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1

Productive response of grazing dairy cows to fresh chopped maize supplementation under a small farming system in the Mexican Highlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to evaluate the animal performance of late lactating grazing dairy cows in response to fresh chopped\\u000a maize (FCM) supplementation under a small farming system. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein dairy cows were used in a rotational\\u000a grazing on a mixed alfalfa–orchard grass sward. Three treatments were evaluated: 0, 4, and 8 kg dry matter (DM) of FCM cow?1?day?1.

Mónica Ramírez-Mella; Omar Hernández-Mendo; Ricardo D. Améndola-Massiotti; Efren J. Ramírez-Bribiesca; German D. Mendoza-Martínez; Juan A. Burgueño-Ferreira

2010-01-01

2

Housing System, Milk Production, and Zero-Grazing Effects on Lameness and Leg Injury in Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of graz- ing (G) vs. zero-grazing (ZG), level of milk production, and quality and type of housing system (free stalls (FS) and straw yards (SY)) on the prevalence of lameness and leg injuries in dairy cows. Observations were made on 37 commercial dairy farms across Great Britain. A single visit

M. J. Haskell; L. J. Rennie; V. A. Bowell; M. J. Bell; A. B. Lawrence

2006-01-01

3

SEPATOU: a Decision Support System for the Management of Rotational Grazing in a Dairy Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the simulator SEPATOU that can reproduce the day-to-day dynamics of two interactive systems: the decision system representing the dairy farmer's management behavior and the biophysical system that encompasses the herbage production, consumption and transformation into milk. The activities to be managed concern the type and amount of conserved feed, where to fertilize and how much, the choice

M.-J. Cros; F. Garcia; R. Martin-Clouaire

1999-01-01

4

Extended grazing: a detailed analysis of Irish dairy farms.  

PubMed

Profitability and factors affecting grazing season length were econometrically analyzed using a representative sample of Irish dairy farms. The objective of this study was to explore what potential exists on Irish dairy farms to extend the grazing season and to quantify the possible economic benefits that result from lengthening the grazing season. Regression results indicate that location factors affect the length of the grazing season, but even when physical factors are controlled, farmer characteristics, such as education, also affect the grazing season length. The results of a panel data analysis show that significant cost reductions can be achieved by extending the grazing season. Overall, the findings indicate that lengthening the grazing season offers a cost-saving alternative on many Irish dairy farms, which could contribute to strengthening the competitiveness of the Irish dairy sector. PMID:22192197

Läpple, D; Hennessy, T; O'Donovan, M

2012-01-01

5

Evaluation of Alternative Algorithms Used to Simulate Pasture Intake in Grazing Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four algorithms used to simulate pasture intake in grazing dairy cows in a dairy decision support system were proposed and evaluated with data from the litera- ture. The algorithms proposed were: 1) an algorithm combining the approach used in a published model to determine dry matter intake based on neutral deter- gent fiber intake as a percentage of the BW,

O. P. Vazquez; T. R. Smith

2001-01-01

6

CAN FORAGE MIXTURES IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY OF GRAZING DAIRY COWS?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Twenty multiparous Holstein cows in mid-lactation grazed pastures of four forage mixtures in a 13-week study repeated during two grazing seasons to determine if forage mixtures affected intake and productivity of lactating dairy cows. The forage mixtures were: 1) orchardgrass plus white clover (2...

7

Evaporative cooling for Holstein dairy cows under grazing conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

. Twenty-four grazing Holstein cows in mid and late lactation were randomly assigned to two treatment groups: control and cooled. The trial was performed at the Experimental Dairy Unit, Rafaela Agricultural Experimental Station (INTA), Argentina. The objective was to evaluate the effects of sprinkler and fan cooling before milkings on milk production and composition. The effects of the cooling system on rectal temperature and respiration rate were also evaluated. Cooled cows showed higher milk production (1.04 l cow-1 day-1). The concentration and yield of milk fat and protein increased in response to cooling treatment. The cooling system also reduced rectal temperature and respiration rate. No effects were observed on body condition. It was concluded that evaporative cooling, which is efficient for housed animals, is also appropriate to improve yields and animal well-being under grazing systems. These results are impressive since the cooling system was utilized only before milkings, in a system where environmental control is very difficult to achieve. This trial was performed during a mild summer. The results would probably be magnified during hotter weather.

Valtorta, Silvia E.; Gallardo, Miriam R.

8

Fishmeal Supplementation to Grazing Dairy Cows in Early Lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our objectives were to determine if grazing dairy cows would respond to fishmeal supplementation and to determine if responses could be explained by stimula- tion of adipose tissue lipolysis. Thirty-four multiparous Holstein cows (25 ± 11 DIM) were supplemented with isonitrogenous concentrates containing either fishmeal or pelleted sunflower meal. On a dry matter (DM) basis, concentrates contained fishmeal (14.5%) or

G. F. Schroeder; G. A. Gagliostro

2000-01-01

9

A PROFITABILITY ANALYSIS OF DAIRY FEEDING SYSTEMS IN THE NORTHEAST  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analyzes the use and profitability of three distinct feeding systems; confinement feeding, traditional grazing, and management-intensive grazing from a randomly selected sample of northeastern dairy farms. The confinement feeding farms were significantly larger and produced more milk per cow, while the farms using management-intensive grazing incurred the lowest production costs. Both confinement feeding and management-intensive grazing generated significantly

Jonathan R. Winsten; Robert L. Parsons; Gregory D. Hanson

2000-01-01

10

Greenhouse gas exchange over grazed systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grasslands act as sinks and sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and are, in conjunction with livestock production systems, responsible for a large share of GHG emissions. Whereas ecosystem scale flux measurements (eddy covariance) are commonly used to investigate CO2 exchange (and is becoming state-of-the-art for other GHGs, too), GHG emissions from agricultural animals are usually investigated on the scale of individual animals. Therefore eddy covariance technique has to be tested for combined systems (i.e. grazed systems). Our project investigates the ability of field scale flux measurements to reliably quantify the contribution of grazing dairy cows to the net exchange of CO2 and CH4. To quantify the contribution of the animals to the net flux the position, movement, and grazing/rumination activity of each cow are recorded. In combination with a detailed footprint analysis of the eddy covariance fluxes, the animal related CO2 and CH4 emissions are derived and compared to standard emission values derived from respiration chambers. The aim of the project is to test the assumption whether field scale CO2 flux measurements adequately include the respiration of grazing cows and to identify potential errors in ecosystem Greenhouse gas budgets.

Felber, R.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

2012-04-01

11

Effects of supplementary concentrate composition on milk yield, milk composition and pasture utilization of rotationally grazed dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty eight lactating cows were used in a randomized block design experiment to evaluate the effects of supplementary nitrogen source and heat treatment of rapessed meal containing concentrate compound on pasture utilization under a controlled rotational grazing system. The four supplemental concentrates were: 1) a cereal by-product based basic dairy concentrate (BDC); 2) BDC with 0.9% additional urea (UREA); 3)

Alem Tsehai Tesfa; Perttu Virkajärvi; Mikko Tuori; Liisa Syrjälä-Qvist

1995-01-01

12

Direct and carryover effect of post-grazing sward height on total lactation dairy cow performance.  

PubMed

Grazing pastures to low post-grazing sward heights (PGSH) is a strategy to maximise the quantity of grazed grass in the diet of dairy cows within temperate grass-based systems. Within Irish spring-calving systems, it was hypothesised that grazing swards to very low PGSH would increase herbage availability during early lactation but would reduce dairy cow performance, the effect of which would persist in subsequent lactation performance when compared with cows grazing to a higher PGSH. Seventy-two Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (mean calving date, 12 February) were randomly assigned post-calving across two PGSH treatments (n = 36): 2.7 cm (severe; S1) and 3.5 cm (moderate; M1), which were applied from 10 February to 18 April (period 1; P1). This was followed by a carryover period (period 2; P2) during which cows were randomly reassigned within their P1 treatment across two further PGSH (n = 18): 3.5 cm (severe, SS and MS) and 4.5 cm (moderate, SM and MM) until 30 October. Decreasing PGSH from 3.5 to 2.7 cm significantly decreased milk (-2.3 kg/cow per day), protein (-95 g/day), fat (-143 g/day) and lactose (-109 g/day) yields, milk protein (-1.2 g/kg) and fat (-2.2 g/kg) concentrations and grass dry matter intake (GDMI; -1.7 kg dry matter/cow per day). The severe PGSH was associated with a lower bodyweight (BW) at the end of P1. There was no carryover effect of P1 PGSH on subsequent milk or milk solids yields in P2, but PGSH had a significant carryover effect on milk fat and lactose concentrations. Animals severely restricted at pasture in early spring had a higher BW and slightly higher body condition score in later lactation when compared with M1 animals. During P2, increasing PGSH from 3.5 to 4.5 cm increased milk and milk solids yield as a result of greater GDMI and resulted in higher mean BW and end BW. This study indicates that following a 10-week period of feed restriction, subsequent dairy cow cumulative milk production is unaffected. However, the substantial loss in milk solid yield that occurred during the period of restriction is not recovered. PMID:23534982

Ganche, E; Delaby, L; O'Donovan, M; Boland, T M; Kennedy, E

2013-03-27

13

Earthworms in New Zealand sheep and dairy-grazed pastures with focus on anecic Aporrectodea longa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworms play an important role as primary decomposers in the incorporation and initial mixing of plant litter. This study explored the response of earthworms to increasing fertiliser inputs, pasture production and livestock numbers (and their influence on food availability and soil physical condition) on six different managements in sheep-grazed and fifteen different managements in dairy-grazed pastures in a variety of

Nicole L. Schon; Alec D. Mackay; Ross A. Gray; Maria A. Minor

14

Changes in soil carbon cycling accompanying conversion of row-crop fields to grazing dairy pastures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasingly, the dairy industry in the eastern US is transitioning from total confinement dairy systems (TCD) toward pasture-based, management intensive grazing dairy (MiGD) systems. This transition is driven by the fact that MiGDs require substantially less operating capital and are more economically efficient than TCD systems. Consequently, the impact of this transition and shift in land-use practice on carbon dynamics may be considerable. Land-use in a Management intensive Grazing Dairy (MiGD) system is fundamentally different than conventional confinement dairies and conventional no-till pastures. The forage system involves rotational grazing at optimal digestibility, when the plants are immature (~20-days) and consequently protein-rich. MiGD cows spend >90% of their time in the field and deposit > 90% of their waste directly to the soil surface. Thus, little above ground plant residues are directly returned to the soil, but rather substantial C inputs derive from bovine manure. We sampled a MiGD-chronosequence of row-crop to MiGD conversion established in 2007 in eastern Georgia. All soils across the MiGD-chronosequence, all occur in relative (40 km) close proximity to one another, are deep, well-drained, fine and fine sandy loam Ultisols formed on Coastal Plain sediments. Prior to MiGD established, the soils were farmed for > 50 yrs using conventional tillage techniques. Our current sampling to 1m depths captures fields at 0, 2, 3, and 5 yrs since conversion. Total soil carbon (C) and the carbon concentration of the clay fraction increased following conversion, with the greatest increases occurring between 3 and 5 yrs since conversion. These C increases were limited to the upper 40cm of the soil, with minimal change occurring at depth. Characterization of the protein and ligand content of these soils via 13C NMR and chemolytic techniques as a function of soil particle density and size is in progress and will be presented along with estimates of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes across the MiGD chronosequence. Our broad goal is to quantify ruminal methane emissions and changes to soil C-stocks and stability associated with this land-use shift. Our preliminary data suggest such a land-use change will likely improve soil health and increase C-stocks. Balancing this against potential increases in methane emissions is a key knowledge gap for future southeastern U.S. C-cycling estimates.

Thompson, A.; Kramer, M. G.; Hill, N.; Machmuller, M. B.; Cyle, K.

2011-12-01

15

Hair cortisol levels in dairy cows from winter housing to summer highland grazing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cortisol is an indicator of an animal's endocrine response to environmental changes. This study was designed to examine changes in hair cortisol levels produced in response to a change from indoor winter to summer grazing conditions in dairy cows. The study population comprised 83 dairy cows from three farms. Hair samples were obtained using clippers from the animal's forehead at

A. Comin; A. Prandi; T. Peric; M. Corazzin; S. Dovier; S. Bovolenta

2011-01-01

16

Mineral deficiencies in grazing dairy cattle in Kordofan and Darfur regions in western Sudan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seasonal changes in mineral profiles in serum of grazing dairy cattle and the concentrations of nutrients available from forages were determined in western Sudan. Blood samples were collected seasonally from dairy cows, Kenana and Botana breeds, in 6 locations in Kordofan and Darfur. Data were analysed as a split-plot design with repeated measures. The results indicated there were significant

M. M. Abdelrahman; R. L. Kincaid; E. A. Elzubeir

1998-01-01

17

Pattern of herbage intake rate and bite dimensions of rotationally grazed dairy cows as sward height declines  

Microsoft Academic Search

To allow improved prediction of daily herbage intake of dairy cows in rotational grazing systems, intake beha- viour was assessed throughout the day in 24-h pad- docks. Herbage intake in 16 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows was assessed using the short-term (1-h) weight gain method at four predetermined natural meal times throughout the day (early morning, T1; late morning, T2; mid-afternoon, T3;

P. D. Barrett; A. S. Laidlaw; C. S. Mayne; H. Christie

2001-01-01

18

Spatio-temporal modelling of biomass of intensively grazed perennial dairy pastures using multispectral remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pasture biomass is a vital input for management of dairy systems in New Zealand. An accurate estimate of pasture biomass information is required for the calculation of feed budget, on which decisions are made for farm practices such as conservation, nitrogen use, rotational lengths and supplementary feeding leading to profitability and sustainable use of pasture resources. The traditional field based methods of measuring pasture biomass such as using rising plate metres (RPM) are largely inefficient in providing the timely information at the spatial extent and temporal frequency demanded by commercial environments. In recent times remote sensing has emerged as an alternative tool. In this paper we have examined the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from medium resolution imagery of SPOT-4 and SPOT-5 satellite sensors to predict pasture biomass of intensively grazed dairy pastures. In the space and time domain analysis we have found a significant dependency of time over the season and no dependency of space across the scene at a given time for the relationship between NDVI and field based pasture biomass. We have established a positive correlation (81%) between the two variables in a pixel scale analysis. The application of the model on 2 selected farms over 3 images and aggregation of the predicted biomass to paddock scale has produced paddock average pasture biomass values with a coefficient of determination of 0.71 and a standard error of 260 kg DM ha-1 in the field observed range between 1500 and 3500 kg DM ha-1. This result indicates a high potential for operational use of remotely sensed data to predict pasture biomass of intensively grazed dairy pastures.

Edirisinghe, Asoka; Clark, Dave; Waugh, Deanne

2012-06-01

19

Meta-analysis of the effect of pregrazing pasture mass on pasture intake, milk production, and grazing behavior of dairy cows strip-grazing temperate grasslands.  

PubMed

Grazing management is a key factor in pasture-based dairy systems, which can be improved given advanced knowledge of the effects of pregrazing pasture mass (PM) on the performance of dairy cows. The aim of this study was to quantify the effects of PM on the pasture intake, milk production, milk composition, and grazing behavior of strip- or rotational-grazing dairy cows, based on a meta-analysis of published research papers. A database was created that included experiments in which the effects of PM on pasture intake and milk production of dairy cows were studied. Papers were selected only if at least 2 PM were compared under similar experimental conditions, particularly the same pasture allowance (SPA). The final database included 15 papers with 27 PM comparisons. For analytical purposes, the database was subdivided into 3 subsets that varied according to the estimation height at which pasture allowance was determined; that is, where PM were compared at the SPA above ground level (SPA(0) subset), above 2 to 3 cm (SPA(3) subset), and above 4 to 5 cm (SPA(5) subset). Statistical analyses were conducted on the entire database (global analysis) and within each subset using linear model procedures. An interaction between PM and estimation height was found for pasture intake and milk production in the global analysis. On the basis of the predictive equations, pasture intake increased by 1.58 kg of dry matter/d per tonne increase in PM when PM were compared at SPA(0), was not affected by PM when PM were compared at SPA(3), and decreased by 0.65 kg of dry matter/d per tonne increase in PM when PM were compared at SPA(5). This is consistent with the effect of PM on milk production, which was positive and negative (1.04 and -0.79 kg/t of PM, respectively) when PM were compared at SPA(0) and SPA(5), respectively. Grazing time was only slightly affected by PM, irrespective of estimation height, because the effect of PM on pasture intake was mainly dependent on the variation in pasture intake rate. Pasture intake rate increased with increasing PM at SPA(0) but decreased with increasing PM at SPA(5). This meta-analysis clearly demonstrates that the effects of PM on pasture intake, milk production, and behavior of strip-grazing dairy cows depend largely on the height at which the PM and pasture allowance are measured. These results have methodological implications for future grazing research because it can be recommended that PM be compared at similar levels of pasture availability (i.e., at the same pasture allowance above 2 to 3 cm) to avoid possible misinterpretations of results. They also reveal the benefits of improving grazing management and intake prediction through modeling in pasture-based dairy systems. PMID:22916937

Pérez-Prieto, L A; Delagarde, R

2012-09-01

20

Hydrogenated fish fat for grazing dairy cows in summer.  

PubMed

Thirty-two multiparous Holando argentino cows in mid lactation were randomly assigned to two treatments: control or HFF (hydrogenated fish fat) at Rafaela, 31 degrees 11' South, during summer 1997/1998, to evaluate the effect of using HFF as a supplement under grazing conditions. Animals in both treatments grazed an alfalfa pasture, and were confined from 1000 hours to 1700 hours daily in a shaded pen where water was provided ad libitum. During each milking, animals in the control group received 3.73 kg dry matter per cow each day (DM cow(-1) day(-1)) concentrate (15% crude protein; 8.69 MJ energy for location/kg DM). Cows in the HFF group received 3.25 kg DM cow(-1) day(-1) concentrate, plus 0.200 kg DM cow(-1) day(-1) HFF. Both diets presented similar energy, protein and neutral detergent fibre contents. The trial was performed during a strong "El Niño" event, which resulted in a total rainfall of 396.3 mm (80% higher than normal). The mean temperature was 23.7 (SD 3.2) degrees C and the mean temperature humidity index was 72.9 (SD 4.96). Production data were analysed using a completely randomised design with analysis of covariance. Supplementation with HFF produced an increase in daily milk production (26.4 (SD 2.46) l/cow compared to 23.9 (SD 2.68) l/cow for the controls; P<0.05). Milk fat production was higher for HFF (P<0.05): 941 (SD 96) g cow(-1) day(-1) as compared to controls, which yielded 846 (SD 95) g cow(-1) day(-1). Milk protein yields also differed significantly (P<0.05), the respective values for HFF and controls being 795 (SD 72) g cow(-1) day(-1) and 715 (SD 83) g cow(-1) day(-1). It was concluded that hydrogenated fish fat could be a good ingredient to sustain high yields and elevated maintenance requirements in a grazing system during hot conditions. PMID:11594630

Gallardo, M R; Valtorta, S E; Leva, P E; Castro, H C; Maiztegui, J A

2001-09-01

21

METHANE EMISSION FROM GRAZING DAIRY CATTLE IN TROPICAL BRAZIL: MITIGATION BY IMPROVING PRODUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out on tropical grass pasture, in summer 2002, to find out possible mitigation options to reduce methane emission using different categories of grazing dairy cattle breeds. Methane emission was measured using the SF6 tracer technique. Experimental design was a block distribution in tim e, along four consecutive weeks, five days a week, at 12 -hour intervals, employing

Brazil Frighetto; M. A. Lima

22

Effects of co-grazing dairy heifers with goats on animal performance, dry matter yield, and pasture forage composition.  

PubMed

Mixed livestock grazing can offer an alternative management system for rearing dairy replacement heifers (Bos taurus). A 2-yr study was conducted during 2009 (yr 1) and 2010 (yr 2) to determine the effects of co-grazing Holstein heifers under rotational stocking with Boer × Kiko goats on animal performance, pasture DM yield, and botanical composition. Each year, 24 heifers (134 ± 6 d of age and 147.4 ± 31.2 kg BW in yr 1; 166 ± 11 d of age and 168.0 ± 27.6 kg BW in yr 2) and 6 goats (2 yr old and 39.7 ± 16.2 kg BW in yr 1; 1 yr old and 33.7 ± 7.4 kg BW in yr 2) were divided into 6 paddocks with 4 heifers and 2 goats, where applicable, per group. Low endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pastures were used to evaluate 2 grazing strategies (heifers grazed alone [HO] or heifers co-grazed with goats [HG]). In addition, 6 goats were assigned to 2 paddocks and grazed alone (GO) each year to estimate goat pasture forage intake and compare Haemonchus contortus infection to co-grazed goats. Forage samples were taken monthly to assess DM yield and botanical composition. Samples collected for botanical composition were manually sorted into grass, legume, and weed species. Forage DMI was estimated using a rising plate meter before and after grazing. Heifer BW at the conclusion of yr 1 and yr 2 did not differ between HO and HG (P = 0.40 and P = 0.12, respectively). Likewise, overall ADG did not differ between HO and HG, averaging 0.65 kg/d and 0.63 kg/d over both grazing seasons (P = 0.70). Grazing strategy did not affect forage or total DMI in yr 1; however, HO consumed 2.3 kg/d more forage DM than HG (P < 0.01), resulting in greater total DMI for HO in yr 2 (P < 0.01). Heights at the hip and withers were greater for HO than for HG during both grazing seasons (P < 0.05). Weed presence did not differ between grazing strategies over both grazing seasons as determined by manual harvesting, but visual estimation of botanical composition at the end of yr 2 showed that HO paddocks had 3.5 times more weed presence than HG pastures (P < 0.01). Within the confines of this study, co-grazing did not affect overall heifer BW gain, but it decreased DMI, suggesting that dairy heifers can be co-grazed with goats without negative effects on ADG or feed efficiency. PMID:22952353

Dennis, T S; Unruh-Snyder, L J; Neary, M K; Nennich, T D

2012-09-05

23

Meta-analysis of the effect of pasture allowance on pasture intake, milk production, and grazing behavior of dairy cows grazing temperate grasslands.  

PubMed

Daily pasture allowance (PA) is defined as the product of pregrazing pasture mass and offered area, and is the major grazing management factor determining pasture utilization per unit area and daily performance of grazing dairy cows. The objective of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis reviewing the effect of PA on pasture intake, milk production, milk composition, and grazing behavior of dairy cows. Experiments studying the effect of PA on pasture intake or milk production, which eventually included milk composition or grazing behavior data, or both, were selected to create a database. Papers were selected only if at least 2 PA were compared under the same experimental conditions, particularly the same pasture mass (i.e., where PA levels were only obtained through changes in daily offered area). The final database included 97 PA comparisons reported in 56 papers. For analytical purposes, the database was subdivided into 3 subsets that varied according to the estimation height (EH) at which PA was determined; that is, PA above ground level (PA0 subset), PA above 2.5 to 3.5cm (PA3 subset), and PA above 4 to 5cm (PA5 subset). Statistical analyses were conducted independently on the PA0, PA3, and PA5 subsets and on the whole database (global analysis) by using linear and nonlinear mixed-model procedures. The curves, either exponential, quadratic, or linear, describing the effects of PA on pasture intake, milk production, or grazing behavior of dairy cows are conceptually similar, whatever the EH. The equations describing these curves are, however, specific for each EH. Accordingly, from typical low to high PA, the increase in pasture intake (0.13 vs. 0.21 vs. 0.28kg/kg of PA), milk production (0.11 vs. 0.17 vs. 0.24kg/kg of PA), and milk solids production (0.008 vs. 0.010 vs. 0.013kg/kg of PA) per kilogram of increase in PA was lower for PA0 than for PA3, and for PA3 than for PA5. Grazing time increased from low to medium PA and did not vary from medium to high PA. Pasture intake rate seemed to increase from low to medium PA because of greater bite mass, whereas it increased from medium to high PA because of greater biting rate. The present meta-analysis demonstrated that the general relationship between PA and any dependent variable is quite strong and independent of EH. This suggests no specific relationship for some parts of the world or methodology approach, with a high portability of the global equations calculated here. These results are useful for improving grazing management and modeling on pasture-based dairy systems. PMID:23958002

Pérez-Prieto, L A; Delagarde, R

2013-08-16

24

Evaluation of the Survivability of Fecal Coliform in Soil after Winter Application of Dairy Slurry on a Transitional-organic, Grazing Based Dairy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lifespan of soil bacteria can affect the potential of bacterial transport to surface waters and therefore influence policy decisions for land application of manure. The persistence of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli in the top 3.8 cm of soil was evaluated after spreading dairy slurry during winter months on a transitional-organic, grazing based dairy in southwestern Washington. Two applications

T. D. Nennich; J. H. Harrison; D. L. Davidson

25

Modelling nitrous oxide emissions from dairy-grazed pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil N2O emissions were measured during four seasons from two highly productive grass-clover dairy pastures to assess the influences of soil moisture, temperature, availability of N (NH4+ and NO3–) and soluble C on N2O emissions, and to use the emission data to validate and refine a simulation model (DNDC). The soils at these pasture sites (Karapoti fine sandy loam, and

S. Saggar; R. M. Andrew; K. R. Tate; C. B. Hedley; N. J. Rodda; J. A. Townsend

2004-01-01

26

Grazing management and supplementation effects on forage and dairy cow performance on cool-season pastures in the southeastern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cool-season annual forages provide high-quality herbage for up to 5 mo in the US Gulf Coast states, but their management in pasture-based dairy systems has received little attention. Objectives of this study were to evaluate pasture and animal responses when lactating Holstein cows (n=32, mean DIM=184±21) grazed either N-fertilized rye (Secale cereale L.)-annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) mixed pastures or

B. Macoon; L. E. Sollenberger; C. R. Staples; K. M. Portier; J. H. Fike; J. E. Moore

2011-01-01

27

Effect of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) cultivars on the milk yield of grazing dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of four perennial ryegrass cultivars: Bealey, Astonenergy, Spelga and AberMagic on the milk yield and milk composition of grazing dairy cows. Two 4 × 4 latin square experiments were completed, one during the reproductive and the other during the vegetative growth phase of the cultivars. Thirty-two Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were divided into four groups, with each group assigned 17 days on each cultivar during both experiments. Within each observation period, milk yield and milk composition, sward morphology and pasture chemical composition were measured. During the reproductive growth phase, organic matter digestibility (OMD) was greater for Bealey and Astonenergy (P < 0.001; +1.6%). AberMagic contained a higher stem proportion (P < 0.01; +0.06) and a longer sheath height (P < 0.001; +1.9 cm). Consequently, cows grazing AberMagic recorded a lower milk yield (P < 0.001; -1.5 kg/day) and a lower milk solids yield (P < 0.001; -0.13 kg/day). During the vegetative growth phase, OMD was greater (P < 0.001; +1.1%) for Bealey, whereas the differences between the cultivars in terms of sward structure were smaller and did not appear to influence animal performance. As a result, cows grazing Bealey recorded a higher milk yield (P < 0.001; +0.9 kg/day) and a higher milk solids yield (P < 0.01; +0.08 kg/day). It was concluded that grass cultivar did influence milk yield due to variations in sward structure and chemical composition. PMID:23034142

Wims, C M; McEvoy, M; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

2012-10-04

28

Effect of pregrazing herbage mass on methane production, dry matter intake, and milk production of grazing dairy cows during the mid-season period.  

PubMed

Increasing milk production from pasture while increasing grass dry matter intake (GDMI) and lowering methane (CH(4)) emissions are key objectives of low-cost dairy production systems. It was hypothesized that offering swards of low herbage mass with increased digestibility leads to increased milk output. A grazing experiment was undertaken to investigate the effects of varying levels of HM on CH(4) emissions, GDMI and milk production of grazing dairy cows during the mid-season grazing period (June to July). Prior to the experiment, 46 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (46 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments (n=23) in a randomized block design. The 2 treatments consisted of 2 target pregrazing HM: 1,000 kg of dry matter (DM)/ha (low herbage mass, LHM) or 2,200 kg of DM/ha (high herbage mass, HHM). The experimental period lasted 2 mo from June 1 until July 31. Within the experimental period, there were 2 measurement periods, measurement 1 (M1) and measurement 2 (M2), where CH(4) emissions, GDMI, and milk production were measured. Mean herbage mass throughout the measurement periods was 1,075 kg of DM/ha and 1,993 kg of DM/ha for the LHM and HHM treatments, respectively. Grass quality in terms of organic matter digestibility was significantly higher for the LHM treatment in M2 (+12 g/kg of DM). In M1, the effect of herbage mass on grass quality was approaching significance in favor of the LHM treatment. Herbage mass did not significantly affect milk production during the measurement periods. Cows grazing the LHM swards had increased GDMI in M1 (+1.5 kg of DM) compared with cows grazing the HHM swards; no difference in GDMI was observed in M2. Grazing HHM swards increased CH(4) production per cow per day (+42 g), per kilogram of milk yield (+3.5 g/kg of milk), per kilogram of milk solids (+47 g/kg of milk solids), and per kilogram of GDMI (+3.1 g/kg of GDMI) in M2. Cows grazing the HHM swards lost a greater proportion of their gross energy intake as CH(4) during both measurement periods (+0.9% and +1% for M1 and M2, respectively). It was concluded that grazing LHM swards would increase grass quality with a concurrent reduction in CH(4) emissions. PMID:20855032

Wims, C M; Deighton, M H; Lewis, E; O'Loughlin, B; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

2010-10-01

29

Effects of sequential treatments with eprinomectin on performance and grazing behaviour in dairy cattle under daily-paddock stocking management  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effect of gastrointestinal parasites on grazing behaviour, herbage intake and milk production in spring calving dairy cows, 12 naturally infected control cows were compared with 12 similar animals treated on three occasions (June, July and September) with eprinomectin. The cows were blocked according to calving date, parity, live weight and milk yield during week 2 after turnout

M. J. Gibb; C. A. Huckle; A. B. Forbes

2005-01-01

30

Effect of rumen fill on intake of fresh perennial ryegrass in young and mature dairy cows grazing or zero-grazing fresh perennial ryegrass.  

PubMed

Rumen fill may be a strong intake constraint for dairy cows fed on pasture, even though pasture is highly digestible in the grasslands of temperate climates. This constraint may also depend on the cows' maturity. Moreover, indoor feeding of fresh herbage may not always be a good model for the study of intake regulation at grazing. To test these hypotheses, four mature (6.3 ± 0.72 year old) and four young (3.8 ± 0.20 year old) dairy cows were offered fresh perennial ryegrass indoors or at grazing. The impact of rumen fill on intake was evaluated by addition of rumen inert bulk (RIB; coconut fiber, 15 l) compared to a control. The experimental design was a double 4 × 4 Latin square with four 14-day periods and a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of two feeding methods (indoor feeding v. grazing), combined with the addition, or not, of RIB (RIB v. control), repeated for four mature and four young cows. Digestibility of offered herbage was 0.81. The average ytterbium measured dry matter intake (Yb DMI) was 19.0 and 15.5 kg/day for mature and young cows respectively (P = 0.019). The effect of RIB on predicted Yb DMI interacted with feeding method and cow age (P = 0.043). The presence of RIB decreased Yb DMI by 4.4 kg/day in mature cows at grazing and by 3.4 kg/day in young cows indoors, whereas it did not affect the Yb DMI of mature cows indoors or grazing young cows. Both grazing and young age constituted a clear constraint on the feeding behavior of the cows. Grazing cows had fewer ingestion and rumination sequences, which were longer and less evenly distributed throughout the day and night. Young cows had lower intake rates that were less adaptable to the feeding method and the presence of RIB. Mature cows clearly decreased their daily intake rate at grazing compared to indoor feeding, and with RIB compared to control, whereas the intake rate of young cows did not vary. These results indicate that rumen fill can represent a constraint on intake in grazing cows, even when highly digestible perennial ryegrass is offered. The study also shows that the impact of RIB on intake is highly dependent upon other constraints applied to the chewing behavior, which in this experiment were methods of offering herbage and cow age. PMID:22443555

Boudon, A; Peyraud, J-L; Faverdin, P; Delagarde, R; Delaby, L; Chaves, A V

2009-12-01

31

PREDICTABILITY OF EFFECTS OF ROTATIONAL GRAZING SYSTEMS ALONG ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rotational grazing systems have been implemented in numerous rangeland ecosystems with the desired objectives of increasing homogeneity of use of vegetation through high stocking densities within small pastures and increasing stocking rate. Vegetation and livestock responses to rotational grazing, w...

32

Systems In Organic Dairy Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to explore stakeholder perceptions of the contribution of an Automatic Milking System (AMS) to sustainable\\u000a development of organic dairy production in Denmark and the Netherlands. In addition, reasons for the current difference in\\u000a AMS use on organic dairy farms between both countries were explored. To answer above mentioned aims, farmers and advisors\\u000a in both

Frank W. Oudshoorn; Reint Jan Renes; Imke J. M. De Boer

2008-01-01

33

An epidemiological study of trichostrongylidiasis in dairy cattle grazing irrigated pastures.  

PubMed

Trichostrongylid burdens in 1 to 2-year-old dairy heifers were estimated after they grazed with a dairy herd for up to 12 months. Ostertagia ostertagi, Trichostrongylus axei and Cooperia oncophora represented 79.5, 12.7 and 7.8% respectively of all trichostrongylids recovered. The largest burden was 97,000 trichostrongyles with less than 20,000 being the typical burden. Clinical disease was not observed. The strain of O. ostertagi present was capable of inhibition and was not necessarily controlled by anthelmintics. Availability of infective larvae increased with the onset of spring when "modified tracer" calves accumulated up to 30,000 trichostrongyles over intervals of one month. From July to September each year, up to 80% of the Ostertagia burden in these animals were inhibited larvae. Faecal strongyloid egg counts fell from less than an average of 60 eggs per gram to 10 eggs per gram when the heifers were one and 2 years old, respectively. Mature cows continually passed few eggs in their faeces. PMID:6497788

Overend, D; Veale, P I; Copland, J W

1984-06-01

34

Implications of changing a Friesian dairy system to a Friesian Jersey crossbred dairy system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, budgets of herd dynamics, feed and energy supply, production and profit of alternative dairy farm systems were used to examine the effects of changing a 230 cow Holstein-Friesian (HF) dairy system to a Holstein-Friesian Jersey (HFJ) crossbred dairy system. In the comparison of the two dairy systems, the energy supplied to the 230 cow HF system was

Bill Malcolm; C Grainger

35

Evaluation and Application of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System for Dairy Cows Fed Diets Based on Pasture  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System for dairy cows consuming diets based on pasture, assessed the sensitivity of the model to critical inputs, and demonstrated application opportunities. Data were obtained from four grazing experiments and four indoor pasture feeding experi- ments (25 dietary treatments) involving dairy cows in New Zealand and the US. The model provided

E. S. Kolver; L. D. Muller; M. C. Barry; J. W. Penno

1998-01-01

36

Reasons and means for manipulating the micronutrient composition of milk from grazing dairy cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk and dairy products that are tailored to meet specific nutritional requirements will become more attractive and valuable to major groups of consumers if they can serve as delivery systems for health-promoting nutrients. Nutritional improvement of milk is achievable in several ways, preferably by making the desirable changes in vivo and on-farm to directly enhance the food without the need

S. O. Knowles; N. D. Grace; T. W. Knight; W. C. McNabb; J. Lee

2006-01-01

37

rumen biohydrogenation-derived fatty acids in milk fat from grazing dairy cows supplemented with rapeseed, sunflower, or linseed oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of supplementation with rapeseed, sun- flower, and linseed oils (0.5 kg\\/d; good sources of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids, respectively) on milk responses and milk fat fatty acid (FA) profile, with special emphasis on rumen-derived biohydrogenation intermediates (BI), were evaluated in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square study using 16 grazing dairy cows. The dietary treatments were

J. Cabrita; J. B. Bess; Pólo Universitário

2009-01-01

38

Seasonal variation in methane emission from dairy cows and breeding ewes grazing ryegrass\\/white clover pasture in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daily methane emission from 12 Romney?cross?bred ewes and 10 lactating Friesian dairy cows, rotationally grazed on perennial ryegrass\\/white clover dominant pastures, was measured during four seasons of a year (September, November, March, and June\\/July). Methane emission was measured from each animal for 5 consecutive days in each measurement period using the sulphur hexafluoride tracer gas technique. The pastures varied significantly

M. J. Ulyatt; K. R. Lassey; I. D. Shelton; C. F. Walker

2002-01-01

39

Absence of a weight gain response to Vitamin B12 supplementation in weaned dairy heifers grazing pastures of marginal cobalt content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim. To obtain information on serum and liver vitamin B12 and urinary methylmalonic acid concentrations as diagnostic tests to predict a weight gain response to supplementation with vitamin B12 in young dairy cattle when grazing pasture of low cobalt content.Methodology. Forty dairy cattle (12 Friesian, 14 Friesian × Jersey and 14 Jersey) were allocated to two equal sized groups, treated

R. G. Clark; R. S. Ellison; L. Mortleman; J. A. Kirks; H. V. Henderson

1999-01-01

40

Reproductive performance of grazing dairy cows following presynchronization and resynchronization protocols.  

PubMed

Objectives were to compare the effect of presynchronization and resynchronization methods on fertility responses of grazing dairy cows at first and second artificial insemination (AI) and pregnancy rate during the entire breeding season. Lactating dairy cows (n = 1,263) in 2 seasonal grazing farms were blocked, within farm, by parity, breed and days in milk. Within each block, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial with 2 presynchronization and 2 resynchronization treatments. Cows had their estrous cycles presynchronized with either a PGF(2?)-based program (Presynch) consisting of 2 injections of PGF(2?) administered 14 d apart and starting the timed AI protocol 11 d later, or with a PGF(2?)-GnRH-based presynchronization program (G6G) consisting of an injection of PGF(2?), followed 3 d later by an injection of GnRH and starting the timed AI protocol 6 d later. All cows received the first insemination on the same day, which was considered study d 0 and also d 0 of the breeding season. All cows received the 5-d timed AI protocol that consisted of GnRH on d -8, PGF(2?) on d -3 and -2, and GnRH+timed AI on d 0. Blood was sampled and analyzed for progesterone on d -8. On d 12, cows in each presynchronization treatment either remained as untreated controls (RCON) or received a controlled internal drug-release (CIDR) insert containing progesterone for 7 d (RCIDR). Estrus was observed daily starting on d 19 and cows in estrus were inseminated on the same day. On d 35, bulls were placed with the cows for an additional 65 d, completing a 100-d breeding season. Holstein cows were less likely to have progesterone ? 1 ng/mL on d -8, and had less expression of estrus and pregnancy per AI (P/AI), which resulted in a slower rate of pregnancy and a smaller proportion of pregnancy at the end of the study than did Jersey or crossbred cows. In addition, body condition, days in milk, and plasma progesterone concentration at the first GnRH injection of the timed AI protocol had marked effects on the reproductive performance of lactating grazing dairy cows. A greater proportion of G6G cows had progesterone ? 1 ng/mL at the first GnRH injection of the timed AI protocol compared with Presynch cows (82.0 vs. 74.3%). Presynchronization treatment did not influence P/AI, but cows in G6G had increased risk of pregnancy loss between d 30 and 65 after the first AI (12.9 vs. 8.1%). Nevertheless, an interaction between presynchronization and ovarian status was observed, and cows initiating the timed AI with progesterone ? 1 ng/mL had greater P/AI when previously treated with Presynch than G6G. On the other hand, G6G benefited P/AI of cows initiating the timed AI with progesterone < 1 ng/mL. Resynchronization with RCIDR altered the pattern of return to estrus, but it did not increase the rate of re-insemination and decreased the proportion of pregnant cows at the end of the 100-d breeding period (80.6 vs. 84.4%). PMID:21943749

Ribeiro, E S; Cerri, R L A; Bisinotto, R S; Lima, F S; Silvestre, F T; Greco, L F; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

2011-10-01

41

Nitrogen partitioning and milk production of dairy cows grazing simple and diverse pastures.  

PubMed

Research was conducted to examine the effects of a diverse pasture mix on dry matter intake, milk yield, and N partitioning of lactating dairy cows. A pasture containing only ryegrass and white clover (RG), or high-sugar ryegrass and white clover (HS), was compared with a diverse pasture mix (HSD) including chicory, plantain, lotus, high-sugar ryegrass, and white clover. The experiment was conducted over a 10-d period using 3 groups of 12 cows in late lactation. No difference was observed in dry matter (14.3 kg of dry matter/cow per day) or N (583 g of N/cow per day) intake between treatments. The cows grazing the HSD pasture had an increased milk yield (16.9 kg/d) compared with those grazing the simple RG and HS pastures (15.2 and 14.7 kg/d, respectively). However, no differences were observed in milk solids yield for the 3 treatments. A tendency toward greater milk protein yields in the HSD group resulted in improved N use efficiency for milk of 20.4% from the cows fed HSD, compared with 17.8 and 16.7% from cows in the RG and HS treatments, respectively. Urinary N excretion was lower from the cows fed HSD, at 353.8 g/d, compared with 438.3 and 426.6 g/d for cows fed RG and HS, respectively. These results suggest that the use of pastures containing chicory, lotus, and plantain can contribute to the goal of reducing N losses from cows in late lactation. PMID:23164232

Totty, V K; Greenwood, S L; Bryant, R H; Edwards, G R

2012-11-17

42

Gastrointestinal nematodes in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland.  

PubMed

This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal nematodes and the intensity of infection in grazing dairy cattle from small and medium-sized farms in southern Poland. The level of antibodies against Ostertagia ostertagi in the bulk tank milk (BTM) from the animals was also assessed. Rectal fecal samples collected from 361 cows on 20 farms were examined using Willis-Schlaaf flotation and the McMaster method. BTM samples were tested for the presence of O. ostertagi antibodies using ELISA. Multiplex PCR was used to identify the third-stage larvae (L3) of gastrointestinal nematodes derived from the culture of pooled fecal samples from sampled farms. Gastrointestinal nematode eggs were found in the samples from 18 of the 20 herds with a prevalence range from 20.4 to 94.5%. The average number of eggs excreted in the feces of the herds was 200 eggs per gram (EPG). Antibodies to O. ostertagi were found in 20 of the examined herds (100%), of which 6 had optical density ratios (ODR) greater than 0.5. PCR results showed the presence of three nematode species: Ostertagia ostertagi, Cooperia oncophora and Oesophagostomum radiatum. PMID:23958284

Piekarska, J; P?oneczka-Janeczko, K; Kantyka, M; Kuczaj, M; Gorczykowski, M; Janeczko, K

2013-08-03

43

Grazing: the whole picture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Environmental concerns for our farms include nutrient leaching to ground water, runoff in surface water, gaseous emissions, and the carbon footprint of our production systems. Recent reports have labeled grazing-based dairies as less environmentally sustainable compared to year around confinement sy...

44

EFFECTIVENESS OF GRAZING SYSTEMS - A SYNTHESIS OF EVIDENCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The general body of evidence in support of the use of grazing systems for sustained production from and health of rangelands is underwhelming, at best. This is despite decades of scientific investigations, conservation programs, and textbook promotion of grazing systems as logical components of rang...

45

Short communication: Effects of dietary nonstructural carbohydrates pre- and postpartum on reproduction of grazing dairy cows.  

PubMed

The working hypothesis was that postpartum anovulatory intervals (PPAI) of grazing dairy cows are shortened by inclusion of concentrates that increase the nonstructural carbohydrate content of the transition diet. Dietary treatments were arranged as a 2x2 factorial, with 68 multiparous cows assigned to isoenergetic diets (114 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow per day) of pasture and pasture silage (PreP) or pasture and pasture silage supplemented with 3 kg of dry matter/cow per day a corn- and barley-based concentrate for 36 d prepartum (PreC). After calving, cows within each prepartum diet group were managed on isoenergetic diets (179 MJ of metabolizable energy/cow per day) of either pasture and pasture silage (PostP) or pasture and pasture silage supplemented with 5 kg of dry matter/cow per day a corn- and barley-based concentrate (PostC) for at least 35 d and until reestablishment of ovulatory cycles. Relative to day of calving (d 0), blood samples were collected at least weekly from d -28 to 35 and milk samples were collected twice weekly for progesterone determination to diagnose ovulatory status. The main variable of interest was PPAI, defined as the interval between calving and the first detected increase in milk progesterone (>3 ng/mL), followed by a pattern of progesterone concentrations consistent with onset of an ovulatory cycle. Subsequent mating records, pregnancy testing, and recalving data were also examined. Prepartum diet did not affect reproduction. The PPAI was 8 d shorter and the 6-wk pregnancy rate was 17% greater in PostC cows compared with PostP cows. Measured indicators of metabolic state and energy balance were poorly related to PPAI. The results support the existence of nutritional signals associated with nonstructural carbohydrates in the postpartum diet, independent of energy balance; these signals benefit the physiological mechanisms underlying the timing of first ovulation and possibly subsequent breeding performance. PMID:20723702

Burke, C R; Kay, J K; Phyn, C V C; Meier, S; Lee, J M; Roche, J R

2010-09-01

46

Molasses as the primary energy supplement on an organic grazing dairy farm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Due to increasing organic grain costs, organic dairy farmers are looking for less expensive ingredients that can be reasonably fed to lactating dairy cows. Molasses seems to be a less expensive source of supplemental energy and vitamins. Organic dairy farmers inquire about molasses as an alternative...

47

Reproductive issues arising from different management systems in the dairy industry.  

PubMed

The objective of this review is to address the reproductive issues arising from different dairy management systems by describing divergent systems and comparing their reproductive outcomes. The increasing global demand for dairy products has led to the majority of the world's milk being produced in intensive management systems. This intensification has occurred in both zero-grazed (ZG) and in pasture-based (PB) systems, and it has contributed directly to the current decline in dairy cow fertility globally. Given the heterogeneous nature of both ZG and PB systems, comparisons between them in dairy cow reproductive performance need to be treated with caution. In general, cows in ZG systems have higher milk production and better energy balance but more of some animal health problems, lower ovarian activity post-partum, reduced oestrous expression, reduced conception success, and higher culling and mortality rates, than cows in PB systems. Key environmental descriptors affecting reproductive performance within management systems include the type and duration of housing and the pre- and post-partum diet composition. Genetic by environment (GxE) interactions for dairy cow fertility have been detected for some, but not for other, management systems. Given the concerns of some consumers within the EU about the health, fertility and welfare of dairy cows in modern dairy herd management systems, there is a need to address these concerns with large-scale experimental and epidemiological studies. PMID:22913559

Mee, J F

2012-08-01

48

Relationships between endometritis and metabolic state during the transition period in pasture-grazed dairy cows.  

PubMed

The primary objective of this study was to identify relationships between endometritis and metabolic state during the calving transition and early lactation periods. A subset of mixed age and breed dairy cows (n=78) from a seasonal, pasture-grazed herd of 389 cows was examined. The selected cows were grouped as having endometritis at d 42 postpartum or being unaffected by endometritis. Endometritis was defined as >6% (upper quartile) of uterine nucleated cells being polymorphonuclear cells (H-PMN; n=38); unaffected by endometritis was defined as ?1% of nucleated cells being polymorphonuclear (L-PMN; n=40). Milk yield was determined at each milking, and milk composition (fat and protein) was determined at 2-wk intervals. Blood samples collected on d -14, 0 (d of calving), 4, 7, 14, 28, and 42 were analyzed for indicators of energy status (nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, and urea), liver function (albumin, globulin, glutamate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase), inflammation (haptoglobin), and mineral status (Ca and Mg). Samples collected weekly from d 21 to 63 or 70 were analyzed for progesterone content. The postpartum anovulatory interval was defined to end on the first day postpartum that plasma progesterone concentration was ?1 ng/mL. A greater percentage of H-PMN cows failed to ovulate before d 63 or 70 (34%) compared with L-PMN cows (10%), although the proportions of cows ovulating within either polymorphonuclear group was similar through d 56 postpartum. Plasma concentrations of albumin and the albumin:globulin ratio were consistently lower in H-PMN cows. Plasma Mg was lower, whereas glutamate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase were higher, in H-PMN cows during early lactation compared with L-PMN cows. Circulating metabolites indicative of energy status (nonesterified fatty acids, glucose, and urea) were not different between polymorphonuclear groups. Among 3- to 5-yr-old cows, daily milk yield for the first 42 d after calving was lower for H-PMN cows than for L-PMN cows. Among cows >5 yr old, protein percentage was lower in H-PMN cows compared with L-PMN cows. In summary, endometritis at 42 d postpartum in the herd studied was associated with an increased likelihood of remaining anovulatory. These cows had lower albumin concentrations throughout the calving transition period, perhaps indicating impaired liver function, with lower plasma Mg and evidence of hepatocellular damage in early lactation. Similar profiles of nonesterified fatty acids and glucose indicated that energy status was not a risk factor for endometritis. PMID:20965352

Burke, C R; Meier, S; McDougall, S; Compton, C; Mitchell, M; Roche, J R

2010-11-01

49

Effects of strain of Holstein-Friesian and concentrate supplementation on the fatty acid composition of milk fat of dairy cows grazing pasture in early lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of a grain-based concentrate supplement on fatty acid (FA) intake and concentration of milk FA in early lactation was investigated in grazing dairy cows that differed in their country of origin and in their estimated breeding value for milk yield. It was hypoth- esized that Holstein-Friesian cows of North American (NA) origin would produce milk lower in milk

W. J. Wales; E. S. Kolver; A. R. Egan; R. Roche

2009-01-01

50

Case study: molasses as the primary energy supplement on an organic grazing dairy farm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organic dairies face many challenges, one of which is the high cost of purchasing organic feed grains. Many of these farms are seeking lower-cost feed ingredients that can be reasonably fed to lactating dairy cows. Molasses seems to be a viable, less expensive source of supplemental energy and vit...

51

Environmental efficiency of alternative dairy systems: A productive efficiency approach.  

PubMed

Agriculture across the globe needs to produce "more with less." Productivity should be increased in a sustainable manner so that the environment is not further degraded, management practices are both socially acceptable and economically favorable, and future generations are not disadvantaged. The objective of this paper was to compare the environmental efficiency of 2 divergent strains of Holstein-Friesian cows across 2 contrasting dairy management systems (grazing and nongrazing) over multiple years and so expose any genetic × environment (G×E) interaction. The models were an extension of the traditional efficiency analysis to account for undesirable outputs (pollutants), and estimate efficiency measures that allow for the asymmetric treatment of desirable outputs (i.e., milk production) and undesirable outputs. Two types of models were estimated, one considering production inputs (land, nitrogen fertilizers, feed, and cows) and the other not, thus allowing the assessment of the effect of inputs by comparing efficiency values and rankings between models. Each model type had 2 versions, one including 2 types of pollutants (greenhouse gas emissions, nitrogen surplus) and the other 3 (greenhouse gas emissions, nitrogen surplus, and phosphorus surplus). Significant differences were found between efficiency scores among the systems. Results indicated no G×E interaction; however, even though the select genetic merit herd consuming a diet with a higher proportion of concentrated feeds was most efficient in the majority of models, cows of the same genetic merit on higher forage diets could be just as efficient. Efficiency scores for the low forage groups were less variable from year to year, which reflected the uniformity of purchased concentrate feeds. The results also indicate that inputs play an important role in the measurement of environmental efficiency of dairy systems and that animal health variables (incidence of udder health disorders and body condition score) have a significant effect on the environmental efficiency of each dairy system. We conclude that traditional narrow measures of performance may not always distinguish dairy farming systems best fitted to future requirements. PMID:24054279

Toma, L; March, M; Stott, A W; Roberts, D J

2013-09-18

52

The effect of lameness on lying behaviour of zero grazed Holstein dairy cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examines the impact of chronic lameness, where animals remained the same locomotion score for 3 consecutive months on lying behaviour of dairy cattle.The 59 lactating Holstein dairy cows recruited to the study, were grouped according to locomotion score (LS) where low scores indicate normal gait. LS-1 (n=16), LS-2 (n=21) and LS-3 (n=22) were used. Locomotion score groups

Nicola Blackie; Jonathan Amory; Emma Bleach; Jes Scaife

2011-01-01

53

Impacts of future climate scenarios on nitrous oxide emissions from pasture based dairy systems in south eastern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrous oxide emissions account for ?10% of global greenhouse gas emissions, with the vast majority of them (?90%) from agricultural practices. The dairy industry in south-eastern Australia is largely a pasture based grazing system relying on a combination of pasture legumes, N fertiliser, imported feeds and effluent spreading to ensure adequate N nutrition of pastures. Total N inputs to this

R. J. Eckard; B. R. Cullen

2011-01-01

54

Dairy Herd On-line Information System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the business circumstances have become worse, computational breeding management based on the scientific matters has been needed for dairy farming in our country. In this connection it was urgent to construct the system which provided data effectively used in the fields for dairy farmers. The Federation has executed to provide dairy farming technical data promptly through its own on-line network being composed of middle sized general-purpose computer (main memory : 5MB, and fixed disk : 1100MB) and 22 terminals.

Takahashi, Satoshi

55

Relationships among rotational and conventional grazing systems, stream channels, and macroinvertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cattle grazing in riparian areas can reduce water quality, alter stream channel characteristics, and alter fish and macroinvertebrate\\u000a assemblage structure. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Services has recommended Rotational\\u000a Grazing (RG) as an alternative management method on livestock and dairy operations to protect riparian areas and water quality.\\u000a We evaluated 13 stream channel characteristics, benthic macroinvertebrate larvae

Kara L. Raymond; Bruce Vondracek

2011-01-01

56

Impact of increasing grain feeding frequency on production of dairy cows grazing pasture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pasture is a major component of the diet for dairy cows in Chile, and grain is often used as a supplement to increase milk production. The quantity of grain offered is affected by price and return to the farmer, but 6 kg\\/day is typical of many situations. However the benefits of feeding grain more frequently than twice daily to cows rotationally

R. G. Pulido; R. Muñoz; P. Lemarie; F. Wittwer; P. Orellana; G. C. Waghorn

2009-01-01

57

Associations between ??casein genotype and milk yield and composition in grazing dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk samples from New Zealand dairy cows at pasture were analysed to investigate the relationship between ??casein genotype and milk yield or composition traits. A total of 1661 milk samples from 21 North Island herds were analysed from individual cows in mid lactation, from a routine herd?test taken between mid November 2000 and early February 2001. The cows, whose ages

C. A. Morris; S. M. Hickey; N. G. Cullen; C. G. Prosser; R. M. Anderson; M. L. Tate

2005-01-01

58

Case study: molasses as the primary energy source on an organic grazing dairy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Organic dairies face many challenges, one of which is the high cost of purchased organic grains. Molasses may be a less expensive energy alternative. However, anecdotal results have been mixed for farms that used molasses as the sole energy source. This research project quantified animal performance...

59

Effect of molasses or cornmeal on milk production and nitrogen utilization of grazing organic dairy cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pasture is rich in soluble nitrogen (N) which is rapidly converted to ammonia in the rumen reducing N utilization in lactating dairy cows. Sucrose is more quickly degraded in the rumen than starch, suggesting that feeding molasses (MOL) to balance the supplies of energy and rumen degradable protein...

60

Analysis of FEL optical systems with grazing incidence mirrors  

SciTech Connect

The use of grazing incidence optics in resonators alleviates the problem of damage to the optical elements and permits higher powers in cavities of reasonable dimensions for a free electron laser (FEL). The design and manufacture of a grazing incidence beam expander for the Los Alamos FEL mock-up has been completed. In this paper, we describe the analysis of a bare cavity, grazing incidence optical beam expander for an FEL system. Since the existing geometrical and physical optics codes were inadequate for such an analysis, the GLAD code was modified to include global coordinates, exact conic representation, raytracing, and exact aberration features to determine the alignment sensitivities of laser resonators. A resonator cavity has been manufactured and experimentally setup in the Optical Evaluation Laboratory at Los Alamos. Calculated performance is compared with the laboratory measurements obtained so far.

Knapp, C.E.; Viswanathan, V.K.; Bender, S.C.; Appert, Q.D.; Lawrence, G.; Barnard, C.

1986-01-01

61

Milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows grazing at two pasture allowances and supplemented with different levels and sources of concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Milk fatty acid (FA) composition of dairy cows from two grazing studies was examined. In the first study, effects of concentrate supplementation and pasture allowance were evaluated using 20 multiparous Holstein cows in five 4×4 Latin squares. The four treatments resulted from the combination of two pasture allowances (i.e., low, 25 versus high, 40kg dry matter\\/cow\\/day) and two concentrate supplementation

F. Bargo; J. E. Delahoy; G. F. Schroeder; L. D. Muller

2006-01-01

62

Dairy goat production systems: status quo, perspectives and challenges.  

PubMed

Goat production concentrated in developing countries (tropics, dry areas), contributes largely to the livelihoods of low and medium income farmers. Farming systems in these areas have evolved to cope with the formidable constraints imposed by harsh natural and economic conditions by adapting integrated crop/livestock production strategies. In Asia, Africa and Latin America, due to its almost exclusive extensive nature, goat production relies mainly on grazing on communal lands that hardly provide the minimum nutrient requirements due to overstocking and degradation. While some of these production systems are becoming semi-intensive, appropriate breeding strategies should be designed to promote conservation and improvement of their unique attributes, such as adaptability, water use efficiency and suitability under harsh climatic conditions. In Europe, dairy goat production is more common around the Mediterranean basin, where it is important from an economic, environmental and sociological perspective to the Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy and Greece. Europe owns only 5.1 % of the world's dairy goat herds, but produces 15.6 % of the world's goat milk; this is the only continent where goat milk has such an economic importance and organization. In developing countries the dairy goat sector requires a systemic approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, know-how, inputs and technologies must be assembled. This would allow the optimization of natural and local resources and would promote the transition from a risk reduction strategy towards an increased productivity strategy. Such an increase would privilege production efficiency based on clean, green and ethical practices for responsible innovation. PMID:22890482

Escareño, Luis; Salinas-Gonzalez, Homero; Wurzinger, Maria; Iñiguez, Luiz; Sölkner, Johann; Meza-Herrera, Cesar

2012-08-14

63

Suckling, a natural calf rearing system for organic dairy farms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maternal behaviour and contact between cow and calf is limited or absent in modern dairy systems due to the wide use of bucket feeding. This is also the case in organic dairy systems. An increasing number of individual farmers are not satisfied with the artificial bucket feeding system. In order to i m- prove the welfare of their dairy cattle,

J. Langhout; J. P. Wagenaar

64

100% PASTURE FOR DAIRY COWS: PROFITABILITY, MILK QUALITY AND ANIMAL WELFARE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Some dairy farmers and consumers are proponents of a diet for dairy cows with 100% pasture and no supplementation, similar to a New Zealand system. However, for US dairy producers who are thinking about a “100% pasture” system, this may not be a reality. Even during the 6 to 7 months grazing period,...

65

GRAZING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS TO MINIMIZE PHOPHORUS LOSSES FROM UPLAND PASTURES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of grazing management practices on Phosphorus (P) losses from upland pastures in Iowa. In 2001, five grazing treatments, including an ungrazed control, hay and stockpile, rotational grazing to 10 cm, rotational grazing to 5 cm, and continuous ...

66

Trace gas emissions following deposition of excreta by grazing dairy cows in eastern Canada  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The N2O emission factor proposed for cattle excreta N by the Tier I IPCC methodology (EF3) is 2% (IPCC, 2006). While N2O emissions from excreta deposited by grazing animals have been reported in several publications, relatively few estimated EF3 values because measurements did not cover the entire year. This study measured N2O and CH4 flux and crop dry matter (DM) yield over two years (2009 to 2011) from a clay and a sandy loam soil cultivated with Timothy grass (Phleum pratense L.). A split-plot design was used on each soil type, with different application dates (either spring, summer or autumn application) as main plots and treatment (U-50: urine 50 g N m-2, U-100: urine 100 g N m-2, dung: 60 g N m-2, and control) as the sub-plots. Regardless of application time, annual DM yield increased in all treated plots when compared to the control. Also, DM yields were generally greater when urine as opposed to dung was applied suggesting greater N-availability from the urine application. The CH4 flux from the dung plots increased for only the first two weeks after treatment while the flux from the urine plots was similar to the control plots. Cumulative N2O emissions on the U-50 and U-100 plots increased linearly with urine N rate on both soils, resulting in nearly identical mean emission factors for both urine rates. The emission factor for the urine was three times greater on the clay (1.02% of applied N on both rates) than on the sandy loam soil (0.26% (U100) and 0.31% (U50) of applied N). Cumulative N2O emissions from dung plots also differed between soil types; however the impact of soil type on N2O emissions was opposite to that of urine, with greater losses from the sandy loam (0.15%) compared with the clay soil (0.07%). These results suggest that estimates of soil N2O emissions by grazing cattle in Eastern Canada obtained using the IPCC default methodology are overestimates of actual values and that these estimates for should include a stratification according to soil type.

Rochette, P.; Pelster, D. E.; Chantigny, M. H.; Angers, D. A.; Liang, C.; Belanger, G.; Ziadi, N.; Charbonneau, E.; Pellerin, D.

2012-04-01

67

Dairy  

MedlinePLUS

... Food and Fitness > Food > What Can I Eat Dairy Listen Low-fat Milk and Yogurt Including sources of dairy in your diet is an easy way to get calcium and high-quality protein. Many dairy products, like non-fat light yogurt, can be ...

68

Trace Element Supplementation of Livestock in New Zealand: Meeting the Challenges of Free-Range Grazing Systems  

PubMed Central

Managing the mineral nutrition of free-range grazing livestock can be challenging. On farms where grazing animals are infrequently yarded, there are limited opportunities to administer trace element supplements via feeds and concentrates. In New Zealand, where the majority of sheep, cattle, and deer graze pasture year round, inadequate intake of cobalt, copper, iodine and selenium is prevalent. Scientists and farmers have developed efficient strategies to monitor and treat these dietary deficiencies. Supplementation methods suited to grazing livestock include long-acting injections, slow-release intraruminal boluses, trace element-amended fertilisers, and reticulated water supplies on dairy farms.

Grace, Neville D.; Knowles, Scott O.

2012-01-01

69

LEACHING LOSSES OF NITROGEN FROM STOCKPILED DAIRY MANURE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Winter-feeding is a challenge for grazing based livestock systems. Low input dairy systems may use outdoor winter-feeding in lots that provide protection from weather and a straw bedded pack is used to keep cows dry. The water quality risk associated with outdoor winter-feeding of dairy cows is not ...

70

Effect of supplementation of grazing dairy ewes with a cereal concentrate on animal performance and milk fatty acid profile1  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementing grazing ewes on pasture with a cereal concentrate on the milk fatty acid (FA) profile. Ninety Assaf ewes in mid lactation were distributed in 9 lots of 10 animals each and allocated to 3 feeding regimens: 1) pasture—ewes were only allowed to graze pasture (an irrigated sward of Lolium perenne,

P. Gómez-Cortés; P. Frutos; A. R. Mantecón; M. Juárez; M. A. de la Fuente; G. Hervás

2009-01-01

71

Organic Dairy Production Systems in Pennsylvania: A Case Study Evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current market demand and price for organic milk is encouraging dairy producers, particularly those on smaller farms, to consider organic production as a means for improving the economic viability of their operations. Organic production systems vary widely in scale, in practices, and across agroclimatic settings. Within this context, case studies of 4 actual organic dairy farms were used to

C. A. Rotz; G. H. Kamphuis; H. D. Karsten; R. D. Weaver

2007-01-01

72

Modelling the resilience of Australian savanna systems to grazing impacts.  

PubMed

Savannas occur across all of northern Australia and are extensively used as rangelands. A recent surge in live cattle exports to Southeast Asia has caused excessive grazing impacts in some areas, especially near watering points. An important ecological and management question is "how resilient are savanna ecosystems to grazing disturbances?" Resilience refers to the ability of an ecosystem to remain in its current state (resist change) and return to this state (recover) if disturbed. Resilience responses can be measured using field data. These responses can then be modelled to predict the likely resistance and recovery of savannas to grazing impacts occurring under different climatic conditions. Two approaches were used to model resilience responses. First, a relatively simple mathematical model based on a sigmoid response function was used. This model proved useful for comparing the relative resilience of different savanna ecosystems, but was limited to ecosystems and conditions for which data were available. Second, a complex process model, SAVANNA, was parameterised to simulate the structure and function of Australian savannas. Simulations were run for 50 years at two levels of grazing to evaluate resistance and then for another 50 years with no grazing to evaluate recovery. These runs predicted that savanna grasslands were more resistant to grazing (changed less) than red-loam woodlands, which recovered relatively slowly from grazing impacts. The SAVANNA model also predicted that these woodlands would recover slightly slower under the climate change scenario projected for northern Australia. PMID:11697665

Ludwig, J A; Coughenour, M B; Liedloff, A C; Dyer, R

2001-09-01

73

Effect of cereal grain and fibre supplements on the fatty acid composition of milk fat of grazing dairy cows in early lactation.  

PubMed

Two experiments were undertaken to determine the effects of cereal grain and fibre (hay or straw) supplements on the fatty acid composition of milk fat of grazing dairy cows in early lactation. In both experiments, grain supplements significantly increased (P < 0.05) the proportion of the endogenously synthesized 10:0-16:0 fatty acids. Of the C18 acids, the proportion of 18:0 and 18:3 was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by grain supplementation, while that of 18:2 was significantly increased (P < 0.05). Irrespective of diet, 18:1 trans-11 was the most dominant trans 18:1 isomer in milk fat. In the first experiment, the proportions of the 18:1 trans-11 isomer and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, 18:2 cis-9, trans-11) were highest for the pasture-only diets, and significantly (P < 0.05) decreased with grain supplementation. The opposite result was observed in the second experiment, conducted in a different dairy region, suggesting that factors such as the quality of pasture on offer and the physiological state of the cow could affect the content of CLA and trans fatty acids in milk fat. In both experiments, there was a significant positive linear relationship between CLA and 18:1 trans-11. Fibre supplements had little effect on the fatty acid composition of the milk. PMID:12916819

Wijesundera, Chakra; Shen, Zhiping; Wales, William J; Dalley, Dawn E

2003-08-01

74

Emergy evaluation of contrasting dairy systems at multiple levels.  

PubMed

Emergy accounting (EmA) was applied to a range of dairy systems, from low-input smallholder systems in South Mali (SM), to intermediate-input systems in two regions of France, Poitou-Charentes (PC) and Bretagne (BR), to high-input systems on Reunion Island (RI). These systems were studied at three different levels: whole-farm (dairy system and cropping system), dairy-system (dairy herd and forage land), and herd (animals only). Dairy farms in SM used the lowest total emergy at all levels and was the highest user of renewable resources. Despite the low quality of resources consumed (crop residues and natural pasture), efficiency of their use was similar to that of industrialised inputs by intensive systems in RI, PC and BR. In addition, among the systems studied, SM dairy farms lay closest to environmental sustainability, contradicting the usual image of high environmental impact of cattle production in developing countries. EmA also revealed characteristics of the three intensive systems. Systems from RI and PC had lower resource transformation efficiency and higher environmental impacts than those from BR, due mainly to feeding strategies that differed due to differing socio-climatic constraints. Application of EmA at multiple levels revealed the importance of a multi-level analysis. While the whole-farm level assesses the overall contribution of the system to its environment, the dairy-system level is suitable for comparison of multi-product systems. In contrast, the herd level focuses on herd management and bypasses debates about definition of system boundaries by excluding land management. Combining all levels highlights the contribution of livestock to the global agricultural system and identifies inefficiencies and influences of system components on the environment. PMID:23792889

Vigne, Mathieu; Peyraud, Jean-Louis; Lecomte, Philippe; Corson, Michael S; Wilfart, Aurélie

2013-06-20

75

Forage-based dairying in a water-limited future: use of models to investigate farming system adaptation in southern Australia.  

PubMed

The irrigated dairy industry in southern Australia has experienced significant restrictions in irrigation water allocations since 2005, consistent with climate change impact predictions for the region. Simulation models of pasture growth (DairyMod), crop yield (Agricultural Production Systems Simulator, APSIM), and dairy system management and production (UDDER) were used in combination to investigate a range of forage options that may be capable of sustaining dairy business profitability under restricted water-allocation scenarios in northern Victoria, Australia. A total of 23 scenarios were simulated and compared with a base farm system (100% of historical water allocations, grazed perennial ryegrass pasture with supplements; estimated operating surplus $A2,615/ha at a milk price of $A4.14/kg of milk solids). Nine simulations explored the response of the base farm to changes in stocking rate or the implementation of a double cropping rotation on 30% of farm area, or both. Five simulations explored the extreme scenario of dairying without any irrigation water. Two general responses to water restrictions were investigated in a further 9 simulations. Annual ryegrass grazed pasture, complemented by a double cropping rotation (maize grown in summer for silage, followed by either brassica forage crop and annual ryegrass for silage in winter and spring) on 30% of farm area, led to an estimated operating surplus of $A1746/ha at the same stocking rate as the base farm when calving was moved to autumn (instead of late winter, as in the base system). Estimated total irrigation water use was 2.7ML/ha compared with 5.4ML/ha for the base system. Summer-dormant perennial grass plus double cropping (30% of farm area) lifted operating surplus by a further $A100/ha if associated with autumn calving (estimated total irrigation water use 3.1ML/ha). Large shifts in the forage base of dairy farms could sustain profitability in the face of lower, and fluctuating, water allocations. However, changes in other strategic management policies, notably calving date and stocking rate, would be required, and these systems would be more complex to manage. The adaptation scenarios that resulted in the highest estimated operating surplus were those where at least 10 t of pasture or crop DM was grazed directly by cows per hectare per year, resulting in grazed pasture intake of at least 2 t of DM/cow, and at least 60% of all homegrown feed that was consumed was grazed directly. PMID:22720972

Chapman, D F; Dassanayake, K; Hill, J O; Cullen, B R; Lane, N

2012-07-01

76

Habitat relationships of eastern red-backed salamanders ( Plethodon cinereus) in Appalachian agroforestry and grazing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Woodland salamander responses to either traditional grazing or silvopasture systems are virtually unknown. An information-theoretic modelling approach was used to evaluate responses of red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) to silvopasture and meadow conversions in southern West Virginia. Searches of area-constrained plots and artificial coverboards that were distributed across a gradient of agricultural conversion and grazing intensity, including hardwood silvopastures, hay meadows,

Breanna L. Riedel; Kevin R. Russell; W. Mark Ford; Katherine P. O’Neill; Harry W. Godwin

2008-01-01

77

Once-daily milking during a feed deficit decreases milk production but improves energy status in early lactating grazing dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of milking frequency (MF) at 2 feeding levels (FL) on milk production, body condition score, and metabolic indicators of energy status in grazing dairy cows during early lactation. Multiparous Holstein-Friesian and Holstein-Friesian × Jersey cows (n=120) grazed pasture and were milked twice daily (2×) from calving until 34±6d in milk (mean ± standard deviation). Cows were then allocated to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted of 2FL: adequately fed [AF; 14.3kg dry matter intake (DMI)/cow per d] or underfed (UF; 8.3kg of DMI/cow per d) and 2 MF: 2× or once daily (1×). Treatments were imposed for 3wk. After the treatment period, all cows were offered a generous pasture allowance (grazing residuals >1,600kg of dry matter/ha) and milked 2×. During the 3-wk treatment period, we observed an interaction between FL and MF for energy-corrected milk (ECM), such that the decrease due to 1× milking was greater in AF than in UF cows (20 and 14% decrease, respectively). No interactions were found posttreatment. Cows previously UF produced 7% less ECM than AF cows during wk 4 to 12; however, no subsequent effect was observed of the previous underfeeding. Cows previously milked 1× produced 5% less ECM during wk 4 to 12, and differences remained during wk 13 to 23. During the 3-wk treatment period, UF cows lost 0.2 body condition score units (1-10 scale) and this was not affected by 1× milking. During the treatment period, UF cows had lower plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and greater nonesterified fatty acids and ?-hydroxybutyrate concentrations than AF cows. Cows milked 1× had greater plasma glucose, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor I, and lower nonesterified fatty acids and ?-hydroxybutyrate concentrations compared with cows milked 2×. In conclusion, energy status was improved by 1× milking; however, when UF cows were milked 1×, milk production was reduced by more than underfeeding alone. The immediate and residual responses to 1× milking need to be considered when using this management strategy during a feed deficit. PMID:23891301

Kay, J K; Phyn, C V C; Rius, A G; Morgan, S R; Grala, T M; Roche, J R

2013-07-25

78

Short communication: Responses to supplemental Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product and triticale grain in dairy cows grazing high-quality pasture in early lactation.  

PubMed

Supplementing cows grazing highly digestible pasture with a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) was hypothesized to increase dry matter (DM) intake and milk production. Sixty multiparous dairy cows were fed 3 kg of crushed triticale DM/cow per day for 23 ± 4.4 d before calving. Half of the cows received SCFP (60 g/d; Diamond V Original XP; Diamond V Mills, Inc., Cedar Rapids, IA). Cows in both treatment groups were randomly allocated at calving to 1 of 2 amounts (3 or 6 kg of DM/d) of triticale feeding with or without 60 g of SCFP/day (n=15/treatment) until 84 days in milk. The amount of pasture harvested (kg of DM/cow per day) and milk yield (kg/cow per day) were not affected by SCFP. Milk protein content and yield were greater in cows receiving 6 kg of crushed triticale DM/d. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids and ?-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were not affected by SCFP supplementation, but were lower in cows fed 6 kg of crushed triticale DM/d than those fed 3 kg of DM/d. Supplementation with SCFP increased milk lactose content without affecting milk production under the conditions investigated. PMID:21605780

Irvine, L D; Freeman, M J; Donaghy, D J; Yoon, I; Lee, G; Roche, J R

2011-06-01

79

Genotype effects on body temperature in dairy cows under grazing conditions in a hot climate including evidence for heterosis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compared diurnal patterns of vaginal temperature in lactating cows under grazing conditions to evaluate genotype effects on body temperature regulation. Genotypes evaluated were Holstein, Jersey, Jersey × Holstein and Swedish Red × Holstein. The comparison of Holstein and Jersey versus Jersey × Holstein provided a test of whether heterosis effects body temperature regulation. Cows were fitted with intravaginal temperature recording devices that measured vaginal temperature every 15 min for 7 days. Vaginal temperature was affected by time of day ( P < 0.0001) and genotype × time ( P < 0.0001) regardless of whether days in milk and milk yield were used as covariates. Additional analyses indicated that the Swedish Red × Holstein had a different pattern of vaginal temperatures than the other three genotypes (Swedish Red × Holstein vs others × time; P < 0.0001) and that Holstein and Jersey had a different pattern than Jersey × Holstein [(Holstein + Jersey vs Jersey × Holstein) × time, P < 0.0001]. However, Holstein had a similar pattern to Jersey [(Holstein vs Jersey) × time, P > 0.10]. These genotype × time interactions reflect two effects. First, Swedish Red × Holstein had higher vaginal temperatures than the other genotypes in the late morning and afternoon but not after the evening milking. Secondly, Jersey × Holstein had lower vaginal temperatures than other genotypes in the late morning and afternoon and again in the late night and early morning. Results point out that there are effects of specific genotypes and evidence for heterosis on regulation of body temperature of lactating cows maintained under grazing conditions and suggest that genetic improvement for thermotolerance through breed choice or genetic selection is possible.

Dikmen, S.; Martins, L.; Pontes, E.; Hansen, P. J.

2009-07-01

80

The Dairy Technology System in Venezuela. Summary of Research 79.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the agricultural technology system in Venezuela with emphasis on the dairy industry. An analytical framework was used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the following components of Venezuela's agricultural technology system: policy, technology development, technology transfer, and technology use. Selected government…

Nieto, Ruben D.; Henderson, Janet L.

81

The Dairy Technology System in Venezuela. Summary of Research 79.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study examined the agricultural technology system in Venezuela with emphasis on the dairy industry. An analytical framework was used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the following components of Venezuela's agricultural technology system: policy, technology development, technology transfer, and technology use. Selected government…

Nieto, Ruben D.; Henderson, Janet L.

82

Comparison of management intensive grazing and continuous grazing in beef cattle pasture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Management intensive grazing (MIG) offers the potential to increase the financial profitability and productivity of grazing beef and dairy farms in Appalachian Ohio, with minimum environmental impacts. The objective of the project was to compare MIG with conventional continuous grazing (CG) and rela...

83

Reproduction in grazing dairy cows treated with 14-day controlled internal drug release for presynchronization before timed artificial insemination compared with artificial insemination after observed estrus.  

PubMed

Progesterone-releasing (controlled internal drug release, CIDR) devices inserted for 14 d are used to presynchronize the estrous cycle for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef heifers (14-d CIDR-PGF(2?) program). The objective was to test a similar program in dairy cows by measuring first-service conception rates (FSCR), pregnancy rates after 2 AI, and time to pregnancy compared with a control (AI after observed estrus). Postpartum cows (Holstein, Jersey, or crossbred; n=1,363) from 4 grazing dairy farms were assigned to 1 of 2 programs: 14dCIDR_TAI [CIDR in for 14 d, CIDR out, PGF(2?) injection at 19 d after CIDR removal, GnRH injection 56 h later, and then TAI 16 h later; n=737] or control [AI after observed estrus; reproductive program with PGF(2?) (cycling cows) and CIDR (noncycling cows) to synchronize estrus with the start of the breeding season; n=626]. Body condition was scored (1 to 5; thin to fat) at the start of the trial. The interval from the start of the breeding period (final PGF(2?) injection of either program) to first AI was shorter for 14dCIDR_TAI compared with the control (3.0±0.2 vs. 5.3±0.2 d; mean ± SEM) but 14dCIDR_TAI cows had lesser FSCR than controls (48 vs. 61%). Farm affected FSCR (50, 51, 67, and 58% for farms 1 to 4). The BCS affected FSCR (50, 55, and 62% for BCS=2, 2.5, and 3, respectively). Cows that either calved the year before (carryover) or that calved early in the calving season had greater FSCR than cows that calved later in the calving season (55, 61, and 42%, respectively). The percentage of cows pregnant to AI (first and second inseminations within 31-d breeding season) was similar for 14dCIDR_TAI and control (64 vs. 70%) cows, but farm (64, 62, 80, and 69%) and time of calving (70, 76, and 56%: carryover, early, and late, respectively) affected the percentage. Survival analyses showed an initial advantage for 14dCIDR_TAI (more cows inseminated and more pregnancies achieved early in the breeding season) that was not maintained over time. Conclusions were that the 14dCIDR_TAI program achieved acceptable FSCR (48%) and overall AI pregnancy rates (64%), but did not surpass a control program that used AI after observed estrus (61 and 70%, respectively). PMID:23141825

Escalante, R C; Poock, S E; Mathew, D J; Martin, W R; Newsom, E M; Hamilton, S A; Pohler, K G; Lucy, M C

2012-11-08

84

Study of Digital Management System of Milking Process on Large-Sized Dairy Farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was to supply the systemic and full milking process data to support the implementation of both dairy herd improvement (DHI) and digital feeding of dairy cattle. This study designed the relational structured database and developed a set of digital management information system on milking process of intensive dairy farm using Visual Basic 6.0, Access databases, and Crystal report

Ben-hai XIONG; Qing-yao LUO; Jian-qiang LÜ; Liang YANG

2008-01-01

85

Computerized Biotelemetry System for Environmental Research on Dairy Animals1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A data collection and data analysis system has been developed for monitor- ing animals in typical livestock environ- ments through biotelemetry. The equipment consists of a PDP 11V03 microcomputer interfaced to a telemetry receiver and time interval digitizer. Radio- telemetry provides information on diurnal temperature patterns in dairy cattle at monitoring intervals anywhere from once a minute to once a

C. T. Araki; R. M. Nakamura; G. L. Seawright; R. R. Brown

1984-01-01

86

Sweet Corn, Southern Pea, and Watermelon Yields following Winter Annual Grazing across Tillage Systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Vegetable grower income may be supplemented by winter annual grazing of stockers, but excess soil compaction can decrease vegetable yields. We initiated a study to determine the optimal tillage system for sweet corn (Zea mays, L.) cv. ‘Silver Queen’, southern pea (Vigna unguiculata L.) cv. ‘Pinkeye...

87

Seroepidemiological study of Q fever in domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is endemic in northern Spain where it has been reported as responsible for large series of human pneumonia cases and domestic ruminants' reproductive disorders. To investigate pathogen exposure among domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems in northern Spain, a serosurvey was carried out in 1,379 sheep (42 flocks), 626

Francisco Ruiz-Fons; Ianire Astobiza; Jesus F. Barandika; Ana Hurtado; Raquel Atxaerandio; Ramon A. Juste; Ana L. Garcia-Perez

2010-01-01

88

Feasibility of vermicomposting dairy biosolids using a modified system to avoid earthworm mortality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study was conducted to examine the feasibility of vermicomposting dairy biosolids (dairy sludge), either alone or with either of the bulking agents ? cereal straw or wood shavings, using the epigeic earthworm ? Eisinea andrei. Earthworms added directly to these three substrates died within 48 hours. A system was developed to overcome the toxic effect of unprocessed dairy

R. Nogales; C. Elvira; E. Benítez; R. Thompson; M. Gomez

1999-01-01

89

Milking efficiency for grazing dairy cows can be improved by increasing automatic cluster remover thresholds without applying premilking stimulation.  

PubMed

It was hypothesized that streamlined premilking stimulation routines are effective at reducing cow cluster-on time but are not required to maintain milk yield or quality when increasing the automatic cluster remover (ACR) threshold above 0.4 kg/min. This was tested by examining the effect of 3 premilking treatments and 4 ACR thresholds over an 11-wk period with 96 mixed-age New Zealand Friesian-Jersey cross cows during peak lactation. Three premilking treatments were chosen: attach cluster immediately (control), attach cluster immediately and apply 30s of mechanical stimulation (Stim), and remove 2 squirts of milk from each quarter and attach cluster (Strip). Four ACR milk flow rate thresholds were imposed: 0.2 kg/min (ACR2), 0.4 kg/min (ACR4), 0.6 kg/min (ACR6), and 0.8 kg/min (ACR8). Measurements included individual cow milk yield, cluster-on time, average milk flow rate, maximum milk flow rate, time to average milk flow rate, time from maximum milk flow rate to end of milking, and the milk flow rate and cumulative yield at predetermined intervals during each milking session. Milk composition and somatic cell count (SCC) were determined on composite milk samples, collected weekly. Postmilking strip yield was measured at the end of each treatment period. Cows receiving the Strip treatment had a 3 to 4% shorter cluster-on time than did cows on the control treatment, but cows receiving Stim were not different from the control cows. Milk yield, SCC, and postmilking strip yield were not different between the 3 premilking treatments. Cluster-on time of the ACR8 cows was 18 to 26% less than that of the ACR2 cows, but SCC and milk production variables did not differ between the 4 end-of-milking treatments, despite higher strip yields as the ACR threshold increased. Increasing the ACR threshold is an effective strategy to improve milking efficiency (cows milked per operator per hour) in situations where the work routine times of dairy operators can be accelerated. To achieve the greatest milking efficiency, clusters should be attached immediately without premilking manual or mechanical stimulation. PMID:23567056

Edwards, J P; Jago, J G; Lopez-Villalobos, N

2013-04-05

90

Assessment of heifer grazing experience on short-term adaptation to pasture and performance as lactating cows.  

PubMed

A 3-yr study evaluated the carryover effects of dairy heifer grazing experience on behavior and first-lactation performance as dairy cows. Forty-one Holstein and 23 Holstein-Jersey crossbred calves born between January and April 2008 were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=8 per group, 2 groups per treatment) in a completely randomized design. Treatments were combinations of managing dairy heifers in confinement (CNF) or on pasture (PST): grazed yr 1 and 2 (PSTPST); grazed yr 1, but confined yr 2 (PSTCNF); confined yr 1 and grazed yr 2 (CNFPST); or confined yr 1 and 2 (CNFCNF). After calving, all heifers on all treatments were grazed as cows in yr 3. In yr 1, PSTPST and PSTCNF heifers were grazed for 41 d on Italian ryegrass pastures, whereas CNFPST and CNFCNF were housed in bedded-pack pens and fed a TMR. In yr 2, PSTPST and CNFPST heifers grazed Italian ryegrass pasture for 65 d, whereas PSTCNF and CNFCNF remained in confinement. In yr 2, a mid-trial assessment of heifer grazing behavior was made on PSTPST versus CNFPST heifers. Grazing activities were assessed by visual observation and heifer movement measured by portable global positioning system units. Heifers from all treatment groups subsequently calved between January and April in yr 3. All primiparous cows were then allocated to pastures by treatment group, grazed for 61 d, (May through July) in yr 3, with grazing behavior and milk production evaluated while grazing. In yr 2, heifers on the PSTPST treatment spent more time grazing than heifers on the CNFPST treatment (78 vs. 35% of the time) when first exposed to pasture (d 1). On d 1 to 3, PSTPST heifers walked a greater distance than CNFPST heifers; however, PSTPST and CNFPST heifers had similar daily grazing times and walking patterns after 3 d of pasture exposure in yr 2. As lactating cows (yr 3), cows with no (CNFCNF) grazing experience grazed less on d 1 compared with cows with (PSTPST, PSTCNF, or CNFPST) grazing experience. Day-1 grazing times in yr 3 were 62, 59, 76, and 13% of the times for cows with PSTPST, PSTCNF, CNFPST, and CNFCNF grazing experience, respectively. In yr 3, on d 1 to 3, cows with previous grazing experience as heifers (PSTPST, CNFPST, and PSTCNF) walked a greater distance than cows without previous grazing experience (CNFCNF). Milk production was lowest on d 1 to 3 for cows with no previous grazing experience (CNFCNF), but average daily milk production was not different overall over the 61 d of study in yr 3. Results indicate that grazing experiences as a heifer can affect behavior and milk production during a cow's first days on pasture. After a short acclimation period, dairy cows without grazing experience as heifers developed similar grazing behaviors and performance as cows with grazing experience as heifers. PMID:23522679

Lopes, F; Coblentz, W; Hoffman, P C; Combs, D K

2013-03-21

91

a Sensor Based Automatic Ovulation Prediction System for Dairy Cows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensor scientists have been successful in developing detectors for tiny concentrations of rare compounds, but the work is rarely applied in practice. Any but the most trivial application of sensors requires a specification that should include a sampling system, a sensor, a calibration system and a model of how the information is to be used to control the process of interest. The specification of the sensor system should ask the following questions. How will the material to be analysed be sampled? What decision can be made with the information available from a proposed sensor? This project provides a model of a systems approach to the implementation of automatic ovulation prediction in dairy cows. A healthy well managed dairy cow should calve every year to make the best use of forage. As most cows are inseminated artificially it is of vital importance mat cows are regularly monitored for signs of oestrus. The pressure on dairymen to manage more cows often leads to less time being available for observation of cows to detect oestrus. This, together with breeding and feeding for increased yields, has led to a reduction in reproductive performance. In the UK the typical dairy farmer could save € 12800 per year if ovulation could be predicted accurately. Research over a number of years has shown that regular analysis of milk samples with tests based on enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) can map the ovulation cycle. However, these tests require the farmer to implement a manually operated sampling and analysis procedure and the technique has not been widely taken up. The best potential method of achieving 98% specificity of prediction of ovulation is to adapt biosensor techniques to emulate the ELISA tests automatically in the milking system. An automated ovulation prediction system for dairy cows is specified. The system integrates a biosensor with automatic milk sampling and a herd management database. The biosensor is a screen printed carbon electrode system capable of measuring concentrations of progesterone in milk in the range 0.3-25 ng/ml. The system is operational in the laboratory is described here and will be working on a test farm in the near future to automatically predict the ovulation of dairy cows routinely.

Mottram, Toby; Hart, John; Pemberton, Roy

2000-12-01

92

Energy Integrated dairy Farm System in Puerto Rico  

SciTech Connect

Principles of energy-integrated farming were applied to the Rio Canas Dairy Farm, a privately-owned dairy farm and one of the largest dairy farms in Puerto Rico with a milking herd of 400 cows. Animal wastes were fed to two anaerobic digesters where methane gas was produced by bacterial degradation of organic material. The methane gas fueled an engine-generator to produce electricity for farm use and for sale to the public utility. The Wastes were partially stabilized by bacterial action with the digesters and the digester effluent passed to a liquid-solid separator. Solid fraction was composted and either used as bedding material for the cows or marketed as soil conditioner. The liquid fraction flowed to a storage pond and was used in the Greenfeed subsystem to fertilize forage crops for the cows. Estimated energy savings of the system were 1705 MBtu for the first two subsystems and 7,718 MBtu's for all three subsystems. Simple payback for the first two subsystems was very long (20 years) because facilities for effective manure recovery did not exist on the farm at the outset of the project, operational costs for manure collection were charged against the project, and system components were oversized. Including the Greenfeed subsystem, simple payback for the project was 8.2 years. Assuming that manure collection facilities and practices already existed and assuming proper sizing of all components, simple payback for the Anaerobic Digestion and Electrical Production subsystem and the Farm Waste Management subsystem was 5.8 years. Using data from this project, an estimate of the return on investment was projected for different herd sizes. Results suggested that for dairy farms with less than 500 cows, anaerobic digester systems are only marginally profitable.

Sasscer, D.S.; Morgan, T.O.

1986-10-01

93

Methane emissions measured directly from grazing livestock in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report measurements of methane emissions from individual ruminant livestock-both sheep and dairy cows-grazing pasture typical of New Zealand lowlands in the temperate southwest Pacific. These are the first measurements reported from grazing sheep, and among the first from grazing cattle. The measurement technique, developed at Washington State University, enables emission rates to be determined from analyses of “breath” samples

Keith R. Lassey; Marcus J. Ulyatt; Ross J. Martin; Carolyn F. Walker; I. David Shelton

1997-01-01

94

Utilization of Bt corn residues by grazing beef steers and Bt corn silage and grain by growing beef cattle and lactating dairy cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)- 11 transformation event in two parental corn hybrids differing in date of maturity on beef and dairy cattle performance. Sixteen lactating Holstein dairy cows in replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares were assigned to four diets in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: Bt vs non-Bt trait

J. D. Folmer; R. J. Grant; C. T. Milton; J. Beck

95

Short-term application of prestimulation and increased automatic cluster remover threshold affect milking characteristics of grazing dairy cows in late lactation.  

PubMed

It was hypothesized that reducing cow cluster-on time by increasing automatic cluster remover (ACR) thresholds above 0.4 kg/min would require premilking stimulation of the mammary gland to maintain milk yield. This was tested by examining the interaction between 4 ACR thresholds and 3 premilking treatments over an 8-wk period with 96 mixed-age Friesian-Jersey cross cows being milked twice per day in late lactation (average production: 13.9 kg/d). The 3 premilking treatments were attach cluster immediately (control), attach cluster 60s after entering the dairy (delay), or remove 2 squirts of foremilk from each quarter and attach cluster 60s after entering the dairy (Prep). Four ACR thresholds were chosen, where the cluster was removed after the milk flow rate was less than 0.2 (ACR2), 0.4 (ACR4), 0.6 (ACR6), and 0.8 kg/min (ACR8). Measurements included individual cow milk yield, cluster-on time, average milk flow rate, maximum milk flow rate, time from cluster attachment to average milk flow rate, milk yield in the first 2 min, time from maximum milk flow rate to end of milking, and the milk flow rate at predetermined intervals during each milking session. Composite milk samples were collected weekly at a.m. and p.m. milkings to determine composition and somatic cell count (SCC). On 3 occasions during the experiment, postmilking strip yield was measured. No interactions were detected between premilking treatment and ACR threshold in any of the measured variables. Cows receiving the Prep treatment had a 5 to 9% shorter cluster-on time than the control treatment. Milk yield, SCC, postmilking strip yield, and maximum flow rate were not different between the 3 premilking treatments. Cluster-on time of the ACR8 cows was 21 to 29% less than ACR2, but SCC and milk production variables were not different between the 4 end-of-milking treatments despite higher strip yields as ACR threshold increased. Increasing ACR threshold offers the potential to reduce the duration of milking without detriment to overall productivity. The results of the premilking treatments indicate that to achieve the most efficient routine, the operator should attach clusters as close as possible to the first bail in rotary dairies to increase bail utilization in pasture-based systems. If cluster attachment can be sped up and ACR threshold lifted, significant potential exists to decrease herd milking duration and improve labor productivity. PMID:23332836

Edwards, J P; Jago, J G; Lopez-Villalobos, N

2013-01-16

96

Using Grazing Animals to Restore Resilience in our Agricultural Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A key feature of agricultural intensification has been specialization in crop and livestock production in monoculture systems that capture economies of scale and have contributed to increased animal and plant production. Concerns are growing over the ability to maintain long-term intensive monoculture agriculture and increasingly, these systems are recognized as extracting a non-sustainable environmental cost. Such systems are also more

Vivien Gore Allen; Charles Philip Brown

2006-01-01

97

Effect of feeding level pre- and post-puberty and body weight at first calving on growth, milk production, and fertility in grazing dairy cows.  

PubMed

The effect of feeding to achieve differential growth rates in Holstein-Friesian (HF; n = 259) and Jersey (n = 430) heifers on time to puberty and first lactation milk production was investigated in a 3 x 2 factorial design. Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves were reared to achieve a BW of 100 and 80 kg, respectively, at 100 d. At target weight, all calves were randomly allocated to one of 3 feeding treatments to achieve different growth rates. Holstein-Friesian and Jersey calves were fed fresh pasture to achieve average daily growth rates of 0.77, 0.53, or 0.37 kg of BW/d (HF) and 0.61, 0.48, or 0.30 kg of BW/d (Jersey), respectively. Period 1 (prepubertal) was imposed until HF and Jersey treatment groups averaged 200 and 165 kg of BW, respectively. Following period 1, HF and Jersey calves from each treatment group were randomly allocated to one of 2 feeding treatments to achieve average daily growth rates of 0.69 or 0.49 kg of BW/d (HF) and 0.58 and 0.43 kg of BW/d (Jersey), respectively. Period 2 (postpubertal) was imposed until 22 mo, when heifers were returned to their farms of origin. Body weight, body condition score, height, heart girth circumference (HGC), milk production, and fertility-related data were collected until the end of the third lactation. Time to reach puberty was negatively associated with level of feeding, and heifers attained puberty at the same BW (251 +/- 25.4 and 180 +/- 24.0 kg for HF and Jersey heifers, respectively). Heifers on high feed allowances during periods 1 and 2 were heavier, taller, and had greater HGC than their slower grown counterparts until 39 mo of age when height and HGC measurements stopped. Body weight differences remained until 51 mo, when measurements ceased. High feed allowance during period 1 (prepubertal) did not affect milk production during the first 2 lactations, but did reduce milk production in lactation 3. It is possible that the expected negative effect of accelerated pre-pubertal growth was masked by greater calving BW, as BW-corrected milk yield declined in both breeds with increasing prepubertal feed allowance. Growth rate during period 2 was positively correlated with first lactation milk production. Milk yield increased 7% in first lactation heifers on the high feed allowance, which resulted in higher growth rate during period 2. Milk production during subsequent lactations was not affected. Results suggest that accelerated prepubertal growth may reduce mammary development in grazing dairy cows, but this does not affect milk production in early lactations because of superior size. Body weight at calving and postpubertal growth rate management are important in first lactation milk production, but do not affect milk production in subsequent lactations. PMID:16107427

Macdonald, K A; Penno, J W; Bryant, A M; Roche, J R

2005-09-01

98

Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) Prototype System User Manual  

SciTech Connect

This document is a user manual for the Dairy Analytics and Nutrient Analysis (DANA) model. DANA provides an analysis of dairy anaerobic digestion technology and allows users to calculate biogas production, co-product valuation, capital costs, expenses, revenue and financial metrics, for user customizable scenarios, dairy and digester types. The model provides results for three anaerobic digester types; Covered Lagoons, Modified Plug Flow, and Complete Mix, and three main energy production technologies; electricity generation, renewable natural gas generation, and compressed natural gas generation. Additional options include different dairy types, bedding types, backend treatment type as well as numerous production, and economic parameters. DANA’s goal is to extend the National Market Value of Anaerobic Digester Products analysis (informa economics, 2012; Innovation Center, 2011) to include a greater and more flexible set of regional digester scenarios and to provide a modular framework for creation of a tool to support farmer and investor needs. Users can set up scenarios from combinations of existing parameters or add new parameters, run the model and view a variety of reports, charts and tables that are automatically produced and delivered over the web interface. DANA is based in the INL’s analysis architecture entitled Generalized Environment for Modeling Systems (GEMS) , which offers extensive collaboration, analysis, and integration opportunities and greatly speeds the ability construct highly scalable web delivered user-oriented decision tools. DANA’s approach uses server-based data processing and web-based user interfaces, rather a client-based spreadsheet approach. This offers a number of benefits over the client-based approach. Server processing and storage can scale up to handle a very large number of scenarios, so that analysis of county, even field level, across the whole U.S., can be performed. Server based databases allow dairy and digester parameters be held and managed in a single managed data repository, while allows users to customize standard values and perform individual analysis. Server-based calculations can be easily extended, versions and upgrades managed, and any changes are immediately available to all users. This user manual describes how to use and/or modify input database tables, run DANA, view and modify reports.

Sam Alessi; Dennis Keiser

2012-10-01

99

Reducing Nitrate Leaching to Groundwater in an Intensive Dairy Farming System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy farming is one of the main contributors to nitrate leaching to groundwater, particularly on soils that are susceptible\\u000a to leaching, such as light well-drained sandy soils. In the Netherlands, as in many other European countries, these soils\\u000a are predominantly used for dairy farming. A prototype dairy farming system that has been implemented in practice in 1989 has\\u000a continuously been

J. Verloop; L. J. M. Boumans; H. van Keulen; J. Oenema; G. J. Hilhorst; H. F. M. Aarts; L. B. J. Sebek

2006-01-01

100

Energy Integrated Dairy Farm System in Puerto Rico.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Principles of energy-integrated farming were applied to the Rio Canas Dairy Farm, a privately-owned dairy farm and one of the largest dairy farms in Puerto Rico with a milking herd of 400 cows. Animal wastes were fed to two anaerobic digesters where metha...

D. S. Sasscer T. O. Morgan

1986-01-01

101

A lameness scoring system that uses posture and gait to predict dairy cattle reproductive performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lameness has contributed to reproductive inefficiency and increased the risk of culling in dairy cows. We developed a 5-point lameness scoring system that assessed gait and placed a novel emphasis on back posture. Our objective was to determine if this system predicted future reproductive performance and the risk of culling. The study was conducted at a commercial dairy farm with

D. J. Sprecher; D. E. Hostetler; J. B. Kaneene

1997-01-01

102

Removal of bacterial indicators and pathogens from dairy wastewater by a multi-component treatment system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial removal by a multi-component treatment system for dairy and municipal wastewater is being studied in Arizona, USA. The system consists of paired solids separators, anaerobic lagoons, aerobic ponds and constructed wetlands cells. The organisms under study include: total coliform, fecal coliform, enterovirus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium perfringens, coliphage, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. Organism removal rates from dairy wastewater varied

M. M. Karpiscak; L. R. Sanchez; R. J. Freitas; C. P. Gerba

2001-01-01

103

Effect of prior grazing experiences on grazing behavior and performance of lactating cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The impact of grazing experiences early in life on grazing behavior and performance of lactating dairy heifers was evaluated in a 3-year study. Sixty-four Holstein and Holstein x Jersey calves were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments (n = 16) in 2008. Treatments were combinations of managing he...

104

Analysis of Steroid Hormones in a Typical Dairy Waste Disposal System  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The environmental loading of steroid hormones contained in dairy wastes may cause a potential adversely affect on the aquatic species. This work was to investigate the profile of steroid hormones in a typical dairy waste operation system and assess the potential risk of hormone contaminations result...

105

Transfers of phosphorus within three dairy farming systems receiving varying inputs in feeds and fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inputs of phosphorus (P) above requirements for production on dairy farms lead to surplus P with increased risk of P transfer in land run-off to surface waters causing eutrophication. The impact of reducing surplus P inputs in purchased feeds and fertilizers on milk and forage production was investigated in a comparison of three dairy farm systems on chalkland soils in

P. J. A. Withers; S. Peel; R. M. Mansbridge; A. C. Chalmers

1999-01-01

106

Exposure of young dairy cattle to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) through intensive grazing of contaminated pastures in a herd positive for Johne's disease  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the susceptibility of 1- to 2-year-old cattle to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) on pasture previously grazed by infected cattle. The exposure of yearling cattle to pastures contaminated with MAP resulted in infection with MAP, showing that age resistance to infection can be overcome by pressure of infection.

Fecteau, Marie-Eve; Whitlock, Robert H.; Buergelt, Claus D.; Sweeney, Raymond W.

2010-01-01

107

Intensive cattle grazing affects pasture litter-fall: an unrecognized nitrous oxide source.  

PubMed

The rationale for this study came from observing grazing dairy cattle dropping freshly harvested plant material onto the soil surface, hereafter called litter-fall. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines include NO emissions during pasture renewal but do not consider NO emissions that may result from litter-fall. The objectives of this study were to determine litter-fall rates and to assess indicative NO emission factors (EFs) for the dominant pasture species (perennial ryegrass [ L.] and white clover [ L.]). Herbage was vacuumed from intensively managed dairy pastures before and after 30 different grazing events when cows (84 cows ha) grazed for 24 h according to a rotational system; the interval between grazing events ranged from 21 to 30 d. A laboratory incubation study was performed to assess potential EF values for the pasture species at two soil moisture contents. Finely ground pasture material was incubated under controlled laboratory conditions with soil, and the NO emissions were measured until rates returned to control levels. On average, pre- and postgrazing dry matter yields per grazing event were 2516 ± 636 and 1167 ± 265 kg DM ha (±SD), respectively. Pregrazing litter was absent, whereas postgrazing fresh and senesced litter-fall rates were 53 ± 24 and 19 ± 18 kg DM ha, respectively. Annually, the rotational grazing system resulted in 12 grazing events where fresh litter-fall equaed to 16 kg N ha yr to the soil. Emission factors in the laboratory experiment indicated that the EF for perennial ryegrass and white clover ranged from 0.7 to 3.1%. If such EF values should also occur under field conditions, then we estimate that litter-fall induces an NO emission rate of 0.3 kg NO ha yr. Litter-fall as a source of NO in grazed pastures requires further assessment. PMID:22370407

Pal, Pranoy; Clough, Tim J; Kelliher, Francis M; van Koten, Chikako; Sherlock, Robert R

108

Effect of a hay-based diet or different upland grazing systems on milk volatile compounds.  

PubMed

The effect of animal feeding on milk volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of metabolic origin was tested on a hay-based diet (H), a highly diversified pasture under continuous grazing (CG), or a less diversified pasture under rotational grazing (RG). Individual milk of 24 Montbe?liarde cows (8 per treatment) were sampled after 2 weeks. Pasture-derived milk was richer (p < 0.05) in camphene, sabinene, ?-caryophyllene, and skatole than H milk. Neither milk yield nor fat content affected the majority of VOCs measured. Skatole increased slightly with milk yield, while indole and cineole decreased slightly with milk fat content but with poor regression (R(2) < 0.54). Multivariate analysis showed that, on the basis of those VOCs of metabolic origin whose concentration differed between treatment (dimethyl-sulfone, skatole, toluene, undecanoic acid, 1-octadecene, benzeneacetaldehyde, octanoic acid, and 2-pentanone-4-hydroxy-4-methyl), it was possible to obtain good discriminations among feeding systems. This study is promising for a future use of VOCs of metabolic origin to trace animal feeding systems. PMID:21434695

Coppa, Mauro; Martin, Bruno; Pradel, Philippe; Leotta, Barbara; Priolo, Alessandro; Vasta, Valentina

2011-04-04

109

Energy Integrated dairy Farm System in Puerto Rico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principles of energy-integrated farming were applied to the Rio Canas Dairy Farm, a privately-owned dairy farm and one of the largest dairy farms in Puerto Rico with a milking herd of 400 cows. Animal wastes were fed to two anaerobic digesters where methane gas was produced by bacterial degradation of organic material. The methane gas fueled an engine-generator to produce

D. S. Sasscer; T. O. Morgan

1986-01-01

110

The carbon footprint of dairy production systems through partial life cycle assessment.  

PubMed

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential effect on the environment has become an important national and international issue. Dairy production, along with all other types of animal agriculture, is a recognized source of GHG emissions, but little information exists on the net emissions from dairy farms. Component models for predicting all important sources and sinks of CH(4), N(2)O, and CO(2) from primary and secondary sources in dairy production were integrated in a software tool called the Dairy Greenhouse Gas model, or DairyGHG. This tool calculates the carbon footprint of a dairy production system as the net exchange of all GHG in CO(2) equivalent units per unit of energy-corrected milk produced. Primary emission sources include enteric fermentation, manure, cropland used in feed production, and the combustion of fuel in machinery used to produce feed and handle manure. Secondary emissions are those occurring during the production of resources used on the farm, which can include fuel, electricity, machinery, fertilizer, pesticides, plastic, and purchased replacement animals. A long-term C balance is assumed for the production system, which does not account for potential depletion or sequestration of soil carbon. An evaluation of dairy farms of various sizes and production strategies gave carbon footprints of 0.37 to 0.69kg of CO(2) equivalent units/kg of energy-corrected milk, depending upon milk production level and the feeding and manure handling strategies used. In a comparison with previous studies, DairyGHG predicted C footprints similar to those reported when similar assumptions were made for feeding strategy, milk production, allocation method between milk and animal coproducts, and sources of CO(2) and secondary emissions. DairyGHG provides a relatively simple tool for evaluating management effects on net GHG emissions and the overall carbon footprint of dairy production systems. PMID:20172247

Rotz, C A; Montes, F; Chianese, D S

2010-03-01

111

SIMS(DAIRY): a modelling framework to identify sustainable dairy farms in the UK. Framework description and test for organic systems and N fertiliser optimisation.  

PubMed

Multiple demands are placed on farming systems today. Society, national legislation and market forces seek what could be seen as conflicting outcomes from our agricultural systems, e.g. food quality, affordable prices, a healthy environmental, consideration of animal welfare, biodiversity etc., Many of these demands, or desirable outcomes, are interrelated, so reaching one goal may often compromise another and, importantly, pose a risk to the economic viability of the farm. SIMS(DAIRY), a farm-scale model, was used to explore this complexity for dairy farm systems. SIMS(DAIRY) integrates existing approaches to simulate the effect of interactions between farm management, climate and soil characteristics on losses of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon. The effects on farm profitability and attributes of biodiversity, milk quality, soil quality and animal welfare are also included. SIMS(DAIRY) can also be used to optimise fertiliser N. In this paper we discuss some limitations and strengths of using SIMS(DAIRY) compared to other modelling approaches and propose some potential improvements. Using the model we evaluated the sustainability of organic dairy systems compared with conventional dairy farms under non-optimised and optimised fertiliser N use. Model outputs showed for example, that organic dairy systems based on grass-clover swards and maize silage resulted in much smaller total GHG emissions per l of milk and slightly smaller losses of NO(3) leaching and NO(x) emissions per l of milk compared with the grassland/maize-based conventional systems. These differences were essentially because the conventional systems rely on indirect energy use for 'fixing' N compared with biological N fixation for the organic systems. SIMS(DAIRY) runs also showed some other potential benefits from the organic systems compared with conventional systems in terms of financial performance and soil quality and biodiversity scores. Optimisation of fertiliser N timings and rates showed a considerable scope to reduce the (GHG emissions per l milk too). PMID:21703662

Del Prado, A; Misselbrook, T; Chadwick, D; Hopkins, A; Dewhurst, R J; Davison, P; Butler, A; Schröder, J; Scholefield, D

2011-06-23

112

Production performance and milk composition of grazing dairy cows fed pelleted or non-pelleted concentrates treated with or without lignosulfonate and containing ground sunflower seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of feeding supplements which contained ground sunflower seeds in a pelleted versus non-pelleted concentrate treated with, or without, 50g\\/kg lignosulfonate were evaluated in 8 multiparous Holstein cows under grazing conditions. Cows were assigned to a double 4×4 Latin square design experiment with four 21d experimental periods. Whole diet total tract apparent digestibility, dry matter (DM) intake, milk production, milk

W. B. R. dos Santos; G. T. D. Santos; D. C. da Silva-Kazama; U. Cecato; F. E. de Marchi; J. V. Visentainer; H. V. Petit

2011-01-01

113

Grazing and feedlot performance of yearling stocker cattle integrated with spring- and fall-calving beef cows in a year-round grazing system.  

PubMed

Effects of calving season and finishing system on forage and concentrate consumption and carcass characteristics of calves were compared. In each of 3 yr, two replicates of three growing and finishing systems were compared including 1) spring calves finished on a high-grain diet in a feedlot immediately post-weaning (WF); 2) spring calves backgrounded on a hay-corn gluten diet over winter for 179 +/- 18 d after weaning, grazed for 98 +/- 9 d in cool-season grass-legume pastures, and finished on a high-grain diet in a feedlot (SGF); and 3) fall calves backgrounded on a hay-corn gluten feed diet over winter for 69 +/- 31 d after weaning, grazed for 98 +/- 9 d in cool-season grass-legume pastures, and finished on a high-grain diet in a feedlot (FGF). During the grazing phase, calves on the SGF and FGF treatments were equally stocked with spring-calving cow-calf pairs before grazing by pregnant fall-calving cows in a first-last rotational stocking system at a rate of 1.9 standard livestock units/ha. As designed, retained calves in the FGF system spent 110 fewer days in the drylot during backgrounding than retained calves in the SGF system (P = 0.01), resulting in less feed provided during winter. A greater (P < 0.01) quantity of hay was fed to SGF calves after weaning over winter (1,305 kg of DM per calf) than the quantity fed to FGF calves (305 kg of DM per calf). Quantity of grain (including commercial starter) fed to SGF calves after weaning did not differ (P = 0.28) from that fed to FGF calves (126 vs. 55 kg of DM per calf); however, calves in the FGF system required 80 and 71 kg of DM per calf more concentrate to finish to an equivalent external fat thickness compared with SGF and WF calves, respectively (P = 0.02). Average daily gains in the feedlot were greater (P < 0.01) for SGF and FGF calves than for WF calves during all 3 yr. There were no differences (P = 0.69) in carcass quality grades among calves in all groups, but SGF calves had greater (P < 0.01) hot carcass weight and LM area measurements at slaughter than FGF or WF calves. Although calves in the FGF system were 25 kg lighter than calves in the WF system at slaughter (P = 0.03), and had a lower dressing percent (P = 0.03), other carcass characteristics did not differ between these two groups. Lower stored-feed requirements and similar carcass quality characteristics made retention of a fall calf crop advantageous over retention of a spring calf crop for use as stocker animals before finishing. PMID:16230669

Guretzky, N A Janovick; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G

2005-11-01

114

Nitrogen (N) management in the ‘De Marke’ dairy farming system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the sandy regions of The Netherlands, high losses of N from intensified dairy farms are threatening the environment. Therefore, government defined decreasing maximum levy-free N surplusses for the period 1998–2008. On most dairy farms, the current N surplus has to be reduced by half at least. Farmers fear that realizing these surplusses will be expensive, because it limits application

H. F. M. Aarts; B. Habekotté; H. van Keulen

2000-01-01

115

76 FR 80329 - Information Collection; Grazing Permit Administration Forms  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...allow proper administration of livestock grazing programs on National Forest System (NFS) lands. Domestic livestock grazing occurs on approximately 90 million...National Forest System lands for livestock grazing purposes, to determine...

2011-12-23

116

Dynamical stabilization of grazing systems: An interplay among plant–water interaction, overgrazing and a threshold management policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a plant–herbivore system, a management strategy called threshold policy is proposed to control grazing intensity where the vegetation dynamics is described by a plant–water interaction model. It is shown that this policy can lead the vegetation density to a previously chosen level under an overgrazing regime. This result is obtained despite both the potential occurrence of vegetation collapse due

Michel Iskin da Silveira Costa; Magno Enrique Mendoza Meza

2006-01-01

117

Feeding strategies for small-scale dairy systems based on perennial ( Lolium perenne ) or annual ( Lolium multiflorum ) ryegrass in the central highlands of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale dairying is an option for campesinos in Mexico. The costs of feeding are high and strategies based on quality forages are a priority. The performance, agronomic\\u000a variables and feeding costs were evaluated for dairy cows continuously grazing perennial ryegrass–white clover for 9 h\\/day\\u000a (PRG) or fed cut herbage from annual ryegrass for 8 weeks followed by 9 h\\/day for 6 weeks

D. Heredia-Nava; A. Espinoza-Ortega; C. E. González-Esquivel; C. M. Arriaga-Jordán

2007-01-01

118

Use of global positioning system collars to monitor spatial-temporal movements of co-grazing goats and sheep and their common guardian dog  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goats and sheep often graze together and guardian dogs are commonly used for protection from predators. The objective of this experiment was to characterise how goats, sheep and guardian dogs interact spatially when grazing the same pasture by use of global positioning system (GPS) collars as an unobtrusive means of behaviour monitoring. In 2002 and 2003, three meat goats and

T. A. Gipson; T. Sahlu; M. Villaquiran; S. P. Hart; J. Joseph; R. C. Merkel; A. L. Goetsch

2012-01-01

119

Seroepidemiological study of Q fever in domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems  

PubMed Central

Background Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is endemic in northern Spain where it has been reported as responsible for large series of human pneumonia cases and domestic ruminants' reproductive disorders. To investigate pathogen exposure among domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems in northern Spain, a serosurvey was carried out in 1,379 sheep (42 flocks), 626 beef cattle (46 herds) and 115 goats (11 herds). Serum antibodies were analysed by ELISA and positive samples were retested by Complement Fixation test (CFT) to detect recent infections. Results ELISA anti-C. burnetii antibody prevalence was slightly higher in sheep (11.8 ± 2.0%) than in goats (8.7 ± 5.9%) and beef cattle (6.7 ± 2.0%). Herd prevalence was 74% for ovine, 45% for goat and 43% for bovine. Twenty-one percent of sheep flocks, 27% of goat and 14% of cattle herds had a C. burnetii seroprevalence ? 20%. Only 15 out of 214 ELISA-positive animals reacted positive by CFT. Age-associated seroprevalence differed between ruminant species with a general increasing pattern with age. No evidence of correlation between abortion history and seroprevalence rates was observed despite the known abortifacient nature of C. burnetii in domestic ruminants. Conclusions Results reported herein showed that sheep had the highest contact rate with C. burnetii in the region but also that cattle and goats should not be neglected as part of the domestic cycle of C. burnetii. This work reports basic epidemiologic patterns of C. burnetii in semi-extensive grazed domestic ruminants which, together with the relevant role of C. burnetii as a zoonotic and abortifacient agent, makes these results to concern both Public and Animal Health Authorities.

2010-01-01

120

Dairy washwater treatment using a horizontal flow biofilm system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Ireland, dairy farmyard washwater commonly comprises farmyard run-off and dairy parlour washings. Land-spreading is the most widely used method for treating this wastewater. However, this method can be labour intensive and can cause, in some cases, the degradation of surface and ground waters, mainly due to nitrogen contamination.In this study, a horizontal flow biofilm reactor (HFBR) with step-feed was

M. Rodgers; D. de Paor; E. Clifford

2008-01-01

121

36 CFR 222.11 - Grazing advisory boards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.11 Grazing advisory boards. (a) Establishment...of land subject to commercial livestock grazing may petition the Forest...

2010-07-01

122

36 CFR 222.11 - Grazing advisory boards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.11 Grazing advisory boards. (a) Establishment...of land subject to commercial livestock grazing may petition the Forest...

2009-07-01

123

36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing permits. (a) The Chief...cancel, modify, or suspend grazing and livestock use permits in whole or...

2009-07-01

124

36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing permits. (a) The Chief...cancel, modify, or suspend grazing and livestock use permits in whole or...

2013-07-01

125

36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing permits. (a) The Chief...cancel, modify, or suspend grazing and livestock use permits in whole or...

2010-07-01

126

36 CFR 222.11 - Grazing advisory boards.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.11 Grazing advisory boards. (a) Establishment...of land subject to commercial livestock grazing may petition the Forest...

2013-07-01

127

Minimising surface water pollution resulting from farm?dairy effluent application to mole?pipe drained soils. II. The contribution of preferential flow of effluent to whole?farm pollutant losses in subsurface drainage from a West Otago dairy farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the role of artificial drainage systems in the transfer of nutrients and faecal organisms from soil to waterways, mole?pipe drainage flows were monitored from two large (27 × 40 m), hydrologically isolated field plots that were part of a long?term dairy pasture in West Otago, New Zealand. One plot was grazed only whilst the other plot was spray

R. M. Monaghan; L. C. Smith

2004-01-01

128

Measurement and mitigation of methane emissions from beef cattle in tropical grazing systems: a perspective from Australia and Brazil.  

PubMed

The growing global demand for food of animal origin will be the incentive for countries such as Australia and Brazil to increase their beef production and international exports. This increased supply of beef is expected to occur primarily through on-farm productivity increases. The strategies for reducing resultant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions should be evaluated in the context of the production system and should encompass a broader analysis, which would include the emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon sequestration. This paper provides an insight into CH4 measurement techniques applicable to grazing environments and proposed mitigation strategies, with relevance to the production systems that are predominant in grazing systems of Australia and Brazil. Research and technology investment in both Australia and Brazil is aimed at developing measurement techniques and increasing the efficiency of cattle production by improving herd genetics, utilization of the seasonal feed-base and reducing the proportion of metabolizable energy lost as CH4. Concerted efforts in these areas can be expected to reduce the number of unproductive animals, reduce age at slaughter and inevitably reduce emission intensity (EI) from beef production systems. Improving efficiency of livestock production systems in tropical grazing systems for Australia and Brazil will be based on cultivated and existing native pastures and the use of additives and by-products from other agricultural sectors. This approach spares grain-based feed reserves typically used for human consumption, but potentially incurs a heavier EI than current intensive feeding systems. The determination of GHG emissions and the value of mitigation outcomes for entire beef production systems in the extensive grazing systems is complex and require a multidisciplinary approach. It is fortunate that governments in both Australia and Brazil are supporting ongoing research activities. Nevertheless, to achieve an outcome that feeds a growing population while reducing emissions on a global scale continues to be a monumental challenge for ruminant nutritionists. PMID:23739477

Berndt, A; Tomkins, N W

2013-06-01

129

Managing Public Rangelands: Effective Livestock Grazing Practices and Systems for National Forests and National Grasslands.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This brochure presents the basic principles of various grazing practices that might be used in forests and grasslands. Topics discussed in this pictorial booklet include: salting, fencing, water development, and riding and herding.

R. S. Driscoll

1967-01-01

130

Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Associated with Livestock Waste Management Systems: A Case Study for the Langerwerf Dairy Waste Management System  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using anaerobic digestion (AD) technology, a 400-cow dairy farm near Durham, California has reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and global warming potential (GWP) by approximately four-fifths (79%). The dairy-waste management system at the farm incorporates an AD system that produces biogas, electricity and heat through the use of a combined heat and power unit. The analysis compared the GHG

Jane H. Turnbull; Wellam Kamthunzi

131

Global versus local environmental impacts of grazing and confined beef production systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon footprint is a key indicator of the contribution of food production to climate change and its importance is increasing worldwide. Although it has been used as a sustainability index for assessing production systems, it does not take into account many other biophysical environmental dimensions more relevant at the local scale, such as soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, and pesticide contamination. We estimated carbon footprint, fossil fuel energy use, soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, and risk of pesticide contamination for five real beef background-finishing systems with increasing levels of intensification in Uruguay, which were combinations of grazing rangelands (RL), seeded pastures (SP), and confined in feedlot (FL). Carbon footprint decreased from 16.7 (RL-RL) to 6.9 kg (SP-FL) CO2 eq kg body weight-1 (BW; ‘eq’: equivalent). Energy use was zero for RL-RL and increased up to 17.3 MJ kg BW-1 for SP-FL. Soil erosion values varied from 7.7 (RL-RL) to 14.8 kg of soil kg BW-1 (SP-FL). Nitrogen and phosphorus nutrient balances showed surpluses for systems with seeded pastures and feedlots while RL-RL was deficient. Pesticide contamination risk was zero for RL-RL, and increased up to 21.2 for SP-FL. For the range of systems studied with increasing use of inputs, trade-offs were observed between global and local environmental problems. These results demonstrate that several indicators are needed to evaluate the sustainability of livestock production systems.

Modernel, P.; Astigarraga, L.; Picasso, V.

2013-09-01

132

Short communication: presynchronization for timed artificial insemination in grazing dairy cows by using progesterone for 14 days with or without prostaglandin F2? at the time of progesterone withdrawal.  

PubMed

Progesterone-containing devices can be inserted intravaginally for 14 d to presynchronize the estrous cycle for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef heifers ("14-day CIDR-PG" or "Show-Me-Synch" program). The progesterone treatment is effective for presynchronization because cattle develop a persistent dominant follicle during treatment that ovulates within 3 d after progesterone removal. The subsequent estrous cycle can be effectively used for a TAI program. Some cattle will retain a functional corpus luteum (CL) for the entire 14-d treatment period and will not be synchronized effectively because the interval to ovulation depends on the lifespan of their existing CL. The objective was to test the effect of a luteolytic dose of PGF(2?) at progesterone removal for improving synchrony of estrus after treatment and increasing conception rate to a subsequent TAI in dairy cows. Postpartum cows (n = 1,021) from 2 grazing dairy herds were assigned to 1 of 2 presynchronization programs that used a controlled internal drug releasing (CIDR) device containing progesterone: 14dCIDR (CIDR in, 14 d, CIDR out; n = 523) or 14dCIDR+PGF(2?) (CIDR in, 14 d, CIDR out, and PGF(2?); n = 498). Cows were body condition scored (BCS; 1 to 5, thin to fat) and tail painted at CIDR removal. Paint score (PS) was recorded after CIDR removal [PS = 0 (all paint removed, indication of estrus), PS = 3 (paint partially removed), or PS = 5 (no paint removed; indication of no estrus)]. At 19 d after CIDR removal, all cows were treated with PGF(2?), 56 h later treated with GnRH, and then 16 h later were TAI. Treating cows with PGF(2?) at CIDR removal increased the percentage with PS = 0 within 5 d (58.1% vs. 68.9%; 14dCIDR vs. 14dCIDR+PGF(2?)). We found no effect of treatment, however, on conception rate at TAI (41.1% vs. 43.6%; respectively). The TAI conception rate increased with increasing BCS and was greater for cows that had PS = 0 within 5 d after CIDR removal. In summary, treating cows with PGF(2?) at CIDR removal increased the percentage of cows with all tail paint removed but did not increase percentage of pregnant cows after TAI. PMID:22916915

Escalante, R C; Poock, S E; Mathew, D J; Martin, W R; Newsom, E M; Hamilton, S A; Pohler, K G; Lucy, M C

2012-09-01

133

Dynamical stabilization of grazing systems: An interplay among plant-water interaction, overgrazing and a threshold management policy.  

PubMed

In a plant-herbivore system, a management strategy called threshold policy is proposed to control grazing intensity where the vegetation dynamics is described by a plant-water interaction model. It is shown that this policy can lead the vegetation density to a previously chosen level under an overgrazing regime. This result is obtained despite both the potential occurrence of vegetation collapse due to overgrazing and the possibility of complex dynamics sensitive to vegetation initial densities and parameter uncertainties. PMID:17014869

Costa, Michel Iskin da Silveira; Meza, Magno Enrique Mendoza

2006-07-18

134

Organic dairy production systems in Pennsylvania: a case study evaluation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The current market demand and price for organic milk is encouraging dairy producers, particularly those on smaller farms, to consider organic production as a means for improving long-term economic sustainability. Extensive production information was collected from four case-study organic farms throu...

135

Impact of recent research on energy feeding systems for dairy cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A considerable volume of research in the energy metabolism of dairy cows has been undertaken over the last 2 decades. The purpose of the present review is to reflect on the impact of these studies on the UK metabolisable energy (ME) system, and other net energy (NE) systems, and validate these systems using published calorimetric data. The NE requirement for

R. E. Agnew; T. Yan

2000-01-01

136

GRAZING STRATEGY EFFECTS ON NORTHERN PLAINS PLANT COMMUNITIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Individual grazing systems are often promoted as a panacea for perceived rangeland management problems. However, studies of grazing systems over long periods are limited and those directly comparing more than a few grazing strategies at a time are limited. Seven simulated grazing strategies were a...

137

Short Communication: Comparison of Manual Versus Semiautomatic Milk Recording Systems in Dairy Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in early-midlactation were used to compare the labor time and data collection efficiency of using manual (M) vs. semiautomated (SA) systems for milk recording. Goats were milked once daily in a 2 × 12 parallel platform, with 6 milking units on each side. The M system used visual identification (ID) by large plastic

A. Ait-Saidi; G. Caja; S. Carne ´; A. A. K. Salama; J. J. Ghirardi

2008-01-01

138

Phosphorus (P) management in the ‘De Marke’ dairy farming system  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the sandy regions of the Netherlands water quality is threatened by high losses of nutrients from intensive dairy farms. About 67% (32 kg ha-1yr-1) of farm inputs of P in purchased feeds and fertilisers do not leave in milk or cattle. The Dutch government defined decreasing maximum permitted nutrient surplusses for the period 1998–2008, at 9 kg ha-1yr-1 for

H. F. M. Aarts; B. Habekotté; H. van Keulen

2000-01-01

139

INCREASING RETURNS OF SORGHUM PRODUCTION SYSTEMS WITH ALTERNATE SUMMER CROPS AND CATTLE GRAZING IN ROTATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Under dryland conditions, the wheat-sorghum-fallow (WSF) crop rotation consistently produces two crops in three years where 1/3rd of the land is cropped to wheat, 1/3rd is in sorghum, and the rest is fallowed. We investigated methods to increase cropping intensity by: 1) grazing cattle on wheat fora...

140

MODELING THE POTENTIAL SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF BEEF CATTLE GRAZING USING A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

Data regarding grazing utilization in the western United States are typically compiled within administrative boundaries(e.g. allotment,pasture). For large areas, an assumption of uniform distribution is seldom valid. Previous studies show that vegetation type, degree of slope, an...

141

Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

142

PROFITABILITY OF PRODUCTION SYSTEMS WITH COTTON AND PEANUTS INCORPORATING WINTER ANNUAL GRAZING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of contracts in livestock production has been widespread since at least the 1950s. Under grazing contracts, cattle owners usually place stocker cattle on pasture, owned or leased by a caretaker (e.g. farmer or landowner). These contacts provide farmers an increase in revenue by utilizing win...

143

Integrating Winter Annual Grazing in a Cotton-Peanut Rotation: Forage and Tillage System Selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrating livestock into cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)- peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) rotations offers alternatives for grazing and crop management, but could result in excessive soil compaction, which can severely limit yields. We began a study in fall 2000 at the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station's Wiregrass Research and Extension Center in southeastern Alabama on a Dothan sandy loam (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic

Guillermo Siri-Prieto; D. Wayne Reeves; Randy L. Raper; David Bransby; Brian E. Gamble

144

Effect of Weaning System on Milk Composition and Distribution of Milk Fat within the Udder of East Friesian Dairy Ewes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether the inhibition of milk ejec- tion during and\\/or between machine milkings is respon- sible for the low milk fat observed in commercial milk obtained from dairy ewes managed with a mixed system (MIX) of partial daily suckling (10 h) and once daily machine milking (after 14 h of udder filling). East Friesian crossbred dairy ewes were randomly

B. C. McKusick; D. L. Thomas; J. E. Romero; P. G. Marnet

2002-01-01

145

A System to Assess Fitness of Dairy Cows Responding to Exercise Training  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives were to develop a system to administer exercise training to dairy cows, to measure potential physiological indicators of fitness, and to assess physi- cal fitness. Nonlactating, nonpregnant multiparous Holstein cows (n = 19) were in one of three exercise training treatments: no exercise; 1-h exercise; or 2-h exercise by walking 3 km\\/h every other day for 60 d in

J. A. Davidson; D. K. Beede

2003-01-01

146

Part 3: Reference of 1996 Dairy Health and Health Management. National Animal Health Monitoring System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The National Animal Health Monitoring Systems (NAHMS) Dairy 96 study was designed to provide both participants and the industry with information on the nations milk cows for education and research. This report is the third in a series of releases document...

1996-01-01

147

Influence of kid rearing systems on milk yield, kid growth and cost of Florida dairy goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to study the effect of two different kid-rearing systems, natural or artificial, on milk yield, composition, hygiene-sanitary quality, kid growth and cost in Florida dairy goats. Two groups of animals were created, one with goats under natural suckling and the other under artificial rearing. In the suckling group, the kids were suckled up to

M. Delgado-Pertíñez; J. L. Guzmán-Guerrero; Y. Mena; J. M. Castel; P. González-Redondo; F. P. Caravaca

2009-01-01

148

Locoweed grazing.  

PubMed

Locoweed is the most widespread poisonous plant problem in the western U. S. Eleven species of Astragalus and Oxytropis (and many varieties within these species) cause locoism. Many locoweed species are endemic and are restricted to a narrow niche or habitat. Other locoweed species experience extreme population cycles; the population explodes in wet years and dies off in drought. A few species, such as O. sericea, are relatively stable and cause persistent poisoning problems. Knowledge of where locoweeds grow and the environmental conditions when they become a threat is important to manage livestock and avoid poisoning. Locoweeds are relatively palatable. Many locoweeds are the first plants to begin growth in the spring and regrow in the fall. Livestock generally prefer the green-growing locoweeds to other forage that is dormant in the late fall, winter, and spring. The most effective management strategy is to deny livestock access to locoweeds during critical periods when they are more palatable than the associated forage. Herbicides can control existing locoweed populations and provide "safe" pastures for critical periods. However, locoweed seed in soil will germinate and re-establish when environmental condition are favorable. Good range management and wise grazing strategies can provide adequate forage for livestock and prevent them from grazing locoweed during non-critical periods of the year when it is relatively less palatable than associated forages. PMID:10091127

Ralphs, M H; James, L F

1999-02-01

149

Smallholder dairy systems in the Kenya highlands: cattle population dynamics under increasing intensification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cross-sectional stratified random sample survey of 1755 households in the Kenya highlands was conducted between June 1996 and April 1998 to quantify cattle population dynamics in smallholder herds. The free-, semi-zero- and zero-grazing systems practised represented increasing levels of intensification of the farms. Additional data were collected in a follow-up survey of 50 households from the main survey sample.

B. O. Bebe; H. M. J. Udo; G. J. Rowlands; W. Thorpe

2003-01-01

150

Greenhouse gas emissions from simulated beef and dairy livestock systems in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computer spreadsheets were developed to evaluate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from U.S. beef and dairy livestock systems\\u000a from nine locations. Of the beef systems the cow-calf herd emitted the most and feedlot cattle the least methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) per unit product. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per unit product were the least for the cow-calf and greatest for

Hope W. Phetteplace; Donald E. Johnson; Andrew F. Seidl

2001-01-01

151

Greenhouse Gases and Ammonia Emissions from Organic Mixed Crop-Dairy Systems: A Critical Review of Mitigation Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Dairy production systems represent a significant source of air pollutants such as greenhouse gases (GHG), that increase global\\u000a warming, and ammonia (NH3), that leads to eutrophication and acidification of natural ecosystems. Greenhouse gases and ammonia are emitted both by\\u000a conventional and organic dairy systems. Several studies have already been conducted to design practices that reduce greenhouse\\u000a gas and ammonia emissions

S. M. Novak; J. L. Fiorelli

152

Lactation curves of dairy camels in an intensive system.  

PubMed

Weekly milk records of 47 she-camels in a multibreed dairy camel herd were collected for over a period of 5 years. A total of 72 lactation curves were defined, and relationships with parity, calving season, lactation length, milk production level, following lactations, and dam weight were analyzed. Overall mean values were milk yield up to 12 months, 1,970 ± 790 l; lactation length, 12.5 months; persistency, 94.7 %; weekly peak yield, 50.7 l; monthly peak yield, 220 ± 90 l; and the number of weeks to reach peak yield, 28. The highest productivity was recorded in summer with a weekly mean of 48.2 ± 19.4 l, compared with 34.1 ± 16.3 l in winter. The highest average yield recorded was for camels at sixth parity, whereas the highest weekly peak was at eighth parity, and highest persistency at fifth parity. Camels that calved during the cold months (November to February) were most productives, with the highest persistency, peak yield, and longest lactation length. Four types of curves were identified corresponding to different parities and milk yield levels. Based on these data, specific models for camels are proposed. PMID:23212839

Musaad, Abdelgadir; Faye, Bernard; Nikhela, Abdelmoneim Abu

2012-12-02

153

Ammonia losses from urine and dung of grazing cattle. effect of N intake  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrogen excretion by cattle during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric ammonia. In this study the relation between NH 3 volatilization and N intake was investigated in wind tunnel experiments with simulated urine patches and dung pats. Excreta were collected from four groups of dairy cattle grazing continuously on either ryegrass fertilized with 300 kg N ha -1 or unfertilized white clover-ryegrass. The two groups of cattle in each grazing system received either 139 or 304 g N cow -1 d -1 in concentrates, corresponding to average total N intakes in the range of 500-700 g N cow -1 d -1. Ammonia losses from dung were insignificant, while total losses from urine, which were estimated by curve-fitting, ranged from 3 to 52% of urinary N. Urea-N in the urine applied in the experiments constituted, with one exception, 64-94% of urinary N. The fraction of urea-N increased significantly with total N concentration in subsamples from individual animals. In the soil, hydrolysis of urea to NH 3 was almost complete within 24 h, and release of NH 3 was indicated by scorching. Milk yield and the production of milk protein was not related to N intake or grazing system, while estimated NH 3 losses were significantly reduced at the lower N intake level within the range of N intakes obtained.

Petersen, Søren O.; Sommer, Sven G.; Aaes, Ole; Søegaard, Karen

154

Diffraction of swift atoms after grazing scattering from metal surfaces: N/Ag(111) system  

SciTech Connect

Diffraction patterns produced by grazing scattering of fast N atoms from a Ag(111) surface are investigated by employing the surface eikonal approximation. This method is a distorted-wave theory that takes into account the coherent addition of contributions coming from different projectile paths. In the model the projectile-surface potential is obtained from an accurate density-functional theory calculation. The dependence of the scattered projectile spectra on impact energy and incidence channel is analyzed, and possible incident direction and energy range for the observation of the interference patterns are predicted. In addition, it is found that as a result of the high reactivity of N atoms, asymmetries of the surface potential might be detected through their effects on diffraction patterns.

Gravielle, M. S. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (CONICET-UBA) and Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bocan, G. A. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, S.C. de Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Diez Muino, R. [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC) and Centro de Fisica de Materiales CSIC-UPV/EHU, San Sebastian (Spain)

2010-11-15

155

36 CFR 222.3 - Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits. 222.3 Section... RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.3 Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits. (a) Unless...

2013-07-01

156

36 CFR 222.3 - Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits. 222.3 Section... RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.3 Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits. (a) Unless...

2009-07-01

157

36 CFR 222.3 - Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits. 222.3 Section... RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.3 Issuance of grazing and livestock use permits. (a) Unless...

2010-07-01

158

The influence of sward canopy structure on foraging decisions by grazing cattle. I. Patch selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patch selection by grazing dairy cows in response to simultaneous variation in combinations of sward struc- tural characteristics was examined in three experiments in which four mature dairy cows were offered a choice of patches (typically 0.9 m · 0.9 m) of perennial rye- grass (Lolium perenne) presented in a linear arrange- ment. Treatments involved combinations of variations in sward

W. M. Griffiths; J. Hodgson; G. C. Arnold

2003-01-01

159

An integrated approach to studying the role of grazing livestock systems in the conservation of rangelands in a protected natural park (Sierra de Guara, Spain)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ‘Sierra de Guara’ Natural Park (81,491 ha, Huesca, Spain) is a protected Mediterranean mountain area dominated by shrub and forest pastures. Traditional agriculture, mainly extensive grazing systems, has decreased in the last decades; concurrently, invasion of shrub vegetation, landscape changes and higher risk of forest fires have been observed.A study, which started in 2000, was carried out with two

A. Bernués; J. L. Riedel; M. A. Asensio; M. Blanco; A. Sanz; R. Revilla; I. Casasús

2005-01-01

160

Effect of biological control through the daily application of spores of Duddingtonia flagrans in lambs kept under an evasive grazing system in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004, an experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of biological control through feeding spores of Duddingtonia flagrans on parasitic gastroenteritis in lambs, kept under an evasive grazing system. In total 66 lambs were used. Forty naturally infected 3-month old ram lambs were weaned in mid June, and divided into four groups of 10 lambs. On 21 June,

M. Eysker; N. Bakker; F. N. J. Kooyman; S. Olde Olthuis; H. W. Ploeger

2006-01-01

161

Lifetime productivity of dairy cows in smallholder farming systems of the Central highlands of Kenya.  

PubMed

Evaluation of lifetime productivity is sensible to target interventions for improving productivity of smallholder dairy systems in the highlands of East Africa, because cows are normally not disposed of based on productive reasons. Feeding strategies and involuntary culling may have long-term effects on productive (and therefore economic) performance of dairy systems. Because of the temporal scale needed to evaluate lifetime productivity, experimentation with feedstuffs in single lactations is not enough to assess improvements in productivity. A dynamic modelling approach was used to explore the effect of feeding strategies on the lifetime productivity of dairy cattle. We used LIVSIM (LIVestock SIMulator), an individual-based, dynamic model in which performance depends on genetic potential of the breed and feeding. We tested the model for the highlands of Central Kenya, and simulated individual animals throughout their lifetime using scenarios with different diets based on common feedstuffs used in these systems (Napier grass, maize stover and dairy concentrates), with and without imposing random mortality on different age classes. The simulations showed that it is possible to maximise lifetime productivity by supplementing concentrates to meet the nutrient requirements of cattle during lactation, and during early development to reduce age at first calving and extend productive life. Avoiding undernutrition during the dry period by supplementing the diet with 0.5 kg of concentrates per day helped to increase productivity and productive life, but in practice farmers may not perceive the immediate economic benefits because the results of this practice are manifested through a cumulative, long-term effect. Survival analyses indicated that unsupplemented diets prolong calving intervals and therefore, reduce lifetime productivity. The simulations with imposed random mortality showed a reduction of 43% to 65% in all productivity indicators. Milk production may be increased on average by 1400 kg per lactation by supplementing the diet with 5 kg of concentrates during early lactation and 1 kg during late lactation, although the optimal supplementation may change according to milk and concentrate prices. Reducing involuntary culling must be included as a key goal when designing interventions to improve productivity and sustainability of smallholder dairy systems, because increasing lifetime productivity may have a larger impact on smallholders' income than interventions targeted to only improving daily milk yields through feeding strategies. PMID:22444823

Rufino, M C; Herrero, M; Van Wijk, M T; Hemerik, L; De Ridder, N; Giller, K E

2009-07-01

162

Dairy Wastes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a literature review of wastes from the dairy industry covering publications of 1976-77. This review covers: (1) government regulations; (2) ion-plant control of dairy effluents; (3) dairy effluent treatment methods; and (4) research on dairy effluents. A list of 26 references is also presented. (HM)|

Pico, Richard F.

1978-01-01

163

Lameness scoring system for dairy cows using force plates and artificial intelligence.  

PubMed

Lameness scoring is a routine procedure in dairy industry to screen the herds for new cases of lameness. Subjective lameness scoring, which is the most popular lameness detection and screening method in dairy herds, has several limitations. They include low intra-observer and inter-observer agreement and the discrete nature of the scores which limits its usage in monitoring the lameness. The aim of this study is to develop an automated lameness scoring system comparable with conventional subjective lameness scoring by means of artificial neural networks. The system is composed of four balanced force plates installed in a hoof-trimming box. A group of 105 dairy cows was used for the study. Twenty-three features extracted from ground reaction force (GRF) data were used in a computer training process which was performed on 60 per cent of the data. The remaining 40 per cent of the data were used to test the trained system. Repeatability of the lameness scoring system was determined by GRF samples from 25 cows, captured at two different times from the same animals. The mean sd was 0.31 and the mean coefficient of variation was 14.55 per cent, which represents a high repeatability in comparison with subjective vision-based scoring methods. Although the highest sensitivity and specificity values were seen in locomotion score groups 1 and 4, the automatic lameness system was both sensitive and specific in all groups. The sensitivity and specificity were higher than 72 per cent in locomotion score groups 1 to 4, and it was 100 per cent specific and 50 per cent sensitive for group 5. PMID:22141114

Ghotoorlar, S Mokaram; Ghamsari, S Mehdi; Nowrouzian, I; Ghotoorlar, S Mokaram; Ghidary, S Shiry

2011-12-02

164

Cattle grazing on the shortgrass steppe  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The focus of this book chapter is research pertaining to three management practices important to cattle ranching on shortgrass steppe: stocking rates, grazing systems, and extending the grazing season via complementary pastures and use of Atriplex canescens [Pursh] Nutt (fourwing saltbush) -dominate...

165

Riparian Responses to Grazing Practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fur trappers and settlers during the early 1800s reported extensive stands of willows and wide, wet meadows along stream systems throughout the west­ ern rangelands. By the early 1900s, many of these stream systems were severely damaged or eliminated because of improper livestock use. Although grazing practices initiated in the mid-1930s have dramatically improved up­ lands, riparian conditions have continued

WAYNE ELMORE

166

25 CFR 700.711 - Grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... New Lands Grazing § 700.711 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the New Lands must be covered...managing grazing in compliance with grazing regulations, (ii) Livestock grazing is in compliance with the...

2013-04-01

167

Measurement of ammonia emissions from three ammonia emission reduction systems for dairy cattle using a dynamic flux chamber  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing interest among dairy farmers in The Netherlands for animal friendly housing systems that at the same moment reduce the ammonia emission compared to currently available systems. Therefore, there is a need for a relatively cheap and easy measuring method to investigate the potential effect of new emission reduction systems. In 2008 and 2009 Wageningen UR Livestock Research

Dooren van H. J. C; J. Mosquera

2010-01-01

168

Nitrogen management on experimental dairy farm ‘De Marke’; farming system, objectives and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the sandy regions of the Netherlands, high nutrient surpluses from dairy farming harm the environment. Government policy aims at reducing nutrient losses to acceptable levels. To explore possibilities and to generate sufficient and accurate information for dairy farmers to reduce surpluses, research was carried out at the experimental dairy farm ‘De Marke’. The objective of ‘De Marke’ is to

G. J. Hilhorst; J. Oenema; H. Van Keulen

2001-01-01

169

Root length density and carbon content of agroforestry and grass buffers under grazed pasture systems in a Hapludalf  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enhancement of root development helps to improve soil physical properties, carbon sequestration, and water quality of streams.\\u000a The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in root length density (RLD) and root and soil carbon content within\\u000a grass buffer (GB), agroforestry buffer (AgB), rotationally grazed pasture (RG) and continuously grazed pasture (CG) treatments.\\u000a Pasture and GB areas included red

Sandeep KumarRanjith; Ranjith P. Udawatta; Stephen H. Anderson

2010-01-01

170

AU Triumph, Johnstone and Kentucky 31 tall fescue pastures versus maize silage in diets for lactating dairy cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of lactating dairy cattle fed on a maize silage (S) dry?lot scheme was compared with that of lactating dairy cattle switched abruptly from a dry?lot regime to graze endophyte?free Johnstone (J), Kentucky 31 (K), or AU Triumph (T) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) as components of dairy diets. Twenty?four mature Holsteins either grazed pasture or received maize silage

J. F. Kabiligi; B. R. Moss; D. I. Bransby; J. L. Holliman; J. C. Lin

1996-01-01

171

Drivers of Risk in New Zealand Dairy Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much research have been focused on the importance of physical parameters on the profitability of New Zealand pastoral systems, however not many efforts have been addressed from a financial perspective. As farms get bigger, the identification of the main drivers on farm economical viability becomes more important. The objective of this study was to identify important factors affecting Return on

Rene Pinochet-Chateau; Nicola M. Shadbolt; Colin Holmes; Nicolas Lopez-Villalobos

2005-01-01

172

Agro-Ecological Indicators (AEIs) for Dairy and Mixed Farming Systems Classification: Identifying Alternatives for the Cuban Livestock Sector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attainment of acceptable levels of land and labor productivity and low external input use is not a mutually exclusive proposition. This study examines characteristics of a range of current specialized dairy farming systems (DFS) and mixed (crop-livestock) farming systems (MFS) in Cuba to determine their efficiency in the process of food and feed production. The central question was whether the

F. R. Funes-Monzote; M. Monzote; E. A. Lantinga; C. J. F. Ter Braak; J. E. Sánchez; H. Van Keulen

2009-01-01

173

The impact of potential nitrous oxide mitigation strategies on the environmental and economic performance of dairy systems in four New Zealand catchments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The expansion of the New Zealand dairy industry has resulted in growing concern about the environmental impacts. As such, efforts are being made to design environmentally and economically sustainable management strategies. In this desktop study, the performance of two management strategies was assessed for dairy systems in four New Zealand catchments. Survey and monitoring information on farm management, farm production,

C. A. M. De Klein; R. M. Monaghan

2005-01-01

174

Short communication: Breed differences affecting dairy cattle welfare in traditional alpine tie-stall husbandry systems.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to compare the prevalence of indicators of poor welfare among 5 Italian cattle breeds (Italian Holstein-Friesian, Italian Bruna, Pezzata Rossa Italiana, Grigia Alpina, and Pezzata Rossa d'Oropa) kept in tie-stalls in the Italian Alps under similar housing and management conditions. We recorded the presence of integument alterations (hairless patch areas, lesion/swollen areas, or overgrown claws) and lameness in 612 cows. Additionally, we checked 834 cows for the presence of physical malformations ("open" shoulders). In general, the prevalence of welfare problems showed a decreasing trend from the more productive to the less productive breeds. Local breeds (Grigia Alpina and Pezzata Rossa d'Oropa) showed a significantly lower prevalence of welfare problems compared with the other 3 breeds, whereas Italian Holstein-Friesian usually had the highest percentage of individuals with problems. No differences were found between Pezzata Rossa Italiana and Italian Bruna, both of which showed fewer problems than Italian Holstein-Friesian. The effect of the breed significantly affected the welfare of dairy cows in tie-stalls in alpine traditional husbandry systems. The prevalence of the negative welfare indicators studied was lower in local breeds, which are better adapted to local breeding conditions. Our results indicate an urgent need to promote changes in the criteria used for genetic selection in the dairy industry and underline the importance of maintaining the diversity of local breeds, which should be carefully chosen for each specific environmental condition. PMID:21524530

Mattiello, S; Battini, M; Andreoli, E; Barbieri, S

2011-05-01

175

Evaluating mountain goat dairy systems for conversion to the organic model, using a multicriteria method.  

PubMed

Organic farming conserves natural resources, promotes biodiversity, guarantees animal welfare and obtains healthy products from raw materials through natural processes. In order to evaluate possibilities of increasing organic animal production, this study proposes a farm-scale multicriteria method for assessing the conversion of dairy goat systems to the organic model. In addition, a case study in the Northern Sierra of Seville, southern Spain, is analysed. A consensus of expert opinions and a field survey are used to validate a list of potential indicators and issues for assessing the conversion, which consider not only the European Community regulations for organic livestock farming, but also agroecological principles. As a result, the method includes 56 variables integrated in nine indicators: Nutritional management, Sustainable pasture management, Soil fertility and contamination, Weed and pest control, Disease prevention, Breeds and reproduction, Animal welfare, Food safety and Marketing and management. The nine indicators are finally integrated in a global index named OLPI (Organic Livestock Proximity Index). Application of the method to a case study with 24 goat farms reveals an OLPI value of 46.5% for dairy goat farms located in mountain areas of southern Spain. The aspects that differ most from the agroecological model include soil management, animal nutrition and product marketing. Results of the case study indicate that the proposed method is easy to implement and is useful for quantifying the approximation of conventional farms to an organic model. PMID:22436287

Mena, Y; Nahed, J; Ruiz, F A; Sánchez-Muñoz, J B; Ruiz-Rojas, J L; Castel, J M

2012-04-01

176

Impacts of Spatial Patterns in Pasture on Animal Grazing Behavior, Intake, and Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control over the quantity and quality of food ingested by grazing ruminants in temperate pasture systems remains elusive. This is due in part to the foraging choices that animals make when grazing from communities of mixed plant species. Grazing behavior and intake interact strongly with the feed supply-demand balance, pasture com- position, and grazing method. These interactions are not completely

D. F. Chapman; A. J. Parsons; G. P. Cosgrove; D. J. Barker; D. M. Marotti; K. J. Venning; S. M. Rutter; J. Hill; A. N. Thompson

2007-01-01

177

Assessment of heifer grazing experience on short-term adaptation to pasture and performance as lactating cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A 3-yr study evaluated the carryover effects of dairy heifer grazing experience on behavior and first lactation performance as dairy cows. Forty-one Holstein and 23 Holstein-Jersey crossbred calves born between January and April 2008 were randomly assigned to one of four treatments (PP, PC, CP and C...

178

A systems approach to quantify greenhouse gas fluxes from pastoral dairy production as affected by management regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model was developed to determine what effect management practices would have on the production of the greenhouse gases (GHG) within pastorally based dairy production systems typical of those practiced in Ireland. The model simulates two levels of GHG emissions, firstly the on-farm GHG emissions of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide for example from the pastorally spreading of slurry

D. K. Lovett; L. Shalloo; P. Dillon; F. P. O’Mara

2006-01-01

179

Mirror systems with grazing incidence as image-forming optics for X-rays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systems of totally reflecting mirrors may be used as the optics in X-ray microscopy. With elimination of the spherical aberration for an axial point, these systems at the same time satisfy the Abbe sine condition up to apertures of 0.05. To investigate live biological specimens, wavelengths of approximately 24 A are recommended since these are minimally absorbed in water but

H. Wolter

1975-01-01

180

Milk composition and flavor under different feeding systems: a survey of dairy farms.  

PubMed

Understanding the influence of regional dietary factors on the flavors of milk and dairy products will provide consumers with more options and promote the conservation of regional resources and the original terroir. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of regional differences in feeding systems on the composition, fatty acid content, and flavor of pasteurized milk at the farm level. Nine dairy farms using grass silage (GS), 6 farms using maize silage (MS), and 4 farms using by-products (BP) as the characteristic feed components were chosen for this survey. Fresh milk was sampled once per month from September 2008 to February 2009 at each dairy farm. The percentages of GS, MS, and BP (soybean curd residue or brewer's grain) in the feed were 32.4, 22.1, and 15.1%, respectively. The milk fat, protein, and lactose contents did not differ among the milks from farms with different feeding systems. Fatty acids with chain lengths of less than C16 and saturated fatty acids were present at higher concentrations in the milks from the GS and MS farms than in the milk from the BP farms; conversely, fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), including mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), were present at higher concentrations in the milks from the BP farms than in the milks from the GS farms. No significant differences were detected in milk flavor, evaluated as sweetness, body, texture, aftertaste, and palatability, between the milks from the farms with different feeding systems. The proportion of BP in the cow's diet was positively correlated with the concentrations of fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 and with UFA, MUFA, and PUFA. In contrast, the proportion of GS in the diet was positively associated with the levels of milk fat, protein, fatty acids with chain lengths less than C16, and SFA. The MUFA, PUFA, UFA, and fatty acids with chain lengths greater than C18 were not associated with any of the milk flavors. These results suggest the regional differences in feeding systems contribute to the differences in the fatty acid compositions of milk at the farm level. However, these differences do not influence the flavor of pasteurized milk. Thus, more specific feed profiles will be required to provide a specific regional flavor to pasteurized milk. PMID:23769370

Yayota, M; Tsukamoto, M; Yamada, Y; Ohtani, S

2013-06-13

181

Participatory rural appraisal to identify needs and prospects of market-oriented dairy industries in Bangladesh.  

PubMed

We assessed resources, challenges and prospects of the dairy industries in four districts of Bangladesh (Mymensingh, Satkhira, Chittagong and Sirajganj) with the participation of 8 to 12 dairy farm families in each district. We used ten participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools, namely social mapping, semistructured interview, activity profiles, seasonal calendar, pie charts, mobility diagram, matrix ranking, preference ranking and scoring, system analysis diagram and focus group discussion in 57 PRA sessions from September through October 2002. Dairying contributed more to family income (63 to 74%) and utilized a smaller portion of land than did crops. Twenty seven to 49% of cattle feed is rice straw. Only Sirajganj and Chittagong had limited, periodic grazing facilities. Fodder (Napier; Pennisetum purpureum) cultivation was practiced in Sirajganj and Satkhira. Fodder availability increased milk production and decreased disease occurrence. Friesian crossbred cows were ranked best as dairy cattle. The present utilization of veterinary and AI services was ranked highly. Farmers outside the milk union desired milk purchasing centres as the most required service in the future. They identified veterinary and AI services as inadequate and desired significant improvements. The PRA tools effectively identified resources, constraints, opportunities and farmers' perspectives related to the dairy industries in Bangladesh. PMID:18265866

Shamsuddin, M; Alam, M M; Hossein, M S; Goodger, W J; Bari, F Y; Ahmed, T U; Hossain, M M; Khan, A H M S I

2007-12-01

182

IMPACT OF DIFFERENT GRAZING SYSTEMS AND VEGETATIVE FILTER STRIPS ON SEDIMENT AND NUTRIENT LOSSES WITH SURFACE RUNOFF  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The main objective of this research is to quantify the effect of grazing management practices and vegetative filter strips (VFS) on losses of total suspended solids (TSS), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), ortho-phosphorus (PO4-P) and total P (TP) in surface runoff during natural rainfall events. The data ...

183

Environmental vulnerability, assessment, and monitoring of grazing systems under index-based livestock insurance programs in East Africa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our goal is to characterize and monitor feedbacks between innovative insurance products and ecosystem services in resource poor environments. Our team is integrating longitudinal field-based measurements and monitoring protocols to quantify grazing animal impact related to the implementation of an ...

184

Persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dairy fermentation systems.  

PubMed

We examined (i) the persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a postpasteurization contaminant in fermented dairy products; (ii) the ability of E. coli O157:H7 strains with and without the general stress regulatory protein, RpoS, to compete with commercial starter cultures in fermentation systems; and (iii) the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in the yogurt production process. In commercial products inoculated with 10(3) CFU/ml, E. coli O157:H7 was recovered for up to 12 days in yogurt (pH 4.0), 28 days in sour cream (pH 4.3), and at levels > 10(2) CFU/ml at 35 days in buttermilk (pH 4.1). For the starter culture competition trials, the relative inhibition of E. coli O157:H7 in the experimental fermentation systems was, in decreasing order, thermophilic culture mixture, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus R110 alone, Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis D280 alone, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris D62 alone, and Streptococcus thermophilus C90 alone showing the least inhibition. Recovery of the rpoS mutant was lower than recovery of its wild-type parent by 72 h or earlier in the presence of individual starter cultures. No E. coli O157:H7 were recovered after the curd formation step in yogurt manufactured with milk inoculated with 10(5) CFU/ml. Our results show that (i) postprocessing entry of E. coli O157:H7 into fermented dairy products represents a potential health hazard; (ii) commercial starter cultures differ in their ability to reduce E. coli O157:H7 CFU numbers in fermentation systems; and (iii) the RpoS protein appears to most effectively contribute to bacterial survival in the presence of conditions that are moderately lethal to the cell. PMID:9874336

Dineen, S S; Takeuchi, K; Soudah, J E; Boor, K J

1998-12-01

185

Herbivore regulation and irreversible vegetation change in semi-arid grazing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models made to explain sudden and irreversible vegetation shifts in semi-arid grasslands typically assume that herbivore density is independent of the state of the vegetation, e.g., under the control of humans. We relax this assumption and investigate the mathematical implications of vegetation-regulated herbivore population dynamics. We show that irreversible vegetation change may also occur in systems where herbivore population dynamics

Johan van de Koppel; Max Rietkerk

2000-01-01

186

Modelling nitrous oxide abatement strategies in intensive pasture systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrous oxide emissions from grazed pasture soils are both spatially and temporally highly variable, making accurate measurement of emissions difficult and expensive. Simulation modelling is powerful tool in evaluating best management practices for N management in a systems context. The objective of this study was to use a biophysical, mechanistic model (DairyMod) to evaluate the potential impact of a range

Richard Eckard; Ian Johnson; David Chapman

2006-01-01

187

A system to assess fitness of dairy cows responding to exercise training.  

PubMed

Objectives were to develop a system to administer exercise training to dairy cows, to measure potential physiological indicators of fitness, and to assess physical fitness. Nonlactating, nonpregnant multiparous Holstein cows (n = 19) were in one of three exercise training treatments: no exercise; 1-h exercise; or 2-h exercise by walking 3 km/h every other day for 60 d in a mechanical walker. Treadmill tests on d 15, 30, 45, and 60 consisted of walking (5 km/h) with 1.6% increases in slope at 3-min intervals until heart rates reached 180 beats per minute (experimentally specified maximum) or until cows refused to walk. Fitness indices analyzed in tests as single datum points at maximal heart rates were length of time of test, heart rate, and plasma L-lactate concentration at end of the test, and change in heart rate and lactate concentration during the test. Exercised (1 or 2 h) cows had longer times to end of tests than nonexercised cows. Maximal and change in heart rates or plasma lactate during tests did not indicate improved physical fitness. However, when all data were evaluated as repeated measures of day and minute of tests, reductions of heart rates and plasma lactate concentrations were greatest on d 60 between exercised and nonexercised cows indicating improved fitness. Acid-base measurements were not found useful in this study. Changes of heart rates and plasma lactate concentrations over time (repeated measures) of treadmill tests quantified the physical fitness of dairy cows and can be used to compare potential responses to different exercise training treatments in this system. PMID:14507020

Davidson, J A; Beede, D K

2003-09-01

188

Software for evaluating greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon footprint of dairy production systems  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Abstract: Dairy production, along with all other types of animal agriculture, is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but little information exists on the net emissions from our farms. Component models for representing all important sources and sinks of CH4, N2O, and CO2 in dairy p...

189

Assessment of herd management on organic and conventional dairy farms in the United States.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate management characteristics on organic and similarly sized conventional dairy farms located in New York, Wisconsin, and Oregon. Data from 192 organic farms (ORG), 64 conventional nongrazing farms (CON-NG), and 36 conventional grazing farms (CON-GR) were collected during farm visits and were size-matched and analyzed. The average lactation number of animals on ORG and CON-GR farms was 2.6 lactations, which was greater than that on CON-NG farms (2.3 lactations). A greater percentage of first-lactation heifers were found on conventional farms than on ORG farms. Facilities used by adult animals, including housing and milking facilities, did not differ among the grazing systems. Cattle on conventional farms were fed approximately twice as much grain as cattle on ORG farms and had greater milk production. Little difference was found for the average reported somatic cell count and standard plate count, suggesting that milk quality is not dependent on grazing system. Milking procedures were similar across all 3 grazing systems, indicating that an industry standard now exists for milking and that milk quality problems will need to be addressed with other management problems in mind. Although some disease prevention measures were commonly utilized on ORG farms, such as keeping a closed herd and having a written record of treatments administered to the animals, the use of outside support and vaccinations were found to be less prevalent on organic farms than on conventional farms. PMID:23219118

Stiglbauer, K E; Cicconi-Hogan, K M; Richert, R; Schukken, Y H; Ruegg, P L; Gamroth, M

2012-12-06

190

Environmental and economic assessment of integrated systems for dairy manure treatment coupled with algae bioenergy production.  

PubMed

Life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC) are used to investigate integrated algae bioenergy production and nutrient management on small dairy farms. Four cases are considered: a reference land-application scenario (REF), anaerobic digestion with land-application of liquid digestate (AD), and anaerobic digestion with recycling of liquid digestate to either an open-pond algae cultivation system (OPS) or an algae turf scrubber (ATS). LCA indicates that all three "improved" scenarios (AD, OPS, and ATS) are environmentally favorable compared to REF, exhibiting increases in net energy output up to 854GJ/yr, reductions in net eutrophication potential up to 2700kg PO(4)-eq/yr, and reductions in global warming potential up to 196Mg CO(2)-eq/yr. LCC reveals that the integrated algae systems are much more financially attractive than either AD or REF, whereby net present values (NPV) are as follows: $853,250 for OPS, $790,280 for ATS, -$62,279 for REF, and -$211,126 for AD. However, these results are highly dependent on the sale price for nutrient credits. Comparison of LCA and LCC results indicates that robust nutrient credit markets or other policy tools are required to align financial and environmental preferability of energy production systems and foster widespread adoption of sustainable nutrient management systems. PMID:23313697

Zhang, Yongli; White, Mark A; Colosi, Lisa M

2012-12-07

191

Factors that influence the efficiency of beef and dairy cattle recording system in Kenya: A SWOT–AHP analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal recording in Kenya is characterised by erratic producer participation and high drop-out rates from the national recording\\u000a scheme. This study evaluates factors influencing efficiency of beef and dairy cattle recording system. Factors influencing\\u000a efficiency of animal identification and registration, pedigree and performance recording, and genetic evaluation and information\\u000a utilisation were generated using qualitative and participatory methods. Pairwise comparison of

Chrilukovian B. Wasike; Thomas M. Magothe; Alexander K. Kahi; Kurt J. Peters

2011-01-01

192

Pregnancy and Bovine Somatotropin in Nonlactating Dairy Cows: I. Ovarian, Conceptus, and Insulin-Like Growth Factor System Responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlactating dairy cows were used to examine effects ofbovinesomatotropin(bST)oncomponentsoftheinsu- lin-like growth factor (IGF) system. Estrus was syn- chronized in cows with a Presynch + Ovsynch protocol and timed AI (TAI; n = 55) or not TAI (cycling, C; n = 23) on d 0 (time of synchronized ovulation). O nd0a nd 11, cows received bST (500 mg) or no bST,

T. R. Bilby; A. Guzeloglu; S. Kamimura; S. M. Pancarci; F. Michel; H. H. Head; W. W. Thatcher

2004-01-01

193

Dairy Manure Effects on Soil Quality Properties and Carbon Sequestration in Alfalfa–Orchardgrass Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dairy manure, as a passive by-product of livestock, is an important source of nutrients and organic matter to soils that support forage production. A split-plot experiment was conducted to determine the long-term (1994–1999) effects of dairy manure and chemical fertilizer on soil quality properties and carbon (C) sequestration in an alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) forage

D. H. Min; K. R. Islam; L. R. Vough; R. R. Weil

2003-01-01

194

Non-systemic erosive stomatitis of unknown aetiology in a dairy cow herd in New Zealand  

Microsoft Academic Search

CASE HISTORY: Veterinarians from the Investigation and Diagnostic Centre (IDC), Wallaceville, New Zealand, investigated a novel vesicular disease in a 397-cow dairy herd, characterised by erosive stomatitis.CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS: The investigation commenced with a report of erosive stomatitis in four dairy cows. The herd was examined that day and 30\\/397 (8%) adult cows were found to be affected. Two

AMJ McFadden; J Wang; GF Mackereth; RR Clough; LH Loth; JJ Vermunt; CM King; Alley

2007-01-01

195

Local feeding strategies and milk composition in small-scale dairy production systems during the rainy season in the highlands of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the work was to identify local feeding strategies in small-scale dairy production systems during the rainy\\u000a season in the highlands of Mexico, and to determine their effects on milk yields (MY), milk composition and economic viability.\\u000a Twenty-two dairy farms were monitored by monthly visits, recording and sampling milk from between two and six cows in each\\u000a farm,

Ángel René Alfonso-Ávila; Michel A. Wattiaux; Angélica Espinoza-Ortega; Ernesto Sánchez-Vera; Carlos M. Arriaga-Jordán

196

Prediction of Breeding Values for Dairy Cattle Using Artificial Neural Networks and Neuro-Fuzzy Systems  

PubMed Central

Developing machine learning and soft computing techniques has provided many opportunities for researchers to establish new analytical methods in different areas of science. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential of two types of intelligent learning methods, artificial neural networks and neuro-fuzzy systems, in order to estimate breeding values (EBV) of Iranian dairy cattle. Initially, the breeding values of lactating Holstein cows for milk and fat yield were estimated using conventional best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) with an animal model. Once that was established, a multilayer perceptron was used to build ANN to predict breeding values from the performance data of selection candidates. Subsequently, fuzzy logic was used to form an NFS, a hybrid intelligent system that was implemented via a local linear model tree algorithm. For milk yield the correlations between EBV and EBV predicted by the ANN and NFS were 0.92 and 0.93, respectively. Corresponding correlations for fat yield were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively. Correlations between multitrait predictions of EBVs for milk and fat yield when predicted simultaneously by ANN were 0.93 and 0.93, respectively, whereas corresponding correlations with reference EBV for multitrait NFS were 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for milk and fat production.

Shahinfar, Saleh; Mehrabani-Yeganeh, Hassan; Lucas, Caro; Kalhor, Ahmad; Kazemian, Majid; Weigel, Kent A.

2012-01-01

197

Livestock disease threats associated with intensification of pastoral dairy farming.  

PubMed

This paper provides an overview of the changes in the pasture-based dairy systems of New Zealand and Australia that may influence the health of cattle. There are relatively few available data that can be used to quantify the effects of increased intensification of milk production on the health of cattle. There is evidence that increased production increases the risk of mastitis and culling for udder health. Increased risks of mastitis with treatment with somatotropin support these findings; however, the risk of mastitis may decrease with increased milking frequency. Larger herds with greater stocking density should increase the risk for infectious disease, but evidence to support this contention is sparse. Very intensive grazing patterns associated with higher grass yields achieved using better cultivars and greater use of fertilisers favour nematode parasites. There is some evidence of anthelmintic resistance in both nematodes and liver fluke. Veterinarians will need to be aware of the potential for these to reduce the productivity of cattle. There have been benefits of improved nutrition on the efficiency of energy use for dairy production. Diseases such as bloat and ketosis appear to be of lower prevalence. It also appears that mineral nutrition of pasture-fed cattle is being better addressed, with gains in the control of milk fever, hypomagnesaemia and trace-element deficiencies. However, acidosis is a condition with a high point prevalence in pasture-based dairy systems where cows are fed supplements; one study in Australia found a point prevalence of approximately 11% of cows with acidosis. There is evidence from this study that the neutral detergent fibre (NDF) in pasture-based diets may need to be higher than 30% of the diet to maintain rumen stability. Laminitis and acidosis are different conditions with a similar pathogenesis, specifically highly fermentable diets. The prevalence of lameness was 28% in herds in Australia, suggesting that this condition must be a focus for preventive medical approaches, including the design of laneways, feed pads and dairies. PMID:19043462

Lean, Ij; Westwood, Ct; Playford, Mc

2008-12-01

198

Evaluation of system performances and microbial communities of two temperature-phased anaerobic digestion systems treating dairy manure.  

PubMed

Two temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) systems, with the thermophilic digesters acidified by acidogenesis products (AT-TPAD) or operated at neutral pH and balanced hydrolysis/acidogenesis and methanogenesis (NT-TPAD), were evaluated to treat high-strength dairy cattle manure. Despite similar methane productions (about 0.22 L/g VS fed), the NT-TPAD system removed significantly more VS (36%) than the AT-TPAD system (31%) and needed no pH adjustments. The thermophilic digester of the NT-TPAD system dominated the system performance and performed significantly better than that of the AT-TPAD system. The opposite held true for the mesophilic digesters. Differences of the thermophilic digesters between two TPAD systems affected the microbial communities of both local and downstream digesters. Each digester harbored distinctive microbial populations, some of which were significantly correlated with system performance. Methanosarcina was the most important methanogenic genus in both TPAD systems, while Methanosaeta only in the NT-TPAD system. Their populations were inversely related to VFA concentrations. PMID:23819980

Lv, Wen; Zhang, Wenfei; Yu, Zhongtang

2013-06-13

199

An optimization model of a New Zealand dairy farm.  

PubMed

Optimization models are a key tool for the analysis of emerging policies, prices, and technologies within grazing systems. A detailed, nonlinear optimization model of a New Zealand dairy farming system is described. This framework is notable for its inclusion of pasture residual mass, pasture utilization, and intake regulation as key management decisions. Validation of the model shows that the detailed representation of key biophysical relationships in the model provides an enhanced capacity to provide reasonable predictions outside of calibrated scenarios. Moreover, the flexibility of management plans in the model enhances its stability when faced with significant perturbations. In contrast, the inherent rigidity present in a less-detailed linear programming model is shown to limit its capacity to provide reasonable predictions away from the calibrated baseline. A sample application also demonstrates how the model can be used to identify pragmatic strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:23415534

Doole, Graeme J; Romera, Alvaro J; Adler, Alfredo A

2013-02-15

200

A spatio-temporal analysis of forage availability and grazing and excretion behaviour of herded and free grazing cattle, sheep and goats in Western Niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grazing itineraries of herded and free grazing cattle (n=194), goats (n=148), and sheep (n=129) were monitored in a village territory over a 1-year cycle by direct observation of grazing and excretion behaviour and by parallel animal tracking using a Global Positioning System. During the study period, standing and litter biomass of spontaneous vegetation and crop residues was measured repeatedly on

Eva Schlecht; Pierre Hiernaux; Ibrahima Kadaouré; Christian Hülsebusch; Friedrich Mahler

2006-01-01

201

Dairy Farmers' Evaluation of Northeastern Dairy Cooperatives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study describes the attitudes of northeastern dairy farmers toward cooperative milk marketing. It also describes current members' opinions on efficiency and effectiveness of northeastern dairy cooperatives and their views on the future role of dairy c...

P. C. Wilkens T. H. Stafford

1982-01-01

202

Effect of feeding intensity and milking system on nutritionally relevant milk components in dairy farming systems in the North East of England.  

PubMed

There is increasing concern that the intensification of dairy production reduces the concentrations of nutritionally desirable compounds in milk. This study therefore compared important quality parameters (protein and fatty acid profiles; ?-tocopherol and carotenoid concentrations) in milk from four dairy systems with contrasting production intensities (in terms of feeding regimens and milking systems). The concentrations of several nutritionally desirable compounds (?-lactoglobulin, omega-3 fatty acids, omega-3/omega-6 ratio, conjugated linoleic acid c9t11, and/or carotenoids) decreased with increasing feeding intensity (organic outdoor ? conventional outdoor ? conventional indoors). Milking system intensification (use of robotic milking parlors) had a more limited effect on milk composition, but increased mastitis incidence. Multivariate analyses indicated that differences in milk quality were mainly linked to contrasting feeding regimens and that milking system and breed choice also contributed to differences in milk composition between production systems. PMID:22737968

Stergiadis, Sokratis; Leifert, Carlo; Seal, Chris J; Eyre, Mick D; Nielsen, Jacob H; Larsen, Mette K; Slots, Tina; Steinshamn, Håvard; Butler, Gillian

2012-07-13

203

Prediction of Second Parity Milk Yield and Fat Percentage of Dairy Cows Based on First Parity Information Using Neural Network System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neural network system can be used as a decision making support system in dairy industry as well as other industries. It can help breeders to predict future yield of dairy cows based on uncorrelated and orthogonalized available information and making selection decisions. Data from 4 medium to large sized dairy farms in Isfahan, Iran, were used. From 1880 available records of first and second parities, 1850 records were used for training a back propagation artificial neural network system and 30 randomly chosen records (not used in the system training step) were introduced to the trained neural network system for its evaluation. The results of the simulation showed that there was no significant difference between the observed and the predicted second parity milk yield and fat percentage (p>0.05). The major use of this predictive process is to make accurate selection decisions which are based on prior knowledge of the outcomes.

Hosseinia, P.; Edrisi, M.; Edriss, M. A.; Nilforooshan, M. A.

204

Emergy evaluation of grazing cattle in Argentina's Pampas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argentina has a tradition of grazing livestock and the Pampas region produces 61% of the total beef cattle, with more than 80% allocated to internal consumption. Potential for expanding exports has created incentives for increasing production, yet national decisions should include an assessment of natural resources and environmental impacts of the grazing system. The aim of this study was to

G. C. Rótolo; T. Rydberg; G. Lieblein; C. Francis

2007-01-01

205

INFLUENCE OF GRAZING MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON SOIL QUALITY PARAMETERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rotational grazing is recommended as a sustainable system to improve pasture health, cattle growth efficiencies, and decrease dependence on commercial feed. A four-year study in southern AR resulted in improved cattle weight gain and reduced hay feedings on rotationally grazed plots. Cattle were sto...

206

Housing system and herd size interactions in Norwegian dairy herds; associations with performance and disease incidence  

PubMed Central

Background According to the Norwegian animal welfare regulations, it has been forbidden to build new tie-stall barns since the end of 2004. Previous studies have shown that cow performance and health differ between housing systems. The interaction between housing system and herd size with respect to performance and disease incidence has not been evaluated. Methods Cow performance and health in 620 herds housed in free-stall barns were compared with in 192 herds housed in tie-stall barns based on a mail survey and data from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording and Cattle Health Systems. The housing systems herds were comparable with respect to herd size (15-55 cows). Associations between performance/disease incidence and housing system, herd size and year of building the cow barn were tested in general linear models, and values for fixed herd size of 20 and 50 cows were calculated. On the individual cow level mixed models were run to test the effect of among others housing system and herd size on test-day milk yield, and to evaluate lactation curves in different parities. All cows were of the Norwegian Red Breed. Results Average milk production per cow-year was 134 kg lower in free-stall herd than in tie-stall herds, but in the range 27-45 cows there was no significant difference in yields between the herd categories. In herds with less than 27 cows there were increasingly lower yields in free-stalls, particularly in first parity, whereas the yields were increasingly higher in free-stalls with more than 45 cows. In free-stalls fertility was better, calving interval shorter, and the incidence rate of teat injuries, ketosis, indigestions, anoestrus and cystic ovaries was lower than in tie-stalls. All of these factors were more favourable in estimated 50-cow herds as compared to 20-cow herds. In the larger herd category, bulk milk somatic cell counts were higher, and the incidence rate of mastitis (all cases) and all diseases was lower. Conclusion This study has shown that there is an interaction between housing system and herd size, and that performance and health is not universally better in small free-stalls than in tie-stalls.

2010-01-01

207

Acute coenurosis of dairy sheep from 11 flocks in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

CASE HISTORY: A syndrome of acute neurological dysfunction with increased mortality was observed in lambs of 10 dairy sheep flocks and adult animals in one flock in Central and Northern Greece. Each farmer completed a questionnaire regarding the management and feeding of their flocks. In seven of the 11 flocks the affected animals were grazing pasture, while in the remaining

ND Giadinis; V Psychas; Z Polizopoulou; E Papadopoulos; N Papaioannou; ATh Komnenou; A-L Thomas; EJ Petridou; M Kritsepi-Konstantinou; SQ Lafi; GD Brellou

2012-01-01

208

Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand have shown that the efficiency of protein utilization is relatively low and consequently, a

Vuuren van A. M

1993-01-01

209

Nitrous oxide and greenhouse gas emissions from grazed pastures as affected by use of nitrification inhibitor and restricted grazing regime.  

PubMed

Integration of a restricted grazing regime in winter with the use of a nitrification inhibitor can potentially reduce N2O emissions from grazed pasture systems. A three year field study was conducted to compare annual N2O emission rates from a "tight nitrogen" grazed farmlet with those from a control farmlet. The control farmlet was managed under a conventional rotational all-year grazing regime, while the "tight nitrogen" farmlet was under a similar grazing regime, except during winter and early spring seasons when cows grazed for about 6h per day. A nitrification inhibitor (dicyandiamide, DCD) was applied onto the "tight nitrogen" farmlet immediately after grazing through winter and early spring. A chamber technique was used to measure N2O emissions in several paddocks from each farmlet during three contrasting seasons each year. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) inventory methodology was used to estimate CH4 and indirect N2O emissions and the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to calculate CO2 emissions from the farm systems. The individual and combined effects of restricted grazing and DCD use on N2O emissions were also determined. During the late spring/summer and autumn periods, N2O emission rates were generally similar between the two farmlets. The use of a restricted grazing regime and DCD reduced N2O emissions from the grazed farmlet during the winter/early spring seasons by 43-55%, 64-79% and 45-60% over each of the three years, respectively. The use of restricted grazing and DCD both resulted in a similar reduction in N2O emissions, but there was no significant further reduction from the combination of these technologies. For the three study years, the annual N2O emission rate from the "tight nitrogen" farmlet was 20% lower, on average, than from the control. Total annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, however, were only 5% less in the "tight nitrogen" system. PMID:23374420

Luo, Jiafa; Ledgard, Stewart F; Lindsey, Stuart B

2013-01-29

210

Effects of different manuring systems with and without biogas digestion on nitrogen cycle and crop yield in mixed organic dairy farming systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field trials were carried out between 2002 and 2005 to investigate the effects of biogas digestion in a mixed organic dairy\\u000a farming system with arable land and grassland on nutrient cycling, nitrogen (N) uptake and crop yields within a cropping system\\u000a comprising a whole crop rotation. Five treatments were carried out: (i) solid farmyard manure, (ii) undigested liquid slurry,\\u000a (iii)

Kurt Möller; Walter Stinner; Arno Deuker; Günter Leithold

2008-01-01

211

The Carbon Footprint of Dairy Production Systems through Partial Life Cycle Assessment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impact on the environment has become an important national and international concern. Dairy production, along with all other types of animal agriculture, is a recognized source of GHG emissions, but little information exists on the net emissions fro...

212

Reduction of Phosphorus in Dairy Effluent with a Constructed Wetland-Steel Slag Filter System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic ecosystems can be disturbed by pollutant sources such as untreated urban and agricultural runoff. In Vermont, runoff from dairy farms containing phosphorus (P) can be transported to surface waters where increased biological productivity can result in blue-green algae proliferation and eutrophication. Excess algae and eutrophication can cause depleted oxygen levels, high turbidity, reduced aquatic species diversity, undesirable taste, and

Stephanie Chang

2009-01-01

213

Cubicle housing systems for cattle: Comfort of dairy cows depends on cubicle adjustment1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Housing is important for the welfare of cows. Although recommendations have been proposed, abnormal movements and injury problems are still ob- served in cubicle houses. We conducted a survey on 70 French dairy farms that used cubicles. We examined the design of the cubicles, and the behavior, injuries, and cleanliness of the cows. Most of the cubicles did not comply

I. Veissier; J. Capdeville; E. Delval

214

Qualitative assessment of social behaviour of dairy cows housed in loose housing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluates the qualitative assessment of dairy cows’ social behaviour on farm with regard to its inter- and intra-observer reliability and its correlation to quantitative ethogram-based assessment. Qualitative behaviour assessment is a method based upon the integration by observers of perceived animal behaviour expression, using descriptors such as ‘calm’, ‘aggressive’, ‘sociable’ or ‘indifferent’. Cows’ behaviour at the drinker was

Tine Rousing; Francoise Wemelsfelder

2006-01-01

215

The detectability of nitrous oxide mitigation efficacy in intensively grazed pastures using a multiple plot micrometeorological technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methodologies are required to verify agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation at scales relevant to farm management. Micrometeorological techniques provide a viable approach for comparing fluxes between fields receiving mitigation treatments and control fields. However, they have rarely been applied to spatially verifying treatments aimed at mitigating nitrous oxide emission from intensively grazed pastoral systems. We deployed a micrometeorological system to compare N2O flux among several ~ 1.5 ha plots in intensively grazed dairy pasture. The sample collection and measurement system is referred to as the Field-Scale Nitrous Oxide Mitigation Assessment System (FS-NOMAS) and used a tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometer to measure N2O gradients to high precision at four locations along a 300 m transect. The utility of the FS-NOMAS to assess mitigation efficacy depends largely on its ability to resolve very small vertical N2O gradients. The performance of the FS-NOMAS was assessed in this respect in laboratory and field-based studies. The FS-NOMAS could reliably resolve gradients of 0.039 ppb between a height of 0.5 m and 1.0 m. The gradient resolution achieved corresponded to the ability to detect an inter-plot N2O flux difference of 26.4 ?g N2O-N m-2 h-1 under the most commonly encountered conditions of atmospheric mixing (quantified here by a turbulent transfer coefficient), but this ranged from 11 to 59 ?g N2O-N m-2 h-1 as the transfer coefficient ranged between its 5th and 95th percentile. Assuming a likely value of 100 ?g N2O-N m-2 h-1 for post-grazing N2O fluxes from intensively grazed New Zealand dairy pasture, the system described here would be capable of detecting a mitigation efficacy of 26% for a single (40 min) comparison. We demonstrate that the system has considerably greater sensitivity to treatment effects by measuring cumulative fluxes over extended periods.

McMillan, A. M. S.; Harvey, M. J.; Martin, R. J.; Bromley, A. M.; Evans, M. J.; Mukherjee, S.; Laubach, J.

2013-10-01

216

THE UTILIZATION OF SMOOTH BROMEGRASS (BROMUS INERMIS) UNDER ROTATIONAL AND STRIP GRAZING SYSTE'MS OF PASTURE MANAGEMENT. I. ANIMAL AND  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pasture management, of primary importance in its effect on the plant-animal complex, is imposed on an area whenever man utilizes the available herbage through the use of grazing livestock. Good management is designed to give the maximum efficiency of utilization commensurate with continued productivity of the pasture and the grazing animal. The development of intensive pasture management systerns has been

217

Ruminant Grazing of Cover Crops: Effects on Soil Properties and Agricultural Production  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Integrating livestock into a cropping system by allowing ruminant animals to graze cover crops may yield economic and environmental benefits. The effects of grazing on soil physical properties, soil organic matter, nitrogen cycling and agricultural production are presented in this literature review. The review found that grazing cover crops…

Poffenbarger, Hanna

2010-01-01

218

SOIL ATTRIBUTES IN A SIERRA NEVADA RIPARIAN MEADOW AS INFLUENCED BY GRAZING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Few studies in native riparian systems have evaluated the impact of grazing on soil nutrient availability. We measured the effect of livestock grazing on soil attributes, emphasizing soil-solution chemistry, in a Sierra Nevada riparian meadow. Treatments were livestock exclusion and grazing to lea...

219

Impacts of stored feed cropping systems and farm size on the profitability of Maine organic dairy farm simulations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

U.S. organic dairy production has increased to meet demand for organic milk. Organic dairy farmers have come under increasing financial stress due to increases in concentrated feed prices. Organic dairies in the Northeast U.S. have experimented with different forage and grain crops to maximize on-fa...

220

Dairy Cattle: Breeding and Genetics  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Five primary factors affect breeding genetically improved dairy cattle: 1) identification, 2) pedigree, 3) performance recording, 4) artificial insemination, and 5) genetic evaluation systems (traditional and genomic). Genetic progress can be measured as increased efficiency (higher performance with...

221

Role of xanthine oxidase, lactoperoxidase, and NO in the innate immune system of mammary secretion during active involution in dairy cows: manipulation with casein hydrolyzates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aims of this study were to test whether xanthine oxidase, lactoperoxidase, and NO are components of the innate immune system of mammary secretion during active involution in dairy cows, and whether the innate immune system is activated by casein hydrolysates. Our laboratory has shown recently that infusion of CNH into mammary glands induced involution and was associated with earlier

Nissim Silanikove; Fira Shapiro; Avi Shamay; Gabriel Leitner

2005-01-01

222

Evaluation of different energy feeding systems with production data from lactating dairy cows offered grass silage-based diets.  

PubMed

A set of data from 838 lactating dairy cows, drawn from 12 long-term feeding studies (at least 8 wk/period), was used to evaluate the energy feeding systems for dairy cows currently adopted in Australia, France, The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The animals were offered mixed diets of concentrates, forage [grass silages (n = 33) and corn silages (n = 5)] ad libitum. Data used in the present evaluation were either measured [dry matter (DM) intake, milk production and live weight], measured/estimated [dietary metabolizable energy (ME) concentration] or estimated [milk energy output and live weight change (LWC)]. The mean-square prediction error (MSPE) was used for the evaluation. Total ME intake, milk yields, and LWC varied from 91 to 338 MJ/d, 7.7 to 48.9, and -1.23 to 1.73 kg/d, respectively. Australian and French systems predicted total energy requirement and milk yield relatively well, while British, Dutch and American systems underpredicted total energy requirement by proportionately 0.06, 0.04, and 0.03, respectively; and overpredicted milk yield by 0.09, 0.06, and 0.04. The Agricultural and Food Research Council (AFRC) each produced a relatively larger error of the bias (predicted - actual data) over the total MSPE for ME requirement and milk yield and a relatively smaller error of random than other systems. However, an addition of proportionately 0.05 to the total predicted ME requirement of AFRC, as suggested in this system and currently used in the UK, indicated the prediction accuracy of ME requirement and milk yield is similar to Australian and French systems. Nevertheless, all the systems had a poor prediction of LWC. For each system, the total prediction error (total MSPE) was mainly derived from the line (slope; 0.49 to 0.64 of total MSPE), while less derived from the random (0.20 to 0.48 of total MSPE), indicating a large variation between the predicted and actual LWC existed among individual cows. The residual plots of the residual differences in LWC against predicted LWC revealed that the prediction error was greater with increasing LWC. It is concluded that Australian and French systems have a better prediction of total energy requirement and milk yield than other systems, and LWC is an inappropriate indicator of energy balance in lactating dairy cows. PMID:12741566

Yan, T; Agnew, R E; Murphy, J J; Ferris, C P; Gordon, F J

2003-04-01

223

Children and Dairy Chemicals  

MedlinePLUS

Children & Dairy Chemicals Chemicals used to clean dairy facilities and equipment, especially dairy pipeline cleaners, pose a special risk for children. Rapid medical assessment and treatment is critical in preventing long ...

224

Investigating locomotion of dairy cows by use of high speed cinematography.  

PubMed

The longterm influence of management systems on the locomotion of 17 dairy cows was investigated by high speed cinematography (100 frames/s) and kinematic analysis. Angular patterns and hoof trajectories of the left fore- and hindlimbs are presented and statistics made of occurring minimum and maximum angles. At the recording, 3 cows had been kept in tie-stalls (TI) and 6 cows in cubicles (CI) for a consecutive time of about 2.5 years while 8 cows had been kept on grass for about 3 months. Four of the grazing cows had earlier been kept in cubicles (CG) and 4 in tie-stalls (TG) during earlier off grazing seasons together with TI and CI cows. The CI cows had a smaller maximum angle of the elbow joint compared to TI, TG and CG cows. The hock joint angle of the CI cows was less flexed during the stance phase than in TI and CG cows while the minimum angle during the swing phase was greater in the TI and CI cows compared to TG and CG cows. Pastured cows (TG and CG) had a less pronounced flexion of the fetlock joint angle during the stance compared to cows kept indoors (TI and CI). The results suggest that slatted floor and lack of exercise during summer grazing may affect locomotion. This is indicated by restrictions in the movements of the elbow and hock joints and in less fetlock joint flexion at full support. PMID:9354302

Herlin, A H; Drevemo, S

1997-05-01

225

Fate and occurrence of steroids in swine and dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems.  

PubMed

Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (dairy cattle and human sources, respectively. PMID:22835499

Liu, Shan; Ying, Guang-Guo; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Zhou, Li-Jun; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Feng

2012-07-24

226

Livestock Grazing Not Detrimental to Meadow Wildflowers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Wildflower growth, meadow conditions, and grazing methods were compared in the Bogard area, Lassen National Forest, northeastern California. The two grazing methods were rest-rotation, in which range units are periodically rested from grazing, and free-ch...

R. D. Ratliff

1972-01-01

227

36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Area-Federal Lands § 292.48 Grazing activities. The following...guidelines apply to domestic livestock grazing activities on Other Lands...section. (b) Where domestic livestock grazing is incompatible with...

2013-07-01

228

25 CFR 700.722 - Grazing associations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.722 Grazing associations...assist range unit livestock associations in the...association may hold a grazing permit to benefit...the association's livestock will be run...

2013-04-01

229

The effect of target postgrazing height on sward clover content, herbage yield, and dairy production from grass-white clover pasture.  

PubMed

White clover (Trifolium repens) is an important legume for grazed grassland that can increase the profitability and environmental sustainability of milk production. Previous experiments on mown grass-clover plots suggest that low postgrazing heights (PGH) can increase sward clover content and herbage production. However, this has not been tested in actual strip or rotational grazing systems with dairy cows. Furthermore, lowering PGH in grass-only swards (typically perennial ryegrass without white clover) has previously been associated with reduced milk yields per cow. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of PGH by dairy cows on clover content, herbage production, and milk production from strip-grazed grass-white clover swards in Ireland. Three target PGH treatments of 4, 5, and 6 cm were in place for entire grazing seasons (February to November) for 3 consecutive years (2007 to 2009). Each treatment had a mean of 21 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows that strip-grazed a mean annual area of 10.2 ha. Postgrazing height was measured twice a day with a rising plate meter, and cows were moved to the next strip once the target PGH was reached. Annual fertilizer nitrogen input was 90 kg of N/ha for each treatment. The PGH treatment did not significantly affect annual milk yield (6,202 kg/cow), solids-corrected milk yield (6,148 kg/cow), fat, protein, or lactose yields (265, 222, and 289 kg/cow, respectively), cow liveweight (592 kg) or body condition score (3.01). The PGH treatment also had no significant effect on sward white clover content (196 g/kg). However, herbage production of both grass and clover were significantly higher with the 4-cm PGH treatment compared with the 6-cm treatment. Mean annual herbage yields were 11.1, 10.2, and 9.1 t of organic matter (OM)/ha for the 4-, 5-, and 6-cm PGH treatments, respectively. The lower herbage production in the 6-cm PGH treatment resulted in lower annual silage production, greater housing requirements, and a substantially higher net silage deficit (-1,917 kg of OM/cow) compared with the 5- or 4-cm treatments (-868 and -192 kg of OM/cow, respectively). Grazing to a PGH of 4 cm is therefore recommended for grass-white clover swards. PMID:23332838

Phelan, P; Casey, I A; Humphreys, J

2013-01-16

230

Interaction of Plant Species Diversity on Grazing Behavior and Performance of Livestock Grazing Temperate Region Pastures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The importance of plant species diversity on performance of live- stock grazing temperate region pastures is summarized in this review. As livestock producers seek less capital-intensive production systems, emphasis is redirected toward low-input pasture systems that rely on complex species mixtures to produce forage. Increased plant species diversity has been linked to improvements in ecosystem function. While it is recognized

K. J. Soder; A. J. Rook; M. A. Sanderson; S. C. Goslee

2007-01-01

231

A LYSIMETER STUDY TO INVESTIGATE THE EFFECT OF DAIRY EFFLUENT AND UREA ON CATTLE URIN N LOSSES, PLANT UPTAKE, AND SOIL RETENTION  

EPA Science Inventory

Loss of nitrate (NO3-) from grazing land is a major cause for surface and ground water contamination. These losses can further increase when other N sources apply to grazing land. The objectives of this work were 1) to study the impact of either dairy effl...

232

A Lysimeter Study to Investigate the Effect of Dairy Effluent and Urea on Cattle Urine n Losses, Plant Uptake and Soil Retention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of nitrate (NO3?) from grazing land is a major cause of surface and groundwater contamination. These losses increase when N sources such as fertilizer are applied to grazing land. The objectives of this work were to (1) study the impact of dairy effluent (DE) or urea on N losses and plant uptake when DE or urea was applied with

R. G. Silva; K. C. Cameron; H. J. Di; E. E. Jorgensen

2005-01-01

233

Exotic Grazing Resonances in Nanowires  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate electromagnetic scattering from nanoscale wires and reveal for the first time, the emergence of a family of exotic resonances, or enhanced fields, for source waves close to grazing incidence. These grazing resonances can have a much higher Q factor, broader bandwidth, and are much less susceptible to material losses than the well known surface plasmon resonances found in

Simin Feng; Klaus Halterman

2009-01-01

234

Aplanatic grazing incidence diffraction grating: a new optical element  

SciTech Connect

We present the theory of a grazing incidence reflection grating capable of imaging at submicron resolution. The optic is mechanically ruled on a spherical or cylindrical surface with varied groove spacings, delivering diffraction-limited response and a wide field of view at a selected wavelength. Geometrical aberrations are calculated on the basis of Fermat's principle, revealing significant improvements over a grazing incidence mirror. Aplanatic and quasi-aplanatic versions of the grating have applications in both imaging and scanning microscopes, microprobes, collimators, and telescopes. A 2-D crossed system of such gratings, similar to the grazing incidence mirror geometry of Kirkpatrick and Baez, could potentially provide spatial resolutions of --200 A.

Hettrick, M.C.

1986-09-15

235

Effect of production system, alternative treatments and calf rearing system on udder health in organic dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last decade the main goals of organic dairying have been to attain acceptable levels of milk production, increase opportunities for animals to perform species own behaviour, resulting in improved animal welfare and animal health, and minimize the use of therapeutic interventions, including the reduction of the (preventive) use of antibiotics. Maintaining animal health without the use of therapeutic

J.-P. Wagenaar; P. Klocke; G. Butler; G. Smolders; J. H. Nielsen; A. Canever; C. Leifert

2011-01-01

236

Sprinklers and shade cool cows and reduce insect-avoidance behavior in pasture-based dairy systems.  

PubMed

The body temperature of dairy cows in pastoral systems during summer reaches a peak during and following the p.m. milking. Shade and sprinklers can be used separately or in combination at the milking parlor to reduce heat load. Farmers anecdotally report that the use of sprinklers reduces irritation from insects that occurs while cows are waiting for milking. Once daily, we assessed the effectiveness of short-term exposure to shade and sprinklers for cooling cows [via respiration rate and body (vaginal) temperature] and reducing insect-avoidance behaviors before the p.m. milking in a pasture-based dairy system. Head position was measured as an indicator of whether cattle were avoiding water from the sprinklers. Forty-eight Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were divided into 12 groups (4 cows per group, n = 3 groups/treatment) and were exposed to 1 of 4 treatments for 90 min before the p.m. milking: 1) shade, 2) sprinklers, 3) shade and sprinklers, or 4) uncooled control. Respiration rate was reduced by 30% with shade alone compared with controls [54 vs. 78 +/- 2.3 ( +/- SED) breaths/min, respectively]. Sprinklers alone (30 +/- 2.3 breaths/min) and the combined effects of shade and sprinklers (24 +/- 2.3 breaths/min) reduced the respiration rate by 60 and 67%, respectively, compared with controls. Shaded cows had lower body temperatures during the 90-min treatment period compared with controls (shade: 38.6 degrees C; shade and sprinklers: 38.6 degrees C; control: 38.9 +/- 0.09 degrees C). The decrease in body temperature of cows under sprinklers was more marked than for shade alone and remained lower for at least 4 h after milking (sprinklers: 38.7 degrees C; shade and sprinklers: 38.6 degrees C; shade: 38.9 degrees C; control: 39.2 +/- 0.10 degrees C). The sprinkler treatment reduced the number of tail flicks (control: 12.6 vs. sprinklers: 6.6 +/- 2.4 flicks/min) and hoof stamps (control: 4.4 vs. sprinkler: 2.2 +/- 0.5 stamps/min). Cows exposed to sprinklers spent more time with their heads lowered compared with cows in the shaded and control treatments. The reductions in body temperature and respiration rate attributable to shade and sprinklers were greatest when the temperature-humidity index and heat-load index were > or = 69 and 77, respectively, and cows benefited from cooling when these levels were exceeded. PMID:17638978

Kendall, P E; Verkerk, G A; Webster, J R; Tucker, C B

2007-08-01

237

Influence of land application of dairy factory effluent on soil nutrient status and the size, activity, composition and catabolic capability of the soil microbial community  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recycling of water and nutrients in factory effluents back to the land is desirable although it can cause degradation of soil quality. For this reason, the effects of irrigation with dairy factory effluent (DFE) on soil chemical properties and its consequent effects on microbial properties of grazed pastoral soils were investigated in soils surrounding a dairy factory. Long-term DFE irrigation

Y.-Y. Liu; R. J. Haynes

2011-01-01

238

The effect of lameness on the fertility of dairy cattle in a seasonally breeding pasture-based system.  

PubMed

The effect of lameness on the fertility of dairy cattle is well recognized. But, the effect of lameness on the fertility of seasonally breeding cattle in pasture-based systems is less well characterized. This prospective cohort study of 463 cows on 1 farm in the lower North Island of New Zealand was designed to assess the effect of clinical lameness, as identified by farm staff, on the hazard of conception after the planned start-of-mating date. A Cox proportional hazards model with time-varying covariates was used. After controlling for the effect of parity, breed, body weight at calving, and calving-to-planned start of mating interval, the daily hazard of conception for cows identified as lame was 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.86) compared with non-lame cows. Lame cows took 12 d longer to get pregnant compared with their non-lame counterparts. PMID:22032371

Alawneh, J I; Laven, R A; Stevenson, M A

2011-11-01

239

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN NUTRITION, BLOOD METABOLIC PROFILE AND MILK COMPOSITION IN DAIRY GOATS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Khaled N. F., J. Illek, S. GajdÛ‰ek: Interactions between Nutrition, Blood Metabolic Profile and Milk Composition in Dairy Goats. Acta Vet. Brno 1999, 68: 253-258. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in the concentrations of blood and milk constituents of dairy goats under the effects of stable diet and grazing during lactation from April to June. The

N. F. KHALED; J. ILLEK; S. GAJDÒ

1999-01-01

240

Zooplankton grazing in a Potomac River cyanobacteria bloom  

Microsoft Academic Search

During summer, bloom-forming cyanobacteria, including Anacystis, Aphanizomenon, and Microcystis aeruginosa, dominate tidal-fresh waters of the upper Potomac River estuary with densities exceeding 108 cells l?1. In an attempt to determine the importance of these high cyanobacteria densities to planktonic herbivory in the system, short-term\\u000a grazing experiments were conducted in July and August 1987. Using size-fractionated river phytoplankton assemblages, zooplankton\\u000a grazing

K. G. Sellner; D. C. Brownlee; M. H. Bundy; S. G. Brownlee; K. R. Braun

1993-01-01

241

25 CFR 168.5 - Grazing capacity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-04-01 false Grazing capacity. 168.5 Section...INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.5 Grazing capacity. (a) The Area...maximum number of each kind of livestock which may be grazed...

2013-04-01

242

Emissions of ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide from dairy cattle housing and manure management systems.  

PubMed

Concentrated animal feeding operations emit trace gases such as ammonia (NH?), methane (CH?), carbon dioxide (CO?), and nitrous oxide (N?O). The implementation of air quality regulations in livestock-producing states increases the need for accurate on-farm determination of emission rates. The objective of this study was to determine the emission rates of NH?, CH?, CO?, and N?O from three source areas (open lots, wastewater pond, compost) on a commercial dairy located in southern Idaho. Gas concentrations and wind statistics were measured each month and used with an inverse dispersion model to calculate emission rates. Average emissions per cow per day from the open lots were 0.13 kg NH?, 0.49 kg CH?, 28.1 kg CO?, and 0.01 kg N?O. Average emissions from the wastewater pond (g m(-2) d(-1)) were 2.0 g NH?, 103 g CH?, 637 g CO?, and 0.49 g N?O. Average emissions from the compost facility (g m(-2) d(-1)) were 1.6 g NH?, 13.5 g CH?, 516 g CO?, and 0.90 g N?O. The combined emissions of NH?, CH?, CO?, and N?O from the lots, wastewater pond and compost averaged 0.15, 1.4, 30.0, and 0.02 kg cow(-1) d(-1), respectively. The open lot areas generated the greatest emissions of NH?, CO?, and N?O, contributing 78, 80, and 57%, respectively, to total farm emissions. Methane emissions were greatest from the lots in the spring (74% of total), after which the wastewater pond became the largest source of emissions (55% of total) for the remainder of the year. Data from this study can be used to develop trace gas emissions factors from open-lot dairies in southern Idaho and potentially other open-lot production systems in similar climatic regions. PMID:21869500

Leytem, April B; Dungan, Robert S; Bjorneberg, David L; Koehn, Anita C

243

Factors that influence the efficiency of beef and dairy cattle recording system in Kenya: A SWOT-AHP analysis.  

PubMed

Animal recording in Kenya is characterised by erratic producer participation and high drop-out rates from the national recording scheme. This study evaluates factors influencing efficiency of beef and dairy cattle recording system. Factors influencing efficiency of animal identification and registration, pedigree and performance recording, and genetic evaluation and information utilisation were generated using qualitative and participatory methods. Pairwise comparison of factors was done by strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats-analytical hierarchical process analysis and priority scores to determine their relative importance to the system calculated using Eigenvalue method. For identification and registration, and evaluation and information utilisation, external factors had high priority scores. For pedigree and performance recording, threats and weaknesses had the highest priority scores. Strengths factors could not sustain the required efficiency of the system. Weaknesses of the system predisposed it to threats. Available opportunities could be explored as interventions to restore efficiency in the system. Defensive strategies such as reorienting the system to offer utility benefits to recording, forming symbiotic and binding collaboration between recording organisations and NARS, and development of institutions to support recording were feasible. PMID:20676763

Wasike, Chrilukovian B; Magothe, Thomas M; Kahi, Alexander K; Peters, Kurt J

2010-07-31

244

Site use of grazing cattle and sheep in a large-scale pasture landscape: A GPS\\/GIS assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Year-round mixed-species grazing at low densities in large-scale pasture systems has become a popular conservation concept as it is assumed to maintain the valuable biodiversity of semi-open cultural landscapes. This study aims to elucidate which vegetation types are preferentially grazed by cattle and sheep and whether the grazing animals change their preferences through the seasons so that year-round grazing leads

Dorothee Putfarken; Jürgen Dengler; Stephan Lehmann; Werner Härdtle

2008-01-01

245

Grazing Alternatives in the Face of Declining Groundwater: A Case from the Southern High Plains of Texas  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Southern High Plains of Texas, current agricultural production primarily consists of cotton and grain production. However, with the depletion of the Ogallala aquifer and rising energy costs, other production systems are being considered. This study analyzed grazing scenarios with stocker steers grazing WW- B. Dahl bluestem pastures. The economic analysis included net returns from gain of grazing steers

Jeffrey Dudensing; Jeffrey Johnson; Phillip Johnson; Carlos Villalobos

246

Productive performance and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep grazing in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate daily weight gain (DWG), total dry matter (DM) intake, rumen degradability of forage, and urinary excretion of mimosine metabolites by hair sheep in a silvopastoral system with high densities of Leucaena leucocephala. A completely randomized design was carried out with two treatments: treatment 1 (T1) silvopastoral system with leucaena at a density of 35,000 plants/ha and treatment 2 (T2), leucaena at a density of 55,000 plants/ha. Leucaena was associated with tropical grasses Panicum maximum and Cynodon nlemfluensis. Twenty-four male Pelibuey lambs of 23.2 ± 3.4 kg live weight (LW) were used (12 lambs per treatment). Results showed differences (P < 0.05) in DWG of T1 (106.41 ± 11.66 g(-1) sheep(-1)) with respect to that of T2 (81.33 ± 11.81 g(-1) sheep). Voluntary intake was higher in lambs from T1 (83.81 ± 04.07 g DM/kg LW(0.75)) with respect to that from T2 (71.67 ± 8.12 g DM/kg LW(0.75)). There was a difference in color of urine between sheep of T1 and T2, the latter giving positive results for the presence of metabolites derived from mimosine (3-4 dihydroxypyridine and 2-3 dihydroxy pyridone). Rumen degradability of DM of L. leucocephala was higher (P < 0.05) compared to that of P. maximum and C. nlemfluensis (72.94 ± 0.40 vs. 67.06?±?1.50 and 63.25 ± 1.51 %, respectively). It is concluded that grazing at high densities of L. leucocephala affects daily weight gain of hair sheep, possibly due to ingestion of high amounts of mimosine which may exert an adverse effect on voluntary intake. PMID:22528536

Barros-Rodríguez, Marcos; Solorio-Sánchez, Javier; Ku-Vera, Juan; Ayala-Burgos, Armín; Sandoval-Castro, Carlos; Solís-Pérez, Georgina

2012-04-19

247

Aberrations for Grazing Incidence Optics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large number of grazing incidence telescope configurations have been designed and studied. Wolte1 telescopes are commonly used in astronomical applications. Wolter telescopes consist of a paraboloidal primary mirror and a hyperboloidal or an ellipsoidal s...

T. T. Saha

2008-01-01

248

Ergonomics in industrialized dairy operations.  

PubMed

This paper presents a summary of a panel presentation by agriculture health and safety scientists on ergonomics of industrialized dairy parlor operations in the United States. Dairy industry trends in the United States were discussed in the panel presentation, which took place during the New Paths: Health and Safety in Western Agriculture conference, November 11-13, 2008. Dairy production is steadily moving to large-herd operations because of associated economies of scale and other economic and social conditions. Large-herd operations utilize a parlor milking system, as compared to a stanchion system used primarily in smaller operations. Each milking system presents different risks for worker injury. Low back, knee, and shoulder musculoskeletal symptoms were most frequently reported among workers in smaller dairy operations. Another study analyzing workers' compensation (WC) data from large-herd milking operations found nearly 50% of livestock-handling injury claims involved parlor milking activities. Nearly 27% of injuries were to the wrist, hand, and fingers, nearly 13% to the head or face, and 11% to the chest. Results indicated the vulnerability of these body parts to injury due to the worker-livestock interface during milking. More focused research should investigate milking practices and parlor designs as they relate to worker safety and health. Additional dairy-related injury research is vital given the trend towards large industrial milking operations. PMID:19894161

Douphrate, David I; Nonnenmann, Matthew W; Rosecrance, John C

2009-01-01

249

Technical note: test of a low-cost and animal-friendly system for measuring methane emissions from dairy cows.  

PubMed

Methane is a greenhouse gas with a significant anthropogenic contribution from cattle production. A demand exists for techniques that facilitate evaluation of mitigation strategies for dairy cows. Therefore, a low-cost system facilitating the highest possible animal welfare was constructed and validated. The system uses the same principles as systems for open-circuit indirect calorimetry, but to lower the costs, the chamber construction and air-conditioning system were simpler than described for other open-circuit systems. To secure the highest possible animal welfare, the system is located in the cow's daily environment. The system consists of 4 transparent polycarbonate chambers placed in a square so that the cows are facing each other. The chamber dimensions are 183 (width), 382 (length), and 245 cm (height) with a volume of 17 m(3). Flow and concentrations of O(2), CO(2), CH(4), and H(2) are measured continuously in the outlet. Flow is measured with a mass flow meter, O(2) with a paramagnetic sensor, CO(2) and CH(4) with infrared sensors, and H(2) with an electrochemical sensor. Chamber inlet is placed in the barn and background concentrations may differ between chambers, but delta values between background and outlet concentrations for all chambers were within instrument tolerance. Average recovery rates of CO(2) and CH(4) were (mean ± SD) 101 ± 4 and 99 ± 7%, respectively. This is within the expected tolerance of the whole system (gas sensors and flow meters). Feed dry matter intakes were not affected by confining the animals in chambers, as dry matter intake before and during chamber stay were similar. It was concluded that the system delivers reliable values, and the transparent construction in combination with the location in the barn environment prevent negative impact on animal welfare and, thereby, data quality. PMID:22901487

Hellwing, A L F; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R; Brask, M; Hvelplund, T

2012-08-15

250

Thermoregulatory responses of Holstein and Brown Swiss Heat-Stressed dairy cows to two different cooling systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

. Thirty-seven Holstein and 26 Brown Swiss dairy cows were used to evaluate the effect of two different cooling systems on physiological and hormonal responses during the summer. A control group of cows had access only to shade (C). A second group was cooled with spray and fans (S/F) and the third group was under an evaporative cooling system called Korral Kool (KK). The maximum temperature humidity index during the trial was from 73 to 85. Rectal temperatures and respiration rates of the C group were higher (P < 0.05) than those of the S/F and KK groups in both Holstein and Brown Swiss cows. Triiodothyronine levels in milk were higher (P < 0.05) in the KK group than in the S/F and C groups, while cortisol levels were lower (P < 0.05) in the C group than in S/F and KK. There was no significant difference in the hormonal response of the two breeds. These results demonstrate that both cooling systems may be used increase the comfort of Holstein and Brown Swiss cows during summer in hot, dry climates.

Correa-Calderon, Abelardo; Armstrong, Dennis; Ray, Donald; DeNise, Sue; Enns, Mark; Howison, Christine

251

Induction\\/synchronization of oestrus and ovulation in dairy goats with different short term treatments and fixed time intrauterine or exocervical insemination system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were carried out on Ionica dairy goats in order to test the efficiency of: (1) short term-5-day combined progestogen-PGF2?-GnRH treatments on induction\\/synchronization of oestrus and fertility after natural mating in lactating goats and during the transition period (Experiment 1); (2) short term-9-day FGA-PGF2?-eCG treatments on synchronizing oestrus and ovulation (Experiment 2.1) and artificial insemination (AI) fixed time system

G. Martemucci; A. G. D’Alessandro

2011-01-01

252

Reduction of Nitrate Leaching with Haying or Grazing and Omission of Nitrogen Fertilizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

corded from fertilized grass pastures, although annual liveweight gain of the grazing steers was lower also. In some high-fertility, high-stocking-density grazing systems, ni- The concern for NO3 leaching has increased as some trate (NO3) leaching can be great, and ground water NO3-N concentra- grazing practices have shifted to much greater animal tions can exceed maximum contaminant levels. To reduce high

L. B. Owens; J. V. Bonta

2004-01-01

253

Associations of housing, management, milking activity, and standing and lying behavior of dairy cows milked in automatic systems.  

PubMed

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to describe the housing, feeding management, and characteristics (parity and stage of lactation) of cows on commercial automatic milking system (AMS) dairies and their associations with the standing and lying behavior patterns and milking activity (frequency and yield) of lactating dairy cows. Thirteen AMS herds were enrolled in the study, with an average herd size of 71±30 (mean ± SD; range: 34 to 131) lactating cows. All of the herds used freestall barns, each set up for free cow traffic to the AMS. On-farm measurements were taken to determine stocking density at the freestalls (0.9±0.1 cows/stall; mean ± SD), feed bunk (0.66±0.17 m of feed bunk space/cow; mean ± SD), and AMS units (55±11 cows/AMS; mean ± SD). A random sample of 30 cows/herd was selected to monitor standing and lying behavior for 4d using electronic data loggers. Times of feed delivery and feed push-up were recorded daily by the herd managers. Milking times, frequency, and yield were automatically recorded by the AMS units. Data were analyzed in a multivariable mixed regression model to determine which herd-level (housing and feeding management) and cow-level (parity, DIM, and milk yield) factors were associated with behavior and milking activity measures. Lying bout lengths were found to be negatively associated with milk yield and tended to be positively associated with more space at the feed bunk. Increased lying duration was associated with cows of lower milk production, increased space at the feed bunk, and increased frequency of feed push-up. Longer postmilking standing durations were associated with cows of higher parity. An association existed between cows milking less frequently when they were further in lactation, were of higher parity, and as stocking density at the AMS (cows/AMS) increased. Milk yield was positively associated with increased space at the feed bunk and higher parity and negatively associated with DIM. From this study, it can be concluded that increased milking frequency may be achieved in AMS herds by reducing stocking density at the AMS unit. Further, in AMS systems, greater milk yield and lying duration may be achieved by ensuring that cows have ample feed bunk space and have their feed readily available to them in the bunk. PMID:23084886

Deming, J A; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; DeVries, T J

2012-10-22

254

Minimising surface water pollution resulting from farm?dairy effluent application to mole?pipe drained soils. I. An evaluation of the deferred irrigation system for sustainable land treatment in the Manawatu  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little information available on the magnitude of nutrient losses to surface water from the two?pond and daily irrigation treatment systems for farm?dairy effluent (FDE). A research site has been established on a mole?pipe drained Tokomaru silt loam at Massey University's No. 4 Dairy Farm (475 cows) to investigate some of these issues. The site consists of four plots

D. J. Houlbrooke; D. J. Horne; M. J. Hedley; J. A. Hanly; D. R. Scotter; V. O. Snow

2004-01-01

255

Effects of fat supplementation on milk production and composition by dairy cows on pasture: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen experiments involving 25 comparisons were reviewed to describe the main effects of fat supplementation on milk production and composition with grazing dairy cows. Results were analyzed comparing the fat supplemented and the control groups without supplemental fat, and were segmented according to the stage of lactation (early- or mid-lactation) and the degree of saturation of the fat supplement (unsaturated

G. F. Schroeder; G. A. Gagliostro; F. Bargo; J. E. Delahoy; L. D. Muller

2004-01-01

256

Urea treated maize straw for small-scale dairy systems in the highlands of Central Mexico.  

PubMed

Maize straw is the main roughage for dairy herds in campesino farms in central Mexico. The objective was to evaluate feeding milking cows on maize straw treated with 40 g/kg DM of urea (A) or untreated straw (B), and 3.0 kg/d of 18% CP concentrate. Twenty-four Holsteins in late lactation from 8 farmers were sorted in two groups: sequence A-B-A or B-A-B; periods were 28 days. Mean daily milk yield for the last two weeks per period, and live-weight and body-condition score every 14 days were used for analysis. Maize straw was ad libitum. Chemical analysis and in vitro digestibility were analysed by Student's t test, animal variables by a switch-back design. 'A' had 44.3 g/kg DM more CP and 106.5 g/kg DM higher in vitro digestibility than 'B' (710 g/kg DM +/- 0.75 'A' vs. 603.5 g/kg DM +/- 1.44 'B'). Despite higher digestibility and intake, there were no differences (P > 0.05) for milk yield, live-weight or body-condition score, although there were in straw intake (P < 0.05). Cows on 'A' ate 1.7 kg/cow/day more straw DM than on 'B'. Lack of response did not offset higher feeding costs although margins were high. Lack of response is attributed to short length of periods and late lactation of cows. PMID:19330533

García-Martínez, Anastacio; Albarrán-Portillo, Benito; Castelán-Ortega, Octavio Alonso; Espinoza-Ortega, Angélica; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos Manuel

2009-03-29

257

Grazing Management Effects on Potential Sediment and Phosphorus Loss from Streambanks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Animal grazing on lands near streams has the potential to contribute sediment and nutrients to surface waters. To minimize the impact of these systems, we must understand the interactions of grazing systems on streambank erosion. In this study, we used six 12-ha grass pastures that were bisected by ...

258

Effects of Application of Dairy Slurry on Voluntary Intake of Orchardgrass Hays by Growing Dairy Heifers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many dairy production systems have a critical need for available sites to land apply dairy slurry after spring planting and during the summer months. One potential option is to apply these nutrients on perennial grass sods; however, this approach is viable only if voluntary intake by livestock is no...

259

Indicators of grazing impact in Inner Mongolian steppe ecosystems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The DFG research group 536 MAGIM (Matter fluxes in grasslands of Inner Mongolia as influenced by stocking rate) investigates the influence of grazing intensity on matter and water cycles in grazed steppe ecosystems of Inner Mongolia. This Sino-German co-operation applies an interdisciplinary approach to investigate major ecosystem functions and how they are affected by grazing and overgrazing. Within the research group an indicator system is developed to systemize the feedback of ecosystem parameters to the influence of grazing and to analyse, which parameter or parameter group reacts most sensitively. Parameters were measured at up to five different grazing intensities (from ungrazed to heavy grazed) and are related to four thematic indicator groups (plant productivity, atmosphere, pedosphere, hydrosphere). The parameters were scaled to allow assessing the influence of grazing intensity between different sets of parameters. For this the average value of a parameter at the lowest grazing intensity (ungrazed) was set 100%, so that the values at the other intensities could be scaled scaled adequately. Then the difference between highest and lowest grazing intensity was determined. According to this difference the influence of grazing was characterized as weak (< 20% difference), medium (20-40%), strong (40-60%) and very strong (> 60%). Impact of grazing on the parameters will be marked as weak (w), medium (m), strong (s) and very strong (vs) in the text. The group plant productivity includes the vegetation parameters aboveground biomass and belowground biomass. Belowground biomass (s) was significantly different between grazing treatments with the highest value at the ungrazed site (399.00 g m-2 a-1) and the lowest at the heavy grazed site (208.00 g m-2 a-1). Aboveground biomass (m) ranged between 91.33-131.67 g m-2 a-1 and differed significantly between the ungrazed and the heavy grazed site, again with higher values at the ungrazed site (Gao et al. 2008). The group atmosphere consists of micrometeorological parameters, dust flux and deposition as measure of erosive processes and trace gas fluxes. Available energy and soil temperature were always significantly different between two simultaneously measured grazing intensities. Available energy was higher at the ungrazed site in all years measured (mean difference of about 19 W m-2). Soil temperature was lower at the ungrazed site (Ketzer et al. 2008). Dust deposition is important for the C and N balance in semi-arid grasslands and was investigated during the dust storm period from March to May. The largest matter deposition of C (vs) and N (vs) was measured at the ungrazed site with 328.7 (mg Corg m-2 d-1) and 30.30 (mg Nt m-2 d-1) on average. Heavy grazing resulted in average organic carbon and nitrogen deposition of 106.67 (mg Corg m-2 d-1) and 9.8 (mg N m-2 d-1) in average (Hoffmann et al. 2008). Wind driven soil deposition and erosion were influenced heavily by grazing. The critical vegetation cover is about 20-30%, at which net soil losses occur. No significant differences in N trace gas fluxes were found between plots. Mean values of N2O fluxes (s) varied between 0.39 and 1.60 ?g N2O-N m-2 h-1 (Holst et al. 2007). During all measuring periods, significantly lower mean soil CH4 uptake at moderate grazing (28 mg C m-2 h-1) as compared to ungrazed (56 ?g C m-2 h-1) was found (Liu et al. 2007). The pedosphere indicator group includes soil chemical, soil physical and microbiological parameters. Organic carbon (s) and total N (s) concentrations decreased significantly with increasing grazing intensity. No effect of grazing on pH (w) or soil C/N ratio (w) was detected. Bulk density (m) significantly increased with increasing grazing intensity, from 0.94 g cm-3 at the ungrazed site to 1.28 g cm-3 at the heavily grazed site (Steffens et al. 2008). Also shear strength (m) increased with increasing grazing intensity (Zhao et al. 2007). Gross rates of N mineralization (vs) and nitrification (vs) determined at in situ soil moisture and soil temperature conditions were i

Blank, B.; Breuer, L.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Frede, H.-G.

2009-04-01

260

Study of focused-ion-beam-induced structural and compositional modifications in nanoscale bilayer systems by combined grazing incidence x ray reflectivity and fluorescence  

SciTech Connect

A detailed analysis of the structural and compositional changes in NiFe/Au bilayers induced by a focused ion beam (FIB) is presented. NiFe/Au bilayers with different thickness were irradiated with a focused 30 keV Ga{sup +} ion beam, and the evaluation of the individual layers and interfaces were investigated systematically as a function of a broad range of irradiation fluence using grazing incidence x ray reflectivity (GIXRR) and angular dependent x ray fluorescence (ADXRF) techniques carried out at synchrotron radiation sources. Experimental data were collected from 1.3 mm x 4.5 mm structures, and irradiation of such a broad areas with a 100-nm-wide focused ion beam is a challenging task. Two irradiation regimes were identified: For Ga{sup +} fluences < 15.6 x 10{sup 14} ion/cm{sup 2} (low dose regime), the main influence of the focused ion beam is on the interface and, beyond this dose (high dose regime), sputtering effects and ion implantation becomes significant, eventually causing amorphization of the bilayer system. The broadening of the NiFe/Au interface occurs even at the lowest dose, and above a critical fluence ({Phi} = 1.56 x 10{sup 14} ion/cm{sup 2}) can be represented by an interfacial-intermixed layer (Ni{sub x}Fe{sub y}Au{sub (1-x-y)}; x = 0.5-0.6, y 0.1-0.15) formed between the NiFe and Au layers. The thickness of this layer increases with irradiation fluence in the low dose regime. A linear relationship is found between the squared intermixing length and irradiation fluence, indicating that FIB-induced mixing is diffusion controlled. The ballistic model fails to describe FIB-induced intermixing, indicating that thermodynamical factors, which might be originated from FIB specific features, should be taken into account. Despite the complexity of the chemical and structural formation, good agreement between the experiment and theory highlights the functionality of the combined GIXRR and ADXRF techniques for studying intermixing in high resolution.

Arac, Erhan; Burn, David M.; Eastwood, David S.; Atkinson, Del [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hase, Thomas P. A. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

2012-02-15

261

Cubicle housing systems for cattle: Comfort of dairy cows depends on cubicle adjustment.  

PubMed

Housing is important for the welfare of cows. Although recommendations have been proposed, abnormal movements and injury problems are still observed in cubicle houses. We conducted a survey on 70 French dairy farms that used cubicles. We examined the design of the cubicles, and the behavior, injuries, and cleanliness of the cows. Most of the cubicles did not comply with the recommendations, often being too narrow and/or too short. Difficulties in lying behavior and injuries were more common when the neck rail was high. No improvement was noted when cubicles of a recent design were used ("U.S." cubicles), apparently because these cubicles were most often cantilevered on a double head rail rather than fixed on freestanding posts. An experiment was conducted, making similar measurements, on 84 cows to compare two configurations for U.S. cubicles (cantilevered on a double head rail as observed in the survey with a high and rear neck rail vs. fixed on freestanding posts as recommended) and another recent cubicle type (Euroconfort, cantilevered on head rails, but with a large space between the rails and fixed as recommended), with and without a brisket board. In U.S. cubicles on rails, cows spent more time lying and less time fully standing inside the cubicles than in the other cubicles (percentage of time: lying, 53.9 vs. 51.5; fully standing, 7.3 vs. 8.5); in Euroconfort cubicles, they hit bars more often when getting up than in U.S. Cubicles (percentage of observations: 42.4 vs. 26.4. Without a brisket board, cows lay down more often in a fore position in U.S. cubicles than in Euroconfort ones. Somatic cell counts increased with time in U.S. cubicles on rails and decreased in the other cubicles. It is suggested that the position of the neck rail in U.S. cubicles cantilevered on rails did not leave enough space for the cow to stand inside the cubicle, thereby encouraging the cow to lie down. This could in turn favor udder contamination and/or inflammation. It is concluded that the positioning of the neck rail is of prime importance, that U.S. cubicles should be used with a brisket board and with correct positioning of the neck rail (even when a head rail is used), and that leaving a large space between head rails does not offer an adequate remedial solution for keeping a free head space in front of the cubicle. PMID:15542480

Veissier, I; Capdeville, J; Delval, E

2004-11-01

262

25 CFR 168.8 - Grazing fees.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 168.8 Section 168.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS...grazing permit. All interim permits will expire at the end of the period provided for completion of...

2011-04-01

263

The Use of Rose Bengal Plate Test to Asses Cattle Exposure to Brucella Infection in Traditional and Smallholder Dairy Production Systems of Tanga Region of Tanzania  

PubMed Central

A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and to identify risk factors for bovine brucellosis seropositivity in traditional and smallholder dairy cattle production systems in the Tanga region of North-eastern Tanzania. The study populations comprised 246 indigenous and 409 crossbred cattle, randomly selected from 105 smallholder dairy and 25 traditional managed herds, respectively. Individual animal and herd-level data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Serum samples were screened for Brucella antibodies using the Rose Bengal Plate Test The overall seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies in the smallholder dairy and traditional managed cattle was 4.1% and 7.3% respectively. The corresponding overall herd prevalence was 10.5% and 20% respectively. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, closeness to stock route, access to surface drinking water and location were identified as the major risk factors for individual herd seroprevalence. Older animals (?6 years) were associated with increased risk of sero-positivity compared to animals of age category of ?6 years. The results showed that brucellosis is prevalent and widely distributed locally, underscoring the need for further studies including surveillance and institution of preventive and control measures particularly among female young-stock and the general public who are at high risk of contracting brucellosis.

Swai, Emanuel Senyael; Schoonman, Luuk

2010-01-01

264

Methodology for studying vegetation of grazing lands and determination of grazing animal responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY - Information on vegetation of grazing lands and animal grazing responses is critical to our understanding of livestock production and our ability to manage both animal and plant resources to optimise the productivity of grazing lands. A battery of methods has been developed to tackle these objectives. Methods concerning vegetation productivity of grazing lands include forage production, cover, density,

H. Ben Salem; T. G. Papachristou

265

Grazing of attached bacteria by heterotrophic microflagellates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four species of heterotrophic microflagellates were examined for their ability to graze attached and unattached bacteria. The species tested displayed pronounced differences in their ability to graze the bacteriumPseudomonas halodurans attached to chitin particles. Two species of microflagellates (Monas andCryptobia sp.) efficiently grazed unattached bacteria but showed little or no ability to graze attached or aggregated cells. In contrast,Rhynchomonas nasuta

David A. Caron

1987-01-01

266

25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...eligible to acquire and hold grazing permits. Minors under 18 years of age can get possession of grazing permits only through inheritance...Courts to manage the permits and livestock of such minors until they become 18 years of age and can hold grazing permits in their own...

2013-04-01

267

25 CFR 167.9 - Grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...167.9 Grazing permits. (a) All livestock grazed on the Navajo Reservation...respective Districts. The number of livestock that may be grazed under each permit...said permittee shall dispose of all livestock in excess of 350 sheep units not...

2011-04-01

268

How Does “Hunger” Level Impact Grazing Behavior?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grazing behavior can be influenced through feeding and grazing management decisions. Research at our USDA-ARS lab showed that ruminal fill, or how ‘hungry’ the cow is, can affect grazing behavior. Cows that had less ruminal fill took a bigger bite that was shallow and wide, compared to a ‘full’ cow ...

269

Linking on-farm dairy management practices to storm-flow fecal coliform loading for California coastal watersheds.  

PubMed

How and where to improve water quality within an agricultural watershed requires data at a spatial scale that corresponds with individual management decision units on an agricultural operation. This is particularly true in the context of water quality regulations, such as Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs), that identify agriculture as one source of non-point source pollution through larger tributary watershed scale and above and below water quality investigations. We have conducted a systems approach study of 10 coastal dairies and ranches to document fecal coliform concentration and loading to surface waters at the management decision unit scale. Water quality samples were collected on a storm event basis from loading units that included: manure management systems; gutters; storm drains; pastures; and corrals and lots. In addition, in-stream samples were collected above and below the dairy facilities and from a control watershed, managed for light grazing and without a dairy facility or human residence and corresponding septic system. Samples were analyzed for fecal coliform concentration by membrane filtration. Instantaneous discharge was measured for each collected sample. Storm runoff was also calculated using the curve number method (SCS, 1985). Results for a representative dairy as well as the entire 10 dairy data set are presented. Fecal coliform concentrations demonstrate high variability both within and between loading units. Fecal coliform concentrations for pastures range from 206 to 2,288,888 cfu/100 ml and for lots from 1,933 to 166,105,000 cfu/100 ml. Mean concentrations for pastures and lots are 121,298 (SE = 62,222) and 3,155,584 (SE = 1,902,713) cfu/100 ml, respectively. Fecal coliform load from units of concentrated animals and manure are significantly more than units such as pastures while storm flow amounts were significantly less. Compared with results from earlier tributary scale studies in the watershed, this systems approach has generated water quality data that is beneficial for management decisions because of its scale and representation of current management activities. These results are facilitating on-farm changes through the cooperative efforts of dairy managers, regulatory agency staff, and sources of technical and financial assistance. PMID:16418926

Lewis, D J; Atwill, E R; Lennox, M S; Hou, L; Karle, B; Tate, K W

2005-08-01

270

The relationship between genetic merit for yield and live weight, condition score, and energy balance of spring calving Holstein Friesian dairy cows on grass based systems of milk production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to estimate the ef- fects of genetic merit for milk yield on energy balance, DM intake (DMI), and fertility for cows managed on three different grass-based feeding systems and to esti- mate possible interactions between genetic merit and feeding system. Individual animal intake estimates were obtained at pasture on 11 occasions across three grazing

F. Buckley; P. Dillon; M. Rath; R. F. Veerkamp

2000-01-01

271

Developing a farm nutrient loss index for grazed pastures in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Australian grazing industries are under pressure to increase the efficiency, productivity and viability of their farms whilst minimising the impact of grazing systems on the wider environment. A key requirement is the efficient use of nutrients. A simple index is being developed to assess the spatial and temporal risks of nutrient losses from these farms to surface waters, groundwater and

Alice R. Melland; Cameron J. P. Gourley; Andrew P. Smith; Ian S. Tarbotton; Ken I. Peverill

272

Foraging behaviour of donkeys grazing in a coastal dune area in temperate climate conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small herd of donkeys was introduced in a coastal dune reserve ‘Houtsaegerduinen’ (ca. 80ha) in Belgium, in order to slow down expansion of dominant grass and shrub species. The Houtsaegerduinen is a nutrient poor scrub-dominated dune system with a spatially heterogeneous vegetation pattern. Different aspects of the grazing behaviour (grazing time, bite rate, habitat use, diet composition) of the

Indra Lamoot; Julie Callebaut; Else Demeulenaere; Charlotte Vandenberghe; Maurice Hoffmann

2005-01-01

273

Evolution of the GRAZPLAN decision support tools and adoption by the grazing industry in temperate Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

CSIRO Plant Industry has developed the GRAZPLAN family of decision support tools (DS tools) for consultants and farmers to improve the profitability and environmental sustainability of grazing enterprises. These tools are based on pasture and animal production models that have general application for simulating the biophysical processes of grazing systems in temperate southern Australia. The DS tools are designed to

J. R. Donnelly; M. Freer; L. Salmon; A. D. Moore; R. J. Simpson; H. Dove; T. P. Bolger

2002-01-01

274

Vegetation change along gradients from water sources in three grazed Mongolian ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foliar cover of plant species; grass, forb and total herbaceous biomass; soil P, K, N and C; and percent coarse fraction of soils were sampled over two years along grazing gradients from livestock water sources in three grazed Mongolian steppe ecosystems of varying productivity. Samples within each of the three systems (mountain- steppe, and desert-steppe) were classified into plant communities

Maria Fernandez-Gimenez; Barbara Allen-Diaz

2000-01-01

275

Vegetation change along gradients from water sources in three grazed Mongolian ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Foliar cover of plant species; grass, forb and total herbaceous biomass; soil P, K, N and C; and percent coarse fraction of soils were sampled over two years along grazing gradients from livestock water sources in three grazed Mongolian steppe ecosystems of varying productivity. Samples within each of the three systems (mountain-steppe, and desert-steppe) were classified into plant communities using

Maria Fernandez-Gimenez; Barbara Allen-Diaz

2001-01-01

276

EFFECTS OF GRAZING MANAGEMENT ON PASTURE CHARACTERISTICS AFFECTING SEDIMENT AND NUTRIENT LOADS IN SURFACE WATERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To evaluate cattle grazing effects on the potential for sediment and nutrient loading of surface waters, forage cover, sward height, and mass and manure cover were measured in pastures with different grazing management systems. Six 12.1-ha cool-season grass pastures were assigned one of three treat...

277

Non-destructive assessment of cattle forage selection: A test of skim grazing in fescue grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated a non-destructive scientific method that is non-invasive to the animal, for quantifying foraging selectivity by cattle within heterogeneous pasture swards in order to test the utility of a new grazing system designed to aid conservation of native rough fescue (Festuca campestris Rydb.) rangeland in western Canada. Skim grazing is a recently developed strategy that involves a light,

Darlene M. Moisey; Edward W. Bork; Walter D. Willms

2005-01-01

278

Measuring the productivity of grazing and foraging livestock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problems of defining and measuring the productivity of grazing and foraging livestock are reviewed. It is proposed that the economic margin per unit of forage is an appropriate index of productivity for many livestock production systems, allowing comparison of the efficiency with which different types of livestock in different management systems produce economic margins from a forage resource. A

A. D. James; A. B. Carles

1996-01-01

279

Dairy: World Markets and Trade, August 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Dairy: World Markets and Trade; Dairy Production in Selected Countries; Dairy Trade in Selected Countries; Selected Exporters; Selected Importers; Milk and Dairy Products Production, Supply, and Demand Tables; World Dairy Prices; FY 1994 GSM-102...

1994-01-01

280

Dairy: World Markets and Trade, March 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Dairy Production and Trade in Selected Countries; Milk and Dairy Products Production, Supply, and Demand Tables: Fluid Milk, Butter, Cheese, Nonfat Dry Milk, Casein, Whole Milk Powder; Uruguay Round: Dairy; World Dairy Prices; Dairy Export Incen...

1994-01-01

281

Milk Conjugated Linoleic Acid Response to Fish Oil and Sunflower Oil Supplementation to Dairy Cows Managed Under Two Feeding Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier research showed that conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content in milk fat is highest when cows' diets are supplemented with a blend of fish oil (FO) and linoleic acid-rich oils. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of FO and sunflower oil (SFO) supplementation on milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA when dairy cows managed on pasture or in

A. A. AbuGhazaleh; D. O. Felton; S. A. Ibrahim

2007-01-01

282

Modification of immune responses and digestive system microbiota of lactating dairy cows by feeding Bovamine(R)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We evaluated the immune modulatory effects as well as effects on productivity of Bovamine® (Lactobacillus acidophilus strain NP51 and Probionibacterium freudenreichii) fed to Holstein and Jersey dairy cows during late lactation (average DIM = 202.44 days on wk-0). Cows were randomized to treatment g...

283

Comparative efficacy of homeopathic and allopathic systems of medicine in the management of clinical mastitis of Indian dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mastitis is the major problem of dairy animals despite a number of preventive and therapeutic approaches. Treatment is costly and out of reach of farmers of developing countries like India. The treatment cost of bovine mastitis with conventional treatment has been calculated. Good results have been claimed with homeopathic treatment however, treatment costs are not available. This article reports the

J. P. Varshney; R. Naresh

2005-01-01

284

Acne, dairy and cancer  

PubMed Central

A potent link to dairy seems to exist for three hormone-responsive glands. Acne, breast cancer and prostate cancer have all been linked epidemiologically to dairy intake. Although mechanisms postulated here remain to be accurately defined, the likely link involves Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 as a general stimulant, synergized by the steroid hormones present in milk. The IGF-1 may be either absorbed from milk, or stimulated by its ingestion, or both. The 5alpha-reduced compound 5alpha-pregnanedione (5?-P) present in milk is a direct precursor of dihydrotestosterone and may act through that pathway in prostate cancer, but 5?-P has also recently been shown to be capable of inducing estrogen receptors in breast cancer cells, upregulating cancer cells' sensitivity to estrogen. The introduction of exogenous hormones and growth factors into tissues that have not evolved defensive feedback inhibition of their corresponding endogenous sources is postulated as a direct stimulatory threat to these organ systems, whether for hyperplasia or neoplasia.

2009-01-01

285

Effects of Introduced Grasses, Grazing and Fire on Regional Biogeochemistry in Hawaii  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

African grasses introduced for grazing have expanded in geographic extent in mesic tropical systems of Hawaii and other regions of the world. Grassland expansion leads to increases in fire frequency, speeding woodland and forest destruction at greater geographic scales than occurs with grazing alone. At Pu'uwa'awa'a Ranch, Hawaii, restoration of the native woodland habitat has become a critical objective following the introduction and dominance of the African grass species Pennisetum clandestinum and P. setaceum. Grazing and grass-fueled fires have destroyed over 60% of the original forest. To stabilize these communities, managers must balance the combined effects of grazing and fire. Grazing reduces the recruitment success of native tropical trees, but grazing also reduces fire risk by moderating grass fuel conditions and restricting the extent and density of the most flammable grass species. Our study focuses on two questions: (1) What grazing intensity is necessary to change the fire conditions of a region given in situ soil and precipitation conditions? (2) Have long-term grazing conditions altered soil carbon and nitrogen stocks? We used high resolution imaging spectrometer data to measure photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic vegetation cover, analysis of soil carbon and nitrogen stocks, and measurements of plant community composition along gradients in grazing intensity. P. setaceum, the more flammable alien grass, was dominant where grazing intensity was low and at lower elevations where precipitation is low. The less flammable grass, P. clandestinum, occurred in regions of high grazing intensity and higher precipitation. Grazing influenced the dominance of P. setaceum and P. clandestinum only where precipitation and soil characteristics were suitable for both grasses to occur. At suitable sites, grazing reduced fire conditions through a species sift towards P. clandestinum. Soil carbon and nitrogen stocks decreased with grazing intensity, which was correlated with the fractional cover of P. setaceum. Soil carbon also increased with precipitation. These results show how grazing impacts fire conditions and soil chemistry through changes in species composition, and not through removal of carbon inputs (direct removal of biomass).

Elmore, A. J.; Asner, G. P.

2003-12-01

286

Rangeland Management: Grazing Lease Arrangements of Bureau of Land Management Permittees.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Extent of leasing of public grazing privileges; Types of permittees entering into grazing leases; Residency of parties involved in grazing leases; Permittee grazing lease financial arrangements.

1986-01-01

287

Advantages of a Grazing Incidence Monochromator in the Extreme Ultraviolet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the main goals of the BYU Thin Films group is to find optical constants for materials in the Extreme Ultraviolet. This is accomplished by taking reflection and transmission measurements. The addition of a Grazing Incidence Monochromator to our current system allows us to take reflectance measurements at wavelengths currently unavailable on the Normal Incidence Monochromator (Monarch).

Barton, Sarah; Turley, R. Steven

2006-10-01

288

Grazing livestock and greenhouse gases in the UK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Livestock have been identified as significant contributors to the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG), and policies adopted by some authorities have discriminated against them for this reason as the UK seeks to meet the targets of the Kyoto Agreement. Analysis of available data shows that, while some livestock production systems can be implicated, grazing livestock in the UK on

Lawrence Alderson

289

Limpet grazing on a physically stressful Patagonian rocky shore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many theories of consumer control of communities have come from studies conducted in relatively benign, temperate zone rocky intertidal systems. Here, we examine gastropod grazing and the maintenance of bare space on a dry, wind-swept rocky shore of Patagonia, Argentina. Two limpet species are the primary intertidal grazers. Siphonaria lessoni dominates mid and high intertidal zones, while Nacella magellanica dominates

M. Cielo Bazterrica; Brian R. Silliman; Fernando J. Hidalgo; Caitlin M. Crain; Mark D. Bertness

2007-01-01

290

Grazing animal husbandry based on sustainable nutrient management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainable husbandry systems for grazing animals (cattle and sheep) can be achieved by sustainable nutrient management (SNM). This implies the tuning of inputs to outputs of nutrients, to achieve and maintain optimum ranges of agronomically wanted and ecologically acceptable reserves of single nutrients in the soil. P is presented as the ‘boss cow of the nutrient herd’ and its optimum

C. Hermans; P. H. Vereijken

1995-01-01

291

Southern European grazing lands: Production, environmental and landscape management aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grazing lands and their management in livestock systems are a matter of special importance in the search for sustainability. Socio-economic and ecological objectives should be considered jointly in considering livestock production. In addition to the general issues of biodiversity and habitat preservation, the challenges for their management vary according to the regional conditions. In Southern European environments, where the past

I. Hadjigeorgiou; K. Osoro; J. P. Fragoso de Almeida; G. Molle

2005-01-01

292

Spatial and Temporal Modeling of Microbial Contaminants on Grazing Farmlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

the recreational use of freshwater (e.g., swimming, wa- terskiing, and windsurfing) and potential sources of wa- This paper introduces an integrated spatial and temporal modeling ter for potable treatment. system developed mathematically for assessing microbial contami- nants on animal-grazed farmlands. The model uses fecal coliform, Stainer et al. (1979) demonstrated that the main path- specifically Escherichia coli, as an indicator

Yong Q. Tian; Peng Gong; John D. Radke; James Scarborough

2002-01-01

293

Increased concentration of water-soluble carbohydrate in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Evaluation in dairy cows in early lactation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twelve multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in early lactation were used to investigate the potential of using perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) with a high concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) to increase the efficiency of milk production. Ad libitum access to one of two varieties of zero- grazed herbage was given continuously for 3 weeks: treatment High Sugar (HS), an experimental peren-

J. M. Moorby; R. T. Evans; N. D. Scollan; J. C. MacRae; M. K. Theodorou

2006-01-01

294

Evaluation of insecticide ear tags containing ethion for control of pyrethroid resistant Haematobia irritans (L.) on dairy cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted in central Argentina to evaluate the efficacy of ear tags containing 36% ethion against pyrethroid resistant populations of Haematobia irritans on grazing dairy cattle. The treated group consisted of 45 milking Holstein cows which received two tags per head and the control consisted of 22 dry cows from the same cohort. Treated and control groups

O. S. Anziani; G. Zimmermann; A. A. Guglielmone; M. Forchieri; M. M. Volpogni

2000-01-01

295

The effect of natural shade and spraying with water on the productivity of dairy cows in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of natural shade provided by grazing under coconut palms, and of spraying with water three times per day, on the milk yield of Boran (Bos indicus) and Friesian x Boran (50% Bos taurus) dairy cattle was examined. The shade treatment was held constant for any one cow lactation but the spraying treatment was a single-reversal with an extra

J. S. Macfarlane; B. A. Stevens

1972-01-01

296

HYDROLOGIC MODELING OF AQUATIC PLANT TREATMENT SYSTEMS POLISHING DAIRY LAGOON EFFLUENTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a mathematical model of the hydrologic balance of an aquatic plant treatment system (APTS) has been developed. The mass balance approach has been adopted and the major components of the water balance, such as precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET) and percolation have been incorporated into the model. For estimation of ET for duckweed and water hyacinth plants, mathematical relationships

G. M. Cothren; S. Chen; M. Rahman; R. Malone

2001-01-01

297

Energy utilization in crop and dairy production in organic and conventional livestock production systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Searching for livestock production systems with a high energy utilization is of interest because of resource use and pollution aspects and because energy use is an indicator of the intensification of production processes. Due to interactions between crop and livestock enterprises and between levels of different input factors and their effects on yields, it is proposed to analyze agricultural energy

Karen Refsgaard; Niels Halberg; Erik Steen Kristensen

1998-01-01

298

Effect of music on voluntary approach of dairy cows to an automatic milking system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this experiment was to assess the effect of music on the voluntary approach of cows to an automatic milking system (AMS). A group of 19 mid- and late-lactating Holstein cows with 2 months prior experience of twice-daily milking in the AMS was used in this study. The cows were housed in a free stall barn with

K. Uetake; J. F. Hurnik; L. Johnson

1997-01-01

299

Influence of Kid Rearing Systems on Milk Composition and Yield of Murciano-Granadina Dairy Goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-hundred eight lactations of Murciano- Granadina goats from different years were used to compare two kid rearing systems. Goats were sepa- rated into two groups: suckling and milking. Dams in the suckling group were milked once daily until kids were weaned (wk 0 to 7 ) and then were milked twice daily. Dams in the milking group were separated from

S. Peris; G. Caja; X. Such; R. Casals; A. Ferret; C. Torre

1997-01-01

300

Soil–plant–animal relations in nutrient cycling: the case of dairy farming system ‘De Marke’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forage and ruminant production in Western Europe have increased significantly since World War II. However, in the last decade the livestock production sector has come under increasing pressure as the European Union introduced the milk quota system, effectively curbing total national and individual farm production volume, and national governments increasingly took measures to reduce the losses of nutrients from these

H. van Keulen; H. F. M. Aarts; B. Habekotté; H. G. van der Meer; J. H. J. Spiertz

2000-01-01

301

Anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction of dairy manure  

SciTech Connect

The authors tested several solid liquid separation systems suitable for processing dairy manure prior to anaerobic digestion. None of the systems tried have completely satisfied the requirements. Evaluated effects of separation on biogas production. Unseparated dairy manure produced more biogas than the liquid fraction.

Haugen, V.; Dahlberg, S.; Lindley, J.A.

1983-06-01

302

Managing Intensively Grazed Pastures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Forage production during periods of summer drought can be increased by including additional species in the pasture mixture, especially if those species have desirable attributes such as improved water use efficiency or deep root systems. Conversion of plowed fields to pasture also has the potential ...

303

Technical note: a simple model to estimate changes in dietary composition of strip-grazed cattle during progressive pasture defoliations.  

PubMed

Methodological problems occur in measuring herbage intake and diet quality during short-term (4-24h) progressive defoliations by grazing. Several models were developed to describe pasture component selection by grazing ruminants, particularly sheep. These models contain empirical coefficients to determine preferences that require laborious and data-demanding calibration. The objective was to develop a simple and practical model of changes in diet composition (green:dead) of pastures strip-grazed by dairy cows. The model was based on 3 premises when cows are strip-grazed in relatively homogeneous swards: 1) cows eat dead material only when green leaf and uncontaminated material have been removed; 2) dead material increases toward the bottom of the sward canopy; and 3) cows progressively defoliate pasture in layers. The main simplification in this model was assuming a linear decrease of green mass from the top to the bottom of the sward canopy. Thus, the proportion of green mass in the stratum eaten depended on the proportion of green in the entire sward canopy and its vertical profile. The model offers a simple solution to estimate changes in dietary compositions in pastures strip-grazed by dairy cattle during progressive pasture defoliations. It uses 2 inputs, the green mass proportion of the total herbage mass and the proportion of total herbage mass eaten during grazing. This can be optionally complemented with inputs of herbage chemical composition. The main outputs of the model are the proportions of green and dead herbage mass in the diet. For example, if the green proportion in the sward was 0.5 and the proportion of herbage mass eaten was 0.5, then the diet would be 0.75 green:0.25 dead; assuming 0.8 and 0.4 digestibility for green and dead material, respectively, the diet digestibility would be 0.7. PMID:20630225

Romera, A J; Gregorini, P; Beukes, P C

2010-07-01

304

Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy cattle under smallholder management system in North-eastern Amhara Region, Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted in South Wollo Zone of Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia, to assess the milk yield and reproductive\\u000a performance of indigenous and crossbred cattle under smallholder management conditions. Questionnaire survey was used to collect\\u000a retrospective data on the performance of dairy cattle in 186 households. Thirty two postpartum cows (16 indigenous and 16\\u000a crossbred) were selected purposively and

Solomon Abraha; Kelay Belihu; Merga Bekana; Fikre Lobago

2009-01-01

305

Hydrologic modeling of aquatic plant treatment systems polishing dairy lagoon effluents.  

PubMed

In this study, a mathematical model of the hydrologic balance of an aquatic plant treatment system (APTS) has been developed. The mass balance approach has been adopted and the major components of the water balance, such as precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET) and percolation have been incorporated into the model. For estimation of ET for duckweed and water hyacinth plants, mathematical relationships were established between ET and pan evaporation using data collected at the site. The observed ET rates of water hyacinths were up to 66% higher than the pan evaporation rates. But for duckweed, the observed ET rates were 10 to 20% lower than the pan evaporation rates. Using the available historic precipitation and pan evaporation data, several computer simulations of the model were run to estimate the HLR and HRT of the ponds under different design requirements. The results indicate that aquatic ponds with water hyacinths can operate at greater HLR's than ponds supporting duckweed. For a zero discharge system, the allowable HLR for a water hyacinth pond was found to be 5 times that of a pond containing duckweed. PMID:11759904

Cothren, G M; Chen, S; Rahman, M; Malone, R

2001-01-01

306

Dairy Herd Health.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This monograph, designed to help secondary students recognize symptoms of major dairy cattle diseases, stresses the need for preventative management practices and cooperation between the dairy farmer and the veterinarian. The first of three parts, The Healthy Animal, is divided into five units: body parts, vital signs, excretions, behavior, and…

Wolanyk, Alison M.; Bishop, Natalie

307

Extrusion Texturized Dairy Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary proteins in milk, casein and the whey proteins ?-lactalbumin and ?-lactoglobulin, have a number of health benefits and desirable functional properties. In a twin-screw extruder, mechanical shear forces, heat, and pressure cause considerable changes in the molecular structures of the dairy proteins, a process known as texturization. These changes further impart unique functional properties to dairy proteins, resulting

Charles I. Onwulata; Michael H. Tunick; Phoebe X. Qi

2011-01-01

308

Dairy: Outlook and Situation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Dairy support price unchanged; new 50-cent deduction announced. The support price on October 1 will remain $13.10 per cwt for manufacturing grade milk with 3.67 percent fat ($12.80 at 3.5 percent fat). This support is the minimum allowed under new dairy l...

C. M. Carman

1982-01-01

309

EVALUATING ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF A GRASS-BASED DAIRY FARM IN PENNSYLVANIA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grass-based dairy farming has long been the mainstay of the dairy industry in the temperate maritime regions of the world such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, and New Zealand. In contrast, U.S. dairy farms are predominantly characterized by confinement feeding systems. However due to increased pro...

310

High-temperature, air-blown gasification of dairy-farm wastes for energy production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was carried out to investigate the feasibility of integrating an advanced gasifier into the operation of a dairy farm for converting biomass wastes into fuel gas that can be used for power production. The disposal\\/utilization of excess animal wastes is a serious problem facing the dairy industry. Implementation of a gasification system on the dairy farm may provide

Lincoln Young; Carlson C. P. Pian

2003-01-01

311

Biofilms in dairy manufacturing plant?description, current concerns and methods of control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilms on the surfaces of dairy manufacturing plant threaten the quality and safety of dairy products. Biofilms on dairy processing lines are characterised by rapid development (< 12 h) and the predominance of single species of bacteria (e.g. Streptococcus thermophilus or Bacillus spp.). Increased processing times, more complex processing systems and demands for higher quality products have contributed to the

S. H. Flint; P. J. Bremer; J. D. Brooks

1997-01-01

312

Exploring the conventionalization of organic dairy: trends and counter-trends in upstate New York  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stakeholders in traditional dairy-producing states in the upper Midwest and Northeast hope that the boom in the organic milk\\u000a market will offer family-scale dairy farms a means to escape the cost-price squeeze of the conventional food system. However,\\u000a recent trends in organic dairy raise questions about whether organic dairy is conventionalizing, which is to say it is coming\\u000a to resemble

Amy Guptill

2009-01-01

313

Soil fauna in sheep-grazed hill pastures under organic and conventional livestock management and in an adjacent ungrazed pasture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic pasture management includes a focus on mixed livestock grazing, restrictions on nutrient inputs and livestock pest control. These are all factors which influence the environment of soil invertebrates. In this study, soil macrofauna, mesofauna and microfauna were collected from duplicate 11 and 20 year old organic and conventional legume-based sheep-grazed pasture systems. Pastures in both systems had received the

N. L. Schon; A. D. Mackay; M. A. Minor

2011-01-01

314

25 CFR 167.11 - Tenure of grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Navajo eligible to hold a grazing permit as defined in § 167.8 may become a livestock operator by obtaining an active grazing permit through negotiability...recovered to justify the grazing of additional...

2013-04-01

315

43 CFR 4200.1 - Authority for grazing privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION; ALASKA; LIVESTOCK § 4200.1 Authority for grazing privileges. The BLM is authorized under the Alaska Livestock Grazing Act (Act of March 4,...

2009-10-01

316

43 CFR 4200.1 - Authority for grazing privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION; ALASKA; LIVESTOCK § 4200.1 Authority for grazing privileges. The BLM is authorized under the Alaska Livestock Grazing Act (Act of March 4,...

2010-10-01

317

43 CFR 4200.1 - Authority for grazing privileges.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) GRAZING ADMINISTRATION; ALASKA; LIVESTOCK § 4200.1 Authority for grazing privileges. The BLM is authorized under the Alaska Livestock Grazing Act (Act of March 4, 1927, 43 U.S.C. 316,...

2012-10-01

318

43 CFR 4110.2-3 - Transfer of grazing preference.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transfer of grazing preference. 4110.2-3 ...Qualifications and Preference § 4110.2-3 Transfer of grazing preference. (a) Transfers of grazing preference in whole or in...

2012-10-01

319

Just a graze?  

PubMed

We describe a case of a diagnostically difficult stroke mimic, cephalic tetanus.(1) Currently there are 12-15 cases of tetanus reported annually in the United Kingdom,(2) but worldwide it accounts for one million deaths, 80% being in Africa and South East Asia.(3) Tetanus is caused by infection with clostridium tetani.(4 5) Cephalic Tetanus is defined as a combination of trismus and paralysis of one or more cranial nerves, most commonly the facial nerve. It is rare, 0.9-3% of all tetanus cases, and has a high mortality of between 15-30% if it progresses to generalised tetanus.(1) A 76 year old right handed lady presented to the stroke unit with sudden onset of swallowing difficulty, speech impairment and left sided facial weakness on waking. She had multiple vascular risk factors, however on examination her signs had resolved. Of note she had a sutured right supraorbital laceration sustained a week prior to presentation following a road traffic accident. Computed tomography (CT) showed no acute stroke and confirmed the presence of a large supraorbital haematoma. She was treated with a combination of high dose aspirin and prednisolone therapy for a presumed left sided transient ischaemic attack and a right sided Bell's palsy. During the next few days the patient had labile blood pressure and heart rate readings, complained of difficulty opening her jaw, and had intermittent episodes of laryngeal episodes. Her admission CT was reviewed and note was made of a 3 mm metallic fragment and locules of gas within her haematoma. A clinical diagnosis of cephalic tetanus was made and this was later confirmed on wound culture isolates. As highlighted by our case, ptosis and cranial nerve palsies may precede trismus in cephalic tetanus, and only two published case reports in Korea describe this order of presentation worldwide.(1) The spore-forming motile gram positive bacillus Clostridium tetani(4 5) is rarely isolated and therefore the diagnosis is clinical. Two toxins are produced; Tetanolysin which damages surrounding viable tissue, and Tetanospasmin which inhibits GABA and glycine presynaptic release leading to the clinical syndrome of: rigidity, muscle spasms and autonomic dysfunction.(3) Management is based on three principles; preventing further toxin release with debridement and antibiotics, neutralising toxin present outside of the Central Nervous System (CNS) with tetanus immunoglobulin, and minimising the effects of the toxins in the CNS with early anaesthetic support.(4 5) All patients require full tetanus toxoid immunisation post-infection.(1 5) In conclusion, when approaching a patient with head injury and one or more cranial nerve palsies, it is important to consider cephalic tetanus. Figure 1 Axial CT head shows a large subcutaneous haematoma overlying the right frontal convexity with locules of gas and a 3mm metallic density at its inferior aspect, possibly representing a foreign body. PMID:24109024

Doshi, Anisha; Dahdalleh, Dima; Warrell, Clare; Kullmann, Dimitri

2013-11-01

320

Treatment of dairy waste by using water hyacinth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study treatment of wastewater from a large dairy by using water hyacinth was studied in laboratory experiments. Effects of depth of the system, variations in area coverage, prior settling and of daily renewal of the plants was also studied on the efficacy of hyacinth in treating the dairy waste. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) was found to grow

R. K. Trivedy; S. M. Pattanshetty

321

Dairy-Banana Integration and Organic Fertilizer Use in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intensive dairy and crop farming system found in the East African highlands provides manure and urine, taken from stalls of improved dairy cattle, for crops such as banana. By using panel data of 894 rural households in 2003 and 2005 in Uganda, we find that the number of improved cattle per ha increases the organic fertilizer application on banana

Takashi Yamano

2008-01-01

322

Systemic prepartum treatment of end-term dairy heifers with penethamate hydriodide: Effect on udder health, milk yield, and culling until 120 days in milk.  

PubMed

Prepartum intramammary treatment with antimicrobials of end-term dairy heifers has frequently been proposed as a practice to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) at calving. From a safety standpoint for both animal and administrator, systemic treatment is preferred. A clinical trial was conducted on heifers from 10 well-managed, commercial dairy farms with a low prevalence of heifer mastitis. The aim was to assess both the short- and long-term effects of a systemic prepartum therapy with penethamate hydriodide on udder health and milk production. Because it was hypothesized that some herds would benefit more from this treatment than others, specific herd-level information was collected before the start of the actual trial to screen for and explain potential herd-specific treatment effects. Further, the effect of treatment on antimicrobial susceptibility of staphylococcal isolates was monitored. End-term heifers were either treated systemically (over 3 consecutive days) 2wk before expected calving date with penethamate hydriodide (n=76) or remained untreated (n=73). Systemic prepartum treatment of end-term heifers with penethamate hydriodide resulted in fewer IMI in early lactation. However, all 6 cases of clinical mastitis in early lactation occurred in the treatment group [Streptococcus uberis (n=1), Corynebacterium bovis (n=1), Staphylococcus aureus (n=1); 1 sample was contaminated; 2 samples remained culture negative]. No long-term treatment effects (from 4 to 120d in milk) on milk production, udder health, or culling hazard during later lactation were detected, although treated heifers belonging to herds classified as having low-yielding heifers out-produced the control heifers. Moreover, penicillin susceptibility of staphylococci isolated from milk samples of treated or control heifers did not differ. Herds with a low prevalence of heifer mastitis are not likely to benefit from prepartum systemic antimicrobial treatment of the end-term heifers. PMID:23932138

Passchyn, P; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S

2013-08-09

323

Campylobacter jejuni in dairy cows and raw milk.  

PubMed Central

Twelve herds of dairy cows were examined by rectal swabbing for the presence of Campylobacter jejuni. Ten herds were positive with the incidence of colonized animals ranging from 10 to 72% of those tested. With the exception of the two negative herds where mains water only was consumed, all animals drank from rivers or streams when grazing. There was no relationship between total and coliform counts and the presence of C. jejuni in raw milk. However, milk from one farm that consistently gave positive results had significantly higher Escherichia coli counts than other samples.

Humphrey, T. J.; Beckett, P.

1987-01-01

324

Water quality and the grazing animal1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grazing animals and pasture produc- tion can affect water quality both positively and nega- tively. Good management practices for forage produc- tion protect the soil surface from erosion compared with conventionally produced crops. Grazing animals and pasture production can negatively affect water quality through erosion and sediment transport into surface waters, through nutrients from urine and feces dropped by the

R. K. Hubbard; G. L. Newton; G. M. Hill

325

Predicting plant species' responses to grazing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The aim of this study was to identify whether plant species show consistent responses to livestock grazing. The analyses were based on 35 published studies from Australian rangelands providing 55 species response lists. The primary data set comprised 1554 responses from 829 species. 2. Eight-hundred and twenty-nine species were categorized as increasers, decreasers or neutral under grazing. Of

PETER A. VESK; MARK WESTOBY

2001-01-01

326

SOIL RESISTANCE UNDER GRAZED INTERMEDIATE WHEATGRASS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Intermediate wheatgrass [Thinopyrum intermedium (Host) Barkw. & D.R. Dewey subsp. intermedium] is a productive, high quality perennial forage that lacks persistence under grazing. Grazing effects on soil condition may contribute to this lack of persistence. An evaluation was undertaken to better u...

327

25 CFR 168.5 - Grazing capacity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...PARTITIONED LANDS AREA § 168.5 Grazing capacity. (a) The Area Director shall prescribe the maximum number of each kind of livestock which may be grazed on land under his jurisdiction without inducing damage to vegetation or related resources on each...

2011-04-01

328

43 CFR 9239.3 - Grazing, Alaska.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grazing, Alaska. 9239.3 Section 9239.3 Public Lands: Interior ...9000) TRESPASS Kinds of Trespass § 9239.3 Grazing, Alaska. (a) Reindeer. (1) Any use of the Federal...

2012-10-01

329

Dairy Dilemma: Are You Getting Enough Calcium?  

MedlinePLUS

... Dairy Dilemma Dairy Dilemma Are You Getting Enough Calcium? You may be avoiding dairy products because of ... But dairy products are a major source of calcium, vitamin D and other nutrients that are important ...

330

National Dairy Research Institute Annual Report 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report begins with general information about the Institute's history and objectives. Highlights of research in the following nine divisions are given: dairy microbiology division, dairy chemistry division, dairy engineering division, dairy cattle gene...

M. S. ivastava R. D. Deswal

1982-01-01

331

The potential importance of grazing to the fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane in an alpine wetland on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To assess the impact of livestock grazing on the emission of greenhouse gases from grazed wetlands, we examined biomass growth of plants, CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes under grazing and non-grazing conditions on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau wetland. After the grazing treatment for a period of about 3 months, net ecosystem CO 2 uptake and aboveground biomass were significantly smaller, but ecosystem CH 4 emissions were remarkably greater, under grazing conditions than under non-grazing conditions. Examination of the gas-transport system showed that the increased CH 4 emissions resulted from mainly the increase of conductance in the gas-transport system of the grazed plants. The sum of global warming potential, which was estimated from the measured CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes, was 5.6- to 11.3-fold higher under grazing conditions than under non-grazing conditions. The results suggest that livestock grazing may increase the global warming potential of the alpine wetlands.

Hirota, Mitsuru; Tang, Yanhong; Hu, Qiwu; Kato, Tomomichi; Hirata, Shigeki; Mo, Wenhong; Cao, Guangmin; Mariko, Shigeru

332

Effects of Warming and Grazing on Ecosystem Respiration in the Alpine Meadow on the Tibetan Plateau  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Intensive studies reveal that there is much uncertainty regarding how ecosystem and soil respiration will respond to warming and grazing, especially in the alpine meadow ecosystem. We conducted a first of its kind field-manipulative warming and grazing experiment in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan plateau to determine the effects of warming and grazing on ecosystem and soil respiration for 3-years, from 2006 to 2008 at the Haibei Alpine Meadow Ecosystem Research Station. The infrared heaters were controlled using the proportional-integral-derivative-outputs (PID) control system so as to ensure constant warming between heated and reference plots. The setpoint differences of the vegetation canopy between heated and corresponding reference plots were 1.2oC during daytime and 1.7oC at night during the growing season (from May to September). A two factorial design (warming and grazing) was used with four replicates of each of four treatments: no-warming with no-grazing (NWNG), no-warming with grazing (NWG), warming with no-grazing (WNG), and warming with grazing (WG). Generally, warming and grazing did not affect seasonal average ecosystem respiration (Re), and there was no interaction between grazing and warming. However, they significantly affected the Re early in the growing season and by the end of the growing season. Warming significantly increased seasonal average soil respiration (Rs) by 9.2%, whereas the difference mainly resulted from data gathered early in the growing season, before June 2007. Positive correlations between soil temperature and Re and Rs were observed, and soil temperature explained 63-83% of seasonal Re variations during the 3-year study and 19-34% of Rs variations in 2007. Seasonal Re in 2008 and Rs in 2007 were slightly negatively correlated to soil moisture, but interannual average Re decreased with a decrease in precipitation for all treatments. Warming and grazing reduced the Q10 value of Re in 2007 and 2008 but did not affect the Q10 value of Rs. The Q10 values of Rs were much lower than the Q10 values of Re in 2007. These results suggest that grazing may reduce the temperature sensitivity of Re and that Re was main controlled by soil temperature rather than moisture which varied with timescale in the alpine meadow. Keywords: warming; grazing; ecosystem respiration; soil respiration; alpine meadow; soil temperature and moisture; climate change; Tibetan plateau

Wang, S.; Lin, X.

2011-12-01

333

[Performance and parasitologic infestation of male dairy cattle supplemented with proteic salt containing or not homeopathic medicines].  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and parasitologic infection of male dairy cattle submitted to supplemental proteic salt with and without the use of homeopathic medicines. Were used crossbred Gir x Holstein castrated males calves, with 10 months of age and live weight of 150.75 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design with eight replicates per treatment, totaling 16 animals. The calves of each treatment remained in a pasture of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, managed in continuous grazing system for 8 months. The treatments employed were: supplementation with 300 g/animal/day of protein (40% of crude protein (CP) and 25% CP in the dry and rainy season, respectively) added or not with 5 g/animal/day of the homeopathic medicines FATOR PRO® and C & MC®. The addition of homeopathic medicines in the protein supplement did not affect (P > 0.05) the development of body male crossbred to pasture. The counting of the larvae and adults of ticks in scrapings were lower (P < 0.05) in animals that did not receive homeopathic medicines in the protein supplement. The females tick in the body anterior third (simplifying counting), nymphs in scrapings and the number of eggs per gram of helminths were not affected (P > 0.05) by the treatments. It was concluded that the use of homeopathic medicines did not affect the development of male crossbred Gir x Holstein dairy cattle neither their parasitic infection. PMID:20059813

Signoretti, Ricardo D; Veríssimo, Cecília José; De Souza, Fernando Henrique M; Garcia, Tamires Da S; De Oliveira, Elisa Marcela; De Souza, Karen G; Mourão, Gerson Barreto

2008-09-01

334

Grazed riparian management and stream channel response in southeastern Minnesota (USA) streams  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service has recommended domestic cattle grazing exclusion from riparian corridors for decades. This recommendation was based on a belief that domestic cattle grazing would typically destroy stream bank vegetation and in-channel habitat. Continuous grazing (CG) has caused adverse environmental damage, but along cohesive-sediment stream banks of disturbed catchments in southeastern Minnesota, short-duration grazing (SDG), a rotational grazing system, may offer a better riparian management practice than CG. Over 30 physical and biological metrics were gathered at 26 sites to evaluate differences between SDG, CG, and nongrazed sites (NG). Ordinations produced with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated a gradient with a benthic macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI) and riparian site management; low IBI scores associated with CG sites and higher IBI scores associated with NG sites. Nongrazed sites were associated with reduced soil compaction and higher bank stability, as measured by the Pfankuch stability index; whereas CG sites were associated with increased soil compaction and lower bank stability, SDG sites were intermediate. Bedrock geology influenced NMS results: sites with carbonate derived cobble were associated with more stable channels and higher IBI scores. Though current riparian grazing practices in southeastern Minnesota present pollution problems, short duration grazing could reduce sediment pollution if managed in an environmentally sustainable fashion that considers stream channel response. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Magner, J. A.; Vondracek, B.; Brooks, K. N.

2008-01-01

335

Grazed Riparian Management and Stream Channel Response in Southeastern Minnesota (USA) Streams  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service has recommended domestic cattle grazing exclusion from riparian corridors for decades. This recommendation was based on a belief that domestic cattle grazing would typically destroy stream bank vegetation and in-channel habitat. Continuous grazing (CG) has caused adverse environmental damage, but along cohesive-sediment stream banks of disturbed catchments in southeastern Minnesota, short-duration grazing (SDG), a rotational grazing system, may offer a better riparian management practice than CG. Over 30 physical and biological metrics were gathered at 26 sites to evaluate differences between SDG, CG, and nongrazed sites (NG). Ordinations produced with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) indicated a gradient with a benthic macroinvertebrate index of biotic integrity (IBI) and riparian site management; low IBI scores associated with CG sites and higher IBI scores associated with NG sites. Nongrazed sites were associated with reduced soil compaction and higher bank stability, as measured by the Pfankuch stability index; whereas CG sites were associated with increased soil compaction and lower bank stability, SDG sites were intermediate. Bedrock geology influenced NMS results: sites with carbonate derived cobble were associated with more stable channels and higher IBI scores. Though current riparian grazing practices in southeastern Minnesota present pollution problems, short duration grazing could reduce sediment pollution if managed in an environmentally sustainable fashion that considers stream channel response.

Magner, Joseph A.; Vondracek, Bruce; Brooks, Kenneth N.

2008-09-01

336

The effects of two out-wintering pad systems compared with free-stalls on dairy cow hoof and limb health.  

PubMed

Lameness is one of the most serious health and welfare problems for dairy cows. This study compared hoof health, limb health and locomotion of dairy cows in three over-winter management systems. Treatments were: (1) an indoor free-stall system (FS), (2) outdoors on an uncovered woodchip pad (UP) and (3) outdoors on a covered woodchip pad (CP). Animals were assigned to treatments at drying off, remained on treatment until parturition, then turned out to pasture. Sole lesions were scored on assignment to treatment, at calving, and 6 weeks and 12 weeks post partum. Locomotion and skin lesions were scored on assignment to treatment, and every 2 weeks until parturition. Post-partum locomotion was scored weekly for 13 weeks. More FS cows were affected by limb lesions than CP cows, and these animals had the worst locomotion scores post calving. There was an effect of inspection, and interactive effect of inspection and treatment on sole lesion scores. UP cows had the highest sole lesion scores 12 weeks post partum probably due to softening of the hooves arising from exposure to moisture while on the woodchip pad. However, post partum, UP cows had better locomotion scores, and CP cows tended to have better scores than cows in FS. Both of these treatments were less likely to have a high tracking-up score than cows in FS. It is possible that cows in this treatment were able to exercise more, owing to the secure underfoot surface and lack of barriers, and this promoted limb flexibility. Although woodchip pads provided benefits for limb health and locomotion, the wood chip surface in both outdoor systems did not offer protective benefits to the hooves relative to housing on concrete. However, the provision of shelter on the pad somewhat overcame the problem of high sole lesion scores in the post-partum period. PMID:18922200

O'Driscoll, Keelin Km; Hanlon, Alison; French, Padraig; Boyle, Laura A

2008-10-16

337

Relationships between residual feed intake, average daily gain, and feeding behavior in growing dairy heifers.  

PubMed

Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 ± 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during the night (0000-0600 h) than the least-efficient animals. In summary, correlations between RFI and feeding behavior were weak. Small differences in feeding behavior were observed between the most- and least-efficient animals but adverse behavioral effects associated with such selection in growing dairy heifers are unlikely. PMID:23489775

Green, T C; Jago, J G; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C

2013-03-13

338

Dairy Goats at Karnal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes research work done on the development of new breeds of dairy goats with a high potential of milk production. The productive performance, body dimension and growth, reproductive performance; and behavior of the new breeds are given in ...

D. S. Chawla D. S. Bhatnagar D. Sundaresan

1981-01-01

339

Greenhouse gas emissions from pastoral based dairying systems: The effect of uncertainty and management change under two contrasting production systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously developed model, the Pastoral Milk Emission Model (PME Model) was used to simulate both on-farm and off-farm greenhouse gas (GHG) e`missions (consisting of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2)) under two contrasting pastoral based milk production systems. There were two primary objectives to this study. Firstly within the production systems studied, to identify the effect

D. K. Lovett; L. Shalloo; P. Dillon; F. P. O'Mara

2008-01-01

340

Soil organic carbon responses to grazing and woody plant encroachment in a semi-desert grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of carbon (C) in grassland and savanna ecosystems is belowground. Recent estimates suggest the historic and ongoing proliferation of woody plants in these systems may account for a significant fraction of the Northern Hemisphere carbon (C) sink. A large degree of uncertainty in the direction and magnitude of soil C pool response to woody encroachment exists, however. Soil organic C (SOC) response to woody encroachment may be modified by current and historical land management patterns, but the nature of these relationships is poorly understood. We used CENTURY, a process-based ecosystem model, to explore historical patterns and project future changes in SOC in response to Prosopis velutina encroachment and livestock grazing in a southern Arizona semi-desert grassland. We parameterized and adapted CENTURY for our study site using woody and herbaceous biomass data and P. velutina growth rate estimates. Modeled contemporary SOC levels were +/- 15% of measured levels. Simulations of historical grazing management suggest that grassland SOC dropped nearly 50% (from 1020 to 530 g C m-2) in response to heavy, continuous livestock grazing initiated around 1850. SOC recovery varied with the degree of relaxation of grazing intensity, with nearly full recovery occurring in areas where grazing was excluded between 1903 and 2005 (modeled SOC = 930 g C m-2 in 2005). Woody encroachment, beginning around 1900, had a strong positive influence on modeled SOC, with the greatest accumulations associated with plants greater than 60 years old. Grazing mediated this response, such that sub-canopy SOC in grazed areas was 200-300 g C m-2 less than that in ungrazed areas. Forward simulations suggest that SOC will continue to increase until woody plant stands reach ca. 130 years of age, at which point SOC will stabilize around 3300 g C m^{- 2} for grazed sites and 3000 g C m-2 for ungrazed sites. Results indicate that woody plant encroachment has strong positive influence on SOC accumulation that is partially offset by grazing.

Throop, H. L.; Archer, S. R.; McClaran, M.; Ojima, D.; Keough, C.; Parton, W.

2006-12-01

341

Completeness of the disease recording systems for dairy cows in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden with special reference to clinical mastitis  

PubMed Central

Background In the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, the majority of dairy herds are covered by disease recording systems, in general based on veterinary registration of diagnoses and treatments. Disease data are submitted to the national cattle databases where they are combined with, e.g., production data at cow level, and used for breeding programmes, advisory work and herd health management. Previous studies have raised questions about the quality of the disease data. The main aim of this study was to examine the country-specific completeness of the disease data, regarding clinical mastitis (CM) diagnosis, in each of the national cattle databases. A second aim was to estimate country-specific CM incidence rates (IRs). Results Over 4 months in 2008, farmers in the four Nordic countries recorded clinical diseases in their dairy cows. Their registrations were matched to registrations in the central cattle databases. The country-specific completeness of disease registrations was calculated as the proportion of farmer-recorded cases that could be found in the central database. The completeness (95% confidence interval) for veterinary-supervised cases of CM was 0.94 (0.92, 0.97), 0.56 (0.48, 0.64), 0.82 (0.75, 0.90) and 0.78 (0.70, 0.85) in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, respectively. The completeness of registration of all CM cases, which includes all cases noted by farmers, regardless of whether the cows were seen or treated by a veterinarian or not, was 0.90 (0.87, 0.93), 0.51 (0.43, 0.59), 0.75 (0.67, 0.83) and 0.67 (0.60, 0.75), respectively, in the same countries. The IRs, estimated by Poisson regression in cases per 100 cow-years, based on the farmers’ recordings, were 46.9 (41.7, 52.7), 38.6 (34.2, 43.5), 31.3 (27.2, 35.9) and 26.2 (23.2, 26.9), respectively, which was between 20% (DK) and 100% (FI) higher than the IRs based on recordings in the central cattle databases. Conclusions The completeness for veterinary-supervised cases of CM was considerably less than 100% in all four Nordic countries and differed between countries. Hence, the number of CM cases in dairy cows is underestimated. This has an impact on all areas where the disease data are used.

2012-01-01

342

Untangling the roles of fire, grazing and rainfall on small mammal communities in grassland ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In grassland systems across the globe, ecologists have been attempting to understand the complex role of fire, grazing and\\u000a rainfall in creating habitat heterogeneity and the consequences of anthropogenic control of these factors on ecosystem integrity\\u000a and functioning. Using a South African grassland ecosystem as a model, we investigated the impact of fire and grazing pressure\\u000a on small mammal communities

R. W. Yarnell; D. M. Scott; C. T. Chimimba; D. J. Metcalfe

2007-01-01

343

A comparison of methane emissions from sheep grazing pastures with differing management intensities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane emissions were measured from sheep grazing on pastures that received one of three managements, either 70 or 270 kg\\u000a N fertiliser ha?1 or one which had a high proportion of white clover present. A system for measuring the emissions is described which enables\\u000a measurements to be made under near natural grazing conditions. Continuous measurements of emissions were made over

P. J. Murray; E. Gill; S. L. Balsdon; S. C. Jarvis

2001-01-01

344

Multiyear nutrient removal performance of three constructed wetlands intercepting tile drain flows from grazed pastures.  

PubMed

Subsurface tile drain flows can be a major s ource of nurient loss from agricultural landscapes. This study quantifies flows and nitrogen and phosphorus yields from tile drains at three intensively grazed dairy pasture sites over 3- to 5-yr periods and evaluates the capacity of constructed wetlands occupying 0.66 to 1.6% of the drained catchments too reduce nutrient loads. Continuous flow records are combined with automated flow-proportional sampling of nutrient concentrations to calculate tile drain nutrient yields and wetland mass removal rates. Annual drainage water yields rangedfrom 193 to 564 mm (16-51% of rainfall) at two rain-fed sites and from 827 to 853 mm (43-51% of rainfall + irrigation) at an irrigated site. Annually, the tile drains exported 14 to 109 kg ha(-1) of total N (TN), of which 58 to 90% was nitrate-N. Constructed wetlands intercepting these flows removed 30 to 369 gTN m(-2) (7-63%) of influent loadings annually. Seasonal percentage nitrate-N and TN removal were negatively associated with wetland N mass loadings. Wetland P removal was poor in all wetlands, with 12 to 115% more total P exported annually overall than received. Annually, the tile drains exported 0.12 to 1.38 kg ha of total P, of which 15 to 93% was dissolved reactive P. Additional measures are required to reduce these losses or provide supplementary P removal. Wetland N removal performance could be improved by modifying drainage systems to release flows more gradually and improving irrigation practices to reduce drainage losses. PMID:21520769

Tanner, Chris C; Sukias, James P S

345

25 CFR 166.400 - Who establishes grazing rental rates?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...than the grazing rental rate established by us. We will assist a tribe to establish...section. (c) Indian landowners may give us written authority to grant grazing privileges...1) Above the grazing rental rate set by us; or (2) Below the grazing rental...

2011-04-01

346

25 CFR 700.713 - Tenure of grazing permits.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tenure of grazing permits. 700.713 Section...PROCEDURES New Lands Grazing § 700.713 Tenure of grazing permits. (a) All...these regulations extending or limiting the tenure of grazing permits are applicable and...

2013-04-01

347

43 CFR 4130.2 - Grazing permits or leases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...designated in land use plans as available for livestock grazing. Permits and leases will specify...grazing permits or leases authorizing livestock grazing on the public lands and other...issued remain available for domestic livestock grazing; (2) The permittee or...

2012-10-01

348

Relative growth rates and the grazing optimization hypothesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical analysis of the changes in plant relative growth rates necessary to increase aboveground production following grazing was conducted. The equation derived gives an isoline where production of a grazed and ungrazed plant will be the same. The equation has four variables (mean shoot relative growth rate, change in relative growth rate after grazing, grazing intensity, and recovery time)

D. W. Hilbert; D. M. Swift; J. K. Detling; M. I. Dyer

1981-01-01

349

Increased concentration of water-soluble carbohydrate in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.): milk production from late-lactation dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in late lactation were used to investigate the potential of using perennial ryegrass with a high concentration of water- soluble carbohydrate (WSC) to increase the efficiency of milk production. After a pretreatment period on a common pasture, the cows were each given ad libitum access to one of two varieties of zero-grazed grass continuously for

L. A. Miller; J. M. Moorby; D. R. Davies; M. O. Humphreys; N. D. Scollan; J. C. MacRae; M. K. Theodorou

2001-01-01

350

An Evolutionary History of Browsing and Grazing Ungulates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Browsing (i.e., eating woody and non-woody dicotyledonous plants) and grazing (i.e., eating grass) are distinctively different\\u000a types of feeding behaviour among ungulates today. Ungulates with different diets have different morphologies (both craniodental\\u000a ones and in aspects of the digestive system) and physiologies, although some of these differences are merely related to body\\u000a size, as grazers are usually larger than browsers.

Christine Janis

351

Antimicrobial activity of nisin, reuterin, and the lactoperoxidase system on Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in cuajada, a semisolid dairy product manufactured in Spain.  

PubMed

The inhibitory activity of nisin (N), reuterin (R), and the lactoperoxidase system (LPS), added individually or in combination, against Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in "cuajada" (curdled milk), a semisolid dairy product manufactured in Spain. Cuajada was manufactured from UHT skim milk separately inoculated with L. monocytogenes and Staph. aureus, each at approximately 4 log cfu/mL, and held under conditions of temperature abuse (10 degrees C). On d 3, a synergistic bactericidal activity was observed for the combinations of biopreservatives assayed, with L. monocytogenes counts of only 0.30 log cfu/mL in cuajada made with N + R + LPS vs. 8.31 log cfu/mL in control cuajada. After 12 d, L. monocytogenes could not be detected in cuajada made with added N + LPS or N + R + LPS. Staphylococcus aureus was more resistant than L. monocytogenes to biopreservatives added individually. On d 3, the synergistic effect of the 3 biopreservatives against Staph. aureus resulted in counts of 3.03 log cfu/mL in cuajada made with N + R + LPS vs. 6.40 in control cuajada. After 12 d, Staph. aureus counts were 2.61 log cfu/mL in cuajada made with N + R + LPS, whereas they ranged from 6.11 to 7.70 log cfu/mL in control cuajada and in cuajada made with other combinations of biopreservatives. The most pronounced decrease in pathogen counts was achieved by the triple combination N + R + LPS, which acted synergistically on the inactivation of L. monocytogenes and Staph. aureus in cuajada over 12 d at 10 degrees C. The treatment combining these 3 natural biopreservatives at low concentrations, within the hurdle concept of food preservation, might be a useful tool to control the growth of pathogenic microorganisms in nonacidified dairy products. PMID:18096926

Arqués, J L; Rodríguez, E; Nuñez, M; Medina, M

2008-01-01

352

Response of organic and inorganic carbon and nitrogen to long-term grazing of the shortgrass steppe.  

PubMed

We investigated the influence of long-term (56 years) grazing on organic and inorganic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) contents of the plant-soil system (to 90 cm depth) in shortgrass steppe of northeastern Colorado. Grazing treatments included continuous season-long (May-October) grazing by yearling heifers at heavy (60-75% utilization) and light (20-35% utilization) stocking rates, and nongrazed exclosures. The heavy stocking rate resulted in a plant community that was dominated (75% of biomass production) by the C4 grass blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), whereas excluding livestock grazing increased the production of C3 grasses and prickly pear cactus (Opuntia polycantha). Soil organic C (SOC) and organic N were not significantly different between the light grazing and nongrazed treatments, whereas the heavy grazing treatment was 7.5 Mg ha(-1) higher in SOC than the nongrazed treatment. Lower ratios of net mineralized N to total organic N in both grazed compared to nongrazed treatments suggest that long-term grazing decreased the readily mineralizable fraction of soil organic matter. Heavy grazing affected soil inorganic C (SIC) more than the SOC. The heavy grazing treatment was 23.8 Mg ha(-1) higher in total soil C (0-90 cm) than the nongrazed treatment, with 68% (16.3 Mg ha(-1)) attributable to higher SIC, and 32% (7.5 Mg ha(-1)) to higher SOC. These results emphasize the importance in semiarid and arid ecosystems of including inorganic C in assessments of the mass and distribution of plant-soil C and in evaluations of the impacts of grazing management on C sequestration. PMID:15453402

Reeder, Jean D; Schuman, Gerald E; Morgan, Jack A; Lecain, Daniel R

2004-04-01

353

Dairy products and cancer.  

PubMed

Cancer is a group of more than 100 diseases in which cells display uncontrolled growth, invasion, and sometimes metastasis. Milk and dairy products contain micronutrients and several bioactive constituents that may influence cancer risk and progression. Much of the focus of human, population-based studies has been on the effects of intake of milk and total dairy products or of calcium intake. Based on a systematic review of the epidemiologic literature, the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research report concluded there was a probable association between milk intake and lower risk of colorectal cancer, a probable association between diets high in calcium and increased risk of prostate cancer, and limited evidence of an association between milk intake and lower risk of bladder cancer. For other cancers, the evidence was mixed or lacking. Since the 2007 report, several additional, large-cohort studies have been published, including two that show an inverse association between intake of cultured dairy products and bladder cancer. Little is known about the potential effect of various bioactives produced during rumen microbe metabolism on cancer risk. Furthermore, studies support a role of live microbes present in some dairy products in the modulation of the human gut microbial community and gut metabolism. Given the growing appreciation for the role of the gut microbial community in relation to immune function and health and disease, including cancer, the potential role of various dairy products in the modulation of the human gut microbiome warrants further evaluation. Key teaching points: As a dietary exposure, dairy products are a complex group of foods and composition varies by region, which makes evaluation of their association with disease risk difficult. For most cancers, associations between cancer risk and intake of milk and dairy products have been examined only in a small number of cohort studies, and data are inconsistent or lacking. Meta-analyses of cohort data available to date support an inverse association between milk intake and risk of colorectal and bladder cancer and a positive association between diets high in calcium and risk of prostate cancer. Other constituents of dairy products, such as rumen-derived metabolites, have not been evaluated extensively for cancer-preventive properties. The influence of live microbes in fermented dairy products and certain cheeses on the human gut microbiome and immune function is a growing area of study. PMID:22081693

Lampe, Johanna W

2011-10-01

354

Restoration of the fire-grazing interaction in Artemisia filifolia shrubland  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Patterns of landscape heterogeneity are crucial to the maintenance of biodiversity in shrublands and grasslands, yet management practices in these ecosystems typically seek to homogenize landscapes. Furthermore, there is limited understanding of how the interaction of ecological processes, such as fire and grazing, affects patterns of heterogeneity at different spatial scales. We conducted research in Artemisia filifolia (Asteraceae) shrublands located in the southern Great Plains of North America to determine the effect of restoring the fire-grazing interaction on vegetation structure. Data were collected for 3years in replicated pastures grazed by cattle Bos taurus where the fire-grazing interaction had been restored (fire and grazing=treatment pastures) and in pastures that were grazed but remained unburned (grazing only, no fire=control pastures). The effect of the fire-grazing interaction on heterogeneity (variance) of vegetation structure was assessed at scales from 12??5m 2 to 609ha. Most measurements of vegetation structure within treatment pastures differed from control pastures for 1-3years after being burned but were thereafter similar to the values found in unburned control pastures. Treatment pastures were characterized by a lower amount of total heterogeneity and a lower amount of heterogeneity through time. Heterogeneity of vegetation structure tended to decrease as the scale of measurement increased in both treatment and control pastures. There was deviation from this trend, however, in the treatment pastures that exhibited much higher heterogeneity at the patch scale (mean patch size=202ha) of measurement, the scale at which patch fires were conducted. Synthesis and applications.Vegetation structure in A. filifolia shrublands of our study was readily altered by the fire-grazing interaction but also demonstrated substantial resilience to these effects. The fire-grazing interaction also changed the total amount of heterogeneity characterizing this system, the scale at which heterogeneity in this system was expressed and the amount of heterogeneity expressed through time. Land managers seeking to impose a shifting mosaic of heterogeneity on this vegetation type can do so by restoring the fire-grazing interaction with potential conservation benefits similar to what has been achieved in other ecosystems where historic cycles of disturbance and rest have been restored. ?? 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Ecology ?? 2011 British Ecological Society.

Winter, S. L.; Fuhlendorf, S. D.; Goad, C. L.; Davis, C. A.; Hickman, K. R.; Leslie, Jr, D. M.

2012-01-01

355

Influence of dry period length on reproductive performance and productivity of Lacaune dairy sheep under an intensive management system.  

PubMed

Intensive management is almost the only way to ensure dairy farm profitability. The dry period length (DPL) is a key factor in the productivity and health of dairy cows, but whether the same is true of dairy sheep is unclear. This study investigated the effects of DPL on the performance of Lacaune sheep under intensive management. We recorded 8136 lactations from 4220 ewes on one farm for the period 2005-2010, and data from a total of 6762 complete lactations 1-4 were included in the study. The length of the dry period following the current lactation was studied. The larger the total milk yield (MY) and daily milk yield (DMY), the shorter was the DPL before the next lactation. DPL correlated with MY (r=-0·384), DMY (r=-0·277) and the lambing-to-conception interval (LC; r=0·201, P<0·0001) in the global analysis of all lactations (lactations 1-4). The influence of previous-DPL (P-DPL), or the length of the period prior to the start of the next lactation, was studied for 4318 lactations. P-DPL was classified into five intervals: very short (P-DPL-XS), 1-30 d; short (P-DPL-S), 31-60 d; medium (P-DPL-M), 61-90 d; long (P-DPL-L), 91-120 d; and very long (P-DPL-XL), >120 d. P-DPL positively correlated with lambing-to-next conception interval (LNC; r=0·095, P<0·0001) for lactations 1-4. LNC was significantly shorter for P-DPLs that were very short, short, or long (P-PDL-XS, 144·2±67·8 d; P-PDL-S, 149·1±57·2 d; P-PDL-L, 152·0±53·7 d) than for groups with very long or medium P-PDLs (P-DPL-XL, 161·5±62·9 d; P-DPL-M, 169·0±74·8 d; P<0·0001). Moreover, P-DPLs that were very short, long, or very long were associated with the lowest milk yields (P-PDL-XS, 377±215 l; P-PDL-l, 370±168 l; P-PDL-XL, 396±196 l). These yields were significantly lower than the yields for short and medium P-DPLs (P-DPL-S, 432±187 l; P-DPL-M, 436±191 l; P<0·0001) when averages of lactations 1-4 were analysed. These results indicate that lactations with larger MY are followed by a shorter dry period, and that a dry period of 30-90 d leads to larger yields in the next lactation. The best LNC was associated with the shortest Previous-DPL. Hence, 30-60 d should be the optimal dry period length for Lacaune sheep under intensive conditions. PMID:22850582

Hernandez, Fernando; Elvira, Laura; Gonzalez-Martin, Juan-Vicente; Astiz, Susana

2012-08-01

356

Acute heat stress brings down milk secretion in dairy cows by up-regulating the activity of the milk-borne negative feedback regulatory system  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to determine if acute heat stress (HS) decreases milk secretion by activating the milk-borne negative feedback system, as an emergency physiological response to prevent a life-threatening situation. To induce HS, summer acclimatized dairy cows were exposed to full sun under mid-summer Mediterranean conditions, with and without conventional cooling procedures. Results Exposure to HS induced a rapid and acute (within 24 h) reduction in milk yield in proportion to the heat load. This decrease was moderated by cooler night-time ambient temperature. The reduction in milk yield was associated with corresponding responses in plasminogen activator/plasminogen-plasmin activities, and with increased activity (concentration) of the (1–28) N-terminal fragment peptide that is released by plasmin from ?-casein (?-CN (1–28)). These metabolites constitute the regulatory negative feedback system. Previously, it has been shown that ?-CN (1–28) down-regulated milk secretion by blocking potassium channels on the apical aspects of the mammary epithelial cells. Conclusion Here we demonstrate that the potassium channels in mammary tissue became more susceptible to ?-CN (1–28) activity under HS. Thus, the present study highlighted two previously unreported features of this regulatory system: (i) that it modulates rapidly in response to stressor impact variations; and (ii) that the regulations of the mammary epithelial potassium channel sensitivity to the inhibitory effect of ?-CN (1–28) is part of the regulatory system.

Silanikove, Nissim; Shapiro, Fira; Shinder, Dima

2009-01-01

357

Short communication: Comparison of the newly developed DVE/OEB (2010) system and the National Research Council (2001) model in modeling metabolic characteristics of proteins in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

The truly absorbed protein in the small intestine/degraded protein balance (DVE/OEB)2010 system is a recently developed protein evaluation system for ruminants. The objective of this study was to compare the DVE/OEB2010 system with the National Research Council (2001) model in determining the metabolic characteristics of proteins in dairy cattle. The metabolic characteristics of proteins in bioethanol feedstock and their co-products were compared in terms of (1) truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein in the small intestine; (2) truly absorbed rumen undegraded feed protein in the small intestine; (3) endogenous protein in the digestive tract; (4) total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine; and (5) protein degraded balance. The DVE/OEB2010 system predicted 30% more truly absorbed rumen synthesized microbial protein in the small intestine, 4% more truly absorbed rumen undegraded feed protein in the small intestine, 64% more endogenous protein, 9% more total truly absorbed protein in the small intestine, but 27% less degraded protein balance. PMID:23810592

Gamage, I H; Yu, Peiqiang

2013-06-28

358

BACTERIAL POPULATION STRUCTURE OF DAIRY WASTEWATERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High intensity dairy farms produce large amounts of liquid waste that is stored in waste water holding lagoons. The use of circulators to treat waste water is becoming common, and vendors claim that these systems reduce odors, pathogen levels, and alter the chemistry of the waste water such that it ...

359

Treatment of dairy wastewater by water hyacinth.  

PubMed

The present study addresses potential of water hyacinth for treating small-scale dairy wastewater to satisfy effluent standards for disposal into public sewers. The batch experiments were conducted on dairy wastewater using reactor with water hyacinth and without water hyacinth. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) was varied from 507 mg/L to 4,672 mg/L and the maximum Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) adopted was 8 days. The loss of water due to evapo-transpiration and evaporation was also measured. The water hyacinth system performed better when initial COD concentration was maintained less than 1,672 mg/L for six days HRT. The performance of water hyacinth system was more effective than reference by 30% to 45% for COD removal. However, water hyacinth had no significant impact in reducing Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). The evapo-transpiration loss was almost double than the evaporation loss. The first order reaction kinetics was applicable and reaction rate parameters were estimated for various organic strengths of wastewater. The reaction rate parameters for water hyacinth system were three times higher than a system without water hyacinth and also found to vary with initial COD values. Water hyacinth can be adopted to treat dairy wastewater from small-scale dairy effectively for disposal into public sewers. PMID:19237765

Munavalli, G R; Saler, P S

2009-01-01

360

Graze and Merge: The Formation of the Haumea Collisional Family  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kuiper belt object Haumea (2003 EL61) is one of the most interesting objects in the solar system: 1) it is large but has a fast spin period of around 4 hours; 2) it appears to be closely associated with many other smaller Kuiper belt objects both spectroscopically and dynamically; 3) the small bodies associated with Haumea have very low relative velocity. If Haumea and its associated bodies were formed in a collision (Brown et al. 2007), they are different from collisional families found in the asteroid belt. Asteroid belt families, which are thought to have formed via catastrophically disruptive collisions, tend to have velocity dispersions close to the escape speed, but the velocity dispersion of the proposed Haumea family members is far less than the escape speed from Haumea. However, using numerical simulations, we find that a system with characteristics similar to Haumea can be produced via a new category of family formation: "graze and merge". In a graze and merge impact, the projectile and target initially graze each other with a large impact parameter. The projectile is decelerated and subsequently recollides and merges with the target, producing a fast spinning oblate body. Depending on the initial impact parameter, it is possible to create a primary body that spins so quickly that it sheds material from the ends in many small clumps. Some of this material is gravitationally bound and some escapes from the primary. In this scenario, the family members do not originate from the initial collision; instead, they are spun off after the formation of the primary. As a result, the relative velocity of the family members can be smaller than the escape velocity of the primary. We suggest that Haumea is the first collisional family observed that was produced by a graze and merge impact event.

Leinhardt, Zoe; Marcus, R. A.; Stewart, S. T.

2009-09-01

361

Results of a program to control phosphorus discharges from dairy operations in south-central Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1987–1992, a mandatory program to control phosphorus discharges was implemented at dairy operations located to the north of Lake Okeechobee, Florida, USA. Thirty of 48 dairies participated in this program and implemented best management practices (BMPs), which included the construction of intensive animal waste management systems. Eighteen dairies closed their milkproducing operations under a government-funded buyout program. In this

Karl E. Havens; Eric G. Flaig; R. Thomas James; Sergio Lostal; Dera Muszick

1996-01-01

362

Results of a program to control phosphorus discharges from dairy operations in south-central Florida, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

During 1987 1992, a mandatory program to control phosphorus discharges was implemented at dairy operations located to the north of Lake Okeechobee, Florida, USA. Thirty of 48 dairies participated in this program and implemented best management practices (BMPs), which included the construction of intensive animal waste management systems. Eighteen dairies closed their milkproducing operations under a government-funded buyout program. In

Karl E. Havens; Eric G. Flaig; R. Thomas James; Sergio Lostal; Dera Muszick

1996-01-01

363

Freeze concentration of dairy products Phase 2. Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An efficient, electrically driven freeze concentration system offers potential for substantially increasing electricity demand while providing the mature dairy industry with new products for domestic and export markets together with enhanced production ef...

D. E. Best K. C. Vasavada

1993-01-01

364

Investigation of the vitamins A and E and beta-carotene content in milk from UK organic and conventional dairy farms.  

PubMed

During a 12-month longitudinal study, bulk-tank milk was collected from organic (n=17) and conventional (n=19) dairy farms in the UK. Milk samples were analysed for vitamin A (retinol), vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) and beta-carotene content. The farming system type, herd production level and nutritional factors affecting the milk fat vitamin content were investigated by use of mixed model analyses. Conventionally produced milk fat had a higher mean content of vitamin A than organically produced milk fat, although there were no significant differences in the vitamin E or beta-carotene contents between the two types of milk fat. Apart from farming system, other key factors that affected milk fat vitamin content were season, herd yield and concentrate feeding level. Milk vitamin content increased in the summer months and in association with increased concentrate feeding, whilst higher-yielding herds had a lower milk vitamin E and beta-carotene content. Thus, conventional dairy farms in the UK produced milk with a higher vitamin A content, possibly owing to increased vitamin A supplementation in concentrate feeds. However, knowledge of the effects of season, access to fresh grazing or specific silage types and herd production level may also be used by all producers and processors to enhance the vitamin content in milk. PMID:17922933

Ellis, Kathryn A; Monteiro, Ana; Innocent, Giles T; Grove-White, Dai; Cripps, Peter; McLean, W Graham; Howard, C Vyvyan; Mihm, Monika

2007-10-09

365

Cooling dairy cattle by a combination of sprinkling and forced ventilation and its implementation in the shelter system.  

PubMed

A method for cooling dairy cattle based on repeated wetting to attain maximal water trapping in the coat, followed by its rapid evaporation by using forced ventilation has been examined. Effects examined include duration of wetting, duration of cooling, and density of the animals in the holding area. The coat was wetted by inverted static sprinklers. Also examined was the extent to which the diurnal increase in rectal temperature can be prevented. The maximal decrement of temperature was attained at 30 min after cessation of cooling in all trials. Wetting the coat for 10 s was less effective than for 20 or 30 s; the latter did not differ in their effects. Cooling animals for 15, 30, and 45 min produced decrements in temperature of .6, .7, and 1.0 degrees C, respectively. Maintaining animals at a density of 1.9 m2/cow in the holding area reduced to about half the decrement as compared with a density of 3.5 m2/cow. When cows were cooled 5 times per day for 30 min, temperatures were maintained within 38.2 to 38.9 degrees C during the day, which were significantly lower than for those not cooled. PMID:3558927

Flamenbaum, I; Wolfenson, D; Mamen, M; Berman, A

1986-12-01

366

Evaluation of on-farm methods for testing the human–animal relationship in dairy herds with cubicle loose housing systems—test–retest and inter-observer reliability and consistency to familiarity of test person  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human–animal relationship is an important factor when considering animal welfare at herd level. In the present study, two behavioural tests for the on-farm assessment of the human–animal relationship at herd level of dairy cows housed in loose housing cubicle systems were evaluated with respect to inter-observer reliability, test–retest reliability, effect of familiarity of test person as well as inter-correlation

T Rousing; S Waiblinger

2004-01-01

367

Housing, Feeding and Management of Calves and Replacement Heifers in Swedish Dairy Herds  

PubMed Central

A questionnaire was sent to 1500 randomly selected dairy herds in Sweden, asking for general information about the herds, including routines from birth to first calving and also routines at breeding, calving and during the grazing period. Fifty-eight percent of the questionnaires were returned. The preweaned calves were kept in individual calf pens in 68% and in group housing systems in 28% of the herds. Pens with slatted floors were the main housing system for replacement heifers from weaning to breeding, and tie stalls from breeding to first calving. Whole milk was used in 44% and milk replacements in 42% of the herds. The calves received, as a median, 2.5 litres of milk per meal and 2 meals per day. The median age at weaning was 8 weeks. Age was the single most common criteria used for deciding both weaning and breeding time. The median age when the heifers were first turned out to pasture was 6 months. Prophylactic anthelmintic treatment was used by 65% of the herds. The most common diet for replacement heifers before calving was a combination of grain, hay and silage.

Pettersson, K; Svensson, C; Liberg, P

2001-01-01

368

Grazing incidence telescopes for x-ray astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With grazing incidence telescopes, x-ray astronomy became a major branch of astrophysics. They are an indispensable tool in the study of >106 K thermal and non-thermal high energy phenomena occurring in objects from the solar system to the most distant sites in the universe. They have shed light upon dark matter and dark energy. Four cosmic missions with focusing grazing incidence x-ray telescopes based upon the Wolter 1 geometry are currently in space. They include two observatory class facilities launched in 1999, NASA's high resolution x-ray and ESA's high throughput XMM-Newton. Two others are Japan's Suzaku, performing a variety of studies, and the Swift XRT, which finds precise positions for the x-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. Four new cosmic missions with Wolter-like focusing telescopes are scheduled for launch. They will provide much broader bandwidth (NuSTAR and Astro-H), perform a new sky survey with more exposure time and a broader energy range than previous surveys (eROSITA), have an imaging detector with much better energy resolution (Astro-H), and measure polarization (GEMS). The Kirkpatrick-Baez and the lobster-eye are two types of potentially useful grazing incidence telescopes that have not yet been in orbit. It may not be possible to improve upon Chandra's 0.5 arcsec resolution without new technology.

Gorenstein, Paul

2012-01-01

369

Test-retest repeatability of the National Animal Health monitoring system dairy heifer health report in New York and Pennsylvania, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

We did a test-retest study on 21 farms to assess the repeatability of the Dairy Heifer Health Report of the National Dairy Heifer Evaluation Project. The median retest interval was 42 days (range 14–63 days), retest interviewers were blinded as to responses on the first visits, and all date-specific questions were anchored to the dates of the first tests. The

H. N. Erb; A. J. Heinrichs; R. E. Woods; W. M. Sischo

1996-01-01

370

Effects of willow ( Salix) versus poplar ( Populus) supplementation on the reproductive performance of ewes grazing low quality drought pasture during mating  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 87 days grazing experiment, in the late summer\\/autumn of 2002 in Masterton (New Zealand), compared the effects of willow (Salix) versus poplar (Populus) supplementation (1.3kg fresh\\/ewe\\/day), during mating, on reproductive performance and wool production in ewes grazing low quality drought pasture. A rotational grazing system with 285 mixed age Romney ewes (55.2±0.54kg) was used, with 95 ewes per treatment

E. L. McWilliam; T. N. Barry; N. Lopez-Villalobos; P. N. Cameron; P. D. Kemp

2005-01-01

371

Comparison of an early and normal weaning management system on cow and calf performance while grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

: Sixty-two Angus x Beefmaster, spring-calving cows (yr 1) or first-calf heifers (yr 2 and 3) and their calves were used in a completely randomized design with a one-way treatment structure. Cow and calf pairs were randomly assigned to one of two management systems: 1) an early weaning system (EW)...

372

Water quality and the grazing animal.  

PubMed

Grazing animals and pasture production can affect water quality both positively and negatively. Good management practices for forage production protect the soil surface from erosion compared with conventionally produced crops. Grazing animals and pasture production can negatively affect water quality through erosion and sediment transport into surface waters, through nutrients from urine and feces dropped by the animals and fertility practices associated with production of high-quality pasture, and through pathogens from the wastes. Erosion and sediment transport is primarily associated with high-density stocking and/or poor forage stands. The two nutrients of primary concern relating to animal production are N and P. Nitrogen is of concern because high concentrations in drinking water in the NO(3) form cause methemoglobinemia (blue baby disease), whereas other forms of N (primarily nitrite, NO(2)) are considered to be potentially carcinogenic. Phosphorus in the PO(4) form is of concern because it causes eutrophication of surface water bodies. The effect of grazing animals on soil and water quality must be evaluated at both the field and watershed scales. Such evaluation must account for both direct input of animal wastes from the grazing animal and also applications of inorganic fertilizers to produce quality pastures. Watershed-scale studies have primarily used the approach of nutrient loadings per land area and nutrient removals as livestock harvests. A number of studies have measured nutrient loads in surface runoff from grazed land and compared loads with other land uses, including row crop agriculture and forestry. Concentrations in discharge have been regressed against standard grazing animal units per land area. Watersheds with concentrated livestock populations have been shown to discharge as much as 5 to 10 times more nutrients than watersheds in cropland or forestry. The other major water quality concern with grazing animals is pathogens, which may move from the wastes into surface water bodies or ground water. Major surface water quality problems associated with pathogens have been associated with grazing animals, particularly when they are not fenced out from streams and farm ponds. This paper presents an overview of water quality issues relating to grazing animals. PMID:15471806

Hubbard, R K; Newton, G L; Hill, G M

2004-01-01

373

Dairy Policies in Japan.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Border measures-tariffs and tariff-rate quotas (TRQs)-provide high levels of support to Japan's producers of milk for manufacturing purposes and keep consumer prices for dairy products in Japan high by world standards. Since drinking milk is not easily tr...

K. Obara J. Dyck J. Stout

2005-01-01

374

The dynamic North Florida dairy farm model: A user-friendly computerized tool for increasing profits while minimizing N leaching under varying climatic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the computer implementation of the Dynamic North Florida Dairy farm model (DyNoFlo Dairy). The DyNoFlo Dairy is a decision support system that integrates nutrient budgeting, crop, and optimization models created to assess nitrogen (N) leaching from North Florida dairy farm systems and the economic impacts resulting from reducing it under different climatic conditions. The decision support system,

Victor E. Cabrera; Norman E. Breuer; Peter E. Hildebrand; David Letson

2005-01-01

375

Development and evaluation of equations in the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System to predict nitrogen excretion in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

Nitrogen excretion is of particular concern on dairy farms, not only because of its effects on water quality, but also because of the subsequent release of gases such as ammonia to the atmosphere. To manage N excretion, accurate estimates of urinary N (UN) and fecal N (FN) are needed. On commercial farms, directly measuring UN and FN is impractical, meaning that quantification must be based on predictions rather than measured data. The purpose of this study was to use a statistical approach to develop equations and evaluate the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System's (CNCPS) ability to predict N excretion in lactating dairy cows, and to compare CNCPS predictions to other equations in the literature. Urinary N was over-predicted by the CNCPS due to inconsistencies in N accounting within the model that partitioned more N to feces than urine, although predicted total N excretion was reasonable. Data to refine model predictions were compiled from published studies (n=32) that reported total collection N balance results. Considerable care was taken to ensure the data included in the development data set (n=104) accounted for >90% of the N intake (NI). Unaccounted N for the compiled data set was 1.47±4.60% (mean ± SD). The results showed that FN predictions could be improved by using a modification of a previously published equation: FN (g/d) = [[NI (g/kg of organic matter) × (1 - 0.842)] + 4.3 × organic matter intake (kg/d)] × 1.20, which, when evaluated against the compiled N balance data, had a squared coefficient of determination based on a mean study effect R(MP)(2) of 0.73, concurrent correlation coefficient (CCC) of 0.83 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 10.38 g/d. Urinary N is calculated in the CNCPS as the difference between NI and other N excretion and losses. Incorporating the more accurate FN prediction into the current CNCPS framework and correcting an internal calculation error considerably improved UN predictions (RMSE=12.73 g/d, R(MP)(2)=0.86, CCC=0.90). The changes to FN and UN translated into an improved prediction of total manure N excretion (RMSE=12.42 g/d, R(MP)(2)=0.96, CCC=0.97) and allows nutritionists and farm advisors to evaluate these factors during the ration formulation process. PMID:22459846

Higgs, R J; Chase, L E; Van Amburgh, M E

2012-04-01

376

Effects of an evaporative cooling system on plasma cortisol, IGF-I, and milk production in dairy cows in a tropical environment.  

PubMed

Access to an evaporative cooling system can increase production in dairy cows because of improved thermal comfort. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of ambient temperature on thermoregulation, plasma cortisol, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I), and productive status, and to determine the efficiency of an evaporative cooling system on physiological responses under different weather patterns. A total of 28 Holstein cows were divided into two groups, one with and the other without access to a cooling system with fans and mist in the free stall. The parameters were analyzed during morning (0700 hours) and afternoon milking (1430 hours) under five different weather patterns throughout the year (fall, winter, spring, dry summer, and rainy summer). Rectal temperature (RT), body surface temperature (BS), base of tail temperature (TT), and respiratory frequency (RF) were lower in the morning (P < 0.01). The cooling system did not affect RT, and both the groups had values below 38.56 over the year (P = 0.11). Cortisol and IGF-I may have been influenced by the seasons, in opposite ways. Cortisol concentrations were higher in winter (P < 0.05) and IGF-I was higher during spring-summer (P < 0.05). The air temperature and the temperature humidity index showed positive moderate correlations to RT, BS, TT, and RF (P < 0.001). The ambient temperature was found to have a positive correlation with the physiological variables, independent of the cooling system, but cooled animals exhibited higher milk production during spring and summer (P < 0.01). PMID:22580965

Titto, Cristiane Gonçalves; Negrão, João Alberto; Titto, Evaldo Antonio Lencioni; Canaes, Taissa de Souza; Titto, Rafael Martins; Pereira, Alfredo Manuel Franco

2012-05-14

377

7 CFR 1150.112 - Dairy products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Dairy products. 1150.112 Section 1150.112 Agriculture...and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions §...

2010-01-01

378

7 CFR 1150.112 - Dairy products.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture 9 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Dairy products. 1150.112 Section 1150.112 Agriculture...and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions §...

2009-01-01

379

78 FR 24229 - Renewal of Agency Information Collection for Grazing Permits  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Grazing Permit, Form 5522--Modification of Grazing Permit, Form 5-5523--Assignment of Grazing Permit, Form 5-5524--Application for Allocation of Grazing Privileges, Form 5-5528--Livestock Crossing Permit, and Form...

2013-04-24

380

25 CFR 161.400 - What are the criteria for reissuing grazing permits?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...are the criteria for reissuing grazing permits? (a) The Navajo...eligibility requirements for grazing allocations within 180...to receive permits to graze livestock: (1) Those who had grazing permits on Navajo...

2013-04-01

381

Grazing management effects on temperate grass growth – what, when, and how much makes a difference  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grazing management significantly impacts pasture productivity and persistence. We determined grass response to residue height when grazed at a vegetative or mature stage, and response to timing of grazing. Meadow fescue, orchardgrass, quackgrass, and reed canarygrass were rotationally grazed when ...

382

Effect of rumen-undegradable protein supplementation and fresh forage composition on nitrogen utilization of dairy ewes.  

PubMed

Previous trials with dairy ewes fed stored feeds indicate a positive effect of rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) supplementation on milk yield. However, dairy sheep production in the United States is primarily based on grazing mixed grass-legume pastures, which contain a high proportion of rumen-degradable protein. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of high-RUP protein supplementation and fresh forage composition on milk yield and N utilization of lactating dairy ewes fed in confinement or on pasture. In a cut-and-carry trial, 16 multiparous dairy ewes in mid-lactation were randomly assigned to 8 pens of 2 ewes each. Pens were randomly assigned 1 of 2 protein supplementation treatments, receiving either 0.0 or 0.3 kg of a high-RUP protein supplement (Soy Pass, LignoTech USA Inc., Rothschild, WI) per day. Within supplementation treatment, pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 forage treatments, which were applied in a 4×4 Latin square design for 10-d periods. Forage treatments included the following percentages of orchardgrass:alfalfa dry matter: 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0. No interactions were observed between supplement and forage treatments. Supplementation with a high-RUP source tended to increase milk yield by 9%. Milk yield, milk protein yield, milk urea N, and urinary urea N excretion increased linearly with increased percentage of alfalfa. Milk N efficiency was greatest on the 100% orchardgrass diet. In a grazing trial, 12 multiparous dairy ewes in mid lactation were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 4 ewes each. Within group, 2 ewes were randomly assigned to receive either 0.0 or 0.3 kg of a high-RUP protein supplement (SoyPlus, West Central Cooperative, Ralston, IA) per day. Grazing treatments were arranged in a 3×3 Latin square design and applied to groups for 10-d periods. Ewes grazed paddocks that contained the following percentages of surface area of pure stands of orchardgrass:alfalfa: 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0. No interactions were found between supplement and forage treatments. Milk yield, milk protein yield, and milk urea N increased linearly with increased percentage of alfalfa in the paddock. In conclusion, supplementing with high-RUP protein tended to increase milk yield and increasing the proportion of alfalfa in the diet increased dry matter intake, milk yield, and protein yield of lactating dairy ewes fed or grazing fresh forage. PMID:21183052

Mikolayunas, C; Thomas, D L; Armentano, L E; Berger, Y M

2011-01-01

383

Physiological and behavioral reactions elicited by simulated and real-life visual and acoustic helicopter stimuli in dairy goats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Anecdotal reports and a few scientific publications suggest that flyovers of helicopters at low altitude may elicit fear-\\u000a or anxiety-related behavioral reactions in grazing feral and farm animals. We investigated the behavioral and physiological\\u000a stress reactions of five individually housed dairy goats to different acoustic and visual stimuli from helicopters and to\\u000a combinations of these stimuli under controlled environmental (indoor)

Franz Josef van der Staay; Martin Joosse; Henk van Dijk; Teun Schuurman; Jan van der Meulen

2011-01-01

384

An analysis of an early-warning system to reduce abortions in dairy cattle in Denmark incorporating both financial and epidemiologic aspects.  

PubMed

Emergency preparedness relies on the ability to detect patterns in rare incidents in an early stage of an outbreak in order to implement relevant actions. Early warning of an abortion storm as a result of infection with a notifiable disease, e.g. brucellosis, bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) or infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), is a significant surveillance tool. This study used data from 507 large Danish dairy herds. A modified two-stage method for detecting an unusual increase in the abortion incidence was applied to the data. An alarm was considered true if an abortion were detected in the month following the alarm month, otherwise false. The total number of abortions that could potentially be avoided if effective action were taken ranged from 769 (22.9%) to 10 (0.3%), as the number of abortions required to set the alarm increased from 1 to 6. The vast majority of abortions could, however, not be predicted, much less prevented, given this early-warning system. The false to true alarm ratio was reduced when the number of abortions that set the alarm increased. The financial scenarios evaluated demonstrated that the value of an abortion, the cost of responding to an alarm and the efficiency of the actions are important for decision making when reporting an alarm. The presented model can readily be extended to other disease problems and multiple-time periods. PMID:17169450

Carpenter, Tim E; Chrièl, Mariann; Greiner, Matthias

2006-12-13

385

Salmonellae, salmonellosis, and dairy foods: a review.  

PubMed

Salmonellae continue to be a major concern for the dairy industry because these bacteria have caused recent outbreaks of illness and have been isolated from various dairy products in the market place. Salmonellae are generally not heat resistant and normally grow at 35 to 37 degrees C, but they can grow at much lower temperatures, provided that the incubation time is suitably extended. To minimize problems, foods should be held at or below 2 to 5 degrees C at all times. Both conventional and rapid methods are available to isolate salmonellae from dairy foods and to identify the bacteria. Salmonellae behave differently in different kinds of cheese: they survived in ripening Cheddar cheese for up to 7 mo at 13 degrees C and for 10 mo at 7 degrees C; in coldpack cheese food for several weeks, depending on the pH and preservative used; and in Domiati cheese 13 to 36 d, depending on the manufacturing process used. When Mozzarella cheese was made, temperatures of stretching and molding (60 degrees C) killed all salmonellae present, but, in cottage cheese, survival of the pathogen depended on the cooking temperature of curd. Spray drying of skim milk killed substantial numbers of salmonellae, but some survivors remained. Butter readily supported growth of salmonellae at room temperature, and neither freezing nor refrigeration for brief periods eliminated salmonellae from butter. Use of appropriate hygienic procedures, e.g., Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point system, during processing should reduce the likelihood of salmonellosis outbreaks associated with dairy foods. PMID:1452840

el-Gazzar, F E; Marth, E H

1992-09-01

386

Freeze concentration of dairy products Phase 2. Final report  

SciTech Connect

An efficient, electrically driven freeze concentration system offers potential for substantially increasing electricity demand while providing the mature dairy industry with new products for domestic and export markets together with enhanced production efficiencies. Consumer tests indicate that dairy products manufactured from freeze-concentrated ingredients are either preferred or considered equivalent in quality to fresh milk-based products. Economic analyses indicate that this technology should be competitive with thermal evaporation processes on a commercial basis.

Best, D.E.; Vasavada, K.C.

1993-09-01

387

Managing Grazing of Riparian Areas in the Intermountain Region.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concern about livestock grazing in riparian habitats and its effect upon riparian-dependent resources has resulted in numberous controversies about the appropriate management approach. The document provides guidance for grazing of riparian areas in a ...

W. P. Clary B. F. Webster

1989-01-01

388

DO GRAZING CATTLE SEEK NUTRITIONALLY SUPERIOR PORTIONS OF PASTURES?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study evaluated the hypothesis that grazing cattle will most often frequent nutritionally superior portions of large pastures. Forage quantity/quality characteristics were mapped among three pastures and cattle grazing patterns subsequently tracked with GPS collars. Cattle preferred locations...

389

25 CFR 166.305 - When is grazing capacity determined?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 166.305 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.305 When is grazing capacity determined? Before we grant, modify, or...

2011-04-01

390

Biogenic production of dimethyl sulfide: Krill grazing  

SciTech Connect

Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), a dominant sulfur compound in sea water, is a possible precursor for cloud condensation nuclei in the atmosphere and may influence global climate. The primary source of DMS is phytoplankton, but the mechanisms remain uncertain, and concentrations of DMS in the ocean vary spatially and temporally. Laboratory studies suggest zooplankton grazing may be an important process leading to the formation of DMS in the ocean. This paper describes ocean studies which examine the suggestion that grazing by krill may be a significant source for DMS production in the antarctic coastal region. 11 refs., 2 figs.

Daly, K.L.; DiTullio, G.R. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States))

1993-01-01

391

Effects of anthropogenic fragmentation and livestock grazing on western riparian bird communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Deciduous vegetation along streams and rivers provides breeding habitat to more bird species than any other plant community in the West, yet many riparian areas are heavily grazed by cattle and surrounded by increasingly developed landscapes. The combination of cattle grazing and landscape alteration (habitat loss and fragmentation) are thought to be critical factors affecting the richness and composition of breeding bird communities. Here, we examine the influence of land use and cattle grazing on deciduous riparian bird communities across seven riparian systems in five western states: Montana, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon and California. These riparian systems are embedded in landscapes ranging from nearly pristine to almost completely agricultural. We conducted landscape analysis at two spatial scales: local landscapes (all land within 500 m of each survey location) and regional landscapes (all land within 5 km of each survey location). Despite the large differences among riparian systems, we found a number of consistent effects of landscape change and grazing. Of the 87 species with at least 15 detections on two or more rivers, 44 species were less common in grazed sites, in heavily settled or agricultural landscapes, or in areas with little deciduous riparian habitat. The Veery (Catharus fuscescens), Song Sparrow (Melospiza melodia), Red-naped Sapsucker (Sphyrapicus nuchalis), Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca), and American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) were all less common under at least three of these conditions. In contrast, 33 species were significantly more common in one or more of these conditions. Sites surrounded by greater deciduous habitat had higher overall avian abundance and 22 species had significantly higher individual abundances in areas with more deciduous habitat. Yet, areas with more agriculture at the regional scale also had higher total avian abundance, due in large part to greater abundance of European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris), American Robin (Turdus migratorius), Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater), and Black-billed Magpie (Pica pica), all species that use both agricultural and riparian areas. Grazing effects varied considerably among riparian systems, but avian abundance and richness were significantly lower at grazed survey locations. Fifteen species were significantly less abundant in grazed sites while only five species were more abundant therein. Management should focus on (1) preserving and enlarging deciduous habitats, (2) reducing cattle grazing in deciduous habitats, and (3) protecting the few relatively pristine landscapes surrounding large deciduous riparian areas in the West.

Tewksbury, J. J.; Black, A. E.; Nur, N.; Saab, V. A.; Logan, B. D.; Dobkin, D. S.

2002-01-01

392

Effects of Cattle Grazing on Diversity in Ephemeral Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cattle are usually thought of as a threat to biodiversity. In regions threatened by exotic species inva- sion and lacking native wild grazers, however, cattle may produce the type of disturbance that helps maintain diverse communities. Across 72 vernal pools, I examined the effect of different grazing treatments (ungrazed, continuously grazed, wet-season grazed and dry-season grazed) on vernal-pool plant and

JAYMEE T. MARTY

2005-01-01

393

Variability in Protist Grazing and Growth on Different Marine Synechococcus Isolates?  

PubMed Central

Grazing mortality of the marine phytoplankton Synechococcus is dominated by planktonic protists, yet rates of consumption and factors regulating grazer-Synechococcus interactions are poorly understood. One aspect of predator-prey interactions for which little is known are the mechanisms by which Synechococcus avoids or resists predation and, in turn, how this relates to the ability of Synechococcus to support growth of protist grazer populations. Grazing experiments conducted with the raptorial dinoflagellate Oxyrrhis marina and phylogenetically diverse Synechococcus isolates (strains WH8102, CC9605, CC9311, and CC9902) revealed marked differences in grazing rates—specifically that WH8102 was grazed at significantly lower rates than all other isolates. Additional experiments using the heterotrophic nanoflagellate Goniomonas pacifica and the filter-feeding tintinnid ciliate Eutintinnis sp. revealed that this pattern in grazing susceptibility among the isolates transcended feeding guilds and grazer taxon. Synechococcus cell size, elemental ratios, and motility were not able to explain differences in grazing rates, indicating that other features play a primary role in grazing resistance. Growth of heterotrophic protists was poorly coupled to prey ingestion and was influenced by the strain of Synechococcus being consumed. Although Synechococcus was generally a poor-quality food source, it tended to support higher growth and survival of G. pacifica and O. marina relative to Eutintinnis sp., indicating that suitability of Synechococcus varies among grazer taxa and may be a more suitable food source for the smaller protist grazers. This work has developed tractable model systems for further studies of grazer-Synechococcus interactions in marine microbial food webs.

Apple, Jude K.; Strom, Suzanne L.; Palenik, Brian; Brahamsha, Bianca

2011-01-01

394

EFFECTS OF GRAZING MANAGEMENT ON SEDIMENT AND PHOSPHORUS IN RUNOFF  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In spring 2001 (year 1) and 2002 (year 2), three blocks of five 0.4-ha paddocks were grazed by beef cows on hills at the Iowa State University Rhodes Research and Demonstration Farm to determine the effects of grazing treatment on nutrient and sediment loss from pastureland. Grazing management treat...

395

EFFECTS OF GRAZING MANAGEMENT ON SEDIMENT AND PHOSPHORUS RUNOFF  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In spring 2001, grazing treatments were initiated on pastures at the Iowa State University Rhodes Research Farm to determine the effects of grazing management on nutrient and sediment loss from pastureland. Treatments included an ungrazed control, summer hay harvest with winter stockpiled grazing, ...

396

36 CFR 293.7 - Grazing of livestock.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grazing of livestock. 293.7 Section 293.7 Parks, Forests...WILDERNESS-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.7 Grazing of livestock. (a) The grazing of livestock, where such use was established...

2013-07-01

397

LIVESTOCK AND VEGETATION RESPONSES TO ROTATIONAL GRAZING IN SHORTGRASS STEPPE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There is a paucity of information concerning animal and vegetation responses in shortgrass steppe to rotational grazing. We compared effects of time-controlled rotational grazing versus season-long continuous grazing, at the same moderate stocking rate (1.95 ha·AUM-1), on animal gains, and foliar an...

398

43 CFR 4710.5 - Closure to livestock grazing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-10-01 false Closure to livestock grazing. 4710.5 Section 4710...Considerations § 4710.5 Closure to livestock grazing. (a) If necessary...grazing use by all or a particular kind of livestock. (b) All public lands...

2012-10-01

399

7 CFR 760.305 - Eligible grazing losses.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...grazing losses. (a) A grazing loss due to drought is eligible for LFP only if the grazing...pastureland for the county, rated by the U.S. Drought Monitor as having a: (i) D2 (severe drought) intensity in any area of the...

2013-01-01

400

Technical note--a comparison of methods used to measure eating and ruminating activity in confined dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Detailed knowledge of chewing and rumination activities is critical to fully understand the dietary factors affecting normal rumen function. An automatic system for the digital recording of the jaw movements in free-ranging grazing cattle has been described, but its ability to measure chewing activity of cattle housed in confinement and fed total mixed rations has not yet been evaluated. The eating and ruminating behaviors of eight lactating dairy cows were recorded simultaneously by a wireless automatic system and by 5-min interval observation over 24-h periods. Results indicated that both methods agreed on identification of eating and ruminating bouts. Mean differences between methods for total time eating (8.7 min +/- 12.8) and ruminating (42.9 min +/- 12.0) were significantly different. The time recorded by observation in both eating and rumination was 3.6 and 10.3% higher compared with the automatic system. Differences indicate inaccuracies in the observational method itself. The automatic system may prove useful in further studies examining eating and rumination activities in cattle. PMID:12201531

Kononoff, P J; Lehman, H A; Heinrichs, A J

2002-07-01

401

The inclusion of a daisy plant ( Chrysanthemum coronarium) in dairy sheep diet. 1: Effect on milk and cheese fatty acid composition with particular reference to C18:2 cis-9, trans-11  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect on milk and cheese fatty acid composition of the inclusion of Chrysanthemum coronarium L., (Asteracea) into dairy sheep diet. Plots sown either with a binary mixture consisting of Lolium rigidum Gaudin and Medicago polymorpha (LM) or a ternary mixture including the above species and C. coronarium were (LMC) grazed by groups

A. Cabiddu; M. Addis; G. Pinna; S. Spada; M. Fiori; M. Sitzia; A. Pirisi; G. Piredda; G. Molle

2006-01-01

402

Impacts of changing water price and availability on irrigated dairy farms in northern Victoria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farming systems throughout the Murray-Darling Basin are under increasing scrutiny from the perspective of ecological sustainability of farm and catchment systems. In northern Victoria, the dairy industry is a major user of water, and contributes to the environmental issues. Changes in irrigation water price, availability and policy will invariably impact on the viability of dairy farming in this region, but

Christie K. M. Ho; Dan P. Armstrong; Peter T. Doyle; Bill Malcolm

2004-01-01

403

A MODELLING FRAMEWORK FOR GRAZING LIVESTOCK FARMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grazing livestock farms throughout Europe share a number of common biological and physical features. A working group within EUNITA has developed conceptual models to describe th ese features and to suggest the detail with which they might need to be simulated. The aim is to provide a common conceptual framework and to promote reuse of information. The application of the

Nick Hutchings

1997-01-01

404

The Gratifications of Grazing: Why Flippers Flip.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An exploratory study focused on usage patterns of television remote control devices (RCDs), examining how and why individuals use television RCDs to "graze." The study identified the gratifications obtained from RCD use and evaluated their relative importance in accounting for variations in RCD use. Subjects were 455 undergraduates in…

Walker, James R.; Bellamy, Robert V., Jr.

405

25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...only through inheritance or gift, and in each case Trustees must be appointed by the Tribal Courts to manage the permits and livestock of such minors until they become 18 years of age and can hold grazing permits in their own right. (c) No person...

2011-04-01

406

Delineating Grazing: Observations of Remote Control Use.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|States that contrary to previous reports of "grazing," most viewers only used their remote control devices (RCDs) once or twice every half hour. Claims that the dominant RCD operation was direct channel punching, as opposed to dial turning. Concludes that most RCD activity did not take place during a program, thus voiding industry concerns over…

Eastman, Susan Tyler; Newton, Gregory D.

1995-01-01

407

for Rural Dairy Farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

2 Abstract: The experiment was conducted to judge the feasibility of hydrogen peroxide as milk preservation. The experiment milk sample collected from Bangladesh Agricultural University Dairy Farm and were divided into seven portions. Six portions were preserved with 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05 and 0.06% HO . Th e 2 2 reaming portion was preserved without HO and considered as

B. K. Saha; M. Y. Ali; M. Chakraborty; Z. Islam; A. K. Hira

408

Production and reproduction of Fleckvieh, Brown Swiss, and 2 strains of Holstein-Friesian cows in a pasture-based, seasonal-calving dairy system.  

PubMed

The first objective of this study was to compare the productive and reproductive performance of Holstein-Friesian (CH HF), Fleckvieh (CH FV), and Brown Swiss (CH BS) cows of Swiss origin with New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (NZ HF) cows in pasture-based compact-calving systems; NZ HF cows were chosen as the reference population for such grazing systems. The second objective was to analyze the relationships within and between breeds regarding reproductive performance, milk yield, and body condition score (BCS) dynamics. On 15 commercial Swiss farms, NZ HF cows were paired with Swiss cows over 3 yr. Overall, the study involved 259 complete lactations from 134 cows: 131 from 58 NZ HF, 40 from 24 CH HF, 43 from 27 CH FV, and 45 from 25 CH BS cows. All production parameters were affected by cow breed. Milk and energy-corrected milk yield over 270 d of lactation differed by 1,000 kg between the 2 extreme groups; CH HF having the highest yield and CH BS the lowest. The NZ HF cows had the greatest milk fat and protein concentrations over the lactation and exhibited the highest lactation persistency. Body weight differed by 90 kg between extreme groups; NZ HF and CH BS being the lightest and CH HF and CH FV the heaviest. As a result, the 2 HF strains achieved the highest milk production efficiency (270-d energy-corrected milk/body weight(0.75)). Although less efficient at milk production, CH FV had a high 21-d submission rate (86%) and a high conception rate within 2 inseminations (89%), achieving high pregnancy rates within the first 3 and 6 wk of the breeding period (65 and 81%, respectively). Conversely, poorer reproductive performance was recorded for CH HF cows, with NZ HF and CH BS being intermediate. Both BCS at nadir and at 100 d postpartum had a positive effect on the 6-wk pregnancy rate, even when breed was included in the model. The BCS at 100 d of lactation also positively affected first service conception rate. In conclusion, despite their high milk production efficiency, even in low-input systems, CH HF were not suited to pasture-based seasonal-calving production systems due to poor reproductive performance. On the contrary, CH FV fulfilled the compact-calving reproduction objectives and deserve further consideration in seasonal calving systems, despite their lower milk production potential. PMID:23769375

Piccand, V; Cutullic, E; Meier, S; Schori, F; Kunz, P L; Roche, J R; Thomet, P

2013-06-13

409

Effects of nitrogen deposition and cattle grazing on productivity, invasion impact, and soil microbial processes in a serpentine grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent decades, human activities have vastly increased the amount of biologically available nitrogen (N) in the biosphere. The resulting increase in N availability has broadly affected ecosystems through increased productivity, changes in species composition, altered nutrient cycles, and increases in invasion by exotic plant species, especially in systems that were historically low in N. California serpentine grasslands are N-limited ecosystems historically dominated by native species including several threatened and endangered plants and animals. Cattle grazing has emerged as the primary tool for controlling the impact of nitrophilic exotic grasses whose increased abundance has paralleled the regional traffic-derived increase in atmospheric N deposition. We examined the interactive effects of cattle grazing and N deposition on plant community composition, productivity, invasion resistance, and microbial processes in the Bay Area's largest serpentine grassland to determine the efficacy of current management strategies as well as the biogeochemical consequences of exotic species invasion. In the first two years of the study, aboveground net primary productivity decreased in response to grazing and increased in response to nitrogen addition. However, contrary to our hypotheses the change in productivity was not due to an increase in exotic species cover as there was little overall effect of grazing or N addition on species composition. Microbial activity was more responsive to grazing and N. Potential net N mineralization rates increased with N addition, but were not affected by grazing. In contrast, soil respiration rates were inhibited by grazing, but were not affected by N addition; suggesting strong carbon-limitation of soil microbial activity, particularly under grazing. Site differences in soil depth and grazing intensity were often more important than treatment effects. We suspect that the unusually dry conditions in the first two growing seasons inhibited the growth of exotic species and minimized the effects of cattle exclusion and N addition on species composition.

Pasari, J.; Hernandez, D.; Selmants, P. C.; Keck, D.

2010-12-01

410

Centralization of dairy farming facilities for improved economics and environmental quality.  

PubMed

In Japan, most farm animal excreta has been stored directly on farmland. Runoff from this storage has often caused water pollution. Biogasification is anticipated as an important technology to manage excreta properly, but complex problems hinder its introduction. Economic aspects of management have been especially difficult for dairy farmers. For this study, structural problems regarding introduction of biogasification into dairy farming were identified. Subsequently, a desirable system of dairy farming including biogasification was suggested, and an evaluation model of the financial balance was constructed. A case study using current financial balances of several systems of dairy farming was evaluated using the constructed model and actual data. The systems were based on several policy alternatives including the suggested system mentioned above. Results show that a farmer can obtain sufficient income from a system featuring centralization of dairy housing and biogasification facilities and coordinated management by over six farmers. PMID:18329262

Inaba, Rokuta; Furuichi, Tohru; Komatsu, Toshihiro; Tanikawa, Noboru; Ishii, Kazuei

2008-03-07

411

Using an on-line microdialysis/HPLC system for the simultaneous determination of melamine and cyanuric acid in non-dairy creamer.  

PubMed

The recent revelation of melamine (MEL) contamination in foodstuffs in China has rocked the international public health community. Many food categories have been involved in this scandal, including non-dairy creamer (NDC). In this study, we investigated the use of hollow-fiber microdialysis (MD) sampling coupled on-line with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as an alternative to sample pretreatment for the direct determination of MEL and its analogue cyanuric acid (CYA) in NDC. After MD sampling, the dialysate was injected on-line into the chromatographic system for analysis of MEL and CYA with UV detection at 203 nm. We monitored the effects of various parameters affecting the MD efficiency, namely the characteristics of the MD probe membrane, the flow-rate and the nature of the polarity modifier in the perfusion stream, and the addition of salt in the sample solution. The optimal enrichment efficiency for collecting MEL and CYA from aqueous NDC samples occurred with MD sampling using a hollow polysulfone MD fiber and MeOH as the perfusate at a flow rate of 10 ?L min(-1). The optimized chromatographic conditions involved using a reversed-phase phenyl column and a mobile phase of 5 mM phosphate buffer in 10% (v/v) MeOH, buffered at pH 6.5. Detection was linear in the concentration range from 0.02 to 5 ppm for MEL and from 2 to 100 ppm for CYA, with detection limits of 1 ppb for MEL and 30 ppb for CYA. The volume of perfusate required to extract MEL and CYA from the NDC solution was only 21 ?L. The total MD sampling time was 2.1 min. This method allows the sensitive, eco-friendly, and rapid determination of MEL and CYA in NDC-a risk food for economically motivated adulteration. PMID:21819860

Chao, Yu-Ying; Lee, Cheuch-Ting; Wei, Yu-Tzu; Kou, Hwang-Shang; Huang, Yeou-Lih

2011-06-23

412

Simulation of Long-Term Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in Grassland-Based Dairy Farming Systems to Evaluate Mitigation Strategies for Nutrient Losses  

PubMed Central

Many measures have been proposed to mitigate gaseous emissions and other nutrient losses from agroecosystems, which can have large detrimental effects for the quality of soils, water and air, and contribute to eutrophication and global warming. Due to complexities in farm management, biological interactions and emission measurements, most experiments focus on analysis of short-term effects of isolated mitigation practices. Here we present a model that allows simulating long-term effects at the whole-farm level of combined measures related to grassland management, animal housing and manure handling after excretion, during storage and after field application. The model describes the dynamics of pools of organic carbon and nitrogen (N), and of inorganic N, as affected by farm management in grassland-based dairy systems. We assessed the long-term effects of delayed grass mowing, housing type (cubicle and sloping floor barns, resulting in production of slurry and solid cattle manure, respectively), manure additives, contrasting manure storage methods and irrigation after application of covered manure. Simulations demonstrated that individually applied practices often result in compensatory loss pathways. For instance, methods to reduce ammonia emissions during storage like roofing or covering of manure led to larger losses through ammonia volatilization, nitrate leaching or denitrification after application, unless extra measures like irrigation were used. A strategy of combined management practices of delayed mowing and fertilization with solid cattle manure that is treated with zeolite, stored under an impermeable sheet and irrigated after application was effective to increase soil carbon stocks, increase feed self-sufficiency and reduce losses by ammonia volatilization and soil N losses. Although long-term datasets (>25 years) of farm nutrient dynamics and loss flows are not available to validate the model, the model is firmly based on knowledge of processes and measured effects of individual practices, and allows the integrated exploration of effective emission mitigation strategies.

Shah, Ghulam Abbas; Groot, Jeroen C.J.; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Lantinga, Egbert A.

2013-01-01

413

Authenticity Assessment of Dairy Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authenticity of dairy products has become a focal point, attracting the attention of scientists, producers, consumers, and policymakers. Among many others, some of the practices not allowed in milk and milk products are the substitution of part of the fat or proteins, admixtures of milk of different species, additions of low-cost dairy products (mainly whey derivatives), or mislabeling of

Miguel Angel De La Fuente; Manuela Juárez

2005-01-01

414

Non-dairy probiotic products  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence documenting the beneficial health effects of probiotic microorganisms. Also, many studies have reported that the best matrices to deliver probiotic are dairy fermented products. However, recently several raw materials have been extensively investigated to determine if they are suitable substrates to produce novel non-dairy probiotic microorganisms, and it has been found that traditional fermented foods may contain

Yadira Rivera-Espinoza; Yoja Gallardo-Navarro

2010-01-01

415

CHEMISTRY OF HISPANIC DAIRY PRODUCTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The composition and interactions among proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates are responsible for the structure, flavor, and functionality of dairy foods. Hispanic-style cheeses and other dairy products are increasing in popularity in the U.S., prompting research into the chemical basis for their char...

416

Dairy value chain management in Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dairy sector is among the most fundamentally affected by post-communist transition and EU integration of Bulgaria. This paper presents the dairy chain management in the country at current present stage of development. First, it analyses the state and forms of dairy value chain management identifying the dominant and prospective models of dairy chain management. Second, it outlines the features,

Hrabrin Bachev

2011-01-01

417

A high dose of monensin does not reduce methane emissions of dairy cows offered pasture supplemented with grain.  

PubMed

The primary objective of our research was to determine the effect of a high dose of monensin supplementation on enteric CH(4) emissions of dairy cows offered a ryegrass pasture diet supplemented with grain. An additional objective was to evaluate effects on milk production and rumen function, because a commensurate improvement in milk production could lead to adoption of monensin as a profitable strategy for methane abatement. Two experiments were conducted (grazing and respiratory chambers) and in both experiments monensin (471 mg/d) was topdressed on 4 kg (dry matter)/d of rolled barley grain offered in a feed trough twice daily at milking times. In the grazing experiment, 50 Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 groups (control or monensin). Cows grazed together as a single herd on a predominantly ryegrass sward and received monensin over a 12-wk period, during which time measurements of milk production and body weight change were made. The SF(6) tracer technique was used to estimate methane production of 30 of the 50 cows (15 control cows and 15 monensin cows) for 3 consecutive days in wk 3, 5, 8, and 12 of treatment. Samples of rumen fluid were collected per fistula from 8 of the 50 cows (4 per diet) on 2 consecutive days in wk 3, 5, 8, and 12 of treatment and analyzed for volatile fatty acids and ammonia-N. In the metabolic chamber experiment, 10 pairs of lactating dairy cows (control and monensin) were used to determine the effects of monensin on methane emissions, dry matter intake, milk production, and body weight change over a 10-wk period. Methane emissions were measured by placing cows in respiration chambers for 2 d at wk 5 and 10 of treatment. Cows received fresh ryegrass pasture harvested daily. Monensin did not affect methane production in either the grazing experiment (g/d, g/kg of milk) or the chamber experiment (g/d, g/kg of dry matter intake, g/kg of milk). In both experiments, milk production did not increase with addition of monensin to the diet. Monensin had no effect on body weight changes in either experiment. Monensin did not affect volatile fatty acids or ammonia-N in rumen fluid, but the acetate to propionate ratio tended to decrease. Monensin did not improve milk production of grazing dairy cows and no effect on enteric methane emissions was observed, indicating that monensin cannot be promoted as a viable mitigation strategy for dairy cows grazing ryegrass pasture supplemented with grain. PMID:20965346

Grainger, C; Williams, R; Eckard, R J; Hannah, M C

2010-11-01

418

25 CFR 166.307 - Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze adjacent trust or non-trust rangelands not...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Section 166.307 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.307 Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze adjacent trust or...

2011-04-01

419

Identifying Host Sources of Fecal Pollution: Diversity of Escherichia coli in Confined Dairy and Swine Production Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR fingerprinting of Escherichia coli is one microbial source tracking approach for identifying the host source origin of fecal pollution in aquatic systems. The construction of robust known-source libraries is expensive and requires an informed sampling strategy. In many types of farming systems, waste is stored for several months before being released into the environment. In this

Zexun Lu; David Lapen; Andrew Scott; Angela Dang; Edward Topp

2005-01-01

420

Undernutrition in dairy ruminants and intervention options for coping with feed scarcity in smallholder production systems in Uganda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In Uganda, severe feed shortages are common during the dry seasons both in the pastoral and intensive ruminant feeding systems. Traditionally, farmers within the pastoral systems had adopted ways of coping with feed and water scarcity by migrating with their animals in search of pastures and water. However, this practice is becoming increasingly rare due to population pressures and

D. Mpairwe

421

Recapturing nutrients from dairy waste using biochar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biochar or biomass derived black carbon is known to be highly resistant to decomposition with half-life periods ranging from hundreds of years to millennia. It is also reported to enhance soil productivity due to high nutrient retention and favorable effects on soil pH, water retention capacity as well as microbial population. Brazilian Terra Preta soils have shown the potential of biochar for long-term carbon sequestration capacity and productivity of soil and many researchers have now focused on utilizing this phenomenon to create fertile, carbon-rich soils, called Terra Preta Nova. Although the highly adsorptive nature of biochar is well characterized, the potential for using biochar in environmental cleanup efforts is relatively unexplored. Dairy waste is a source of significant water pollution because it introduces excess nutrients such as phosphates and nitrates into the soil and water system. Since many soils have limited capacity to retain nitrate and phosphate, especially for long periods of time, the utility of dairy waste manure to enhance soil fertility and nutrient availability to plants is limited. Here, we present results from a project that we started to determine the potential of biochar to recover the excess nutrients from dairy flushed manure. In this initial study, a commercially available biochar amendment was ground and used in a batch sorption experiment with the dairy flushed manure from a local dairy in Merced, California. Four manure dilutions viz. 10, 25, 50 and 100%, and three shaking times, viz. 1, 12 and 24 hours were used for this study. We then calculated the amount of ammonia, nitrate and phosphate adsorbed by the biochar using differences in nutrient concentrations before and after the sorption experiment. Biochar showed significant capacity of adsorbing these nutrients, suggesting a potential for controlling the dairy pollution. The resulting enriched biochar can potentially act as a slow release fertilizer and enhance soil productivity as well as increasing the long-term carbon sequestration potential of soils. We are currently initiating further research to determine the desorption potenial of the biochar sorbed nutrients in soil.

Sarkhot, D.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Berhe, A. A.

2009-12-01

422

Mass transfer coefficients of ammonia for liquid dairy manure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Available data indicate that 75-80% of total nitrogen entering a dairy operation is lost as ammonia (NH3) via manure storage systems such as anaerobic lagoons. Direct measurement of NH3 emissions from manure holding systems can be complicated and expensive; however, process-based emission models can provide a cost-effective alternative for estimating NH3 emissions. The overall NH3 mass transfer coefficient (KOL) is an important component of any NH3 emission process-based model. Models relying purely on theoretically-derived mass transfer coefficients have not adequately predicted NH3 emissions from livestock manure, and these values are lacking in general for liquid dairy manure handling systems. To provide critically needed KOL data for dairy facilities, this study directly measured NH3 loss from dilute dairy manure slurries placed in a laboratory convective emission chamber to determine realistic NH3KOL values under conditions typically experienced in the Pacific Northwest. The KOL values increased as liquid temperature and air velocity increased and decreased as air temperature and total solids content increased, exhibiting an overall range of 1.41 × 10-6-3.73 × 10-6 m s-1. These values were then used to develop a non-linear empirical model of KOL for dilute dairy manure slurries (R2 = 0.83). The KOL exhibited sensitivity to the four model parameters considered in descending order: liquid manure temperature, ambient air temperature, wind or air velocity, and total solids concentration. The suite of KOL values applicable to liquid dairy manure and the establishment of an empirical model that yields accurate KOL estimates under a range of conditions for use in process-based models provide valuable tools for predicting NH3 emissions from dairy operations.

Vaddella, Venkata K.; Ndegwa, Pius M.; Ullman, Jeffrey L.; Jiang, Anping

2013-02-01

423

Sustainability, arid grasslands and grazing: New applications for technology  

SciTech Connect

The study of ecology is taking on increasing global importance as the value of well-functioning ecosystems to human well-being becomes better understood. However, the use of technological systems for the study of ecology lags behind the use of technologies in the study of other disciplines important to human well-being, such as medicine, chemistry and physics. The authors outline four different kinds of large-scale data needs required by land managers for the development of sustainable land use strategies, and which can be obtained with current or future technological systems. They then outline a hypothetical resource management scenario in which data on all those needs are collected using remote and in situ technologies, transmitted to a central location, analyzed, and then disseminated for regional use in maintaining sustainable grazing systems. They conclude by highlighting various data-collection systems and data-sharing networks already in operation.

Pregenzer, A.L.; Parmenter, R.; Passell, H.D.; Budge, T.; Vande Caste, J.

1999-12-08

424

Yeasts and their possible beneficial and negative effects on the quality of dairy products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review deals with yeasts and their potential use as starter cultures in dairy products as well as their role as spoilage organisms. The taxonomy of relevant yeasts is described, with emphasis on molecular techniques and simplified identification systems applicable to industry. Quantitative assessment of undesirable yeast contamination is discussed with regard to present requirements for quality assurance in dairies.

Mogens Jakobsen; Judy Narvhus

1996-01-01

425

Macroinvertebrates As Bioindicators of Water Pollution in Streams Draining Dairy Farming Catchments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Runoff from intensive dairy farming systems can impair the quality of catchment waters, with potential ecological and human health implications. A water quality study was carried out in three streams in a predominantly dairy farming region, with the aim of assessing the effects of diffused- and point-sourced inputs on a number of water quality parameters and benthic macroinvertebrates. the results

P. S. Hooda; M. Moynagh; I. F. Svoboda; A. Miller

2000-01-01

426

Stimulating entrepreneurship - The impact of a new way of organizing dairy farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Dutch Dairy Farming Academy (DFA) seeks to empower Dutch dairy farmers in a renewing knowledge system. The project was started in 2005 and funded from a combination of public and private sources. It is an ongoing activity that has recently received funding to continue up until 2010. The long-term goal is that it will fund itself from membership fees

Henri Holster; Laurens Klerkx; Boelie Elzen

2008-01-01

427

Influence of stage of maturity of grass silages on digestion processes in dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the introduction of a milk quota system in 1984 and the subsequent decrease of the number of dairy cows with some 25%, an increasing number of farms in the Netherlands has a surplus of grass and grass silage, which makes it interesting to increase the roughage proportion in the diet. However, roughage intake by dairy cows in early

M. W. Bosch

1991-01-01

428

Dairy Futures Information Homepage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Department of Agricultural And Applied Economics Professor T. Randall Fortenberry and Center for Dairy Research Scientist Brian Gould at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, this no-nonsense site is highlighted by its data files section, which contain, at this time, cash and futures data and graphs for the Basic Formula Price, butter, cheese, milk, and nonfat dry milk. Time series vary by commodity and are available in text and three spreadsheet formats. The site also contains other selected price data, and pointers to relevant web sites. Options data is forthcoming.

2005-11-30

429

AMS Dairy Market News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Agricultural Marketing Service of the US Department of Agriculture has made available (Adobe Acrobat [.pdf] format only) this weekly report, which is an indispensible resource for dairy market analysts. It tracks trends in the butter, cheese, fluid milk, nonfat dry milk, whey and casein markets, on a national and regional basis. Though certainly not aimed at the casual reader, this is probably the best place to keep current of market developments. Weekly, monthly, and annual pertinent statistical average tables (mostly prices) are also available.

1997-01-01

430

Darwin's theory for the grazing incidence geometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Darwin's dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction was studied in the case of grazing incidence geometry. It was shown that in such geometry the Darwin theory is not correct. In the two-beam case, the reflectivity of the specular reflection calculated by the original Darwin's theory was slightly different from that calculated by the well-known Fresnel formula. Furthermore, in the three-beam case,

W. Yashiro; Y. Ito; M. Takahasi; T. Takahashi

2001-01-01

431

Holographic cylindrical grating for cosmic X-ray and XUV spectroscopy in grazing incidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of the holographically prepared grating on a cylindrical surface has been developed, to be applicable in grazing incidence, in a convergent beam of light and in transmission in the objective mode for the design of X-ray and XUV spectrographic systems. The design parameters for a grating with minimum astigmatism for the entire wavelength range up to 0.050 micron

Mahipal Singh; Shyam Singh

1980-01-01

432

The effect of grazing management on livestock exposure to parasites via the faecal–oral route  

Microsoft Academic Search

In grazing systems, heterogeneous distributions of forage resources and faeces result in localised accumulations of nutrients and parasites (both macroparasites and microparasites), creating trade-offs between the costs of exposure to infestation or infection and the benefits of nutrient intake. Each contact between livestock and faeces in the environment is a potential parasite\\/pathogen transmission event. Thus, herbivores must make foraging decisions

L. A. Smith; G. Marion; D. L. Swain; P. C. L. White; M. R. Hutchings

2009-01-01

433

Zebra Mussel Invasion in a Large, Turbid River: Phytoplankton Response to Increased Grazing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the biomass of benthic bivalves can cause dramatic changes in total grazing pressure in aquatic systems, but few studies document ecosystem-level impacts of these changes. This study documents a massive decline in phytoplankton biomass con- current with the invasion of an exotic benthic bivalve, the zebra mussel ( Dreissena poly- morpha), and demonstrates that the zebra mussel actually

Nina F. Caraco; Jonathan J. Cole; Peter A. Raymond; David L. Strayer; Michael L. Pace; Stuart E. G. Findlay; David T. Fischer

1997-01-01

434

Transformations of the Chihuahuan Borderlands: grazing, fragmentation, and biodiversity conservation in desert grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmentalists, scientists, and land managers have long debated the role of ranching in landscape conservation with some contending that ranching represents the major threat to ecological systems, while others believe it is key to long-term conservation. We contrast the impacts of livestock grazing with those of the major alternative land use at this time, suburban and ex-urban development, on the

Charles G. Curtin; Nathan F. Sayre

2002-01-01

435

Grassland classification and evaluation of grazing capacity in Naqu Prefecture, Tibet Autonomous Region, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grassland animal husbandry is an important component of the regional economy in Naqu Prefecture of Tibet. A grassland survey was initiated to specify biological and socio?economic characteristics of animal husbandry. The information from the survey was used to classify grassland resources and to evaluate grazing capacity. Based on the China Grassland Classification System, the grasslands in Naqu Prefecture were classified

Wei Yaxing; Chen Quangong

2001-01-01

436

Creating Common Grazing Rights on Private Parcels: How new rules produce incentives for cooperative land management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Privatization of common lands shifts legal authority for land use decisions from communities to individual land owners. In so doing, privatization may undermine systems of rules regulating access to and use of common resources, such as grazing land among northern Kenya pastoralists. This study of privatization of pastoral land among the Samburu finds, however, that while individual land owners do

Carolyn K. Lesorogol

2009-01-01

437

Informal Institutions and Access to Grazing Resources: Practices and challenges among pastoralists of Eastern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rangeland resources in the pastoral and agropastoral system are facing new threats of numerous causes. The on-going scholarly and policy debate whether pastoralism, which entails communal use of grazing resources, has to be pursued as a livelihood or should somehow be altered needs to be supported with empirical evidence. Without taking either side of the debate, we rely on a

Fekadu Beyene

438

The Influence of Livestock Trampling under Intensive Rotation Grazing on Soil Hydrologic Characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Infiltration rate decreased significantly and sediment produc- tion increased significantly on a site with a silty clay surface soil devoid of vegetation following periodic trampling typical of inten- sive rotation grazing systems. The deleterious impact of livestock trampling generally increased as stocking rate increased. Damage was augmented when the soil was moist at the time of trampling. Thirty days

S. d. Warren; T. l. Thurow; W. h. Blackburn; N. e. Garza

439

A simulation- and optimisation-based decision support system for an uncertain supply chain in a dairy firm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supply Chain Management (SCM) refers to the problems where the decisions of supply, production and demand are integrated in a single framework. A typical supply chain faces uncertainty in terms of supply, production and demand. Therefore, SCM is largely about managing uncertainty and risks. This paper introduces a simulation- and optimisation-based decision support system that helps the scheduler in a

Weiqi Li; Fang Zhang; Ming Jiang

2008-01-01

440

Validating the accuracy of activity and rumination monitor data from dairy cows housed in a pasture-based automatic milking system.  

PubMed

Behavioral observations are important in detecting illness, injury, and reproductive status as well as performance of normal behaviors. However, conducting live observations in extensive systems, such as pasture-based dairies, can be difficult and time consuming. Activity monitors, such as those created for use with automatic milking systems (AMS), have been developed to automatically and remotely collect individual behavioral data. Each cow wears a collar transponder for identification by the AMS, which can collect data on individual activity and rumination. The first aim of this study was to examine whether cow activity levels as reported by the AMS activity monitor (ACT) are accurate compared with live observations and previously validated pedometers [IceQube (IQ), IceRobotics, Edinburgh, UK]. The second aim of the study was to determine if the AMS rumination monitors (RUM) provide an accurate account of time spent ruminating compared with live observations. Fifteen lactating Holstein cows with pasture access were fitted with ACT, RUM, and IQ. Continuous focal observations (0600-2000h) generated data on lying and active behaviors (standing and walking), as well as rumination. Activity recorded by live observation and IQ included walking and standing, whereas IQ steps measured cow movement (i.e., acceleration). Active behaviors were analyzed separately and in combination to ascertain exactly what behavioral components contributed to calculation of ACT "activity." Pearson correlations (rp) were computed between variables related to ACT, RUM, IQ, and live observations of behavior. A linear model was used to assess significance differences in the correlation coefficients of the 4 most relevant groups of variables. Significant but moderate correlations were found between ACT and observations of walking (rp=0.61), standing (rp=0.46), lying (rp=-0.57), and activity (rp=0.52), and between ACT and IQ steps (rp=0.75) and activity (rp=0.58) as well as between RUM and observations of rumination (rp=0.65). These data indicate that ACT and RUM do reflect cow walking and rumination, respectively, but not with a high degree of accuracy, and lying cannot be distinguished from standing. PMID:23958013

Elischer, M F; Arceo, M E; Karcher, E L; Siegford, J M

2013-08-16

441

Integrated and biological control of parasites in organic and conventional production systems.  

PubMed

Organic and other non-intensive animal production systems are of growing importance in several countries worldwide. In contrast to conventional farms, parasite control on organic farms is affected by several of the prescribed changes in management e.g. access to the outdoors in the summer and in most countries, a ban on preventive medication, including use of anti-parasiticides. Organic animal production relies heavily on grazing, and pasture or soil related parasites are thus of major importance. Several studies in northern temperate climate have indicated that outdoor production of pigs, primarily sows, and laying hens results in heavier and more prevalent helminth infections compared to conventional intensive production under indoor conditions. In organic dairy cattle, parasitic gastroenteritis in heifers may be more prevalent. In a short to medium term perspective, integrated control may combine grazing management with biological control using nematophagous micro-fungi, selected crops like tanniferous plants and on conventional farms, limited use of anti-parasiticides. At present, the non-chemotherapeutic control of pasture related infections is based mainly on grazing management strategies. Preventive strategies, where young, previously unexposed stock, are turned out on parasite-free pastures, can be used for grazing first season dairy heifers and in all-in-all-out poultry production. Evasive strategies aim at avoiding disease producing infections of a contaminated area by moving to a clean area and may be relevant for ruminants and pigs. In cattle, effective control of nematodes can be achieved by repeated moves of the herd or alternate grazing with other species. High stocking rates seem to be an important risk factor. In pig production, the effect of paddock rotation on parasite infections is largely unknown and studies are warranted. Control of nematodes by larvae-trapping fungi, or perhaps in the future by egg-destroying fungi, looks promising for ruminants and certain monogastric animals but delivery systems and practical dosing regimes integrated with grazing management have to be developed. In conclusion, good prospects are expected for acceptable parasite control without a heavy reliance on anti-parasiticides through integration of the above mentioned procedures but future studies are needed to confirm their efficacy under practical farming conditions. PMID:10456414

Thamsborg, S M; Roepstorff, A; Larsen, M

1999-08-01

442

Modeling dynamics of tundra plant communities on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia, in response to climate change and grazing pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the responses of the arctic tundra biome to a changing climate requires knowledge of the complex interactions among the climate, soils and biological system. This study investigates the individual and interaction effects of climate change and reindeer grazing across a variety of climate zones and soil texture types on tundra vegetation community dynamics using an arctic vegetation model that incorporates the reindeer diet, where grazing is a function of both foliar nitrogen concentration and reindeer forage preference. We found that grazing is important, in addition to the latitudinal climate gradient, in controlling tundra plant community composition, explaining about 13% of the total variance in model simulations for all arctic tundra subzones. The decrease in biomass of lichen, deciduous shrub and graminoid plant functional types caused by grazing is potentially dampened by climate warming. Moss biomass had a nonlinear response to increased grazing intensity, and such responses were stronger when warming was present. Our results suggest that evergreen shrubs may benefit from increased grazing intensity due to their low palatability, yet a growth rate sensitivity analysis suggests that changes in nutrient uptake rates may result in different shrub responses to grazing pressure. Heavy grazing caused plant communities to shift from shrub tundra toward moss, graminoid-dominated tundra in subzones C and D when evergreen shrub growth rates were decreased in the model. The response of moss, lichen and forbs to warming varied across the different subzones. Initial vegetation responses to climate change during transient warming are different from the long term equilibrium responses due to shifts in the controlling mechanisms (nutrient limitation versus competition) within tundra plant communities.

Yu, Q.; Epstein, H. E.; Walker, D. A.; Frost, G. V.; Forbes, B. C.

2011-10-01

443

BIOMASS AND NITROGEN RESPONSES TO GRAZING INTENSITY IN AN ALPINE MEADOW ON THE EASTERN TIBETAN PLATEAU  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to examine the seasonal dynamics of biomass and plant nitrogen (N) content under three grazing intensities (light grazing - LG: 1.2, moderate grazing - MG: 2.0, and heavy grazing - HG: 2.9 yaks ha-1) in representative alpine meadow on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. Differentiation in grazing intensity in the study area started since 1997 and has

Yongheng GAO; Peng LUO; Ning WU; Shaoliang YI; Huai CHEN

444

Willow establishment in relation to cattle grazing on an eastern Oregon stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural regeneration and growth of coyote willow exigua Nutt. ssp. and whiplash willow (S. Bemth. var. (Nutt.) Sudw.) were monitored from 1987 to 1993 on a low-elevation eastern Oregon stream degraded by more than a century of heavy livestock grazing. Treatments were no grazing, moderate spring grazing, moderate fall grazing, and continued heavy, season-long grazing by cattle. Fresh sediments depos-

Nancy L. Shawl

445

CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR THE REDUCTION OF MANURE-BORNE FECAL INDICATOR AND PATHOGENIC MICROORGANISMS FROM DAIRY CATTLE WASTEWATER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A unique constructed wetland system in Nebraska was designed for a small dairy cattle operation that lacked available land for a traditional treatment system. The ability of this constructed wetland system, located in southeast Nebraska, to reduce manure-borne microorganisms from dairy cattle wastew...

446

Effects of rotational and continuous grazing on herbage quality, feed intake and performance of sheep on a semi-arid grassland steppe.  

PubMed

Compared to continuous grazing (CG), rotational grazing (RG) increases herbage production and thereby the resilience of grasslands to intensive grazing. Results on feed intake and animal performance, however, are contradictory. Hence, the objective of the study was to determine the effects of RG and CG on herbage mass, digestibility of ingested organic matter (dOM), organic matter intake (OMI) and live weight gain (LWG) of sheep in the Inner Mongolian steppe, China. During June-September 2005-2008, two 2-ha plots were used for each grazing system. In RG, plots were divided into four 0.5-ha paddocks that were grazed for 10 days each at a moderate stocking rate. Instead, CG sheep grazed the whole plots throughout the entire grazing season. At the beginning of every month, dOM was estimated from faecal crude protein concentration. Faeces excretion was determined using titanium dioxide in six sheep per plot. The animals were weighed every month to determine their LWG. Across the years, herbage mass did not differ between systems (p = 0.820). However, dOM, OMI and LWG were lower in RG than in CG (p ? 0.005). Thus, our study showed that RG does not improve herbage growth, feed intake and performance of sheep and suggests that stocking rates rather than management system determine the ecological sustainability of pastoral livestock systems in semi-arid environments. PMID:23360214

Hao, Jun; Dickhoefer, Uta; Lin, Lijun; Müller, Katrin; Glindemann, Thomas; Schönbach, Philipp; Schiborra, Anne; Wang, Chengjie; Susenbeth, Andreas

2013-02-01

447

Seasonal grazing rates and food processing by tropical herbivorous fishes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seasonal variability in grazing rates and food-processing characters were assessed for three abundant fishes in a tropical rocky shore: the damselfish Stegastes fuscus, the parrotfish Sparisoma atomarium, and the surgeonfish Acanthurus bahianus. Significant diVerences were found in grazing rates among hour of day and seasons, and in food-processing characters among seasons for the three fishes. Grazing rates for S. atomarium

D. E. L. Ferreira; A. C. Peret; R. Coutinho

1998-01-01

448

Vegetation response to cattle grazing in the Ethiopian highlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of grazing cattle on vegetation was studied on a natural pasture during the rainy and dry seasons of 1995 in the Ethiopian highlands. The study used 0.01 ha plots, established on 0–4% and 4–8% slopes located close to each other at Debre Zeit research station, 50 km South of Addis Ababa. The grazing regimes were: light grazing stocked

E. J. Mwendera; M. A. Mohamed Saleem; Zerihun Woldu

1997-01-01

449

Impact of grazing regime on a Mongolian forest steppe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Question: What is the impact of grazing regime on plant species abundance, plant growth form, plant productivity and plant nutrient concentrations in a forest steppe?\\u000aLocation: Hustai National Park in the forest steppe region of Mongolia.\\u000aMethods: On the Stipa steppe we applied three different grazing regimes by using; (1) one type of exclosure which excluded grazing by large mammalian

Marja A. Staalduinen; Marinus J. A. Werger

2007-01-01

450

Short communication: effect of grazing on the concentrations of total sialic acid and hexose in bovine milk.  

PubMed

Sialic acid, which is located at the terminal end of glycoconjugates, is believed to have important biological functions. Its concentration in bovine milk varies depending on lactation stage and season. However, it remains unclear whether dietary factors, especially fresh forage, affect the total sialic acid concentration in milk. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of grazing on the concentrations of total sialic acid and hexose in bovine milk. Six healthy dairy cows were used in a crossover design (3 cows fed fresh forage and 3 cows fed grass silage) for 2 wk. Individual milk samples were collected at 2 consecutive milkings (morning and evening) at 0, 1, 3, 5, 8, 11, and 14 d of the experimental period, and 2 consecutive samples in each cow were combined on each sampling day in proportion of the morning and evening milk yields. No differences in body weight, milk yield, or milk composition were observed between the 2 groups during the experimental period. The hexose concentration in milk did not differ between these groups during the experimental period. Conversely, the total sialic acid concentration in the milk of each grazing cow significantly increased at 11 and 14 d of the experimental period compared with that at 0 d. In the grass silage group, the total sialic acid concentration at the end of the experimental period tended to be lower than that at 0 d, but the decrease was not significant. These results indicate that grazing management could have increased the concentration of sialoglycoconjugates in milk. This suggests that grazing may increase the biological function of milk because it is thought that sialic acid is significant in many ways. PMID:20855019

Asakuma, S; Ueda, Y; Akiyama, F; Uemura, Y; Miyaji, M; Nakamura, M; Murai, M; Urashima, T

2010-10-01

451

Sheep grazing as management tool in western European saltmarshes.  

PubMed

The effects of sheep grazing on plant community structure and diversity were studied in saltmarshes of the Mont-Saint-Michel bay. This study took place at two scales: (1) at the scale of the entire bay to explore the changes in plant community over a ten year period; and (2) locally with the use of experimental exclosure set up to mimic the abandonment of grazing. Moderate grazing generally enhanced plant richness and diversity, while the absence of grazing and overgrazing lead to a decrease in diversity and richness. The development of management strategies is becoming critical to preserve the diversity of saltmarshes functions. PMID:14558464

Bouchard, Virginie; Tessier, Marc; Digaire, Françoise; Vivier, Jean-Paul; Valery, Loïc; Gloaguen, Jean-Claude; Lefeuvre, Jean-Claude

2003-08-01

452