from 14 organic dairy farms in 2012 (PA, ME, NY, NH, VT) and from 11 of the same farms in 2013 (PA, ME, NY, NH) were analyzed for nutritional composition. Frequency analysis was used to determine the proportions of pasture samples that me...

  16. N leaching to groundwater from dairy production involving grazing over the winter on a clay-loam soil.

    PubMed

    Necpalova, M; Fenton, O; Casey, I; Humphreys, J

    2012-08-15

    This study investigated concentrations of various N species in shallow groundwater (<2.2m below ground level) and N losses from dairy production involving grazing over the winter period on a clay loam soil with a high natural attenuation capacity in southern Ireland (52°51'N, 08°21'W) over a 2-year period. A dense network of shallow groundwater piezometers was installed to determine groundwater flow direction and N spatial and temporal variation. Estimated vertical travel times through the unsaturated zone (<0.5 yr, time lag) allowed the correlation of management with groundwater N within a short space of time. There was a two way interaction of the system and sampling date (P<0.05) on concentrations of DON, oxidised N and NO(3)(-)-N. In contrast, concentrations of NH(4)(+)-N and NO(2)(-)-N were unaffected by the dairy system. Grazing over the winter had no effect on N losses to groundwater. Mean concentrations of DON, NH(4)(+)-N, NO(2)(-)-N and NO(3)(-)-N were 2.16, 0.35, 0.01 and 0.37 mg L(-1) respectively. Soil attenuation processes such as denitrification and DNRA resulted in increased NH(4)(+)-N levels. For this reason, DON and NH(4)(+)-N represented the highest proportion of N losses from the site. Some of the spatial and temporal variation of N concentrations was explained by correlations with selected chemical and hydro-topographical parameters (NO(3)(-)-N/Cl(-) ratio, distance of the sampling point from the closest receptor, watertable depth, depth of sampling piezometer, DOC concentration). A high explanatory power of NO(3)(-)-N/Cl(-) ratio and the distance of the sampling point from the closest receptor indicated the influence of point sources and groundwater-surface water interactions. PMID:22728303

  17. Grazing management effects on pasture productivity – timing of grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    What is the potential impact of more frequent grazing during particular times of the year? A range of grazing management systems was implemented at the U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center at Prairie du Sac, Wisconsin, on 1.0 acre paddocks of meadow fescue, orchardgrass, quackgrass, and reed canarygras...

  18. Fall-grown oat to extend the fall grazing season for replacement dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Coblentz, W K; Brink, G E; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Bertram, M G

    2014-03-01

    Our objective was to assess the pasture productivity and forage characteristics of 2 fall-grown oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars, specifically for extending the grazing season and reducing reliance on harvested forages by replacement dairy heifers. A total of 160 gravid Holstein heifers (80 heifers/yr) were stratified by weight, and assigned to 1 of 10 identical research pens (8 heifers/pen). Initial body weights were 480 ± 43.5 kg in 2011 and 509 ± 39.4 kg in 2012. During both years of the trial, four 1.0-ha pasture replicates were seeded in August with Ogle oat (Schumitsch Seed Inc., Antigo, WI), and 4 separate, but similarly configured, pasture replicates were seeded with Forage Plus oat (Kratz Farms, Slinger, WI). Heifer groups were maintained as units, assigned to specific pastures, and then allowed to graze fall-oat pastures for 6h daily before returning to the barn, where they were offered a forage-based basal total mixed ration. Two heifer groups were retained in confinement (without grazing) as controls and offered the identical total mixed ration as pasture groups. During 2011, available forage mass increased with strong linear and quadratic effects for both cultivars, peaking at almost 9 Mg/ha on October 31. In contrast, forage mass was not affected by evaluation date in 2012, remaining ? 2,639 kg/ha across all dates because of droughty climatic conditions. During 2012, Ogle exhibited greater forage mass than Forage Plus across all sampling dates (2,678 vs. 1,856 kg/ha), largely because of its more rapid maturation rate and greater canopy height. Estimates of energy density for oat forage ranged from 59.6 to 69.1% during 2011, and ranged narrowly from 68.4 to 70.4% during 2012. For 2011, responses for both cultivars had strong quadratic character, in which the most energy-dense forages occurred in mid November, largely due to accumulation of water-soluble carbohydrates that reached maximum concentrations of 18.2 and 15.1% for Forage Plus and Ogle, respectively. Across the 2-yr trial, average daily gain for grazing heifer groups tended to be greater than heifers remaining in confinement (0.85 vs. 0.74 kg/d), but both management strategies produced weight gains within reasonable proximity to normal targets for heifers in this weight range. Fall-grown oat should be managed as stockpiled forage for deferred grazing, and good utilization of fall-oat forage can be accomplished by a one-time removal of standing forage, facilitated by a single lead wire advanced daily to prevent waste. PMID:24440262

  19. Constraints to milk production in grazing dairy cows in Brazil and management strategies for improving their productivity.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, A L; Louvandini, H; Bueno, I C; Vitti, D M; Meirelles, C F; Gennari, S M

    1999-01-27

    Productivity in most Brazilian dairy herds is low and depends exclusively on pasture. To study the productive potential of pastures and to devise strategies to further improve pasture and animal productivity in this production system, studies were carried out to obtain basic on-farm information. The constraints which affect productivity and reproductive performance of dairy cows, the effects of restrictions in suckling time of calves, and strategic supplementation during the dry season upon animal production were the evaluated parameters. From March 1992 through February 1997, studies were carried out on four private farms in the northern region of the State of São Paulo. Between March 1992 and February 1994 (Study 1--survey phase), 142 cows (parity = 1-6) grazed pasture which consisted of signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizanta). Once-a-month data were collected on body weight, body condition, and milk production. Reproduction parameters were assessed by milk progesterone profiles. From March 1996 to February 1997 (Study 2--intervention phase), 45 lactating dairy cows from two farms were hand-milked once a day and the calf suckling was restricted to two hours after milking. Data were collected on milk production and cow body weight. In Study 1, cows were grouped by calving date for the analysis of the reproductive and production data. Concentrations of blood metabolites, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were compared among randomly selected cows (n = 69) from all farms. Estimated pasture available per hectare (ha) at any time, crude protein (CP), and dry matter digestibility (DMD) of pasture available for grazing differed (p < 0.05) between seasons [pasture available = 1.2, 1.4, 1.8 and 2.2 t/ha (SE = 0.70); CP = 42, 60, 48 and 57 g/kg (DM) (SE = 10.1); DMD = 399, 468, 401 and 457 g/kg (DM) (SE = 21), respectively, for dry season 1992 (D92), wet season 1992 (W92), dry season 1993 (D93), and wet season 1993 (W93)]. The proportion of animals showing ovarian activity at 90 days postpartum (DPP) was higher for cows which calved in the wet season than cows which calved in the dry season. In Study 2, milk production tended to the higher (7.3 and 6.5 kg/day, respectively, for the intervention and survey studies; p = 0.08). The data suggest that milk production is being limited by pasture availability, the quality of pasture, and the lack of supplementation. We suggest that, although supplementing cows in the dry period may have an economic advantage, better pasture management needs to be introduced. Stocking rate must be adapted to pasture productivity and pasture quality throughout the year. PMID:10081801

  20. Calving body condition score affects indicators of health in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Roche, J R; Macdonald, K A; Schütz, K E; Matthews, L R; Verkerk, G A; Meier, S; Loor, J J; Rogers, A R; McGowan, J; Morgan, S R; Taukiri, S; Webster, J R

    2013-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of calving body condition score (BCS) on cow health during the transition period in a pasture-based dairying system. Feed inputs were managed during the second half of the previous lactation so that BCS differed at drying off (BCS 5.0, 4.0, and 3.0 for high, medium, and low treatments, respectively: a 10-point scale); feed allowance was managed after cows were dried off, such that the BCS differences established during lactation remained at the subsequent calving (BCS 5.5, 4.5, and 3.5; n=20, 18, and 19, for high, medium, and low treatments, respectively). After calving, cows were allocated pasture and pasture silage to ensure grazing residuals >1,600 kg of DM/ha. Milk production was measured weekly; blood was sampled regularly pre- and postpartum to measure indicators of health, and udder and uterine health were evaluated during the 6 wk after calving. Milk weight, fat, protein, and lactose yields, and fat content increased with calving BCS during the first 6 wk of lactation. The effect of calving BCS on the metabolic profile was nonlinear. Before calving, cows in the low group had lower mean plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate and serum Mg concentrations and greater mean serum urea than cows in the medium and high BCS groups, which did not differ from each other. During the 6 wk after calving, cows in the low group had lower serum albumin and fructosamine concentrations than cows in the other 2 treatment groups, whereas cows in the low- and medium-BCS groups had proportionately more polymorphonucleated cells in their uterine secretions at 3 and 5 wk postpartum than high-BCS cows. In comparison, plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate and nonesterified fatty acid concentrations increased linearly in early lactation with calving BCS, consistent with a greater negative energy balance in these cows. Many of the parameters measured did not vary with BCS. The results highlight that calving BCS and, therefore, BCS through early lactation are not effective indicators of functional welfare, with the analyses presented indicating that both low and high BCS at calving will increase the risk of disease: cows in the low group were more prone to reproductive compromise and fatter cows had an increased risk of metabolic diseases. These results are important in defining the welfare consequences of cow BCS. PMID:23871378

  1. Stability of grazing systems with infinite delays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher T. H. Baker; Arsalang Tang

    1998-01-01

    We consider paradigms for modelling grazing systems under realistic assumptions including the effects of delays. We consider, using linearized theory and Liapunov theory, the stability of steady-state positive solutions of each model. The models reflect the fact that, when prey is sufficiently abundant, the growth rate of predators is independent of the prey and, when predators are overpopulated, predatory effect

  2. Release of cell contents and comminution of particles of perennial ryegrass herbage during ingestion by dairy cows fed indoors or grazing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Boudon; A. Acosta; R. Delagarde; J.-L. Peyraud

    2006-01-01

    The effect of feeding indoors fresh perennial ryegrass vs. grazing on ingestive behaviour, release of cell contents and comminution of particles during ingestion, as well as on gas production of ingested boli fermented in vitro, was studied. Indoor feeding and grazing were compared using four dairy cows according to a triple reversal design with six periods. Chemical and morphological composition

  3. PREDICTABILITY OF EFFECTS OF ROTATIONAL GRAZING SYSTEMS ALONG ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rotational grazing systems have been implemented in numerous rangeland ecosystems with the desired objectives of increasing homogeneity of use of vegetation through high stocking densities within small pastures and increasing stocking rate. Vegetation and livestock responses to rotational grazing, w...

  4. Nitrogen partitioning and milk production of dairy cows grazing simple and diverse pastures.

    PubMed

    Totty, V K; Greenwood, S L; Bryant, R H; Edwards, G R

    2013-01-01

    Research was conducted to examine the effects of a diverse pasture mix on dry matter intake, milk yield, and N partitioning of lactating dairy cows. A pasture containing only ryegrass and white clover (RG), or high-sugar ryegrass and white clover (HS), was compared with a diverse pasture mix (HSD) including chicory, plantain, lotus, high-sugar ryegrass, and white clover. The experiment was conducted over a 10-d period using 3 groups of 12 cows in late lactation. No difference was observed in dry matter (14.3 kg of dry matter/cow per day) or N (583 g of N/cow per day) intake between treatments. The cows grazing the HSD pasture had an increased milk yield (16.9 kg/d) compared with those grazing the simple RG and HS pastures (15.2 and 14.7 kg/d, respectively). However, no differences were observed in milk solids yield for the 3 treatments. A tendency toward greater milk protein yields in the HSD group resulted in improved N use efficiency for milk of 20.4% from the cows fed HSD, compared with 17.8 and 16.7% from cows in the RG and HS treatments, respectively. Urinary N excretion was lower from the cows fed HSD, at 353.8 g/d, compared with 438.3 and 426.6 g/d for cows fed RG and HS, respectively. These results suggest that the use of pastures containing chicory, lotus, and plantain can contribute to the goal of reducing N losses from cows in late lactation. PMID:23164232

  5. Grassland responses to grazing: effects of grazing intensity and management system in an Inner Mongolian steppe ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philipp Schönbach; Hongwei Wan; Martin Gierus; Yongfei Bai; Katrin Müller; Lijun Lin; Andreas Susenbeth; Friedhelm Taube

    2011-01-01

    The major aims of this study were, firstly, to analyse the grazing-induced steppe degradation process and, secondly, to identify\\u000a an efficient and sustainable grazing management system for the widely degraded Inner Mongolian typical steppe ecosystem. From\\u000a 2005–2008 a grazing experiment was conducted to compare two grazing management systems, the Mixed System (MS) and the Traditional\\u000a System (TS), along a gradient

  6. Husbandry factors and the resumption of luteal activity in open and zero-grazed dairy cows in urban and peri-urban kampala, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kanyima, B M; Båge, R; Owiny, D O; Ntallaris, T; Lindahl, J; Magnusson, U; Nassuna-Musoke, M G

    2014-08-01

    The study investigated the influence of selected husbandry factors on interval to resumption of post-partum cyclicity among dairy cows in urban and peri-urban Kampala. A prospective study of 85 day post-partum period of 59 dairy cows in open (n = 38) and zero grazing (n = 21) systems was conducted on 24 farms. Cows of parity 1-6 were recruited starting 15-30 days post-partum. Progesterone (P4) content in milk taken at 10-12 day intervals was analysed using ELISA. The cow P4 profiles were classified into 'normal' (< 56 days), 'delayed' (> 56 days), 'ceased' or 'prolonged' (if started < 56 days but with abnormal P4 displays) resumption of luteal activity and tested for association with husbandry and cow factors. Of the 59 cows, luteal activity in 81.4% resumed normally and in 18.6%, delayed. Only 23.7% maintained regular luteal activity, while the others had ceased (10.2%), prolonged (37.3%) or unclear luteal activity (20.3%). There were no differences between open and zero-grazed cows. Milk production was higher (p < 0.05) in zero than open grazing, in urban than peri-urban and in cows fed on brew waste (p < 0.001) compared with mill products and banana peels. Results suggest that luteal activity resumes normally in a majority of cows, although only a minority experienced continued normal cyclicity once ovulation had occurred, in the two farming systems irrespective of feed supplements or water, and that supplementing with brew waste is beneficial for milk production. PMID:24930481

  7. Husbandry Factors and the Resumption of Luteal Activity in Open and Zero-Grazed Dairy Cows in Urban and Peri-Urban Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Kanyima, BM; Båge, R; Owiny, DO; Ntallaris, T; Lindahl, J; Magnusson, U; Nassuna-Musoke, MG

    2014-01-01

    Contents The study investigated the influence of selected husbandry factors on interval to resumption of post-partum cyclicity among dairy cows in urban and peri-urban Kampala. A prospective study of 85 day post-partum period of 59 dairy cows in open (n = 38) and zero grazing (n = 21) systems was conducted on 24 farms. Cows of parity 1–6 were recruited starting 15–30 days post-partum. Progesterone (P4) content in milk taken at 10–12 day intervals was analysed using ELISA. The cow P4 profiles were classified into ‘normal’ (< 56 days), ‘delayed’ (> 56 days), ‘ceased’ or ‘prolonged’ (if started < 56 days but with abnormal P4 displays) resumption of luteal activity and tested for association with husbandry and cow factors. Of the 59 cows, luteal activity in 81.4% resumed normally and in 18.6%, delayed. Only 23.7% maintained regular luteal activity, while the others had ceased (10.2%), prolonged (37.3%) or unclear luteal activity (20.3%). There were no differences between open and zero-grazed cows. Milk production was higher (p < 0.05) in zero than open grazing, in urban than peri-urban and in cows fed on brew waste (p < 0.001) compared with mill products and banana peels. Results suggest that luteal activity resumes normally in a majority of cows, although only a minority experienced continued normal cyclicity once ovulation had occurred, in the two farming systems irrespective of feed supplements or water, and that supplementing with brew waste is beneficial for milk production. PMID:24930481

  8. Premilking teat disinfection: is it worthwhile in pasture-grazed dairy herds?

    PubMed

    Morton, John M; Penry, John F; Malmo, Jakob; Mein, Graeme A

    2014-12-01

    A controlled trial was conducted in 5 pasture-grazed commercial dairy herds in Australia in 2012 to determine whether premilking teat disinfection and drying of teats reduces clinical mastitis incidence during early lactation by at least 50%. A 50% reduction was estimated to be the minimum required to justify additional costs of labor, disinfectants, and other resources if premilking teat disinfection was implemented in a 500-cow herd averaging 8 clinical cases per 100 cow-months. A secondary aim was to determine whether this premilking teat disinfection routine reduces incidence of new udder infections. Treatment was applied in each herd for approximately 60 d (range of 59.5 to 61 d), commencing in each herd soon after the start of the herd's main or only calving period. Within each herd, cows were allocated to either the treatment (premilking disinfection) or the control (no premilking disinfection) group based on their herd identity number. During the trial period, any cow having a new case of clinical mastitis or an individual cow cell count greater than 250,000 cells/mL of milk (when preceded by individual cow cell counts of 250,000 cells/mL of milk or below) was deemed to have had a new infection. Overall, neither clinical mastitis incidence nor new infection rate differed significantly between treatment and control groups. Over the whole study period, 98 of the 1,029 cows in the premilking disinfection group and 97 of the 1,025 cows in the control group had clinical mastitis. Total cow-days at risk of clinical mastitis were similar in each group. However, clinical incidence rates were markedly lower in treatment cows in one herd (herd 3; incidence rate ratio=0.34) and there was some evidence that new infection incidence rates were lower in treated cows in this herd (incidence rate ratio=0.42). Rainfall during the study period was below long-term district average in all 5 study herds. Cows' teats were less dirty than in previous, wetter years for the 4 herds where no significant clinical mastitis response was detected but some teat soiling was observed in herd 3 during the study period. Routine application of premilking teat disinfection in pasture-grazed herds is unlikely to produce a worthwhile (economic) reduction in the number of clinical mastitis cases when teats are relatively clean and dry and the clinical mastitis incidence is low. However, premilking disinfection might be worthwhile during periods when teats are heavily soiled and the incidence of clinical mastitis due to environmental pathogens is high. PMID:25282424

  9. Case study: dairies utilizing ultra-high stock density grazing in the northeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultra-high stock density (UHSD) grazing (also loosely referred to as ‘mob grazing’) has attracted a lot of attention and press in the forage industry. Numerous anecdotal articles can be found in trade magazines that promote the perceived benefits of UHSD grazing. However, there is little credible re...

  10. Effect of total mixed ration composition and daily grazing pattern on milk production, composition and fatty acids profile of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ortega, Martha; Martínez-Fernández, Adela; Soldado, Ana; González, Amelia; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M; Argamentería, Alejandro; de la Roza-Delgado, Begoña; Vicente, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    The possibilities of using high quality pastures in conjunction with total mixed ration (TMR) during the grazing season have been examined. An experiment with sixteen Holstein cows blocked and randomly assigned to four treatments in a factorial arrangement was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of grazing time of day (day or night) and type of silage (maize or Italian ryegrass) included in the TMR of dairy cows grazing 12 h daily on milk yield, composition and fatty acid profile. The silage type had no effect on the dry matter intake, milk yield and fat and protein proportions. However, cows grazing during the night ate more grass than cows grazing during the day (8·53 vs. 5·65 kg DM/d; P<0·05). No differences were seen between grazing-time with respect to milk production, fat and protein contents. However, the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acid was higher in milk of dairy cows grazing at night-time than grazing at day-time, especially 18:2n-6 (2·37 vs. 2·12 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05) and 18:2cis9trans11 (2·08 vs. 1·74 g/100 g FA respectively, P<0·05). PMID:25263635

  11. Diet and cooling interactions on physiological responses of grazing dairy cows, milk production and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallardo, M. R.; Valtorta, S. E.; Leva, P. E.; Gaggiotti, M. C.; Conti, G. A.; Gregoret, R. F.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of diet and cooling in the holding pen before milking on rectal temperature, respiration rate and milk production and composition. Fifty-eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a factorial split-plot design, at Rafaela Experimental Station from 12 January to 3 March 2003. The treatments were combinations of two diets: control (CD) and balanced (BD) with two levels of cooling before milking: none (NSF) and a sprinkler and fans (SF). Forage:concentrate ratios for CD and BD were 81:19 and 68:32, respectively. Cows were milked twice daily. Milk production was recorded daily, and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) was analysed twice a week. The physiological data were recorded once a week, before the cattle entered the holding pen and after milking, in the afternoon. Average maximum weekly temperature humidity index was 75.4 and ranged from 61.4 to 83. There were highly significant effects of cooling on physiological responses. Milk production was affected by diet and cooling, with no interaction; the highest and lowest production of milk was 22.42 and 20.07 l/cow per day, for BD+SF and CD+NSF, respectively. Protein was affected by diet, and was higher for BD (3.17 vs. 3.08%). There were interaction effects on milk fat at the 8% level, the highest concentration being 3.65% for BD+NFS. It was concluded that under grazing conditions, cooling by sprinkler and fans before milking improves the comfort of dairy cows, and that the effects on milk production and composition are enhanced when diets are specially formulated for heat-stress periods.

  12. Herbage intake and milk yield of dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass swards or white clover\\/perennial ryegrass swards at low- and medium-herbage allowances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. N. Ribeiro Filho; R. Delagarde; J. L. Peyraud

    2005-01-01

    Including legumes in grass swards generally increases nutrient intake and performance of grazing cattle. The objective of this study was to determine if the difference in herbage intake of dairy cows grazing either perennial ryegrass swards (PRG) or white clover\\/perennial ryegrass swards (GC) is a function of herbage allowance. Both sward types were compared at 20 or 35kg DM\\/cow\\/day offered

  13. EFFECTIVENESS OF GRAZING SYSTEMS - A SYNTHESIS OF EVIDENCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The general body of evidence in support of the use of grazing systems for sustained production from and health of rangelands is underwhelming, at best. This is despite decades of scientific investigations, conservation programs, and textbook promotion of grazing systems as logical components of rang...

  14. Mixed Grazing Systems Benefit both Upland Biodiversity and Livestock Production

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Mariecia D.; Moorby, Jon M.; Vale, James E.; Evans, Darren M.

    2014-01-01

    Background With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously. Methods Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management ‘systems’ we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i) incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii) integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii) altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv) replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years. Results, Conclusion and Significance We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity, suggesting a ‘win-win’ solution for farmers and conservationists. PMID:24551216

  15. Supplementation with partially hydrogenated oil in grazing dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, G F; Gagliostro, G A; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I

    2002-03-01

    Effects of partially hydrogenated oil on performance, loss of body weight and body condition score, and blood metabolite and hormone concentrations were evaluated in 37 multiparous Holstein cows in grazing conditions during the first 100 d of lactation. Six additional Holstein cows, each fitted with a ruminal cannula, were allocated to a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square to evaluate effects of supplemental fat on rumen environment and pasture digestion. All cows grazed mixed pastures based on alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and received 5.4 kg/d of a basal concentrate to which 0, 0.5, or 1 kg/cow per day of partially hydrogenated oil (melting point 58 to 60 degrees C) containing 30.3, 34.9, 21.8, and 3.3% of C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, and C182, respectively, was added. Feeding 1 kg/d of supplemental fat increased fat-corrected milk from 23.4 to 26.3 kg/d, milk fat content from 3.44 to 3.78%, and milk fat yield from 0.87 to 1.03 kg/d compared to control. Milk protein percentage and yield were not affected. Cows fed 1 kg/d of fat increased the content and yield of C16:0 and C18:0 in milk compared with cows fed no added oil. Dry matter intake (DMI) from pasture decreased from 17.8 kg/d for control cows to 13.6 kg/d for cows fed 1 kg of oil, whereas DMI from concentrate was higher for cows fed 1 kg/d of fat (6.0 kg/d) than for controls (5.2 kg/d). Supplemental fat did not affect total dry matter or estimated energy intake and did not change losses of body weight or body condition scores. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, insulin, somatotrophin, and insulin-like growth factor-I did not differ among treatments. Concentration of plasma triglycerides was lowered from 318.5 to 271.2 mg/dl, whereas plasma cholesterol was elevated from 185.0 to 235.8 mg/dl in cows receiving 1 kg/d of supplemental fat compared with controls. Responses to lipolytic or insulin challenges were not affected by feeding oil. Supplemental fat did not affect the digestion of pasture fiber. The addition of energy in the form of partially hydrogenated fat to early lactation dairy cows fed primarily on pasture increased the yield of fat-corrected milk and milk fat content when it represented about 11% of the total metabolizable energy requirement of cows, without affecting milk protein content. The partial hydrogenation of a byproduct of the oil industry apparently prevented detrimental effects of fat supplementation on ruminal digestion. PMID:11949863

  16. Using dual-purpose crops in sheep-grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Dove, Hugh; Kirkegaard, John

    2014-05-01

    The utilisation of dual-purpose crops, especially wheat and canola grown for forage and grain production in sheep-grazing systems, is reviewed. When sown early and grazed in winter before stem elongation, later-maturing wheat and canola crops can be grazed with little impact on grain yield. Recent research has sought to develop crop- and grazing-management strategies for dual-purpose crops. Aspects examined have been grazing effects on crop growth, recovery and yield development along with an understanding of the grazing value of the crop fodder, its implications for animal nutrition and grazing management to maximise live-weight gain. By alleviating the winter 'feed gap', the increase in winter stocking rate afforded by grazing crops allows crop and livestock production to be increased simultaneously on the same farm. Integration of dual-purpose wheat with canola on mixed farms provides further systems advantages related to widened operational windows, weed and disease control and risk management. Dual-purpose crops are an innovation that has potential to assist in addressing the global food-security challenge. PMID:24323974

  17. Knowledge and tools to enhance resilience of beef grazing systems for sustainable animal protein production.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jean L; Engle, David M; Xiao, Xiangming; Saleh, Ali; Tomlinson, Peter; Rice, Charles W; Cole, N Andy; Coleman, Samuel W; Osei, Edward; Basara, Jeffrey; Middendorf, Gerad; Gowda, Prasanna; Todd, Richard; Moffet, Corey; Anandhi, Aavudai; Starks, Patrick J; Ocshner, Tyson; Reuter, Ryan; Devlin, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Ruminant livestock provides meat and dairy products that sustain health and livelihood for much of the world's population. Grazing lands that support ruminant livestock provide numerous ecosystem services, including provision of food, water, and genetic resources; climate and water regulation; support of soil formation; nutrient cycling; and cultural services. In the U.S. southern Great Plains, beef production on pastures, rangelands, and hay is a major economic activity. The region's climate is characterized by extremes of heat and cold and extremes of drought and flooding. Grazing lands occupy a large portion of the region's land, significantly affecting carbon, nitrogen, and water budgets. To understand vulnerabilities and enhance resilience of beef production, a multi-institutional Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP), the "grazing CAP," was established. Integrative research and extension spanning biophysical, socioeconomic, and agricultural disciplines address management effects on productivity and environmental footprints of production systems. Knowledge and tools being developed will allow farmers and ranchers to evaluate risks and increase resilience to dynamic conditions. The knowledge and tools developed will also have relevance to grazing lands in semiarid and subhumid regions of the world. PMID:25376887

  18. Dairy Herd On-line Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Satoshi

    As the business circumstances have become worse, computational breeding management based on the scientific matters has been needed for dairy farming in our country. In this connection it was urgent to construct the system which provided data effectively used in the fields for dairy farmers. The Federation has executed to provide dairy farming technical data promptly through its own on-line network being composed of middle sized general-purpose computer (main memory : 5MB, and fixed disk : 1100MB) and 22 terminals.

  19. Comparative Utilization of Alfalfa-Bromegrass Pasture Under Rotational and Daily Strip Grazing1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Brundage; W. J. Sweetman

    1958-01-01

    SUMMARY The efficiency of herbage utilization from alfalfa-bromegrass (M. falcata and B. inermis) pasture under rotational and strip-grazing management was compared for three grazing seasons. The expression of increased efficiency as increased carrying capacity was precluded by restricting grazing, so that the cows on each system had equal opportunity to utilize the available herbage. Under these restrictions, dairy cows at

  20. Grazing dairy cows had decreased interferon-?, tumor necrosis factor, and interleukin-17, and increased expression of interleukin-10 during the first week after calving.

    PubMed

    Heiser, Axel; McCarthy, Allison; Wedlock, Neil; Meier, Susanne; Kay, Jane; Walker, Caroline; Crookenden, Mallory A; Mitchell, Murray D; Morgan, Stuart; Watkins, Kate; Loor, Juan J; Roche, John R

    2015-02-01

    Peripartum, and especially during the transition period, dairy cows undergo dramatic physiological changes. These coincide with an increased risk of disease during the first 2 wk after calving and have been linked to dairy cows failing to achieve production as well as reproductive targets. Previous evidence suggests that these physiological changes affect the immune system and that transition dairy cows experience some form of reduced immunocompetence. However, almost all of these studies were undertaken in high-production, housed dairy cows. Grazing cows have much lower levels of production and this study aimed to provide clarity whether or not the dysfunctional attributes of the peripartum immune system reported in high production housed cows are evident in these animals. Therefore, cell culture techniques, flow cytometry, and quantitative PCR were applied to analyze the cellular composition of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from transition dairy cows as well as the performance of these cells in an in vitro assay. First, a combination of in vitro stimulation and quantitative PCR for cytokines was validated as a quantifiable immunocompetence assay in 29 cattle and a correlation of quantitative PCR and ELISA demonstrated. Second, the relative number of T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, B cells, ?? T cells, natural killer cells, and monocytes in peripheral blood was measured, of which B cells and natural killer cells increased in number postcalving (n=29) compared with precalving. Third, following in vitro stimulation cytokine profiles indicated decreased expression of IFN?, tumor necrosis factor, and IL-17 and increased expression of IL-10 wk 1 after calving, which later all returned to precalving values (n=39). Additionally, treatment of transition cows with a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (i.e., carprofen) administered on d 1, 3, and 5 postcalving (n=19; untreated control n=20) did not affect the cytokine expression at any time point. In conclusion, an immunocompetence assay has been developed that highlights a characteristic expression pattern for IFN?, tumor necrosis factor, IL-17, and IL-10 that reflects a state of reduced immunocompetence in moderate-yielding pasture-based transition cows after calving, which is similar to that described for higher-yielding housed cows. PMID:25483203

  1. Responses to condensed tannins of flowering sulla ( Hedysarum coronarium L.) grazed by dairy sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cabiddu; G. Molle; M. Decandia; S. Spada; M. Fiori; G. Piredda; M. Addis

    2009-01-01

    A grazing experiment was undertaken to evaluate the effect of PEG supplementation on the fatty acid composition of milk from Sarda sheep grazing sulla. Twenty-four late-lactating sheep (12 per group), were paired and split into two groups: group control (CON), dosed daily with a quenching gun with 200 ml of water, and group PEG, dosed with 200 ml of a 50\\/50 w\\/v water

  2. Dairy goat production systems: status quo, perspectives and challenges.

    PubMed

    Escareño, Luis; Salinas-Gonzalez, Homero; Wurzinger, Maria; Iñiguez, Luiz; Sölkner, Johann; Meza-Herrera, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Goat production concentrated in developing countries (tropics, dry areas), contributes largely to the livelihoods of low and medium income farmers. Farming systems in these areas have evolved to cope with the formidable constraints imposed by harsh natural and economic conditions by adapting integrated crop/livestock production strategies. In Asia, Africa and Latin America, due to its almost exclusive extensive nature, goat production relies mainly on grazing on communal lands that hardly provide the minimum nutrient requirements due to overstocking and degradation. While some of these production systems are becoming semi-intensive, appropriate breeding strategies should be designed to promote conservation and improvement of their unique attributes, such as adaptability, water use efficiency and suitability under harsh climatic conditions. In Europe, dairy goat production is more common around the Mediterranean basin, where it is important from an economic, environmental and sociological perspective to the Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy and Greece. Europe owns only 5.1 % of the world's dairy goat herds, but produces 15.6 % of the world's goat milk; this is the only continent where goat milk has such an economic importance and organization. In developing countries the dairy goat sector requires a systemic approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, know-how, inputs and technologies must be assembled. This would allow the optimization of natural and local resources and would promote the transition from a risk reduction strategy towards an increased productivity strategy. Such an increase would privilege production efficiency based on clean, green and ethical practices for responsible innovation. PMID:22890482

  3. Computerized dairy records management systems 

    E-print Network

    Acosta, Alejandro E. Gonzalez

    1992-01-01

    . . . . . . 1. 3. Management Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. 3. 1. Record Keeping History. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 . . . . . . . 3 . . . . . 3 . . . . . . . 4 4 . . . . . . . 5 1. 3. 2. Hand-Kept v. s.... Computerized Records. . . . . . . . . . . 6 1. 3. 3. Direct Access to Records by Telephone. . . . . . . . . 6 II. HEIFER MANAGEMENT. 2. 1. Dairy Replacements. . 2. 2. Heifers Breeding Management . . . . . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . 7 . . . . . . . 8...

  4. The responsiveness of subclinical endometritis to a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug in pasture-grazed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Priest, N V; McDougall, S; Burke, C R; Roche, J R; Mitchell, M; McLeod, K L; Greenwood, S L; Meier, S

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the inflammation associated with subclinical endometritis (SCE) is a part of the mechanism by which reproductive performance is reduced in cows with this disease. If it is, reducing inflammation associated with SCE with a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) should reduce the severity [as measured by average polymorphonuclear cell (PMN) percentage] of uterine pathology and improve reproductive performance. It was also investigated whether the NSAID treatment reduced metabolic indicators of systemic inflammation previously reported to be altered in cows with SCE. Holstein-Friesian and Friesian-Jersey cross dairy cows (n=213) were paired by calving date and d-14 uterine PMN percentage and randomly assigned to 3 injections at intervals of 3 d of an NSAID (1.4 mg of carprofen/kg; n=104) between 21 and 31 d postpartum or left as untreated controls (n=109). Cows with ?14% PMN (upper quartile of PMN percentage) in the cytological sample collected at d 14 postpartum were defined as having SCE. The average d-14 PMN percentage was low (9.9%) and a high self-cure rate of SCE (>90%) at d 42 was observed. Treatment with an NSAID reduced plasma concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase and increased pregnancy rate in SCE cows. However, no effect of the NSAID treatment was observed on PMN percentage at d 42, postpartum anovulatory interval, or milk production. Compared with cows without SCE, cows with SCE had lower plasma albumin concentration, albumin:globulin ratio, and body condition score, but higher nonesterified fatty acids on the day of calving. These results indicate that cows with SCE are experiencing a physiological dysfunction, including lower body condition, liver dysfunction, and greater metabolic challenge during the periparturient period. Further research is required to determine the effect of NSAID on SCE and to evaluate the influence of timing of drug application on treatment effectiveness. PMID:23660148

  5. The relationship between various animal and management factors and milk urea, and its association with reproductive performance of dairy cows grazing pasture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M Trevaskis; W. J Fulkerson

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the use of milk urea to diagnose nutrient imbalances in diets of dairy cattle grazing pasture and infertility problems associated with excess dietary nitrogen (N). A first experiment investigated the influence of the ratio of N\\/water soluble carbohydrate (WSC) (g\\/g) and N\\/metabolisable energy (ME) (g\\/MJ) (% of estimated intake) in the diet, and animal

  6. Milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows grazing at two pasture allowances and supplemented with different levels and sources of concentrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Bargo; J. E. Delahoy; G. F. Schroeder; L. D. Muller

    2006-01-01

    Milk fatty acid (FA) composition of dairy cows from two grazing studies was examined. In the first study, effects of concentrate supplementation and pasture allowance were evaluated using 20 multiparous Holstein cows in five 4×4 Latin squares. The four treatments resulted from the combination of two pasture allowances (i.e., low, 25 versus high, 40kg dry matter\\/cow\\/day) and two concentrate supplementation

  7. Effects of supplementing complexed zinc, manganese, copper and cobalt on lactation and reproductive performance of intensively grazed lactating dairy cattle on the South Island of New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. M. Griffiths; S. H. Loeffler; M. T. Socha; D. J. Tomlinson; A. B. Johnson

    2007-01-01

    Five hundred and fifty-five healthy, pregnant, non-lactating Holstein–Friesian cows on an intensively grazed, commercial dairy were assigned to a study to determine effects of daily water treatment with Co glucoheptonate and amino acid complexes of Zn, Mn and Cu on lactational performance, fertility and claw hardness. Cows were randomly assigned to treatment based upon eartag number. At approximately 35 days

  8. 100% PASTURE FOR DAIRY COWS: PROFITABILITY, MILK QUALITY AND ANIMAL WELFARE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some dairy farmers and consumers are proponents of a diet for dairy cows with 100% pasture and no supplementation, similar to a New Zealand system. However, for US dairy producers who are thinking about a “100% pasture” system, this may not be a reality. Even during the 6 to 7 months grazing period,...

  9. Milk Response to Concentrate Supplementation of High Producing Dairy Cows Grazing at Two Pasture Allowances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Bargo; L. D. Muller; J. E. Delahoy; T. W. Cassidy

    2002-01-01

    Twenty multiparous Holstein cows (four ruminally cannulated)infive4 ×4Latinsquareswith21-dperiods were used to study the effect of concentrate supplemen- tation when grazed at two pasture allowances. The four dietary treatments resulted from the combination of two pasture allowance targets (low, 25 vs. high, 40 kg of dry matter\\/cow per day) and two concentrate supple- mentation levels (zero vs. 1 kg of concentrate\\/4

  10. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving efficiency of production in pasture- and range-based beef and dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Mulliniks, J T; Rius, A G; Edwards, M A; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; Nave, R L G

    2015-06-01

    Despite overall increased production in the last century, it is critical that grazing production systems focus on improving beef and dairy efficiency to meet current and future global food demands. For livestock producers, production efficiency is essential to maintain long-term profitability and sustainability. This continued viability of production systems using pasture- and range-based grazing systems requires more rapid adoption of innovative management practices and selection tools that increase profitability by optimizing grazing management and increasing reproductive performance. Understanding the genetic variation in cow herds will provide the ability to select cows that require less energy for maintenance, which can potentially reduce total energy utilization or energy required for production, consequently improving production efficiency and profitability. In the United States, pasture- and range-based grazing systems vary tremendously across various unique environments that differ in climate, topography, and forage production. This variation in environmental conditions contributes to the challenges of developing or targeting specific genetic components and grazing systems that lead to increased production efficiency. However, across these various environments and grazing management systems, grazable forage remains the least expensive nutrient source to maintain productivity of the cow herd. Beef and dairy cattle can capitalize on their ability to utilize these feed resources that are not usable for other production industries. Therefore, lower-cost alternatives to feeding harvested and stored feedstuffs have the opportunity to provide to livestock producers a sustainable and efficient forage production system. However, increasing production efficiency within a given production environment would vary according to genetic potential (i.e., growth and milk potential), how that genetic potential fits the respective production environment, and how the grazing management fits within those genetic parameters. Therefore, matching cow type or genetic potential to the production environment is and will be more important as cost of production increases. PMID:26115249

  11. Dierences in the epidemiology of theileriosis on smallholder dairy farms in contrasting agro-ecological and grazing strata of highland Kenya

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K. GITAU; J. J. McDERMOTT; J. M. KATENDE; C. J. O'CALLAGHAN; R. N. BROWN; D. PERRY

    2000-01-01

    SUMMARY A prospective cohort study was conducted in five purposively-sampled agro-ecological zone (AEZ)-grazing system strata in Murang'a District, Kenya, between March 1995 and June 1996. The study strata were selected based on a preliminary characterization study to represent the widest range of risks to East Coast fever (ECF) in the District and included zero-grazing and open-grazing farms. In total, 225

  12. Invited review: Genetic considerations for various pasture-based dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Washburn, S P; Mullen, K A E

    2014-10-01

    Pasture-based dairy systems use grazing to supply significant percentages of the dry matter intake of cows and heifers. Such systems vary from those for which pasture is used only as a supplemental feed for cows primarily fed a total mixed ration to those for which pasture is the primary source of dry matter for the herd. Cows that are optimal in a pasture system share many general characteristics with cows that are appropriate for a nonpasture system, including feed efficiency, maintenance of body condition, reproductive fitness, udder health, longevity, and the ability to adapt to various management systems. However, in such divergent feeding systems, the relative importance of various traits can differ. In pasture systems where cow nutrient demand intentionally coincides with seasonal forage availability, the focus of selection has emphasized fertility and other fitness traits, as well as yields of milk or milk components. Breeds or strains with higher yields of protein and fat typically have advantages in grazing systems that supply milk to solids-based or cheese markets. Holstein cows with high percentages of North American ancestry can work well in grazing systems that include supplemental concentrates or partial mixed rations, particularly if calving intervals are less restrictive. Crossbred cows can be selected for use in specific grazing systems as well as for specific milk markets, with the added advantage of heterosis. Breeds and crosses with high fertility are important for seasonal breeding and calving. The ability of cattle to both milk and maintain sufficient body condition for reproduction is important for any dairy production system but is critical in a seasonal system. Dairy farms that depend on pasture for most of dry matter for cows typically have lower production per cow than nongrazing dairies but have the potential to be economically competitive because of lower operating and overhead costs. Although the principles of selection are similar across a variety of pasture-based and nonpasture systems, we document from studies and observations covered herein that optimal breeds, breed strains, and selection strategies can differ based on varying management constraints and objectives. PMID:25151878

  13. Analysis of FEL optical systems with grazing incidence mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Knapp, C.E.; Viswanathan, V.K.; Bender, S.C.; Appert, Q.D.; Lawrence, G.; Barnard, C.

    1986-01-01

    The use of grazing incidence optics in resonators alleviates the problem of damage to the optical elements and permits higher powers in cavities of reasonable dimensions for a free electron laser (FEL). The design and manufacture of a grazing incidence beam expander for the Los Alamos FEL mock-up has been completed. In this paper, we describe the analysis of a bare cavity, grazing incidence optical beam expander for an FEL system. Since the existing geometrical and physical optics codes were inadequate for such an analysis, the GLAD code was modified to include global coordinates, exact conic representation, raytracing, and exact aberration features to determine the alignment sensitivities of laser resonators. A resonator cavity has been manufactured and experimentally setup in the Optical Evaluation Laboratory at Los Alamos. Calculated performance is compared with the laboratory measurements obtained so far.

  14. A comparison of frontal and continuous systems of grazing

    E-print Network

    Achaval O'Farrell, Fabian de

    1991-01-01

    A COMPARISON OF FRONTAL AND CONTINUOUS SVSTEMS OF GRAZING A Thesis by FABIAN de ACHAVAL O'FARRELL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Animal Science A COMPARISON OF FRONTAL AND CONTINUOUS SYSTEMS OF GRAZING A Thesis by FABIAN de ACHAVAL O'FARRELL Approved as to style and content by: W. C. Elias (Chair of Committee) M. M. Kothmann (Member) W. A...

  15. Enhancing soil and landscape quality in smallholder grazing systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grasslands constitute the largest global land use and are an important part of agricultural and ecological systems on every continent, across a wide range of potential productivity. Ruminant livestock grazing on these lands constitutes an important form of agricultural production. It is estimated th...

  16. EFFECTS OF CATTLE GRAZING SYSTEMS ON WILLOW-DOMINATED

    E-print Network

    EFFECTS OF CATTLE GRAZING SYSTEMS ON WILLOW-DOMINATED PLANT ASSOCIATIONS IN CENTRAL OREGON Bernard L. Kovalchik Wayne Elmore ABSTRACT Early fur trappers reported seeing extensive willow stands, but rangeland management strategies have been slow to im prove willow riparian zone conditions, a factor largely

  17. LEACHING LOSSES OF NITROGEN FROM STOCKPILED DAIRY MANURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter-feeding is a challenge for grazing based livestock systems. Low input dairy systems may use outdoor winter-feeding in lots that provide protection from weather and a straw bedded pack is used to keep cows dry. The water quality risk associated with outdoor winter-feeding of dairy cows is not ...

  18. Extreme phosphorus losses in drainage from grazed dairy pastures on marginal land.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Richard W; Monaghan, Ross M

    2015-03-01

    With the installation of artificial drainage and large inputs of lime and fertilizer, dairy farming can be profitable on marginal land. We hypothesized that this will lead to large phosphorus (P) losses and potential surface water impairment if the soil has little capacity to sorb added P. Phosphorous was measured in drainage from three "marginal" soils used for dairying: an Organic soil that had been developed out of scrub for 2 yr and used for winter forage cropping, a Podzol that had been developed into pasture for 10 yr, and an intergrade soil that had been in pasture for 2 yr. Over 18 mo, drainage was similar among all sites (521-574 mm), but the load leached to 35-cm depth from the Organic soil was 87 kg P ha (?89% of fertilizer-P added); loads were 1.7 and 9.0 kg ha from the Podzol and intergrade soils, respectively. Soil sampling to 100 cm showed that added P leached throughout the Organic soil profile but was stratified and enriched in the top 15 cm of the Podzol. Poor P sorption capacity (<5%) in the Organic soil, measured as anion storage capacity, and tillage (causing mineralization and P release) in the Organic and intergrade soils were thought to be the main causes of high P loss. It is doubtful that strategies would successfully mitigate these losses to an environmentally acceptable level. However, anion storage capacity could be used to identify marginal soils with high potential for P loss for the purpose of managing risk. PMID:26023973

  19. Metabolic and endocrine profiles and reproductive parameters in dairy cows under grazing conditions: effect of polymorphisms in somatotropic axis genes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The present study hypothesized that GH-AluI and IGF-I-SnabI polymorphisms do change the metabolic/endocrine profiles in Holstein cows during the transition period, which in turn are associated with productive and reproductive parameters. Methods Holstein cows (Farm 1, primiparous cows, n = 110, and Farm 2, multiparous cows, n = 76) under grazing conditions were selected and GH and IGF-I genotypes were determined. Blood samples for metabolic/endocrine determinations were taken during the transition period and early lactation in both farms. Data was analyzed by farm using a repeated measures analyses including GH and IGF-I genotypes, days and interactions as fixed effects, sire and cow as random effects and calving date as covariate. Results and Discussion Frequencies of GH and IGF-I alleles were L:0.84, V:0.16 and A:0.60, B:0.40, respectively. The GH genotype was not associated with productive or reproductive variables, but interaction with days affected FCM yield in multiparous (farm 2) cows (LL yielded more than LV cows) in early lactation. The GH genotype affected NEFA and IGF-I concentrations in farm 1 (LV had higher NEFA and lower IGF-I than LL cows) suggesting a better energy status of LL cows. There was no effect of IGF-I genotype on productive variables, but a trend was found for FCM in farm 2 (AB cows yielded more than AA cows). IGF-I genotype affected calving first service interval in farm 1, and the interaction with days tended to affect FCM yield (AB cows had a shorter interval and yielded more FCM than BB cows). IGF-I genotype affected BHB, NEFA, and insulin concentrations in farm 1: primiparous BB cows had lower NEFA and BHB and higher insulin concentrations. In farm 2, there was no effect of IGF-I genotype, but there was an interaction with days on IGF-I concentration, suggesting a greater uncoupling somatropic axis in AB and BB than AA cows, being in accordance with greater FCM yield in AB cows. Conclusion The GH and IGF-I genotypes had no substantial effect on productive parameters, although IGF-I genotype affected calving-first service interval in primiparous cows. Besides, these genotypes may modify the endocrine/metabolic profiles of the transition dairy cow under grazing conditions. PMID:21635772

  20. A comparison of frontal and continuous systems of grazing 

    E-print Network

    Achaval O'Farrell, Fabian de

    1991-01-01

    /ha in relation to grazing pressure, and test if Frontal Grazing (FG) yields ADG and gain/ha differ from that expected on continuous grazing (CG) at the same grazing pressure; and 2) compare effects of Frontal Grazing vs. continuous grazing on forage... SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS LITERATURE CITED APPENDICES. VITA 57 62 65 72 141 LIST OP TABLES TABLE 1. STOCKING DENSITIES (SD), PADDOCK NAME, REPLICATION, AREA (ha), AND NUMBER OF HEAD FOR EACH TREATMENT Page 23 TABLE 2...

  1. Gastrointestinal parasites presence during the peripartum decreases total milk production in grazing dairy Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Perri, A F; Mejía, M E; Licoff, N; Lazaro, L; Miglierina, M; Ornstein, A; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2011-06-10

    Parasitism in cattle is known to impair growth and development. Recent findings suggest that productivity of adult animals is also affected, but little is known about the physiological mechanisms involved. Furthermore, development of nematode resistance to drugs makes imperative the search of management practices that avoid whole herd treatment. We undertook an epidemiological and endocrine study in a grass based dairy farm in Argentina to study the effect of parasites on milk production and the underlying mechanisms involved, and identify individual animals that would benefit from antiparasitic treatment. All the cows in the dairy were followed monthly for egg parasite output in feces. Samples were cultured for genera determination. Milk production and reproductive results were recorded and periodical bleedings for hormone determination were performed. Nematode egg output (EPG) was maximal in late Summer and Autumn and minimal in Spring in coincidence with the Ostertagia inhibition-disinhibition cycle as this genus had the highest prevalence in all the study. The highest proportion of positive samples was found in the high producing herd and maximal counts were found in the peripartal period. Milk production did not correlate with EPG mean values but, when cows were grouped by EPG positivity around parturition, a significant difference in total milk production between EPG null and positive cows was observed. Positive cows produced 7%, 12% or 15% less milk than null EPG cows, depending on the sampling month/s chosen for classification. The highest difference was seen when both prepartum and postpartum samples were taken into account. No difference in lactation length and a marginal effect on partum to first service interval were encountered. Endocrine studies revealed a decrease in serum growth hormone (GH), type I insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and prolactin during lactation in cows with positive EPG in the first postpartum sample with respect to null EPG cows at that time. GH levels decreased and prolactin and IGF-I levels increased in both groups of cows from month 0 to 6 in milk. Serum insulin levels remained stable throughout lactation and were similar in both groups of cows. In conclusion, EPG around parturition may be a useful tool for identifying cows that will have a decrease in productivity due to parasite effects and would possibly benefit from an antiparasitic treatment. Besides, our results suggest that detrimental effect of parasites on milk production may be mediated by GH, IGF-I and prolactin serum levels. PMID:21269774

  2. DAIRYMAP: A WEB-BASED EXPERT SYSTEM FOR DAIRY HERD MANAGEMENT by

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SANJAY S. CHELLAPILLA

    This thesis describes the design and implementation of DairyMAP, a Web-based benchmarking analysis and Expert System for Dairy Herd Producers, as part of the Dairy Management Analysis Program undertaken by the Edgar L. Rhodes Center for Animal and Dairy Science. The system consists of two major components - a preliminary statistical benchmarking analysis (based on Dairy Herd Information reports provided

  3. Long-term cattle gain responses to stocking rate and grazing systems in northern mixed-grass prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of stocking rate and grazing system on gains of yearling beef cattle grazing rangelands have largely been addressed in short-term (<10 yr) studies, and often stocking rates are confounded within grazing systems with higher stocking rates for short-duration rotational grazing systems comp...

  4. Do Bells Affect Behaviour and Heart Rate Variability in Grazing Dairy Cows?

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Julia; Patt, Antonia; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-01-01

    In alpine regions cows are often equipped with bells. The present study investigated the impact of wearing a bell on behaviour and heart rate variability in dairy cows. Nineteen non-lactating Brown-Swiss cows with bell experience were assigned to three different treatments. For 3 days each, cows were equipped with no bell (control), with a bell with inactivated clapper (silent bell) or with a functional bell (functional bell). The bells weighed 5.5 kg and had frequencies between 532 Hz and 2.8 kHz and amplitudes between 90 and 113 dB at a distance of 20 cm. Data were collected on either the first and third or on all 3 days of each treatment. Whereas duration of rumination was reduced with a functional bell and a silent bell compared with no bell, feeding duration was reduced with a silent bell and was intermediate with a functional bell. Head movements were reduced when wearing a silent bell compared with no bell and tended to be reduced when wearing a functional compared to no bell. With a functional bell, lying duration was reduced by almost 4 hours on the third day of treatment compared with the first day with a functional bell and compared with no bell or a silent bell. All additional behavioural measures are consistent with the hypothesis of a restriction in the behaviour of the cows wearing bells, although this pattern did not reach significance. There was no treatment effect on heart rate variability, suggesting that the bells did not affect vago-sympathetic balance. An effect of experimental day was found for only 1 out of 10 behavioural parameters, as shown by a decrease in lying with a functional bell on day 3. The results indicate behavioural changes in the cows wearing a bell over 3 days, without indication of habituation to the bell. Altogether, the behavioural changes suggest that the behaviour of the cows was disturbed by wearing a bell. If long-lasting, these effects may have implications for animal welfare. PMID:26110277

  5. Vitamin and trace element supplementation in grazing dairy ewe during the dry season: effect on milk yield, composition, and clotting aptitude.

    PubMed

    Tufarelli, Vincenzo; Petrera, F; Khan, R U; Laudadio, Vito

    2011-06-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the influence of vitamin and trace mineral supplementation on milk production and composition in grazing dairy ewes during the dry season. Ewes (n?=?50) were assigned at weaning to blocks and treatments. Ewes were daily conducted (8 h/day) on a pasture based on Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum). At fold, ewes received a basal diet composed by ad libitum oat hay and a definite amount of a pelleted concentrate. Dietary treatments included: (1) the control concentrate containing background of vitamin and trace mineral only, and (2) the experimental concentrate containing the premix supplement (10 g/kg of dry matter). Vitamin and trace mineral supplementation did not affect ewes' body weight. Milk, fat- and protein-corrected milk, fat percentage, and clotting properties were improved in ewes fed supplemented concentrate. There was a week?×?treatment interaction (P?grazing dairy ewe, the dietary vitamin and trace mineral supplementation during dry season led to an increase of milk production and quality, with positive improvement in milk clotting aptitude. PMID:21331497

  6. Dairy 

    E-print Network

    Sloan

    2009-01-01

    and daughter stayability differentials were included into the PV$ and PC$ models. An ancillary objective was to estimate the effects of sexed semen and semen unit dilution on profitability using NPV to determine optimum breeding strategies for dairy herds... PC$ varying number of sires selected 81 81 Figure Page 26 Effect and opportunity cost of sexed female semen on mean PV$ varying number of sires selected . . . 84 27 Effect and opportunity cost of sexed female semen and decrease of dairy heifer...

  7. Dairy 

    E-print Network

    Sloan

    2009-01-01

    of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 199S Major Subject Dairy Science EVALUATION OF THE ACCURACY OF DHIA PREDICTED MILK USING ACTUAL MILK SHIPPED A Thesis by RICHARD SCOTT COKER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... Major Subject: Dairy Science ABSTRACT Evaluation of the Accuracy of DHIA Predicted Milk Using Actual Milk Shipped. (December 1995) Richard Scott Coker, B. S. , Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Michael A. Tomaszewski The purpose...

  8. On-farm evaluation of the effect of coffee pulp supplementation on milk yield and dry matter intake of dairy cows grazing tropical grasses in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Pedraza-Beltrán, Paulina; Estrada-Flores, Julieta G; Martínez-Campos, Angel R; Estrada-López, Isael; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo A; Yong-Angel, Gilberto; Figueroa-Medina, Marisol; Nova, Francisca Avilés; Castelán-Ortega, Octavio A

    2012-02-01

    Tropical grasses are the primary nutrient resource for cattle production in the tropics, and they provide low-cost nutrients to cattle. However, its production is constrained by seasonal changes and quality; hence, appropriate usage of relatively inexpensive agricultural by-products is important to profitable livestock production. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing coffee pulp to dairy cows grazing tropical grasses on milk yield and forage intake. Four multiparous crossed Holstein-Brown Swiss-Zebu cows of similar weight and milk yield were used. The effect of 10%, 15% and 20% inclusion of coffee pulp in dairy concentrates on milk yield and forage intake was analysed using a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Results showed that there were no significant effects (P > 0.05) in grass dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition body weight and body condition score due to the inclusion of coffee pulp in the dairy concentrates. It is concluded that coffee pulp can be included at levels of 20% in the concentrate without compromising significantly (P > 0.05) milk yield, milk composition and grass dry matter intake. It also was concluded that cost of concentrate is reduced in 20% by the inclusion of coffee pulp. PMID:22119887

  9. Dairy Manure Handling Systems and Equipment. 

    E-print Network

    Sweeten, John M.

    1983-01-01

    .6 Manure 3. Liquid Manure - 5-13 0.1-0.5 0.1 0.2-0.3 Anaerobic Storage Pit 4. Anaerobic Lagoon 0.3 0.02 0.004 0.03 Effluent 5. Ope n Lot Runoff - 0.02-0.07 0.01 0.01 0.03 Stored Effluent 6. Milking Center 0.5-1 .0 0.1-0.2 0.01-0.02 Waste... of Agricul tural Engineers, 51. Joseph, Mi chigan, pp. 150-152. Basic System Alternatives Basic systems that have proved workable for storage and disposal of dairy manure in the Southwestern United States are: 1. Liquid manure storage pit, followed...

  10. e-Cow: an animal model that predicts herbage intake, milk yield and live weight change in dairy cows grazing temperate pastures, with and without supplementary feeding.

    PubMed

    Baudracco, J; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Comeron, E A; Macdonald, K A; Barry, T N; Friggens, N C

    2012-06-01

    This animal simulation model, named e-Cow, represents a single dairy cow at grazing. The model integrates algorithms from three previously published models: a model that predicts herbage dry matter (DM) intake by grazing dairy cows, a mammary gland model that predicts potential milk yield and a body lipid model that predicts genetically driven live weight (LW) and body condition score (BCS). Both nutritional and genetic drives are accounted for in the prediction of energy intake and its partitioning. The main inputs are herbage allowance (HA; kg DM offered/cow per day), metabolisable energy and NDF concentrations in herbage and supplements, supplements offered (kg DM/cow per day), type of pasture (ryegrass or lucerne), days in milk, days pregnant, lactation number, BCS and LW at calving, breed or strain of cow and genetic merit, that is, potential yields of milk, fat and protein. Separate equations are used to predict herbage intake, depending on the cutting heights at which HA is expressed. The e-Cow model is written in Visual Basic programming language within Microsoft Excel®. The model predicts whole-lactation performance of dairy cows on a daily basis, and the main outputs are the daily and annual DM intake, milk yield and changes in BCS and LW. In the e-Cow model, neither herbage DM intake nor milk yield or LW change are needed as inputs; instead, they are predicted by the e-Cow model. The e-Cow model was validated against experimental data for Holstein-Friesian cows with both North American (NA) and New Zealand (NZ) genetics grazing ryegrass-based pastures, with or without supplementary feeding and for three complete lactations, divided into weekly periods. The model was able to predict animal performance with satisfactory accuracy, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.81, 0.76 and 0.62 for herbage DM intake, milk yield and LW change, respectively. Simulations performed with the model showed that it is sensitive to genotype by feeding environment interactions. The e-Cow model tended to overestimate the milk yield of NA genotype cows at low milk yields, while it underestimated the milk yield of NZ genotype cows at high milk yields. The approach used to define the potential milk yield of the cow and equations used to predict herbage DM intake make the model applicable for predictions in countries with temperate pastures. PMID:22558969

  11. Botanical and chemical composition of sheep diets on two grazing systems in the Edwards Plateau 

    E-print Network

    Robinson, Cheryl Lee

    1990-01-01

    system. Esophageal diet samples were collected the first and last two days of grazing periods. Botanical and chemical campmition were analyzed. Available vegetation was measured before and after each grazing period. No significant diff~ were found... Protein of Available Forage 16 16 18 18 18 23 25 30 TABLE OF CCST$?IS (Continued) III (Continued) Page Digestibility of Available Forage Grazing Pressure Animal Performance Oampositicn of tbe Diet Botanical Composition of Esophageal Samples...

  12. Effects of grazing management system on plant community structure and functioning in a semiarid steppe: scaling from species to community

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongwei Wan; Yongfei Bai; Philipp Schönbach; Martin Gierus; Friedhelm Taube

    2011-01-01

    Under the aim of searching for a more sustainable grazing management system, a mixed management system (grazing and haymaking\\u000a alternate annually) was proposed and tested against traditional management system (used consistently either for grazing or\\u000a haymaking) in the semiarid grassland of Inner Mongolia with a field manipulation experiment. The responses of aboveground\\u000a biomass to the two grazing management systems were

  13. Dryland Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Influenced by Sheep Grazing in the Wheat-Fallow System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep (Ovis aries L.) grazing during fallow for weed control in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)-fallow systems may influence soil C and N levels and grain yields by returning part of consumed crop residue to the soil through feces and urine. We evaluated the effects of fallow management [sheep grazing ...

  14. KNOWLEDGE GAPS IN ASSESS AND PREDICTING GRAZING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: ART OR SCIENCE?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adoption of research techniques associated with tame pastures has improved the community scale understanding of rangeland grazing systems. While our undertanding of grazing behavior, diet selection and intake has benefited by a more intensive approach, there is little evidence that livestock pe...

  15. Grazing initiation timing affects net rturn to dual-purpose wheat systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited experimental data are available to allow direct evaluation of the effects of grazing initiation timing on net returns to dual-purpose wheat systems. The objectives were to simulate the effect of grazing initiation dates on net returns to a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) – cattle (Bos taurus) ...

  16. Effect of nitrogen fertilization rate and regrowth interval of grass herbage on methane emission of zero-grazing lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Warner, D; Podesta, S C; Hatew, B; Klop, G; van Laar, H; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2015-05-01

    Dairy cattle farming in temperate regions often relies on grass herbage (GH)-based diets but the effect of several grass management options on enteric CH4 emission has not been fully investigated yet. We investigated the combined effect of N fertilization rate and length of regrowth period of GH (predominantly ryegrass) on CH4 emission from lactating dairy cows. In a randomized block design, 28 lactating Holstein-Friesian dairy cows received a basal diet of GH and compound feed [85:15; dry matter (DM) basis]. Treatments consisted of GH cut after 3 or 5 weeks of regrowth, after receiving either a low (20kg of N/ha) or a high (90kg of N/ha) fertilization rate after initial cut. Feed intake, digestibility, milk production and composition, N and energy balance, and CH4 emission were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after an adaptation to the diet for 12d. Cows were restricted-fed during measurements and mean DM intake was 15.0±0.16kg/d. Herbage crude protein content varied between 76 and 161g/kg of DM, and sugar content between 186 and 303g/kg of DM. Fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and feed digestibility increased with increased N fertilization rates and a shorter regrowth interval. Increasing the N fertilization rate increased daily CH4 emission per cow (+10%) and per unit of DM intake (+9%), tended to increase the fraction of gross energy intake emitted as CH4 (+7%), and (partly because of the low crude protein content for the low fertilized GH) only numerically reduced CH4 per unit of FPCM. The longer regrowth interval increased CH4 emission per unit of FPCM (+14%) compared with the shorter regrowth interval, but did not affect CH4 emission expressed in any other unit. With increasing N fertilization CH4 emission decreased per unit of digestible neutral detergent fiber intake (-13%) but not per unit of digestible organic matter intake. There was no interaction of the effect of N fertilization rate and regrowth interval on CH4 emission, but effects of N fertilization were generally most distinct with GH of 5 wk regrowth. The present results suggest that altering grass quality through an increase of N fertilization and a shorter regrowth interval can reduce CH4 emission in zero-grazing dairy cows, depending on the unit in which it is expressed. The larger amount of CH4 produced per day and cow with the more intensively managed GH is compensated by a higher feed digestibility and FPCM yield. PMID:25771062

  17. Relationships among rotational and conventional grazing systems, stream channels, and macroinvertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, K.L.; Vondracek, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cattle grazing in riparian areas can reduce water quality, alter stream channel characteristics, and alter fish and macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Services has recommended Rotational Grazing (RG) as an alternative management method on livestock and dairy operations to protect riparian areas and water quality. We evaluated 13 stream channel characteristics, benthic macroinvertebrate larvae (BML), and chironomid pupal exuviae (CPE) from 18 sites in the Upper Midwest of the United States in relation to RG and conventional grazing (CG). A Biotic Composite Score comprised of several macroinvertebrate metrics was developed for both the BML assemblage and the CPE assemblage. Multi-Response Permutation Procedures (MRPP) indicated a significant difference in stream channel characteristics between RG and CG. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling indicated that RG sites were associated with more stable stream banks, higher quality aquatic habitat, lower soil compaction, and larger particles in the streambed. However, neither MRPP nor Mann-Whitney U tests demonstrated a difference in Biotic Composite Scores for BML or CPE along RG and CG sites. The BML and CPE metrics were significantly correlated, indicating that they were likely responding to similar variables among the study sites. Although stream channel characteristics appeared to respond to grazing management, BML and CPE may have responded to land use throughout the watershed, as well as local land use. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  18. Genotype effects on body temperature in dairy cows under grazing conditions in a hot climate including evidence for heterosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Dikmen; L. Martins; E. Pontes; P. J. Hansen

    2009-01-01

    We compared diurnal patterns of vaginal temperature in lactating cows under grazing conditions to evaluate genotype effects\\u000a on body temperature regulation. Genotypes evaluated were Holstein, Jersey, Jersey × Holstein and Swedish Red × Holstein. The\\u000a comparison of Holstein and Jersey versus Jersey × Holstein provided a test of whether heterosis effects body temperature regulation.\\u000a Cows were fitted with intravaginal temperature

  19. Livestock Production and Profitability Comparisons of Various Grazing Systems, Texas Range Station. 

    E-print Network

    Huss, Donald L.; Allen, Jerry V.

    1969-01-01

    B-1089 October 1969 Livestock Production and Prof& - bility Ca~tiYisolw Of Vuriozcs Crazing Systems, T~was Range Station TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY Texas Agricultural Experiment Station H. 0. Kunkel, Acting Director, College Station, Texas Summa y... Research on the Texas Range Station, Barnhart, was modified in 1958 to study the effects of various grazing systems on livestock production. This study reports livestock production and profitability from 1959 through 1965 under different grazing systems...

  20. AN INTEGRATED FARM SYSTEM MODEL FOR EVALUATING ALTERNATIVES IN CROP, DAIRY AND BEEF PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Through an expansion of the Dairy Forage System Model (DAFOSYM), an Integrated Farm System Model was created to study the long-term performance, environmental impact, and economics of crop, beef and dairy production systems. Simulation of cash crop hay, cow calf, stocker and dairy production options...

  1. Quantifying greenhouse gas sources and sinks in cropland and grazing land systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop and grazing land management influences greenhouse gas emissions, which can be reduced by adopting conservation practices. Operators of cropland systems use a variety of practices that have implications for emissions, such as nutrient additions, irrigation, liming applications, tillage practices...

  2. Wavefront Sensing Analysis of Grazing Incidence Optical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrbach, Scott; Saha, Timo

    2012-01-01

    Wavefront sensing is a process by which optical system errors are deduced from the aberrations in the image of an ideal source. The method has been used successfully in near-normal incidence, but not for grazing incidence systems. This innovation highlights the ability to examine out-of-focus images from grazing incidence telescopes (typically operating in the x-ray wavelengths, but integrated using optical wavelengths) and determine the lower-order deformations. This is important because as a metrology tool, this method would allow the integration of high angular resolution optics without the use of normal incidence interferometry, which requires direct access to the front surface of each mirror. Measuring the surface figure of mirror segments in a highly nested x-ray telescope mirror assembly is difficult due to the tight packing of elements and blockage of all but the innermost elements to normal incidence light. While this can be done on an individual basis in a metrology mount, once the element is installed and permanently bonded into the assembly, it is impossible to verify the figure of each element and ensure that the necessary imaging quality will be maintained. By examining on-axis images of an ideal point source, one can gauge the low-order figure errors of individual elements, even when integrated into an assembly. This technique is known as wavefront sensing (WFS). By shining collimated light down the optical axis of the telescope and looking at out-of-focus images, the blur due to low-order figure errors of individual elements can be seen, and the figure error necessary to produce that blur can be calculated. The method avoids the problem of requiring normal incidence access to the surface of each mirror segment. Mirror figure errors span a wide range of spatial frequencies, from the lowest-order bending to the highest order micro-roughness. While all of these can be measured in normal incidence, only the lowest-order contributors can be determined through this WFS technique.

  3. The Dairy Technology System in Venezuela. Summary of Research 79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Ruben D.; Henderson, Janet L.

    A study examined the agricultural technology system in Venezuela with emphasis on the dairy industry. An analytical framework was used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the following components of Venezuela's agricultural technology system: policy, technology development, technology transfer, and technology use. Selected government…

  4. Vegetation and cow-calf response to several grazing systems in the rolling plains of Texas 

    E-print Network

    Knight, Jan Carol

    1987-01-01

    treatments at a rate of 1. 5 lbs. per head per day. Continuous grazing herds changed pastures within stocking rate after the calves were weaned each year, so that supplement was not fed in the same pasture in 2 consecutive years. The severity... stocking rates in yearlong grazing (HCN and MCN) and a 2-pasture deferred rotation system (2DHN and 2DMN), and winter supplementation of protein at heavy and moderate stocking on continuously grazed pastures (HCS and MCS) and at moderate stocking in 3...

  5. Global Grazing Systems: Their Continuing Importance in Meeting Global Demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, K. F.; D'Odorico, P.

    2014-12-01

    Animal production exerts significant demand on land, water and food resources and is an extensive means by which humans modify natural systems. Demand for animal source foods has more than tripled over the past 50 years due to population growth and dietary change. To meet this demand, livestock intensification (e.g. concentrated animal feeding operations) has increased and with it the water, nitrogen and carbon footprints of animal production. However, grass-fed systems continue to contribute significantly to overall animal production. To date, little is known about the contributions of grass- and grain-fed systems to animal calorie production, how this has changed through time and to what extent these two systems are sensitive to climate. Using a calorie-based approach we hypothesize that grain-fed systems are increasing in importance (with serious implications for water and nutrient demand) and that rangeland productivity is correlated with rainfall. Our findings show that grass-fed systems made up the majority of animal calorie production since 1960 years but that the relative contribution of grain-fed system has increased (from 27% to 49%). This rapid transition towards grain-fed animal production is largely a result of changing diets demand, as we found the growth of grass-fed production only kept pace with population growth. On a regional scale, we find that Asia has been the major contributor to the increase in grass-fed animal calorie production and that Africa has undergone the most drastic transition from grass-fed to grain-fed dependence. Finally, as expected we see a positive relationship between rangeland productivity and precipitation and a shift from dairy- to meat-dominated production going from drier to wetter climates. This study represents a new means of analyzing the food security of animal products and an important step in understanding the historic trends of animal production, their relation to climate, their prospects for the future and their implications for freshwater resources and nutrient cycling.

  6. Short communication: Responses to supplemental Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product and triticale grain in dairy cows grazing high-quality pasture in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Irvine, L D; Freeman, M J; Donaghy, D J; Yoon, I; Lee, G; Roche, J R

    2011-06-01

    Supplementing cows grazing highly digestible pasture with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) was hypothesized to increase dry matter (DM) intake and milk production. Sixty multiparous dairy cows were fed 3 kg of crushed triticale DM/cow per day for 23 ± 4.4 d before calving. Half of the cows received SCFP (60 g/d; Diamond V Original XP; Diamond V Mills, Inc., Cedar Rapids, IA). Cows in both treatment groups were randomly allocated at calving to 1 of 2 amounts (3 or 6 kg of DM/d) of triticale feeding with or without 60 g of SCFP/day (n=15/treatment) until 84 days in milk. The amount of pasture harvested (kg of DM/cow per day) and milk yield (kg/cow per day) were not affected by SCFP. Milk protein content and yield were greater in cows receiving 6 kg of crushed triticale DM/d. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids and ?-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were not affected by SCFP supplementation, but were lower in cows fed 6 kg of crushed triticale DM/d than those fed 3 kg of DM/d. Supplementation with SCFP increased milk lactose content without affecting milk production under the conditions investigated. PMID:21605780

  7. Pluri-energy analysis of livestock systems--a comparison of dairy systems in different territories.

    PubMed

    Vigne, Mathieu; Vayssières, Jonathan; Lecomte, Philippe; Peyraud, Jean-Louis

    2013-09-15

    This paper introduces a generic assessment method called pluri-energy analysis. It aims to assess the types of energy used in agricultural systems and their conversion efficiencies. Four types of energy are considered: fossil energy, gross energy contained in the biomass, energy from human and animal labor and solar energy. The method was applied to compare smallholder low-input dairy-production systems, which are common in developing countries, to the high-input systems encountered in OECD countries. The pluri-energy method is useful for analyzing the functioning of agricultural systems by highlighting their modes of energy management. Since most dairy systems in South Mali (SM) are low-input systems, they are primarily based on solar and labor energy types and do not require substantial fossil-energy inputs to produce milk. Farms in Poitou-Charentes (PC) and Bretagne (BR) show intermediate values of fossil-energy use for milk production, similar to that found in the literature for typical European systems. However, fossil-energy use for milk production is higher on PC than BR farms because of a higher proportion of maize silage in the forage area; grazing pastures are more common on BR farms. Farms on Reunion Island (RI) require a relatively large amount of fossil energy to produce milk, mainly because the island context limits the amount of arable land. Consequently, milk production is based on large imports of concentrated feed with a high fossil-energy cost. The method also enables assessment of fossil-energy-use efficiency in order to increase the performance of biological processes in agricultural systems. Comparing the low-input systems represented by SM to the high-input systems represented by RI, PC and BR, an increase in solar-energy conversion, and thus land productivity, was observed due to intensification via increased fossil-energy use. Conversely, though fossil-energy use at the herd level increased milk productivity, its effect on gross-energy conversion by the herd was less evident. Partitioning the total on-farm gross energy produced among animal co-products (milk, meat and manure) highlights the major functions of SM herds, which are managed to produce organic crop fertilizers. PMID:23666069

  8. Effects of cattle grazing systems on shrub-grassland birds in south Texas 

    E-print Network

    Swanson, Douglas Wayne

    1988-01-01

    greater forb cover and more bare ground patches than other systems. Grazing has been shown to influence the floristic composition of a site through selective defoliation by domestic livestock (Lewis 1971, Dahl and Hyder 1976, Stuth et al. 1982). Under... heavy grazing, species composition is altered by a reduction in the most palatable species and an increase in opportunistic and invader species (Heady 1961, Pitt and Heady 1979, Stuth et al. 1982). Floristic change may be highly correlated to bird...

  9. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF AUTOMATIC MILKING SYSTEMS ON DAIRY FARMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) offer dairy farmers relief from the time consuming and demanding routine of milking. This new technology is now reliable and practical for use on commercial farms, and it is widely used in northern Europe. Although this technology is beginning to be adopted in the USA...

  10. Farm simulation can help adapt dairy production systems to climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change is affecting the production of feed on dairy farms. Warming climates also affect the performance of dairy cattle and the interactions between feed production and animal performance. Process level simulation of dairy production systems provides a tool for whole-farm evaluation of the e...

  11. Dairy Manure Handling Systems and Equipment.

    E-print Network

    Sweeten, John M.

    1983-01-01

    availability, manure consistency, ma nure volume, efficiency, fly control, odor poten tial, distance to streams, water supply, soil type, ground water depth, climate, crops (varieties and rotations), nutrient recycle potential, regulatory requirements... Phosphorus (P 2 ? 5) Potassi um (K , 0) Calcium Magnesium Iron Zinc Sodium Sulfur Manganese Copper Ash Soluble Salts Fresh Cattle Manure, % 76.5 2.20 1.31 0.81 1.52 0.50 0.059 0.0079 0.32 0.28 0.011 0.0019 15 3.7 Dairy Corrals...

  12. Genotype effects on body temperature in dairy cows under grazing conditions in a hot climate including evidence for heterosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikmen, S.; Martins, L.; Pontes, E.; Hansen, P. J.

    2009-07-01

    We compared diurnal patterns of vaginal temperature in lactating cows under grazing conditions to evaluate genotype effects on body temperature regulation. Genotypes evaluated were Holstein, Jersey, Jersey × Holstein and Swedish Red × Holstein. The comparison of Holstein and Jersey versus Jersey × Holstein provided a test of whether heterosis effects body temperature regulation. Cows were fitted with intravaginal temperature recording devices that measured vaginal temperature every 15 min for 7 days. Vaginal temperature was affected by time of day ( P < 0.0001) and genotype × time ( P < 0.0001) regardless of whether days in milk and milk yield were used as covariates. Additional analyses indicated that the Swedish Red × Holstein had a different pattern of vaginal temperatures than the other three genotypes (Swedish Red × Holstein vs others × time; P < 0.0001) and that Holstein and Jersey had a different pattern than Jersey × Holstein [(Holstein + Jersey vs Jersey × Holstein) × time, P < 0.0001]. However, Holstein had a similar pattern to Jersey [(Holstein vs Jersey) × time, P > 0.10]. These genotype × time interactions reflect two effects. First, Swedish Red × Holstein had higher vaginal temperatures than the other genotypes in the late morning and afternoon but not after the evening milking. Secondly, Jersey × Holstein had lower vaginal temperatures than other genotypes in the late morning and afternoon and again in the late night and early morning. Results point out that there are effects of specific genotypes and evidence for heterosis on regulation of body temperature of lactating cows maintained under grazing conditions and suggest that genetic improvement for thermotolerance through breed choice or genetic selection is possible.

  13. The effect of stocking rate on soil solution nitrate concentrations beneath a free-draining dairy production system in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, J; Delaby, L; Hennessy, D; McCarthy, B; Ryan, W; Pierce, K M; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2015-06-01

    Economically viable and productive farming systems are required to meet the growing worldwide need for agricultural produce while at the same time reducing environmental impact. Within grazing systems of animal production, increasing concern exists as to the effect of intensive farming on potential N losses to ground and surface waters, which demands an appraisal of N flows within complete grass-based dairy farming systems. A 3-yr (2011 to 2013) whole-farm system study was conducted on a free-draining soil type that is highly susceptible to N loss under temperate maritime conditions. Soil solution concentrations of N from 3 spring-calving, grass-based systems designed to represent 3 alternative whole-farm stocking rate (SR) treatments in a post-milk quota situation in the European Union were compared: low (2.51 cows/ha), medium (2.92 cows/ha), and high SR (3.28 cows/ha). Each SR had its own farmlet containing 18 paddocks and 23 cows. Nitrogen loss from each treatment was measured using ceramic cups installed to a depth of 1m to sample the soil water. The annual and monthly average nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and total N concentrations in soil solution collected were analyzed for each year using a repeated measures analysis. Subsequently, and based on the biological data collated from each farm system treatment within each year, the efficiency of N use was evaluated using an N balance model. Based on similar N inputs, increasing SR resulted in increased grazing efficiency and milk production per hectare. Stocking rate had no significant effect on soil solution concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, or total N (26.0, 0.2, 2.4, and 32.3mg/L, respectively). An N balance model evaluation of each treatment incorporating input and output data indicated that the increased grass utilization and milk production per hectare at higher SR resulted in a reduction in N surplus and increased N use efficiency. The results highlight the possibility for the sustainable intensification of grass-based dairy systems and suggest that, at the same level of N inputs, increasing SR has little effect on N loss in pastoral systems with limited imported feed. These results suggest that greater emphasis should be attributed to increased grass production and utilization under grazing to further improve the environmental impact of grazing systems. PMID:25841970

  14. Adipose and liver gene expression profiles in response to treatment with a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug after calving in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vailati Riboni, M; Meier, S; Priest, N V; Burke, C R; Kay, J K; McDougall, S; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Crookenden, M; Heiser, A; Roche, J R; Loor, J J

    2015-05-01

    The peripartal or transition period in dairy cattle is often characterized by an inflammatory state that, if not controlled, could be detrimental to production, health, and fertility. Approaches to control the postpartal degree of inflammation include treatments with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) postcalving, which have improved cow production and health. To date, most of the research on NSAID has been conducted in confinement cows that reach milk production levels substantially greater than those on pasture. Furthermore, little data are available on the effect of NSAID on the mRNA expression of inflammation and metabolism-related genes. Transcription regulation is an important mechanism of inflammation and metabolic control. The present study was conducted to examine hepatic and adipose tissue gene expression in response to injections of an NSAID, carprofen, on 1, 3, and 5 d after calving. Grazing Holstein-Friesian cows from a control group and 1 treated with carprofen during the first 5 d postcalving were used. Liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were harvested at -1, 1, and 2 wk relative to parturition. More than 30 genes associated with fatty acid oxidation, growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, hepatokines, lipoprotein metabolism, gluconeogenesis, and inflammation were analyzed. After calving, data suggest that both tissues respond to inflammation signals at the onset of lactation. Administration of NSAID led to greater hepatic expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4), which helps regulate gluconeogenesis, and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), important for the assembly and secretion of very low-density lipoproteins. In adipose tissue, NSAID administration resulted in greater expression of the inflammation-related genes interleukin-1, ? (IL1B), interleukin-6 receptor (IL6R), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5). The data support the role of inflammation as a normal component of the homeorhetic adaptations to lactation and reveal a possible mechanism of action of carprofen in transition dairy cows, but do not reflect an effect of this NSAID on the extent of the peripartum inflammation. PMID:25771063

  15. Probabilistic Risk Assessment for dairy waste management systems 

    E-print Network

    Leigh, Edward Marshall

    1993-01-01

    and responsibility for environmental protection than many industries. In addition, agricultural businesses and production systems are generally smaller and more site specific in nature than most industrial operations. However, similarities between the problem.... Water use, wastewater production, and water quality have been monitored since November, 1989 (Sweeten and Wolfe, 1992). The dairy layout is detailed in Figure 3. 890' 10 IRRIGATION SYSTEM CATILE PEN CATTLE PEN SOUTH I FLUME I 010 330' 330' 230...

  16. Aerobic treatment of dairy wastewater with sequencing batch reactor systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiujin Li; Ruihong Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Performances of single-stage and two-stage sequencing batch reactor (SBR) systems were investigated for treating dairy wastewater. A single-stage SBR system was tested with 10,000 mg\\/l chemical oxygen demand (COD) influent at three hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 1, 2, and 3 days and 20,000 mg\\/l COD influent at four HRTs of 1, 2, 3, and 4 days. A 1-day HRT

  17. Effect of supplemental concentrate type on milk production and metabolic status in early-lactation dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass-based pasture.

    PubMed

    Whelan, S J; Pierce, K M; Flynn, B; Mulligan, F J

    2012-08-01

    Forty-four early-lactation dairy cows of mixed parity were used to examine the effect of 4 supplemental concentrate types (n=11) on milk production and metabolic status. Animals were blocked by parity and calving date, and blocks were balanced for previous milk yield and milk protein yield. Cows received grazed pasture plus 5.17 kg of DM/d of 1 of the following isoenergetic (1.1 units of energy for lactation) concentrates: 1) high crude protein (CP) with rolled barley (HP, 19% CP); b) low CP with rolled barley (LP, 15% CP); c) low CP with barley and a supplemental methionine hydroxy analog (HMBi; LP + HMBi, 15% CP); and d) low CP with ground corn (LP-corn, 15% CP). Milk yield was recorded from d 1 to 100 postpartum, with weekly milk sampling, body weight, and body condition score (BCS) measurements. Blood and rumen sampling were conducted weekly from wk 2 to 6 postpartum. Milk yield was lower for cows in the LP treatment compared with those offered other concentrate types (25.2 vs. 27.5 ± 0.39 kg/d). Animals in the HP group had a higher milk yield than those in the LP + HMBi group (28.2 vs. 26.8 ± 0.39 kg/d). Milk fat yield was lower from animals in the LP-corn group compared with those in the LP + HMBi group (0.94 vs. 1.03 ± 0.03 kg/d). Milk protein yield was lower in the LP group compared with those in the HP group (0.88 vs. 0.97 ± 0.02 kg/d). Animal body weight, BCS, and BCS loss were not affected by concentrate type. However, nonesterified fatty acids were higher from animals in the HP group than for those in the LP + HMBi group (0.41 vs. 0.33 ± 0.03 mmol/L), and ?-hydroxy butyric acid was higher from animals in the HP group than for those in the other treatments (0.71 vs. 0.59 ± 0.03 mmol/L). Glucose was higher from animals in the LP-corn group than for those in the HP and LP groups (3.3 vs. 3.2 ± 0.05 mmol/L). Blood urea-N was higher from animals offered HP compared with those offered the other treatments (5.49.6 vs. 4.21 ± 0.44 mmol/L). However, rumen NH(3)-N and volatile fatty acid concentration in the rumen were not affected by supplemental concentrate type. Reducing supplemental concentrate CP reduced milk yield. However, milk fat production and energy-corrected milk were not different, reducing the likelihood of an improved energy balance or a more favorable blood metabolic profile in early-lactation dairy cows grazing perennial ryegrass. Offering HMBi with low-CP concentrates or replacing rolled barley with ground maize improves milk production relative to low-CP concentrates and metabolic status relative to high-CP concentrates. PMID:22818468

  18. Polarization in Exoplanetary Systems Caused by Transits, Grazing Transits, and Starspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostogryz, N. M.; Yakobchuk, T. M.; Berdyugina, S. V.

    2015-06-01

    We present results of numerical simulations of flux and linear polarization variations in transiting exoplanetary systems, caused by host star disk symmetry breaking. We consider different configurations of planetary transits depending on orbital parameters. The starspot contribution to the polarized signal is also estimated. Applying the method to known systems and simulating observational conditions, a number of targets is selected where transit polarization effects could be detected. We investigate several principal benefits of the transit polarimetry, particularly for determining orbital spatial orientation and distinguishing between grazing and near-grazing planets. Simulations show that polarization parameters are also sensitive to starspots, and they can be used to determine spot positions and sizes.

  19. Grass Grows, the Cow Eats: A Simple Grazing Systems Model with Emergent Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Eugene David; Seligman, Noam G.; Noy-Meir, Imanuel

    2004-01-01

    We describe a simple, yet intellectually challenging model of grazing systems that introduces basic concepts in ecology and systems analysis. The practical is suitable for high-school and university curricula with a quantitative orientation, and requires only basic skills in mathematics and spreadsheet use. The model is based on Noy-Meir's (1975)…

  20. Integrating sheep grazing into wheat-fallow systems: Crop yield and soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The two predominant systems for weed management in summer fallow are tillage with a field cultivator or multiple applications of broad spectrum herbicides with zero tillage. Both systems are based on substantial use of off farm resources. Strategic grazing of sheep may allow grain growers to more ...

  1. Ammonia emission model for whole farm evaluation of dairy production systems.

    PubMed

    Rotz, C Alan; Montes, Felipe; Hafner, Sasha D; Heber, Albert J; Grant, Richard H

    2014-07-01

    Ammonia (NH) emissions vary considerably among farms as influenced by climate and management. Because emission measurement is difficult and expensive, process-based models provide an alternative for estimating whole farm emissions. A model that simulates the processes of NH formation, speciation, aqueous-gas partitioning, and mass transfer was developed and incorporated in a whole farm simulation model (the Integrated Farm System Model). Farm sources included manure on the floor of the housing facility, manure in storage (if used), field-applied manure, and deposits on pasture (if grazing is used). In a comprehensive evaluation of the model, simulated daily, seasonal, and annual emissions compared well with data measured over 2 yr for five free stall barns and two manure storages on dairy farms in the eastern United States. In a further comparison with published data, simulated and measured barn emissions were similar over differing barn designs, protein feeding levels, and seasons of the year. Simulated emissions from manure storage were also highly correlated with published emission data across locations, seasons, and different storage covers. For field applied manure, the range in simulated annual emissions normally bounded reported mean values for different manure dry matter contents and application methods. Emissions from pastures measured in northern Europe across seasons and fertilization levels were also represented well by the model. After this evaluation, simulations of a representative dairy farm in Pennsylvania illustrated the effects of animal housing and manure management on whole farm emissions and their interactions with greenhouse gas emissions, nitrate leaching, production costs, and farm profitability. PMID:25603063

  2. Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows Grazing in Dry-summer Subtropical Climatic Conditions: Effect of Heat Stress and Heat Shock on Meiotic Competence and In vitro Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Pavani, Krishna; Carvalhais, Isabel; Faheem, Marwa; Chaveiro, Antonio; Reis, Francisco Vieira; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2015-03-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate how environmental factors in a dry-summer subtropical climate in Terceira-Azores (situated in the North Atlantic Ocean: 38° 43' N 27° 12' W) can affect dairy cow (Holstein) fertility, as well as seasonal influence on in vitro oocytes maturation and embryos development. Impact of heat shock (HS) effects on in vitro oocyte's maturation and further embryo development after in vitro fertilization (IVF) was also evaluated. For such purpose the result of the first artificial insemination (AI) performed 60 to 90 days after calving of 6,300 cows were recorded for one year. In parallel, climatic data was obtained at different elevation points (n = 5) from 0 to 1,000 m and grazing points from 0 to 500 m, in Terceira island, and the temperature humidity index (THI) was calculated. For in vitro experiments, oocytes (n = 706) were collected weekly during all year, for meiotic maturation and IVF. Further, to evaluate HS effect, 891 oocytes were collected in the cold moths (December, January, February and March) and divided in three groups treated to HS for 24 h during in vitro maturation at: C (Control = 38.5°C), HS1 (39.5°C) and HS2 (40.5°C). Oocytes from each group were used for meiotic assessment and IVF. Cleavage, morula and blastocyst development were evaluated respectively on day 2, 6, and 9 after IVF. A negative correlation between cow's conception rate (CR) and THI in grazing points (-91.3%; p<0.001) was observed. Mean THI in warmer months (June, July, August and September) was 71.7±0.7 and the CR (40.2±1.5%) while in cold months THI was 62.8±0.2 and CR was 63.8±0.4%. A similar impact was obtained with in vitro results in which nuclear maturation rate (NMR) ranged from 78.4% (±8.0) to 44.3% (±8.1), while embryos development ranged from 53.8% (±5.8) to 36.3% (±3.3) in cold and warmer months respectively. In vitro HS results showed a significant decline (p<0.05) on NMR of oocytes for every 1°C rising temperature (78.4±8.0, 21.7±3.1 and 8.9±2.2, respectively for C, HS1, and HS2). Similar results were observed in cleavage rate and embryo development, showing a clear correlation (96.9 p<0.05) between NMR and embryo development with respect to temperatures. Results clearly demonstrated that, up to a THI of 70.6, a decrease in the CR occurs in first AI after calving; this impairment was confirmed with in vitro results. PMID:25656191

  3. Grazing Strategies for Beef Production Escalating energy costs and alternative cropping systems for biofuels production have

    E-print Network

    Grazing Strategies for Beef Production Escalating energy costs and alternative cropping systems with pasture-feedlot manage-· ment alternatives. Assess economic implications of beef production using an array character- istics of beef that may provide an alternative lean-to-fat composition for consum- ers. http

  4. High Nature Value (HNV) Grazing Systems in Europe: A Link between Biodiversity and Farm Economics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rafael Caballero

    2007-01-01

    Large tracts of the European rural land, most frequently in the Less Favoured Areas (LFA) are devoted to low- input and Large Scale Grazing Systems (LSGS) under severe environmental constraints. A small part of the rural popula- tion strives to make a living under a risk of abandonment. Paradoxically, these areas harbour a great part of the European High Nature

  5. Grazing winter rye cover crop in a cotton no-till system: yield and economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter cover crop adoption in conservation management systems continues to be limited in the US but could be encouraged if establishment costs could be offset. A 4-yr field experiment was conducted near Watkinsville, Georgia in which a rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop was either grazed by catt...

  6. Periparturient Climatic, Animal, and Management Factors Influencing the Incidence of Milk Fever in Grazing Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Roche; D. P. Berry

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to quantify the climatic, animal, and management factors influencing incidence of milk fever (MF) in cows exposed to grazing systems. Data were extracted on 4,469 calvings of mul- tiparous cows in a seasonal calving research herd be- tween 1970 and 2000. Climatic data during the calving period also were extracted for these years.

  7. Modeling the Potential Spatial Distribution of Beef Cattle Grazing Using a Geographic Information System

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this scientific article, authors Timothy G. Wade and others use Boolean logic and Geographic Information System (GIS) models to predict where beef cattle are most and least likely to graze (in Oregon). The resource was originally published in Journal of Arid Environments in 1998 [38(2):357-365].

  8. Methods for exploring management options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from tropical grazing systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Mark Howden; David H. White; Greg M. Mckeon; Joe C. Scanlan; John O. Carter

    1994-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric concentrations of ‘greenhouse gases’ are expected to result in global climatic changes over the next decades. Means of evaluating and reducing greenhouse gas emissions are being sought. In this study an existing simulation model of a tropical savanna woodland grazing system was adapted to account for greenhouse gas emissions. This approach may be able to be used in

  9. Grazing Optimization and Nutrient Cycling: Potential Impact of Large Herbivores in a Savanna System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire de Mazancourt; Michel Loreau; Luc Abbadie

    1999-01-01

    Using a model, we test the prediction that herbivory can result in grazing optimization of primary production in a nitrogen-limited system where large losses of nitrogen occur in annual fires. The model is based on the nitrogen budget of the humid savanna of Lamto, Ivory Coast, estimated from field data. At present, the ecosystem contains few herbivores, but buffalo and

  10. Grazing systems and the control of vegetation dynamics in Reunion island (Indian Ocean)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Grazing systems and the control of vegetation dynamics in Reunion island (Indian Ocean) V seem to lead to a non-reversible degradation stage of the vegetation (Ulex europeus is one of the degradation species). Caractérisation de l'évolution des exploitations d'élevage Blanc-Bleu-Belge en relation

  11. A lameness scoring system that uses posture and gait to predict dairy cattle reproductive performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Sprecher; D. E. Hostetler; J. B. Kaneene

    1997-01-01

    Lameness has contributed to reproductive inefficiency and increased the risk of culling in dairy cows. We developed a 5-point lameness scoring system that assessed gait and placed a novel emphasis on back posture. Our objective was to determine if this system predicted future reproductive performance and the risk of culling. The study was conducted at a commercial dairy farm with

  12. EFFECTS OF MANURE HANDLING SYSTEMS ON VOLATILE NITROGEN LOSS FROM DAIRY MANURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of manure handling systems on nitrogen (N) loss from dairy manure. The nitrogen to phosphorus ratio (N:P) in manure was used as the basis of system comparison. N:P in dairy manure at time of excretion is likely to range from 6 to 7. As N is volatilized from m...

  13. Aerobic treatment of dairy wastewater with sequencing batch reactor systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiujin; Zhang, Ruihong

    2002-06-01

    Performances of single-stage and two-stage sequencing batch reactor (SBR) systems were investigated for treating dairy wastewater. A single-stage SBR system was tested with 10,000 mg/l chemical oxygen demand (COD) influent at three hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 1, 2, and 3 days and 20,000 mg/l COD influent at four HRTs of 1, 2, 3, and 4 days. A 1-day HRT was found sufficient for treating 10,000-mg/l COD wastewater, with the removal efficiency of 80.2% COD, 63.4% total solids, 66.2% volatile solids, 75% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, and 38.3% total nitrogen from the liquid effluent. Two-day HRT was believed sufficient for treating 20,000-mg/l COD dairy wastewater if complete ammonia oxidation is not desired. However, 4-day HRT needs to be used for achieving complete ammonia oxidation. A two-stage system consisting of an SBR and a complete-mix biofilm reactor was capable of achieving complete ammonia oxidation and comparable carbon, solids, and nitrogen removal while using at least 1/3 less HRT as compared to the single SBR system. PMID:14505010

  14. Grazing Occultations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Doug; Hlynialuk, John

    1983-01-01

    A "grazing occultation" occurs when a star or other astronomical body is covered up by the extreme northern or southern limb of the moon in its easterly motion about the earth. Graze phenomena, organizing a graze expedition, and the scientific/educational value of observing grazes are among the topics discussed. (JN)

  15. A case study of the potential environmental impacts of different dairy production systems in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biological and physical processes of an intensively-managed rotational pasture-based dairy and a confinement fed dairy in the southeastern United States were simulated with the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) to evaluate management effects on greenhouse gas emissions, soil carbon sequestrati...

  16. Analysis of Steroid Hormones in a Typical Dairy Waste Disposal System

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The environmental loading of steroid hormones contained in dairy wastes may cause a potential adversely affect on the aquatic species. This work was to investigate the profile of steroid hormones in a typical dairy waste operation system and assess the potential risk of hormone contaminations result...

  17. Grazing bifurcation analysis of a relative rotation system with backlash non-smooth characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuang; Wang, Zhao-Long; Zhao, Shuang-Shuang; Li, Hai-Bin; Li, Jian-Xiong

    2015-07-01

    Grazing bifurcation of a relative rotation system with backlash non-smooth characteristic is studied along with the change of the external excitation in this paper. Considering the oil film, backlash, time-varying stiffness and time-varying error, the dynamical equation of a relative rotation system with a backlash non-smooth characteristic is deduced by applying the elastic hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) and the Grubin theories. In the process of relative rotation, the occurrence of backlash will lead to the change of dynamic behaviors of the system, and the system will transform from the meshing state to the impact state. Thus, the zero-time discontinuous mapping (ZDM) and the Poincare mapping are deduced to analyze the local dynamic characteristics of the system before as well as after the moment that the backlash appears (i.e., the grazing state). Meanwhile, the grazing bifurcation mechanism is analyzed theoretically by applying the impact and Floquet theories. Numerical simulations are also given, which confirm the analytical results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61104040), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. E2012203090), and the University Innovation Team of Hebei Province Leading Talent Cultivation Project, China (Grant No. LJRC013).

  18. Evaluation of strategies for tracking climatic variation in semi-arid grazing systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. W. Illius; J. F. Derry; I. J. Gordon

    1998-01-01

    Ways of ‘tracking’ environmental fluctuations could be of value in limiting drought-induced mortality and increasing output. We examined a range of tracking policies, designed to tackle climatic variation, using a simulation model of a semi-arid grazing system. These compared annual sales designed to limit stocking rate, pre-emptive sales triggered by insufficient rainfall, and variable sales and stocking rate regimes determined

  19. Vegetation and cow-calf response to several grazing systems in the rolling plains of Texas

    E-print Network

    Knight, Jan Carol

    1987-01-01

    ) Jan Carol Knight, 8. S. Utah State University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. M. M. Kothmann Vegetation trend and cow-calf response were monitored from 1968 to 1973 on the Texas Experimental Ranch near Throckmorton, Texas. Heavy and moderate... on the Texas Experimental Ranch in 1970. Stocking rates, grazing systems, and levels of supplement on the Texas Experimental Ranch from 1968 to 1973 12 Type III mean squares from analysis of vegetation trend from 1968 to 1973 on the Texas Experimental...

  20. Energy Integrated Dairy Farm System in North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, G.; Lindley, J.; Hirning, H.; Giles, J.

    1986-11-01

    The EIFS project at North Dakota State University, located at Fargo, North Dakota, is an effort to show how a Northern Great Plains EIFS might be operated. This farm used a combination of energy conservation, energy capture, and energy production. Energy conservation was demonstrated using reduced tillage in a typical cropping system and by using heat reclamation equipment on the ventilation system and the milk cooler in the dairy barn. Energy capture was demonstrated with a solar collector used to preheat ventilation air. Energy production was demonstrated with the construction of an anaerobic digester to produce methane from manure. This manual describes the design, construction, operation, and performance of the EIFS developed at North Dakota State University.

  1. The botanical composition of cattle diets on a 7-pasture high-intensity low-frequency grazing system 

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Charles Andrew

    1973-01-01

    Plateau region of Texas. Five esophageally cannulated heifers were used for twenty-two collection periods from September 24, 1971 to May 11, 1972. Diets were collected in each pasture during the first three days and last three days of each grazing... APPENDIX VITA 12 15 35 44 47 49 52 6O vii LIST OF TABLES Table Page Collection dates of esophageally cannulated cattle on a 7-pasture high-intensity, low-frequency grazing system. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Statistical...

  2. Cross-sectional prevalence of helminth infections in cattle on traditional, small-scale and large-scale dairy farms in Iringa district, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Keyyu, J D; Kassuku, A A; Msalilwa, L P; Monrad, J; Kyvsgaard, N C

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and flukes (Fasciola and amphistomes) infection in communally grazed traditional cattle, zero-grazed small-scale dairy cattle and intensively grazed large-scale dairy cattle through examination of helminth eggs in faeces. Results indicated that the type of management, especially the grazing habit, has a significant influence on the prevalence and intensity of GI nematodes and flukes. The prevalence of GI nematodes in traditional, large-scale dairy and small-scale dairy cattle was 67%, 44.4% and 37%, respectively, with the highest faecal egg counts in calves. The overall prevalence of Fasciola gigantica in traditional, large-scale dairy and small-scale dairy cattle was 63.8%, 46.2% and 28.4%, respectively. The prevalence of amphistomes was 81.9%, 55.5% and 41.1% in traditional, large-scale dairy and small-scale dairy cattle, respectively. The high prevalence of flukes in the traditional system was attributed to communal grazing and watering management practices. Stomach flukes recovered in examined cattle at the abattoir were Calicophoron microbothrium and Cotylophoron jacksoni. About 42.1% of infected animals had both Fasciola and amphistomes. The prevalence of both GI nematodes and flukes varied greatly among villages and farms. The prevalence of both Fasciola and amphistomes was higher in adults (58.5%, 75.2%) than in yearlings (36.5%, 51.5%) or calves (24.9%, 47.2%). The variation in the prevalence of both GI nematodes and flukes among management and age groups within systems can be used as an entry point towards rational use of anthelmintics for each management system. More studies on seasonal transmission pattern of all these parasites are required in order to design rational, economic and locally sustainable parasite control programmes. PMID:16362610

  3. Drylot Dairying in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Hillin, Joel M.; Carpenter, Shannon E.

    1965-01-01

    IN TEXAS TEXAS A&M UNlVERSlTY College Station, Texas TEXAS AGRICULTURAL -EXTENSION SERVICE, J. E. Hutchison, Director This publication is written for the farmer who may be consider- ing adopting the drylot system of dairying. Drylot dairying.... contents Selecting the Type of Operatio Dairy Herd Considerations, 4 Number of Cows, 4 Milking Barn, 4 Roughage Feeding, 4 . Land Usage, 5 . A Lot Arrangement and Design, 5 Free-stall Dairy Housing, 7 Equipment Needed, 8 Dairy Herd Management, 10...

  4. Feeding strategies for small-scale dairy systems based on perennial ( Lolium perenne ) or annual ( Lolium multiflorum ) ryegrass in the central highlands of Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Heredia-Nava; A. Espinoza-Ortega; C. E. González-Esquivel; C. M. Arriaga-Jordán

    2007-01-01

    Small-scale dairying is an option for campesinos in Mexico. The costs of feeding are high and strategies based on quality forages are a priority. The performance, agronomic\\u000a variables and feeding costs were evaluated for dairy cows continuously grazing perennial ryegrass–white clover for 9 h\\/day\\u000a (PRG) or fed cut herbage from annual ryegrass for 8 weeks followed by 9 h\\/day for 6 weeks

  5. Grazing patterns of copepods in the upwelling system off Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CARL M. BOYD; SHARON L. SMITH; TIMOTHY J. COWLES

    1980-01-01

    The amount of food eaten by copepods of three genera (estimated from chlorophyll and pheophytin in the guts of the animals) was measured to determine the depth and also the time of day of the maximum and minimum intensity of feeding. Copepods were taken with a large volume (800 liters .min-') pumping system at five depths (O-85 m) and twelve

  6. Growth and persistence of perennial and hybrid ryegrasses when grazed by dairy cows in the central Waikato region of New Zealand

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. Thom; C. D. Waugh; R. J. McCabe

    1998-01-01

    A 3?year plot trial was conducted at the Dairying Research Corporation, Hamilton, New Zealand to compare herbage production, persistence, and crown rust (Puccinia coronatd) resistance in 13 newly released cultivars or coded ryegrass lines. These included perennial (Lolium perenne) and hybrid (Lolium × boucheanum syn. Lolium hybridum) lines being compared with the standard perennial ryegrass varieties ‘Yatsyn 1’ and ‘Grasslands

  7. Financing the Dairy System on a Central Blackland Farm. 

    E-print Network

    Moore, Clarence A.; Magee, A. C.

    1956-01-01

    i TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION R. D. LEWIS, DIRECTOR, COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS SUMMARY Many cash-crop farmers in the central Blacklands have shifted to dairy operations in recent years, and others are thinking of making the change. Since... considerable initial ex- pense is involved, credit considerations are important to most of those who contemplate the change. The study reported here was an effort to determine the economic feasibility of chang- ing from cash-crop to dairy farming on an 180...

  8. Intake and performance of lactating cows grazing diverse forage mixtures.

    PubMed

    Soder, K J; Sanderson, M A; Stack, J L; Muller, L D

    2006-06-01

    Twenty multiparous Holstein cows in midlactation grazed pastures of 4 forage mixtures in a 12-wk study repeated during 2 grazing seasons to determine if forage mixture complexity affected intake and productivity of lactating dairy cows. The forage mixtures were 1) orchardgrass plus white clover [2 species (SP)]; 2) orchardgrass, white clover, and chicory (3SP); 3) orchardgrass, tall fescue, perennial ryegrass, red clover, birdsfoot trefoil, and chicory (6SP); and 4) 6SP mixture plus white clover, alfalfa, and Kentucky bluegrass (9SP). Total herbage intake was similar among forage mixtures, averaging 12.0 kg/d across all forage mixtures and years. Milk production and composition were not affected by forage mixture or year, and averaged 34.6 kg/d, 3.4%, and 2.8% for milk production, milk fat percentage, and milk protein percentage, respectively. The conjugated linoleic acid content of milk fat was higher for cows that grazed the 3SP, 6SP, and 9SP mixtures than from cows that grazed the 2SP mixture (1.02 vs. 0.87 g of conjugated linoleic acid/100 g of fatty acids, respectively). Blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen, and nonesterified fatty acids were not affected by forage mixture and averaged 69.2 mg/dL, 13.4 mg/dL, and 277.5 muEq/L, respectively. The results of this study indicate that altering the forage mixture in pastures did not affect dry matter intake, milk production, or blood metabolite profiles of lactating cows. The use of complex mixtures of forages in grazing systems should not affect dairy cow performance. PMID:16702282

  9. Organizing a grazing route to motivate intake on coarse resources

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    is how to use the foreseeable behavioural response as a «tool», to impact the herd-space relationship trek the grazing route. It is the outcome of observations of 30 3-hour meals consumed by dairy goats

  10. Current trends in British dairy management regimens.

    PubMed

    March, M D; Haskell, M J; Chagunda, M G G; Langford, F M; Roberts, D J

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a summary of results from a 2012 survey that investigated feeding and housing management regimens currently adopted by dairy farmers in Britain. Responses from 863 farms provide a snapshot of dairy industry structure and a description of the range of management systems currently in operation. Outcomes highlight a diversity of management practices, showing that 31% of farms maintained a traditional grazing system with no forage feeding indoors during the summer, whereas 38% of farmers indicated that all their milking cows received some feeding indoors during the summer. A system of housing dairy cows for 24 h/d while they are lactating was implemented by 8% of farms, whereas 1% of farms did not house their cows at any time of the year. Statistical analyses were carried out on 3 distinct groups identified from survey responses: (1) farmers who did not undertake any indoor feeding during the summer; (2) farmers who fed all their milking cows indoors during the summer; and (3) farmers who continuously housed their cows for 24h/d while lactating. Results showed a significant relationship between management type and herd size, and between management type and breed type; on average, herd sizes were larger within systems that feed indoors. No significant relationship was found between management type and farm location when classified by estimated grassland productivity. The results indicate that traditional all-summer grazing is no longer the predominant system adopted by dairy farmers and that other systems such as all-year-round indoor feeding and continuous housing are becoming more prevalent in Britain. PMID:25306285

  11. Evaluating Technologies for Reducing Nutrients in Dairy Effluent The Geotube Dewatering System

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Evaluating Technologies for Reducing Nutrients in Dairy Effluent The Geotube® Dewatering System in the North Bosque and Leon River Watersheds. In 2005, they evaluated the Geotube® de-watering system The Geotube® dewatering system was demonstrated by the Miratech Division of Ten Cate Nicolon and General

  12. The co-grazing of cattle and sheep under rotational and continuous grazing

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The co-grazing of cattle and sheep under rotational and continuous grazing SM Kitessa AM Nicol in the response of cattle and sheep to mixed grazing. They identified a number of factors as potential sources of this variation but did not consider grazing system. This experiment reports the growth rate of cattle and sheep

  13. GRAZPLAN: Decision support systems for Australian grazing enterprises—II. The animal biology model for feed intake, production and reproduction and the GrazFeed DSS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Freer; A. D. Moore; J. R. Donnelly

    1997-01-01

    This paper specifies the animal biology module of a model for simulating grazing systems for ruminants on pasture. The program predicts the intake of energy and protein, allowing for selective grazing and substitution by supplementary feeds, and estimates the use of the diet for maintenance and production, according to current feeding standards. Conception and death rates are predicted from the

  14. 36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Changes in grazing permits. 222.4 Section 222...OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing permits. (a) The Chief,...

  15. 36 CFR 222.11 - Grazing advisory boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grazing advisory boards. 222.11 Section...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.11 Grazing advisory boards. (a)...

  16. Polymer Science Concepts in Dairy Systems—an Overview of Milk Protein and Food Hydrocolloid Interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Syrbe; W. J. Bauer; H. Klostermeyer

    1998-01-01

    The role of food hydrocolloids in dairy products is reviewed considering the basic aspects of the mixing behaviour of biopolymer solutions and polymer interactions with colloidal particles. Polymer adsorption and depletion phenomena are important for most casein-hydrocolloid systems, while the behaviour of whey protein-hydrocolloid systems is dominated by the rules of ternary polymer solutions.

  17. Net greenhouse gas emissions affected by sheep grazing under dryland cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep grazing to control weeds during fallow may influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by consuming crop residue and returning feces and urine to the soil. We evaluated the effect of sheep grazing compared to herbicide application for weed control on soil temperature and water content at the 0- t...

  18. Soil greenhouse gas emissions affected by sheep grazing under dryland cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep grazing to control weeds during fallow may influence soil greenhouse gas (CO2, N2O, and CH4) emissions by consuming crop residue and returning feces and urine to the soil. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of sheep grazing compared to herbicide application on soil temperature ...

  19. Effect of different grazing system on dynamics of grassland weedy species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Pavl?; J. Gaisler; M. Hejcman; L. Pavl?

    Summary The effect of different grazing regimes on dynamics of weedy species was studied in an upland grassland in the Jizerské Mountains. We applied continuous stocking and rotational grazing. The experiment included three replicate pairs of plots. Cover of the most abundant weedy species was estimated in 100 m 2 permanent plots. Weedy vegetation varied as a result of time

  20. Acoustic monitoring system to quantify ingestive behavior of free-grazing cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to estimate intake in grazing livestock include using markers, visual observation, mechanical sensors that respond to jaw movement and acoustic recording. In most of the acoustic monitoring studies, the microphone is inverted on the forehead of the grazing livestock and the skull is utilize...

  1. Characterization of Dutch dairy farms using sensor systems for cow management.

    PubMed

    Steeneveld, W; Hogeveen, H

    2015-01-01

    To improve cow management in large dairy herds, sensors have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. Recently, the number of dairy farms using sensor systems has increased. It is not known, however, to what extent sensor systems are used on dairy farms, and the reasons why farmers invest or not in sensor systems are unclear. The first objective of this study was to give an overview of the sensor systems currently used in the Netherlands. The second objective was to investigate the reasons for investing or not investing in sensor systems. The third objective was to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. A survey was developed to investigate first, the reasons for investing or not in sensor systems and, then, how the sensor systems are used in daily cow management. The survey was sent to 1,672 Dutch dairy farmers. The final data set consisted of 512 dairy farms (response rate of 30.6%); 202 farms indicated that they had sensor systems and 310 farms indicated that they did not have sensor systems. A wide variety of sensor systems was used on Dutch dairy farms; those for mastitis detection and estrus detection were the most-used sensor systems. The use of sensor systems was different for farms using an automatic milking system (AMS) and a conventional milking system (CMS). Reasons for investing were different for different sensor systems. For sensor systems attached to the AMS, the farmers made no conscious decision to invest: they answered that the sensors were standard in the AMS or were bought for reduced cost with the AMS. The main reasons for investing in estrus detection sensor systems were improving detection rates, gaining insights into the fertility level of the herd, improving profitability of the farm, and reducing labor. Main reasons for not investing in sensor systems were economically related. It was very difficult to characterize farms with and without sensor systems. Farms with CMS and sensor systems had more cows than CMS farms without sensor systems. Furthermore, farms with sensor systems had fewer labor hours per cow compared with farms without sensor systems. Other farm characteristics (age of the farmer, availability of a successor, growth in herd size, milk production per cow, number of cows per hectare, and milk production per hectare) did not differ for farms with and without sensor systems. PMID:25465556

  2. Energy integrated dairy farm system in Georgia: Technical manual, Mathis/P and M Dairy Farm, Social Circle, Georgia. [Cogeneration using biogas; heat recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J.L. Jr.; Ross, C.C.; Lamade, R.M.

    1986-09-01

    This manual describes a project sponsored to optimize energy generation and utilization in the agricultural or food processing industry. The particular project involves the Mathis/P and M Dairy Farm located in Social Circle, Georgia (about 60 miles east of Atlanta). The farm is designed for a 550 milking cow herd and produces certified raw milk for sale to a processing plant located in Atlanta. The project converted the Mathis/P and and M Dairy into an energy integrated dairy farm system (EIDFS) in which the interaction of the subsystems and components are modified such that the energy resources of the farm are optimized. This manual is a description of the system, subsystems and components composing the Mathis EIDFS and is primarily intended for farmers, extension agents, and equipment manufacturers who might be involved in future EIDFS projects. Cogeneration using biogas from manures and heat recovery from the refrigeration machinery were among the options chosen.

  3. Enteric methane from lactating beef cows managed with high- and low-input grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Chiavegato, M B; Rowntree, J E; Carmichael, D; Powers, W J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare methane (CH) emissions from lactating beef cows grazed with different combinations of stocking rate and density. We hypothesized that a low stocking rate coupled with high-stocking-density grazing management would result in poorer forage quality, thereby increasing enteric CH emissions. System A (SysA) consisted of 120 cow-calf pairs rotating on a total of 120 ha divided into 2-ha pastures (stocking rate 1 cow/ha, stocking density 112,000 kg BW/ha, rest period of 60 to 90 d). System B (SysB) consisted of 16 groups of 4 cow-calf pairs each rotating on a 1.6-ha pasture (stocking rate 2.5 cows/ha, stocking density 32,000 kg BW/ha, rest period of 18 to 30 d). Enteric CH measurements were collected using a sulfur hexafluoride (SF) tracer gas method. Sampling occurred during 2012 and 2013 in 2 periods: the beginning (P1) and end of the grazing season (P2). Cannulated Angus cows were stratified by weight, age, and parity and were assigned to each treatment ( = 6) in a crossover design with a doubly repeated measures design, with period and day as repeated measures (? = 0.05). Dry matter intake was determined using chromic oxide (CrO) as a marker. Forage samples were collected ( = 3) for nutrient composition analyses and total forage mass determination. Forage botanical composition was determined using the dry-weight-rank method. Postgrazing herbage mass was greater for SysA during P2 in 2012 ( < 0.01) and 2013 ( = 0.01). Grasses were predominant and represented 67% to 96% of pastures; legumes contributed 3% to 21% of pastures across periods and treatments. The proportion of legumes tended to be higher in SysB pasture sites in P2 than in P1. There were no treatment effects on DMI. There was a period effect on DMI ( < 0.01); DMI of SysA and SysB cows increased from P1 to P2 (4 and 1.1 kg DMI/d increase, respectively). Cows ingested, on average, 2.6% (SysA) and 2.8% (SysB) of their BW. There was no year effect on CH emissions ( = 0.16). Daily enteric CH emissions did not vary with treatment and ranged from 195 to 249 g CH/d across treatment. Enteric CH emissions per unit GE intake varied with treatment during P1 (6.4% and 3.8% for SysA and SysB, respectively; < 0.01). Across treatments and periods, enteric CH emission per unit GE intake was 4.6%, which could be considered low for grazing lactating beef cows. It is likely that cows in the present study were selecting high-quality forage and produced comparatively lower CH emissions. PMID:26020913

  4. Study on Intelligent Multi-concentrates Feeding System for Dairy Cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yinfa; Wang, Ranran; Song, Zhanhua; Yan, Shitao; Li, Fa-De

    To implement precision feeding for dairy cow, an intelligent multi-concentrates feeding system was developed. The system consists of two parts, one is precision ingredients control subsystem, the other is multi-concentrates discharge subsystem. The former controls the latter with 4 stepper motors. The precision ingredients control subsystem was designed based on Samsung S3C2440 ARM9 microprocessor and WinCE5.0 embedded operating system. The feeding system identifies the dairy cow with passive transponder using RFID (Radio frequency identification) reader. According to the differences of based diet intake and individual dairy cow milk yield, the system can automatically and quantificationally discharge 4 kinds of different concentrates on the basis of the cow identification ID. The intelligent multi-concentrates feeding system for dairy cow has been designed and implemented. According to the experiment results, the concentrate feeding error is less than 5%, the cow inditification delay time is less than 0.5s and the cow inditification error rate is less than 0.01%.

  5. Impairment of O-antigen production confers resistance to grazing in a model amoeba–cyanobacterium predator–prey system

    PubMed Central

    Simkovsky, Ryan; Daniels, Emy F.; Tang, Karen; Huynh, Stacey C.; Golden, Susan S.; Brahamsha, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    The grazing activity of predators on photosynthetic organisms is a major mechanism of mortality and population restructuring in natural environments. Grazing is also one of the primary difficulties in growing cyanobacteria and other microalgae in large, open ponds for the production of biofuels, as contaminants destroy valuable biomass and prevent stable, continuous production of biofuel crops. To address this problem, we have isolated a heterolobosean amoeba, HGG1, that grazes upon unicellular and filamentous freshwater cyanobacterial species. We have established a model predator–prey system using this amoeba and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. Application of amoebae to a library of mutants of S. elongatus led to the identification of a grazer-resistant knockout mutant of the wzm ABC O-antigen transporter gene, SynPCC7942_1126. Mutations in three other genes involved in O-antigen synthesis and transport also prevented the expression of O-antigen and conferred resistance to HGG1. Complementation of these rough mutants returned O-antigen expression and susceptibility to amoebae. Rough mutants are easily identifiable by appearance, are capable of autoflocculation, and do not display growth defects under standard laboratory growth conditions, all of which are desired traits for a biofuel production strain. Thus, preventing the production of O-antigen is a pathway for producing resistance to grazing by certain amoebae. PMID:23012457

  6. Calf's sex, parity and the hour of harvest after calving affect colostrum quality of dairy cows grazing under high tropical conditions.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Joaquin; Gómez, Luis Miguel; Mahecha, Liliana; Mejía, Estefanía; Henao, Javier; Mesa, Carolina

    2015-04-01

    High-quality colostrum is an important factor influencing neonatal calf health, and quality assessment is essential to obtain good health results. This research evaluated the effects of the calf's sex, the parity of the cow and the hour of colostrum harvest after parity on the fat, nonfat solids, protein and Ig contents in Holstein colostrum for cows under high grazing conditions in the tropics. The effects of the calf's sex and parity on somatic cell count (SCC) at the first milking postpartum were determined. A comparison was made between a laboratory method and a farm method for the estimation of the fat and protein content of colostrum. Thirty-three cows were sampled in the study. The calf's sex was shown to have an effect on the amount of colostrum, on the concentration of fat, and on the amount of milk produced by lactating Holstein cows; all were higher in cows that gave birth to a female calf. Colostrum protein decreased after the first hour postpartum, and the Ig concentration had a tendency to decrease after 4 h. The cows that had parity 1-2 had lower Ig concentrations and total production of Igs, and higher SCC at the first milking postpartum. Ekomilk was a reliable method to measure the colostrum fat on the farm. PMID:25708565

  7. Progress in the use of computerised recording systems in dairy cow monitoring and extension in Malaysia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Pharo; M. J. Sopian; M. Kamaruddin; M. A. Abu Hassan; P. F. Cheah; T. W. Choo

    1990-01-01

    The emphasis on cow records in Malaysian diary extension programmes reflects the importance of herd fertility in the economics of dairying. Manual record keeping has not been able to make an impact on management due to difficulties experienced in quality control of the data and in analysing the data to produce useful information for farm managers. Computerised recording systems have

  8. Modification of digestive system microbiome of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine: effect on ruminal fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) on the digestive system microbiome of dairy cattle during late lactation (average DIM = 202). To unveil the underlying mechanisms, ...

  9. Influence of kid rearing systems on milk yield, kid growth and cost of Florida dairy goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Delgado-Pertíñez; J. L. Guzmán-Guerrero; Y. Mena; J. M. Castel; P. González-Redondo; F. P. Caravaca

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of two different kid-rearing systems, natural or artificial, on milk yield, composition, hygiene-sanitary quality, kid growth and cost in Florida dairy goats. Two groups of animals were created, one with goats under natural suckling and the other under artificial rearing. In the suckling group, the kids were suckled up to

  10. Health and welfare of dairy cows in different husbandry systems in Switzerland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Regula; J. Danuser; B. Spycher; B. Wechsler

    2004-01-01

    Our objective was to compare health and welfare of dairy cows kept in three types of husbandry systems: (1) tie stalls with regular exercise in summer but minimal outdoor access during winter (the reference level for analyses); (2) tie stalls with regular exercise in an exercise yard or pasture throughout the year; (3) loose-housing with regular access to an outdoor

  11. Membrane sequencing batch reactor system for the treatment of dairy industry wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae-Hyun Bae; Sung-Soo Han; Tae-Moon Tak

    2003-01-01

    A membrane separation process was coupled to a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for biological nutrient removal (BNR) processes and a combined system was named a membrane sequencing batch reactor (MSBR). MSBR was used for the treatment of dairy industry wastewater and optimized to increase the treatment efficiency. Since a diffuser-attached module design, subcritical flux operation, and intermittent suction method were

  12. Production level, feed conversion efficiency, and nitrogen use efficiency of dairy production systems in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Liu, Jian-Xin; Makkar, Harinder Paul Singh; Wei, Ning-bo; Xu, Qun-mei

    2014-04-01

    A study was conducted in China to evaluate the feed conversion efficiency, nitrogen use efficiency, and the amount of human-edible grains fed under different dairy systems. Three dairy systems were defined and studied: (i) smallholder subsistence farms (SH), (ii) peri-urban farms (PR), and iii) cooperative farms (CO). The PR system had the highest milk yield, better feed conversion efficiency, better nitrogen use efficiency, and used lower proportion of grains in the diet. Within a system, different farms had wide variations in feed conversion efficiency and nitrogen use efficiency, suggesting the need to improve management practices within the system. Among the three systems, SH and CO systems require the most improvements in the management practices. PMID:24510199

  13. Response of a depleted sagebrush steppe riparian system to grazing control and woody plantings. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Clary, W.P.; Shaw, N.L.; Dudley, J.G.; Saab, V.A.; Kinney, J.W.

    1996-12-01

    To find out if a depleted riparian system in the sagebrush steppe of eastern Oregon would respond quickly to improved management, five management treatments were applied for 7 years, ranging from ungrazed to heavily grazed treatments, including, in some cases, planting of woody species. While the results varied, all treatments were too limited to significantly restore the damaged areas within the 7-year span. Although some improvements were made in woody plant densities, little meaningful change occurred in the frequencies of herbaceous wetland plants, densities of small wildlife, or stream channel morphology. We concluded the restoration would take many years, possibly decades, without increased revegetation efforts and continued reductions in grazing in this riparian system damaged over 150 years.

  14. Global versus local environmental impacts of grazing and confined beef production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modernel, P.; Astigarraga, L.; Picasso, V.

    2013-09-01

    Carbon footprint is a key indicator of the contribution of food production to climate change and its importance is increasing worldwide. Although it has been used as a sustainability index for assessing production systems, it does not take into account many other biophysical environmental dimensions more relevant at the local scale, such as soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, and pesticide contamination. We estimated carbon footprint, fossil fuel energy use, soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, and risk of pesticide contamination for five real beef background-finishing systems with increasing levels of intensification in Uruguay, which were combinations of grazing rangelands (RL), seeded pastures (SP), and confined in feedlot (FL). Carbon footprint decreased from 16.7 (RL-RL) to 6.9 kg (SP-FL) CO2 eq kg body weight-1 (BW; ‘eq’: equivalent). Energy use was zero for RL-RL and increased up to 17.3 MJ kg BW-1 for SP-FL. Soil erosion values varied from 7.7 (RL-RL) to 14.8 kg of soil kg BW-1 (SP-FL). Nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient balances showed surpluses for systems with seeded pastures and feedlots while RL-RL was deficient. Pesticide contamination risk was zero for RL-RL, and increased up to 21.2 for SP-FL. For the range of systems studied with increasing use of inputs, trade-offs were observed between global and local environmental problems. These results demonstrate that several indicators are needed to evaluate the sustainability of livestock production systems.

  15. Measures of nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen loss from dairy production systems.

    PubMed

    Powell, J M; Rotz, C A

    2015-03-01

    In dairy production systems, tradeoffs can occur between fertilizer N applications and crop N use, feed N consumption and manure N excretion, and environmental impacts. This paper examines (i) how stocking rates affect N imports and management on dairy farms, N use efficiency (NUE; i.e., the amount of applied N incorporated into product N), and N loss; (ii) how reductions in fertilizer N and feed N may affect crop and milk production, NUE, and N loss; and (iii) why tradeoffs in N use outcomes should be considered when attempting to enhance overall NUE and reduce N loss. The Integrated Farm Simulation Model simulations of two representative dairy farm types and analyses of regional studies, long-term field experiments, and cow nutrition trials were used to demonstrate that (i) stocking rate affects cropping patterns, fertilizer and feed imports, and N loss; (ii) although fertilizer N reductions of 20 kg N ha may reduce slightly the crude protein (CP) content of corn silage (which would require purchase of additional CP supplements), this practice should not affect long-term corn yield but would reduce nitrate (NO) and nitrous oxide (NO) losses by 13 to 38%; (iii) dietary CP could be reduced on many dairy farms, which would not affect milk production but would reduce ammonia (NH) and NO emissions by 15 to 43%; and (iv) greater recognition of the tradeoffs in N use and N loss are needed to provide a better understanding of the potentials to enhance overall NUE and reduce environmental N loss from dairy production systems. PMID:26023953

  16. Amazing Grazing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Cris

    Countless acres of grasslands stretch across the American West. Centuries ago, bison roamed the range freely and lived off the grass. By the 19th century, herds of cattle grazed the same land. Over time, much of the original grassland was either plowed and planted or trampled to dust, causing the topsoil to dry up and blow away. Today many…

  17. Effects of dairy system, herd within dairy system, and individual cow characteristics on the volatile organic compound profile of ripened model cheeses.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, M; Aprea, E; Betta, E; Biasioli, F; Cipolat-Gotet, C; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G; Gasperi, F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of dairy system, herd within dairy system, and characteristics of individual cows (parity, days in milk, and daily milk yield) on the volatile organic compound profile of model cheeses produced under controlled conditions from the milk of individual cows of the Brown Swiss breed. One hundred fifty model cheeses were selected from 1,272 produced for a wider study of the phenotypic and genetic variability of Brown Swiss cows. In our study, we selected 30 herds representing 5 different dairy systems. The cows sampled presented different milk yields (12.3-43.2kg/d), stages of lactation (10-412 d in milk), and parity (1-7). In total, 55 volatile compounds were detected by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including 14 alcohols, 13 esters, 11 free fatty acids, 8 ketones, 4 aldehydes, 3 lactones, 1 terpene, and 1 pyrazine. The most important sources of variation in the volatile organic profiles of model cheeses were dairy system (18 compounds) and days in milk (10 compounds), followed by parity (3 compounds) and milk yield (5 compounds). The model cheeses produced from the milk of tied cows reared on traditional farms had lower quantities of 3-methyl-butan-1-ol, 6-pentyloxan-2-one, 2-phenylethanol, and dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one compared with those reared in freestalls on modern farms. Of these, milk from farms using total mixed rations had higher contents of alcohols (hexan-1-ol, octan-1-ol) and esters (ethyl butanoate, ethyl pentanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and ethyl octanoate) and lower contents of acetic acid compared with those using separate feeds. Moreover, dairy systems that added silage to the total mixed ration produced cheeses with lower levels of volatile organic compounds, in particular alcohols (butan-1-ol, pentan-1-ol, heptan-1-ol), compared with those that did not. The amounts of butan-2-ol, butanoic acid, ethyl-2-methylpropanoate, ethyl-3-methylbutanoate, and 6-propyloxan-2-one increased linearly during lactation, whereas octan-1-ol, 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol, 2-butoxyethanol, 6-pentyloxan-2-one, and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine showed a more complex pattern during lactation. The effect of the number of lactations (parity) was significant for octan-1-ol, butanoic acid, and heptanoic acid. Finally, concentrations of octan-1-ol, 2-phenylethanol, pentanoic acid, and heptanoic acid increased with increasing daily milk yield, whereas dihydrofuran-2(3H)-one decreased. In conclusion, the volatile organic compound profile of model cheeses from the milk of individual cows was affected by dairy farming system and stage of lactation and, to lesser extent, by parity and daily milk yield. PMID:25682146

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from simulated beef and dairy livestock systems in the United States

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hope W. Phetteplace; Donald E. Johnson; Andrew F. Seidl

    2001-01-01

    Computer spreadsheets were developed to evaluate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from U.S. beef and dairy livestock systems\\u000a from nine locations. Of the beef systems the cow-calf herd emitted the most and feedlot cattle the least methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) per unit product. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per unit product were the least for the cow-calf and greatest for

  19. Dairy cows welfare quality in tie-stall housing system with or without access to exercise

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tie-stall housing of dairy cows is used extensively worldwide, despite of the welfare concerns regarding the restriction of voluntary movement and limitation of expression of the cows’ natural behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the welfare quality of dairy cows kept in two types of tie-stall housing systems: with regular outdoor exercise and without access to exercise. In addition, the study investigated the relationship between different welfare measures of dairy cows kept in tie-stalls. Methods 3,192 lactating cows were assessed using the Welfare Quality® assessment protocol for cattle in 80 commercial dairy farms, half of the farms providing outdoor access for the animals to exercise. The descriptive statistical indicators were determined for the assessed measures and for the welfare criteria and principle scores. The data obtained in the two housing types were compared and the correlation coefficients were calculated between the different welfare measures. Results The significant differences found between the two housing systems for the majority of the animal based measures indicate the positive effect of exercise on the welfare of tethered cows. Many of the animal welfare parameters correlated with each other. For the farms allowing the cows’ turnout in a paddock, pasture or both, the mean scores for the welfare criteria and principles were higher than for the farms with permanent tethering of the cows, except the criteria absence of prolonged hunger and expression of social behaviours. The lowest scores were obtained for the criterion positive emotional state, in both housing systems. With regard to the overall classification, none of the farms were considered excellent. In the not classified category were only farms with all-year-round tethering of the animals and in the enhanced category only farms where the cows had outdoor access. Conclusions The welfare quality of the investigated dairy cows was significantly better in the tie-stall farms which allow exercise for cows (paddocks, pasture or both) than in those which do not. In the light of our results we consider that dairy cattle welfare is not necessarily poor in tie-stall housing systems, its quality depending on the management practices. PMID:23724804

  20. Evaluation of Brassicas in grazing systems for sheep: II. Blood composition and nutrient status.

    PubMed

    Cox-Ganser, J M; Jung, G A; Pushkin, R T; Reid, R L

    1994-07-01

    Blood composition of lambs grazing Brassicas and stockpiled grass or grass-clover pastures in the fall of 4 yr was monitored to assess possible effects of plant metabolites (e.g., glucosinolates, S-methyl cysteine sulfoxide) on health and performance. Serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations in lambs grazing Brassicas decreased upon initiation of grazing, with a subsequent recovery, and concentrations were increased by oral dosing with I or I+CuO. Serum triiodothyronine (T3) increased gradually with time and did not differ between lambs on Brassicas and on pasture at most time periods. In Exp. 3 and 4, T4 levels were lower in lambs grazing Tyfon chinese cabbage hybrid (Brassica rapa L. x B. pekinensis [Lour.] Rupr.) than in lambs on Forage Star hybrid turnip (B. rapa L.). Heinz body formation increased rapidly in lambs on Brassicas, with small decreases in packed cell volume (PCV); dosing with I+CuO reduced Heinz bodies in lambs on Tyfon and turnip pastures. In Exp. 2, I+CuO treatment increased liver Cu concentrations but had no effect on serum Cu. Serum cholesterol and urea N concentrations declined rapidly in lambs on Brassicas, with little change in lambs on stockpiled pastures. Decreases in serum triglycerides, and an increase in glucose concentration, were noted in Exp. 3 and 4 in lambs grazing Tyfon and Forage Star turnip. Although a number of differences related to plant composition were noted in blood of lambs grazing Brassica forages relative to stockpiled pastures, the changes did not seem sufficiently severe to affect animal performance. PMID:7928763

  1. Parasitic infections in an organic grazing cattle herd in Tuscany using geographic information systems to determine risk factors.

    PubMed

    Perrucci, Stefania; Pinello, Eleonora; Fichi, Gianluca; Ciardi, Edoardo; Bàrberi, Paolo; Moonen, Camilla; Ragaglini, Giorgio; Bibbiani, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    An organic grazing cattle herd in Tuscany (Italy) was monitored for parasites between 2002 and 2006. Every two to three months, faecal samples from cattle of different breeds and age were collected and examined for endoparasites, using both qualitative and quantitative parasitological techniques. Several environmental parameters were monitored and data on biodiversity and field margin biodiversity of grazing areas were also collected. All data were geo-referenced and plotted on a vectorial map using geographic information systems (GIS) software. Soil was classified as silt and clay/sand. The hydraulic drainage was poor and water pooling was observed frequently. The biodiversity of field margins was relatively high. Cattle were infected by coccidia, gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and trematodes. Prevalence and intensity of infestations were highly variable. In most cases, this variability was related to cattle breed, age, season and meteorological data. The Pisana breed was most commonly infected by Fasciola hepatica and Paramphistomidae. These infestations were associated with more frequent flooding and water pooling in the areas grazed by this breed. PMID:20422517

  2. LAIT-XPERT VACHES: an expert system for dairy herd management.

    PubMed

    Pellerin, D; Levallois, R; St-Laurent, G; Perrier, J P

    1994-08-01

    An expert system called LAIT-XPERT VACHES, developed to evaluate technical management of dairy enterprises, was tested using case data. The expertise of the system was provided from information obtained from interviews of three dairy management or nutrition experts. LAIT-XPERT VACHES contains over 950 rules and runs on IBM-compatible personal computers. It calculates objectives in milk production, fat and protein production, feeding cost, reproduction, and other areas. In addition, it detects problems and high performance according to these objectives; researches the causes of problems in herd management, feeding, genetics, health, housing, and other areas; and lists conclusions by sector. Using a monthly report of 10 farms registered in the DHI program of Quebec, LAIT-XPERT VACHES issued 92.3% of the conclusions also issued by experts. However, the experts revealed only 53.3% of conclusions reached by the expert system. With Agri-Lait reports of three farms, all conclusions of LAIT-XPERT VACHES were validated by the experts. These results demonstrated that use of an expert system makes it possible to obtain analyses of dairy performance data equivalent to those of human experts. PMID:7962853

  3. An economic decision-making support system for selection of reproductive management programs on dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Giordano, J O; Fricke, P M; Wiltbank, M C; Cabrera, V E

    2011-12-01

    Because the reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows influences the profitability of dairy operations, predicting the future reproductive and economic performance of dairy herds through decision support systems would be valuable to dairy producers and consultants. In this study, we present a highly adaptable tool created based on a mathematical model combining Markov chain simulation with partial budgeting to obtain the net present value (NPV; $/cow per year) of different reproductive management programs. The growing complexity of reproductive programs used by dairy farms demands that new decision support systems precisely reflect the events that occur on the farm. Therefore, the model requires productive, reproductive, and economic input data used for simulation of farm conditions to account for all factors related to reproductive management that increase costs and generate revenue. The economic performance of 3 different reproductive programs can be simultaneously compared with the current model. A program utilizing 100% visual estrous detection (ED) for artificial insemination (AI) is used as a baseline for comparison with 2 other programs that may include 100% timed AI (TAI) as well as any combination of TAI and ED. A case study is presented in which the model was used to compare 3 different reproductive management strategies (100% ED baseline compared with two 100% TAI options) using data from a commercial farm in Wisconsin. Sensitivity analysis was then used to assess the effect of varying specific reproductive parameters on the NPV. Under the simulated conditions of the case study, the model indicated that the two 100% TAI programs were superior to the 100% ED program and, of the 100% TAI programs, the one with the higher conception rate (CR) for resynchronized AI services was economically superior despite having higher costs and a longer interbreeding interval. A 4% increase in CR for resynchronized AI was sufficient for the inferior 100% TAI to outperform the superior program. Adding ED to the 100% TAI programs was only beneficial for the program with the lower CR. The improvement in service rate required for the 100% ED program to have the same NPV as the superior 100% TAI program was 12%. The decision support system developed in this study is a valuable tool that may be used to assist dairy producers and industry consultants in selecting the best farm-specific reproductive management strategy. PMID:22118110

  4. Particulate and active soil nitrogen fractions are reduced by sheep grazing in dryland cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep (Ovis aries L.) grazing, a cost-effective method of weed control compared to herbicide application and tillage, may influence N cycling by consuming crop residue and weeds and returning N through feces and urine to the soil. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of sheep ...

  5. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 20, NO. 4, NOVEMBER 2005 1967 Dynamic Performance Assessment: Grazing

    E-print Network

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    examples drawn from protection operation, transient voltage overshoot, and induction motor stalling. Index Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA (e-mail: VDonde@lbl.gov). I. A. Hiskens is with the University as a shooting method [4], gives the parameter values that induce such grazing phenomena. Continuing

  6. Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

  7. LARGE SCALE GRAZING SYSTEMS IN THE NORDIC REGION: THEIR HISTORY, CHARACTERISTICS AND STABILITY

    E-print Network

    Oksanen, Lauri

    , the Fennoscandian Mountains were primarily grazed by wild reindeer, which were hunted by the Sámi in northern herds of domesticated reindeer, which were used for pulling sledges, carrying packs, milking and as attraction animals in wild reindeer hunts. To have larger herds had been impossible, since reindeer do

  8. MODELING THE POTENTIAL SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF BEEF CATTLE GRAZING USING A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data regarding grazing utilization in the western United States are typically compiled within administrative boundaries(e.g. allotment,pasture). For large areas, an assumption of uniform distribution is seldom valid. Previous studies show that vegetation type, degree of slope, an...

  9. CATTLE GRAZING EFFECTS ON DRYLAND CROPPING SYSTEM PRODUCTIVITY AND SOIL PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On the southern Great Plains, dryland wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] are grown in a wheat-sorghum-fallow (WSF) rotation that consistently produces two crops in a three year cycle using precipitation stored in the soil. Integration of cattle grazing on wh...

  10. Modelling of grazing systems at the farm level John Milne Alan Sibbald

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    will aid respectively tactical and strategic decision-making at the farm scale. ©Elsevier / Inra of developing grazing models at the farm scale and incorporating them into decision support tools to aid research on rural land use and to provide support in decision-making by farmers, and regional and local

  11. Non-traditional forages in a Managed Grazing System for Control of Gastrointestinal Parasites in Sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This project compared forage chicory with brown mid-rib sorghum x sudangrass (BMR) to determine if anti-parasitic effects of chicory could be demonstrated. We evaluated changes in fecal egg counts in two groups of lambs before and after grazing these forages for periods of two to three weeks. Body...

  12. DairyGHG: a tool for evaluating the greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impact on the environment have become important national and international concerns. Dairy production, along with all other animal agriculture, is a recognized source of GHG emissions, but little information exists on the net emissions from our farm...

  13. Invited review: The impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cow management, behavior, health, and welfare.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, J A; Siegford, J M

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 100 yr, the dairy industry has incorporated technology to maximize yield and profit. Pressure to maximize efficiency and lower inputs has resulted in novel approaches to managing and milking dairy herds, including implementation of automatic milking systems (AMS) to reduce labor associated with milking. Although AMS have been used for almost 20 yr in Europe, they have only recently become more popular in North America. Automatic milking systems have the potential to increase milk production by up to 12%, decrease labor by as much as 18%, and simultaneously improve dairy cow welfare by allowing cows to choose when to be milked. However, producers using AMS may not fully realize these anticipated benefits for a variety of reasons. For example, producers may not see a reduction in labor because some cows do not milk voluntarily or because they have not fully or efficiently incorporated the AMS into their management routines. Following the introduction of AMS on the market in the 1990s, research has been conducted examining AMS systems versus conventional parlors focusing primarily on cow health, milk yield, and milk quality, as well as on some of the economic and social factors related to AMS adoption. Additionally, because AMS rely on cows milking themselves voluntarily, research has also been conducted on the behavior of cows in AMS facilities, with particular attention paid to cow traffic around AMS, cow use of AMS, and cows' motivation to enter the milking stall. However, the sometimes contradictory findings resulting from different studies on the same aspect of AMS suggest that differences in management and farm-level variables may be more important to AMS efficiency and milk production than features of the milking system itself. Furthermore, some of the recommendations that have been made regarding AMS facility design and management should be scientifically tested to demonstrate their validity, as not all may work as intended. As updated AMS designs, such as the automatic rotary milking parlor, continue to be introduced to the dairy industry, research must continue to be conducted on AMS to understand the causes and consequences of differences between milking systems as well as the impacts of the different facilities and management systems that surround them on dairy cow behavior, health, and welfare. PMID:22541453

  14. Cross-sectional Prevalence of Helminth Infections in Cattle on Traditional, Small-scale and Large-scale Dairy Farms in Iringa District, Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Keyyu; A. A. Kassuku; L. P. Msalilwa; J. Monrad; N. C. Kyvsgaard

    2006-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes and flukes (Fasciola and amphistomes) infection in communally grazed traditional cattle, zero-grazed small-scale dairy cattle and intensively grazed large-scale dairy cattle through examination of helminth eggs in faeces. Results indicated that the type of management, especially the grazing habit, has a significant influence on the prevalence

  15. Food safety systems in a small dairy factory: implementation, major challenges, and assessment of systems' performances.

    PubMed

    Cusato, Sueli; Gameiro, Augusto H; Corassin, Carlos H; Sant'ana, Anderson S; Cruz, Adriano G; Faria, José de Assis F; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto F

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the implementation of a food safety system in a dairy processing plant located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, and the challenges found during the process. In addition, microbiological indicators have been used to assess system's implementation performance. The steps involved in the implementation of a food safety system included a diagnosis of the prerequisites, implementation of the good manufacturing practices (GMPs), sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOPs), training of the food handlers, and hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP). In the initial diagnosis, conformity with 70.7% (n=106) of the items analyzed was observed. A total of 12 critical control points (CCPs) were identified: (1) reception of the raw milk, (2) storage of the raw milk, (3 and 4) reception of the ingredients and packaging, (5) milk pasteurization, (6 and 7) fermentation and cooling, (8) addition of ingredients, (9) filling, (10) storage of the finished product, (11) dispatching of the product, and (12) sanitization of the equipment. After implementation of the food safety system, a significant reduction in the yeast and mold count was observed (p<0.05). The main difficulties encountered for the implementation of food safety system were related to the implementation of actions established in the flow chart and to the need for constant training/adherence of the workers to the system. Despite this, the implementation of the food safety system was shown to be challenging, but feasible to be reached by small-scale food industries. PMID:23153286

  16. Lifetime productivity of dairy cows in smallholder farming systems of the Central highlands of Kenya.

    PubMed

    Rufino, M C; Herrero, M; Van Wijk, M T; Hemerik, L; De Ridder, N; Giller, K E

    2009-07-01

    Evaluation of lifetime productivity is sensible to target interventions for improving productivity of smallholder dairy systems in the highlands of East Africa, because cows are normally not disposed of based on productive reasons. Feeding strategies and involuntary culling may have long-term effects on productive (and therefore economic) performance of dairy systems. Because of the temporal scale needed to evaluate lifetime productivity, experimentation with feedstuffs in single lactations is not enough to assess improvements in productivity. A dynamic modelling approach was used to explore the effect of feeding strategies on the lifetime productivity of dairy cattle. We used LIVSIM (LIVestock SIMulator), an individual-based, dynamic model in which performance depends on genetic potential of the breed and feeding. We tested the model for the highlands of Central Kenya, and simulated individual animals throughout their lifetime using scenarios with different diets based on common feedstuffs used in these systems (Napier grass, maize stover and dairy concentrates), with and without imposing random mortality on different age classes. The simulations showed that it is possible to maximise lifetime productivity by supplementing concentrates to meet the nutrient requirements of cattle during lactation, and during early development to reduce age at first calving and extend productive life. Avoiding undernutrition during the dry period by supplementing the diet with 0.5 kg of concentrates per day helped to increase productivity and productive life, but in practice farmers may not perceive the immediate economic benefits because the results of this practice are manifested through a cumulative, long-term effect. Survival analyses indicated that unsupplemented diets prolong calving intervals and therefore, reduce lifetime productivity. The simulations with imposed random mortality showed a reduction of 43% to 65% in all productivity indicators. Milk production may be increased on average by 1400 kg per lactation by supplementing the diet with 5 kg of concentrates during early lactation and 1 kg during late lactation, although the optimal supplementation may change according to milk and concentrate prices. Reducing involuntary culling must be included as a key goal when designing interventions to improve productivity and sustainability of smallholder dairy systems, because increasing lifetime productivity may have a larger impact on smallholders' income than interventions targeted to only improving daily milk yields through feeding strategies. PMID:22444823

  17. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: The effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle

    PubMed Central

    Rubaire-Akiiki, C.; Okello-Onen, J.; Nasinyama, G.W.; Vaarst, M.; Kabagambe, E. K.; Mwayi, W.; Musunga, D.; Wandukwa, W.

    2004-01-01

    Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60%) was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50%) were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified. Abbreviation: zone agro-ecological zone PMID:15861224

  18. Processed grains as a supplement to lactating dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Tothi

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: heat treatment, maize, barley, starch, protein, in sacco, in vivo, dairy, perennial ryegrass, grazing, supplementation, ruminal fermentation, VFA, rumen, degradability, synchrony.In this thesis the effect of different ways of thermal processing (pelleting, expanding, toasting) of barley and maize on the degradative behaviour of their starch and protein in the rumen of lactating dairy cows are described. In situ studies

  19. Co-treatment of domestic and dairy wastewater in an activated sludge system.

    PubMed

    Sparchez, E; Elefsiniotis, P; Wareham, D G; Fongsatitkul, P

    2015-03-01

    This research assesses the potential for co-treatment of a dairy wastewater with a domestic wastewater in a lab-scale, continuous-flow, activated sludge system. To evaluate the influence of the dairy waste contribution, seven runs were conducted with each run being a mixture of dairy wastewater (either cheese or milk) in different ratios ranging from 1:0.01 to 1:0.30 by volume. More than 87% of the carbon was removed for both waste additions; however, while 95% ammonia-nitrogen removal was recorded for the cheese waste, only 75% removal was obtained for the milk. Kinetic studies for carbon consumption revealed a first-order model with lower kinetic constants as the cheese waste proportion increased. Specific carbon consumption rates indicated that the biomass had not reached its maximum potential to degrade carbon. The ability of the biomass to settle was hindered when the Gram negative to Gram positive filamentous bacteria ratio increased to approximately 1.5. PMID:25204524

  20. Evaluation of Brassicas in grazing systems for sheep: I. Quality of forage and animal performance.

    PubMed

    Reid, R L; Puoli, J R; Jung, G A; Cox-Ganser, J M; McCoy, A

    1994-07-01

    Four years of grazing trials were conducted with Brassica forages to evaluate their chemical composition and effect on ADG of fattening lambs and breeding ewes in late fall. Brassicas tested included kales (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC), turnips (B. rapa L.), and a chinese cabbage hybrid (B. rapa L. x B. pekinensis [Lour.] Rupr.). Daily gains of lambs varied widely among years (19 to 330 g/d); ADG on Brassicas were, however, generally higher than on stockpiled Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) or orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.)-red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) pastures grazed at the same time. In 1 yr, dietary supplementation of lambs grazing a hybrid turnip (Forage Star) with iodine and copper oxide needles improved (P < .05) ADG; however, there was no effect on gains in two later years. In 2 yr, lambs showed higher ADG on Tyfon chinese cabbage hybrid (241 and 330 g/d) than on Forage Star turnip (197 and 275 g/d) or stockpiled grass-clover (135 and 233 g/d), but yield of Tyfon was lower. Indications that supplementary hay improved ADG of lambs and ewes were not confirmed in the final year, in which hay increased (P < .05) ADG of lambs in the first 3 wk of grazing Brassicas but decreased gains later. Thyroid weights were increased (P < .01) consistently in all trials on Brassicas, but enlargement was modest and not related to ADG. Brassica forages provided high yields (5.6 to 10.5 t/ha) of DM in the late fall to early winter period, with high carrying capacity for sheep but large variability in ADG. PMID:7928762

  1. Environmental performances of Sardinian dairy sheep production systems at different input levels.

    PubMed

    Vagnoni, E; Franca, A; Breedveld, L; Porqueddu, C; Ferrara, R; Duce, P

    2015-01-01

    Although sheep milk production is a significant sector for the European Mediterranean countries, it shows serious competitiveness gaps. Minimizing the ecological impacts of dairy sheep farming systems could represent a key factor for farmers to bridging the gaps in competitiveness of such systems and also obtaining public incentives. However, scarce is the knowledge about the environmental performance of Mediterranean dairy sheep farms. The main objectives of this paper were (i) to compare the environmental impacts of sheep milk production from three dairy farms in Sardinia (Italy), characterized by different input levels, and (ii) to identify the hotspots for improving the environmental performances of each farm, by using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach. The LCA was conducted using two different assessment methods: Carbon Footprint-IPCC and ReCiPe end-point. The analysis, conducted "from cradle to gate", was based on the functional unit 1 kg of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM). The observed trends of the environmental performances of the studied farming systems were similar for both evaluation methods. The GHG emissions revealed a little range of variation (from 2.0 to 2.3 kg CO2-eq per kg of FPCM) with differences between farming systems being not significant. The ReCiPe end-point analysis showed a larger range of values and environmental performances of the low-input farm were significantly different compared to the medium- and high-input farms. In general, enteric methane emissions, field operations, electricity and production of agricultural machineries were the most relevant processes in determining the overall environmental performances of farms. Future research will be dedicated to (i) explore and better define the environmental implications of the land use impact category in the Mediterranean sheep farming systems, and (ii) contribute to revising and improving the existing LCA dataset for Mediterranean farming systems. PMID:25265396

  2. Ammonia losses from urine and dung of grazing cattle. effect of N intake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Søren O.; Sommer, Sven G.; Aaes, Ole; Søegaard, Karen

    Nitrogen excretion by cattle during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric ammonia. In this study the relation between NH 3 volatilization and N intake was investigated in wind tunnel experiments with simulated urine patches and dung pats. Excreta were collected from four groups of dairy cattle grazing continuously on either ryegrass fertilized with 300 kg N ha -1 or unfertilized white clover-ryegrass. The two groups of cattle in each grazing system received either 139 or 304 g N cow -1 d -1 in concentrates, corresponding to average total N intakes in the range of 500-700 g N cow -1 d -1. Ammonia losses from dung were insignificant, while total losses from urine, which were estimated by curve-fitting, ranged from 3 to 52% of urinary N. Urea-N in the urine applied in the experiments constituted, with one exception, 64-94% of urinary N. The fraction of urea-N increased significantly with total N concentration in subsamples from individual animals. In the soil, hydrolysis of urea to NH 3 was almost complete within 24 h, and release of NH 3 was indicated by scorching. Milk yield and the production of milk protein was not related to N intake or grazing system, while estimated NH 3 losses were significantly reduced at the lower N intake level within the range of N intakes obtained.

  3. Intercropped oats (Avena sativa) - common vetch (Vicia sativa) silage in the dry season for small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Garduño-Castro, Y; Espinoza-Ortega, A; González-Esquivel, C E; Mateo-Salazar, B; Arriaga-Jordán, C M

    2009-06-01

    Small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of central Mexico require feeding strategies based on quality home-grown forage that may reduce high concentrate costs. Eight Holstein cows paired by parity and date of calving were used in a split-plot experiment to evaluate supplementing 6 kg DM/cow/d of oat-vetch silage (OVS) in comparison to maize silage (MS) as dry season feeding, for a more intensive use of the land through an oat-vetch catch crop. Cows had 9 h/d access to continuous grazing of perennial ryegrass - white clover pasture and 4 kg/d of commercial concentrate. The 9 week experiment, recorded weekly milk yield and composition, and body condition score and live-weight every fortnight. Milk yield was 20.1 kg/cow/d for OVS and 15.4 for MS (SEM +/-2.9, P > 0.05), with no differences for fat or protein content, body condition score, or live-weight (P > 0.05). The economic analysis showed that although feeding costs were higher for OVS, margins were greater than for MS, with feeding cost per litre of $0.21 for MS and $0.16 for OVS. OVS is a viable catch crop after the MS harvest that can substitute MS in the dry season enabling a more intensive use of the land. PMID:19002599

  4. Influence of floor surface and access to pasture on claw health in dairy cows kept in cubicle housing systems.

    PubMed

    Haufe, Helge Christiane; Gygax, Lorenz; Wechsler, Beat; Stauffacher, Markus; Friedli, Katharina

    2012-06-01

    In this study, the effects on the claw health of dairy cows of three different floor types and access to pasture were investigated on 35 farms. The farms were fitted with a given floor type in the indoor walking area of a cubicle housing system: a solid rubber, mastic asphalt or slatted concrete floor. Because we chose farms on which the given floor type was in good condition, the data presented show what can be achieved on these types of floors under ideal circumstances. Cows on half of the farms per floor type had access to pasture during the grazing period. Each farm was visited three times at approx. 6-month intervals at the end of the winter indoor-housing period and at the end of the summer period, i.e. after the period with access to pasture on half of the farms. During each visit, the claw health of the same 10 cows per farm was assessed on the occasion of routine claw trimming. The proportion of cows with haemorrhages increased from mastic asphalt to rubber and slatted concrete floors. A lower proportion of cows kept on mastic asphalt was affected by white-line fissures and needed intermittent claw-trimming, an indicator for lameness. Cows housed in cubicle systems with slatted concrete floors were at the lowest risk of having heel-horn erosions. Access to pasture was associated with a lower incidence of slight white-line fissures and dermatitis digitalis. A higher proportion of cows with sole haemorrhages and sole ulcers were found on all floor types at the end of the summer period than at the end of the winter indoor-housing period. Floor type did not influence the presence of sole ulcers and deep white-line fissures. In conclusion, the effect of floor type on claw health was slight, and none of the investigated floor types was clearly superior to the others. Access to pasture was not effective in reducing the presence of most types of claw lesions associated with the floor type used in the indoor walking area. PMID:22326044

  5. Rotational grazing on rangelands: Reconciliation of perception and experimental evidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experimental evaluation of grazing systems represents a highly visible and lengthy chapter in the history of the rangeland profession. Although experimentation has largely concluded, contrasting interpretations still remain regarding the potential benefits of rotational grazing systems on rangel...

  6. Performance of temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) system treating dairy cattle wastes.

    PubMed

    Sung, Shihwu; Santha, Harikishan

    2003-04-01

    The performance of temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) system in the stabilization of dairy cattle wastes at high solids concentrations has never been evaluated, though the process has been established as a feasible alternative to conventional mesophilic processes for the treatment of municipal wastewater sludges. In this study, the TPAD system operating at a retention time of 14 days was subjected to varying total solids (TS) concentrations (3.46-14.54%) of dairy cattle wastes. At TS concentrations lower than 12.20%, corresponding to system volatile solids (VS) loadings in the range of 1.87-5.82 g VS/L/day, the system achieved an average VS removal of 40.2%. The maximum VS destruction of 42.6% was achieved at a TS concentration of 10.35%. Methane recovery from the wastes was consistently within 0.21-0.22 L/g VS fed. There was a drop in the system performance with respect to VS removal and methane recovery at TS concentrations higher than 10.35%. volatile fatty acid/alkalinity ratios less than 0.35 in the thermophilic reactor and 0.10 in the mesophilic reactor were found favorable for stable operation of the system. For the entire range of TS concentrations, the indicator organism counts in the biosolids were within the limits specified by USEPA in 40 CFR Part 503 regulations for Class A designation. After digestion, nearly 80-85% of total phosphorus was associated with the biosolids. PMID:12600391

  7. 36 CFR 222.3 - Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits. 222...OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.3 Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits....

  8. Life cycle assessment of milk produced in two smallholder dairy systems in the highlands and the coast of Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Bartl; Carlos A. Gómez; Thomas Nemecek

    2011-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was applied to two smallholder milk production systems in Peru in order to evaluate the environmental burden of milk produced in each. An Andean highland milk production system where livestock feeding is restricted to permanent pastures supplemented with on farm grown ryegrass-clover was opposed to a coastal system with dairy cows fed a diet consisting of

  9. DESIGN OF AN ANAEROBIC DIGESTER AND FUEL CELL SYSTEM FOR ENERGY GENERATION FROM DAIRY WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dairy waste was found to have a natural population of microorganisms capable of seeding an MFC. Dairy wastewater also proved to be a very effective substrate. Different graphite electrode materials provided varying levels of electrical energy generation, demonstrating with gr...

  10. Eddy covariance methane flux measurements over a grazed pasture: effect of cows as moving point sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Münger, A.; Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.

    2015-02-01

    Methane (CH4) from ruminants contributes one third to global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. Eddy covariance (EC) technique has been extensively used at various flux sites to investigate carbon dioxide exchange of ecosystems. Since the development of fast CH4 analysers the instrumentation at many flux sites have been amended for these gases. However the application of EC over pastures is challenging due to the spatial and temporal uneven distribution of CH4 point sources induced by the grazing animals. We applied EC measurements during one grazing season over a pasture with 20 dairy cows (mean milk yield: 22.7 kg d-1) managed in a rotational grazing system. Individual cow positions were recorded by GPS trackers to attribute fluxes to animal emissions using a footprint model. Methane fluxes with cows in the footprint were up to two orders of magnitude higher than ecosystem fluxes without cows. Mean cow emissions of 423 ± 24 g CH4 head-1 d-1 (best guess of this study) correspond well to animal respiration chamber measurements reported in the literature. However a systematic effect of the distance between source and EC tower on cow emissions was found which is attributed to the analytical footprint model used. We show that the EC method allows to determine CH4 emissions of grazing cows if the data evaluation is adjusted for this purpose and if some cow distribution information is available.

  11. Livestock Grazing and Wildlife: Developing Compatibilities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Vavra

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Livestock grazing has been considered detrimental to wildlife habitat. Managed gazing programs, however, have the potential to maintain habitat diversity and quality. In cases in which single-species management,predominates (sage-grouse [Centrocercus urophasianus] or elk [Cervus elaphus nelsoni] winter range), grazing systems specific to species' needs can be jmplemented. Managed livestock grazing can have 4 general impacts on vegetation: 1) alter

  12. Ultraviolet Spectra of Star-Grazing Comets in the 49 Ceti Disk System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Brittany E.; Roberge, Aki; Welsh, Barry

    2015-01-01

    49 Ceti is a young star that hosts a debris disk with an unusually large amount of carbon monoxide gas. This excess gas has been attributed to frequent collisions of comets within the disk. (Zuckerman & Song, 2012). Since 49 Ceti disk is nearly edge-on to our line of sight, it is a prime target to observe disk gas and evaporated material from star-grazing comets using absorption spectroscopy, as shown by detection of time-variable circumstellar absorption in optical spectra of the star (Montgomery & Welsh 2012). Here we discuss ultraviolet spectra of 49 Ceti taken using the Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) during two separate visits six days apart. The spectra show time-variable and highly Doppler shifted absorption features from ionized gaseous species. The maximum velocity of the time-variable gas corresponds to a minimum distance from the star of 0.06 AU. These features very likely come from star-grazing comets. Lower limits on element abundances in the gas were found using the apparent optical depth method. The variable comet gas appears carbon rich, despite the disk gas as a whole showing strong absorption features from both carbon and oxygen (Roberge et al., 2014, in press).

  13. Thermoregulatory responses of Holstein and Brown Swiss Heat-Stressed dairy cows to two different cooling systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abelardo Correa-Calderon; Dennis Armstrong; Donald Ray; Sue DeNise; Mark Enns; Christine Howison

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-seven Holstein and 26 Brown Swiss dairy cows were used to evaluate the effect of two different cooling systems on physiological and hormonal responses during the summer. A control group of cows had access only to shade (C). A second group was cooled with spray and fans (S\\/F) and the third group was under an evaporative cooling system called Korral

  14. The behaviour of dairy cows in an automatic milking system where selection for milking takes place in the milking stalls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Stefanowska; A. H. Ipema; M. M. W. B. Hendriks

    1999-01-01

    An automatic milking system (AMS) enables cows to be milked by a milking robot at fairly regular intervals, more or less voluntarily, and without human supervision. To reduce the cost and simplify the operation of an AMS for dairy farmers, the selection stall, where the system's computer decides whether cows are to be milked or not, was removed and the

  15. Modelling carbon and water exchange of a grazed pasture in New Zealand constrained by eddy covariance measurements.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, Miko U F; Rutledge, Susanna; Kuijper, Isoude A; Mudge, Paul L; Puche, Nicolas; Wall, Aaron M; Roach, Chris G; Schipper, Louis A; Campbell, David I

    2015-04-15

    We used two years of eddy covariance (EC) measurements collected over an intensively grazed dairy pasture to better understand the key drivers of changes in soil organic carbon stocks. Analysing grazing systems with EC measurements poses significant challenges as the respiration from grazing animals can result in large short-term CO2 fluxes. As paddocks are grazed only periodically, EC observations derive from a mosaic of paddocks with very different exchange rates. This violates the assumptions implicit in the use of EC methodology. To test whether these challenges could be overcome, and to develop a tool for wider scenario testing, we compared EC measurements with simulation runs with the detailed ecosystem model CenW 4.1. Simulations were run separately for 26 paddocks around the EC tower and coupled to a footprint analysis to estimate net fluxes at the EC tower. Overall, we obtained good agreement between modelled and measured fluxes, especially for the comparison of evapotranspiration rates, with model efficiency of 0.96 for weekly averaged values of the validation data. For net ecosystem productivity (NEP) comparisons, observations were omitted when cattle grazed the paddocks immediately around the tower. With those points omitted, model efficiencies for weekly averaged values of the validation data were 0.78, 0.67 and 0.54 for daytime, night-time and 24-hour NEP, respectively. While not included for model parameterisation, simulated gross primary production also agreed closely with values inferred from eddy covariance measurements (model efficiency of 0.84 for weekly averages). The study confirmed that CenW simulations could adequately model carbon and water exchange in grazed pastures. It highlighted the critical role of animal respiration for net CO2 fluxes, and showed that EC studies of grazed pastures need to consider the best approach of accounting for this important flux to avoid unbalanced accounting. PMID:25634732

  16. Body condition score at calving affects systemic and hepatic transcriptome indicators of inflammation and nutrient metabolism in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Akbar, H; Grala, T M; Vailati Riboni, M; Cardoso, F C; Verkerk, G; McGowan, J; Macdonald, K; Webster, J; Schutz, K; Meier, S; Matthews, L; Roche, J R; Loor, J J

    2015-02-01

    Calving body condition score (BCS) is an important determinant of early-lactation dry matter intake, milk yield, and disease incidence. The current study investigated the metabolic and molecular changes induced by the change in BCS. A group of cows of mixed age and breed were managed from the second half of the previous lactation to achieve mean group BCS (10-point scale) that were high (HBCS, 5.5; n=20), medium (MBCS, 4.5; n=18), or low (LBCS, 3.5; n=19). Blood was sampled at wk -4, -3, -2, 1, 3, 5, and 6 relative to parturition to measure biomarkers of energy balance, inflammation, and liver function. Liver was biopsied on wk 1, 3, and 5 relative to parturition, and 10 cows per BCS group were used for transcript profiling via quantitative PCR. Cows in HBCS and MBCS produced more milk and had greater concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and ?-hydroxybutyrate postpartum than LBCS. Peak concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and ?-hydroxybutyrate and greater hepatic triacylglycerol concentrations were recorded in HBCS at wk 3. Consistent with blood biomarkers, HBCS and MBCS had greater expression of genes associated with fatty acid oxidation (CPT1A, ACOX1), ketogenesis (HMGCS2), and hepatokines (FGF21, ANGPTL4), whereas HBCS had the lowest expression of APOB (lipoprotein transport). Greater expression during early lactation of BBOX1 in MBCS and LBCS suggested greater de novo carnitine synthesis. The greater BCS was associated with lower expression of growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling axis genes (GHR1A, IGF1, and IGFALS) and greater expression of gluconeogenic genes. These likely contributed to the higher milk production and greater gluconeogenesis. Despite greater serum haptoglobin around calving, cows in HBCS and MBCS had greater blood albumin. Cows in MBCS, however, had a higher albumin:globulin ratio, probably indicating a less pronounced inflammatory status and better liver function. The marked decrease in expression of NFKB1, STAT3, HP, and SAA3 coupled with the increase in ALB on wk 3 in MBCS cows were consistent with blood measures. Overall, results suggest that the greater milk production of cows with higher calving BCS is associated with a proinflammatory response without negatively affecting expression of genes related to metabolism and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis. Results highlight the sensitivity of indicators of metabolic health and inflammatory state to subtle changes in calving BCS and, collectively, indicate a suboptimal health status in cows calving at either BCS 3.5 or 5.5 relative to BCS 4.5. PMID:25497809

  17. Effect of fertility on the economics of pasture-based dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Shalloo, L; Cromie, A; McHugh, N

    2014-05-01

    There are significant costs associated with reproductive inefficiency in pasture-based dairy herds. This study has quantified the economic effect of a number of key variables associated with reproductive inefficiency in a dairy herd and related them to 6-week calving rate for both cows and heifers. These variables include: increased culling costs, the effects of sub optimum calving dates, increased labour costs and increased artificial insemination (AI) and intervention costs. The Moorepark Dairy Systems Model which is a stochastic budgetary simulation model was used to simulate the overall economic effect at farm level. The effect of change in each of the components was simulated in the model and the costs associated with each component was quantified. An analysis of national data across a 4-year period using the Irish Cattle Breeding Federation database was used to quantify the relationship between the 6-week calving rate of a herd with survivability (%), calving interval (days) and the level of AI usage. The costs associated with increased culling (%), calving date slippage (day), increased AI and intervention costs (0.1 additional inseminations), as well as, increased labour costs (10%) were quantified as €13.68, €3.86, €4.56 and €29.6/cow per year. There was a statistically significant association between the 6-week calving rate and survivability, calving interval and AI usage at farm level. A 1% change in 6-week calving rate was associated with €9.26/cow per annum for cows and €3.51/heifer per annum for heifers. This study does not include the indirect costs such as reduced potential for expansion, increased costs associated with failing to maintain a closed herd as well as the unrealised potential within the herd. PMID:24679449

  18. ECONOMIC IMPACT OF AUTOMATIC MILKING SYSTEMS ON DAIRY FARMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A farm simulation model was used to determine the whole-farm effect of implementing automatic milking systems on farm sizes of 30 to 270 cows. Over the long-term, the adoption of automatic milking provided a small gain in annual net return at farm sizes of 50-60 cows with a loss of $0-200/cow on oth...

  19. Polyphosphate- and glycogen-accumulating organisms in one EBPR system for liquid dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Pruden, Amy; Ogejo, Jactone Arogo; Knowlton, Katharine F

    2014-07-01

    Two enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) sequencing batch reactors (SBR1, SBR2) treating liquid dairy manure were operated with the same hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solids retention time (SRT), but with different aeration cycles. During eight months of operation, both SBRs achieved good removal of total phosphorus (P) (TP; 56.8 and 73.5% for SBR1 and SBR2 respectively) and of orthophosphate (OP; 76.2 vs. 82.7%, P < 0.05). Growth dynamics of presumptive phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) were examined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). SBR1 was enriched with a greater abundance of PAOs while SBR2 was characterized by a greater abundance of GAOs. These results demonstrate the capability of EBPR of dairy manure and challenge conventional wisdom, since greater abundance of PAOs in EBPR system was not associated with improved OP removal and greater abundance of GAOs did not indicate deterioration of the EBPR system. PMID:25112034

  20. Evaluating mountain goat dairy systems for conversion to the organic model, using a multicriteria method.

    PubMed

    Mena, Y; Nahed, J; Ruiz, F A; Sánchez-Muñoz, J B; Ruiz-Rojas, J L; Castel, J M

    2012-04-01

    Organic farming conserves natural resources, promotes biodiversity, guarantees animal welfare and obtains healthy products from raw materials through natural processes. In order to evaluate possibilities of increasing organic animal production, this study proposes a farm-scale multicriteria method for assessing the conversion of dairy goat systems to the organic model. In addition, a case study in the Northern Sierra of Seville, southern Spain, is analysed. A consensus of expert opinions and a field survey are used to validate a list of potential indicators and issues for assessing the conversion, which consider not only the European Community regulations for organic livestock farming, but also agroecological principles. As a result, the method includes 56 variables integrated in nine indicators: Nutritional management, Sustainable pasture management, Soil fertility and contamination, Weed and pest control, Disease prevention, Breeds and reproduction, Animal welfare, Food safety and Marketing and management. The nine indicators are finally integrated in a global index named OLPI (Organic Livestock Proximity Index). Application of the method to a case study with 24 goat farms reveals an OLPI value of 46.5% for dairy goat farms located in mountain areas of southern Spain. The aspects that differ most from the agroecological model include soil management, animal nutrition and product marketing. Results of the case study indicate that the proposed method is easy to implement and is useful for quantifying the approximation of conventional farms to an organic model. PMID:22436287

  1. Impact evaluation of a refrigeration control system installed at Vitamilk Dairy, Incorporated under the Energy $avings Plan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Brown; D. R. Dixon; G. E. Spanner

    1995-01-01

    This impact evaluation of a refrigeration control system (RCS) recently installed at Vitamilk Dairy, Inc. (Vitamilk) was conducted for the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) as part of an evaluation of its Energy $avings Plan (E$P) Program. The RCS installation at Vitamilk uses microcomputer- based controls to automate refrigeration equipment previously controlled manually. This impact evaluation assessed how much electricity is

  2. The effect of lameness on the fertility of dairy cattle in a seasonally breeding pasture-based system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. I. Alawneh; R. A. Laven; M. A. Stevenson

    2011-01-01

    The effect of lameness on the fertility of dairy cattle is well recognized. But, the effect of lameness on the fertility of seasonally breeding cattle in pasture-based systems is less well characterized. This prospective cohort study of 463 cows on 1 farm in the lower North Island of New Zealand was designed to assess the effect of clinical lameness, as

  3. Feeding Strategies for Rearing Replacement Heifers in Small-scale Dairy Production Systems in the Highlands of Central Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Arriaga-Jordán; A. García-Martínez; B. Albarrán-Portillo; A. Espinoza-Ortega; O. A. Castelán-Ortega

    2003-01-01

    The growth of Holstein heifers in the campesino dairy systems in the highlands of Mexico was evaluated in three feeding strategies. Thirty-three heifers from 11 farmers, grouped according to strategy, were weighed every 14 days for 28 weeks. The live weight change over each 14-day period was estimated by individually regressing live weight over period, taking the regression coefficient as

  4. EFFECT OF FEED PROCESSING ON IN SITU RUMINAL DEGRADATION OF CEREAL GRAINS AND ON THE DEGREE OF SYNCHRONY OF ORGANIC MATTER AND NITROGEN RELEASE IN THE RUMEN OF GRAZING LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Róbert TÓTHI; Johannes PIJNENBURG

    Three rumen-cannulated, lactating Holstein-Friesian cows grazed in a controlled experimental pasture and supplemented daily with concentrates were used to measure effects of different heat treatment of cereal grains (pelleted barley, toasted barley, pelleted maize, toasted maize) on in situ degradability of protein and starch and to estimate of the possible rumen synchrony after feeding processed cereal grains as a supplement

  5. Microbiological performance of dairy processing plants is influenced by scale of production and the implemented food safety management system: a case study.

    PubMed

    Opiyo, Beatrice Atieno; Wangoh, John; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau

    2013-06-01

    The effects of existing food safety management systems and size of the production facility on microbiological quality in the dairy industry in Kenya were studied. A microbial assessment scheme was used to evaluate 14 dairies in Nairobi and its environs, and their performance was compared based on their size and on whether they were implementing hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 22000 recommendations. Environmental samples from critical sampling locations, i.e., workers' hands and food contact surfaces, and from end products were analyzed for microbial quality, including hygiene indicators and pathogens. Microbial safety level profiles (MSLPs) were constructed from the microbiological data to obtain an overview of contamination. The maximum MSLP score for environmental samples was 18 (six microbiological parameters, each with a maximum MSLP score of 3) and that for end products was 15 (five microbiological parameters). Three dairies (two large scale and one medium scale; 21% of total) achieved the maximum MSLP scores of 18 for environmental samples and 15 for the end product. Escherichia coli was detected on food contact surfaces in three dairies, all of which were small scale dairies, and the microorganism was also present in end product samples from two of these dairies, an indication of cross-contamination. Microbial quality was poorest in small scale dairies. Most operations in these dairies were manual, with minimal system documentation. Noncompliance with hygienic practices such as hand washing and cleaning and disinfection procedures, which is common in small dairies, directly affects the microbial quality of the end products. Dairies implementing HACCP systems or ISO 22000 recommendations achieved maximum MSLP scores and hence produced safer products. PMID:23726192

  6. Participatory rural appraisal to identify needs and prospects of market-oriented dairy industries in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shamsuddin, M; Alam, M M; Hossein, M S; Goodger, W J; Bari, F Y; Ahmed, T U; Hossain, M M; Khan, A H M S I

    2007-12-01

    We assessed resources, challenges and prospects of the dairy industries in four districts of Bangladesh (Mymensingh, Satkhira, Chittagong and Sirajganj) with the participation of 8 to 12 dairy farm families in each district. We used ten participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools, namely social mapping, semistructured interview, activity profiles, seasonal calendar, pie charts, mobility diagram, matrix ranking, preference ranking and scoring, system analysis diagram and focus group discussion in 57 PRA sessions from September through October 2002. Dairying contributed more to family income (63 to 74%) and utilized a smaller portion of land than did crops. Twenty seven to 49% of cattle feed is rice straw. Only Sirajganj and Chittagong had limited, periodic grazing facilities. Fodder (Napier; Pennisetum purpureum) cultivation was practiced in Sirajganj and Satkhira. Fodder availability increased milk production and decreased disease occurrence. Friesian crossbred cows were ranked best as dairy cattle. The present utilization of veterinary and AI services was ranked highly. Farmers outside the milk union desired milk purchasing centres as the most required service in the future. They identified veterinary and AI services as inadequate and desired significant improvements. The PRA tools effectively identified resources, constraints, opportunities and farmers' perspectives related to the dairy industries in Bangladesh. PMID:18265866

  7. Feasibility of a "leader-follower" grazing system instead of specialised paddocks with regard to integrated gastrointestinal control in small ruminant farming.

    PubMed

    Mahieu, Maurice; Gauthier, Valérie; Arquet, Rémy; Calif, Brigitte; Archimède, Harry; Mandonnet, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    In the humid tropics, small ruminant farmers have to deal with gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes (GIN), among which anthelmintic resistant (AR) populations are rapidly spreading. Although targeted selective treatments (TSTs) are being increasingly used in breeding stock, suppressive drenchings remain the rule in younger animals, for safety and ease of implementation. Until now, the weaned animals are grazed on dedicated plots, making the selection and spread of AR parasites inevitable. Given that GINs disseminate through pastures, we compared the usual grazing system (control) to a "leader-follower" grazing system (LF) for managing the entire GIN population at the farm scale. There were no significant differences between treatments for the dam reproductive parameters and level of GIN infection nor for the pre-weaning death rate of the kids. The 70-day weight of the litter was significantly lower for LF than for control goats (9.71 vs. 11.64 kg, P?grazing systems, respectively. Additionally, the LF grazing system would make the stocking rate easier to manage. Therefore, it is to be recommended as a complement of TSTs in sustainable small ruminant farming. PMID:25681011

  8. Milk composition and flavor under different feeding systems: a survey of dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Yayota, M; Tsukamoto, M; Yamada, Y; Ohtani, S

    2013-08-01

    Understanding the influence of regional dietary factors on the flavors of milk and dairy products will provide consumers with more options and promote the conservation of regional resources and the original terroir. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of regional differences in feeding systems on the composition, fatty acid content, and flavor of pasteurized milk at the farm level. Nine dairy farms using grass silage (GS), 6 farms using maize silage (MS), and 4 farms using by-products (BP) as the characteristic feed components were chosen for this survey. Fresh milk was sampled once per month from September 2008 to February 2009 at each dairy farm. The percentages of GS, MS, and BP (soybean curd residue or brewer's grain) in the feed were 32.4, 22.1, and 15.1%, respectively. The milk fat, protein, and lactose contents did not differ among the milks from farms with different feeding systems. Fatty acids with chain lengths of less than C16 and saturated fatty acids were present at higher concentrations in the milks from the GS and MS farms than in the milk from the BP farms; conversely, fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), including mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were present at higher concentrations in the milks from the BP farms than in the milks from the GS farms. No significant differences were detected in milk flavor, evaluated as sweetness, body, texture, aftertaste, and palatability, between the milks from the farms with different feeding systems. The proportion of BP in the cow's diet was positively correlated with the concentrations of fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 and with UFA, MUFA, and PUFA. In contrast, the proportion of GS in the diet was positively associated with the levels of milk fat, protein, fatty acids with chain lengths less than C16, and SFA. The MUFA, PUFA, UFA, and fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 were not associated with any of the milk flavors. These results suggest the regional differences in feeding systems contribute to the differences in the fatty acid compositions of milk at the farm level. However, these differences do not influence the flavor of pasteurized milk. Thus, more specific feed profiles will be required to provide a specific regional flavor to pasteurized milk. PMID:23769370

  9. Extending grazing and reducing

    E-print Network

    Jones, Michelle

    Fertilization and liming . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 OTHER USEFUL CONCEPTS . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Match forage quality and nutrient intake to animal needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Change the stocking rate extend the grazing season? F or most livestock producers, extending the grazing season for their animals

  10. Dairy gas emissions model: reference manual

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dairy Gas Emissions Model (DairyGEM) is a software tool for estimating ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of dairy production systems as influenced by climate and farm management. A production system is defined to include emissions during the production of all feeds wh...

  11. Systemic granulomatous disease in Brazilian cattle grazing pasture containing vetch (Vicia spp).

    PubMed

    Fighera, Rafael A; Barros, Claudio S L

    2004-04-01

    Vetch associated disease (hairy vetch poisoning) was observed in 8 herds of dairy cows in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. In the pasture where 4 of these 8 herds were, Vicia villosa was the only vetch species represented, while cattle in the remaining 4 herds had access to both V villosa and V sativa but with large predominance of the former. Observed clinical signs included fever, dramatic drop in milk yield, thickening and wrinkling of the skin with multifocal plaques of alopecia, pruritus, conjunctivitis, nasal and ocular serous discharge, loss of weight and diarrhea. The mean morbidity in the 8 affected herds, representing 219 cattle, was 11.1% and the mortality was 100%. The duration of the clinical disease varied from 10 to 30 d. Gross lesions consisted of multifocal to coalescing grey-white soft to moderately firm nodules which infiltrated several organs, but were particularly prominent in lymph nodes, adrenal, renal cortex, spleen, liver, and myocardium. Microscopically the lesions consisted of extensive cellular infiltration composed of variable proportions of epithelioid macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, and multinucleated giant cells; variable numbers of eosinophils were present in the inflammatory foci of several organs, but they were more prominent in the myocardium. PMID:15080204

  12. Dairy processing.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kenneth W

    2003-07-01

    The United States dairy processing sector is dynamic and adaptive to new changes in the market place. Changes in consumer preferences and manufacturing technologies are resulting in new challenges to the processing sector. Consumers want a wider array of quality dairy products. Fluid processors are adapting to changing consumer demands for beverage products by introducing new flavors, providing ultrapasteurization, and using creative packaging. In addition, United States food manufacturers are requesting dairy processors to provide new dairy fractions such as MPC for new nutrition products. United States dairy policy is attempting to adapt to these changes. Federal order reform has resulted in new market-oriented signals for dairy farmers to produce what the market wants; namely, quality milk components. US dairy farmers, however, also wants to maintain programs such as the DPSP that have had the unfortunate consequence of spurring demand for protein imports (i.e., MPCs, casein, and caseinates) and also resulted in a disincentive to produce these new innovative protein products here in the United States. Surplus skim milk solids are now moving into US Government warehouses rather than into commercial markets. The future of the United States dairy industry will clearly be toward producing innovative products that the market wants. There is a strong market for dairy products not only here in the United States but also overseas, which will mean learning to compete on a global scale. The challenge is to modernize our United States milk pricing programs to provide dairy farmers and processors proper price signals while providing a minimum level of support to dairy farmers. The benefit of a greater orientation toward the market place will be stronger rates of growth for United States-produced dairy products. PMID:12951735

  13. Dairy Digest. 

    E-print Network

    Gibson, G. G.

    1955-01-01

    Factor ANALYSIS OF DAIRY PRODUCTS (These are average figures and variations may be expected.) Product Carbo- Water Solids Proteins hydrate Fat Ash 4% Milk 18.5% Cream Skim milk Buttermilk Cheddar cheese Cottage cheese Powdered skim milk... Powdered whole milk Whey Butter DHlA Program A dairy herd improvement association is a coop era ti^^ ,I,~ni- zation of dairymen, usually about 20, who are interested in obtain- ing production, feed and income records on their cows. These dairy- men...

  14. Influence of Restricted Grazing Time Systems on Productive Performance and Fatty Acid Composition of Longissimus dorsi in Growing Lambs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yong; Luo, Hailing; Liu, Xueliang; Liu, Kun

    2015-08-01

    Fifty 3-month-old male Tan lambs (similar in body weight) were divided into 5 groups to investigate the effects of different restricted pasture grazing times and indoor supplementation on the productive performances and fatty acid composition of the intramuscular fat in growing lambs. The lambs grazed for different periods of time (12 h/d, 8 h/d, 4 h/d, 2 h/d, and 0 h) and received various amounts of supplementary feedings during the 120-day trial. Pasture dry matter intake (DMI), total DMI, average daily gains and the live body weights of the lambs were measured during the experiment. The animals were slaughtered at the end of the study, their carcass traits were measured, and their longissimus dorsi muscles were sampled to analyze the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid profiles. The results indicated that the different durations of grazing and supplementary feedings affected the animal performances and the composition of fatty acids. Grazing for 8 h/d or 2 h/d with the corresponding supplementary concentrate resulted in lambs with higher body weights, carcass weights and IMF contents. Lambs with longer grazing times and less concentrate accumulated more healthy fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and had higher n-3/n-6 ratios. Overall, a grazing allowance of 8 h/d and the corresponding concentrate was recommended to maintain a high quantity and quality of lamb meat. PMID:26104518

  15. Some aspects of the use of vegetation by grazing sheep and goats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Nolan; A. Nastis

    SUMMARY - Understanding the grazing animalhegetation interactions is necessary as a basis for developing new effective grazing schemes, to improve the use of grazing lands for multipurpose uses. Due to the complexity of the grazing ecosystem a holistic research development approach to optimize outputs and reduce unwanted side-effects is required. A systems approach is suggested as the best strategy. Multifloristic

  16. Nutritional management to optimize fertility of dairy cows in pasture-based systems.

    PubMed

    Butler, S T

    2014-05-01

    The efficiency of milk production in pasture-based systems is heavily influenced by calving pattern, necessitating excellent reproductive performance in a short-breeding season. Where grazed pasture is the major component of the diet, cows are underfed relative to their intake potential. The cow responds by reducing milk output, but fertility is generally better than high intake confinement systems that achieve greater milk production per cow. A number of studies have identified body condition score (BCS) measurements that are related to likelihood of both submission and conception. Blood metabolites and metabolic hormones linked to fertility outcomes are now well characterized. In general, fertility variables have favourable associations with circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin and IGF-1 and unfavourable associations with non-esterified fatty acids, ?-hydroxybutyrate and endogenous growth hormone. Nutritional strategies to impact these metabolic indicators have been utilized, but effects on herd fertility are inconsistent. Simply supplementing cows with additional energy in the form of standard concentrates does not appear to have a pronounced effect on fertility. Energy from additional concentrates fed during lactation is preferentially partitioned towards extra milk production rather than BCS repletion. The higher the genetic merit for milk production, the greater the partitioning of additional nutrients to the mammary gland. This review outlines the unique nutritional challenges of pasture-based systems, the role of specific metabolic hormones and metabolites in regulating reproductive function, and nutritional strategies to improve herd fertility. PMID:24844127

  17. Eddy covariance methane flux measurements over a grazed pasture: effect of cows as moving point sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Münger, A.; Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.

    2015-06-01

    Methane (CH4) from ruminants contributes one-third of global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. Eddy covariance (EC) technique has been extensively used at various flux sites to investigate carbon dioxide exchange of ecosystems. Since the development of fast CH4 analyzers, the instrumentation at many flux sites has been amended for these gases. However, the application of EC over pastures is challenging due to the spatially and temporally uneven distribution of CH4 point sources induced by the grazing animals. We applied EC measurements during one grazing season over a pasture with 20 dairy cows (mean milk yield: 22.7 kg d-1) managed in a rotational grazing system. Individual cow positions were recorded by GPS trackers to attribute fluxes to animal emissions using a footprint model. Methane fluxes with cows in the footprint were up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than ecosystem fluxes without cows. Mean cow emissions of 423 ± 24 g CH4 head-1 d-1 (best estimate from this study) correspond well to animal respiration chamber measurements reported in the literature. However, a systematic effect of the distance between source and EC tower on cow emissions was found, which is attributed to the analytical footprint model used. We show that the EC method allows one to determine CH4 emissions of cows on a pasture if the data evaluation is adjusted for this purpose and if some cow distribution information is available.

  18. Epidemiology of Fasciola gigantica and amphistomes in cattle on traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy farms in the southern highlands of Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Keyyu, J D; Monrad, J; Kyvsgaard, N C; Kassuku, A A

    2005-05-01

    A longitudinal descriptive study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of flukes (Fasciola gigantica and amphistomes) on traditional, large-scale and small-scale dairy cattle farms in Iringa district, southern highlands of Tanzania. Coprological examinations of different cohorts for the presence of fluke eggs were recorded monthly. Results indicated a significant influence of the type of management on the prevalence of both Fasciola and amphistomes. The prevalence of flukes was highest in the traditional system, moderate in the large-scale dairy system and lowest in the small-scale dairy system in most parts of the year. Adults and yearlings had the highest prevalence of flukes in all management systems throughout the year. The proportion of animals excreting amphistome eggs was always higher than that of animals excreting Fasciola eggs in all zones, villages, management systems, farms and age groups. The proportion of animals passing fluke eggs increased gradually from the early dry season and peaked at the end of the dry season and the early part of the rainy season. Strategic treatments against flukes are recommended in adults and yearlings only in traditional and large-scale dairy farms. Routine treatments of calves/weanlings in large-scale and traditional farms and zero-grazed small-scale dairy cattle farms might be unnecessary. For a cost-effective helminth control programme in the area, strategic treatments at the beginning of the dry season (June) and at the end of the dry/early rainy season (November/December) are recommended. PMID:15934638

  19. Livestock Grazing Distribution: Considerations and Management 

    E-print Network

    Lyons, Robert K.; Machen, Richard V.

    2002-01-04

    This publication explains the factors affecting livestock grazing distribution and discusses ways to improve it. It also reports the results of a study that used Global Positioning System collars to pinpoint the movement of cattle on various...

  20. Prediction of cow fertility based on productivity traits in dairy cattle under different production systems 

    E-print Network

    Banda, Liveness Jessica

    2014-11-28

    A study to examine factors that influence dairy cattle fertility was conducted in the United Kingdom (UK) and Malawi. Productivity data from the UK comprising 56,014 records from 574 Holstein cows were retrieved from ...

  1. Local feeding strategies and milk composition in small-scale dairy production systems during the rainy season in the highlands of Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ángel René Alfonso-Ávila; Michel A. Wattiaux; Angélica Espinoza-Ortega; Ernesto Sánchez-Vera; Carlos M. Arriaga-Jordán

    The objective of the work was to identify local feeding strategies in small-scale dairy production systems during the rainy\\u000a season in the highlands of Mexico, and to determine their effects on milk yields (MY), milk composition and economic viability.\\u000a Twenty-two dairy farms were monitored by monthly visits, recording and sampling milk from between two and six cows in each\\u000a farm,

  2. The Expanding Dairy Industry: Impact on Ground Water Quality and Quantity with Emphasis on Waste Management System Evaluation for Open Lot Dairies 

    E-print Network

    Sweeten, John M.; Wolfe, Mary Leigh

    1993-01-01

    -generated wastewater. Concern has increased regarding the potential for ground and surface water quality degradation due to the increasing number and size of open lot dairies, particularly in the Upper North Bosque River watershed (Erath and Hamilton Counties, Texas...

  3. The Expanding Dairy Industry: Impact on Ground Water Quality and Quantity with Emphasis on Waste Management System Evaluation for Open Lot Dairies

    E-print Network

    Sweeten, John M.; Wolfe, Mary Leigh

    of dairy waste management practices. The results of these studies will aid producers, engineers, planners, and regulatory officials in the refinement and adoption of appropriate practices for water quality protection....

  4. Reductions in livestock gain with rotational grazing and heavy stocking rates in northern mixed-grass prairie

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of stocking rate and grazing system on gains of yearling beef cattle grazing rangelands have largely been addressed in short-term (<10 yr) studies, and often stocking rates are confounded within grazing systems with higher stocking rates for short-duration rotational grazing systems comp...

  5. The effects of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence and the current internal parasite control measures employed on Irish dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Selemetas, Nikolaos; Phelan, Paul; O'Kiely, Padraig; de Waal, Theo

    2015-01-30

    Fasciolosis caused by Fasciola hepatica is responsible for major production losses in cattle farms. The objectives of this study were to assess the effect of farm management practices on liver fluke prevalence on Irish dairy farms and to document the current control measures against parasitic diseases. In total, 369 dairy farms throughout Ireland were sampled from October to December 2013, each providing a single bulk tank milk (BTM) sample for liver fluke antibody-detection ELISA testing and completing a questionnaire on their farm management. The analysis of samples showed that cows on 78% (n=288) of dairy farms had been exposed to liver fluke. There was a difference (P<0.05) between farms where cows were positive or negative for liver fluke antibodies in (a) the total number of adult dairy cows in herds, (b) the number of adult dairy cows contributing to BTM samples, and (c) the size of the total area of grassland, with positive farms having larger numbers in each case. There was no difference (P>0.05) between positive and negative farms in (a) the grazing of dry cows together with replacement cows, (b) whether or not grazed grassland was mowed for conservation, (c) the type of drinking water provision system, (d) spreading of cattle manure on grassland or (e) for grazing season length (GSL; mean=262.5 days). Also, there were differences (P<0.001) between drainage statuses for GSL with farms on good drainage having longer GSL than moderately drained farms. The GSL for dairy cows on farms with good drainage was 11 days longer than for those with moderate drainage (P<0.001). The percentage of farmers that used an active ingredient during the non-lactating period against liver fluke, gastrointestinal nematodes, lungworm, and rumen fluke was 96%, 85%, 77% and 90%, respectively. Albendazole was the most frequently used active ingredient for treatment against gastrointestinal nematodes (57%), liver fluke (40%) and lungworm (47%), respectively. There was a difference (P<0.05) in the use of triclabendazole and albendazole between positive and negative farms, with triclabendazole use being more common in positive farms. This study highlighted differences in dairy management practices between Irish farms with dairy herds exposed or not exposed to liver fluke and stressed the need of fine-scale mapping of the disease patterns even at farm level to increase the accuracy of risk models. Also, comprehensive advice and professional support services to farmers on appropriate farm management practices are very important for an effective anthelmintic control strategy. PMID:25591405

  6. Dairy Herds 

    E-print Network

    Hale

    2009-01-01

    and the postpartum period. High protein diets tend to lower progesterone concentrations in dairy cattle (Jordan and Swanson, 1979). Furthermore, low concentrations of progesterone during the estrous cycle prior to breeding have been correlated with low fertility... shown to be detrimental to reproductive performance in some studies. Canfield et al. (1990) were able to show lower first service conception rates and higher plasma urea levels in dairy cows fed excess degradable protein (16 versus 1996). However...

  7. A field study to determine the prevalence, dairy herd management systems, and fresh cow clinical conditions associated with ketosis in western European dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Berge, Anna C; Vertenten, Geert

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, major management systems, and fresh cow clinical conditions associated with ketosis in western European dairy herds. A total of 131 dairies were enrolled in Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom during 2011 to 2012. A milk-based test for ketones (Keto-Test; Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co. Ltd., Nagoya, Japan; distributed by Elanco Animal Health, Antwerp, Belgium) was used for screening cows between d 7 and 21 after calving and ketosis was defined as a Keto-Test ?100µmol/L. Study cows were observed for clinical disease up to 35d postcalving. Multivariate analysis (generalized estimating equation logistic regression) was performed to determine country, farm, management, feed, and cow factors associated with ketosis and to determine associations between ketosis and fresh cow diseases. Thirty-nine percent of the cows were classified as having ketosis. The herd average of ketosis was 43% in Germany, 53% in France, 31% in Italy, 46% in the Netherlands, and 31% in the United Kingdom. Of the 131 farms, 112 (85%) had 25% or more of their fresh cows resulting as positive for ketosis. Clinical ketosis was not reported in most farms and the highest level of clinical ketosis reported was 23%. The risks of ketosis were significantly lower in Italy and the United Kingdom compared with France, the Netherlands, and Germany. Larger herd size was associated with a decreased risk of ketosis. The farms that fed partially mixed rations had 1.5 times higher odds of ketosis than those that fed total mixed rations. Cows that calved in April to June had the highest odds of ketosis, with about twice as high odds compared with cows that calved in July to September. The cows that calved in January to March tended to have 1.5 times higher risk of ketosis compared with cows that calved in July to September. The odds of ketosis in parity 2 and parity 3 to 7 was significantly higher (1.5 and 2.8 times higher, respectively) than the odds of ketosis in parity 1. The odds of ketosis was significantly smaller in parity 2 compared with parity 3 to 7. Ketosis was associated with significantly higher odds of all common fresh cow conditions: metritis, mastitis, displaced abomasum, clinical ketosis, lameness, and gastrointestinal disorders. Odds of ketosis in cows having had twins or dystocia were not increased, whereas higher odds of ketosis were observed in cows with milk fever or retained placenta. PMID:24534510

  8. Potential limitations of NRC in predicting energetic requirements of beef females within western U.S. grazing systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of beef cow energy balance and efficiency in grazing-extensive rangelands has occurred on a nominal basis over short time intervals and has not accounted for the complexity of metabolic and digestive responses; behavioral adaptations to climatic, terrain, and vegetation variables; and doc...

  9. Environmental vulnerability, assessment, and monitoring of grazing systems under index-based livestock insurance programs in East Africa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal is to characterize and monitor feedbacks between innovative insurance products and ecosystem services in resource poor environments. Our team is integrating longitudinal field-based measurements and monitoring protocols to quantify grazing animal impact related to the implementation of an ...

  10. Effects of low-fat dairy consumption on markers of low-grade systemic inflammation and endothelial function in overweight and obese subjects: an intervention study.

    PubMed

    van Meijl, Leonie E C; Mensink, Ronald P

    2010-11-01

    Although increased concentrations of plasma inflammatory markers are not one of the criteria to diagnose the metabolic syndrome, low-grade systemic inflammation is receiving large attention as a metabolic syndrome component and cardiovascular risk factor. As several epidemiological studies have suggested a negative relationship between low-fat dairy consumption and the metabolic syndrome, we decided to investigate the effects of low-fat dairy consumption on inflammatory markers and adhesion molecules in overweight and obese subjects in an intervention study. Thirty-five healthy subjects (BMI>27 kg/m²) consumed, in a random order, low-fat dairy products (500 ml low-fat milk and 150 g low-fat yogurt) or carbohydrate-rich control products (600 ml fruit juice and three fruit biscuits) daily for 8 weeks. Plasma concentrations of TNF-? were decreased by 0.16 (SD 0.50) pg/ml (P = 0.070), and soluble TNF-? receptor-1 (s-TNFR-1) was increased by 110.0 (SD 338.4) pg/ml (P = 0.062) after the low-fat dairy period than after the control period. s-TNFR-2 was increased by 227.0 (SD 449.0) pg/ml (P = 0.020) by the dairy intervention. As a result, the TNF-? index, defined as the TNF-?:s-TNFR-2 ratio, was decreased by 0.000053 (SD 0.00012) (P = 0.015) after the dairy diet consumption. Low-fat dairy consumption had no effect on IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 concentrations. The present results indicate that in overweight and obese subjects, low-fat dairy consumption for 8 weeks may increase concentrations of s-TNFR compared with carbohydrate-rich product consumption, but that it has no effects on other markers of chronic inflammation and endothelial function. PMID:20579405

  11. Effect of automatic feeding of total mixed rations on the diurnal visiting pattern of dairy cows to an automatic milking system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zacharie Belle; Geert André; Johanna C. A. M. Pompe

    2012-01-01

    Automatic feeding systems (AFSs) enable more frequent delivery of feedstuffs compared to conventional feeding systems (CFSs). The objective was to estimate the effect of the feeding system (CFS versus AFS) and of the associated feeding and milking related actions on the visiting patterns to automatic milking systems (AMSs). The AMS log files of 20 Dutch dairy farms that fed total

  12. Induced Fungal Resistance to Insect Grazing: Reciprocal Fitness Consequences and Fungal Gene Expression in the Drosophila-Aspergillus Model System

    PubMed Central

    Caballero Ortiz, Silvia; Trienens, Monika; Rohlfs, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Background Fungi are key dietary resources for many animals. Fungi, in consequence, have evolved sophisticated physical and chemical defences for repelling and impairing fungivores. Expression of such defences may entail costs, requiring diversion of energy and nutrients away from fungal growth and reproduction. Inducible resistance that is mounted after attack by fungivores may allow fungi to circumvent the potential costs of defence when not needed. However, no information exists on whether fungi display inducible resistance. We combined organism and fungal gene expression approaches to investigate whether fungivory induces resistance in fungi. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that grazing by larval fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, induces resistance in the filamentous mould, Aspergillus nidulans, to subsequent feeding by larvae of the same insect. Larval grazing triggered the expression of various putative fungal resistance genes, including the secondary metabolite master regulator gene laeA. Compared to the severe pathological effects of wild type A. nidulans, which led to 100% insect mortality, larval feeding on a laeA loss-of-function mutant resulted in normal insect development. Whereas the wild type fungus recovered from larval grazing, larvae eradicated the chemically deficient mutant. In contrast, mutualistic dietary yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, reached higher population densities when exposed to Drosophila larval feeding. Conclusions/Significance Our study presents novel evidence that insect grazing is capable of inducing resistance to further grazing in a filamentous fungus. This phenotypic shift in resistance to fungivory is accompanied by changes in the expression of genes involved in signal transduction, epigenetic regulation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways. Depending on reciprocal insect-fungus fitness consequences, fungi may be selected for inducible resistance to maintain high fitness in fungivore-rich habitats. Induced fungal defence responses thus need to be included if we wish to have a complete conception of animal-fungus co-evolution, fungal gene regulation, and multitrophic interactions. PMID:24023705

  13. Soil organic carbon sequestration in grazing systems of the southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved pasture management systems are needed to restore soil quality, sequester soil organic C, and build the productive capacity of soils in grassland environments so that (1) precipitation can be effectively utilized by plants, (2) water runoff and contaminant transport can be minimized, (3) nat...

  14. Development of knowledge and tools to enhance resilience of beef grazing systems for sustainable animal protein production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminant livestock provide an important source of meat and dairy protein that sustain the health and livelihoods for much of the world’s population. Grazinglands that support ruminant livestock provide numerous other ecosystem services, including provision of food, water, and genetic resources; regu...

  15. Traditional vs Modern: Role of Breed Type in Determining Enteric Methane Emissions from Cattle Grazing as Part of Contrasting Grassland-Based Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Mariecia D.; Fleming, Hannah R.; Moorby, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Ruminant livestock turn forages and poor-quality feeds into human edible products, but enteric methane (CH4) emissions from ruminants are a significant contributor to greenhouse gases (GHGs) and hence to climate change. Despite the predominance of pasture-based beef production systems in many parts of Europe there are little data available regarding enteric CH4 emissions from free-ranging grazing cattle. It is possible that differences in physiology or behaviour could influence comparative emissions intensities for traditional and modern breed types depending on the nutritional characteristics of the herbage grazed. This study investigated the role of breed type in influencing CH4 emissions from growing beef steers managed on contrasting grasslands typical of intensive (lowland) and extensive (upland) production systems. Using the SF6 dilution technique CH4 emissions were estimated for a modern, fast-growing crossbred (Limousin cross) and a smaller and hardier native breed (Welsh Black) when grazing lowland perennial ryegrass (high nutritional density, low sward heterogeneity) and semi-improved upland pasture (low/medium nutritional density, high sward heterogeneity). Live-weight gain was substantially lower for steers on the upland system compared to the lowland system (0.31 vs. 1.04 kg d?1; s.e.d.?=?0.085 kg d?1; P<0.001), leading to significant differences in estimated dry matter intakes (8.0 vs. 11.1 kg DM d?1 for upland and lowland respectively; s.e.d.?=?0.68 kg DM d?1; P<0.001). While emissions per unit feed intake were similar for the lowland and upland systems, CH4 emissions per unit of live-weight gain (LWG) were substantially higher when the steers grazed the poorer quality hill pasture (760 vs 214 g kg?1 LWG; s.e.d.?=?133.5 g kg?1 LWG; P<0.001). Overall any effects of breed type were relatively small relative to the combined influence of pasture type and location. PMID:25259617

  16. Comparison of manual versus semiautomatic milk recording systems in dairy goats.

    PubMed

    Ait-Saidi, A; Caja, G; Carné, S; Salama, A A K; Ghirardi, J J

    2008-04-01

    A total of 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in early-midlactation were used to compare the labor time and data collection efficiency of using manual (M) vs. semiautomated (SA) systems for milk recording. Goats were milked once daily in a 2 x 12 parallel platform, with 6 milking units on each side. The M system used visual identification (ID) by large plastic ear tags, on-paper data recording, and data manually uploaded to a computer. The SA system used electronic ID, automatic ID, manual data recording on reader keyboard, and automatic data uploading to computer by Bluetooth connection. Data were collected for groups of 2 x 12 goats for 15 test days of each system during a period of 70 d. Time data were converted to a decimal scale. No difference in milk recording time between M and SA (1.32 +/- 0.03 and 1.34 +/- 0.03 min/goat, respectively) was observed. Time needed for transferring data to the computer was greater for M when compared with SA (0.20 +/- 0.01 and 0.05 +/- 0.01 min/goat). Overall milk recording time was greater in M than in SA (1.52 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.39 +/- 0.04 min/goat), the latter decreasing with operator training. Time for transferring milk recording data to the computer was 4.81 +/- 0.34 and 1.09 +/- 0.10 min for M and SA groups of 24 goats, respectively, but only increased by 0.19 min in SA for each additional 24 goats. No difference in errors of data acquisition was detected between M and SA systems during milk recording (0.6%), but an additional 1.1% error was found in the M system during data uploading. Predicted differences between M and SA increased with the number of goats processed on the test-day. Reduction in labor time cost ranged from euro0.5 to 12.9 (US$0.7 to 17.4) per milk recording, according to number of goats from 24 to 480 goats and accounted for 40% of the electronic ID costs. In conclusion, electronic ID was more efficient for labor costs and resulted in fewer data errors, the benefit being greater with trained operators and larger goat herds. PMID:18349236

  17. Total Bacterial Count in Soft-Frozen Dairy Products by Impedance Biosensor System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Grossi; R. Lazzarini; A. Pompei; D. Matteuzzi; B. Ricco; M. Lanzoni

    2009-01-01

    In order to guarantee product safety in the dairy industry, the microbial concentration of food must be ultimately evaluated by means of the standard plate count (SPC) technique, reliable but also slow and difficult to implement in automatic form. On the other hand, detection of bacterial concentration by means of classic impedance microbiology is very attractive due to faster response

  18. On-farm environmental assessment of corn silage production systems receiving liquid dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased corn silage and manure production accompanying the proliferation of large dairies has prompted concern regarding their environmental impacts. Our objectives were (1) to quantify soil chemical properties and offsite nutrient transport under field-scale corn (Zea mays L.) silage production a...

  19. Software for evaluating the environmental impact of dairy and beef production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying the long term environmental impacts of dairy and beef production is complex due to the many interactions among the physical and biological components of farms that affect the amount and type of emissions that occur. Emissions are influenced by climate and soil characteristics as well as ...

  20. Grazing of nonindigenous bacteria by nano-sized protozoa in a natural coastal system.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, K; Ahl, T; Nybroe, O

    1995-07-01

    Mesocosms (?4.5 m(3)) situated in a closed bay area were used to investigate the effect of protozoan predation on nonindigenous bacteria. Pseudomonas fluorescens strain Agl was released into mesocosms as a single inoculum of 1 × 10(5) cells ml(-1) (final concentration) or as four inocula (same concentration each) at intervals of 3 days. Mesocosms that had received growth media corresponding to the inoculum served as controls. Numbers of P. fluorescens Ag1 decreased rapidly whether released as single or multiple inocula. Direct estimation of protozoan predation using fluorescently labeled P. fluorescens from log phase and starved cultures, respectively, revealed that natural populations of heterotrophic nanoflagellates consumed substantial amounts of the nonindigenous bacterial strain. The volume of fluorescently labeled cells prepared from starved cells was 68% of log phase cell volume, but the individual clearance of the small cells was five to seven times higher than that of the log phase bacteria. The natural populations of nanoflagellates consumed 34-62% of P. fluorescens Ag1 daily if starved bacteria were offered as food, and 3-13% if the cells were in the logarithmic growth phase. This suggests that the effect of protozoan predation on nonindigenous bacterial strains is substantial because cultured bacteria are likely to starve in natural environments. The addition of P. fluorescens Ag1 and the growth medium enhanced the abundance of natural bacteria, chlorophyll a, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, and ciliates, but it did not improve the growth conditions for the released strain. The effects on the indigenous populations were more pronounced after addition of fresh medium than following inoculation with cells, which possibly was due to the lower nutrient content of spent medium. However, these results, based on direct estimation of protozoan predation on log phase and starved nonindigenous bacteria, point to the conclusion that mortality induced by bacterivorous predators is the key factor determining removal of nonindigenous bacteria introduced in natural aquatic systems. PMID:24185413

  1. Impacts of stored feed cropping systems and farm size on the profitability of Maine organic dairy farm simulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. organic dairy production has increased to meet demand for organic milk. Organic dairy farmers have come under increasing financial stress due to increases in concentrated feed prices. Organic dairies in the Northeast U.S. have experimented with different forage and grain crops to maximize on-fa...

  2. Does Sward Structure Affect Bite Mass of Grazing Cattle? - Fact Sheet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of forage species and sward structure of dairy cows grazing micro-swards. Cows were offered one of the four grasses planted in experimental micro-sward boxes over two years. Grass species consisted of: orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), meadow fescue ...

  3. 36 CFR 222.54 - Grazing fees in the East-competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...subpart A of this part. These rules also do not apply to grazing fees on National Forest System lands in Oklahoma or National Grasslands in Texas. (2) Allowable Bidders. Bids for grazing permits shall be accepted from individuals, partnerships,...

  4. 36 CFR 222.54 - Grazing fees in the East-competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...subpart A of this part. These rules also do not apply to grazing fees on National Forest System lands in Oklahoma or National Grasslands in Texas. (2) Allowable Bidders. Bids for grazing permits shall be accepted from individuals, partnerships,...

  5. 36 CFR 222.54 - Grazing fees in the East-competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...subpart A of this part. These rules also do not apply to grazing fees on National Forest System lands in Oklahoma or National Grasslands in Texas. (2) Allowable Bidders. Bids for grazing permits shall be accepted from individuals, partnerships,...

  6. 36 CFR 222.54 - Grazing fees in the East-competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...subpart A of this part. These rules also do not apply to grazing fees on National Forest System lands in Oklahoma or National Grasslands in Texas. (2) Allowable Bidders. Bids for grazing permits shall be accepted from individuals, partnerships,...

  7. Phase behaviour of casein micelles and barley beta-glucan polymer molecules in dietary fibre-enriched dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Repin, Nikolay; Scanlon, Martin G; Fulcher, R Gary

    2012-07-01

    Enrichment of colloidal dairy systems with dietary fibre frequently causes quality defects because of phase separation. We investigate phase separation in skimmed milk enriched with Glucagel (a commercial product made from barley that is predominantly comprised of the polysaccharide ?-glucan). The driving force for phase separation was depletion flocculation of casein micelles in the presence of molecules of the polysaccharide. Depending on the volume fraction of casein micelles and the concentration of Glucagel, the stable system phase separated either as a transient gel or as a sedimented system. The rate at which phase separation progressed also depended on the volume fraction of casein micelles and the concentration of Glucagel. To confirm the role of depletion flocculation in the phase separation process, enzymatic reduction in the molecular weight of ?-glucan was shown to limit the range of attraction between micelles and allow the stable phase to exist at a higher ?-glucan concentration for any given volume fraction of casein micelles. These phase diagrams will be useful to dairy product manufacturers striving to improve the nutrient profile of their products while avoiding product quality impairment. PMID:22484166

  8. CALIFORNIA DAIRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    These dairy records were collected by the California Department of Food and Agriculture (CDFA) as part of a trial for disease surveillance and prevention purposes. Some records contain GPS coordinates, while the remaining records were obtained through address matching methods u...

  9. WASHINGTON DAIRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The dairy_wa.zip file is a zip file containing an Arc/Info export file and a text document. Note the DISCLAIM.TXT file as these data are not verified. Map extent: statewide. Input Source: Address database obtained from Wa Dept of Agriculture. Data was originally developed und...

  10. 25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 true Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167...OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.8 Grazing rights. (a) The Superintendent shall determine grazing rights of bona fide...

  11. 25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167...OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.8 Grazing rights. (a) The Superintendent shall determine grazing rights of bona fide...

  12. 25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167...OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.8 Grazing rights. (a) The Superintendent shall determine grazing rights of bona fide...

  13. 25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167...OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.8 Grazing rights. (a) The Superintendent shall determine grazing rights of bona fide...

  14. 25 CFR 700.711 - Grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing permits. 700.711 Section 700.711 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.711 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the...

  15. A rapid method for differentiation of dairy lactic acid bacteria by enzyme systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. Lee; S. Haché; R. E. Simard

    1986-01-01

    Summary A rapid and simple technique utilizing the APIZYM enzymatic patterns complemented with arginine dihydrolase and citratase was developed for species differentiation of 40 lactic acid bacteria relevant to the dairy industry.Streptococcus species in general produced no ß-galactosidase, except forStreptococcus thermophilus. Lactobacillus species showed strong aminopeptidases and galactosidases but contained no arginine dihydrolase and citratase. Among the group N-streptococci,Streptococcus diacetylactis

  16. Dairy Cattle Center - 1 

    E-print Network

    Photographer, if not known, put Unknown

    2009-01-01

    factors obtained were -2. 0, -1. 1, 3. 1, 11. 0, 41. 0, . 0, and 20. 3% for Angus-Hereford, Brahman, Brahman cross, Beef-Dairy, Dairy, Angus-2, and Simmental cows, respectively. Maintenance, pregnancy and lactation energy requirements were calculated...-Hereford, Brahman, Brahman cross, Brahman- Dairy, Dairy, Angus-2, and Simmental cows, respectively. The average total NEm requirements for Angus-Hereford, Brahman, Brahman cross, Brahman-Dairy, Dairy, Angus-2, and Simmental cows were 3348, 3183, 3300, 3650, 4799...

  17. The Nutritional Impact of the Dairy Price Support Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heien, Dale; Wessells, Cathy Roheim

    1988-01-01

    Examined the impact of the dairy price support program and its resulting higher prices on nutrition intake, especially calcium. A demand system emphasizing dairy products was estimated. Concluded that nutrient intake would increase substantially if the program was terminated. (JOW)

  18. The detectability of nitrous oxide mitigation efficacy in intensively grazed pastures using a multiple-plot micrometeorological technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, A. M. S.; Harvey, M. J.; Martin, R. J.; Bromley, A. M.; Evans, M. J.; Mukherjee, S.; Laubach, J.

    2014-05-01

    Methodologies are required to verify agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation at scales relevant to farm management. Micrometeorological techniques provide a viable approach for comparing fluxes between fields receiving mitigation treatments and control fields. However, they have rarely been applied to spatially verifying treatments aimed at mitigating nitrous oxide emission from intensively grazed pastoral systems. We deployed a micrometeorological system to compare N2O flux among several ~1.5 ha plots in intensively grazed dairy pasture. The sample collection and measurement system is referred to as the Field-Scale Nitrous Oxide Mitigation Assessment System (FS-NOMAS) and used a tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometer to measure N2O gradients to high precision at four locations along a 300 m transect. The utility of the FS-NOMAS to assess mitigation efficacy depends largely on its ability to resolve very small vertical N2O gradients. The performance of the FS-NOMAS was assessed in this respect in laboratory and field-based studies. The FS-NOMAS could reliably resolve gradients of 0.039 ppb between a height of 0.5 and 1.0 m. The gradient resolution achieved corresponded to the ability to detect an inter-plot N2O flux difference of 26 ?g N2O-N m-2 h-1 under the most commonly encountered conditions of atmospheric mixing (quantified here by a turbulent transfer coefficient), but this ranged from 11 to 59 ?g N2O-N m-2 h-1 as the transfer coefficient ranged between its 5th and 95th percentile. Assuming a likely value of 100 ?g N2O-N m-2 h-1 for post-grazing N2O fluxes from intensively grazed New Zealand dairy pasture, the system described here would be capable of detecting a mitigation efficacy of 26% for a single (40 min) comparison. We demonstrate that the system has considerably greater sensitivity to treatment effects by measuring cumulative fluxes over extended periods.

  19. An international terminology for grazing lands and grazing animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1991, Terminology for Grazing Lands and Grazing Animals was published with the objective of ‘developing a consensus of clear definitions of terms used in the grazing of animals.’ During the XVIII International Grassland Congress, held in Canada in 1997, a new Terminology working group was formed ...

  20. Yield Mapping to Document Goose Grazing Impacts on Winter Wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael M. Borman; Mounir Louhaichi; Douglas E. Johnson; William C. Krueger; Russell S. Karow; David R. Thomas

    2002-01-01

    on yield-mapping-system data, goose grazing resulted in grain yield differences ranging from a 16% increase on part of one field to a 25% provide new opportunities to more accurately measure decrease on an area of a field heavily grazed in April, just before geese crop yield and damage caused by wildlife or other fac- migrated north. Comparisons of exclosures (nongrazed

  1. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Optimizing the use of fibrous residues in beef and dairy diets.

    PubMed

    Watson, A K; MacDonald, J C; Erickson, G E; Kononoff, P J; Klopfenstein, T J

    2015-06-01

    Increased corn prices over the past decade have altered land use away from traditional forage in favor of corn. Accordingly, beef and dairy producers have had to adopt nontraditional forage resources into their production systems, many of which have become available as a result of increased corn production. Corn residues have become more available due to increases in corn hectares and yield. The individual plant components (i.e., husk, leaf, and stem) vary in fiber digestibility (NDF digestibility estimates = 40.5, 31.4, and 0.6% ± 0.8 for husk, leaf, and stalk, respectively). Stocking cattle to consume 3.6 kg forage/25.5 kg of grain allows cattle to graze selectively; selection of husks and leaves improves cattle performance. Byproducts of the wet and dry milling industries can be supplemented to calves grazing corn residues to provide protein and energy. Optimal gains were observed when these byproducts were supplemented at approximately 2.5 kg/d to 250-kg growing calves. Gestating beef cows do not require supplemental inputs when grazing corn residue, if stocked appropriately. Alkaline treatment of crop residues improves their feeding value. Concentrations of up to 20% harvested corn residue treated with calcium oxide can be included in finishing diets with an average of 1.3% reduction in G:F when diets contain 40% wet or modified distillers grains. Conversely, when untreated corn residues are included in similar finishing diets, G:F is reduced by 13.4%. Calcium oxide-treated residues included in beef growing diets increases DMI and ADG without significant improvements in G:F. Calcium oxide treatment of corn residues has been evaluated in dairy diets by replacing corn or corn silage with variable results. Efficient use of nontraditional fiber sources, such as corn milling byproducts and corn residue, are critical to the future viability of ruminant animal production. PMID:26115250

  2. Advances in grazing distribution practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing distribution management practices are intended to improve livestock production efficiency while conserving or enhancing environmental conditions, and sustaining or promoting other ecosystem services on grazed lands. Ancient practices such as herding, fencing, vegetation treatment (e.g., fi...

  3. Local and Systemic Immune Mechanisms Underlying the Anti-Colitis Effects of the Dairy Bacterium Lactobacillus delbrueckii

    PubMed Central

    Santos Rocha, Clarissa; Gomes-Santos, Ana Cristina; Garcias Moreira, Thais; de Azevedo, Marcela; Diniz Luerce, Tessalia; Mariadassou, Mahendra; Longaray Delamare, Ana Paula; Langella, Philippe; Maguin, Emmanuelle; Azevedo, Vasco; Caetano de Faria, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Several probiotic bacteria have been proposed for treatment or prevention of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), showing a protective effect in animal models of experimental colitis and for some of them also in human clinical trials. While most of these probiotic bacteria are isolated from the digestive tract, we recently reported that a Lactobacillus strain isolated from cheese, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CNRZ327 (Lb CNRZ327), also possesses anti-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo, demonstrating that common dairy bacteria may be useful in the treatment or prevention of IBD. Here, we studied the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of Lb CNRZ327 in vivo, in a mouse dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis model. During colitis, Lb CNRZ327 modulated the production of TGF-?, IL-6, and IL-12 in colonic tissue and of TGF-? and IL-6 in the spleen, and caused an expansion of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the cecal lymph nodes. Moreover, a strong tendency to CD4+Foxp3+ expansion was also observed in the spleen. The results of this study for the first time show that orally administered dairy lactobacilli can not only modulate mucosal but also systemic immune responses and constitute an effective treatment of IBD. PMID:24465791

  4. 36 CFR 222.53 - Grazing fees in the East-noncompetitive procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...fair market value procedures. These rules do not apply to grazing fees on National Forest System lands in Oklahoma or National Grasslands in Texas. Grazing permits under the noncompetitive fee method in the East are subject to the rules governing grazing...

  5. 36 CFR 222.53 - Grazing fees in the East-noncompetitive procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...fair market value procedures. These rules do not apply to grazing fees on National Forest System lands in Oklahoma or National Grasslands in Texas. Grazing permits under the noncompetitive fee method in the East are subject to the rules governing grazing...

  6. 36 CFR 222.53 - Grazing fees in the East-noncompetitive procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...fair market value procedures. These rules do not apply to grazing fees on National Forest System lands in Oklahoma or National Grasslands in Texas. Grazing permits under the noncompetitive fee method in the East are subject to the rules governing grazing...

  7. 36 CFR 222.53 - Grazing fees in the East-noncompetitive procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...fair market value procedures. These rules do not apply to grazing fees on National Forest System lands in Oklahoma or National Grasslands in Texas. Grazing permits under the noncompetitive fee method in the East are subject to the rules governing grazing...

  8. 36 CFR 222.53 - Grazing fees in the East-noncompetitive procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...fair market value procedures. These rules do not apply to grazing fees on National Forest System lands in Oklahoma or National Grasslands in Texas. Grazing permits under the noncompetitive fee method in the East are subject to the rules governing grazing...

  9. GRAZING-INDUCED MODIFICATIONS TO THE PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY OF NORTHERN MIXED-GRASS PRAIRIE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective grazing can modify the productive capacity of rangelands by reducing competitiveness of productive, palatable species and increasing the composition of more grazing-resistant species. A stocking rate (light, moderate and heavy) X grazing system (season-long continuous and short-duration r...

  10. Ruminant Grazing of Cover Crops: Effects on Soil Properties and Agricultural Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poffenbarger, Hanna

    2010-01-01

    Integrating livestock into a cropping system by allowing ruminant animals to graze cover crops may yield economic and environmental benefits. The effects of grazing on soil physical properties, soil organic matter, nitrogen cycling and agricultural production are presented in this literature review. The review found that grazing cover crops…

  11. Review article Grazing and pasture management

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    prescriptions with sward-based methods and to integrate biodiversity goals into inten- sive systems. Major gaps on dietary choices uses model systems that require considerable extrapolation to more com- plex communities. Grazing animals' diets are constrained by temporal and spatial changes in sward structure, plant defence

  12. Plant morphology and grazing history

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. L. Painter; J. K. Detling; D. A. Steingraeber

    1993-01-01

    Grazing-related, intraspecific, morphological variation was studied in four North American grasses (Bouteloua gracilis, Agropyron smithii, Schizachyrium scoparium, and Andropogon gerardii) from eight locales in Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota: three locales currently occupied and heavily grazed by prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus), colonized (since settlement) for 2–100 years, where native ungulates concentrate grazing activities; an extinct colony locale from which

  13. Community responses of arthropods to a range of traditional and manipulated grazing in shortgrass steppe.

    PubMed

    Newbold, T A Scott; Stapp, Paul; Levensailor, Katherine E; Derner, Justin D; Lauenroth, William K

    2014-06-01

    Responses of plants to grazing are better understood, and more predictable, than those of consumers in North American grasslands. In 2003, we began a large-scale, replicated experiment that examined the effects of grazing on three important arthropod groups-beetles, spiders, and grasshoppers-in shortgrass steppe of north-central Colorado. We investigated whether modifications of the intensity and seasonality of livestock grazing alter the structure and diversity of macroarthropod communities compared with traditional grazing practices. Treatments represented a gradient of grazing intensity by cattle and native herbivores: long-term grazing exclosures; moderate summer grazing (the traditional regime); intensive spring grazing; intensive summer grazing; and moderately summer-grazed pastures also inhabited by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus Ord). Beetles and spiders were the most common groups captured, comprising 60% and 21%, respectively, of 4,378 total pitfall captures. Grasshopper counts were generally low, with 3,799 individuals observed and densities <4 m(-2). Two years after treatments were applied, vegetation structure differed among grazing treatments, responding not only to long-term grazing conditions, but also to the short-term, more-intensive grazing manipulations. In response, arthropods were, in general, relatively insensitive to these grazing-induced structural changes. However, species-level analyses of one group (Tenebrionidae) revealed both positive and negative effects of grazing treatments on beetle richness and activity-density. Importantly, these responses to grazing were more pronounced in a year when spring-summer rainfall was low, suggesting that both grazing and precipitation-which together may create the greatest heterogeneity in vegetation structure-are drivers of consumer responses in this system. PMID:24780073

  14. Effectiveness of dairy wastewater treatment in a bioreactor based on the integrated technology of activated sludge and hydrophyte system.

    PubMed

    Debowski, M; Zieli?ski, M; Krzemieniewski, M; Rokicka, M; Kupczyk, K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of dairy wastewater treatment in the integrated technology based on the simultaneous use of the activated sludge method (AS) and a hydrophyte system (HS) (AS-HS), in this case, common reed (Phragmites australis) or common cattail (Typha latifolia). Experiments were conducted in an innovative reactor exploited in the fractional-technical scale at the loads of 0.05 mg BOD5/mg.d.m. d (biochemical oxygen demand) and 0.10 mg BOD5/mg.d.m d. The AS--HS enabled improving the removal effectiveness ofbiogenes characterized by concentrations of Ntot., N-NH4 and Ptot. In contrast, the integrated system had no significant reducing effect either on concentrations of organic compounds characterized by BOD5 and chemical oxygen demand parameters or on the structure of AS in the sequencing batch-type reactors. PMID:24701933

  15. Supporting the extensive dairy sheep smallholders of the semi-arid region of Crete through technical intervention.

    PubMed

    Volanis, M; Stefanakis, A; Hadjigeorgiou, I; Zoiopoulos, P

    2007-06-01

    The objective of this field study was to depict the extensive system of dairy sheep farming in the semi-arid environment of the island of Crete and to assess the potential margins of improvement through technical intervention. Forty-three family-run farms keeping a total of 13,870 sheep were surveyed in seven representative areas of the island. Several parameters were dealt with, concerning socio-economy, flock management and productivity. Study areas differed widely regarding feeds supplied per sheep, land cultivated for feeds, grazing land utilized and housing space. A range of parameters were recorded on flock size and their production characteristics such as births, fertility and number of lambs weaned. Milk yield and parameters associated with milk quality, such as somatic cell counts and total microbial flora, were also recorded. Technical intervention was directed towards removal of non-productive animals, programming of matings, balancing of diets, management of grazing lands and health care. Ewe fertility and numbers of lambs weaned per ewe, as well as harvested milk and milk quality (based on somatic cell counts and microbial load of milk) were also significantly improved. Information derived from this study stresses the important role of extension services to small farm sustainability and contributes to our knowledge of the dairy sheep farming systems in countries around the Mediterranean and elsewhere. PMID:17944302

  16. Urea treated maize straw for small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of Central Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anastacio García-Martínez; Benito Albarrán-Portillo; Octavio Alonso Castelán-Ortega; Angélica Espinoza-Ortega; Carlos Manuel Arriaga-Jordán

    2009-01-01

    Maize straw is the main roughage for dairy herds in campesino farms in central Mexico. The objective was to evaluate feeding milking cows on maize straw treated with 40 g\\/kg DM of urea\\u000a (A) or untreated straw (B), and 3.0 kg\\/d of 18% CP concentrate. Twenty-four Holsteins in late lactation from 8 farmers were\\u000a sorted in two groups: sequence A-B-A or B-A-B;

  17. The PC Dairy Windows Project P.H. Robinson1

    E-print Network

    Delany, Mary E.

    article The PC Dairy Windows Project P.H. Robinson1 and A. Ahmadi2 1 Cooperative Extension of dairy cattle nutrition. However the popularity of Windows operating systems caused a conversion of the DOS version of PC Dairy-2 to a Windows compatible version in 2005. To date, we have sold copies of PC

  18. Dairy Outreach Program Training and Continuing Education Program 

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    1999-10-30

    In Texas, concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are regulated by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). Any CAFO with more than 300 animal units (more than 200 mature dairy cows) located in the dairy outreach program area... Mukhtar, Extension Agricultural Engineer, The Texas A&M University System E-14 8/05 Dairy Outreach Program Area Training and Continuing Education ...

  19. The Dairy Greenhouse Gas Emission Model: Reference Manual

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dairy Greenhouse Gas Model (DairyGHG) is a software tool for estimating the greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprint of dairy production systems. A relatively simple process-based model is used to predict the primary greenhouse gas emissions, which include the net emission of carbon dioxide...

  20. Step behaviour and autonomic nervous system activity in multiparous dairy cows during milking in a herringbone milking system.

    PubMed

    Kézér, F L; Kovács, L; T?zsér, J

    2015-08-01

    Behavioural and cardiac responses of multiparous dairy cows (n=24) during milking in a 2×4 stall herringbone milking system were evaluated in this study. Heart rate (HR), parasympathetic tone index (high frequency component, HF) of heart rate variability and sympathovagal balance indicator LF/HF ratio (the ratio of the low frequency (LF) and the HF component) were analysed. Measurement periods were established as follows: (1) standing calm (baseline), (2) udder preparation, (3) milking, (4) waiting after milking in the milking stall and (5) in the night (2 h after milking). Step behaviour was recorded and calculated per minute for the three phases of the milking process (udder preparation, milking and waiting after milking). HR was higher during udder preparation and milking compared with baseline (P=0.03, 0.027, respectively). HF was significantly lower than baseline levels during waiting in the milking stall after milking (P=0.009), however, during udder preparation, milking and 2 h after milking did not differ from baseline (P>0.05, in either case). LF/HF during the three phases of the milking process differed neither from baseline levels nor from each other. Steps occurred more often during waiting after milking than during udder preparation (P=0.042) or during milking (23; P=0.017). Our results suggest that the milking procedure itself was not stressful for these animals. After milking (following the removal of the last teat cup and before leaving the milking stall), both decreased parasympathetic tone (lower HF) and increased stepping rate indicated a sensitive period for animals during this phase. PMID:25686697

  1. Rangelands and Grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands are a type of land cover dominated by grasses, grass-like plants, forbs, and shrubs, where the land is managed as a natural ecosystem for multiple uses including wildlife habitat, biodiversity, recreation, and grazing by livestock. The area cover by rangelands is 48.2% of the land surfac...

  2. Soil ingestion by dairy cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Darwin, R.

    1990-02-15

    Ingested soil may be a source of minerals to grazing cattle; it may also be a source of radionuclides, heavy metals, and organic toxins. The importance of soil ingestion in the milk pathway depends on the amount of soil ingested, the ratio of the mineral concentration in soil to that in herbage, and the ability of the cattle to solubilize and absorb the soil-derived minerals. The amount of soil ingested by cattle on pasture, in turn, depends upon the stocking level, the quantity of forage available, and the soil ingesting propensity of individual cows. The objective of this note is to summarize some of the information about soil ingestion by dairy cattle and to suggest methods for incorporating soil ingestion into the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Phase I milk model. 5 refs., 4 tabs.

  3. The effect of lameness on the fertility of dairy cattle in a seasonally breeding pasture-based system.

    PubMed

    Alawneh, J I; Laven, R A; Stevenson, M A

    2011-11-01

    The effect of lameness on the fertility of dairy cattle is well recognized. But, the effect of lameness on the fertility of seasonally breeding cattle in pasture-based systems is less well characterized. This prospective cohort study of 463 cows on 1 farm in the lower North Island of New Zealand was designed to assess the effect of clinical lameness, as identified by farm staff, on the hazard of conception after the planned start-of-mating date. A Cox proportional hazards model with time-varying covariates was used. After controlling for the effect of parity, breed, body weight at calving, and calving-to-planned start of mating interval, the daily hazard of conception for cows identified as lame was 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.86) compared with non-lame cows. Lame cows took 12 d longer to get pregnant compared with their non-lame counterparts. PMID:22032371

  4. Dairy fat intake is associated with glucose tolerance, hepatic and systemic insulin sensitivity, and liver fat but not ?-cell function in humans123

    PubMed Central

    Marcovina, Santica; Nelson, James E; Yeh, Matthew M; Kowdley, Kris V; Callahan, Holly S; Song, Xiaoling; Di, Chongzhi; Utzschneider, Kristina M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Plasma phospholipid concentrations of trans-palmitoleic acid (trans-16:1n?7), a biomarker of dairy fat intake, are inversely associated with incident type 2 diabetes in 2 US cohorts. Objective: The objective was to investigate whether the intake of trans-16:1n?7 in particular, or dairy fat in general, is associated with glucose tolerance and key factors determining glucose tolerance. Design: A cross-sectional investigation was undertaken in 17 men and women with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and 15 body mass index (BMI)- and age-matched controls. The concentrations of trans-16:1n?7 and 2 other biomarkers of dairy fat intake, 15:0 and 17:0, were measured in plasma phospholipids and free fatty acids (FFAs). Liver fat was estimated by computed tomography–derived liver-spleen ratio. Intravenous-glucose-tolerance tests and oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed to assess ?-cell function and hepatic and systemic insulin sensitivity. Results: In multivariate analyses adjusted for age, sex, and BMI, phospholipid 17:0, phospholipid trans-16:1n?7, FFA 15:0, and FFA 17:0 were inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose, the area under the curve for glucose during an OGTT, and liver fat. Phospholipid trans-16:1n?7 was also positively associated with hepatic and systemic insulin sensitivity. None of the biomarkers were associated with ?-cell function. The associations between dairy fat intake and glucose tolerance were attenuated by adjusting for insulin sensitivity or liver fat, but strengthened by adjusting for ?-cell function. Conclusion: Although we cannot rule out reverse causation, these data support the hypothesis that dairy fat improves glucose tolerance, possibly through a mechanism involving improved hepatic and systemic insulin sensitivity and reduced liver fat. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01289639. PMID:24740208

  5. Tracking Zoonotic Pathogens in Dairy Production Chains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy farming is a highly productive system producing ample amounts of high-quality milk and meat from fewer cows on less land on fewer, but larger, farms. Despite this consolidation and modernization zoonotic pathogenic bacteria and protozoans remain problems on the modern dairy farm. Although past...

  6. Greenhouse gas fluxes from experimental dairy barnyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy production systems are well-established sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Dairy cows emit methane (CH4) directly, and contribute to carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ammonia (NH3) emissions via manure. The substrate on which manure is deposited is likely a control on GHG ...

  7. Short communication: prevalence, risk factors, and a field scoring system for udder cleft dermatitis in Dutch dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Olde Riekerink, R G M; van Amersfort, K; Sampimon, O C; Hooijer, G A; Lam, T J G M

    2014-08-01

    Udder cleft dermatitis (UCD) is a well-known disorder in dairy cows. Veterinary literature about this subject, however, is scarce. The objectives of this study were to define a clinical scoring system for UCD, estimate the within-herd prevalence of UCD, and identify potential risk factors of UCD at cow and herd level. On 20 randomly selected dairy farms in the Netherlands, each lactating cow was photographed from a ventral, lateral, and caudal position. A scoring system with 6 categories of severity of UCD was proposed based on the ventral photographs. Cow measures such as udder width and depth, and front quarter attachment were determined from the lateral and caudal photographs. A questionnaire was conducted on each farm during farm visits. Udder cleft dermatitis, defined as a score 3 or higher, was detected in 5.2% of the 948 cows involved in this study. Within-herd prevalences of UCD ranged between 0 and 15% and UCD was found in 16 (80%) of the participating farms. Cows with a deep udder (relative to the hock), large front quarters, and a small angle between udder and abdominal wall were more likely to develop UCD. Production level and use of a footbath were identified as being positively associated with herd-level UCD prevalence. Herd size and average bulk milk somatic cell count did not seem to be associated with UCD prevalence. Because of the small herd sample size, no firm conclusions were drawn on herd-level risk factors. However, results from this study can be used in designing a future longitudinal UCD study. The prevalences of UCD found in the present study illustrate the current UCD situation in the Netherlands. Our results demonstrate that multiple potential risk factors of UCD could be identified at both the cow and herd level. PMID:24856987

  8. Grazing sericea lespedeza for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs.

    PubMed

    Burke, J M; Miller, J E; Mosjidis, J A; Terrill, T H

    2012-05-25

    Alternatives to chemical dewormers are needed to counter anthelmintic resistance and improve worm control in organic management systems. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of grazing sericea lespedeza (SL) compared with grass pastures for control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in lambs. In Experiment 1, Katahdin lambs grazed bermudagrass (BG; n=14), tall fescue (TF; n=7), or SL (n=19) pastures during early summer months. In Experiment 2, lambs grazed TF (n=15) or SL (n=13) pastures during late summer. Stocking rate of pastures was based on forage availability; additional lambs grazed pastures in Experiment 2, but were not sampled. Lambs were dewormed with 0.5 g COWP if FAMACHA(©) score was >3. In Experiment 1, FEC were reduced within 35 days in SL compared with BG lambs (forage by time, P=0.03). The PCV was more resilient to changes over time in SL compared with other groups of lambs (forage by time, P=0.001). In Experiment 2, FEC were lower (P=0.02) and PCV tended to be higher (P=0.09) in lambs grazing SL compared with TF forage. Incidence of deworming was similar among forage groups in both experiments. Grazing SL reduced FEC in lambs in early and late summer, despite reluctance by lambs to graze. Grazing forage and selective deworming using COWP was effective in lambs. PMID:22226762

  9. Invited review: An evaluation of the likely effects of individualized feeding of concentrate supplements to pasture-based dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hills, J L; Wales, W J; Dunshea, F R; Garcia, S C; Roche, J R

    2015-03-01

    In pasture-based dairy systems, supplementary feeds are used to increase dry matter intake and milk production. Historically, supplementation involved the provision of the same amount of feed (usually a grain-based concentrate feed) to each cow in the herd during milking (i.e., flat-rate feeding). The increasing availability of computerized feeding and milk monitoring technology in milking parlors, however, has led to increased interest in the potential benefits of feeding individual cows (i.e., individualized or differential feeding) different amounts and types of supplements according to one or more parameters (e.g., breeding value for milk yield, current milk yield, days in milk, body condition score, reproduction status, parity). In this review, we consider the likely benefits of individualized supplementary feeding strategies for pasture-based dairy cows fed supplements in the bail during milking. A unique feature of our review compared with earlier publications is the focus on individualized feeding strategies under practical grazing management. Previous reviews focused primarily on research undertaken in situations where cows were offered ad libitum forage, whereas we consider the likely benefits of individualized supplementary feeding strategies under rotational grazing management, wherein pasture is often restricted to all or part of a herd. The review provides compelling evidence that between-cow differences in response to concentrate supplements support the concept of individualized supplementary feeding. PMID:25582585

  10. Factors that influence the efficiency of beef and dairy cattle recording system in Kenya: A SWOT-AHP analysis.

    PubMed

    Wasike, Chrilukovian B; Magothe, Thomas M; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

    2011-01-01

    Animal recording in Kenya is characterised by erratic producer participation and high drop-out rates from the national recording scheme. This study evaluates factors influencing efficiency of beef and dairy cattle recording system. Factors influencing efficiency of animal identification and registration, pedigree and performance recording, and genetic evaluation and information utilisation were generated using qualitative and participatory methods. Pairwise comparison of factors was done by strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats-analytical hierarchical process analysis and priority scores to determine their relative importance to the system calculated using Eigenvalue method. For identification and registration, and evaluation and information utilisation, external factors had high priority scores. For pedigree and performance recording, threats and weaknesses had the highest priority scores. Strengths factors could not sustain the required efficiency of the system. Weaknesses of the system predisposed it to threats. Available opportunities could be explored as interventions to restore efficiency in the system. Defensive strategies such as reorienting the system to offer utility benefits to recording, forming symbiotic and binding collaboration between recording organisations and NARS, and development of institutions to support recording were feasible. PMID:20676763

  11. Dairy Barn Plans.

    E-print Network

    Thomas, J. Lynn

    1923-01-01

    Cooperating.) Distributed in furtherance of the Act of Congress of May 8th and June 30th, 1914. BULLETIN NO. 59. COLLEGE STATION, TEXAS DAIRY BARN PLANS BY J. LYNN THOMAS Dairy Specialist, Extension Service THE WALLACE PRINTING CO., Printers BRYAN, TEXAS 1923... DAIRY BARN PLANS BY J. LYNN THOMAS Dairy Specialist Extension Service Dairy barns generally found in Texas are not such as are actually needed to make the work of producing dairy products as attractive as it should be. Poorly constructed barns cause...

  12. Livestock Production and Economic Returns from Grazing Treatments on the Texas Experimental Ranch. 

    E-print Network

    Kothmann, M. M.; Mathis, G. W.; Marion, P. T.; Waldrip, W. J.

    1970-01-01

    of winter supplementation was mined. The stocking rates studied were heavy, moder- nd light which were designed to utilize 75 to 80 nt, 45 to 50 percent and 20 to 30 percent of the nt year's forage production. Three grazing systems, ~uous grazing... switchback system and $34.80 from the Merrill system. hback system deferred-rotation, were compared under Cow weights were greatly increased by supplementation rate stocking and a medium level of supplementation. on moderate continuously grazed pastures...

  13. 25 CFR 700.709 - Grazing privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing privileges. 700.709 Section 700.709 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.709 Grazing privileges. (a) A list of permittees...

  14. 50 CFR 35.9 - Livestock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Livestock grazing. 35.9 Section 35.9 Wildlife and Fisheries...MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.9 Livestock grazing. (a) The grazing of livestock, where established prior...

  15. 25 CFR 168.5 - Grazing capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing capacity. 168.5 Section 168...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.5 Grazing capacity. (a) The Area...

  16. Grazing and Browsing: How Plants are Affected 

    E-print Network

    Lyons, Robert K.; Hanselka, C. Wayne

    2001-12-13

    Grazing and browsing can have a neutral, positive or negative effect on rangeland plants. This publication explains the effects of grazing and browsing on plants, details the indicators of overuse of the range, and lists grazing management practices...

  17. Optimising stocking rate and grazing management to enhance environmental and production outcomes for native temperate grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badgery, Warwick; Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Broadfoot, Kim; Kemp, David; Mitchell, David

    2015-04-01

    Stocking rate and grazing management can be altered to enhance the sustainable production of grasslands but the relative influence of each has not often been determined for native temperate grasslands. Grazing management can range from seasonal rests through to intensive rotational grazing involving >30 paddocks. In large scale grazing, it can be difficult to segregate the influence of grazing pressure from the timing of utilisation. Moreover, relative grazing pressure can change between years as seasonal conditions influence grassland production compared to the relative constant requirements of animals. This paper reports on two studies in temperate native grasslands of northern China and south eastern Australia that examined stocking rate and regionally relevant grazing management strategies. In China, the grazing experiment involved combinations of a rest, moderate or heavy grazing pressure of sheep in spring, then moderate or heavy grazing in summer and autumn. Moderate grazing pressure at 50% of the current district average, resulted in the better balance between maintaining productive and diverse grasslands, a profitable livestock system, and mitigation of greenhouse gases through increased soil carbon, methane uptake by the soil, and efficient methane emissions per unit of weight gain. Spring rests best maintained a desirable grassland composition, but had few other benefits and reduced livestock productivity due to lower feed quality from grazing later in the season. In Australia, the grazing experiment compared continuous grazing to flexible 4- and 20-paddock rotational grazing systems with sheep. Stocking rates were adjusted between systems biannually based on the average herbage mass of the grassland. No treatment degraded the perennial pasture composition, but ground cover was maintained at higher levels in the 20-paddock system even though this treatment had a higher stocking rate. Overall there was little difference in livestock production (e.g. kg lamb/ha), because individual animal performance was greater for continuous grazing than higher intensity grazing systems (4-Paddock and 20-Paddock). Differences in SOC, CO2 flux and erosion were determined by landscape position rather than grazing treatment. To remove the confounding influences of stocking rate and grazing management, the Ausfarm biophysical model, calibrated to the experimental treatments, examined the interaction between grazing management and stocking rates. Ground cover and profitability were similar between grazing systems at lower stocking rates (3 ewes per ha), but continuous grazing had higher profitability and lower ground cover above the optimum stocking rate of 4 ewes per ha. The findings of these two studies suggest that optimising stocking rate is more important than grazing management for a sustainable and profitable grazing system. Grazing management can further enhance environmental outcomes for an optimal stocking rate, but the findings from the Chinese study particularly highlight the need to look at multiple ecosystem services, when optimising systems. The Australian study also suggests the optimum stocking rate is dependent on the intensity of grazing management. Further work is required to understand the influence of landscape on grassland production and how stocking rates and grazing management can be sustainably optimised for different landscape areas to utilise this variation more effectively.

  18. Intercropped oats ( Avena sativa ) - common vetch ( Vicia sativa ) silage in the dry season for small-scale dairy systems in the Highlands of Central Mexico

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Garduño-Castro; A. Espinoza-Ortega; C. E. González-Esquivel; B. Mateo-Salazar; C. M. Arriaga-Jordán

    2009-01-01

    Small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of central Mexico require feeding strategies based on quality home-grown forage\\u000a that may reduce high concentrate costs. Eight Holstein cows paired by parity and date of calving were used in a split-plot\\u000a experiment to evaluate supplementing 6 kg DM\\/cow\\/d of oat-vetch silage (OVS) in comparison to maize silage (MS) as dry season\\u000a feeding, for a

  19. Thermoregulatory responses of Holstein and Brown Swiss Heat-Stressed dairy cows to two different cooling systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa-Calderon, Abelardo; Armstrong, Dennis; Ray, Donald; DeNise, Sue; Enns, Mark; Howison, Christine

    . Thirty-seven Holstein and 26 Brown Swiss dairy cows were used to evaluate the effect of two different cooling systems on physiological and hormonal responses during the summer. A control group of cows had access only to shade (C). A second group was cooled with spray and fans (S/F) and the third group was under an evaporative cooling system called Korral Kool (KK). The maximum temperature humidity index during the trial was from 73 to 85. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of the C group were higher (P < 0.05) than those of the S/F and KK groups in both Holstein and Brown Swiss cows. Triiodothyronine levels in milk were higher (P < 0.05) in the KK group than in the S/F and C groups, while cortisol levels were lower (P < 0.05) in the C group than in S/F and KK. There was no significant difference in the hormonal response of the two breeds. These results demonstrate that both cooling systems may be used increase the comfort of Holstein and Brown Swiss cows during summer in hot, dry climates.

  20. Thermoregulatory responses of Holstein and Brown Swiss heat-stressed dairy cows to two different cooling systems.

    PubMed

    Correa-Calderon, Abelardo; Armstrong, Dennis; Ray, Donald; DeNise, Sue; Enns, Mark; Howison, Christine

    2004-02-01

    Thirty-seven Holstein and 26 Brown Swiss dairy cows were used to evaluate the effect of two different cooling systems on physiological and hormonal responses during the summer. A control group of cows had access only to shade (C). A second group was cooled with spray and fans (S/F) and the third group was under an evaporative cooling system called Korral Kool (KK). The maximum temperature humidity index during the trial was from 73 to 85. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of the C group were higher (P<0.05) than those of the S/F and KK groups in both Holstein and Brown Swiss cows. Triiodothyronine levels in milk were higher (P<0.05) in the KK group than in the S/F and C groups, while cortisol levels were lower (P<0.05) in the C group than in S/F and KK. There was no significant difference in the hormonal response of the two breeds. These results demonstrate that both cooling systems may be used increase the comfort of Holstein and Brown Swiss cows during summer in hot, dry climates. PMID:14624352

  1. Children and Dairy Chemicals

    MedlinePLUS

    ... to clean dairy facilities and equipment, especially dairy pipeline cleaners, pose a special risk for children. Rapid ... where the cleaner is pumped directly into the pipeline. This is childproof and protects adult workers from ...

  2. Managing Dairy Grazing for More Milk and Profit

    E-print Network

    Haller, Merrick

    - standing of plant growth and development and the factors that influence animal intake. Ensuring rapid growth and regrowth of pasture plants Rapid growth and regrowth of forage grasses and legumes depend percent at an LAI of 7. Manage to optimize growth rates Forage plant growth and regrowth follow an S

  3. Comparison of a camera-software system and typical farm management for detecting oestrus in dairy cattle at pasture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JI Alawneh; NB Williamson; D Bailey

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare the sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy of detection of oestrus using a novel oestrus detection-strip (ODS) and a camera-software device (CSD) with typical farm management practices of visual observation and use of tail paint in dairy cattle at pasture.METHODS: Dairy cows (n=480) in a seasonal-calving herd managed at pasture under typical commercial conditions in New Zealand

  4. Feeding the Transition Dairy Cow 

    E-print Network

    Stokes, Sandra R.

    1999-09-20

    available forages for the dry cows are high in calcium, phospho- rus, and/or potassium. Anionic salts are fed to manipulate the dietary cation/ anion balance in the close-up cow. These L-5197 8-99 Feeding the transition dairy cow Sandra R. Stokes* *Extension... dairy specialist; The Texas A&M University System. Feed intake usually decreases in the f_inal week before calving T salts lower body pH and stimulate calci- um release from the bones and calcium absorption from the gut. However, these salts are not very...

  5. Effects of Application of Dairy Slurry on Voluntary Intake of Orchardgrass Hays by Growing Dairy Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many dairy production systems have a critical need for available sites to land apply dairy slurry after spring planting and during the summer months. One potential option is to apply these nutrients on perennial grass sods; however, this approach is viable only if voluntary intake by livestock is no...

  6. Associations of housing, management, milking activity, and standing and lying behavior of dairy cows milked in automatic systems.

    PubMed

    Deming, J A; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to describe the housing, feeding management, and characteristics (parity and stage of lactation) of cows on commercial automatic milking system (AMS) dairies and their associations with the standing and lying behavior patterns and milking activity (frequency and yield) of lactating dairy cows. Thirteen AMS herds were enrolled in the study, with an average herd size of 71±30 (mean ± SD; range: 34 to 131) lactating cows. All of the herds used freestall barns, each set up for free cow traffic to the AMS. On-farm measurements were taken to determine stocking density at the freestalls (0.9±0.1 cows/stall; mean ± SD), feed bunk (0.66±0.17 m of feed bunk space/cow; mean ± SD), and AMS units (55±11 cows/AMS; mean ± SD). A random sample of 30 cows/herd was selected to monitor standing and lying behavior for 4d using electronic data loggers. Times of feed delivery and feed push-up were recorded daily by the herd managers. Milking times, frequency, and yield were automatically recorded by the AMS units. Data were analyzed in a multivariable mixed regression model to determine which herd-level (housing and feeding management) and cow-level (parity, DIM, and milk yield) factors were associated with behavior and milking activity measures. Lying bout lengths were found to be negatively associated with milk yield and tended to be positively associated with more space at the feed bunk. Increased lying duration was associated with cows of lower milk production, increased space at the feed bunk, and increased frequency of feed push-up. Longer postmilking standing durations were associated with cows of higher parity. An association existed between cows milking less frequently when they were further in lactation, were of higher parity, and as stocking density at the AMS (cows/AMS) increased. Milk yield was positively associated with increased space at the feed bunk and higher parity and negatively associated with DIM. From this study, it can be concluded that increased milking frequency may be achieved in AMS herds by reducing stocking density at the AMS unit. Further, in AMS systems, greater milk yield and lying duration may be achieved by ensuring that cows have ample feed bunk space and have their feed readily available to them in the bunk. PMID:23084886

  7. Nutritional and ecological evaluation of dairy farming systems based on concentrate feeding regimes in semi-arid environments of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alqaisi, Othman; Hemme, Torsten; Hagemann, Martin; Susenbeth, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and ecological aspects of feeding systems practiced under semi-arid environments in Jordan. Nine dairy farms representing the different dairy farming systems were selected for this study. Feed samples (n = 58), fecal samples (n = 108), and milk samples (n = 78) were collected from the farms and analysed for chemical composition. Feed samples were also analysed for metabolisable energy (ME) contents and in vitro organic matter digestibility according to Hohenheim-Feed-Test. Furthermore, fecal nitrogen concentration was determined to estimate in vivo organic matter digestibility. ME and nutrient intakes were calculated based on the farmer's estimate of dry matter intake and the analysed composition of the feed ingredients. ME and nutrient intakes were compared to recommended standard values for adequate supply of ME, utilizable crude protein, rumen undegradable crude protein (RUCP), phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca). Technology Impact Policy Impact Calculation model complemented with a partial life cycle assessment model was used to estimate greenhouse gas emissions of milk production at farm gate. The model predicts CH4, N2O and CO2 gases emitted either directly or indirectly. Average daily energy corrected milk yield (ECM) was 19 kg and ranged between 11 and 27 kg. The mean of ME intake of all farms was 184 MJ/d with a range between 115 and 225 MJ/d. Intake of RUCP was lower than the standard requirements in six farms ranging between 19 and 137 g/d, was higher (32 and 93 g/d) in two farms, and matched the requirements in one farm. P intake was higher than the requirements in all farms (mean oversupply = 19 g/d) and ranged between 3 and 30 g/d. Ca intake was significantly below the requirements in small scale farms. Milk nitrogen efficiency N-eff (milk N/intake N) varied between 19% and 28% and was mainly driven by the level of milk yield. Total CO2 equivalent (CO2 equ) emission ranged between 0.90 and 1.88 kg CO2/kg ECM milk, where the enteric and manure CH4 contributed to 52% of the total CO2 equ emissions, followed by the indirect emissions of N2O and the direct emissions of CO2 gases which comprises 17% and 15%, respectively, from total CO2 equ emissions. Emissions per kg of milk were significantly driven by the level of milk production (r (2) = 0.93) and of eDMI (r (2) = 0.88), while the total emissions were not influenced by diet composition. A difference of 16 kg ECM/d in milk yield, 9% in N-eff and of 0.9 kg CO2 equ/kg in ECM milk observed between low and high yielding animals. To improve the nutritional status of the animals, protein requirements have to be met. Furthermore, low price by-products with a low carbon credit should be included in the diets to replace the high proportion of imported concentrate feeds and consequently improve the economic situation of dairy farms and mitigate CO2 equ emissions. PMID:24596499

  8. Interpreting Grazing Behavior 

    E-print Network

    Lyons, Robert K.; Machen, Richard V.

    2000-12-01

    amniotic fluid and continues following birth from tasting mother?s milk. Animals also learn from experience. Grazing animals tend to sample new forages in small quantities. If an ani- mal becomes sick from eating a new food, it will either avoid that food... their senses in selecting forage, but taste is the most important sense. The sense of smell appears to supplement the sense of taste. Undesirable, unwanted or unpalatable forage often is discarded before being swallowed. The sense of sight allows animals...

  9. Zooplankton grazing in a Potomac River cyanobacteria bloom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. G. Sellner; D. C. Brownlee; M. H. Bundy; S. G. Brownlee; K. R. Braun

    1993-01-01

    During summer, bloom-forming cyanobacteria, including Anacystis, Aphanizomenon, and Microcystis aeruginosa, dominate tidal-fresh waters of the upper Potomac River estuary with densities exceeding 108 cells l?1. In an attempt to determine the importance of these high cyanobacteria densities to planktonic herbivory in the system, short-term\\u000a grazing experiments were conducted in July and August 1987. Using size-fractionated river phytoplankton assemblages, zooplankton\\u000a grazing

  10. [Influence of floor surface and access to pasture on claw characteristics in dairy cows kept in cubicle housing systems].

    PubMed

    Haufe, H C; Friedli, K; Gygax, L; Wechsler, B

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the floor type used in the walking area of cubicle housing systems and of access to pasture on claw dimensions and claw shape in dairy cows. Data were collected on 36 farms, 12 farms each fitted with mastic asphalt, slatted concrete or solid rubber flooring. With each floor type, cows on half of the farms had access to pasture in summer. The farms were visited three times at intervals of about 6 months and data were collected from 10 cows during each visit. Net growth of the claw horn was highest on rubber flooring and lowest on mastic asphalt. On all floor types, claw angles were larger after the winter period and smaller after the summer period. With regard to claw shape, floor type had an effect on the occurrence of flat, concave and overgrown claw soles. In conclusion, none of the investigated floor types was clearly superior to the others with regard to claw dimensions and claw shape, and access to pasture during summer (median 4 h per day) had only little influence on the investigated claw characteristics. PMID:24686817

  11. Meat Production in a Feedlot System of Zebu—Holstein Steers and Heifers with Dairy Genetics: Productive and Biological Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Gustavo Chamon de Castro; Valadares Filho, Sebastião de Campos; Ruas, José Reinaldo Mendes; Detmann, Edenio; Menezes, Arismar de Castro; Zanett, Diego; Mariz, Lays Débora Silva; Rennó, Luciana Navajas; da Silva Junior, Jarbas Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the productive and biological efficiency of steers and heifers from dairy genetics in a feedlot system in terms of meat production. Twenty-four steers and 24 heifers at 10 monthes of age, (3/4) Zebu × (1/4) Holstein were utilized. They were distributed over four feedlot times, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days with four replications for each sex, and were slaughtered at the end of each period. The productive and biological analyses were performed through comparative slaughter to determine the body composition. Heifers presented with greater intakes (P < 0.05) of dry matter in grams per kg of body weight. Steers presented with a greater (P < 0.05) final empty body weight, carcass gain, cold carcass weight, and meat proportion in the carcass; however, heifers presented with a greater subcutaneous fat thickness (P < 0.05) and, consequently, a greater (P < 0.05) fat proportion in the carcass. We conclude that steers are more efficient in their productive performance than heifers in a feedlot. For the finishing carcass fat cover, heifers need 90 days in the feedlot. The net energy requirements for maintenance are 67?kcal/EBW0.75/d, and the net requirements of energy (NEg) and protein (NPg) for gain can be estimated by the following equations: NEg(Mcal/d) = 0.067 × EBW0.75 × EBG1.095 and NPg = 162 × EBG ? 5.62 × RE for the two sexes. PMID:25574483

  12. New spectrometer for grazing exit x-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, Roberto D.; Sánchez, Héctor Jorge

    1997-07-01

    Among the x-ray fluorescence techniques using energy dispersive systems, the excitation in the total reflection regime is becoming widespread. This technique may be applied to surface analysis if the fluorescent radiation emitted by the sample is measured as a function of the grazing incidence angle. The main limitation in performing this sort of analysis is the need to use a monochromator, which notably reduces the incident flux of radiation. Besides, the method requires the radiated surface to be perfectly smooth and polished and to have a total length of some centimeters. A similar technique known as grazing exit x-ray fluorescence presents certain advantages and is easier to implement. By this method, fluorescent photons in terms of the grazing exit angle are detected. In this work, a spectrometer for performing surface analysis at grazing exit is described, the different experimental situations are analyzed, and some measurements performed with this device are shown.

  13. 25 CFR 167.9 - Grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing permits. 167.9 Section 167.9 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.9 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on...

  14. 25 CFR 167.12 - Grazing fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing fees. 167.12 Section 167.12 Indians...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.12 Grazing fees. Grazing fees shall not be charged...

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of fecal Escherichia coli isolates in dairy cows following systemic treatment with ceftiofur or penicillin.

    PubMed

    Mann, Sabine; Siler, Julie D; Jordan, David; Warnick, Lorin D

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this longitudinal controlled trial was to determine the effect of systemic treatment with ceftiofur on antimicrobial susceptibility of fecal Escherichia coli isolates in dairy cows. Cows with metritis or interdigital necrobacillosis requiring systemic antimicrobial treatment were sequentially assigned to two treatment groups. The first group was treated with ceftiofur hydrochloride and the second with penicillin G procaine. Untreated healthy control cows were selected for sampling on the same schedule as treated cows. Fecal samples were collected on days 0, 2, 7, 14, 21, and 28. In total, 21983 E. coli isolates from 42 cows were analyzed for susceptibility to ampicillin, tetracycline, and ceftiofur using a hydrophobic grid membrane filter system to assess growth on agar containing selected antimicrobial drugs. Temporal changes in both the concentration of E. coli in feces and the susceptibility of E. coli to each drug were analyzed. A significant decrease in the concentration of fecal E. coli on days 2 and 7 post-treatment (but not thereafter) was detected in animals treated with ceftiofur. The proportion of all isolates (95% confidence interval in parentheses) showing reduced susceptibility at day 0 was 3.0% (2.5, 3.6) for ampicillin, 10.6% (9.7, 11.6) for tetracycline, and 4.8% (4.2, 5.6) for ceftiofur; 1.7% (1.3, 2.1) of isolates were resistant to ceftiofur based on growth at 8??g/mL. Treatment did not have any significant effect on the proportion of isolates expressing reduced susceptibility to antibiotics with the exception of decreased tetracycline susceptibility in the ceftiofur-treated group on day 2. Although we found the potential for selection pressure by documenting the change in E. coli concentration after ceftiofur treatment, an increase in ceftiofur resistance was not found. PMID:21381922

  16. Farm management factors associated with bulk tank somatic cell count in Irish dairy herds

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC) and farm management and infrastructure was examined using data from 398 randomly selected, yet representative, Irish dairy farms where the basal diet is grazed grass. Median bulk tank SCC for the farms was 282,887 cells/ml ranging from 82,209 to 773,028 cells/ml. Two questionnaires were administered through face-to-face contact with each farmer. Herd-level factors associated with bulk tank SCC were determined using linear models with annual somatic cell score (i.e., arithmetic mean of the natural logarithm of bulk tank SCC) included as the dependent variable. All herd level factors were analysed individually in separate regression models, which included an adjustment for geographical location of the farm; a multiple regression model was subsequently developed. Management practices associated with low SCC included the use of dry cow therapy, participation in a milk recording scheme and the use of teat disinfection post-milking. There was an association between low SCC and an increased level of hygiene and frequency of cleaning of the holding yard, passageways and cubicles. Herd management factors associated with bulk tank SCC in Irish grazing herds are generally in agreement with most previous studies from confinement systems of milk production. PMID:22081962

  17. Grazing incidence beam expander

    SciTech Connect

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  18. Assessing agro-environmental performance of dairy farms in northwest Italy based on aggregated results from indicators.

    PubMed

    Gaudino, Stefano; Goia, Irene; Grignani, Carlo; Monaco, Stefano; Sacco, Dario

    2014-07-01

    Dairy farms control an important share of the agricultural area of Northern Italy. Zero grazing, large maize-cropped areas, high stocking densities, and high milk production make them intensive and prone to impact the environment. Currently, few published studies have proposed indicator sets able to describe the entire dairy farm system and their internal components. This work had four aims: i) to propose a list of agro-environmental indicators to assess dairy farms; ii) to understand which indicators classify farms best; iii) to evaluate the dairy farms based on the proposed indicator list; iv) to link farmer decisions to the consequent environmental pressures. Forty agro-environmental indicators selected for this study are described. Northern Italy dairy systems were analysed considering both farmer decision indicators (farm management) and the resulting pressure indicators that demonstrate environmental stress on the entire farming system, and its components: cropping system, livestock system, and milk production. The correlations among single indicators identified redundant indicators. Principal Components Analysis distinguished which indicators provided meaningful information about each pressure indicator group. Analysis of the communalities and the correlations among indicators identified those that best represented farm variability: Farm Gate N Balance, Greenhouse Gas Emission, and Net Energy of the farm system; Net Energy and Gross P Balance of the cropping system component; Energy Use Efficiency and Purchased Feed N Input of the livestock system component; N Eco-Efficiency of the milk production component. Farm evaluation, based on the complete list of selected indicators demonstrated organic farming resulted in uniformly high values, while farms with low milk-producing herds resulted in uniformly low values. Yet on other farms, the environmental quality varied greatly when different groups of pressure indicators were considered, which highlighted the importance of expanding environmental analysis to effects within the farm. Statistical analysis demonstrated positive correlations between all farmer decision and pressure group indicators. Consumption of mineral fertiliser and pesticide negatively influenced the cropping system. Furthermore, stocking rate was found to correlate positively with the milk production component and negatively with the farm system. This study provides baseline references for ex ante policy evaluation, and monitoring tools for analysis both in itinere and ex post environment policy implementation. PMID:24747935

  19. From rags to riches: the story of carbon, nutrients and pasture with dairy compost application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Jess; Cavagnaro, Tim; Patti, Tony; Wilkinson, Kevin; McDonald, Declan; Johnston, Priscilla; Wilson, Katrina; Rose, Mick; Jackson, Roy

    2014-05-01

    Around the world, dairy farmers are transforming dairy waste to compost for land application. In southeastern Australia, farmers are using composted dairy waste to increase production and reduce costs. In addition, the farmers are considering the benefits of compost for increasing sequestration of soil carbon, and on-farm nutrient retention. The "Carbon Farming Initative" in Australia is exploring the option to allow farmers to trade Carbon Credits for carbon stored in the soil. Compost also retains vital nutrients, such as N, on farm rather than importing N in the form of mineral fertilisers. Composting also reduces greenhouse gas emissions, such as CH4, compared to when stored in effluent ponds. This project will investigate if dairy compost applied to pasture improves carbon sequestration, nutrient retention and pasture production. In this project dairy compost, made from dairy effluent, feedpad waste, spoilt sillage and wood mulch, was applied onto a 1Ha field and companion plots at a rate of 0, 3, 6 and 12 t/ha. The field plot is open to grazing and normal farm management practices. The companion plots are being subjected to simulated grazing (mowing). The trials, currently underway will run for 18 months. Along with preliminary soil carbon results, this work will also include preliminary data for total and plant available nutrients, and farm biomass production. The outcomes of this research, and benefits it finds for "Carbon Farming" and nutrient retention has practical, policy and economic applications for world wide markets.

  20. Persistent, Toxin-Antitoxin System-Independent, Tetracycline Resistance-Encoding Plasmid from a Dairy Enterococcus faecium Isolate?

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinhui; Alvarez, Valente; Harper, Willis James; Wang, Hua H.

    2011-01-01

    A tetracycline-resistant (Tetr) dairy Enterococcus faecium isolate designated M7M2 was found to carry both tet(M) and tet(L) genes on a 19.6-kb plasmid. After consecutive transfer in the absence of tetracycline, the resistance-encoding plasmid persisted in 99% of the progenies. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the 19.6-kb plasmid contained 28 open reading frames (ORFs), including a tet(M)-tet(L)-mob gene cluster, as well as a 10.6-kb backbone highly homologous (99.9%) to the reported plasmid pRE25, but without an identified toxin-antitoxin (TA) plasmid stabilization system. The derived backbone plasmid without the Tetr determinants exhibited a 100% retention rate in the presence of acridine orange, suggesting the presence of a TA-independent plasmid stabilization mechanism, with its impact on the persistence of a broad spectrum of resistance-encoding traits still to be elucidated. The tet(M)-tet(L) gene cluster from M7M2 was functional and transmissible and led to acquired resistance in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF by electroporation and in Streptococcus mutans UA159 by natural transformation. Southern hybridization showed that both the tet(M) and tet(L) genes were integrated into the chromosome of S. mutans UA159, while the whole plasmid was transferred to and retained in E. faecalis OG1RF. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) indicated tetracycline-induced transcription of both the tet(M) and tet(L) genes of pM7M2. The results indicated that multiple mechanisms might have contributed to the persistence of antibiotic resistance-encoding genes and that the plasmids pM7M2, pIP816, and pRE25 are likely correlated evolutionarily. PMID:21784909

  1. Persistent, toxin-antitoxin system-independent, tetracycline resistance-encoding plasmid from a dairy Enterococcus faecium isolate.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinhui; Alvarez, Valente; Harper, Willis James; Wang, Hua H

    2011-10-01

    A tetracycline-resistant (Tet(r)) dairy Enterococcus faecium isolate designated M7M2 was found to carry both tet(M) and tet(L) genes on a 19.6-kb plasmid. After consecutive transfer in the absence of tetracycline, the resistance-encoding plasmid persisted in 99% of the progenies. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the 19.6-kb plasmid contained 28 open reading frames (ORFs), including a tet(M)-tet(L)-mob gene cluster, as well as a 10.6-kb backbone highly homologous (99.9%) to the reported plasmid pRE25, but without an identified toxin-antitoxin (TA) plasmid stabilization system. The derived backbone plasmid without the Tet(r) determinants exhibited a 100% retention rate in the presence of acridine orange, suggesting the presence of a TA-independent plasmid stabilization mechanism, with its impact on the persistence of a broad spectrum of resistance-encoding traits still to be elucidated. The tet(M)-tet(L) gene cluster from M7M2 was functional and transmissible and led to acquired resistance in Enterococcus faecalis OG1RF by electroporation and in Streptococcus mutans UA159 by natural transformation. Southern hybridization showed that both the tet(M) and tet(L) genes were integrated into the chromosome of S. mutans UA159, while the whole plasmid was transferred to and retained in E. faecalis OG1RF. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) indicated tetracycline-induced transcription of both the tet(M) and tet(L) genes of pM7M2. The results indicated that multiple mechanisms might have contributed to the persistence of antibiotic resistance-encoding genes and that the plasmids pM7M2, pIP816, and pRE25 are likely correlated evolutionarily. PMID:21784909

  2. Modification of immune responses and digestive system microbiota of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine(R)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) fed to Holstein and Jersey dairy cows during late lactation (average DIM = 202.44 days on wk-0). Cows were randomized to treatment g...

  3. Soil water response to slope aspect and grazing in silvopasture during drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silvopasture is receiving increasing attention as a robust management system for production of forage for livestock grazing on the diverse landscapes of the Appalachian region. Little knowledge about soil water response to slope aspect and grazing pressure in silvopasture systems of the Region is a...

  4. Relative importance of management, meteorological and environmental factors in the spatial distribution of Fasciola hepatica in dairy cattle in a temperate climate zone.

    PubMed

    Bennema, S C; Ducheyne, E; Vercruysse, J; Claerebout, E; Hendrickx, G; Charlier, J

    2011-02-01

    Fasciola hepatica, a trematode parasite with a worldwide distribution, is the cause of important production losses in the dairy industry. Diagnosis is hampered by the fact that the infection is mostly subclinical. To increase awareness and develop regionally adapted control methods, knowledge on the spatial distribution of economically important infection levels is needed. Previous studies modelling the spatial distribution of F. hepatica are mostly based on single cross-sectional samplings and have focussed on climatic and environmental factors, often ignoring management factors. This study investigated the associations between management, climatic and environmental factors affecting the spatial distribution of infection with F. hepatica in dairy herds in a temperate climate zone (Flanders, Belgium) over three consecutive years. A bulk-tank milk antibody ELISA was used to measure F. hepatica infection levels in a random sample of 1762 dairy herds in the autumns of 2006, 2007 and 2008. The infection levels were included in a Geographic Information System together with meteorological, environmental and management parameters. Logistic regression models were used to determine associations between possible risk factors and infection levels. The prevalence and spatial distribution of F. hepatica was relatively stable, with small interannual differences in prevalence and location of clusters. The logistic regression model based on both management and climatic/environmental factors included the factors: annual rainfall, mowing of pastures, proportion of grazed grass in the diet and length of grazing season as significant predictors and described the spatial distribution of F. hepatica better than the model based on climatic/environmental factors only (annual rainfall, elevation and slope, soil type), with an Area Under the Curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristic of 0.68 compared with 0.62. The results indicate that in temperate climate zones without large climatic and environmental variation, management factors affect the spatial distribution of F. hepatica, and should be included in future spatial distribution models. PMID:20887726

  5. Intravaginal Lactic Acid Bacteria Modulated Local and Systemic Immune Responses and Lowered the Incidence of Uterine Infections in Periparturient Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Qilan; Odhiambo, John F.; Farooq, Umar; Lam, Tran; Dunn, Suzanna M.; Ametaj, Burim N.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to evaluate whether intravaginal infusion of a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) cocktail around parturition could influence the immune response, incidence rate of uterine infections, and the overall health status of periparturient dairy cows. One hundred pregnant Holstein dairy cows were assigned to 1 of the 3 experimental groups as follows: 1) one dose of LAB on wk -2 and -1, and one dose of carrier (sterile skim milk) on wk +1 relative to the expected day of parturition (TRT1); 2) one dose of LAB on wk -2, -1, and +1 (TRT2), and 3) one dose of carrier on wk -2, -1, and +1 (CTR). The LAB were a lyophilized culture mixture composed of Lactobacillus sakei FUA3089, Pediococcus acidilactici FUA3138, and Pediococcus acidilactici FUA3140 with a cell count of 108-109 cfu/dose. Blood samples and vaginal mucus were collected once a week from wk -2 to +3 and analyzed for content of serum total immunoglobulin G (IgG), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and vaginal mucus secretory IgA (sIgA). Clinical observations including rectal temperature, vaginal discharges, retained placenta, displaced abomasum, and laminitis were monitored from wk -2 to +8 relative to calving. Results showed that intravaginal LAB lowered the incidence of metritis and total uterine infections. Intravaginal LAB also were associated with lower concentrations of systemic LBP, an overall tendency for lower SAA, and greater vaginal mucus sIgA. No differences were observed for serum concentrations of Hp, TNF, IL-1, IL-6 and total IgG among the treatment groups. Administration with LAB had no effect on the incidence rates of other transition cow diseases. Overall intravaginal LAB lowered uterine infections and improved local and systemic immune responses in the treated transition dairy cows. PMID:25919010

  6. Feeding strategies and manure management for cost-effective mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms in Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Dutreuil, M; Wattiaux, M; Hardie, C A; Cabrera, V E

    2014-09-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farms are a major concern. Our objectives were to assess the effect of mitigation strategies on GHG emissions and net return to management on 3 distinct farm production systems of Wisconsin. A survey was conducted on 27 conventional farms, 30 grazing farms, and 69 organic farms. The data collected were used to characterize 3 feeding systems scaled to the average farm (85 cows and 127ha). The Integrated Farm System Model was used to simulate the economic and environmental impacts of altering feeding and manure management in those 3 farms. Results showed that incorporation of grazing practices for lactating cows in the conventional farm led to a 27.6% decrease in total GHG emissions [-0.16kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2eq)/kg of energy corrected milk (ECM)] and a 29.3% increase in net return to management (+$7,005/yr) when milk production was assumed constant. For the grazing and organic farms, decreasing the forage-to-concentrate ratio in the diet decreased GHG emissions when milk production was increased by 5 or 10%. The 5% increase in milk production was not sufficient to maintain the net return; however, the 10% increase in milk production increased net return in the organic farm but not on the grazing farm. A 13.7% decrease in GHG emissions (-0.08kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) was observed on the conventional farm when incorporating manure the day of application and adding a 12-mo covered storage unit. However, those same changes led to a 6.1% (+0.04kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) and a 6.9% (+0.06kg of CO2eq/kg of ECM) increase in GHG emissions in the grazing and the organic farms, respectively. For the 3 farms, manure management changes led to a decrease in net return to management. Simulation results suggested that the same feeding and manure management mitigation strategies led to different outcomes depending on the farm system, and furthermore, effective mitigation strategies were used to reduce GHG emissions while maintaining profitability within each farm. PMID:24996278

  7. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving soil health and productivity on grasslands using managed grazing of livestock.

    PubMed

    Russell, J R; Bisinger, J J

    2015-06-01

    Beyond grazing, managed grasslands provide ecological services that may offer economic incentives for multifunctional use. Increasing biodiversity of plant communities may maximize net primary production by optimizing utilization of available light, water, and nutrient resources; enhance production stability in response to climatic stress; reduce invasion of exotic species; increase soil OM; reduce nutrient leaching or loading in surface runoff; and provide wildlife habitat. Strategically managed grazing may increase biodiversity of cool-season pastures by creating disturbance in plant communities through herbivory, treading, nutrient cycling, and plant seed dispersal. Soil OM will increase carbon and nutrient sequestration and water-holding capacity of soils and is greater in grazed pastures than nongrazed grasslands or land used for row crop or hay production. However, results of studies evaluating the effects of different grazing management systems on soil OM are limited and inconsistent. Although roots and organic residues of pasture forages create soil macropores that reduce soil compaction, grazing has increased soil bulk density or penetration resistance regardless of stocking rates or systems. But the effects of the duration of grazing and rest periods on soil compaction need further evaluation. Because vegetative cover dissipates the energy of falling raindrops and plant stems and tillers reduce the rate of surface water flow, managing grazing to maintain adequate vegetative cover will minimize the effects of treading on water infiltration in both upland and riparian locations. Through increased diversity of the plant community with alterations of habitat structure, grazing systems can be developed that enhance habitat for wildlife and insect pollinators. Although grazing management may enhance the ecological services provided by grasslands, environmental responses are controlled by variations in climate, soil, landscape position, and plant community resulting in considerable spatial and temporal variation in the responses. Furthermore, a single grazing management system may not maximize livestock productivity and each of the potential ecological services provided by grasslands. Therefore, production and ecological goals must be integrated to identify the optimal grazing management system. PMID:26115251

  8. Effect of Stocking Rate on Pasture Production, Milk Production, and Reproduction of Dairy Cows in Pasture-Based Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Macdonald; J. W. Penno; J. A. S. Lancaster; J. R. Roche

    2008-01-01

    Ninety-four cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 5 stocking rates (2.2, 2.7, 3.1, 3.7, and 4.3 cows\\/ha) in a completely randomized design for 3 years. Herds were seasonal calving, with only minor differences in grazing management to optimize the profitability of each stock- ingrate(SR).Pastureproductionandqualitydata,milk and milk component data, and reproduction data were collected, averaged for SR treatment, and linear

  9. Implementing electronic identification for performance recording in sheep: I. Manual versus semiautomatic and automatic recording systems in dairy and meat farms.

    PubMed

    Ait-Saidi, A; Caja, G; Salama, A A K; Carné, S

    2014-12-01

    With the aim of assessing the secondary benefits of using electronic identification (e-ID) in sheep farms, we compared the use of manual (M), semiautomatic (SA), and automatic (AU) data-collection systems for performance recording (i.e., milk, lambing, and weight) in 3 experiments. Ewes were identified with visual ear tags and electronic rumen boluses. The M system consisted of visual ear tags, on-paper data recording, and manual data uploading to a computer; the use of a personal digital assistant (PDA) for data recording and data uploading was also done in M. The SA system used a handheld reader (HHR) for e-ID, data recording, and uploading. Both PDA and HHR used Bluetooth for uploading. The AU system was only used for body weight recording and consisted of e-ID, data recording in an electronic scale, and data uploading. In experiment 1, M and SA milk-recording systems were compared in a flock of 48 dairy ewes. Ewes were milked once- (×1, n=24) or twice- (×2, n=24) daily in a 2 × 12 milking parlor and processed in groups of 24. Milk yield (1.21 ± 0.04 L/d, on average) was 36% lower in ×1 than ×2 ewes and milk recording time correlated positively with milk yield (R(2)=0.71). Data transfer was markedly faster for PDA and HHR than for M. As a result, overall milk recording time was faster in SA (×1=12.1 ± 0.6 min/24 ewes; ×2=22.1 ± 0.9 min/24 ewes) than M (×1=14.9 ± 0.6 min/24 ewes; ×2=27.9 ± 1.0 min/24 ewes). No differences between PDA and HHR were detected. Time savings, with regard to M, were greater for ×2 than for ×1 (5.6 ± 0.2 vs. 2.8 ± 0.1 min per 24 ewes, respectively), but similar for PDA and HHR. Data transfer errors averaged 3.6% in M, whereas no errors were found in either SA system. In experiment 2, 73 dairy and 80 meat ewes were monitored at lambing using M and SA. Overall time for lambing recording was greater in M than SA in dairy (1.67 ± 0.06 vs. 0.87 ± 0.04 min/ewe) and meat (1.30 ± 0.03 vs. 0.73 ± 0.03 min/ewe) ewes. Recording errors were greater in dairy (9.6%) than in meat (1.9%) ewes. Data uploading errors only occurred in M (4.9%). In experiment 3, 120 dairy and 120 meat ewes were weighed using M and AU systems. In both flocks, mean BW recording and data uploading times, as well as overall BW recording time (0.63 ± 0.02 and 0.25 ± 0.01 min/ewe, respectively) were greater in M than in AU, and uploading errors only occurred in M (8.8%). In conclusion, HHR and PDA systems were time-effective for performance recording, both saving time and improving data accuracy. Working load and time for ewe identification were faster in HHR but it did not affect the performance recording time. The PDA was the fastest device for data download. Further research will evaluate the costs of implementing e-ID for performance recording and other uses in sheep farms. PMID:25282408

  10. A novel fluorescence reporter system for the characterization of dairy goat mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lizhong; Ren, Caifang; You, Jihao; Fan, Yixuan; Wan, Yongjie; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Feng; Huang, Mingrui

    2015-03-20

    Goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) are a useful model to understand the physiological function of mammary glands and to assess the efficiency of mammary-specific vectors. The aim of this study was to develop an effective and convenient way to evaluate the secretory capacity of GMECs in primary culture. In this study, we developed a reporter system using fluorescent proteins driven by the CSN2 (Capra hircus beta-casein) gene promoter to detect the secretory capacity of GMECs. Additionally, we evaluated the efficiency of the reporter system by determining the expression of cytoskeletal proteins and beta-casein protein. The results suggest that this reporter system provides an easy, convenient and effective method to detect the function of milk synthesis in GMECs. Primary cultures of GMECs were homogeneous and retained the function of milk synthesis, prompting their usefulness as a model for further studies. PMID:25681763

  11. Effect of Different Flooring Systems on Weight and Pressure Distribution on Claws of Dairy Cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Telezhenko; C. Bergsten; M. Magnusson; M. Ventorp; C. Nilsson

    2008-01-01

    Weight and pressure distribution on the claw were studied in Swedish Holsteins housed in different floor- ing systems. A total of 127 cows housed in different sections of the experimental barn were used. Each sec- tion had different flooring in the walking and standing areas. There were rubber mats or abrasive mastic as- phalt flooring on the alleys or a

  12. Soil–plant–animal relations in nutrient cycling: the case of dairy farming system ‘De Marke’

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. van Keulen; H. F. M. Aarts; B. Habekotté; H. G. van der Meer; J. H. J. Spiertz

    2000-01-01

    Forage and ruminant production in Western Europe have increased significantly since World War II. However, in the last decade the livestock production sector has come under increasing pressure as the European Union introduced the milk quota system, effectively curbing total national and individual farm production volume, and national governments increasingly took measures to reduce the losses of nutrients from these

  13. Feed-milk-manure nitrogen relationships in global dairy production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) inputs from fertilizer, feed, and animal manure sustain productive agriculture. Agricultural systems are limited however in their ability to incorporate N into products, and environmental N losses may become local, regional and global concerns. The forecast increases in global demand fo...

  14. Analysis Time and Lactation Stage Influence on Lactoperoxidase System Components in Dairy Ewe Milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Althaus; M. P. Molina; M. Rodríguez; N. Fernández

    2001-01-01

    To study the effect of time elapsed from the moment of taking samples on lactoperoxidase system compo- nents, we analyzed the activity of the lactoperoxidase enzyme and the concentrations of thiocyanate and hy- drogen peroxide in 46 individual samples of Manchega ewe milk. Samples were maintained at a temperature of 4°C until analysis, which took place at 6, 12, 24,

  15. Rheology of dairy custard model systems: Influence of milk -fat and hydrocolloid type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jorge F. Vélez-Ruiz; Luis González-Tomás; Elvira Costell

    2005-01-01

    The influence of milk-fat content and the addition of two types of hydrocolloid (?-carrageenan and a mixture of ?-carrageenan and xanthan gum) on the pasting behaviour, the flow and the viscoelasticity of custard model systems with modified tapioca starch at different concentrations was studied. To evaluate the pasting behaviour, apparent viscosity and temperature data were recorded over time. Flow was

  16. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    PubMed

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead dairy cows. The final model also predicted that increased proportions of dairy cows with clinical mastitis and infertility problems were associated with increased mortality. Finally, an increase in mortality was predicted to be associated with an increase in the proportion of lame or injured permanently removed dairy cows. In general terms, this model identified that mortality was associated with reproductive problems, non-infectious postpartum disease, infectious disease and infectious disease prevention, and information derived from postmortem evaluations. Ultimately, addressing excessive mortality levels requires a concerted effort that recognizes and appropriately manages the numerous and diverse underlying risks. PMID:25721925

  17. Dairy Judging Terminology

    E-print Network

    Hamza, Iqbal

    Dairy Judging Terminology A Guide to Saying What She Is Not What She Isn't! Cooperative Extension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 #12;3 Dairy Judging Terminology A Guide to Saying What She Is and Not What She Isn't W.M. Graves

  18. Commonly Used Antibiotics on Dairies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Kirk; Extension Veterinarian

    A recent survey 1 of dairymen in Minnesota, Michigan, Wisconsin and New York studied the antibiotic use strategies used on nearly 100 conventional and 30 organic dairies. They found that 71% of the dairies kept antibiotic treatment records for lactating dairy cows. Slightly over half of the dairies kept records of treatment of dry-cows and only a third kept records

  19. National Dairy Genetic Evaluation Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The National Dairy Genetic Evaluation Program is a continuation of ongoing USDA collaboration with the U.S. dairy industry on genetic evaluation of dairy cattle since 1908. Data are provided by dairy records processing centers (yield, health, pedigree, and reproduction traits), breed registry societ...

  20. EVALUATING ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF A GRASS-BASED DAIRY FARM IN PENNSYLVANIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass-based dairy farming has long been the mainstay of the dairy industry in the temperate maritime regions of the world such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, and New Zealand. In contrast, U.S. dairy farms are predominantly characterized by confinement feeding systems. However due to increased pro...

  1. Animal Model Evaluation of Dairy Goats for Milk, Fat, and Protein Yields with Crossbred Animals Included

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. R. Wiggans

    1989-01-01

    Genetic evaluation of dairy goats was extended to include evaluation of protein yield and evaluation of Oberhasli and experimental breeds. Diverse genetic background of parents of crossbred ani- mals can be accounted for with an animal model that includes all relationships. The animal model system implemented for dairy goats differed from the one for dairy cattle in that all breeds

  2. The role and function of the Canadian Dairy Commission: an empirical survey on its relevance in

    E-print Network

    Volodin, Andrei

    Commission, marketing boards, Dairy industry, milk products #12;3 Introduction For decades, Canada has the Canadian Dairy Commission Act was created in 1966, the quota system was designed to benefit milk producers and function of the Canadian Dairy Commission: an empirical survey on its relevance in today's civil society Dr

  3. An integrated membrane system for the biocatalytic production of 3'-sialyllactose from dairy by-products.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jianquan; Nordvang, Rune T; Morthensen, Sofie T; Zeuner, Birgitte; Meyer, Anne S; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Pinelo, Manuel

    2014-08-01

    An integrated membrane system was investigated for the production of 3'-sialyllactose by an engineered sialidase using casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP) and lactose as substrates. CGMP was purified by ultrafiltration (UF) to remove any small molecules present and then an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) was used to separate the product and reuse the enzyme. A PLCC regenerated cellulose membrane was found to be the most suitable for both the UF purification and EMR. Subsequently, nanofiltration (NF) was conducted to increase the purity of the 3'-sialyllactose by removing the excess lactose present. The NTR7450 membrane outperformed others in NF due to its high retention of 3'-sialyllactose (98%) and relatively low rejection of lactose (40%). The lactose in the permeate could be concentrated by the NF45 membrane and recycled into the EMR. The described integrated membrane system enables a more economic and efficient enzymatic production of 3'-sialyllactose. PMID:24880807

  4. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

    PubMed Central

    Clark, C. E. F.; Kwinten, N. B. P.; van Gastel, D. A. J. M.; Kerrisk, K. L.; Lyons, N. A.; Garcia, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance. PMID:25049992

  5. Differences in Voluntary Cow Traffic between Holstein and Illawarra Breeds of Dairy Cattle in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System.

    PubMed

    Clark, C E F; Kwinten, N B P; van Gastel, D A J M; Kerrisk, K L; Lyons, N A; Garcia, S C

    2014-04-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) rely upon voluntary cow traffic (the voluntary movement of cattle around a farm) for milk harvesting and feed consumption. Previous research on conventional milking systems has shown differences between dairy cow breeds for intake and milk production, however, the ability to manipulate voluntary cow traffic and milking frequency on AMS farms through breed selection is unknown. This study investigated the effect of breed (Holstein Friesian versus Illawarra) on voluntary cow traffic as determined by gate passes at the Camden AMS research farm dairy facility. Daily data on days in milk, milk yield, gate passes and milking frequency for 158 Holstein Friesian cows and 24 Illawarra cows were collated by month for the 2007 and 2008 years. Illawarra cows had 9% more gate passes/day than Holstein cows over the duration of the study; however, the milking frequency and milk yield of both breeds were similar. Gate passes were greatest for both breeds in early lactation and in the winter (June to August) and summer (December to February) seasons. These findings highlight an opportunity to translate increased voluntary cow movement associated with breed selection into increased milking frequencies, milk production and overall pasture-based AMS performance. PMID:25049992

  6. Grazing alters the net C sink strength and the net global warming potential of a subtropical pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; DeLucia, E. H.; Boughton, E. H.; Keel, E.; Bernacchi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Grazing profoundly affects climate by altering the exchange of greenhouse gases (GHG; CO2 and CH4) between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Little is known about how this disturbance affects the GHG exchange from subtropical pastures although they account for a substantial portion of global grazing lands. Here, we investigated how cattle grazing affect net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and CH4 emissions in subtropical semi-native pasture using the eddy covariance technique. Soil moisture was greater under grazed than ungrazed pastures but soil temperature was similar between treatments. By removing aboveground biomass, grazing reduced gross primary productivity (GPP, 16%). While ungrazed pastures had higher GPP than grazed pastures, they also had higher ecosystem respiration (Re, 20%) along with higher heterotrophic respiration. As a result, annual sums of NEE were similar in grazed and ungrazed pastures and both systems were net sinks for CO2 (-86 ± 5 gC m-2 yr-1 in grazed pasture, and -76 ± 6 gC m-2 yr-1 in ungrazed pasture). Including C removal by grazers in the C budget, grazing reduced the C sink strength (250%) and grazed pasture became a net source of C to the atmosphere. Increased soil wetness and CH4 production from enteric ruminant fermentation enhanced net ecosystem CH4 emissions (16%) in grazed than in ungrazed pastures. The net global warming potential (GWP) was higher (34%) in grazed than in ungrazed pastures, but both systems were net sources of GHGs when accounting for the radiative forcing of CH4. Our results suggest that grazing reduces the net C sink strength and increases the net GWP of subtropical pastures. Improved understanding of how grazing affects ecosystem GHG fluxes is essential to predicting the role of pastures on the global C cycle.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF CATTLE GRAZING ON POCKET GOPHERS IN THE CENTRAL SIERRA NEVADA MOUNTAINS, CALIFORNIA

    E-print Network

    Johnson, Matthew

    ADAM RICH Stanislaus National Forest, Pinecrest, CA 95364 ABSTRACT--Great Gray Owls (Strix nebulosa of the potential effects of grazing in these systems. The Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) is of particular Gopher, cattle grazing, Great Gray Owl, meadows, Mountain Pocket Gopher, Sierra Nevada Mountains, Strix

  8. Changes in grazing areas and feed resources in a dry area of north-eastern Syria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Hirata; Haruhiro Fujita; Akira Miyazaki

    1998-01-01

    Changes in grazing areas and feed resources were described for a dry area of north-eastern Syria, from May 1994 to May 1995, to identify the characteristics of flock movement and the seasonal changes in feed resource utilization, and analyse the main factors which regulate the system of livestock management. The patterns of grazing areas were classified into three main categories

  9. Festuca campestris alters root morphology and growth in response to simulated grazing and nitrogen form

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie E. McInenly; Evelyn H. Merrill; James F. Cahill; Noorallah G. Juma

    Summary 1. Large herbivores are known to spatially concentrate and alter the form of nitrogen (N) in grassland systems, which can modify aboveground plant chemical composition and productiv- ity, and result in shifts in grazing pressure in these areas. Root responses to grazing under high N inputs may facilitate these changes, but their responses are less well understood. 2. We

  10. Non-destructive assessment of cattle forage selection: A test of skim grazing in fescue grassland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darlene M. Moisey; Edward W. Bork; Walter D. Willms

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated a non-destructive scientific method that is non-invasive to the animal, for quantifying foraging selectivity by cattle within heterogeneous pasture swards in order to test the utility of a new grazing system designed to aid conservation of native rough fescue (Festuca campestris Rydb.) rangeland in western Canada. Skim grazing is a recently developed strategy that involves a light,

  11. Temperate grass response to timing of grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing management has a significant impact on pasture growth. We determined how timing of grazing influences grass productivity, yield distribution, and persistence. Meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.], orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), quackgrass [Elymus repens (L.) Gould...

  12. 75 FR 29572 - Information Collection; Grazing Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ...OMB Control Number 1004-0019] Information Collection; Grazing Management AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior...contact Mr. Mayberry. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Grazing Management (43 CFR 4120). OMB Number: 1004-0019....

  13. 43 CFR 9239.3 - Grazing, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.3 Grazing, Alaska. (a) Reindeer. (1) Any use of the Federal lands for reindeer grazing purposes, unless authorized by a valid permit issued in accordance with the...

  14. 43 CFR 9239.3 - Grazing, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.3 Grazing, Alaska. (a) Reindeer. (1) Any use of the Federal lands for reindeer grazing purposes, unless authorized by a valid permit issued in accordance with the...

  15. 43 CFR 9239.3 - Grazing, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.3 Grazing, Alaska. (a) Reindeer. (1) Any use of the Federal lands for reindeer grazing purposes, unless authorized by a valid permit issued in accordance with the...

  16. 43 CFR 9239.3 - Grazing, Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...SERVICES (9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.3 Grazing, Alaska. (a) Reindeer. (1) Any use of the Federal lands for reindeer grazing purposes, unless authorized by a valid permit issued in accordance with the...

  17. Society for Range Management Livestock Grazing, Wildlife

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Mark C.

    Society for Range Management Rangelands Livestock Grazing, Wildlife Habitat, and Rangeland Values Management Livestock Grazing, Wildlife Habitat, and Rangeland Values By Paul R. Krausman, David E. Naugle. Wright livestock and wildlife values should be placed within this broader context. Ranchers

  18. Results from a Grazing Incidence X-Ray Interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joy, Marshall K.; Shipley, Ann; Cash, Webster; Carter, James

    2000-01-01

    A prototype grazing incidence interferometer has been built and tested at EUV and X-ray wavelengths using a 120 meter long vacuum test facility at Marshall Space Flight Center. We describe the design and construction of the interferometer, the EUV and x-ray sources, the detector systems, and compare the interferometric fringe measurements with theoretical predictions. We also describe the next-generation grazing incidence system which is designed to provide laboratory demonstration of key technologies that will be needed for a space-based x-ray interferometer.

  19. Transuterine sperm transport is not affected by bilateral asymmetry of the reproductive system in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    López-Gatius, F

    1997-05-01

    Effects of right versus left side activities of the reproductive organs on sperm transport after deep cornual insemination were evaluated in 1686 Friesian cows in their first lactational period. Only single ovulating animals were used. At insemination, semen was deposited deep into the uterine horn ipsilateral or contralateral to the preovulatory follicle. Pregnancy rates were used as measurement of the success of sperm transport. The reproductive history of each cow included that of the side of the previous gestation. A higher activity of the right versus left side was registered. Following calving and after uterine involution, activities of the right versus left side reproductive organs remained constant independently of the side of previous pregnancy, and did not affect transuterine sperm transport. The data indicate that after uterine involution sperm transport is not affected by bilateral asymmetry of the reproductive system in cattle. PMID:16728079

  20. Effect of different flooring systems on weight and pressure distribution on claws of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Telezhenko, E; Bergsten, C; Magnusson, M; Ventorp, M; Nilsson, C

    2008-05-01

    Weight and pressure distribution on the claw were studied in Swedish Holsteins housed in different flooring systems. A total of 127 cows housed in different sections of the experimental barn were used. Each section had different flooring in the walking and standing areas. There were rubber mats or abrasive mastic asphalt flooring on the alleys or a low-abrasive slatted concrete floor. Some sections had feed-stalls equipped with rubber mats; other sections did not. The vertical ground reaction force, contact area, and average contact pressure were determined on the left hind foot using the I-Scan system and analyzed with the F-scan system. These determinations were made in each of the following 3 zones of the claw: bulb, wall, and sole. Most of the weight on claws exposed to concrete floors was carried by the bulb (37.4 +/- 3.5 and 18.3 +/- 2.9% of weight exerted on the foot in the lateral and medial claw, respectively) and the wall zone (20.0 +/- 2.6 and 13.4 +/- 2.4% on lateral and medial claw, respectively). The weight and pressure distribution in cows kept on sections with rubber covered alleys but passing daily over the asphalt floor on their way to the milking parlor did not differ in any zones, except for lateral bulbs, compared with those exposed to slatted concrete alone. Still, the weight bearing of the sole zone in cows kept on rubber mats without access to asphalt was less than that of cows kept on concrete slatted floors (5.1 +/- 0.7 vs. 12.7 +/- 1.1% and 1.1 +/- 0.5 vs. 8.7 +/- 0.7% in lateral and medial claws, respectively). In cows kept on asphalt flooring without feed-stalls, most weight was exerted to the sole zone (36.2 +/- 2.9 and 22.2 +/- 1.8% in lateral and medial claws, respectively). Feed-stalls in combination with asphalt flooring yielded a decreased total contact area (30.1 +/- 1.2 cm(2)) compared with asphalt floors without feed-stalls (35.7 +/- 1.2 cm(2)). The largest total contact area was obtained on the asphalt floor without feed-stalls, resulting in a lower contact pressure (39.8 +/- 2.3 N/cm(2)) than in claws exposed to concrete (66.0 +/- 2.7 N/ cm(2)) or rubber mats (56.7 +/- 1.7 N/cm(2)). In conclusion, housing with abrasive floors resulted in claws with increased contact area at the sole surface and therefore, decreased contact pressure, but reduced the weight-bearing role of the strongest part of the claw capsule, the claw wall. PMID:18420618

  1. Reframing the Grazing Debate: Evaluating Ecological Sustainability

    E-print Network

    Sisk, Thomas D.

    of livestock grazing in bioregional food production and the effect of that grazing on ecological sustainability estimates of meat production and water use in Arizona. To address the latter, we present data from a longReframing the Grazing Debate: Evaluating Ecological Sustainability and Bioregional Food Production

  2. 25 CFR 168.8 - Grazing fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing fees. 168.8 Section 168.8 ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.8 Grazing fees. (a) The rental...

  3. 36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grazing activities. 292.48 Section 292...Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.48 Grazing activities. The following standards and guidelines apply to domestic livestock grazing activities on Other Lands, Wild...

  4. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN...CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such...

  5. 25 CFR 700.709 - Grazing privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.709 Grazing...Indian Relocation in Flagstaff, Arizona. This list is composed of individuals eligible for New Lands grazing permits who: ...relocate from the HPL on to a New Lands range unit. Individuals...

  6. A coordinated research programme to develop methodologies for an integrated approach to improve small scale market oriented dairy systems in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Perera, B M A O

    2007-12-01

    A five-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) entitled 'Integrated approach for improving small scale market oriented dairy systems' is currently being implemented by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency, through their Joint Programme on 'Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture'. The objectives are to (a) identify and prioritize the constraints and opportunities in the selected dairy farms; (b) determine the most important limiting factors; (c) develop intervention strategies; (c) assess the economic impact of the interventions; (d) develop methodologies for recording and demonstrating the economic impact; and (e) promote the adoption and dissemination of proven strategies and methodologies. Fifteen institutes in developing as well as developed countries are participating in the project, through ten research contracts (Bangladesh, Cameroon, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Tunisia and Venezuela), one technical contract (Peru) and four research agreements (Malaysia, U.K., U.S.A. and Uruguay). The initial phase of the project, which focused on the conduct of Participatory Rural Appraisals and Economic Opportunity Surveys in the countries of the research contract holders, has now been completed. This paper describes the background to the CRP approach and the procedures used for developing, initiating and implementing this project. PMID:18265863

  7. Grazing Systems for Profitable Ranching 

    E-print Network

    Hanselka, C. Wayne; Ragsdale, Bobby; Rector, Barron S.

    2000-05-03

    in his operation to overcome the ?cost price squeeze? of livestock production. Increasing costs force the rancher to risk over-capitalization on each animal unit owned. Profit depends upon the managerial ability of the operator, who must produce livestock... with protein, energy and mineral supplementation. Range forage production is an integral part of profitable ranching and the quantity and harvest of forage produced are depend- ent upon knowledge of sound range management. An estimated 75 percent of the 107...

  8. Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Dairy Dilemma Dairy Dilemma Are You Getting Enough Calcium? You may be avoiding dairy products because of ... But dairy products are a major source of calcium, vitamin D and other nutrients that are important ...

  9. 7 CFR 1170.4 - Dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING...4 Dairy products. Dairy Products means: (a) Manufactured dairy products that are used...Class III and Class IV milk under a Federal...

  10. 7 CFR 1170.4 - Dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING...4 Dairy products. Dairy Products means: (a) Manufactured dairy products that are used...Class III and Class IV milk under a Federal...

  11. 7 CFR 1150.112 - Dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy...Definitions § 1150.112 Dairy products. Dairy products means products...derived from the processing of milk, and includes fluid...

  12. 7 CFR 1170.4 - Dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING...4 Dairy products. Dairy Products means: (a) Manufactured dairy products that are used...Class III and Class IV milk under a Federal...

  13. 7 CFR 1150.112 - Dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy...Definitions § 1150.112 Dairy products. Dairy products means products...derived from the processing of milk, and includes fluid...

  14. 7 CFR 1170.4 - Dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING...4 Dairy products. Dairy Products means: (a) Manufactured dairy products that are used...Class III and Class IV milk under a Federal...

  15. 7 CFR 1150.112 - Dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MILK), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy...Definitions § 1150.112 Dairy products. Dairy products means products...derived from the processing of milk, and includes fluid...

  16. 7 CFR 1150.112 - Dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy...Definitions § 1150.112 Dairy products. Dairy products means products...derived from the processing of milk, and includes fluid...

  17. 7 CFR 1150.112 - Dairy products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy...Definitions § 1150.112 Dairy products. Dairy products means products...derived from the processing of milk, and includes fluid...

  18. 75 FR 72785 - Dairy Industry Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ...Committee (Dairy Committee) to discuss farm milk price volatility and dairy farmer profitability...Dairy Committee reviews issues of farm milk price volatility and dairy farmer profitability...Dairy Committee is to: Discuss farm milk price volatility and dairy farmer...

  19. GRAZING PERFORMANCE OF HAIR SHEEP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lambs from three diallel mating plans (Dorset-St. Croix, n=140; Rambouillet-Gulf Coast, n=80; Katahdin-Suffolk, n=78) and a terminal-cross mating plan (Suffolk-sired from Dorset, St. Croix, and reciprocal-cross ewes, n=100) were used to evaluate postweaning grazing performance of traditional meat br...

  20. Preparing Dairy Technologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sliva, William R.

    1977-01-01

    The size of modern dairy plant operations has led to extreme specialization in product manufacturing, milk processing, microbiological analysis, chemical and mathematical computations. Morrisville Agricultural and Technical College, New York, has modernized its curricula to meet these changes. (HD)

  1. Parasites and parasite management practices of organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota.

    PubMed

    Sorge, U S; Moon, R D; Stromberg, B E; Schroth, S L; Michels, L; Wolff, L J; Kelton, D F; Heins, B J

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence and practices used to manage internal helminth parasites and external arthropod parasites on organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota. All organic (ORG) dairy herds in Minnesota (n=114) and a convenience sample of conventional herds were invited to participate in the study. Thirty-five ORG herds and 28 conventional herds were visited once in summer and fall of 2012. Conventional dairy herds were split into small conventional (SC,<200 cows) and medium-sized conventional herds (MC, ?200 cows) so that SC herds were comparable in size to the ORG herds. Dairy managers were surveyed to assess their farm management practices and perceptions about parasites, hygiene scores were recorded for adult stock, and fecal samples were collected from a nominal 20 breeding-age heifers to characterize abundance of internal parasites. Nonparametric tests were used to compare fecal egg counts per gram (FEC) among farms grouped by management systems and practices. Organic farms had more designated pasture and were more likely to use rotational grazing compared with conventional farms, but the stocking densities of animals on pasture were similar among farm types. The overall FEC were very low, and only a few individual ORG heifers had FEC >500 eggs/gram. Samples from heifers on ORG farms had significantly more strongyle-type eggs than those on SC and MC farms (ORG: 6.6±2.1; SC: 0.5±0.3; MC: 0.8±0.7), but egg counts of other types of gastrointestinal parasites did not differ significantly among the 3 herd groups. Fly control measures were applied mainly to milking cows and preweaned calves and were used on 88.6% of ORG herds, 60.0% of SC herds, and 91.7% of MC herds. Approximately half of the producers reported having seen skin conditions suggestive of lice or tail mange in their cattle during the previous winter (ORG: 48.6%, SC: 57.1%, MC: 53.9%). Although most conventional producers reported treating these skin conditions, most organic producers stated they had not treated them. In conclusion, gastrointestinal parasite egg counts were low overall at the time of the survey, and most surveyed producers did not perceive gastrointestinal parasites to be a problem for their animals' health. Independent of the herd type, fly control was mostly targeted at the lactating herd and preweaned calves. PMID:25726119

  2. Dairy Center Aerial 

    E-print Network

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    21 percent between 1924-57, the 42-percent Texas milksheds comprising 86 counties. About 60 increase in production per cow resulted in a 12- percent of the milk sold by Texas dairy farmers was percent net increase in total milk production. Cash... marketed under federal order regulations. Indica- receipts to Texas farmers from marketing of dairy tions are that the importance of federal orders in products increased from 26 to 140 million dollars in marketing milk by Texas farmers will increase con...

  3. Grazing sericea lespedeza for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in lambs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternatives to chemical dewormers are needed to counter anthelmintic resistance and improve organic management systems. The objective was to examine the effectiveness of grazing sericea lespedeza (SL) compared with grass pastures for control of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) in lambs. In Experi...

  4. Biodegradability evaluation of dairy effluents originated in selected sections of dairy production.

    PubMed

    Janczukowicz, W; Zieli?ski, M; Debowski, M

    2008-07-01

    Main goal of the study was present the results of some respirometric measurements of activated sludge biodegrading the substrate in the wastewater originated in selected sections of the dairy processing line. The following dairy production effluents were analyzed in the research: the pumping station wastewater (combined wastewater from all the sections of the dairy factory), the apparatus room wastewater, the butter section wastewater, the milk reception point wastewater, the cheese section wastewater and the cottage cheese section wastewater. Apart from that, sweet and sour whey, which are secondary products of hard cheese and cottage cheese production, respectively, was the subject of the research. The amount of organic matter being oxidized during a 5-day measurement session was calculated on 1g of the activated sludge biomass. The research was conducted at the temperature of 20 degrees C and 35 degrees C at the applied sludge loading rate of A'=0.2 g BOD g(-1) dry mass d(-1), which ensured complete biodegradation. The results indicated a correlation between a technological process of dairy processing, an ultimate outcome of which was the wastewater analyzed, and dairy wastewater biodegradability. The results confirmed that all dairy processing effluents can be treated together, with the exception of whey, whose complex biodegradation demands may cause too much burden to any wastewater treatment technological system and thus should be managed within a separate installation. PMID:17976980

  5. Response of Organic and Inorganic Carbon and Nitrogen to Long-Term Grazing of the Shortgrass Steppe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean D. Reeder; Gerald E. Schuman; Jack A. Morgan; Daniel R. LeCain

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the influence of long-term (56 years) grazing on organic and inorganic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents of the plant–soil system (to 90 cm depth) in shortgrass steppe of northeastern Colorado. Grazing treatments included continuous season-long (May–October) grazing by yearling heifers at heavy (60–75% utilization) and light (20–35% utilization) stocking rates, and nongrazed exclosures. The heavy stocking rate

  6. Recommended Amounts of Total dairy

    Cancer.gov

    Recommended Amounts of Total dairy Table B15. Total dairy: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake above

  7. Dairy cow cleanliness and milk quality on organic and conventional farms in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Kathryn A; Innocent, Giles T; Mihm, Monika; Cripps, Peter; McLean, W Graham; Howard, C Vyvyan; Grove-White, Dai

    2007-08-01

    A subjective cow cleanliness scoring system was validated and used to assess the cleanliness score of dairy cows at different times in the year. A longitudinal study followed a number of farms from summer to winter, and a larger, cross-sectional study assessed a greater number of farms during the housed winter period. The scoring system was demonstrated to be both a repeatable and practical technique to use on-farm and showed that cows become dirtier in the transition from summer grazing to winter housing. Although farming system (organic or conventional) had no effect on cow cleanliness when cows were at grass, when housed in the winter, organic cows were significantly more likely to be cleaner. There was a link between cow cleanliness scores and milk quality, with herds having lower bulk tank somatic cell counts (BTSCC) tending to have a lower (cleaner) median cow cleanliness score; with this relationship strongest for the organic herds. There was no significant link between cleanliness score and Bactoscan (BS) count or clinical mastitis incidence. No major mastitis pathogens were cultured from bulk tank milk samples from the quartile of herds with the cleanest cows in contrast to the quartile of herds with the dirtiest cows, where significant mastitis pathogens were cultured. Based on this study, all farms, especially organic systems, should attempt to keep cows clean as part of subclinical mastitis control. PMID:17451622

  8. Increased concentration of water-soluble carbohydrate in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.): milk production from late-lactation dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Miller; J. M. Moorby; D. R. Davies; M. O. Humphreys; N. D. Scollan; J. C. MacRae; M. K. Theodorou

    2001-01-01

    Eight multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in late lactation were used to investigate the potential of using perennial ryegrass with a high concentration of water- soluble carbohydrate (WSC) to increase the efficiency of milk production. After a pretreatment period on a common pasture, the cows were each given ad libitum access to one of two varieties of zero-grazed grass continuously for

  9. Grazing Management in Broadleaf Forests

    E-print Network

    Norbu, Lungten

    2002-01-01

    with only a small number of milking cows. The unproductive animals be slaughtered according to Buddhist culture and beliefs. Plans and strategy should be in place to introduce improved breeds and reduce the number of cattle in the herds. Foresters... based on the utilization of native forests by domestic animals, and it is a common type of use in the Mediterranean region (Bland and Auclair, 1996; Etienne, 1996). However, opinions on grazing as a forest management function are divided. Many...

  10. Aberrations for Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    2008-01-01

    Large number of grazing incidence telescope configurations have been designed and studied. Wolte1 telescopes are commonly used in astronomical applications. Wolter telescopes consist of a paraboloidal primary mirror and a hyperboloidal or an ellipsoidal secondary mirror. There are 8 possible combinations of Wolter telescopes. Out of these possible designs only type 1 and type 2 telescopes are widely used. Type 1 telescope is typically used for x-ray applications and type 2 telescopes are used for EUV applications. Wolter-Schwarzshild (WS) telescopes offer improved image quality over a small field of view. The WS designs are stigmatic and free of third order coma and, therefore, the PSF is significantly better over a small field of view. Typically the image is more symmetric about its centroid. As for the Wolter telescopes there are 8 possible combinations of WS telescopes. These designs have not been widely used because the surface equations are complex parametric equations complicating the analysis and typically the resolution requirements are too low to take full advantage of the WS designs. There are several other design options. Most notable are wide field x-ray telescope designs. Polynomial designs were originally suggested by Burrows4 and hyperboloid-hyperboloid designs for solar physics applications were designed by Harvey5. No general aberration theory exists for grazing incidence telescopes that would cover all the design options. Several authors have studied the aberrations of grazing incidence telescopes. A comprehensive theory of Wolter type 1 and 2 telescopes has been developed. Later this theory was expanded to include all possible combinations of grazing incidence and also normal incidence paraboloid-hyperboloid and paraboloid-ellipsoid telescopes. In this article the aberration theory of Wolter type telescopes is briefly reviewed.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of nisin, reuterin, and the lactoperoxidase system on Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in cuajada, a semisolid dairy product manufactured in Spain.

    PubMed

    Arqués, J L; Rodríguez, E; Nuñez, M; Medina, M

    2008-01-01

    The inhibitory activity of nisin (N), reuterin (R), and the lactoperoxidase system (LPS), added individually or in combination, against Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in "cuajada" (curdled milk), a semisolid dairy product manufactured in Spain. Cuajada was manufactured from UHT skim milk separately inoculated with L. monocytogenes and Staph. aureus, each at approximately 4 log cfu/mL, and held under conditions of temperature abuse (10 degrees C). On d 3, a synergistic bactericidal activity was observed for the combinations of biopreservatives assayed, with L. monocytogenes counts of only 0.30 log cfu/mL in cuajada made with N + R + LPS vs. 8.31 log cfu/mL in control cuajada. After 12 d, L. monocytogenes could not be detected in cuajada made with added N + LPS or N + R + LPS. Staphylococcus aureus was more resistant than L. monocytogenes to biopreservatives added individually. On d 3, the synergistic effect of the 3 biopreservatives against Staph. aureus resulted in counts of 3.03 log cfu/mL in cuajada made with N + R + LPS vs. 6.40 in control cuajada. After 12 d, Staph. aureus counts were 2.61 log cfu/mL in cuajada made with N + R + LPS, whereas they ranged from 6.11 to 7.70 log cfu/mL in control cuajada and in cuajada made with other combinations of biopreservatives. The most pronounced decrease in pathogen counts was achieved by the triple combination N + R + LPS, which acted synergistically on the inactivation of L. monocytogenes and Staph. aureus in cuajada over 12 d at 10 degrees C. The treatment combining these 3 natural biopreservatives at low concentrations, within the hurdle concept of food preservation, might be a useful tool to control the growth of pathogenic microorganisms in nonacidified dairy products. PMID:18096926

  12. Contribution of family labour to the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy production systems in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Posadas-Domínguez, Rodolfo Rogelio; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel; Martínez-Castañeda, Francisco Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the effect of family labour on the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy farms in the highlands of Central Mexico. Economic data from 37 farms were analysed from a stratified statistical sampling with a Neyman assignment. Three strata were defined taking herd size as criterion. Stratum 1: herds from 3 to 9 cows plus replacements, Stratum 2: herds from 10 to 19 cows and Stratum 3: herds from 20 to 30 cows. The policy analysis matrix was used as the method to determine profitability and competitiveness. The coefficient of private profitability (CPP) when the economic cost of family labour is included in the cost structure was 8.0 %, 31.0 % and 46.0 %. When the economic cost of family labour is not included, CPP increase to 47.0 %, 57.0 % and 66.0 % for each strata, respectively. The private cost ratio (PCR) when family labour is included was 0.79, 0.51 and 0.42 for strata 1, 2 and 3, respectively. When family labour is not included, the PCR was 0.07, 0.25 and 0.26. Net profit per litre of milk including family labour was US$0.03 l(-1) for Stratum 1, US$0.09 for Stratum 2 and US$0.12 l(-1) for Stratum 3; but increased to $0.12, 0.14 and 0.15, respectively, when the economic cost of family labour is not included. It is concluded that family labour is a crucial factor in the profitability and competitiveness of small-scale dairy production. PMID:24097246

  13. Using Simulation to Interpret a Discrete Time Survival Model in a Complex Biological System: Fertility and Lameness in Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Christopher D.; Huxley, Jonathan N.; Green, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    The ever-growing volume of data routinely collected and stored in everyday life presents researchers with a number of opportunities to gain insight and make predictions. This study aimed to demonstrate the usefulness in a specific clinical context of a simulation-based technique called probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) in interpreting the results of a discrete time survival model based on a large dataset of routinely collected dairy herd management data. Data from 12,515 dairy cows (from 39 herds) were used to construct a multilevel discrete time survival model in which the outcome was the probability of a cow becoming pregnant during a given two day period of risk, and presence or absence of a recorded lameness event during various time frames relative to the risk period amongst the potential explanatory variables. A separate simulation model was then constructed to evaluate the wider clinical implications of the model results (i.e. the potential for a herd’s incidence rate of lameness to influence its overall reproductive performance) using PSA. Although the discrete time survival analysis revealed some relatively large associations between lameness events and risk of pregnancy (for example, occurrence of a lameness case within 14 days of a risk period was associated with a 25% reduction in the risk of the cow becoming pregnant during that risk period), PSA revealed that, when viewed in the context of a realistic clinical situation, a herd’s lameness incidence rate is highly unlikely to influence its overall reproductive performance to a meaningful extent in the vast majority of situations. Construction of a simulation model within a PSA framework proved to be a very useful additional step to aid contextualisation of the results from a discrete time survival model, especially where the research is designed to guide on-farm management decisions at population (i.e. herd) rather than individual level. PMID:25101997

  14. Using simulation to interpret a discrete time survival model in a complex biological system: fertility and lameness in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Christopher D; Huxley, Jonathan N; Green, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    The ever-growing volume of data routinely collected and stored in everyday life presents researchers with a number of opportunities to gain insight and make predictions. This study aimed to demonstrate the usefulness in a specific clinical context of a simulation-based technique called probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) in interpreting the results of a discrete time survival model based on a large dataset of routinely collected dairy herd management data. Data from 12,515 dairy cows (from 39 herds) were used to construct a multilevel discrete time survival model in which the outcome was the probability of a cow becoming pregnant during a given two day period of risk, and presence or absence of a recorded lameness event during various time frames relative to the risk period amongst the potential explanatory variables. A separate simulation model was then constructed to evaluate the wider clinical implications of the model results (i.e. the potential for a herd's incidence rate of lameness to influence its overall reproductive performance) using PSA. Although the discrete time survival analysis revealed some relatively large associations between lameness events and risk of pregnancy (for example, occurrence of a lameness case within 14 days of a risk period was associated with a 25% reduction in the risk of the cow becoming pregnant during that risk period), PSA revealed that, when viewed in the context of a realistic clinical situation, a herd's lameness incidence rate is highly unlikely to influence its overall reproductive performance to a meaningful extent in the vast majority of situations. Construction of a simulation model within a PSA framework proved to be a very useful additional step to aid contextualisation of the results from a discrete time survival model, especially where the research is designed to guide on-farm management decisions at population (i.e. herd) rather than individual level. PMID:25101997

  15. BACTERIAL POPULATION STRUCTURE OF DAIRY WASTEWATERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High intensity dairy farms produce large amounts of liquid waste that is stored in waste water holding lagoons. The use of circulators to treat waste water is becoming common, and vendors claim that these systems reduce odors, pathogen levels, and alter the chemistry of the waste water such that it ...

  16. Characteristics of Stratified Bedded Pack Dairy Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Compost" dairy barns are a relatively new housing system that generates a deep (0.9 to 1.5 m), stratified bedded pack (SBP) manure source. Bedding composed of sawdust, wood chips, or crop residues accumulates as additions are made to maintain a dry surface. Surface drying is promoted by a combinati...

  17. Biological treatment of dairy plant wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Samkutty; R. H. Gough; P. McGrew

    1996-01-01

    The influent and effluent wastewaters of a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment system used by a dairy processing plant were evaluated over a two?month period. Pollution parameters measured were biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total solids (TS), and pH. Viable biomass of the samples was determined by adenosine triphosphate (ATP), measured in

  18. Weed selection by sheep grazing dryland lucerne

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Pérez; A. de Vega; I. Delgado; Y. Pueyo

    Diet selection by sheep grazing dryland lucerne with a high proportion of weeds was assessed in two consecutive years (2005\\/2006). The study was performed on 2.66 ha of pasture divided in two homogeneous paddocks subjected to a stocking rate of either 10 or 20 sheep\\/paddock, and grazed for 17 days. Before and after each grazing trial, an inventory was conducted

  19. Methane emissions from beef cattle grazing on semi-natural upland and improved lowland grasslands.

    PubMed

    Richmond, A S; Wylie, A R G; Laidlaw, A S; Lively, F O

    2015-01-01

    In ruminants, methane (CH4) is a by-product of digestion and contributes significantly to the greenhouse gas emissions attributed to agriculture. Grazed grass is a relatively cheap and nutritious feed but herbage species and nutritional quality vary between pastures, with management, land type and season all potentially impacting on animal performance and CH4 production. The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and compare CH4 emissions from cattle of dairy and beef origin grazing two grassland ecosystems: lowland improved grassland (LG) and upland semi-natural grassland (UG). Forty-eight spring-born beef cattle (24 Holstein-Friesian steers, 14 Charolais crossbred steers and 10 Charolais crossbred heifers of 407 (s.d. 29), 469 (s.d. 36) and 422 (s.d. 50) kg BW, respectively), were distributed across two balanced groups that grazed the UG and LG sites from 1 June to 29 September at stocking rates (number of animals per hectare) of 1.4 and 6.7, respectively. Methane emissions and feed dry matter (DM) intake were estimated by the SF6 tracer and n-alkane techniques, respectively, and BW was recorded across three experimental periods that reflected the progression of the grazing season. Overall, cattle grazed on UG had significantly lower (P<0.001) mean daily DM intake (8.68 v. 9.55 kg/day), CH4 emissions (176 v. 202 g/day) and BW gain (BWG; 0.73 v. 1.08 kg/day) than the cattle grazed on LG but there was no difference (P>0.05) in CH4 emissions per unit of feed intake when expressed either on a DM basis (20.7 and 21.6 g CH4 per kg DM intake for UG and LG, respectively) or as a percentage of the gross energy intake (6.0% v. 6.5% for UG and LG, respectively). However, cattle grazing UG had significantly (P<0.001) greater mean daily CH4 emissions than those grazing LG when expressed relative to BWG (261 v. 197 g CH4/kg, respectively). The greater DM intake and BWG of cattle grazing LG than UG reflected the poorer nutritive value of the UG grassland. Although absolute rates of CH4 emissions (g/day) were lower from cattle grazing UG than LG, cattle grazing UG would be expected to take longer to reach an acceptable finishing weight, thereby potentially off-setting this apparent advantage. Methane emissions constitute an adverse environmental impact of grazing by cattle but the contribution of cattle to ecosystem management (i.e. promoting biodiversity) should also be considered when evaluating the usefulness of different breeds for grazing semi-natural or unimproved grassland. PMID:25167210

  20. Food intake of grazing ruminants with emphasis on Mediterranean grazing lands

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Food intake of grazing ruminants with emphasis on Mediterranean grazing lands AS Nastis R Cordesse Zootechnie Méditerranéenne, Place Viala, Montpellier, France Summary - Mediterranean grazing lands provide the main difficulty is diet sampling and diet digestibility. The interest of indicators is discussed

  1. 76 FR 80329 - Information Collection; Grazing Permit Administration Forms

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ...Forest Service Information Collection; Grazing Permit Administration Forms AGENCY: Forest...currently approved information collection, Grazing Permit Administration Forms. DATES...SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Grazing Permit Administration Forms. OMB...

  2. 25 CFR 700.719 - Establishment of grazing fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 false Establishment of grazing fees. 700.719 Section 700.719 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.719 Establishment of grazing fees. The Commissioner may establish a...

  3. 25 CFR 166.400 - Who establishes grazing rental rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who establishes grazing rental rates? 166.400 Section 166.400 ...AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment...

  4. 25 CFR 700.713 - Tenure of grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tenure of grazing permits. 700.713 Section 700.713 Indians...OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.713 Tenure of grazing permits. (a) All active regular...

  5. 25 CFR 166.305 - When is grazing capacity determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is grazing capacity determined? 166.305 ...DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.305 When is grazing capacity determined? Before...

  6. Track way distance and cover as risk factors for lameness in Danish dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Burow, E; Thomsen, P T; Rousing, T; Sørensen, J T

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of length and cover of track ways between barn and pasture on lameness in Danish dairy cows. We hypothesised that short track distances would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows compared to longer distances and that track ways with prepared cover (asphalt, gravel, slag, concrete, rubber) compared to no prepared cover (sand, soil and/or grass) would be associated with a lower lameness probability of dairy cows in grazing herds. In total, 2084 dairy cows from 36 herds, grazing their dairy cows during summer, were individually assessed for their lameness status. The cows were further clinically examined for claw conformation and hock integument. Information on breed and parity per cow and size per herd was extracted from a national data base. Track way distance ranged from 0 to 700 m and was categorised as (1) <165 m or (2) ?165 m. Cover of track way was categorised as (1) prepared (asphalt, gravel, slag, concrete, and/or rubber), (2) partly prepared or (3) not prepared (soil, sand, grass) for the surface of the majority of tracks used. The effect of track way distance and cover was evaluated for their impact on lameness using logistic analysis with a multi-level model structure. The probability for lameness did not change with track distance but increased with no (odds 4.0 times higher) or only partly prepared (odds 3.8 times higher) cover compared to prepared cover. In conclusion, we found that having a cover on the track way was associated with decreased severe lameness in Danish dairy cows. PMID:24387936

  7. Investigation of the vitamins A and E and beta-carotene content in milk from UK organic and conventional dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Kathryn A; Monteiro, Ana; Innocent, Giles T; Grove-White, Dai; Cripps, Peter; McLean, W Graham; Howard, C Vyvyan; Mihm, Monika

    2007-11-01

    During a 12-month longitudinal study, bulk-tank milk was collected from organic (n=17) and conventional (n=19) dairy farms in the UK. Milk samples were analysed for vitamin A (retinol), vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) and beta-carotene content. The farming system type, herd production level and nutritional factors affecting the milk fat vitamin content were investigated by use of mixed model analyses. Conventionally produced milk fat had a higher mean content of vitamin A than organically produced milk fat, although there were no significant differences in the vitamin E or beta-carotene contents between the two types of milk fat. Apart from farming system, other key factors that affected milk fat vitamin content were season, herd yield and concentrate feeding level. Milk vitamin content increased in the summer months and in association with increased concentrate feeding, whilst higher-yielding herds had a lower milk vitamin E and beta-carotene content. Thus, conventional dairy farms in the UK produced milk with a higher vitamin A content, possibly owing to increased vitamin A supplementation in concentrate feeds. However, knowledge of the effects of season, access to fresh grazing or specific silage types and herd production level may also be used by all producers and processors to enhance the vitamin content in milk. PMID:17922933

  8. Influence of dry period length on reproductive performance and productivity of Lacaune dairy sheep under an intensive management system.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Fernando; Elvira, Laura; Gonzalez-Martin, Juan-Vicente; Astiz, Susana

    2012-08-01

    Intensive management is almost the only way to ensure dairy farm profitability. The dry period length (DPL) is a key factor in the productivity and health of dairy cows, but whether the same is true of dairy sheep is unclear. This study investigated the effects of DPL on the performance of Lacaune sheep under intensive management. We recorded 8136 lactations from 4220 ewes on one farm for the period 2005-2010, and data from a total of 6762 complete lactations 1-4 were included in the study. The length of the dry period following the current lactation was studied. The larger the total milk yield (MY) and daily milk yield (DMY), the shorter was the DPL before the next lactation. DPL correlated with MY (r=-0·384), DMY (r=-0·277) and the lambing-to-conception interval (LC; r=0·201, P<0·0001) in the global analysis of all lactations (lactations 1-4). The influence of previous-DPL (P-DPL), or the length of the period prior to the start of the next lactation, was studied for 4318 lactations. P-DPL was classified into five intervals: very short (P-DPL-XS), 1-30 d; short (P-DPL-S), 31-60 d; medium (P-DPL-M), 61-90 d; long (P-DPL-L), 91-120 d; and very long (P-DPL-XL), >120 d. P-DPL positively correlated with lambing-to-next conception interval (LNC; r=0·095, P<0·0001) for lactations 1-4. LNC was significantly shorter for P-DPLs that were very short, short, or long (P-PDL-XS, 144·2±67·8 d; P-PDL-S, 149·1±57·2 d; P-PDL-L, 152·0±53·7 d) than for groups with very long or medium P-PDLs (P-DPL-XL, 161·5±62·9 d; P-DPL-M, 169·0±74·8 d; P<0·0001). Moreover, P-DPLs that were very short, long, or very long were associated with the lowest milk yields (P-PDL-XS, 377±215 l; P-PDL-l, 370±168 l; P-PDL-XL, 396±196 l). These yields were significantly lower than the yields for short and medium P-DPLs (P-DPL-S, 432±187 l; P-DPL-M, 436±191 l; P<0·0001) when averages of lactations 1-4 were analysed. These results indicate that lactations with larger MY are followed by a shorter dry period, and that a dry period of 30-90 d leads to larger yields in the next lactation. The best LNC was associated with the shortest Previous-DPL. Hence, 30-60 d should be the optimal dry period length for Lacaune sheep under intensive conditions. PMID:22850582

  9. Dairy Cattle Nutrition Home

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Pennsylvania State University Department of Dairy and Animal Science provides this site, which contains over 20 full text extension publications (circulars, charts, and tables) in the areas of dairy cattle nutrition, feed management and forage quality. Pertinent slide shows, fourteen nutritional value of forage and concentrate tables, and a growth chart and weight table populate this site. On the lighter side, visitors can download cow images (with explanations of how to turn them into computer wallpaper), and interactive "cow cards" to send to their friends. This is an excellent resource for agricultural extension faculty or agents.

  10. Factors associated with the financial performance of spring-calving, pasture-based dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Ramsbottom, G; Horan, B; Berry, D P; Roche, J R

    2015-05-01

    As land becomes a limiting resource for pasture-based dairy farming, the inclusion of purchased supplementary feeds to increase milk production per cow (through greater dry matter intake) and per hectare (through increased stocking rate) is often proposed as a strategy to increase profitability. Although a plausible proposition, virtually no analysis has been done on the effect of such intensification on the profitability of commercial pasture-based dairy farm businesses. The objective of this study was to characterize the average physical and financial performance of dairy systems differing in the proportion of the cow's diet coming from grazed pasture versus purchased supplementary feeds over 4 yr, while accounting for any interaction with geographic region. Physical, genetic, and financial performance data from 1,561 seasonal-calving, pasture-based dairy farms in Ireland were available between the years 2008 and 2011; data from some herds were available for more than 1 yr of the 4-yr study period, providing data from 2,759 dairy farm-years. The data set was divided into geographic regions, based on latitude, rainfall, and soil characteristics that relate to drainage; these factors influence the length of the pasture growth season and the timing of turnout to pasture in spring and rehousing in autumn. Farms were also categorized by the quantity of feed purchased; farms in which cows received <10, 11-20, 21-30, or >30% of their annual feed requirements from purchased feed were considered to be categories representative of increasing levels of system intensification. Geographic region was associated with differences in grazing days, pasture harvested per hectare, milk production per cow and per hectare, and farm profitability. Farms in regions with longer grazing seasons harvested a greater amount of pasture [an additional 19kg of dry matter (DM)/ha per grazing day per hectare], and greater pasture harvested was associated with increased milk component yield per hectare (58.4kg of fat and 51.4kg of protein more per tonne of DM pasture harvested/ha) and net profit per hectare (€268/ha more per tonne of DM harvested). Milk yield and yield of milk components per cow and per hectare increased linearly with increased use of purchased feed (additional 30.6kg of milk fat and 26.7kg of milk protein per tonne of DM purchased feed per hectare), but, on average, pasture harvested/hectare and net profit/hectare declined (-0.60 t of DM/ha and -€78.2/ha, respectively) with every tonne of DM supplementary feed purchased per hectare. The results indicate an effect of purchased feeds not usually accounted for in marginal economic analyses (e.g., milk to feed price ratio): the decline in pasture harvested/hectare, with the costs of producing the unutilized pasture in addition to the cost of feed resulting in a lower profit. In conclusion, greater milk component yields per cow were associated with increased profit per hectare, and a greater use of purchased feeds was associated with an increase in the yield of milk components. However, on average, increasing yield of milk components through the supply of purchased feeds to pasture-based cows was associated with a decline in pasture harvested per hectare and profitability. The decline in pasture harvested per hectare with increased use of purchased supplements per cow is probably the primary reason for the low milk production response and the failure to capitalize on the potential benefits of purchased supplements, with the associated costs of growing the unutilized pasture, in conjunction with increased nonfeed variable and fixed costs outweighing the increased milk production and revenue from supplementation. Farmers considering intensification through use of purchased supplements to increase the stock-carrying capacity of the farm (i.e., stocking rate) must ensure that they focus on management of pasture and total cost control to capture the potential benefits of supplementary feed use. PMID:25747836

  11. 2015 National Dairy Leadership Scholarship Program

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    2015 National Dairy Leadership Scholarship Program Sponsored by the National Milk Producers and be actively pursuing dairy-related research of immediate interest to NMPF member cooperatives and the US dairy Health Animal and/or Human Nutrition Bovine Genetics Dairy Products Processing Dairy Science Economics

  12. Spatial and Temporal Alterations on Carbon and Water Cycles Due to Grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimowicz, M. M.; Brunsell, N. A.; Ham, J. M.

    2009-05-01

    Grasslands are vital in the carbon cycle, as large amounts of carbon are stored in the soils of the prairie. As climate change affects the carbon cycle, it is essential for the agricultural communities to understand the impacts of these changes on farming practices such as grazing and meat production. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of grazing on the carbon cycle by characterizing the surface boundary layer of both a grazed field and an ungrazed field. Data were collected from open path eddy covariance systems over Rannells Flint Hills Prairie Preserve in north-central Kansas, one over an ungrazed field and one over a grazed field. Cospectra of fluxes of CO2, heat, water, and momentum for July 2007 were compared to assess the size of eddies contributing energy to each field. For CO2, the cospectra for both the ungrazed and the ungrazed field were similar. For all of the other fluxes, lower frequency eddies contributed more energy in the grazed field than the ungrazed field. By using a footprint model, the contributing source areas were determined for fluxes from May through October of 2007. The grazed field had a larger distance of contribution in both stable and unstable atmospheric conditions. Implications of this study include the alterations on fields and impacts on the carbon and water cycles as a result of grazing.

  13. Grazed riparian management and stream channel response in southeastern Minnesota (USA) streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magner, J.A.; Vondracek, B.; Brooks, K.N.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service has recommended domestic cattle grazing exclusion from riparian corridors for decades. This recommendation was based on a belief that domestic cattle grazing would typically destroy stream bank vegetation and in-channel habitat. Continuous grazing (CG) has caused adverse environmental damage, but along cohesive-sediment stream banks of disturbed catchments in southeastern Minnesota, short-duration grazing (SDG), a rotational grazing system, may offer a better riparian management practice than CG. Over 30 physical and biological metrics were gathered at 26 sites to evaluate differences between SDG, CG, and nongrazed sites (NG). Ordinations produced with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated a gradient with a benthic macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI) and riparian site management; low IBI scores associated with CG sites and higher IBI scores associated with NG sites. Nongrazed sites were associated with reduced soil compaction and higher bank stability, as measured by the Pfankuch stability index; whereas CG sites were associated with increased soil compaction and lower bank stability, SDG sites were intermediate. Bedrock geology influenced NMS results: sites with carbonate derived cobble were associated with more stable channels and higher IBI scores. Though current riparian grazing practices in southeastern Minnesota present pollution problems, short duration grazing could reduce sediment pollution if managed in an environmentally sustainable fashion that considers stream channel response. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  14. Some factors affecting change in botanical composition in a ryegrass-white clover pasture under continuous grazing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Harris; R. W. Brougham

    1968-01-01

    Differences in botanical composition of swards obtained from a sowing of Lolium perenne, Lolium perenne × L. multifiorum, and Trifolium repens following six years of management under three different grazing treatments were studied.The swards that developed under Lax and Moderate grazing systems were virtually pure stands of the sown species, namely, the ryegrasses and white clover. In the swards that

  15. Use of Ground-Based LiDAR to Assess Potential Sediment Loss from Stream Banks in Grazed Pastures.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal grazing on lands near streams has the potential to contribute sediment and nutrients to surface waters. To minimize the impact, we must understand the effects of grazing systems on stream bank erosion. In this study, we used six 12-ha grass pastures that were each bisected by a 141-m stream s...

  16. Development of a novel clinical scoring system for on-farm diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease in pre-weaned dairy calves

    PubMed Central

    Love, William J.; Lehenbauer, Terry W.; Kass, Philip H.; Van Eenennaam, Alison L.

    2014-01-01

    Several clinical scoring systems for diagnosis of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) in calves have been proposed. However, such systems were based on subjective judgment, rather than statistical methods, to weight scores. Data from a pair-matched case-control study on a California calf raising facility was used to develop three novel scoring systems to diagnose BRD in preweaned dairy calves. Disease status was assigned using both clinical signs and diagnostic test results for BRD-associated pathogens. Regression coefficients were used to weight score values. The systems presented use nasal and ocular discharge, rectal temperature, ear and head carriage, coughing, and respiratory quality as predictors. The systems developed in this research utilize fewer severity categories of clinical signs, require less calf handling, and had excellent agreement (Kappa > 0.8) when compared to an earlier scoring system. The first scoring system dichotomized all clinical predictors but required inducing a cough. The second scoring system removed induced cough as a clinical abnormality but required distinguishing between three levels of nasal discharge severity. The third system removed induced cough and forced a dichotomized variable for nasal discharge. The first system presented in this study used the following predictors and assigned values: coughing (induced or spontaneous coughing, 2 points), nasal discharge (any discharge, 3 points), ocular discharge (any discharge, 2 points), ear and head carriage (ear droop or head tilt, 5 points), fever (?39.2°C or 102.5°F, 2 points), and respiratory quality (abnormal respiration, 2 points). Calves were categorized “BRD positive” if their total score was ?4. This system correctly classified 95.4% cases and 88.6% controls. The second presented system categorized the predictors and assigned weights as follows: coughing (spontaneous only, 2 points), mild nasal discharge (unilateral, serous, or watery discharge, 3 points), moderate to severe nasal discharge (bilateral, cloudy, mucoid, mucopurlent, or copious discharge, 5 points), ocular discharge (any discharge, 1 point), ear and head carriage (ear droop or head tilt, 5 points), fever (?39.2°C, 2 points), and respiratory quality (abnormal respiration, 2 points). Calves were categorized “BRD positive” if their total score was ?4. This system correctly classified 89.3% cases and 92.8% controls. The third presented system used the following predictors and scores: coughing (spontaneous only, 2 points), nasal discharge (any, 4 points), ocular discharge (any, 2 points), ear and head carriage (ear droop or head tilt, 5 points), fever (?39.2°C, 2 points), and respiratory quality (abnormal respiration, 2 points). Calves were categorized “BRD positive” if their total score was ?5. This system correctly classified 89.4% cases and 90.8% controls. Each of the proposed systems offer few levels of clinical signs and data-based weights for on-farm diagnosis of BRD in dairy calves. PMID:24482759

  17. Test-retest repeatability of the National Animal Health monitoring system dairy heifer health report in New York and Pennsylvania, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. N. Erb; A. J. Heinrichs; R. E. Woods; W. M. Sischo

    1996-01-01

    We did a test-retest study on 21 farms to assess the repeatability of the Dairy Heifer Health Report of the National Dairy Heifer Evaluation Project. The median retest interval was 42 days (range 14–63 days), retest interviewers were blinded as to responses on the first visits, and all date-specific questions were anchored to the dates of the first tests. The

  18. Grazing incidence optics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 3, 4, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osantowski, John F. (editor); Van Speybroeck, Leon (editor)

    1986-01-01

    Papers are presented on the diffraction-limited performance of grazing incidence optical systems; transverse ray aberrations of Wolter type 1 telescopes; hybrid X-ray telescope systems; surface characterization of grazing incidence optics in the extreme UV and X-ray regions; and the surface roughness properties of synchrotron radiation optics. Topics discussed include the simulation of free-abrasive grinding of grazing incidence mirrors with vertical-honing and flexible blades; mirrors for the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer; the design and development of conical X-ray imaging mirrors; thermal loading considerations for synchrotron radiation mirrors; and grazing incidence optics for synchrotron radiation insertion-device beams. Consideration is given to the interpretation of glancing incidence scattering measurements; damage processes in short wavelength coated FEL optics; the replication of grain incidence optics; and the assembly and alignment of the Technology Mirror Assembly.

  19. HISPANIC DAIRY PRODUCTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hispanic-style cheeses and other dairy products are increasing in popularity in the U.S., prompting research into the chemical basis for their characteristics. Variations in Hispanic-style cheeses arise from differences in their processing parameters, which allow the properties of the cheese to ran...

  20. Hierarchy of factors affecting behavioural signs used for oestrus detection of Holstein and Normande dairy cows in a seasonal calving system.

    PubMed

    Cutullic, Erwan; Delaby, Luc; Causeur, David; Michel, Guillaume; Disenhaus, Catherine

    2009-07-01

    As oestrous expression of dairy cows has decreased over the last decades oestrus detection has become more difficult. The objective of this study is to identify the main factors that affect oestrus detection in seasonal calving dairy cows, and to establish their relative importance. In each of 5 years 36 Normande and 36 Holstein cows were assigned to a Low or High winter-feeding level group. Half of each group was then assigned to a Low or High pasture-feeding group. The Low-Low strategy resulted in the lowest milk yield and the greatest body condition (BC) loss from calving to nadir BC score (6302 kg; -0.98 unit). The High-High strategy had the converse effect (7549 kg; -0.75 units). Low-High and High-Low strategies had intermediate values. The Normande cows had lower milk yield and BC loss than Holstein cows (6153 kg versus 7620 kg; -0.82 unit versus -1.20 unit). A database of 415 observed spontaneous oestruses was created. Oestruses were classified according to detection signs: (1) standing to be mounted, (2) mounting without standing, (3) other signs without standing or mounting (slight signs). Presence of another cow in oestrus, access to pasture, Normande breed and Low-Low strategy increased standing detection. In the Normande breed, 97% of oestruses were detected by standing while combining the presence of a herdmate in oestrus and access to pasture with a milk production of less than 6550 kg. Holstein cows had a higher frequency of slight signs oestruses than Normande ones, which was associated with a decreased subsequent calving rate (P<0.05). In multiparous Holstein cows, the odds of slight signs detection was multiplied by 7.8 for the High-High group in comparison with the Low-Low group (P<0.05). In our study milk yield had an effect on oestrus detection which was not explained by BC loss. As High-High cows produced more milk than others, we logically found that an increase in milk yield increased slight signs detection. Conversely, as they lost less BC than others, BC loss improved the chance of standing or mounting detection. These two results show that an increase in milk yield may reduce oestrous behaviour even if BC loss is moderate. Oestrus detection is crucial in seasonal compact calving systems. High phenotypic milk yields appear unsuitable with such systems in regard to depressed oestrous behaviour. PMID:18771863

  1. Ammonia emission from grassland and livestock production systems in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ryden, J C; Whitehead, D C; Lockyer, D R; Thompson, R B; Skinner, J H; Garwood, E A

    1987-01-01

    Emissions of ammonia were measured from livestock excreta and fertilisers applied to grass swards, from grazed paddocks, from decomposing grass herbage and from an animal house containing dairy cows. Emissions from urine, dung, slurry and fertilisers were determined using a system of wind tunnels with each tunnel covering an area of 1 m(2). Emissions from grazed swards were determined using a micrometeorological mass balance method. From the results of these measurements, together with other published information, an inventory for ammonia emissions has been calculated for grassland and livestock production systems over the UK as a whole. It is estimated that emissions from grassland and cattle and sheep production amount to about 230 kt NH(3)-N annually, while emissions from pig and poultry production amount to about 40 kt and 80 kt NH(3)-N, respectively. PMID:15092683

  2. The Effects of Livestock Grazing and Recreation on Irish Machair Grassland Vegetation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cooper; T. McCann; E. Ballard

    2005-01-01

    Machair grassland uniquely occurs over sandy, calcareous soils of coastal sand-plains in dune systems of north-western Scotland and Ireland. This study assesses the plant species composition of Irish machair grassland at a landscape-scale. Machair sites were sampled with quadrats and multivariate analysis was used to assess relationships between species abundance, soil physical variables, livestock grazing and recreation activity. Grazing by

  3. Dairy animal welfare: current and needed research.

    PubMed

    Albright, J L

    1987-12-01

    Of 25 milestones in dairy animal welfare, 10 were linked to laws and regulations, 9 to research, education, and development, 4 to books and publications, and 2 to human error (accidents). Animal rightists have attacked the dairy industry because of farm conditions, bovine somatotropin, overproduction of milk, dairy lobbies, and advertising of milk products. Evidence from Europe suggests that animal welfare has been largely promoted as a sociopolitical issue by nonagriculturalists. Codes, guidelines, and recommendations are well-established for northern Europe. The American Veterinary Medical Association Animal Welfare Committee has prepared the pamphlet on food animal welfare and addressed specific bovine welfare issues in its guide for veal calf care and production. From 1978 to 1986, only four US experiment station projects were concerned with dairy animal welfare. Needed research includes studying learned helplessness; analysis and economics of alternative husbandry systems for veal calves (and cows) freestall design and surfaces; and shade, cooling, and misting of mangers and holding pens prior to entering the parlor. Alert caretakers are encouraged to read behavior signals of cattle. Increased standing of cattle is often taken now as a sign of discomfort or discontent in studies of cow and calf confinement. Criteria that should be considered in assessing welfare or well-being are behavior, health, musculoskeletal soundness, productivity, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and reproduction. PMID:3329200

  4. Freeze concentration of dairy products Phase 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Best, D.E.; Vasavada, K.C.

    1993-09-01

    An efficient, electrically driven freeze concentration system offers potential for substantially increasing electricity demand while providing the mature dairy industry with new products for domestic and export markets together with enhanced production efficiencies. Consumer tests indicate that dairy products manufactured from freeze-concentrated ingredients are either preferred or considered equivalent in quality to fresh milk-based products. Economic analyses indicate that this technology should be competitive with thermal evaporation processes on a commercial basis.

  5. The economic effects of whole-herd versus selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Charlier, J; Levecke, B; Devleesschauwer, B; Vercruysse, J; Hogeveen, H

    2012-06-01

    Current control practices against gastrointestinal nematodes in dairy cows rely strongly on anthelmintic use. To reduce the development of anthelmintic resistance or disposition of drug residues in the environment, novel control approaches are currently proposed that target anthelmintic treatment to individual animals instead of the whole herd. However, such selective treatment strategies come with additional costs for labor and diagnostics and, so far, no studies have addressed whether they could be economically sustainable. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the economic effects at farm level of whole-herd versus more selective anthelmintic treatment strategies in adult dairy cows, and (2) determine how these economic effects depend on level of infection and herd size. A Monte Carlo simulation, fed by current epidemiological and economical knowledge, was used to estimate the expected economic effects and possible variation of different control strategies under Belgian conditions. Four treatment strategies were compared with a baseline situation in which no treatments were applied: whole herd at calving (S1), selective at calving with (S2) or without (S3) treatment of the first-calf cows, and whole-herd when animals are moved from grazing to the barn in the fall (housing treatment, S4). The benefit per lactation for an average dairy herd varied between -$2 and $131 (average $64) for S1, between -$2 and $127 (average $62) for S2, between -$17 and $104 (average $43) for S3, and between -$41 and $72 (average $15) for S4. The farmer's risk associated with any treatment strategy, as indicated by the width of the 95% credible intervals of economic benefit of anthelmintic treatment, decreased with increasing level of exposure, as assessed by bulk tank milk ELISA. The order of the different strategies when sorted by expected benefit was robust to changes in economic input parameters. We conclude that, on average, strategies applying anthelmintic treatment at calving outperform a strategy applying treatment at housing. Within the strategies that applied treatment at calving, more selective treatment strategies can be economically sustainable. However, given the large variation in possible benefits within each treatment strategy, decision support systems are needed to account for the multitude of cow, epidemiological, and economic factors that determine the economics of nematode control and select the optimal treatment strategy for a specific farm. PMID:22612935

  6. Effects of an evaporative cooling system on plasma cortisol, IGF-I, and milk production in dairy cows in a tropical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titto, Cristiane Gonçalves; Negrão, João Alberto; Titto, Evaldo Antonio Lencioni; Canaes, Taissa de Souza; Titto, Rafael Martins; Pereira, Alfredo Manuel Franco

    2013-03-01

    Access to an evaporative cooling system can increase production in dairy cows because of improved thermal comfort. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of ambient temperature on thermoregulation, plasma cortisol, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), and productive status, and to determine the efficiency of an evaporative cooling system on physiological responses under different weather patterns. A total of 28 Holstein cows were divided into two groups, one with and the other without access to a cooling system with fans and mist in the free stall. The parameters were analyzed during morning (0700 hours) and afternoon milking (1430 hours) under five different weather patterns throughout the year (fall, winter, spring, dry summer, and rainy summer). Rectal temperature (RT), body surface temperature (BS), base of tail temperature (TT), and respiratory frequency (RF) were lower in the morning ( P < 0.01). The cooling system did not affect RT, and both the groups had values below 38.56 over the year ( P = 0.11). Cortisol and IGF-I may have been influenced by the seasons, in opposite ways. Cortisol concentrations were higher in winter ( P < 0.05) and IGF-I was higher during spring-summer ( P < 0.05). The air temperature and the temperature humidity index showed positive moderate correlations to RT, BS, TT, and RF ( P < 0.001). The ambient temperature was found to have a positive correlation with the physiological variables, independent of the cooling system, but cooled animals exhibited higher milk production during spring and summer ( P < 0.01).

  7. Effects of an evaporative cooling system on plasma cortisol, IGF-I, and milk production in dairy cows in a tropical environment.

    PubMed

    Titto, Cristiane Gonçalves; Negrão, João Alberto; Titto, Evaldo Antonio Lencioni; Canaes, Taissa de Souza; Titto, Rafael Martins; Pereira, Alfredo Manuel Franco

    2013-03-01

    Access to an evaporative cooling system can increase production in dairy cows because of improved thermal comfort. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of ambient temperature on thermoregulation, plasma cortisol, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), and productive status, and to determine the efficiency of an evaporative cooling system on physiological responses under different weather patterns. A total of 28 Holstein cows were divided into two groups, one with and the other without access to a cooling system with fans and mist in the free stall. The parameters were analyzed during morning (0700 hours) and afternoon milking (1430 hours) under five different weather patterns throughout the year (fall, winter, spring, dry summer, and rainy summer). Rectal temperature (RT), body surface temperature (BS), base of tail temperature (TT), and respiratory frequency (RF) were lower in the morning (P < 0.01). The cooling system did not affect RT, and both the groups had values below 38.56 over the year (P = 0.11). Cortisol and IGF-I may have been influenced by the seasons, in opposite ways. Cortisol concentrations were higher in winter (P < 0.05) and IGF-I was higher during spring-summer (P < 0.05). The air temperature and the temperature humidity index showed positive moderate correlations to RT, BS, TT, and RF (P < 0.001). The ambient temperature was found to have a positive correlation with the physiological variables, independent of the cooling system, but cooled animals exhibited higher milk production during spring and summer (P < 0.01). PMID:22580965

  8. Eaten Out of House and Home: Impacts of Grazing on Ground-Dwelling Reptiles in Australian Grasslands and Grassy Woodlands

    PubMed Central

    Howland, Brett; Stojanovic, Dejan; Gordon, Iain J.; Manning, Adrian D.; Fletcher, Don; Lindenmayer, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1) density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2) grass structure and reptiles (i.e. abundance, richness, diversity and occurrence) across 18 grassland and grassy Eucalyptus woodland properties in south-eastern Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between kangaroo density and grass structure after controlling for tree canopy cover. We therefore used grass structure as a surrogate for grazing intensity. Changes in grazing intensity (i.e. grass structure) significantly affected reptile abundance, reptile species richness, reptile species diversity, and the occurrence of several ground-dwelling reptiles. Reptile abundance, species richness and diversity were highest where grazing intensity was low. Importantly, no species of reptile was more likely to occur at high grazing intensities. Legless lizards (Delma impar, D. inornata) were more likely to be detected in areas subject to moderate grazing intensity, whereas one species (Hemiergis talbingoensis) was less likely to be detected in areas subject to intense grazing and three species (Menetia greyii, Morethia boulengeri, and Lampropholis delicata) did not appear to be affected by grazing intensity. Our data indicate that to maximize reptile abundance, species richness, species diversity, and occurrence of several individual species of reptile, managers will need to subject different areas of the landscape to moderate and low grazing intensities and limit the occurrence and extent of high grazing. PMID:25501680

  9. Response of organic and inorganic carbon and nitrogen to long-term grazing of the shortgrass steppe.

    PubMed

    Reeder, Jean D; Schuman, Gerald E; Morgan, Jack A; Lecain, Daniel R

    2004-04-01

    We investigated the influence of long-term (56 years) grazing on organic and inorganic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents of the plant-soil system (to 90 cm depth) in shortgrass steppe of northeastern Colorado. Grazing treatments included continuous season-long (May-October) grazing by yearling heifers at heavy (60-75% utilization) and light (20-35% utilization) stocking rates, and nongrazed exclosures. The heavy stocking rate resulted in a plant community that was dominated (75% of biomass production) by the C4 grass blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), whereas excluding livestock grazing increased the production of C3 grasses and prickly pear cactus (Opuntia polycantha). Soil organic C (SOC) and organic N were not significantly different between the light grazing and nongrazed treatments, whereas the heavy grazing treatment was 7.5 Mg ha(-1) higher in SOC than the nongrazed treatment. Lower ratios of net mineralized N to total organic N in both grazed compared to nongrazed treatments suggest that long-term grazing decreased the readily mineralizable fraction of soil organic matter. Heavy grazing affected soil inorganic C (SIC) more than the SOC. The heavy grazing treatment was 23.8 Mg ha(-1) higher in total soil C (0-90 cm) than the nongrazed treatment, with 68% (16.3 Mg ha(-1)) attributable to higher SIC, and 32% (7.5 Mg ha(-1)) to higher SOC. These results emphasize the importance in semiarid and arid ecosystems of including inorganic C in assessments of the mass and distribution of plant-soil C and in evaluations of the impacts of grazing management on C sequestration. PMID:15453402

  10. Eaten out of house and home: impacts of grazing on ground-dwelling reptiles in Australian grasslands and grassy woodlands.

    PubMed

    Howland, Brett; Stojanovic, Dejan; Gordon, Iain J; Manning, Adrian D; Fletcher, Don; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1) density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2) grass structure and reptiles (i.e. abundance, richness, diversity and occurrence) across 18 grassland and grassy Eucalyptus woodland properties in south-eastern Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between kangaroo density and grass structure after controlling for tree canopy cover. We therefore used grass structure as a surrogate for grazing intensity. Changes in grazing intensity (i.e. grass structure) significantly affected reptile abundance, reptile species richness, reptile species diversity, and the occurrence of several ground-dwelling reptiles. Reptile abundance, species richness and diversity were highest where grazing intensity was low. Importantly, no species of reptile was more likely to occur at high grazing intensities. Legless lizards (Delma impar, D. inornata) were more likely to be detected in areas subject to moderate grazing intensity, whereas one species (Hemiergis talbingoensis) was less likely to be detected in areas subject to intense grazing and three species (Menetia greyii, Morethia boulengeri, and Lampropholis delicata) did not appear to be affected by grazing intensity. Our data indicate that to maximize reptile abundance, species richness, species diversity, and occurrence of several individual species of reptile, managers will need to subject different areas of the landscape to moderate and low grazing intensities and limit the occurrence and extent of high grazing. PMID:25501680

  11. Creep Grazing for Suckling Calves - A Pasture Management Practice1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. C. Newman; D. E. Mayo; J. Vendramini; C. G. Chambliss

    Selling additional pounds of calf is a desirable objective in any beef cattle enterprise. One way to do this in a cow-calf operation is through creep grazing. Creep grazing is the use of high quality forage that only calves have access to while grazing with their mothers during the time before weaning. Creep grazing is also one way of using

  12. Grazing Incidence Optics for X-rays Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipley, Ann; Zissa, David; Cash, Webster; Joy, Marshall

    1999-01-01

    Grazing incidence mirror parameters and constraints for x-ray interferometry are described. We present interferometer system tolerances and ray trace results used to define mirror surface accuracy requirements. Mirror material, surface figure, roughness, and geometry are evaluated based on analysis results. We also discuss mirror mount design constraints, finite element analysis, environmental issues, and solutions. Challenges associated with quantifying high accuracy mirror surface quality are addressed and test results are compared with theoretical predictions.

  13. Ecology of eutrophic waterbodies in a coastal grazing marsh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amanda J. Samuels; C. F. Mason

    1997-01-01

    The ecology of a mainly interconnected, complex system of smallwater-bodies on a coastal grazing marsh in the Greater Thames estuary,north-east of London, England, is described. Sixteen sites were sampled on aregular basis over a two-year period while 37 sites were sampled once in Mayto develop a site classification. Most sites were brackish and alkaline but,following re-wetting after drying out, the

  14. Carbon and nitrogen removal from a wastewater of an industrial dairy laboratory with a coupled anaerobic filter-sequencing batch reactor system.

    PubMed

    Garrido, J M; Omil, F; Arrojo, B; Méndez, R; Lema, J M

    2001-01-01

    A set of two reactors, an Anaerobic Filter (AF) of 12 m3 and a Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) of 28 m3, coupled in series, were used to treat the wastewaters from an industrial milk analysis laboratory. The characteristics of these effluents are similar to those discharged by dairy factories (average values around 10 kg COD/m3 and 0.20 kg N/m3). These wastewaters were produced as the result of the final mixture of the analysed milk samples, with a very high organic load, and other low strength effluents, such as sewage and other minor liquid streams generated in the laboratory. Two microbial growth inhibitors, sodium azide and chloramphenicol, were systematically added to the milk before its analysis. Preliminary results have shown that these compounds did apparently not inhibit the methanogenic activity of the anaerobic sludge. Toxicity determination, using the Microtox method, resulted in EC50 values for the wastewaters of 20 g/L, whereas the final effluent from the SBR was non toxic. A maximum OLR of 8 kg COD/m3.d was treated in the AF, being the maximum OLR in the SBR around 1.5-2 kg COD/m3.d. During operation, the soluble COD of the final effluent from the SBR was usually below 200 mg/L, and total nitrogen (mainly nitrate) below 10 mg N/L. Assimilation of nitrogen for growth and nitrification-denitrification were the main mechanisms of nitrogen removal from the wastewater. In the anaerobic system between 50-85% of the organic matter was converted into methane, being the remaining COD and most of the nitrogen removed in the suspended culture system. Overall COD removal in the treatment system was 98% and the nitrogen removal up to 99%. The combination of the AF and the SBR was advantageous resulting in a lower energy consumption and sludge generation in the treatment system. PMID:11381913

  15. Herds of methane chambers grazing bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinham, Alistair; Dunbabin, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Water to air methane emissions from freshwater reservoirs can be dominated by sediment bubbling (ebullitive) events. Previous work to quantify methane bubbling from a number of Australian sub-tropical reservoirs has shown that this can contribute as much as 95% of total emissions. These bubbling events are controlled by a variety of different factors including water depth, surface and internal waves, wind seiching, atmospheric pressure changes and water levels changes. Key to quantifying the magnitude of this emission pathway is estimating both the bubbling rate as well as the areal extent of bubbling. Both bubbling rate and areal extent are seldom constant and require persistent monitoring over extended time periods before true estimates can be generated. In this paper we present a novel system for persistent monitoring of both bubbling rate and areal extent using multiple robotic surface chambers and adaptive sampling (grazing) algorithms to automate the quantification process. Individual chambers are self-propelled and guided and communicate between each other without the need for supervised control. They can maintain station at a sampling site for a desired incubation period and continuously monitor, record and report fluxes during the incubation. To exploit the methane sensor detection capabilities, the chamber can be automatically lowered to decrease the head-space and increase concentration. The grazing algorithms assign a hierarchical order to chambers within a preselected zone. Chambers then converge on the individual recording the highest 15 minute bubbling rate. Individuals maintain a specified distance apart from each other during each sampling period before all individuals are then required to move to different locations based on a sampling algorithm (systematic or adaptive) exploiting prior measurements. This system has been field tested on a large-scale subtropical reservoir, Little Nerang Dam, and over monthly timescales. Using this technique, localised bubbling zones on the water storage were found to produce over 50,000 mg m-2 d-1 and the areal extent ranged from 1.8 to 7% of the total reservoir area. The drivers behind these changes as well as lessons learnt from the system implementation are presented. This system exploits relatively cheap materials, sensing and computing and can be applied to a wide variety of aquatic and terrestrial systems.

  16. Restoration of the fire-grazing interaction in Artemisia filifolia shrubland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winter, S.L.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Goad, C.L.; Davis, C.A.; Hickman, K.R.; Leslie, David M., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of landscape heterogeneity are crucial to the maintenance of biodiversity in shrublands and grasslands, yet management practices in these ecosystems typically seek to homogenize landscapes. Furthermore, there is limited understanding of how the interaction of ecological processes, such as fire and grazing, affects patterns of heterogeneity at different spatial scales. We conducted research in Artemisia filifolia (Asteraceae) shrublands located in the southern Great Plains of North America to determine the effect of restoring the fire-grazing interaction on vegetation structure. Data were collected for 3years in replicated pastures grazed by cattle Bos taurus where the fire-grazing interaction had been restored (fire and grazing=treatment pastures) and in pastures that were grazed but remained unburned (grazing only, no fire=control pastures). The effect of the fire-grazing interaction on heterogeneity (variance) of vegetation structure was assessed at scales from 12??5m 2 to 609ha. Most measurements of vegetation structure within treatment pastures differed from control pastures for 1-3years after being burned but were thereafter similar to the values found in unburned control pastures. Treatment pastures were characterized by a lower amount of total heterogeneity and a lower amount of heterogeneity through time. Heterogeneity of vegetation structure tended to decrease as the scale of measurement increased in both treatment and control pastures. There was deviation from this trend, however, in the treatment pastures that exhibited much higher heterogeneity at the patch scale (mean patch size=202ha) of measurement, the scale at which patch fires were conducted. Synthesis and applications.Vegetation structure in A. filifolia shrublands of our study was readily altered by the fire-grazing interaction but also demonstrated substantial resilience to these effects. The fire-grazing interaction also changed the total amount of heterogeneity characterizing this system, the scale at which heterogeneity in this system was expressed and the amount of heterogeneity expressed through time. Land managers seeking to impose a shifting mosaic of heterogeneity on this vegetation type can do so by restoring the fire-grazing interaction with potential conservation benefits similar to what has been achieved in other ecosystems where historic cycles of disturbance and rest have been restored. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Ecology ?? 2011 British Ecological Society.

  17. Interactive effects of grazing and burning on wind- and water-driven sediment fluxes: rangeland management implications.

    PubMed

    Field, Jason P; Breshears, David D; Whicker, Jeffrey J; Zou, Chris B

    2011-01-01

    Rangelands are globally extensive, provide fundamental ecosystem services, and are tightly coupled human-ecological systems. Rangeland sustainability depends largely on the implementation and utilization of various grazing and burning practices optimized to protect against soil erosion and transport. In many cases, however, land management practices lead to increased soil erosion and sediment fluxes for reasons that are poorly understood. Because few studies have directly measured both wind and water erosion and transport, an assessment of how they may differentially respond to grazing and burning practices is lacking. Here, we report simultaneous, co-located estimates of wind- and water-driven sediment transport in a semiarid grassland in Arizona, USA, over three years for four land management treatments: control, grazed, burned, and burned + grazed. For all treatments and most years, annual rates of wind-driven sediment transport exceeded that of water due to a combination of ongoing small but nontrivial wind events and larger, less frequent, wind events that generally preceded the monsoon season. Sediment fluxes by both wind and water differed consistently by treatment: burned + grazed > burned > grazed > or = control, with effects immediately apparent after burning but delayed after grazing until the following growing season. Notably, the wind:water sediment transport ratio decreased following burning but increased following grazing. Our results show how rangeland practices disproportionally alter sediment fluxes driven by wind and water, differences that could potentially help explain divergence between rangeland sustainability and degradation. PMID:21516885

  18. Nitrogen and phosphorus use efficiencies in dairy production in china.

    PubMed

    Bai, Z H; Ma, L; Oenema, O; Chen, Q; Zhang, F S

    2013-07-01

    Milk production has greatly increased in China recently, with significant impacts on the cycling of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). However, nutrient flows within the changing dairy production system are not well quantified. The aim of this study was to increase the quantitative understanding of N and P cycling and utilization in dairy production through database development and simulation modeling. In 2010, of the entire 1987 and 346 thousand tons (Gg) of N and P input, only 188 Gg N and 31 Gg P ended up in milk. The average N and P use efficiencies were 24 and 25%, respectively, at the whole system level. Efficiencies differed significantly between the four dairy systems. Losses of N from these systems occurred via NH volatilization (33%), discharge (27%), denitrification (24%), NO leaching and runoff (16%), and NO emission (1%). Industrial feedlots use less feed per kg milk produced than traditional systems, and rely more on high-quality feed from fertilized cropland; they have very poor recycling of manure nutrients to cropland. As industrial feedlot systems are booming, overall mean N and P use efficiencies will increase at herd level but will decrease at the whole dairy production system level unless manure N and P are used more efficiently through reconnecting China's feed and dairy production sectors. PMID:24216351

  19. Persistency of the effect of long-term administration of a whey protein gel composite of soybean and linseed oils on performance and milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. van Vuuren; P. G. van Wikselaar; J. W. van Riel; A. Klop; J. A. H. P. Bastiaans

    2010-01-01

    To study the persistency of the effect of supplementing a whey protein emulsion gel (WPEG) of a mixture of linseed and soybean oil on milk fatty acids, a 10-wk experiment was carried out with 32 lactating Holstein Friesian dairy cows. During the first 5wk, all cows were managed on a restricted grazing regime with pasturing during the daytime and receiving

  20. Effects of concentrate or ryegrass-based diets (Lolium multiflorum) on the meat quality of lambs grazing on semi-natural pastures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Lind; J. Berg; L. O. Eik; S. M. Eilertsen; J. Mølmann; M. Hersleth; N. K. Afseth; E. Haugland

    2009-01-01

    With the objective of studying the effects of production systems on meat quality, 75 Norwegian White Sheep lambs were subjected to one of the following treatments: continuous grazing on a semi-natural lowland pasture until slaughtering (Control); continuous grazing followed by either stall-feeding on concentrate and grass silage or grazing ryegrass pasture for 44 or 24 days before slaughtering (Conc44, Conc24,

  1. Epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematodes in cattle on traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy farms in Iringa district, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Keyyu, J D; Kyvsgaard, N C; Monrad, J; Kassuku, A A

    2005-02-28

    A longitudinal study was carried out to determine the prevalence, distribution and intensity of gastrointestinal (GI) nematodes in traditional, small-scale dairy and large-scale dairy cattle farms in Iringa district, Southern highlands of Tanzania. Coprological examination of cohorts for GI nematode eggs in faeces, tracer worm counts and pasture larval counts were performed monthly for 1 year. Results indicated that the type of management, especially the grazing habit has a significant influence on the prevalence and intensity of GI nematodes. The predominant nematodes were Cooperia spp. (51.6%), Oesophagostomum radiatum (35.7%) and Haemonchus placei (10.2%). The worm burden in tracers was mainly composed of Cooperia spp. (83%) in large-scale dairy farms, while O. radiatum was dominant (60.8%) in traditional farms. Faecal egg counts (FEC) and tracer worm counts were generally low and FEC peaked only in calves and weaners/yearlings. Adults and all age groups in small-scale dairy farms had very low FEC throughout the year. Pasture larval counts, FEC and tracer worm counts peaked towards the end of the rainy season. Based on conditions of the study area, farmers could save substantial amount of money through strategic treatments as opposed to the previous routine of treating the whole herd at least four times a year. Strategic treatments are recommended in calves and weaners only in traditional and large-scale dairy farms. Strategic treatment of adults and small-scale dairy cattle might be not necessary. Strategic treatments at the end of the rainy/early dry season (May/June) and at the end of the dry/early rainy season (November/December) are recommended in the district. An additional treatment against GI nematodes in calves during the mid rainy season (February/March) might be important. PMID:15710529

  2. Thiamin supplementation and the ingestive behavior of beef cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Lauriault, L M; Dougherty, C T; Bradley, N W; Cornelius, P L

    1990-05-01

    Livestock grazing endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones and Gams)-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) perform poorly due to tall fescue toxicosis, especially when animals are under heat stress. In order to determine whether thiamin promotes recovery from tall fescue toxicosis, 1 or 0 g of thiamin per day, as mononitrate, was fed orally to adult Angus (Bos taurus) cows (380 +/- 8 kg) grazing either tall fescue pasture with and without endophyte or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A tethered grazing system employing a split-plot design was used to estimate intake and components of ingestive behavior. No significant differences attributable to thiamin supplements were seen in rates of intake and biting, grazing time and intake per bite when cows grazed endophyte-infected tall fescue during the first 4 d of exposure. When cows grazed endophyte-infected (greater than 95%) tall fescue with 2,091 micrograms/g loline alkaloids after 4 d of exposure, the untreated animals ingested herbage dry matter (DM) at 1.19 kg/h, whereas the cows receiving thiamin ate 1.57 kg/h (P less than .05). Cattle achieved these rates of DM intake by forming bites of 1.0 and 1.2 g DM at 24 and 26 bites/min when treated with 0 and 1 g of thiamin per day, respectively. Thiamin supplements had no effect on ingestive behavior of cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue or alfalfa after exposure to these forages for 4 d. Responses to thiamin generally were greater when cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue were exposed to heat stress. Oral thiamin supplementation may alleviate tall fescue toxicosis of beef cattle during warm weather. PMID:2365641

  3. Associations of risk factors with somatic cell count in bulk tank milk on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Gamroth, M; Richert, R; Ruegg, P L; Stiglbauer, K E; Schukken, Y H

    2013-06-01

    In the past decade, the demand for organic agricultural products has increased rapidly in the United States and worldwide. Milk quality research is of major interest to both consumers and dairy farmers alike. However, scientific data on milk quality, herd management methods, and animal welfare on organic farms in the United States has been lacking before the research from this study. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of bulk tank milk somatic cell count (SCC) with management characteristics on organic and conventional dairy farms in New York, Oregon, and Wisconsin. Data from similarly sized organic farms (n=192), conventional nongrazing farms (n=64), and conventional grazing farms (n=36) were collected at a single farm visit. Of the 292 farms visited, 290 bulk tank milk samples were collected. Overall, no difference in SCC was observed between the conventional and organic grazing systems. Two models were created to assess the effects of various management and herd characteristics on the logarithmic transformation of the SCC (LSCC), one using data from all herds and one using data from organic herds only. From the total herd model, more grain fed per cow per day was negatively associated with LSCC, whereas a positive bulk tank culture for Staphylococcus aureus and years that a farmer reported being in the dairy business were both positively associated with LSCC. In the organic herd model, a seasonal effect indicated that LSCC tended to increase in the summer and decrease in the winter. Grain fed per cow per day, the use of anionic salts in transition-cow diets, the use of gloves during milking, and regular use of a quarantine unit at milking were all negatively associated with LSCC. Similar to the total herd model, a Staph. aureus-positive bulk tank culture was positively associated with LSCC in the organic model. Standard plate count was also positively associated with LSCC in the organic model. Several variables that were associated with management using external resources were combined to create an external input score. In the total herd model, use of more external resources was negatively associated with LSCC. Conventional herds in the study tended to use more outside management resources than organic herds. PMID:23548286

  4. Prevalence and seasonality of bulk milk antibodies against Dictyocaulus viviparus and Ostertagia ostertagi in Irish pasture-based dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Bloemhoff, Yris; Forbes, Andrew; Good, Barbara; Morgan, Eric; Mulcahy, Grace; Strube, Christina; Sayers, Ríona

    2015-04-15

    Infections with Dictyocaulus viviparus and Ostertagia ostertagi nematode parasites are of importance to bovine health and production in temperate areas across the world. Losses due to these parasites in dairy herds can be considerable due to decreased milk productivity and fertility. However, information on current epidemiological patterns in Irish dairy herds is limited. Bulk milk samples were collected from a total of 319 dairy farms across the Republic of Ireland. The D. viviparus samples were tested with an ELISA based on recombinant major sperm protein, while the O. ostertagi samples were tested with an ELISA based on crude saline extract, whole worm O. ostertagi antigen. Management data were collected from the farms using a questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to find significant associations between the presence of antibodies against D. viviparus and O. ostertagi and management factors. The overall prevalence of D. viviparus infection was 62.8%, while over 98% of herds had antibodies to O. ostertagi at the specified cut-off. Both D. viviparus and O. ostertagi antibodies were highest in November, which could be explained by the accumulated uptake of larvae through the grazing season. In herds of farmers that dosed their in-calf heifers with anthelmintics were significantly more likely to be positive for antibodies against D. viviparus infection. This study highlights that both D. viviparus and O. ostertagi infections are widespread in dairy herds in Ireland throughout the grazing season. PMID:25709092

  5. 36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...domestic livestock grazing is incompatible with the protection, restoration, or maintenance of fish and wildlife or their habitats...and scientific values; rare combinations of outstanding ecosystems, or the protection and enhancement of the values...

  6. 36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...domestic livestock grazing is incompatible with the protection, restoration, or maintenance of fish and wildlife or their habitats...and scientific values; rare combinations of outstanding ecosystems, or the protection and enhancement of the values...

  7. 36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...domestic livestock grazing is incompatible with the protection, restoration, or maintenance of fish and wildlife or their habitats...and scientific values; rare combinations of outstanding ecosystems, or the protection and enhancement of the values...

  8. Cattle grazing Wahweap milkvetch in southeastern Utah.

    PubMed

    Ralphs, M H; James, L F; Nielsen, D B; Baker, D C; Molyneux, R J

    1988-12-01

    Cattle's grazing of the locoweed Wahweap milkvetch (Astragalus lentiginosus var. wahweapensis) was evaluated on desert and foothill winter range during the winter of 1986 to 1987. Dry, dead stalks of Wahweap milkvetch that had grown in 1985 and 1986 made up 15% of cattle diets overall, and 24% of diets when cattle grazed gravelly benches where it was abundant. Nutritional quality of Wahweap milkvetch was higher than of most associated forage, but its alkaloid concentration varied among the senescent stages. One cow aborted and two cows developed clinical signs of locoweed poisoning, including water belly (hydrops amnii). Microscopic lesions consisting of cytoplasmic foamy vacuolation were evident in both the dam and fetus. Because senescent stalks of Wahweap milkvetch are palatable and readily grazed by cattle, ranchers should not permit cattle to graze infested sites until other green forage is available in the spring. PMID:3230074

  9. Labour organisation on robotic milking dairy farms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. R. Sonck

    1996-01-01

    <\\/strong>1. Research issues<\\/strong>The research described in this dissertation is focused on the effects of the integration of the milking robot in a dairy farm on the labour organisation at operational and tactical level. Attention was paid to the future requirements concerning human labour and labour (re)organisation with respect to the complex interaction between the cows and an automatic milking system

  10. Storage of Dairy Bull Spermatozoa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric W. Swanson; H. A. Herman

    1941-01-01

    An appreciation of the limitations and possibilities of storing dairy bull semen and retaining its fertility is necessary in order to define the practical limits of artificial insemination with shipped or stored semen. While vari- ous diluents have been proposed and different storage temperatures have been suggested, there still remain many unexplained factors concerning the successful storage of dairy bull

  11. A comprehensive dairy valorization model.

    PubMed

    Banaszewska, A; Cruijssen, F; van der Vorst, J G A J; Claassen, G D H; Kampman, J L

    2013-02-01

    Dairy processors face numerous challenges resulting from both unsteady dairy markets and some specific characteristics of dairy supply chains. To maintain a competitive position on the market, companies must look beyond standard solutions currently used in practice. This paper presents a comprehensive dairy valorization model that serves as a decision support tool for mid-term allocation of raw milk to end products and production planning. The developed model was used to identify the optimal product portfolio composition. The model allocates raw milk to the most profitable dairy products while accounting for important constraints (i.e., recipes, composition variations, dairy production interdependencies, seasonality, demand, supply, capacities, and transportation flows). The inclusion of all relevant constraints and the ease of understanding dairy production dynamics make the model comprehensive. The developed model was tested at the international dairy processor FrieslandCampina (Amersfoort, the Netherlands). The structure of the model and its output were discussed in multiple sessions with and approved by relevant FrieslandCampina employees. The elements included in the model were considered necessary to optimally valorize raw milk. To illustrate the comprehensiveness and functionality of the model, we analyzed the effect of seasonality on milk valorization. A large difference in profit and a shift in the allocation of milk showed that seasonality has a considerable impact on the valorization of raw milk. PMID:23200469

  12. Composition of Swedish dairy milk

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helena Lindmark-Månsson; Rangne Fondén; Hans-Erik Pettersson

    2003-01-01

    An investigation of the composition of Swedish dairy milk was performed from November 1995 until November 1996. Milk samples were collected every other month from 9 dairies throughout the country. The parameters determined were of interest both from a nutritive and a technological point of view. In total, 140 components were analysed. The weighted mean protein content was 3.37%, the

  13. Grazing Management of Temperate Grasslands and Fallows

    E-print Network

    Roder, Walter

    2002-01-01

    44 GRAZING MANAGEMENT OF TEMPERATE GRASSLAND AND FALLOWS Walter Roder* Introduction The paper provides a general overview of fodder resources and their management in temperate Bhutan (altitude range of 1500-3000m). The terms are used... as defined by RC-Jakar (RNR-RC-Jakar, 1996). As per these definitions, temperate pasture can include any kind of land used for grazing. When referring to registered grassland or tsamdro, only the term tsamdrog is used. Where possible, the term pasture...

  14. The Dairy Industrial Fellowship Research Program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Trout; William White; M. J. Mack; P. A. Downs; E. L. Fouts

    1939-01-01

    This article is a report of the Dairy Industrial Fellowship Research Program, sponsored jointly by the Dairy Industries Supply Association and the American Dairy Science Association. This report 1, offers a permanent record of the program and 2, gives to the dairy industry an account of the research undertaken and completed under the scholarship grants. The program was formulated in

  15. Modeling dynamics of circum-arctic tundra plant communities in response to climate warming and grazing pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Q.; Epstein, H. E.; Walker, D. A.; Forbes, B. C.; Vors, L. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Arctic is a complex system with strong interconnectedness among system components. Understanding the responses of the arctic tundra biome to a changing climate requires knowledge of the complex interactions among climate, soils, and the biological system. In this study, we investigate the individual and interactive effects of projected climate change and reindeer/caribou grazing across a variety of climate zones and soil nutrient levels on tundra plant community dynamics using an arctic vegetation model - ArcVeg. Our research questions include: 1) How does soil nutrient availability affect tundra vegetation responses to projected climate warming? 2) How does grazing affect tundra vegetation responses? 3) How do interactions of soil nutrients, climate warming and grazing affect tundra vegetation? We based our simulations on A1B scenario temperature data from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), soil organic nitrogen data from Terrestrial Ecosystem Model (TEM) simulations and grazing pressure derived from reindeer/caribou population data from the CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment Network (CARMA). We found that in general tundra communities responded to warming with increased plant biomass, but the magnitude of the response is affected by the bioclimate zones, warming magnitude, available soil nutrients and grazing pressures. Regions with greater soil organic nitrogen responded to warming with greater biomass increase, Low Arctic tundra tended to have greater biomass increase than High Arctic tundra due to greater shrub abundance. However, such responses are mitigated by grazing. Regions with greater reindeer population and thus greater grazing intensity tended to have stronger negative effects on plant responses to warming than regions with less grazing. For example, in Subzone D, total biomass and NPP increases due to warming were about 71% and 43% in an Alaskan low grazing-intensity region, but 63% and 36% in a northwestern Canada high grazing-intensity region. In Subzone C, although with similar warming magnitude, Yamal and Taymyr region being intensely grazed by reindeer responded with smaller total biomass increase (~68%) than a northwestern Canada low grazing-intensity region (~93%). Plant responses to warming may be a factor that determines the size of reindeer population and understanding how tundra plants respond to warming, grazing and their interactions will contribute to reindeer management practices.

  16. Grazing incidence telescopes for x-ray astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorenstein, Paul

    2012-01-01

    With grazing incidence telescopes, x-ray astronomy became a major branch of astrophysics. They are an indispensable tool in the study of >106 K thermal and non-thermal high energy phenomena occurring in objects from the solar system to the most distant sites in the universe. They have shed light upon dark matter and dark energy. Four cosmic missions with focusing grazing incidence x-ray telescopes based upon the Wolter 1 geometry are currently in space. They include two observatory class facilities launched in 1999, NASA's high resolution x-ray and ESA's high throughput XMM-Newton. Two others are Japan's Suzaku, performing a variety of studies, and the Swift XRT, which finds precise positions for the x-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. Four new cosmic missions with Wolter-like focusing telescopes are scheduled for launch. They will provide much broader bandwidth (NuSTAR and Astro-H), perform a new sky survey with more exposure time and a broader energy range than previous surveys (eROSITA), have an imaging detector with much better energy resolution (Astro-H), and measure polarization (GEMS). The Kirkpatrick-Baez and the lobster-eye are two types of potentially useful grazing incidence telescopes that have not yet been in orbit. It may not be possible to improve upon Chandra's 0.5 arcsec resolution without new technology.

  17. Simulation of Long-Term Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Grassland-Based Dairy Farming Systems to Evaluate Mitigation Strategies for Nutrient Losses

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ghulam Abbas; Groot, Jeroen C.J.; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Lantinga, Egbert A.

    2013-01-01

    Many measures have been proposed to mitigate gaseous emissions and other nutrient losses from agroecosystems, which can have large detrimental effects for the quality of soils, water and air, and contribute to eutrophication and global warming. Due to complexities in farm management, biological interactions and emission measurements, most experiments focus on analysis of short-term effects of isolated mitigation practices. Here we present a model that allows simulating long-term effects at the whole-farm level of combined measures related to grassland management, animal housing and manure handling after excretion, during storage and after field application. The model describes the dynamics of pools of organic carbon and nitrogen (N), and of inorganic N, as affected by farm management in grassland-based dairy systems. We assessed the long-term effects of delayed grass mowing, housing type (cubicle and sloping floor barns, resulting in production of slurry and solid cattle manure, respectively), manure additives, contrasting manure storage methods and irrigation after application of covered manure. Simulations demonstrated that individually applied practices often result in compensatory loss pathways. For instance, methods to reduce ammonia emissions during storage like roofing or covering of manure led to larger losses through ammonia volatilization, nitrate leaching or denitrification after application, unless extra measures like irrigation were used. A strategy of combined management practices of delayed mowing and fertilization with solid cattle manure that is treated with zeolite, stored under an impermeable sheet and irrigated after application was effective to increase soil carbon stocks, increase feed self-sufficiency and reduce losses by ammonia volatilization and soil N losses. Although long-term datasets (>25 years) of farm nutrient dynamics and loss flows are not available to validate the model, the model is firmly based on knowledge of processes and measured effects of individual practices, and allows the integrated exploration of effective emission mitigation strategies. PMID:23826255

  18. UDDER CONFORMATION, MILK YIELD AND MILK FRACTIONATION IN THE DAIRY EWE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    milking parlour systems (as for example in dairy cows) and in this way may prove to be a decisive factor type and milk frac- tionation. (1) Dr M. MORAG died (24-4-73) shortly after summarizing this paper. #12UDDER CONFORMATION, MILK YIELD AND MILK FRACTIONATION IN THE DAIRY EWE R. SAGI M. MORAG Faculty

  19. An evaluation of a constructed wetland to treat wastewater from a dairy farm in Maryland, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer A. Schaafsma; Andrew H. Baldwin; Christopher A. Streb

    1999-01-01

    In the Chesapeake Bay drainage basin, wastewater from animal operations laden with nutrients, sediment, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) contributes to the degradation of surface water quality. A constructed wetland system was built to treat wastewater from a dairy farm in Frederick County, Maryland to evaluate the use of wetland technology as a best management practice for dairy waste. To

  20. Effect of Estrogen on Leptin and Expression of Leptin Receptor Transcripts in Prepubertal Dairy Heifers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Thorn; M. J. Meyer; M. E. Van Amburgh; Y. R. Boisclair

    2007-01-01

    Plasma leptin concentrations increase as growing dairy heifers approach puberty and have greater plasma estrogen. In intact and ovariectomized rodents, estrogen has been shown to modulate expression of lep- tin and its receptor (Ob-R). To determine if estrogen regulates the bovine leptin system, prepubertal dairy heifers were ovariectomized at 140 d of age or left intact. A month later, both

  1. Whole-Farm Evaluation of Phosphorus Crystallization as a Dairy Farm BMP

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recently proven method for precipitating significant phosphorus from dairy lagoons was incorporated to the Integrated Farm System Model. A whole-farm analysis of this BMP, including environmental and economical effects, were evaluated for an organic dairy farm in Washington. The BMP provides a non...

  2. AMS Dairy Market News

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Agricultural Marketing Service of the US Department of Agriculture has made available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only) this weekly report, which is an indispensible resource for dairy market analysts. It tracks trends in the butter, cheese, fluid milk, nonfat dry milk, whey and casein markets, on a national and regional basis. Though certainly not aimed at the casual reader, this is probably the best place to keep current of market developments. Weekly, monthly, and annual pertinent statistical average tables (mostly prices) are also available.

  3. Dairy Futures Information Homepage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provided by Department of Agricultural And Applied Economics Professor T. Randall Fortenberry and Center for Dairy Research Scientist Brian Gould at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, this no-nonsense site is highlighted by its data files section, which contain, at this time, cash and futures data and graphs for the Basic Formula Price, butter, cheese, milk, and nonfat dry milk. Time series vary by commodity and are available in text and three spreadsheet formats. The site also contains other selected price data, and pointers to relevant web sites. Options data is forthcoming.

  4. 75 FR 22612 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Grazing Permits; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ...Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Grazing Permits; Request for Comments AGENCY...the information collection, titled ``Grazing Permits, 25 CFR 166'' to the Office...seeking to obtain, modify, or assign a grazing permit for grazing on Indian trust...

  5. 25 CFR 700.715 - Assignment, modification, and cancellation of grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Assignment, modification, and cancellation of grazing permits. 700.715 Section 700...AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.715 Assignment, modification, and cancellation of grazing permits. (a) Grazing...

  6. 76 FR 31977 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Domestic Sheep Grazing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ...Environmental Impact Statement for Domestic Sheep Grazing Allotments for Term Grazing Permit Renewals in the Southern San Luis Valley...related to the potential renewal of domestic sheep grazing permits on 12 allotments and 1 cattle grazing...

  7. 78 FR 24229 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Grazing Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ...Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Grazing Permits AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs...for the collection of information for Grazing Permits authorized by OMB Control Number...collection conducted under 25 CFR 166, Grazing Permits, related to grazing on...

  8. 25 CFR 161.403 - How are grazing permits allocated within each range unit?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are grazing permits allocated within each range unit? 161...INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Reissuance of Grazing Permits § 161.403 How are grazing...

  9. 25 CFR 161.302 - What restrictions are placed on grazing permits?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...false What restrictions are placed on grazing permits? 161.302 Section 161...LAND AND WATER NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Permit Requirements § 161.302 What restrictions are placed on grazing permits? Only a grazing permit...

  10. A comparison of the performance of statistical quality control charts in a dairy production system through stochastic simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. de Vries; B. J. Conlin

    2005-01-01

    Statistical quality control charts are plots of observations over time applied to a characteristic of a system to distinguish between normal variation, when the system should be left alone, and unexpected true changes, which should be signaled as soon as possible so the cause of the changes can be corrected. In practice, the performance of control charts (measured as the

  11. 76 FR 8998 - Dairy Industry Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-16

    ...and TDD). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In August 2009, USDA established the Dairy Committee. The Dairy Committee reviews issues of farm milk price volatility and dairy farmer profitability. The Dairy Committee provides recommendations to the...

  12. 76 FR 4611 - Dairy Industry Advisory Committee; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ...and TDD). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: In August 2009, USDA established the Dairy Committee. The Dairy Committee reviews issues of farm milk price volatility and dairy farmer profitability. The Dairy Committee provides recommendations to the...

  13. 2013 Virginia 4-H Dairy Quiz Bowl Materials

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    ........................................... 27 Chapter 8 ............................... Dairy Products and Milk Marketing2013 Virginia 4-H Dairy Quiz Bowl Materials Prepared by: David R. Winston Extension Dairy Scientist, Youth Department of Dairy Science (0315) 2450 Litton Reaves Hall, Virginia Tech Blacksburg, VA 24061

  14. Multichannel grazing-incidence spectrometer for plasma impurity diagnosis: SPRED.

    PubMed

    Fonck, R J; Ramsey, A T; Yelle, R V

    1982-06-15

    A compact vacuum ultraviolet spectrometer system has been developed to provide time-resolved impurity spectra from tokamak plasmas. Two interchangeable aberration-corrected toroidal diffraction gratings with flat focal fields provide simultaneous coverage over the ranges 100-1100 A or 160-1700 A. The detector is an intensified self-scanning photodiode array. Spectral resolution is 2 A with the higher dispersion grating. Minimum readout time for a full spectrum is 20 msec, but up to seven individual spectral lines can be measured with a 1-msec time resolution. The sensitivity of the system is comparable with that of a conventional grazing-incidence monochromator. PMID:20395992

  15. Field Demonstration of the Performance of a Geotube® Dewatering System to Reduce Phosphorus and Other Substances from Dairy Lagoon Effluent

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib; Wagner, Kevin; Gregory, Lucas

    which called for the reduction of annual loading and annual average soluble reactive P (SRP) concentrations by about 50%. This demonstration was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a prospective new technology, the Geotube® dewatering system that may...

  16. Field Demonstration of the Performance of a Geotube® Dewatering System to Reduce Phosphorus and Other Substances from Dairy Lagoon Effluent 

    E-print Network

    Mukhtar, Saqib; Wagner, Kevin; Gregory, Lucas

    2009-01-01

    which called for the reduction of annual loading and annual average soluble reactive P (SRP) concentrations by about 50%. This demonstration was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a prospective new technology, the Geotube® dewatering system that may...

  17. Effects of anthropogenic fragmentation and livestock grazing on western riparian bird communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tewksbury, J.J.; Black, A.E.; Nur, N.; Saab, V.A.; Logan, B.D.; Dobkin, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    Deciduous vegetation along streams and rivers provides breeding habitat to more bird species than any other plant community in the West, yet many riparian areas are heavily grazed by cattle and surrounded by increasingly developed landscapes. The combination of cattle grazing and landscape alteration (habitat loss and fragmentation) are thought to be critical factors affecting the richness and composition of breeding bird communities. Here, we examine the influence of land use and cattle grazing on deciduous riparian bird communities across seven riparian systems in five western states: Montana, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon and California. These riparian systems are embedded in landscapes ranging from nearly pristine to almost completely agricultural. We conducted landscape analysis at two spatial scales: local landscapes (all land within 500 m of each survey location) and regional landscapes (all land within 5 km of each survey location). Despite the large differences among riparian systems, we found a number of consistent effects of landscape change and grazing. Of the 87 species with at least 15 detections on two or more rivers, 44 species were less common in grazed sites, in heavily settled or agricultural landscapes, or in areas with little deciduous riparian habitat. The Veery (Catharus fuscescens), Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia), Red-naped Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus nuchalis), Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca), and American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) were all less common under at least three of these conditions. In contrast, 33 species were significantly more common in one or more of these conditions. Sites surrounded by greater deciduous habitat had higher overall avian abundance and 22 species had significantly higher individual abundances in areas with more deciduous habitat. Yet, areas with more agriculture at the regional scale also had higher total avian abundance, due in large part to greater abundance of European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), American Robin (Turdus migratorius), Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), and Black-billed Magpie (Pica pica), all species that use both agricultural and riparian areas. Grazing effects varied considerably among riparian systems, but avian abundance and richness were significantly lower at grazed survey locations. Fifteen species were significantly less abundant in grazed sites while only five species were more abundant therein. Management should focus on (1) preserving and enlarging deciduous habitats, (2) reducing cattle grazing in deciduous habitats, and (3) protecting the few relatively pristine landscapes surrounding large deciduous riparian areas in the West.

  18. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in dairy cattle in northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunren; Wang, Yu; Zou, Ximing; Zhai, Yanqing; Gao, Junfeng; Hou, Meiru; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2010-04-01

    The seroprevalence of Neospora caninum infection in China's northeastern Heilongjiang Province was surveyed between 2007 and 2008. In total, 540 serum samples of dairy cattle from 9 counties were examined for antibodies to N. caninum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall seroprevalence of N. caninum in dairy cattle was 13.3% (72/540). The seroprevalence of N. caninum in aborting cows (14.9%) was slightly higher than that in nonaborting cows (10.3%). Dairy cattle with 5 pregnancies had the highest seroprevalence (22.7%). However, there was no apparent association between N. caninum seropositivity and aborting age or number of pregnancies (P > 0.05). There was, however, an apparent association between N. caninum seroprevalence and animal husbandry practices, with the cattle under confinement feeding having significantly lower seroprevalence than the grazing cows (P < 0.05). The results of the present survey indicates that infection with N. caninum in dairy cattle is widespread in Heilongjiang Province, and that it appears to be an important cause of bovine abortion. PMID:19895158

  19. Factors affecting the plasmin-plasminogen system in milk obtained from three Greek dairy sheep breeds with major differences in milk production capacity.

    PubMed

    Theodorou, G; Kominakis, A; Rogdakis, E; Politis, I

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of breed, stage of lactation, and health status of the udder on the plasmin-plasminogen system in ovine milk. A total of 38 ewes were used from 3 breeds [Boutsiko (n = 12), Chios (n = 12), and a synthetic breed (50% Boutsiko, 25% Arta, and 25% Chios, n = 14)] with major differences in their genetic potential with respect to milk yield. Milk samples were collected every 2 wk throughout the lactation period and were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, and somatic cell count (SCC). In addition, milk plasmin (PL), plasminogen (PG), and plasminogen activator (PA) activities were determined. The Chios breed had the greatest average daily milk yield, the synthetic breed had an intermediate milk yield, and ewes of the Boutsiko breed had the lowest milk yield. Milk samples obtained from the Boutsiko breed had similar PL and PA activities, compared with those obtained from the other 2 breeds. The ratio of PG:PL was less in milk samples from the Boutsiko breed compared with the other 2 breeds, indicative of an increased rate of conversion of PG to PL for this breed. There was no correlation between PL activity and daily milk yield in ewes from all 3 breeds. Activities of PL, PG, and PA were greater in ovine milk with elevated SCC (>300,000/mL) compared with activities in milk with low SCC (<300,000/mL). The ratio of PG:PL was less in the high-SCC group compared with the low-SCC group, which indicates an increased rate of conversion of PG to PL for the high-SCC group. There was a decrease in PG and PA activities as well as in the PG:PL ratio in late lactation milk (mo 5 to 6) when compared with early or mid lactation milk (mo 1 to 4). Thus, the PL-PG system is affected by breed, stage of lactation, and the health status of the udder. No relationship was found between PL activity and daily milk yield in the 3 Greek dairy sheep breeds. Plasmin is not a marker for gradual involution in the Greek sheep breeds studied. PMID:17582110

  20. Variability in Protist Grazing and Growth on Different Marine Synechococcus Isolates?

    PubMed Central

    Apple, Jude K.; Strom, Suzanne L.; Palenik, Brian; Brahamsha, Bianca

    2011-01-01

    Grazing mortality of the marine phytoplankton Synechococcus is dominated by planktonic protists, yet rates of consumption and factors regulating grazer-Synechococcus interactions are poorly understood. One aspect of predator-prey interactions for which little is known are the mechanisms by which Synechococcus avoids or resists predation and, in turn, how this relates to the ability of Synechococcus to support growth of protist grazer populations. Grazing experiments conducted with the raptorial dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina and phylogenetically diverse Synechococcus isolates (strains WH8102, CC9605, CC9311, and CC9902) revealed marked differences in grazing rates—specifically that WH8102 was grazed at significantly lower rates than all other isolates. Additional experiments using the heterotrophic nanoflagellate Goniomonas pacifica and the filter-feeding tintinnid ciliate Eutintinnis sp. revealed that this pattern in grazing susceptibility among the isolates transcended feeding guilds and grazer taxon. Synechococcus cell size, elemental ratios, and motility were not able to explain differences in grazing rates, indicating that other features play a primary role in grazing resistance. Growth of heterotrophic protists was poorly coupled to prey ingestion and was influenced by the strain of Synechococcus being consumed. Although Synechococcus was generally a poor-quality food source, it tended to support higher growth and survival of G. pacifica and O. marina relative to Eutintinnis sp., indicating that suitability of Synechococcus varies among grazer taxa and may be a more suitable food source for the smaller protist grazers. This work has developed tractable model systems for further studies of grazer-Synechococcus interactions in marine microbial food webs. PMID:21398485