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Sample records for grazing pastures fertilized

  1. Effects of nitrogen fertilization on soil nutrient concentration and phosphatase activity and forage nutrient uptake from a grazed pasture system.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Sandra Leanne; Wood, Charles Wesley; Wood, Brenda Hall; Feng, Yucheng; Owsley, Walter Frank; Muntifering, Russell Brian

    2015-05-01

    Over a 3-year period, the effect of differing N-application regimes on soil extractable-P concentration, soil phosphatase activity, and forage P uptake in a P-enriched grazed-pasture system was investigated. In the fall of each year, six 0.28-ha plots were overseeded with triticale ( × Triticosecale rimpaui Wittm.) and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum) into a tall fescue (Lolium arundinacea)/bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) sod and assigned to 1 of 3 N-fertilizer treatments (n = 2): 100% of N recommendation in a split application (100N), 50% in a single application (50N), and 0% of N recommendation (0N) for triticale. Cattle commenced grazing the following spring and grazed until May. In the summer, plots were overseeded with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), fertilized at the same rates by reference to N recommendations for bermudagrass, and grazed by cattle until September. There were no effects of N fertilization on soil phosphatase activity, electrical conductivity, or concentrations of water-soluble P. Concentrations of extractable P decreased in plots receiving 50N, but increasing N fertilization to 100N resulted in no further reduction in extractable P. Forage biomass, foliar P concentrations, and forage P mass were not affected by N fertilization rates at the plant-community level, but responses were observed within individual forage species. Results are interpreted to mean that N fertilization at 50% of the agronomic recommendation for the grass component can increase forage P mass of specific forages and decrease soil extractable P, thus providing opportunity for decreasing P losses from grazed pasture. PMID:25728918

  2. Chronic copper poisoning in sheep grazing pastures fertilized with swine manure

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, L.A.; McGavin, H.D. )

    1991-01-01

    Several pregnant ewes developed an acute hemolytic crisis and died. Liver and kidney copper concentrations were high, confirming chronic copper poisoning as the cause of death. Feed and water samples that the affected ewes had been consuming did not contain excess copper. Because swine manure slurry had been applied to the pasture where the sheep had grazed, a copper analysis was conducted on soil and forage samples from this field. High copper concentrations were detected in the soil and forage samples from the slurry pasture. Most sheep producers are aware of the catastrophic consequences that result when feeds containing copper and insufficient amounts of molybdenum are fed to sheep. However, producers and veterinarians often are unaware of some of the subtle sources of copper. Most of the copper that is added to swine and poultry feeds as growth promotants passes through the gastrointestinal tract unabsorbed and remains in the waste material. Pastures that have copper-containing waste material, but no molybdenum applied, can produce the same fatal results as giving sheep feed supplemented with copper but containing no molybdenum.

  3. Short-term effects of grazing intensity and nitrogen fertilization on soil organic carbon pools under perennial grass pastures in the Southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture management can have important implications on the amounts and long-term stability of soil organic carbon (SOC). We investigated the short-term impacts of grazing intensity and nitrogen (N) fertilization levels on C dynamics into the various SOC pools in rotationally stocked ‘Tifton 85’ bermu...

  4. Managing Intensively Grazed Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage production during periods of summer drought can be increased by including additional species in the pasture mixture, especially if those species have desirable attributes such as improved water use efficiency or deep root systems. Conversion of plowed fields to pasture also has the potential ...

  5. Grazing management effects on pasture productivity – extent of grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    How does grazing using the “take half – leave half” rule actually affect annual pasture productivity? Is residue height a concern when mature grasses are mob grazed, a management alternative to grazing at a vegetative stage? A range of grazing management systems was implemented at the U.S. Dairy For...

  6. Pasture quality variation throughout the grazing season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is important for dairy producers and their nutritionists to have an idea of the nutritional quality of the pasture they are providing to their cows. This article uses data gathered from several on-going pasture research projects to demonstrate how pasture quality varies during the grazing season,...

  7. Nitrogen Isotopes as an Indicator of Long-Term N Cycling in a Grazed Temperate Pasture Receiving Different Rates of Superphosphate Fertilizer and Irrigation for ~50 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudge, P. L.; Schipper, L. A.; Ghani, A.; Baisden, W. T.; Dodd, M.

    2010-12-01

    Pastoral agriculture is the dominant land use in New Zealand and intensification (as a result of fertilizer inputs and in some areas irrigation) has led to increased nitrogen (N) losses to the wider environment. An indicator that could identify soils which are vulnerable to N loss would be useful for the development of management practices and regulations aimed at reducing unwanted N losses. The natural abundance of 15N relative to 14N (δ15N) in soils is one potential indicator. Most N cycle processes associated with N losses (e.g. nitrification, denitrification, and volatilisation) discriminate against 15N and therefore soil δ15N could provide an indication of cumulative N losses. In this study we measured δ15N in archived soils from two long-term field trials receiving different rates of superphosphate fertilizer and irrigation. Both trials were in mid-Canterbury, New Zealand and were grazed by sheep. The fertilizer trial began in 1952, and treatments used were the control (nilP), 376 kg superphosphate ha-1 y-1 (376PA) and a treatment where 376 kg superphosphate ha-1 y-1 was applied between 1952 and 1957, no fertilizer from 1958 to 1979 and then 250 kg superphosphate ha-1 y-1 from 1980 to 2009 (376-0-250PA). The irrigation trial was initiated in 1949 and ceased in 2002. The dryland treatment and treatments irrigated when soil moisture was 10% and 20% were used in this study. From 1958, soil samples (0-75 mm depth) were taken annually from each trial, air dried and archived. Soil samples at four year intervals were analysed for this study. Pasture production varied considerably between treatments, with higher rates of fertilizer and irrigation promoting greater pasture growth and therefore higher grazing intensities. Initially δ15N was about the same (3.3‰) in all treatments of both trials. δ15N in the 376PA treatment of the fertilizer trial increased gradually with time and by 2009 was 4.5‰. In the 376-0-250PA treatment, δ15N stayed constant until about

  8. DO GRAZING CATTLE SEEK NUTRITIONALLY SUPERIOR PORTIONS OF PASTURES?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that grazing cattle will most often frequent nutritionally superior portions of large pastures. Forage quantity/quality characteristics were mapped among three pastures and cattle grazing patterns subsequently tracked with GPS collars. Cattle preferred locations...

  9. Carbon budgets for an irrigated intensively grazed dairy pasture and an unirrigated winter-grazed pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, John E.; Laubach, Johannes; Barthel, Matti; Fraser, Anitra; Phillips, Rebecca L.

    2016-05-01

    Intensification of pastoral agriculture is occurring rapidly across New Zealand, including increasing use of irrigation and fertiliser application in some regions. While this enables greater gross primary production (GPP) and livestock grazing intensity, the consequences for the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) of the pastures are poorly known. Here, we determined the NECB over one year for an irrigated, fertilised and rotationally grazed dairy pasture and a neighbouring unirrigated, unfertilised, winter-grazed pasture. Primary terms in the NECB calculation were: net ecosystem production (NEP), biomass carbon removed by grazing cows and carbon (C) input from their excreta. Annual NEP was measured using the eddy-covariance method. Carbon removal was estimated with plate-meter measurements calibrated against biomass collections, pre- and post-grazing. Excreta deposition was calculated from animal feed intake. The intensively managed pasture gained C (NECB = 103 ± 42 g C m-2 yr-1) but would have been subject to a non-significant C loss if cattle excreta had not been returned to the pasture. The unirrigated pasture was C-neutral (NECB = -13 ± 23 g C m-2 yr-1). While annual GPP of the former was almost twice that of the latter (2679 vs. 1372 g C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration differed by only 68 % between the two pastures (2271 vs. 1352 g C m-2 yr-1). The ratio of GPP to the total annual water input of the irrigated pasture was 37 % greater than that of the unirrigated pasture, i.e. the former used the water input more efficiently than the latter to produce biomass. The NECB results agree qualitatively with those from many other eddy-covariance studies of grazed grasslands, but they seem to be at odds with long-term carbon-stock studies of other New Zealand pastures.

  10. Nitrous Oxide and Methane Emissions from Grazed Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of nitrous oxide and methane to the atmosphere from grazed pastures in the eastern U.S. is not well known. Small, vented chambers have been deployed periodically since May 2005 in a rotationally-grazed pasture in central Pennsylvania. Since locations in pastures where livestock uri...

  11. Improvement of natural pastures using liquid organic fertilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi; Gabedava, Giorgi; Abuladze, Paata

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays natural pastures remains the main source to supply livestock with fresh feed material in Georgia. Due to that common pasturelands are under continues grazing pressure and normally no measures are taken in order to improve pasture productivity and to protect soil from erosion. Unregulated stocking rate leads to overutilization of natural pastures causing reduction in productivity and soil fertility. It is especially evident in arid regions, where bare soil after removal of vegetation dries out and is subject to wind erosion. In many areas even with regulated stocking rate plant available soil nutrient pool is already diminished and vegetation cannot be recovered easily after grazing. Therefore it is essential to improve soil fertility, which provide adequate amount of nutrients to plants to regenerate. Ongoing study aims to compare effect of different types of organic fertilizers on natural pastures in combination with pasture rotation scheme in order to maintain soil fertility and prepare the basis for its gradual improvement. Initial results shows positive impact of liquid organic fertilizers which increased aboveground biomass production by 200-300 kg per hectare.

  12. Pasture growth and decomposition under continuous and rotational grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Past research has shown that grazing management can affect both pasture growth and litter decomposition. The objective of this study was to compare forage appearance (growth) and forage disappearance (decomposition) on both continuous and rotational grazed beef cattle pasture in Ohio. Data was colle...

  13. Pasture-scale measurement of methane emissions of grazing cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying methane emission of cattle grazing on southern Great Plains pastures using micrometeorology presents several challenges. Cattle are elevated, mobile point sources of methane, so that knowing their location in relation to atmospheric methane concentration measurements becomes critical. St...

  14. Conversion of Grazed Pastures to Energy Cane as a Biofuel Feedstock Alters Soil GHG Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in land use profoundly affect climate through variations in soil Greenhouse Gas (GHG) exchange. The need for alternative energies is accelerating land use change as marginal land or managed ecosystems are being converted to highly productive second-generation bioenergy crops such as energy cane (Saccharum spp. L). Although the deployment of energy cane is a promising strategy to meet global bioenergy industry demands, few studies have investigated soil GHG fluxes in these crops and sub-tropical low-intensity grazing pasture (bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum L., as forage for cattle, Bos taurus L.) with which they are competing for land. Here, we showed that soil N2O fluxes in bioenergy crops were higher (>250%) than those observed in pastures following fertilization when soil moisture and temperature were high. In the absence of recent fertilization, the N2O source strength in energy cane and pasture sites was similar. Under drier and cooler soil conditions, both pastures and bioenergy crops were weak sources of N2O even when energy cane plots were recently fertilized. Soils on grazed pastures were sources of CH4 during the wet season but became sinks under drier, colder conditions. Energy cane plantations were weak sources of CH4 over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. The heterotrophic component of soil respiration was larger (139-155%) in pastures than in energy cane crops, suggesting lower decomposition of SOC in bioenergy crops. In terms of global warming potential, grazed pastures were stronger (120-150%) soil GHG emitters than energy cane crops over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. Moreover, pastures became a substantial source of GHG emitters when including estimates of CH4 flux from cattle. Our results suggest that the conversion of pasture to energy cane will be beneficial in relation to GHGs emitted from soils and cattle. Improved understanding of land use impact on soil GHG dynamics will provide valuable information for decision makers debating

  15. Perennial Forage Kochia for Increased Production of Winter Grazed Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing forage kochia (Kochia prostrata) during fall/winter has improved livestock health and reduced winter feeding costs. The objectives of this study were to compare forage production/quality and livestock performance of traditional winter pastures versus pastures with forage kochia. Two kochia...

  16. Ruminal motility of stocker cattle grazed on winter wheat pasture.

    PubMed

    Horn, G W; Frost, D F

    1982-10-01

    A 2-yr study was conducted to determine whether bloat of stocker cattle grazing winter wheat pasture is a primary bloat or a secondary bloat as a result of reduced ruminal motility. Amplitude (mm Hg) and frequency of ruminal contractions (contractions/min) of steers were measured before and after the steers were placed on wheat pasture, and at about weekly intervals during the pasture grazing periods. Implantable pressure transducers and water-filled balloon cannulas were used to measure ruminal motility. During the first year, amplitude of contractions increased (P less than .005) during grazing of wheat pasture (i.e., 20.5 vs 6.7 and 21.6 vs 12.9, respectively, for steers with implanted pressure transducers and water-filled balloon cannulas). Frequency of ruminal contractions of steers on wheat pasture was not decreased (P greater than .05). In the second year, amplitudes of ruminal contractions of steers on wheat pasture ranged from 11.0 to 33.5, and were either similar or greater (P less than .05) than the mean for the pre- and post-wheat pasture period (16.5). Frequencies of ruminal contractions that ranged from 1.66 to 1.80 were observed on four dates during the pasture grazing period, and were decreased (P less than .05) as compared with the mean for the pre- and post-wheat pasture period (2.43). However, the reduced frequencies were not accompanied by reduced (P greater than .05) amplitude x frequency of contractions. The data indicate that ruminal motility is not decreased in stocker cattle grazing winter wheat pasture. PMID:7142058

  17. Milk production and enteric methane emissions by dairy cows grazing fertilized perennial ryegrass pasture with or without inclusion of white clover.

    PubMed

    Enriquez-Hidalgo, D; Gilliland, T; Deighton, M H; O'Donovan, M; Hennessy, D

    2014-03-01

    An experiment was undertaken to investigate the effect of white clover inclusion in grass swards (GWc) compared with grass-only (GO) swards receiving high nitrogen fertilization and subjected to frequent and tight grazing on herbage and dairy cow productivity and enteric methane (CH4) emissions. Thirty cows were allocated to graze either a GO or GWc sward (n=15) from April 17 to October 31, 2011. Fresh herbage [16 kg of dry matter (DM)/cow] and 1 kg of concentrate/cow were offered daily. Herbage DM intake (DMI) was estimated on 3 occasions (May, July, and September) during which 17 kg of DM/cow per day was offered (and concentrate supplementation was withdrawn). In September, an additional 5 cows were added to each sward treatment (n=20) and individual CH4 emissions were estimated using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) technique. Annual clover proportion (± SE) in the GWc swards was 0.20 ± 0.011. Swards had similar pregrazing herbage mass (1,800 ± 96 kg of DM/ha) and herbage production (13,110 ± 80 kg of DM/ha). The GWc swards tended to have lower DM and NDF contents but greater CP content than GO swards, but only significant differences were observed in the last part of the grazing season. Cows had similar milk and milk solids yields (19.4 ± 0.59 and 1.49 ± 0.049 kg/d, respectively) and similar milk composition. Cows also had similar DMI in the 3 measurement periods (16.0 ± 0.70 kg DM/cow per d). Similar sward and animal performance was observed during the CH4 estimation period, but GWc swards had 7.4% less NDF than GO swards. Cows had similar daily and per-unit-of-output CH4 emissions (357.1 ± 13.6g of CH4/cow per day, 26.3 ± 1.14 g of CH4/kg of milk, and 312.3 ± 11.5 g of CH4/kg of milk solids) but cows grazing GWc swards had 11.9% lower CH4 emissions per unit of feed intake than cows grazing GO swards due to the numerically lower CH4 per cow per day and a tendency for the GWc cows to have greater DMI compared with the GO cows. As a conclusion, under the

  18. The multi-year cumulative effects of alternative stocking rate and grazing management practices on pasture productivity and utilization efficiency.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, B; Delaby, L; Pierce, K M; McCarthy, J; Fleming, C; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2016-05-01

    The production and utilization of increased quantities of high quality pasture is of paramount importance in pasture-based milk production systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cumulative effects of alternative integrated grazing strategies, incorporating alternative stocking rate (SR) and grazing severities, on pasture productivity and grazing efficiency over multiple years within farm systems using perennial ryegrass dominant pastures. Three whole-farm SR treatments were compared over 4 complete grazing seasons (2009 to 2012 inclusive): low (2.51 cows/ha; LSR), medium (2.92 cows/ha; MSR), and high (3.28 cows/ha; HSR). Each system had its own farmlet containing 18 paddocks and remained on the same treatment for the duration of the study. Stocking rate had a significant effect on all grazing variables with the exception of soil fertility status and sward density. Increased SR resulted in increased total annual net pasture accumulation, improved sward nutritive value, and increased grazed pasture utilization. Total annual net pasture accumulation was greatest in HSR [15,410kg of dry matter (DM)/ha], intermediate for MSR (14,992kg of DM/ha), and least for LSR (14,479kg of DM/ha) during the 4-yr study period. A linear effect of SR on net pasture accumulation was detected with an increase in net pasture accumulation of 1,164.4 (SE=432.7) kg of DM/ha for each 1 cow/ha increase in SR. Pregrazing pasture mass and height and postgrazing residual pasture mass and height were greatest for LSR, intermediate for the MSR, and lowest for the HSR. In comparison with the LSR, the imposition of a consistently increased grazing severity coupled with increased whole farm SR in MSR and HSR treatments arrested the decline in sward nutritive value, typically observed during mid-season. Incorporating the individual beneficial effects of SR on pasture accumulation, nutritive value, and utilization efficiency, total proportional energy (unité fourragère lait

  19. EFFECTS OF FERTILIZER TYPE (CHICKEN LITTER VS. INORGANIC FERTILIZER) AND CATTLE GRAZING ON THE SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pasture plots included unharvested, hayed, light and heavy cattle grazing pressure, fertilized with either inorganic N-P-K or broiler litter. Total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) followed a seasonal trend and were higher in grazed plots than hayed & unharvested plots. Fungi a...

  20. Soil fertility management on natural pastures in Eastern Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi; Jolokhava, Tamar; Kenchiashvili, Naira; Tarkhnishvili, Maia

    2015-04-01

    The development of livestock production in Georgia is mainly based on productivity of natural common pasturelands as it is the cheapest way to keep animals. Therefore it is crucial to manage those pastures in order to supply domestic animals with adequate amount of green grass during whole grazing season. The problems associated with poor grassland management is especially evident under limited rainfall conditions. Usually farmers do not consider suitability of existing stocking rates with pasture productivity leading to overutilization of pastureland causing reduction of palatable plant species and total grass cover stimulating soil erosion processes, which deflates soil nutrients and soil organic matter. Intensification of negative processes may result in loss of soil fertility and poor grass regrowth capacities. Current study aims to evaluate existing grazing system on a selected plots from common pasturelands in Eastern Georgia and to develop a proper soil fertility management plan accepted in organic agriculture taking into account local soil-climatic conditions, pasture vegetation stand and its richness with palatable plant species.

  1. Management intensive grazing and continuous grazing of hill pasture by beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management Intensive Grazing (MIG) is an increasingly used practice that can offer producers many benefits including higher profit. The main objective of this study was to compare MIG and Continuous Grazing (CG)practices on pastures in Appalachian Ohio. The study was conducted at the North Appalac...

  2. Grazing management effects on pasture productivity – timing of grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    What is the potential impact of more frequent grazing during particular times of the year? A range of grazing management systems was implemented at the U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center at Prairie du Sac, Wisconsin, on 1.0 acre paddocks of meadow fescue, orchardgrass, quackgrass, and reed canarygras...

  3. Distribution of cattle grazing in a northeastern Oregon riparian pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock grazing of a northeastern Oregon riparian pasture was monitored using high-frequency GPS tracking of cattle and high-resolution aerial photography. Tracking collars recorded positions, velocity, date, and time at 1-sec intervals. Areas where animals rested and moved were identified and re...

  4. Growth performance, ruminal fermentation profiles, and carcass characteristics of beef steers grazing tall fescue without or with nitrogen fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-year grazing study was conducted to evaluate the effects of finishing beef cattle grazed on tall fescue (TF) pasture without or with N fertilization on growth performance, ruminal fermentation, and carcass characteristics. In each grazing season, 18 Angus crossbred steers were arranged based on...

  5. Grazing strategy to decrease crude protein wastage in stocker calves grazing winter wheat pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual cool-season grasses, primarily winter wheat, provide high quality forage for stocker calves during the fall, winter and spring grazing season in the southern Great Plains. The crude protein content of winter wheat pasture exceeds the stocker calf’s daily crude protein requirement by 100 to 12...

  6. Grazing Stategy To Decrease Dietary Crude Protien Wastage In Stocker Calves Grazing Winter Wheat Pasture.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual cool-season grasses, primarily winter wheat, provide high quality forage for stocker calves during the fall, winter and spring grazing seasons for stocker enterprises in the southern Great Plains. The crude protein (CP) content of winter wheat pasture exceeds the stocker calf’s daily CP requi...

  7. Effect of mineral supplementation on the performance by stocker cattle grazing winter wheat pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the efficacy of mineral supplementing stocker cattle grazing wheat pasture, 2 experiments were conducted. In Exp 1, 72 steer and heifer calves (avg BW = 228 kg) were randomly assigned to 12, 4.9-ha pastures on November 12 at 1.2 calves/ha (4 pastures), and February 5 at 2.5 calves/ha (8...

  8. Factors affecting pasture intake and total dry matter intake in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, O P; Smith, T R

    2000-10-01

    We investigated the most relevant variables for estimating pasture intake and total dry matter (DM) intake in grazing dairy cows using 27 previously published studies. Variables compared were pasture allowance, days in milk, amount of forage, amount of concentrate and total supplementation, pasture allowance and supplementation interaction, fat-corrected milk, body weight (BW), metabolic BW, daily change in BW, percentage of legumes in pasture, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents of pasture, and NDF in pasture selected. The variables were selected using stepwise regression analysis for total DM intake and pasture DM intake. Variables selected in the total DM intake regression equation (R2 = 0.95) were pasture allowance, total supplementation, interaction of pasture allowance and supplementation, fat-corrected milk, BW, daily change in BW, percentage of legumes and pasture NDF content. Pasture DM intake regression equation (R2 = 0.90) was similar to total DM intake equation, but supplementation coefficient was negative, showing substitution effect in supplementing grazing cows. The intake of NDF as a percentage of BW was higher than 1.3% when considering NDF content of the pasture allowance. Low pasture allowance groups had values higher than 1.3%. PMID:11049073

  9. Performance and Physiology of Steers Following Grazing of Toxic Tall Fescue as Influenced by Feeding Soybean Hulls on Pasture and Post-Graze Steroid Implantation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A grazing experiment was conducted for 2 yr using a pasture phase to evaluate effect of feeding soybean hulls (SBH) on weight gain by steers grazing toxic tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.)]. To evaluate carryover effects of feeding SBH on pasture and effect of post-graze steroid impla...

  10. Grazing alters the net C sink strength and the net global warming potential of a subtropical pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; DeLucia, E. H.; Boughton, E. H.; Keel, E.; Bernacchi, C.

    2014-12-01

    Grazing profoundly affects climate by altering the exchange of greenhouse gases (GHG; CO2 and CH4) between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Little is known about how this disturbance affects the GHG exchange from subtropical pastures although they account for a substantial portion of global grazing lands. Here, we investigated how cattle grazing affect net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and CH4 emissions in subtropical semi-native pasture using the eddy covariance technique. Soil moisture was greater under grazed than ungrazed pastures but soil temperature was similar between treatments. By removing aboveground biomass, grazing reduced gross primary productivity (GPP, 16%). While ungrazed pastures had higher GPP than grazed pastures, they also had higher ecosystem respiration (Re, 20%) along with higher heterotrophic respiration. As a result, annual sums of NEE were similar in grazed and ungrazed pastures and both systems were net sinks for CO2 (-86 ± 5 gC m-2 yr-1 in grazed pasture, and -76 ± 6 gC m-2 yr-1 in ungrazed pasture). Including C removal by grazers in the C budget, grazing reduced the C sink strength (250%) and grazed pasture became a net source of C to the atmosphere. Increased soil wetness and CH4 production from enteric ruminant fermentation enhanced net ecosystem CH4 emissions (16%) in grazed than in ungrazed pastures. The net global warming potential (GWP) was higher (34%) in grazed than in ungrazed pastures, but both systems were net sources of GHGs when accounting for the radiative forcing of CH4. Our results suggest that grazing reduces the net C sink strength and increases the net GWP of subtropical pastures. Improved understanding of how grazing affects ecosystem GHG fluxes is essential to predicting the role of pastures on the global C cycle.

  11. Nutritional management to optimize fertility of dairy cows in pasture-based systems.

    PubMed

    Butler, S T

    2014-05-01

    The efficiency of milk production in pasture-based systems is heavily influenced by calving pattern, necessitating excellent reproductive performance in a short-breeding season. Where grazed pasture is the major component of the diet, cows are underfed relative to their intake potential. The cow responds by reducing milk output, but fertility is generally better than high intake confinement systems that achieve greater milk production per cow. A number of studies have identified body condition score (BCS) measurements that are related to likelihood of both submission and conception. Blood metabolites and metabolic hormones linked to fertility outcomes are now well characterized. In general, fertility variables have favourable associations with circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin and IGF-1 and unfavourable associations with non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate and endogenous growth hormone. Nutritional strategies to impact these metabolic indicators have been utilized, but effects on herd fertility are inconsistent. Simply supplementing cows with additional energy in the form of standard concentrates does not appear to have a pronounced effect on fertility. Energy from additional concentrates fed during lactation is preferentially partitioned towards extra milk production rather than BCS repletion. The higher the genetic merit for milk production, the greater the partitioning of additional nutrients to the mammary gland. This review outlines the unique nutritional challenges of pasture-based systems, the role of specific metabolic hormones and metabolites in regulating reproductive function, and nutritional strategies to improve herd fertility. PMID:24844127

  12. Grazing management effects on sediment, phosphorus, and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erosion and precipitation runoff from pastures may lead to degradation of surface water. A two-year grazing study was conducted to quantify effects of grazing management on sediment, phosphorus (P), and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures. Six adjoining 12.1-ha pastures bisecte...

  13. High intensity, short duration rotational grazing on reclaimed cool season tall fescue/legume pastures: II. Forage production, soil and plant tissue comparisons between grazed and ungrazed pastures

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, K.E.; Erickson, W.R.; Bonine, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Midway Mine is located 50 miles south of Kansas City, Kansas straddling the border of Kansas and Missouri. The Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Co. mined the area until 1989, when the mine was closed and reclaimed. Approximately 3,750 acres were topsoiled and revegetated with a cool season tall fescue/legume pasture. High intensity, short duration rotational grazing has become the preferred management practice on these pastures. This study evaluated soil and vegetation data collected on 1,250 acres of pasture which was grazed by about 550 cow/calf units. Ongoing monitoring programs are evaluating the effects of rotational grazing. Soil testing includes macro-nutrients, micro-nutrients and microbial activity. Plant tissue analyses monitor levels of principal macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients. Vegetation monitoring consists of measuring forage production. Results were contrasted between pregrazing and postgrazing, and grazed and ungrazed pasture. Agronomic data from the grazed versus ungrazed treatments documented the following results: (1) higher levels of plant tissue nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur; (2) higher microbial activity; (3) similar levels of soil nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur; and (4) increased biomass production.

  14. Perennial Forage Kochia for Improved Productivity of Grass Dominated Winter Grazing Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing forage kochia (Kochia prostrata) during fall/winter has been shown to improve livestock health and reduce winter feeding costs. The objectives of this study were to compare the differences of traditional winter pastures versus pastures with forage kochia. Fifty mature, pregnant, Black Angu...

  15. Assessment of Prior Grazing Experiences on Adaption to Pasture and Performance of Dairy Heifers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate how previous grazing experience affects animal behavior on pasture. Animal behavior was monitored in 32 Holstein (n = 21) and Holstein-Jersey (n = 11) yearlings. Two heifer groups (n = 8 per group) had been exposed to pasture from August through October 20...

  16. Monitoring runoff from cattle-grazed pastures for a phosphorus loss quantification tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss from agriculture persists as a water quality impairment issue. For dairy farms, nutrients can be lost from cropland, pastures, barnyards, and outdoor cattle lots. We monitored N and P loss in runoff from dairy and beef grazed pastures for two years in southwest W...

  17. Cinnagar supplementation of cattle grazing wheat or native pasture in northwest Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate CinnaGar (Provimi; Trappes, France) and monensin (Ruminsen; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) as supplements for grazing stocker cattle in northwest Oklahoma. In Experiment 1, twelve 2.2-ha pastures of winter wheat were grazed (1.2 steers/ha) with stoc...

  18. Using NDVI to estimate carbon fluxes from small rotationally grazed pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data have been extensively used for estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) and yield of grazing lands throughout the world. However, the usefulness of satellite-based images for monitoring rotationally-grazed pastures in the northea...

  19. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving soil health and productivity on grasslands using managed grazing of livestock.

    PubMed

    Russell, J R; Bisinger, J J

    2015-06-01

    Beyond grazing, managed grasslands provide ecological services that may offer economic incentives for multifunctional use. Increasing biodiversity of plant communities may maximize net primary production by optimizing utilization of available light, water, and nutrient resources; enhance production stability in response to climatic stress; reduce invasion of exotic species; increase soil OM; reduce nutrient leaching or loading in surface runoff; and provide wildlife habitat. Strategically managed grazing may increase biodiversity of cool-season pastures by creating disturbance in plant communities through herbivory, treading, nutrient cycling, and plant seed dispersal. Soil OM will increase carbon and nutrient sequestration and water-holding capacity of soils and is greater in grazed pastures than nongrazed grasslands or land used for row crop or hay production. However, results of studies evaluating the effects of different grazing management systems on soil OM are limited and inconsistent. Although roots and organic residues of pasture forages create soil macropores that reduce soil compaction, grazing has increased soil bulk density or penetration resistance regardless of stocking rates or systems. But the effects of the duration of grazing and rest periods on soil compaction need further evaluation. Because vegetative cover dissipates the energy of falling raindrops and plant stems and tillers reduce the rate of surface water flow, managing grazing to maintain adequate vegetative cover will minimize the effects of treading on water infiltration in both upland and riparian locations. Through increased diversity of the plant community with alterations of habitat structure, grazing systems can be developed that enhance habitat for wildlife and insect pollinators. Although grazing management may enhance the ecological services provided by grasslands, environmental responses are controlled by variations in climate, soil, landscape position, and plant community

  20. Pasture intake and milk production of dairy cows rotationally grazing on multi-species swards.

    PubMed

    Roca-Fernández, A I; Peyraud, J L; Delaby, L; Delagarde, R

    2016-09-01

    Increasing plant species diversity has been proposed as a means for enhancing annual pasture productivity and decreasing seasonal variability of pasture production facing more frequent drought scenarios due to climate change. Few studies have examined how botanical complexity of sown swards affects cow performance. A 2-year experiment was conducted to determine how sward botanical complexity, from a monoculture of ryegrass to multi-species swards (MSS) (grasses-legumes-forb), affect pasture chemical composition and nutritive value, pasture dry matter (DM) intake, milk production and milk solids production of grazing dairy cows. Five sward species: perennial ryegrass (L as Lolium), white clover and red clover (both referred to as T as Trifolium because they were always sown together), chicory (C as Cichorium) and tall fescue (F as Festuca) were assigned to four grazing treatments by combining one (L), three (LT), four (LTC) or five (LTCF) species. Hereafter, the LT swards are called mixed swards as a single combination of ryegrass and clovers, whereas LTC and LTCF swards are called MSS as a combination of at least four species from three botanical families. The experimental area (8.7 ha) was divided into four block replicates with a mineral nitrogen fertilisation of 75 kg N/ha per year for each treatment. In total, 13 grazing rotations were carried out by applying the same grazing calendar and the same pasture allowance of 19 kg DM/cow per day above 4 cm for all treatments. Clover represented 20% of DM for mixed and MSS swards; chicory represented 30% of DM for MSS and tall fescue represented 10% of DM for LTCF swards. Higher milk production (+1.1 kg/day) and milk solids production (+0.08 kg/day) were observed for mixed swards than for ryegrass swards. Pasture nutritive value and pasture DM intake were unaffected by the inclusion of clover. Pasture DM, organic matter and NDF concentrations were lower for MSS than for mixed swards. Higher milk production (+0.8 kg

  1. Grazing Soybean to Increase Voluntary Cow Traffic in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

    PubMed Central

    Clark, C. E. F.; Horadagoda, A.; Kerrisk, K. L.; Scott, V.; Islam, M. R.; Kaur, R.; Garcia, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Pasture-based automatic milking systems (AMS) require cow traffic to enable cows to be milked. The interval between milkings can be manipulated by strategically allocating pasture. The current experiment investigated the effect of replacing an allocation of grazed pasture with grazed soybean (Glycine max) with the hypothesis that incorporating soybean would increase voluntary cow traffic and milk production. One hundred and eighty mixed age, primiparous and multiparous Holstein-Friesian/Illawarra cows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (n = 90/group) with a 2×2 Latin square design. Each group was either offered treatments of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hoach ex Chiov.) pasture (pasture) or soybean from 0900 h to 1500 h during the experimental period which consisted of 2 periods of 3 days following 5 days of training and adaptation in each period with groups crossing over treatments after the first period. The number of cows trafficking to each treatment was similar together with milk yield (mean ≈18 L/cow/d) in this experiment. For the cows that arrived at soybean or pasture there were significant differences in their behaviour and consequently the number of cows exiting each treatment paddock. There was greater cow traffic (more cows and sooner) exiting pasture allocations. Cows that arrived at soybean stayed on the allocation for 25% more time and ate more forage (8.5 kg/cow/d/allocation) relative to pasture (4.7 kg/cow/d/allocation). Pasture cows predominantly replaced eating time with rumination. These findings suggest that replacing pasture with alternative grazeable forages provides no additional incentive to increase voluntary cow traffic to an allocation of feed in AMS. This work highlights the opportunity to increase forage intakes in AMS through the incorporation of alternative forages. PMID:25049970

  2. Effects of grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression on steers grazing tall fescue pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first year of a 2 yr grazing study was conducted to evaluate use of Chaparral™ to suppress reproductive growth in tall fescue grazed with low and moderate grazing intensities. Chaparral applications (0 and 2.0 oz/acre) and grazing intensities were arranged as RCBD with three replications. Variab...

  3. Streambank Erosion from Grazed Pastures, Grass Filters and Forest Buffers Over a Six-Year Period

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In agricultural landscapes, streambank erosion, as a source of non-point water pollution, is one of the major contributors to stream habitat degradation. Streambank erosion rates from riparian forest buffers, grass filters and grazed pastures (stocking rates ranged from 0.23 to 1.15 cow-days ha-1 m-...

  4. Soil quality parameters for row-crop and grazed pasture systems with agroforestry buffers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are practices that can improve soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates are sensitive indices for assessing soil quality by detecting early changes in soil management. However, studies comparing grazed pasture and row crop...

  5. Grazing management effects on stream bank erosion and phosphorus delivery to a pasture stream

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture lands may deliver significant sediment and phosphorus (P) to surface waters. To determine the effects of beef (Bos taurus) grazing practices on stream bank erosion and P losses, three treatments [rotational stocking (RS), continuous stocking with restricted stream access (CSR), and continuou...

  6. SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF WINTER WHEAT PASTURE AT THE ONSET OF GRAZING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) pastures are the primary source of cool-season forages available for millions of stocker calves in the southern Great Plains. Quality of wheat is considered excellent, but little or no weight gain may occur in the first 3 weeks of grazing. To better understand forage fac...

  7. Yield and soil carbon sequestration in grazed pastures sown with two or five forage species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing plant species richness is often associated with an increase in productivity and associated ecosystem services such as soil C sequestration. In this paper we report on a nine-year experiment to evaluate the relative forage production and C sequestration potential of grazed pastures sown to...

  8. Carbon sequestration potential of grazed pasture depends on prior management history

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazed pastures are often assumed to be net sinks for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and thus, are promoted as a management practice that can help mitigate climate change. The ability to serve as a C sink is especially pronounced following a history of tillage and row crop production. I...

  9. Grazing alters net ecosystem C fluxes and the net global warming potential of a subtropical pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; DeLucia, E. H.; Boughton, E.; Garrett, J. C.; Keel, E.; Bernacchi, C.

    2015-12-01

    The impact of grazing on CO2 and CH4 fluxes from subtropical pastures and thus on the climate system is uncertain, although these systems account for a substantial portion of global carbon storage. We investigated how cattle grazing affects net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and CH4 emissions in subtropical pastures using the eddy covariance technique over two complete wet-dry seasonal cycles. Grazing increased soil wetness but did not affect soil temperature. By removing aboveground biomass, grazing consistently decreased gross primary productivity (16% and 8 % in 2013-2014 and 2014-2015) and reduced ecosystem respiration (Re, 20% and 38% in 2013-2014 and 2014-2015). Lower Re in grazed (GP) than in ungrazed pasture (UP) was also explained by decreased soil and heterotrophic respiration and root biomass. Grazing increased the net CO2 sink strength of the pasture (-86 ± 5 gC m-2 yr-1 in GP vs. -76 ± 6 gC m-2 yr-1 in UP in 2013-2014; -118 ± 9 gC m-2 yr-1 in GP vs. +142 ± 6 gC m-2 yr-1 UP in 2014-2015). Over both wet-dry seasonal cycles, both ecosystems were net sources of CH4, and variations in fluxes without cattle present were driven by changes in soil wetness and temperature. The presence of cattle and greater soil moisture cased by the removal of aboveground biomass, caused greater total net ecosystem CH4 emissions from GP than from UP (16% and 8 % in 2013-2014 and 2014-2015). Wetter soils under GP were responsible for 21-56% of the difference in net CH4 emissions between pastures, suggesting that enhanced CH4 production from wetter soils due to cattle presence can be a major contributor to annual CH4 fluxes. Combining CO2 and CH4 to calculate a C budget revealed that grazing increased the net C sink strength of the pasture (-72 gC m-2 yr-1 in GP vs. -66 gC m-2 yr-1 in UP in 2013-2014; -114 gC m-2 yr-1 in GP vs. +144 gC m-2 yr-1 in UP in 2014-2015). Accounting for NEE and the radiative forcing of CH4, grazing increased the net global warming potential (GWP) of

  10. CO2 balance of an intensively grazed temperate pasture during pasture renewal via cultivation or direct drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, Susanna; Mudge, Paul; Wall, Aaron; Campbell, Dave; Schipper, Louis

    2015-04-01

    The management practice of pasture renewal (PR, also referred to as 'restoration') of permanent pastures offers the opportunity to replace low producing pasture, remove weeds and pests, improve drainage, and introduce improved pasture varieties, thereby increasing pasture production. PR can consist of a range of practices including spraying existing pasture with herbicide, followed by direct drilling or full cultivation (ploughing). Although PR is common in some farming systems, little is known about the impact of PR of permanent pastures on soil C and CO2 dynamics. Here we report on the CO2 balance following four PR events of intensively grazed permanent pastures in temperate New Zealand. Three events of PR followed the same method which included two herbicide sprays and a full cultivation (CULT). PR events took place in either spring or autumn, which meant soil moisture conditions varied greatly between PR events. For the fourth PR event, pasture was sprayed only once, and was not cultivated but instead seeds were directly drilled (DD) into the sprayed-off pasture. Chambers and the eddy covariance technique were used to measure the CO2 exchange before, during and after PR. In addition to the direct loss of CO2 measured during the PR events, we also quantified the 'net impact of PR' which we defined as the difference between net CO2 exchange of the pasture that underwent PR and that of an undisturbed pasture which served as a control. This way, we also accounted for the temporary lack of photosynthetic carbon inputs when plants were absent during the PR events. Both the rate of direct CO2 respiratory losses and the 'net impact of PR' appeared highly dependent on soil moisture status, with the lowest rate of loss measured under severe drought conditions and the highest rate of loss measured in spring when ample moisture was present. Because the rate of CO2 loss did not decrease over time during PR, the longer the soil was bare, the more CO2 was lost. The duration

  11. Comparison of management intensive grazing and continuous grazing in beef cattle pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management intensive grazing (MIG) offers the potential to increase the financial profitability and productivity of grazing beef and dairy farms in Appalachian Ohio, with minimum environmental impacts. The objective of the project was to compare MIG with conventional continuous grazing (CG) and rela...

  12. Consumer acceptability of conjugated linoleic acid-enriched milk and cheddar cheese from cows grazing on pasture.

    PubMed

    Khanal, R C; Dhiman, T R; Ure, A L; Brennand, C P; Boman, R L; McMahon, D J

    2005-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the consumer acceptability attributes of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-enriched milk and cheese from cows grazing on pasture. In experiment 1, 15 cows were fed either a diet containing 51% alfalfa hay plus corn silage and 49% concentrate [total mixed ration (TMR)], were grazed on pasture, or were grazed on pasture and received 3.2 kg/d of a grain mix. The grain mix contained 75% full-fat extruded soybeans (FFES), 10% corn, 10% beet pulp, and 5% molasses. During the final 3 wk of the 6-wk experiment, milk was evaluated for sensory attributes. In experiment 2, 18 cows were fed similar diets as in experiment 1, except replacing the group of cows grazed on pasture and receiving the grain mix was a group of cows grazed on pasture and receiving 2.5 kg/d per cow of the FFES; Cheddar cheese was manufactured from milk. Average CLA contents (g/100 g of fatty acid methyl esters) were 0.52, 1.63, and 1.69 in milk and 0.47, 1.47, and 1.46 in cheese from cows fed a TMR, grazed on pasture, and grazed on pasture and fed the grain mix, respectively. An open and trained panel evaluated CLA-enriched milk for mouth-feel, color, flavor, and quality and evaluated cheese for color, flavor, texture, and quality. Open and trained panel evaluations of milk and cheese showed no differences among treatments for any of the attributes, except that the trained panel detected a more barny flavor in milk from cows grazing pasture compared with milk from cows fed the TMR only. Results suggest that consumer acceptability attributes of CLA-enriched milk and cheese from cows grazing pasture is similar to those of milk and cheese with low levels of CLA. PMID:15829677

  13. Impacts of Rotational Grazing on Soil Carbon in Native Grass-Based Pastures in Southern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sanderman, Jonathan; Reseigh, Jodie; Wurst, Michael; Young, Mary-Anne; Austin, Jenet

    2015-01-01

    Rotational grazing management strategies have been promoted as a way to improve the sustainability of native grass-based pasture systems. From disturbance ecology theory, rotational grazing relative to continuous grazing can increase pasture productivity by allowing vegetation to recover after short intense grazing periods. This project sought to assess whether soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks would also increase with adoption of rotational grazing management. Twelve pairs of rotationally and continuously grazed paddocks were sampled across a rainfall gradient in South Australia. Pasture productivity approximated as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was on average no different between management categories, but when the data from all sites were aggregated as log response ratios (rotational/continuous) a significant positive trend of increasing NDVI under rotational grazing relative to continuous grazing was found (R2 = 0.52). Mean SOC stocks (0–30 cm) were 48.3 Mg C ha-1 with a range of 20–80 Mg C ha-1 across the study area with no differences between grazing management categories. SOC stocks were well correlated with rainfall and temperature (multiple linear regression R2 = 0.61). After removing the influence of climate on SOC stocks, the management variables, rest periods, stocking rate and grazing days, were found to be significantly correlated with SOC, explaining 22% of the variance in SOC, but there were still no clear differences in SOC stocks at paired sites. We suggest three reasons for the lack of SOC response. First, changes in plant productivity and turnover in low-medium rainfall regions due to changes in grazing management are small and slow, so we would only expect at best small incremental changes in SOC stocks. This is compounded by the inherent variability within and between paddocks making detection of a small real change difficult on short timescales. Lastly, the management data suggests that there is a gradation in

  14. Impacts of Rotational Grazing on Soil Carbon in Native Grass-Based Pastures in Southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Sanderman, Jonathan; Reseigh, Jodie; Wurst, Michael; Young, Mary-Anne; Austin, Jenet

    2015-01-01

    Rotational grazing management strategies have been promoted as a way to improve the sustainability of native grass-based pasture systems. From disturbance ecology theory, rotational grazing relative to continuous grazing can increase pasture productivity by allowing vegetation to recover after short intense grazing periods. This project sought to assess whether soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks would also increase with adoption of rotational grazing management. Twelve pairs of rotationally and continuously grazed paddocks were sampled across a rainfall gradient in South Australia. Pasture productivity approximated as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was on average no different between management categories, but when the data from all sites were aggregated as log response ratios (rotational/continuous) a significant positive trend of increasing NDVI under rotational grazing relative to continuous grazing was found (R2 = 0.52). Mean SOC stocks (0-30 cm) were 48.3 Mg C ha-1 with a range of 20-80 Mg C ha-1 across the study area with no differences between grazing management categories. SOC stocks were well correlated with rainfall and temperature (multiple linear regression R2 = 0.61). After removing the influence of climate on SOC stocks, the management variables, rest periods, stocking rate and grazing days, were found to be significantly correlated with SOC, explaining 22% of the variance in SOC, but there were still no clear differences in SOC stocks at paired sites. We suggest three reasons for the lack of SOC response. First, changes in plant productivity and turnover in low-medium rainfall regions due to changes in grazing management are small and slow, so we would only expect at best small incremental changes in SOC stocks. This is compounded by the inherent variability within and between paddocks making detection of a small real change difficult on short timescales. Lastly, the management data suggests that there is a gradation in

  15. How to determine the GHG budget of a pasture field with grazing animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, Christof; Neftel, Albrecht; Felber, Raphael

    2016-04-01

    Up to now the scientific investigation and description of the agriculture related greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange has been largely separated into (i) direct animal related and (ii) ecosystem area related processes and measurement methods. An overlap of the two usually separated topics occurs for grazed pastures, where direct animal and pasture area emissions are relevant. In the present study eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements on the field scale were combined with a source location attribution (footprint) model and with GPS position measurements of the individual animals. The experiment was performed on a pasture field in Switzerland under a rotational full grazing regime with dairy cows. The exchange fluxes of CH4, CO2, and N2O were measured simultaneously over the entire year. The observed CH4 emission fluxes correlated well with the presence of cows in the flux footprint. When converted to average emission per cow, the results agreed with published values from respiration chamber experiments with similar cows. For CO2 a sophisticated partitioning algorithm was applied to separate the pasture and animal contributions, because both were in the same order of magnitude. The N2O exchange fully attributable to the pasture soil showed considerable and continuous emissions through the entire seasonal course mainly modulated by soil moisture and temperature. The resulting GHG budget shows that the largest GHG effect of the pasture system was due to enteric CH4 emissions followed by soil N2O emissions, but that the carbon storage change was affected by a much larger uncertainty. The results demonstrate that the EC technique in combination with animal position information allows to consistently quantify the exchange of all three GHG on the pasture and to adequately distinguish between direct animal and diffuse area sources (and sinks). Yet questions concerning a standardized attribution of animal related emissions to the pasture GHG budget still need to be resolved.

  16. Surface and subsurface phosphorus losses from fertilized pasture systems in Ohio.

    PubMed

    Owens, L B; Shipitalo, M J

    2006-01-01

    Phosphorus is an essential plant nutrient and critical to agricultural production, but it is also a problem when excessive amounts enter surface waters. Summer rotational grazing and winter feeding beef pasture systems at two fertility levels (56 and 28 kg available P ha(-1)) were studied to evaluate the P losses from these systems via surface runoff and subsurface flow using eight small (0.3-1.1 ha), instrumented watersheds and spring developments. Runoff events from a 14-yr period (1974-1988) were evaluated to determine the relationships between event size in mm, total dissolved reactive phosphorous (TDRP) concentration, and TDRP transport. Most of the TDRP transported was via surface runoff. There were strong correlations (r2 = 0.45-0.66) between TDRP transport and event size for all watersheds, but no significant (P = 0.05) correlations between TDRP concentration and event size. Flow-weighted average TDRP concentrations from the pasture watersheds for the 14-yr period ranged from 0.64 to 1.85 mg L(-1) with a few individual event concentrations as high as 85.7 mg L(-1). The highest concentrations were in events that occurred soon after P fertilizer application. Average seasonal flow-weighted TDRP concentrations for subsurface flow were < 0.05 mg L(-1). Applying P fertilizer to pastures in response to soil tests should keep TDRP concentrations in subsurface flow at environmentally acceptable levels. Management to reduce runoff and avoidance of P fertilizer application when runoff producing rainfall is anticipated in the next few days will help reduce the surface losses of P. PMID:16738395

  17. Estimating carbon fluxes on small rotationally grazed pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data have been extensively used for estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) and yield of grazing lands throughout the world. Large-scale estimates of GPP are a necessary component of efforts to monitor the soil carbon balance of grazi...

  18. Pasture-scale methane emissions of grazing cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing cattle are mobile point sources of methane and present challenges to quantify emissions using noninterfering micrometeorological methods. Stocking density is low and cattle can bunch up or disperse over a wide area, so knowing cattle locations is critical. The methane concentration downwind ...

  19. Bacteria on leaves: a previously unrecognised source of N2O in grazed pastures.

    PubMed

    Bowatte, Saman; Newton, Paul C D; Brock, Shona; Theobald, Phil; Luo, Dongwen

    2015-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from grazed pastures are a product of microbial transformations of nitrogen and the prevailing view is that these only occur in the soil. Here we show this is not the case. We have found ammonia-oxidising bacteria (AOB) are present on plant leaves where they produce N2O just as in soil. AOB (Nitrosospira sp. predominantly) on the pasture grass Lolium perenne converted 0.02-0.42% (mean 0.12%) of the oxidised ammonia to N2O. As we have found AOB to be ubiquitous on grasses sampled from urine patches, we propose a 'plant' source of N2O may be a feature of grazed grassland. PMID:25012902

  20. [Photosensitization in cattle grazing on pastures of Brahciaria decumbens Stapf infested with Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt.) M.B. Ellis].

    PubMed

    Andrade, S O; da Silva Lopes, H O; de Almeida Barros, M; Leite, G G; Dias, S M; Saueressig, M; Nobre, D; Temperini, J A

    1978-01-01

    Aspects of photosensitization in bovines grazing on pastures of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf infested with Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt.) M.B. Ellis infested all pastures 45(2):117-136, 1978. This paper reports experimental studies on photosensitization in bovines grazing on different pastures of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf in the "Cerrados" region (Planaltina, DF). Climatic conditions, zinc content and occurence of fungi on pastures were investigated. Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt.) M.B. Ellis infested all pastures examined. Photosensitization was observed in one animal maintained on a pasture of B. decumbens formed with seeds from Australia. Clinical and necropsy data were similar to those related in literature for sporidesmin-intoxicated animals. An isolate of P. chartarum and samples of bovine bile were assayed for sporidesmin presence. PMID:573108

  1. Feeding strategy and pasture quality relative to nutrient requirements of grazing dairy cows in the Northeastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture samples (n = 229) collected during the grazing season from 14 organic dairy farms in 2012 (PA, ME, NY, NH, VT) and from 11 of the same farms in 2013 (PA, ME, NY, NH) were analyzed for nutritional composition. Frequency analysis was used to determine the proportions of pasture samples that me...

  2. Eddy covariance methane flux measurements over a grazed pasture: effect of cows as moving point sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Münger, A.; Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.

    2015-06-01

    Methane (CH4) from ruminants contributes one-third of global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. Eddy covariance (EC) technique has been extensively used at various flux sites to investigate carbon dioxide exchange of ecosystems. Since the development of fast CH4 analyzers, the instrumentation at many flux sites has been amended for these gases. However, the application of EC over pastures is challenging due to the spatially and temporally uneven distribution of CH4 point sources induced by the grazing animals. We applied EC measurements during one grazing season over a pasture with 20 dairy cows (mean milk yield: 22.7 kg d-1) managed in a rotational grazing system. Individual cow positions were recorded by GPS trackers to attribute fluxes to animal emissions using a footprint model. Methane fluxes with cows in the footprint were up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than ecosystem fluxes without cows. Mean cow emissions of 423 ± 24 g CH4 head-1 d-1 (best estimate from this study) correspond well to animal respiration chamber measurements reported in the literature. However, a systematic effect of the distance between source and EC tower on cow emissions was found, which is attributed to the analytical footprint model used. We show that the EC method allows one to determine CH4 emissions of cows on a pasture if the data evaluation is adjusted for this purpose and if some cow distribution information is available.

  3. Relationship between pasture nutritive measurements and plasma urea nitrogen in lambs grazing silvopasture or open pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship of herbage energy content relative to crude protein (CP) is an important aspect in nitrogen use efficiency of grazing livestock. Plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) is an excellent indicator of animal nitrogen status, increasing when excessive nitrogen is available in the diet, and resultin...

  4. Animal and pasture responses to grazing management of chemically suppressed tall fescue in mixed pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treatment of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] with metsulfuran-methyl can mitigate fescue toxicosis and enhance forage nutritive value by suppressing seedhead emergence. A grazing experiment was conducted with steers (2013) and heifers (2014) to evaluate a...

  5. Eddy covariance methane flux measurements over a grazed pasture: effect of cows as moving point sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Münger, A.; Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.

    2015-02-01

    Methane (CH4) from ruminants contributes one third to global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. Eddy covariance (EC) technique has been extensively used at various flux sites to investigate carbon dioxide exchange of ecosystems. Since the development of fast CH4 analysers the instrumentation at many flux sites have been amended for these gases. However the application of EC over pastures is challenging due to the spatial and temporal uneven distribution of CH4 point sources induced by the grazing animals. We applied EC measurements during one grazing season over a pasture with 20 dairy cows (mean milk yield: 22.7 kg d-1) managed in a rotational grazing system. Individual cow positions were recorded by GPS trackers to attribute fluxes to animal emissions using a footprint model. Methane fluxes with cows in the footprint were up to two orders of magnitude higher than ecosystem fluxes without cows. Mean cow emissions of 423 ± 24 g CH4 head-1 d-1 (best guess of this study) correspond well to animal respiration chamber measurements reported in the literature. However a systematic effect of the distance between source and EC tower on cow emissions was found which is attributed to the analytical footprint model used. We show that the EC method allows to determine CH4 emissions of grazing cows if the data evaluation is adjusted for this purpose and if some cow distribution information is available.

  6. Tall fescue management: Pasture and cattle responses to endophyte and fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yearling heifers grazing tall fescue pastures had greatest performance in winter and spring on endophyte-free and novel endophyte associations, because of high forage quality and lack of ergot alkaloids produced by a common “wild” tall fescue-endophyte association. Pasture and cattle responses were...

  7. Use of Ground-Based LiDAR to Assess Potential Sediment Loss from Stream Banks in Grazed Pastures.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal grazing on lands near streams has the potential to contribute sediment and nutrients to surface waters. To minimize the impact, we must understand the effects of grazing systems on stream bank erosion. In this study, we used six 12-ha grass pastures that were each bisected by a 141-m stream s...

  8. Assessment of heifer grazing experience on short-term adaptation to pasture and performance as lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Lopes, F; Coblentz, W; Hoffman, P C; Combs, D K

    2013-05-01

    A 3-yr study evaluated the carryover effects of dairy heifer grazing experience on behavior and first-lactation performance as dairy cows. Forty-one Holstein and 23 Holstein-Jersey crossbred calves born between January and April 2008 were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n=8 per group, 2 groups per treatment) in a completely randomized design. Treatments were combinations of managing dairy heifers in confinement (CNF) or on pasture (PST): grazed yr 1 and 2 (PSTPST); grazed yr 1, but confined yr 2 (PSTCNF); confined yr 1 and grazed yr 2 (CNFPST); or confined yr 1 and 2 (CNFCNF). After calving, all heifers on all treatments were grazed as cows in yr 3. In yr 1, PSTPST and PSTCNF heifers were grazed for 41 d on Italian ryegrass pastures, whereas CNFPST and CNFCNF were housed in bedded-pack pens and fed a TMR. In yr 2, PSTPST and CNFPST heifers grazed Italian ryegrass pasture for 65 d, whereas PSTCNF and CNFCNF remained in confinement. In yr 2, a mid-trial assessment of heifer grazing behavior was made on PSTPST versus CNFPST heifers. Grazing activities were assessed by visual observation and heifer movement measured by portable global positioning system units. Heifers from all treatment groups subsequently calved between January and April in yr 3. All primiparous cows were then allocated to pastures by treatment group, grazed for 61 d, (May through July) in yr 3, with grazing behavior and milk production evaluated while grazing. In yr 2, heifers on the PSTPST treatment spent more time grazing than heifers on the CNFPST treatment (78 vs. 35% of the time) when first exposed to pasture (d 1). On d 1 to 3, PSTPST heifers walked a greater distance than CNFPST heifers; however, PSTPST and CNFPST heifers had similar daily grazing times and walking patterns after 3 d of pasture exposure in yr 2. As lactating cows (yr 3), cows with no (CNFCNF) grazing experience grazed less on d 1 compared with cows with (PSTPST, PSTCNF, or CNFPST) grazing experience. Day-1 grazing

  9. Low quality roughages for steers grazing wheat pasture. I. Effect on weight gains and bloat.

    PubMed

    Mader, T L; Horn, G W; Phillips, W A; McNew, R W

    1983-05-01

    The effect of feeding low quality roughages (LQR) on live and carcass weight gains and the incidence and severity of bloat of stocker cattle grazed on wheat pasture was evaluated in a 3 yr study. One hundred eighty-five steer calves (172 kg mean initial weight) grazed clean-tilled wheat pasture and were either fed no LQR or had ad libitum access to wheat straw (WS) or sorghum-Sudan hay (SS). Grazing periods were (I) fall grazing, (II) winter grazing, (III) period of lush spring growth of wheat forage and (IV) period of advancing forage maturity and declining quality. Mean dry matter (DM), crude protein and acid detergent fiber (ADF) content (percentage of DM) of wheat forage averaged across years ranged, respectively, from 23.8 to 33.0, 19.8 to 26.4 and 21.5 to 27.7. Mean daily consumption (kg DM/head) of WS and SS by steers ranged from .076 to .100 and .199 to .248, respectively. Live and carcass weight gains of steers during Periods I through III (i.e., the usual wheat pasture grazing period) were not influenced (P greater than .05) by treatments. Carcass weight gains were about 74% of live weight gains. Bloat was observed only during the last 2 wk of Period III of the first year. The incidence (steer days of bloat) and severity (bloat score) of control, WS- and SS-fed steers were 9.5 and 1.2, .5 and .5 and 2.0 and 1.0, and were not different (P greater than .05) among treatments. Intake of WS and SS [g/body weight (BW).75kg] during Periods I to III was, respectively, only about 5 and 12% of roughage intakes (i.e., 37.5 g/BW.75kg) reported in the literature to "effectively control" or aid the prevention of bloat. It seems unlikely that LQR consumed to amounts similar to those of this study would control bloat of stocker cattle on wheat pasture. PMID:6305902

  10. Effects of grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression on steers grazing tall fescue pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is the principal cool-season species within pastures of the southeastern USA and is known to have a mutualistic relationship with a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that produces the ergot alkaloids responsible for tall fescue toxicosis. Management of t...

  11. Urea metabolism in beef steers grazing bermudagrass, caucasian bluestem, or gamagrass pastures varying in plant morphology, protein content, and protein composition.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate pastures of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon, BG), caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasica, CBS), and gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides, GG) from the perspectives of forage composition, selection during grazing, and N metabolism in beef steers. All pastures were ferti...

  12. Using normalized difference vegetation index to estimate carbon fluxes from small rotationally grazed pastures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, R.H.; Wylie, B.K.; Gilmanov, T.G.

    2011-01-01

    Satellite-based normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data have been extensively used for estimating gross primary productivity (GPP) and yield of grazing lands throughout the world. However, the usefulness of satellite-based images for monitoring rotationally-grazed pastures in the northeastern United States might be limited because paddock size is often smaller than the resolution limits of the satellite image. This research compared NDVI data from satellites with data obtained using a ground-based system capable of fine-scale (submeter) NDVI measurements. Gross primary productivity was measured by eddy covariance on two pastures in central Pennsylvania from 2003 to 2008. Weekly 250-m resolution satellite NDVI estimates were also obtained for each pasture from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor. Ground-based NDVI data were periodically collected in 2006, 2007, and 2008 from one of the two pastures. Multiple-regression and regression-tree estimates of GPP, based primarily on MODIS 7-d NDVI and on-site measurements of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), were generally able to predict growing-season GPP to within an average of 3% of measured values. The exception was drought years when estimated and measured GPP differed from each other by 11 to 13%. Ground-based measurements improved the ability of vegetation indices to capture short-term grazing management effects on GPP. However, the eMODIS product appeared to be adequate for regional GPP estimates where total growing-season GPP across a wide area would be of greater interest than short-term management-induced changes in GPP at individual sites.

  13. High intensity, short duration rotational grazing on reclaimed cool season fescue/legume pastures: I. System development

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, W.R.; Carlson, K.E.

    1995-09-01

    The Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Co.`s ({open_quotes}P&M{close_quotes}) Midway Mine lies 50 miles south of Kansas City, Kansas, straddling the border of Kansas and Missouri. P&M actively mined the area until 1989, when the mine was closed and reclaimed. Approximately 3,750 acres of surface mined land were topsoiled and revegetated to cool season fescue/legume pasture. Various pasture management methods are being utilized to meet reclamation success standards and achieve final bond release. The effectiveness and costs of various cool season fescue/legume pasture management methods are evaluated and contrasted. These methods include sharecropping, bush hogging, burning and livestock grazing. It presents guidelines used to develop a site specific rotational livestock grazing programs with land owners or contractors, and local, state and federal agencies. Rotational grazing uses both cow/calf or feeder livestock operations. Key managerial elements used to control grazing activities, either by the landowner or a contractor, are reviewed. Methods used to determine stocking levels for successful rotational grazing on this type of pasture are presented. Rotational grazing of livestock has proven to be the most effective method for managing established cool season fescue/legume pastures at this site. Initial stocking rates of 1 A.U.M. per 5 acres have been modified to a current stocking rate of 1 A.U.M. per 2.5 acres. Supporting physical and chemical data are presented and discussed.

  14. Case study of a commercial sheep flock under extensive mountain grazing: Pasture derived lipid compounds in milk and cheese.

    PubMed

    Valdivielso, I; Bustamante, M A; Aldezabal, A; Amores, G; Virto, M; Ruiz de Gordoa, J C; de Renobales, M; Barron, L J R

    2016-04-15

    Terpenoid, fat-soluble antioxidant and fatty acid (FA) composition of pasture as well as those of milk and cheese from a commercial sheep flock managed under extensive mountain grazing in the east region of the Cantabrian mountain (Northern Spain) was investigated. The grazing period lasted for 2 months and ewes were at late lactation stage. Plants, feces, bulk milk and cheese samples were collected on two sampling dates. The abundance of the dominating botanical families in the mountain pasture prevailed in the sheep diet of the commercial flock. Major terpenoids and tocols in the pasture appeared as major ones in milk and cheese, whereas C18 unsaturated FAs in milk and cheese were derived from the intake of C18 polyunsaturated FAs which were prevalent in the pasture. No carotene was detected in the dairy samples but retinol (free or esterified), derived from the intake of β-carotene present in pasture plants, was found in milk and cheese. PMID:26616996

  15. Combining multi-spectral proximal sensors and digital cameras for monitoring grazed tropical pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handcock, R. N.; Gobbett, D. L.; González, L. A.; Bishop-Hurley, G. J.; McGavin, S. L.

    2015-11-01

    Timely and accurate monitoring of pasture biomass and ground-cover is necessary in livestock production systems to ensure productive and sustainable management of forage for livestock. Interest in the use of proximal sensors for monitoring pasture status in grazing systems has increased, since such sensors can return data in near real-time, and have the potential to be deployed on large properties where remote sensing may not be suitable due to issues such as spatial scale or cloud cover. However, there are unresolved challenges in developing calibrations to convert raw sensor data to quantitative biophysical values, such as pasture biomass or vegetation ground-cover, to allow meaningful interpretation of sensor data by livestock producers. We assessed the use of multiple proximal sensors for monitoring tropical pastures with a pilot deployment of sensors at two sites on Lansdown Research Station near Townsville, Australia. Each site was monitored by a Skye SKR-four-band multi-spectral sensor (every 1 min), a digital camera (every 30 min), and a soil moisture sensor (every 1 min), each operated over 18 months. Raw data from each sensor were processed to calculate a number of multispectral vegetation indices. Visual observations of pasture characteristics, including above-ground standing biomass and ground cover, were made every 2 weeks. A methodology was developed to manage the sensor deployment and the quality control of the data collected. The data capture from the digital cameras was more reliable than the multi-spectral sensors, which had up to 63 % of data discarded after data cleaning and quality control. We found a strong relationship between sensor and pasture measurements during the wet season period of maximum pasture growth (January to April), especially when data from the multi-spectral sensors were combined with weather data. RatioNS34 (a simple band ratio between the near infrared (NIR) and lower shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands) and rainfall since 1

  16. Mountain pastures of Qilian Shan: plant communities, grazing impact and degradation status (Gansu province, NW China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranova, Alina; Schickhoff, Udo; Shunli, Wang; Ming, Jin

    2015-04-01

    Qilian Mountains are the water source region for the low arid reaches of HeiHe river basin (Gansu province, NW China). Due to overstocking and overgrazing during the last decades adverse ecological ef¬fects, in particular on soil properties and hydrological cycle, are to be expected in growing land areas. Vegetation cover is very important to prevent erosion process and to sustain stable subsurface runoff and ground water flow. The aim of this research is to identify plant communities, detecting grazing-induced and spatially differentiated changes in vegetation patterns, and to evaluate status of pasture land degradation.The study area is located in the spring/autumn pasture area of South Qilian Mountains between 2600-3600 m a.s.l., covering five main vegetation types: spruce forest, alpine shrubland, shrubby grassland, mountain grassland, degraded mountain grassland. In order to analyze gradual changes in vegetation patterns along altitudinal and grazing gradients and to classify related plant communities, quantitative and qualitative relevé data were collected (coverage, species composition, abundance of unpalatable plants, plant functional types, etc.). Vegetation was classified using hierarchical cluster analyses. Indirect Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) was used to analyze variation in relationships between vegetation, environmental factors, and grazing impact. According to DCA results, distribution of the plant communities was strongly affected by altitude and exposition. Grassland floristic gradients showed greater dependence on grazing impact, which correlated contrarily with soil organic content, soil moisture and pH. Highest numbers of species richness and alpha diversity were detected in alpine shrubland vegetation type. Comparing the monitoring data for the recent nine years, a trend of deterioration, species successions and shift in dominant species becomes obvious. Species indicating degrading site environmental conditions were identified

  17. Performance of Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs grazing Alicia bermudagrass and common bermudagrass-dallisgrass pastures.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, W E; Gates, R N; Blouin, D C; Saxton, A M; Nelson, B D

    1997-07-01

    This research was designed to examine genotype x environment interactions in cow-calf growth performance of grazing animals. Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs (minimum of six per breed) were allowed to rotationally graze (14-d intervals) treatment pastures from approximately May through early October in each of 2 yr. Treatment pastures contained relatively pure stands of Alicia bermudagrass (AP) or a mixed stand of common bermudagrass and dallisgrass (CDP). Forage allowance was equalized, using "put-and-take" cow-calf pairs, among forage and breed types at the initiation of each 14-d grazing interval. Forage samples were obtained in each paddock at the initiation of each grazing interval. Forage CP concentration was greater (P < .05; 13.5 vs 11.6%) and NDF concentration was less (P < .05; 63.8 vs 70.6%) for CDP than for AP. Daily weight loss was similar for Angus and Brangus cows, but it was greater (P < .05) for cows grazing AP than for cows grazing CDP. Calf ADG during the grazing season was 35% greater (P < .05) for CDP than for AP pastures and was 23% greater (P < .01) for Brangus than for Angus calves. Relative performance of Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs was consistent between forages; no breed x forage interactions were observed. PMID:9222851

  18. Herbage intake and ruminal digestion of dairy cows grazed on perennial ryegrass pasture either in the morning or evening.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Koichiro; Mitani, Tomohiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to clarify diurnal fluctuations of herbage intake, ruminal fermentation of herbage carbohydrates and proteins, and digesta particulate weight in the rumen of grazing dairy cows. Six ruminally cannulated, non-lactating dairy cows were grazed on perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture either in the morning (04.00 to 08.00 hours) or the evening (16.00 to 20.00 hours). Cows grazed in the evening spent more time (P < 0.01) and consumed more herbage (P < 0.01) compared with cows grazed in the morning. Higher (P < 0.05) daily mean concentrations of total volatile fatty acid, propionate and n-butyrate in rumen fluid were observed for cows grazed in the evening compared with cows grazed in the morning. Although cows grazed in the evening ingested more crude protein compared with cows grazed in the morning, no significant difference in NH3 -N concentration in rumen fluid was observed between them. The ratio of purine-derivative concentration to creatinine concentrations was higher (P < 0.01) in the urine of cows grazed in the evening than in cows grazed in the morning. These results clearly indicated that evening grazing was advantageous for dairy cows compared with morning grazing, in terms of ruminal fermentable energy intake and nitrogen utilization efficiency. PMID:26607997

  19. Relative impacts of land-use, management intensity and fertilization on microbial community structure in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of agricultural land management practices on soil prokaryotic diversity have not been well described. Soil microbial communities under three agricultural management systems (conventionally tilled cropland, hayed pasture, and grazed pasture) and two fertilizer systems [inorganic fertilizer (I...

  20. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Dini, Yoana; Gere, José; Briano, Carolina; Manetti, Martin; Juliarena, Paula; Picasso, Valentin; Gratton, Roberto; Astigarraga, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary GHGs emissions are relevant in evaluating environmental impact of farming systems. Methane (CH4) produced by enteric fermentation accounts for half of all anthropogenic emissions of GHGs in Uruguay, where ruminant production is based on year round grazing of forages. Here we compared milk production and CH4 emissions by dairy cows grazing two contrasting mixed pastures (rich in legumes or rich in grasses) using the SF6 tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-days periods. There were no differences in milk or CH4 production between the contrasting pastures, probably because of the high herbage allowance that enabled selective grazing by cows. Abstract Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH4 emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM) basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH4 emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI) was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD) was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71) and HOMI (15.7 kg OM) were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d), milk fat yield (742 g/d) and milk protein yield (667 g/d) were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow) which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d) or expressed as

  1. Altitude, pasture type, and sheep breed affect bone metabolism and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in grazing lambs.

    PubMed

    Willems, Helen; Leiber, Florian; Kohler, Martina; Kreuzer, Michael; Liesegang, Annette

    2013-05-15

    This study aimed to investigate the bone development of two mountain sheep breeds during natural summer grazing either in the lowlands or on different characteristic alpine pastures. Pasture types differed in topographic slope, plant species composition, general nutritional feeding value, Ca and P content, and Ca:P ratio of herbage. Twenty-seven Engadine sheep (ES) lambs and 27 Valaisian Black Nose sheep (VS) lambs were divided into four groups of 6 to 7 animals per breed and allocated to three contrasting alpine pasture types and one lowland pasture type. The lambs were slaughtered after 9 wk of experimental grazing. The steep alpine pastures in combination with a high (4.8) to very high (13.6) Ca:P ratio in the forage decreased total bone mineral content as measured in the middle of the left metatarsus of the lambs from both breeds, and cortical bone mineral content and cortical bone mineral density of ES lambs. Breed × pasture type interactions occurred in the development of total and cortical bone mineral content, and in cortical thickness, indicating that bone metabolism of different genotypes obviously profited differently from the varying conditions. An altitude effect occurred for 25-hydroxyvitamin D with notably higher serum concentrations on the three alpine sites, and a breed effect led to higher concentrations for ES than VS. Despite a high variance, there were pasture-type effects on serum markers of bone formation and resorption. PMID:23471950

  2. Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Dini, Yoana; Gere, José; Briano, Carolina; Manetti, Martin; Juliarena, Paula; Picasso, Valentin; Gratton, Roberto; Astigarraga, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the impact of changing pasture composition on reducing emissions of GHGs in dairy grazing systems is an important issue to mitigate climate change. The aim of this study was to estimate daily CH₄ emissions of dairy cows grazing two mixed pastures with contrasting composition of grasses and legumes: L pasture with 60% legumes on Dry Matter (DM) basis and G pasture with 75% grasses on DM basis. Milk production and CH₄ emissions were compared over two periods of two weeks during spring using eight lactating Holstein cows in a 2 × 2 Latin square design. Herbage organic matter intake (HOMI) was estimated by chromic oxide dilution and herbage organic matter digestibility (OMD) was estimated by faecal index. Methane emission was estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique adapted to collect breath samples over 5-day periods. OMD (0.71) and HOMI (15.7 kg OM) were not affected by pasture composition. Milk production (20.3 kg/d), milk fat yield (742 g/d) and milk protein yield (667 g/d) were similar for both pastures. This may be explained by the high herbage allowance (30 kg DM above 5 cm/cow) which allowed the cows to graze selectively, in particular in grass sward. Similarly, methane emission expressed as absolute value (368 g/d or 516 L/d) or expressed as methane yield (6.6% of Gross Energy Intake (GEI)) was not affected by treatments. In conclusion, at high herbage allowance, the quality of the diet selected by grazing cows did not differ between pastures rich in legumes or rich in grasses, and therefore there was no effect on milk or methane production. PMID:26486922

  3. Can we graze 300+ days?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The grazing season can be extended by using a system of forages that will require an intensification of the overall management of both the cattle and pastures. Fertilization and weed control should be done when needed, and pasture composition should be monitored and inventoried to determine if weed...

  4. Effects of grazing stockpilied endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on growth and physiological indices of dairy heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] S. J. Darbyshire) is a cool-season grass grown on over 20 million acres of pasture land and hayfields in the Midwestern and Southeastern United States. A grazing trial was conducted to determine the effects of stockpiled tall fescue on the physiological and...

  5. Performance of sheep grazing in pastures of Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria brizantha, Panicum maximum, and Andropogon gayanus with different protodioscin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Gracindo, Cristiane Vinhaes; Louvandini, Helder; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Barbosa-Ferreira, Marcos; Castro, Márcio Botelho de

    2014-06-01

    Brachiaria spp. are the most important grasses for ruminants in central-western Brazil. However, the use of these pastures is limited by their toxicity due to steroidal saponins. This experiment was conducted for 60 days to demonstrate the resistance of sheep raised on Brachiaria spp. pastures to steroidal saponin poisoning. The experiment was composed by 48 animals randomly divided into four groups (n = 12). Among them, 32 4- to 5-month-old castrated male crossbred Santa Inês sheep, originating from flocks that had been grazing on Brachiaria spp. for more than three consecutive years, and 16 were non-adapted (naïve) sheep from flocks that never had prior contact with pastures of Brachiaria spp. were randomly divided into four groups. Each of the four experimental groups was composed by eight adapted and four non-adapted animals. The four experimental groups were introduced into paddocks, each of which contained a single grass: either Brachiaria decumbens, Brachiaria brizantha, Panicum maximum, or Andropogon gayanus. The addition of the naïve sheep to the groups was designed to detect pastures' toxicity to naïve sheep and to adjust the stocking rate to optimize the use of forage. The weight gains of sheep grazing on B. decumbens, B. brizantha, and P. maximum were similar; however, the A. gayanus group showed lower weight gains compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). The mean serum activities of γ-glutamyltransferase in the sheep grazing on B. decumbens were higher than those in the sheep from the other groups. No significant differences among the groups were found in aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, albumin, or total protein serum concentrations. No clinical signs were observed in the adapted sheep in any of the pastures. Of the four non-adapted sheep introduced into the B. decumbens pasture, two showed clinical signs of steroidal saponin poisoning, and one died. No clinical signs were observed in the non-adapted sheep in the other pastures

  6. CO2 and Carbon Balance of an Intensively Grazed Temperate Pasture: Response to Cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, S.; Mudge, P. L.; Wallace, D.; Campbell, D.; Wall, A.; Hosking, C. L.; Schipper, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Recent soil resampling studies have shown that soils on flat land used for intensive dairy farming in New Zealand have lost large amounts of carbon (~1 t C ha-1y-1) over the past few decades, and the causes of these losses are poorly understood. One of the management practices potentially contributing to the C losses from these dairy soils is the periodic cultivation commonly associated with pasture renewal or the rotation through summer or winter crops. Here we report the results of three experiments aimed at quantifying the effect of cultivation as part of pasture renewal on the CO2 and C balances of permanent pastures. In the first experiment, the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) of an intensively grazed dairy pasture was measured before, during and after cultivation using eddy covariance (EC) from 2008 to 2011 at a dairy farm in the Waikato region on the North Island of New Zealand. The net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) was determined by combining NEE data with measurements and estimates of other C imports (feed) and C exports (milk, methane, silage and leaching). The other two experiments took place on the same farm and monitored two different cultivation events in 2008. We made chamber measurements of soil CO2 losses between spraying and seedling emergence. One of the cultivations took place in summer 2008 during a drought, whereas the other took place in spring 2008 when soil water was not limiting. For the first two years of experiment 1 the site was under permanent pasture and it was a sink for both CO2 (1.6 and 2.3 t C ha-1y-1 for 2008 and 2009, respectively) and C (0.59 and 0.90 t C ha-1y-1 for 2008 and 2009, respectively), despite a severe drought in summer 2008 which had led to a loss of approximately 1.1 t C ha-1 as CO2 over the three summer months. Pasture renewal took place in March 2010 and CO2 losses during this event were approximately 1.7 t C ha-1. However, the site seemed to recover quickly and was a sink of CO2 at an annual time scale of

  7. Soil-extractable phosphorus and phosphorus saturation threshold in beef cattle pastures as affected by grazing management and forage type.

    PubMed

    Sigua, Gilbert C; Chase, Chad C; Albano, Joseph

    2014-02-01

    Grazing can accelerate and alter the timing of nutrient transfer, and could increase the amount of extractable phosphorus (P) cycle from soils to plants. The effects of grazing management and/or forage type that control P cycling and distribution in pasture's resources have not been sufficiently evaluated. Our ability to estimate the levels and changes of soil-extractable P and other crop nutrients in subtropical beef cattle pastures has the potential to improve our understanding of P dynamics and nutrient cycling at the landscape level. To date, very little attention has been paid to evaluating transfers of extractable P in pasture with varying grazing management and different forage type. Whether or not P losses from grazed pastures are significantly greater than background losses and how these losses are affected by soil, forage management, or stocking density are not well understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grazing management (rotational versus "zero" grazing) and forage types (FT; bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum, Flugge versus rhizoma peanuts, Arachis glabrata, Benth) on the levels of extractable soil P and degree of P saturation in beef cattle pastures. This study (2004-2007) was conducted at the Subtropical Agricultural Research Station, US Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service located 7 miles north of Brooksville, FL. Soil (Candler fine sand) at this location was described as well-drained hyperthermic uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments. A split plot arrangement in a completely randomized block design was used and each treatment was replicated four times. The main plot was represented by grazing management (grazing vs. no grazing) while forage types (bahiagrass vs. perennial peanut) as the sub-plot treatment. Eight steel exclosures (10 × 10 m) were used in the study. Four exclosures were placed and established in four pastures with bahiagrass and four exclosures were established in four pastures with rhizoma

  8. Modelling carbon and water exchange of a grazed pasture in New Zealand constrained by eddy covariance measurements.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, Miko U F; Rutledge, Susanna; Kuijper, Isoude A; Mudge, Paul L; Puche, Nicolas; Wall, Aaron M; Roach, Chris G; Schipper, Louis A; Campbell, David I

    2015-04-15

    We used two years of eddy covariance (EC) measurements collected over an intensively grazed dairy pasture to better understand the key drivers of changes in soil organic carbon stocks. Analysing grazing systems with EC measurements poses significant challenges as the respiration from grazing animals can result in large short-term CO2 fluxes. As paddocks are grazed only periodically, EC observations derive from a mosaic of paddocks with very different exchange rates. This violates the assumptions implicit in the use of EC methodology. To test whether these challenges could be overcome, and to develop a tool for wider scenario testing, we compared EC measurements with simulation runs with the detailed ecosystem model CenW 4.1. Simulations were run separately for 26 paddocks around the EC tower and coupled to a footprint analysis to estimate net fluxes at the EC tower. Overall, we obtained good agreement between modelled and measured fluxes, especially for the comparison of evapotranspiration rates, with model efficiency of 0.96 for weekly averaged values of the validation data. For net ecosystem productivity (NEP) comparisons, observations were omitted when cattle grazed the paddocks immediately around the tower. With those points omitted, model efficiencies for weekly averaged values of the validation data were 0.78, 0.67 and 0.54 for daytime, night-time and 24-hour NEP, respectively. While not included for model parameterisation, simulated gross primary production also agreed closely with values inferred from eddy covariance measurements (model efficiency of 0.84 for weekly averages). The study confirmed that CenW simulations could adequately model carbon and water exchange in grazed pastures. It highlighted the critical role of animal respiration for net CO2 fluxes, and showed that EC studies of grazed pastures need to consider the best approach of accounting for this important flux to avoid unbalanced accounting. PMID:25634732

  9. Changes in soil carbon cycling accompanying conversion of row-crop fields to grazing dairy pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, A.; Kramer, M. G.; Hill, N.; Machmuller, M. B.; Cyle, K.

    2011-12-01

    Increasingly, the dairy industry in the eastern US is transitioning from total confinement dairy systems (TCD) toward pasture-based, management intensive grazing dairy (MiGD) systems. This transition is driven by the fact that MiGDs require substantially less operating capital and are more economically efficient than TCD systems. Consequently, the impact of this transition and shift in land-use practice on carbon dynamics may be considerable. Land-use in a Management intensive Grazing Dairy (MiGD) system is fundamentally different than conventional confinement dairies and conventional no-till pastures. The forage system involves rotational grazing at optimal digestibility, when the plants are immature (~20-days) and consequently protein-rich. MiGD cows spend >90% of their time in the field and deposit > 90% of their waste directly to the soil surface. Thus, little above ground plant residues are directly returned to the soil, but rather substantial C inputs derive from bovine manure. We sampled a MiGD-chronosequence of row-crop to MiGD conversion established in 2007 in eastern Georgia. All soils across the MiGD-chronosequence, all occur in relative (40 km) close proximity to one another, are deep, well-drained, fine and fine sandy loam Ultisols formed on Coastal Plain sediments. Prior to MiGD established, the soils were farmed for > 50 yrs using conventional tillage techniques. Our current sampling to 1m depths captures fields at 0, 2, 3, and 5 yrs since conversion. Total soil carbon (C) and the carbon concentration of the clay fraction increased following conversion, with the greatest increases occurring between 3 and 5 yrs since conversion. These C increases were limited to the upper 40cm of the soil, with minimal change occurring at depth. Characterization of the protein and ligand content of these soils via 13C NMR and chemolytic techniques as a function of soil particle density and size is in progress and will be presented along with estimates of carbon

  10. A two reservoir model to predict Escherichia coli losses to water from pastures grazed by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Muirhead, R W; Monaghan, R M

    2012-04-01

    Animal agriculture has been identified as an important source of diffuse faecal microbial pollution of water. Our current understanding of the losses of faecal microbes from grazed pasture systems is however poor. To help synthesise our current knowledge, a simple two reservoir model was constructed to represent the faecal and environmental sources of Escherichia coli found in a grazed pastoral system. The size of the faecal reservoir was modelled on a daily basis with inputs from grazing animals, and losses due to die-off of E. coli and decomposition of the faecal material. Estimates were made of transport coefficients of E. coli losses from the two reservoirs. The concentration of E. coli measured in overland flow and artificial drainage from grazed plots, used for calibration of the model, showed a significant (P<0.0001) decrease with days since last grazing - up to 120 days. Modelled E. coli runoff concentrations calibrated well with the regression line from the measured data up to 120 days. Variability of E. coli concentrations in the source faecal material could account for the variability in the measured runoff concentrations. Measured E. coli concentrations in artificial drainage water from 120 to 1300 days since last grazing appeared to be greater than the model predicted. The longer term data clearly illustrated the need for an environmental reservoir of E. coli in models of grazed pasture systems. Research is needed to understand the behaviour and impact of this environmental reservoir. Scenario analysis using the model indicated that rather than manipulating the faecal material itself post defecation, mitigation options should focus on manipulating grazing management. PMID:22280922

  11. Leaf economics spectrum-productivity relationships in intensively grazed pastures depend on dominant species identity.

    PubMed

    Mason, Norman W H; Orwin, Kate; Lambie, Suzanne; Woodward, Sharon L; McCready, Tiffany; Mudge, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Plant functional traits are thought to drive variation in primary productivity. However, there is a lack of work examining how dominant species identity affects trait-productivity relationships. The productivity of 12 pasture mixtures was determined in a 3-year field experiment. The mixtures were based on either the winter-active ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or winter-dormant tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Different mixtures were obtained by adding forb, legume, and grass species that differ in key leaf economics spectrum (LES) traits to the basic two-species dominant grass-white clover (Trifolium repens) mixtures. We tested for correlations between community-weighted mean (CWM) trait values, functional diversity, and productivity across all plots and within those based on either ryegrass or tall fescue. The winter-dormant forb species (chicory and plantain) had leaf traits consistent with high relative growth rates both per unit leaf area (high leaf thickness) and per unit leaf dry weight (low leaf dry matter content). Together, the two forb species achieved reasonable abundance when grown with either base grass (means of 36% and 53% of total biomass, respectively, with ryegrass tall fescue), but they competed much more strongly with tall fescue than with ryegrass. Consequently, they had a net negative impact on productivity when grown with tall fescue, and a net positive effect when grown with ryegrass. Strongly significant relationships between productivity and CWM values for LES traits were observed across ryegrass-based mixtures, but not across tall fescue-based mixtures. Functional diversity did not have a significant positive effect on productivity for any of the traits. The results show dominant species identity can strongly modify trait-productivity relationships in intensively grazed pastures. This was due to differences in the intensity of competition between dominant species and additional species, suggesting that resource-use complementarity is a

  12. Trace gas responses of tropical forest and pasture soils to N and P fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steudler, Paul A.; Garcia-Montiel, Diana C.; Piccolo, Marisa C.; Neill, Christopher; Melillo, Jerry M.; Feigl, Brigitte J.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2002-05-01

    We measured the responses of nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) to nitrogen (N) and/or phosphorus (P) fertilization in a mature moist tropical forest and an 11-year-old pasture in the Brazilian Amazon. Nitrogen was applied in two forms, ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-). In the forest, NO emissions increased by 4 to 9 times the controls in the NH4+ amended plots. Nitrous oxide emissions showed a small response only in the NH4+ amended plots. In the pasture, NO emissions during the first 7 days after fertilization with either form of N were about twice those in the control plots. Nitrous oxide emissions increased more than 18 times the controls in the NO3- amended plots 1 day after fertilization. The estimated yields of total nitrogen oxide loss from the forest were between 0.2 and 1.6% of the applied nitrogen, predominately as NO. Pasture yields were greater, up to 2.8% of the applied nitrogen, predominately as N2O. In the context of Rondônia and other regions in the Amazon Basin, pasture management practices are changing to include increased use of fertilizer, particularly in older pastures that have lower NO and N2O emissions than the original intact forests. This may lead to large short-term releases of N2O and alter the future N2O emissions from the Basin.

  13. Trace gas responses of tropical forest and pasture soils to N and P fertilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steudler, Paul A.; Garcia-Montiel, Diana C.; Piccolo, Marisa C.; Neill, Christopher; Melillo, Jerry M.; Feigl, Brigitte J.; Cerri, Carlos C.

    2002-06-01

    We measured the responses of nitric oxide (NO), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) to nitrogen (N) and/or phosphorus (P) fertilization in a mature moist tropical forest and an 11-year-old pasture in the Brazilian Amazon. Nitrogen was applied in two forms, ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-). In the forest, NO emissions increased by 4 to 9 times the controls in the NH4+ amended plots. Nitrous oxide emissions showed a small response only in the NH4+ amended plots. In the pasture, NO emissions during the first 7 days after fertilization with either form of N were about twice those in the control plots. Nitrous oxide emissions increased more than 18 times the controls in the NO3- amended plots 1 day after fertilization. The estimated yields of total nitrogen oxide loss from the forest were between 0.2 and 1.6% of the applied nitrogen, predominately as NO. Pasture yields were greater, up to 2.8% of the applied nitrogen, predominately as N2O. In the context of Rondônia and other regions in the Amazon Basin, pasture management practices are changing to include increased use of fertilizer, particularly in older pastures that have lower NO and N2O emissions than the original intact forests. This may lead to large short-term releases of N2O and alter the future N2O emissions from the Basin.

  14. Effects of supplementing Leucaena leucocephala and conserved forages from natural pasture on the performance of grazing calves.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Victoria Olubunmi A; Aina, Ayobami B J; Fasae, Oladapo A; Oni, Adebayo O; Aderinboye, Ronke Y; Dele, Peter A; Idowu, Oluwaseun J; Adelusi, Oludotun O; Shittu, Olalekan O; Okeniyi, Funmilayo A; Jolaosho, Alaba O

    2014-01-01

    Twelve white Fulani × N'dama cross-bred calves weighing 83.79 ± 1.16 kg were used in an 84-day experiment to investigate the utilization of forage resources from natural grazing land. The experimental diets were sole grazing, grazing + hay, grazing + silage and grazing + Leucaena leucocephala leaves. The calves were divided into four groups of three animals each and were randomly assigned to the four experimental diets. Crude protein (CP) contents of the forages ranged from 59 to 171 g/kg dry matter (DM). Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) contents of the forages ranged from 560 to 705 g/kg DM and 363 to 440 g/kg DM, respectively. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher values in mineral contents (Ca, K, P and Mg) were recorded for L. leucocephala leaves compared to other forage resources. Variations (P < 0.05) were observed in the average daily gain. Animals on grazing + L. leucocephala leaves diet had the highest (113 g/day) average daily gain, while those on sole grazing showed the least value (26.2 g/day). Packed cell volume (PCV), total serum protein, urea and calcium concentration showed significant differences (P < 0.05). Effective utilization of forage resources from the natural pasture by the calves was attained on supplementation with conserved forages and L. leucocephala leaves without any deleterious effects on the haematological and serum parameters. PMID:24077958

  15. Premilking teat disinfection: is it worthwhile in pasture-grazed dairy herds?

    PubMed

    Morton, John M; Penry, John F; Malmo, Jakob; Mein, Graeme A

    2014-12-01

    A controlled trial was conducted in 5 pasture-grazed commercial dairy herds in Australia in 2012 to determine whether premilking teat disinfection and drying of teats reduces clinical mastitis incidence during early lactation by at least 50%. A 50% reduction was estimated to be the minimum required to justify additional costs of labor, disinfectants, and other resources if premilking teat disinfection was implemented in a 500-cow herd averaging 8 clinical cases per 100 cow-months. A secondary aim was to determine whether this premilking teat disinfection routine reduces incidence of new udder infections. Treatment was applied in each herd for approximately 60 d (range of 59.5 to 61 d), commencing in each herd soon after the start of the herd's main or only calving period. Within each herd, cows were allocated to either the treatment (premilking disinfection) or the control (no premilking disinfection) group based on their herd identity number. During the trial period, any cow having a new case of clinical mastitis or an individual cow cell count greater than 250,000 cells/mL of milk (when preceded by individual cow cell counts of 250,000 cells/mL of milk or below) was deemed to have had a new infection. Overall, neither clinical mastitis incidence nor new infection rate differed significantly between treatment and control groups. Over the whole study period, 98 of the 1,029 cows in the premilking disinfection group and 97 of the 1,025 cows in the control group had clinical mastitis. Total cow-days at risk of clinical mastitis were similar in each group. However, clinical incidence rates were markedly lower in treatment cows in one herd (herd 3; incidence rate ratio=0.34) and there was some evidence that new infection incidence rates were lower in treated cows in this herd (incidence rate ratio=0.42). Rainfall during the study period was below long-term district average in all 5 study herds. Cows' teats were less dirty than in previous, wetter years for the 4 herds

  16. Fatty acid profile of plasma, muscle and adipose tissues in Chilota lambs grazing on two different low quality pasture types in Chiloé Archipelago (Chile).

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Maria A; Dannenberger, Dirk; Rivero, Jordana; Pulido, Ruben; Nuernberg, Karin

    2014-11-01

    There is no information about the effect of different pasture types on tissue fatty acid profiles of a native rustic lamb breed of the Chiloe Archipelago, the Chilota. Eight Chilota lambs were grazed on a 'Calafatal' pasture (CP), a typical secondary succession of Chiloé Archipelago (Chile) and eight Chilota lambs were located to graze on naturalized pasture (NP) of Chiloé. Botanical, chemical and lipid composition of the two types of pastures and of different lamb tissues (muscle, subcutaneous - and tail adipose tissues) and plasma were performed. Both pasture types induced high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and CLAcis-9,trans-11 proportions in Chilota meat. Thus, in muscle, Chilota lambs grazing CP showed higher sum PUFA, sum n-6 PUFA proportion and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. In tail fats of Chilota lambs grazing CP significantly higher proportions of 18:3n-3, sum saturated fatty acids, sum PUFA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA were detected compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. Feeding of different pasture types (CP vs. NP) caused significant differences in fatty acid composition of muscle and the two fat depots in Chilota lambs, but also point to tissue-specific responses of de novo synthesized fatty acid deposition in the tissues. PMID:24964067

  17. Management effects on the distribution of soil characteristics of two pasture types in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pastures of native prairie and winter wheat are among the primary resources used to graze cattle in central Oklahoma. These pastures are subject to numerous stressors that affect land condition including grazing, climate, soil fertility, and farming operations. Understanding responses of soil charac...

  18. Effect of herbage depletion on cattle grazing dynamics in wheat pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two complementary experiments were conducted to assess grazing dynamics, intake rate, quality and ruminal degradation kinetics of herbage consumed under three herbage depletion levels. In the first experiment (behavioral), three rumen cannulated steers faced (15 min. grazing session) grazing scenari...

  19. Growth performances of F1 Angus Plus calves grazing on pasture in Hawaii's tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Yang, J; Ferreira, R; Duponte, M W; Fukumoto, G K; Zhao, B

    2009-04-01

    Angus Plus cattle offer advantages for heat tolerance and forage utilization by introduction of Brangus and Brahman to Angus. To evaluate its adaptability in Hawaii Islands, we reported the growth performances of 213 F1 Angus Plus calve grazing on pasture. Least-square means of pre-weaning ADG ranged from 1,087 to 1,167 g in bull calves and from 1,030 to 1,048 g in heifer calves. The 205 d-adjusted weaning weight were 226 to 285 kg in bulls and 214 to 252 kg in heifers. The birth weight and hip height at birth were significantly correlated with weaning weight, 205 d-adjusted weaning weight, hip height at weaning and pre-weaning ADG (P < 0.01). Sire group significantly influenced pre-weaning growth performances through interaction with sex of calf. Bull calves from sire group of high growth were 1.0-3.8 kg heavier in birth weight than the bull calves from other sires (P < 0.001). Sire group x sex interaction was significant (P < 0.05) for calf birth weight, 205-d adjusted weaning weight and pre-weaning ADG. Sire group also played a significant role in hip height at birth (P < 0.05). Selections of the sires preferable for growth significantly improved calf pre-weaning growth performances. PMID:18759132

  20. Ruminal changes in monensin- and lasalocid-fed cattle grazing bloat-provocative alfalfa pasture.

    PubMed

    Katz, M P; Nagaraja, T G; Fina, L R

    1986-10-01

    Microbial and fermentation changes in the rumen in monensin- and lasalocid-fed cattle grazing bloat-provocative alfalfa pasture were studied using genetically bloat-susceptible, ruminally-cannulated adult cattle. Monensin at .66 and .99 mg/kg body weight daily reduced the severity of legume bloat by 41 and 73%, respectively. The same doses of lasalocid reduced bloat by 25 and 12%. Comparison of ruminal contents from animals before treatment with ruminal contents from antibiotic-treated animals showed no differences in pH, ammonia, soluble N, soluble carbohydrate, ethanol-precipitable slime and anaerobic bacterial counts. Monensin treatment decreased protozoal numbers and microbial activity, as evidenced by lower gas production from in vitro fermentation of ground alfalfa hay when compared to pretreatment. Lasalocid had no effect on protozoal counts and in vitro gas production. Addition of monensin or lasalocid (12 micrograms/ml) to in vitro fermentation of chopped, fresh alfalfa reduced microbial activity as evidenced by higher soluble N, lower ammonia concentration and decreased gas production. Monensin reduced the amount of ethanol-precipitable slime and protozoal numbers. Reduction in the severity of bloat when monensin was fed appears to be due to decreased protozoal numbers, which resulted in decreased gas production. Lasalocid did not reduce legume bloat because of its minimal effect on the ruminal protozoa. PMID:3771403

  1. Milk fatty acid composition and cheese texture and appearance from cows fed hay or different grazing systems on upland pastures.

    PubMed

    Coppa, M; Ferlay, A; Monsallier, F; Verdier-Metz, I; Pradel, P; Didienne, R; Farruggia, A; Montel, M C; Martin, B

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this work was to compare milk fatty acid (FA) profile and texture and appearance of Cantal cheeses obtained from cows grazing 2 different upland grasslands: a highly diversified pasture (74 species) of area 12.5 ha managed under continuous mode (C), and a weakly diversified pasture (31 species) of area 7.7 ha (an old temporary grassland) managed under rotational mode (R). A control group of cows fed a hay-based diet (indoors, I) was used. Three equivalent groups of 12 Montbéliarde cows underwent the 3 treatments from May to September 2008. The cheeses were manufactured during 3 consecutive days in early June, early July, and late August (27 cheeses in all). The texture, appearance, and chemical composition of the cheeses were determined after 12 wk of ripening. Concentrations of total saturated FA and monounsaturated FA were higher and lower, respectively, in I milks compared with pasture milks. The concentrations of trans-11-C18:1 and cis-9-C18:1, and polyunsaturated FA as well as yellowness decreased during the season in C-derived milk but remained constant in R-derived milk, through a combined effect of grass development stage and the cows' grazing selection. The I cheeses were, on average, firmer, less creamy, less elastic, and less yellow than the pasture cheeses. Decreasing and increasing trends in texture firmness during the season were observed for C and R cheeses, respectively. The rind of the pasture-fed cow cheese had fewer, less intensely colored, and less prominent spots than did that of I cheeses. This difference was probably due to greater migration of fat to the rind during pressing because of the lower fat melting point of the pasture-fed cow cheeses, which had higher unsaturated FA content. The greater amounts of fat deposited on the rind of the pasture-fed cow cheeses may have partially inhibited the microbial activity responsible for rind appearance. Our trial underlines the importance of the effects of grazing management

  2. Achieving model-data harmony by viewing C and N isotopes through the same window: grazed pasture irrigation treatments over 42 years in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisden, T. W.; Schipper, L. A.; Sanderman, J.; Keller, E. D.; Mudge, P. L.; Dodd, M. B.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) form the skeleton of soil organic matter, and are central to the interaction of land use and global change. Both the C and N cycles are considered to be complex, but are often treated in somewhat different ways - particularly in simple models. Thus, highly simplified models often lack consistency with complex data, while models containing many details are often criticized for being poorly constrained. Viewing C and N with a moderate level of complexity appears to offer a promising opportunity to delivery more harmonious interpretations, enabling improved model-data consistency. In grazed pasture trials operated at Winchmore in Canterbury, New Zealand (43°S) we overlay a 12-point Δ14C dataset on recently published records of total C, N and δ15N. The record obtained from archived, replicated samples spans the period from 1959-2002, and compares dryland pasture with pastures irrigated when soil moisture reaches 10% and 20%. The C and N concentrations increased in all treatments, and show that the 20% irrigation treatment stored less C and N compared to the 10% and dryland treatments. The δ15N increases in the treatments followed the pattern: 20%>10%>dryland. The lower storage of C and N under higher levels of irrigation at a site with a long-term record of pasture productivity provides the ideal opportunity to examine whether decomposition rates have been enhanced by irrigation, or rates of organic matter stabilization have slowed, or both. Using two and three pool models with and without steady-state assumptions, we examine the 12-point Δ14C records, and conclude that a decline in the amount of organic matter stabilized under high levels of irrigation is the most likely reason for the treatment comparison. This conclusion is compatible with higher δ15N values in the 20% irrigation treatment reflecting more complete microbial decomposition processes operating in the soil. Noting that irrigation is an adaptive response to climate

  3. Nitrogen fertilization increases pasture canopy photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper management of agricultural lands has the potential to increase soil C sequestration and help reduce the rate that carbon dioxide concentration is increasing in the atmosphere. Grazing lands, in particular, are thought to have a high C sequestration potential. Eddy covariance systems have cont...

  4. Regionalized levels of soil phosphorus and phosphorus saturation in beef cattle pastures with and without grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Available soil phosphorus (P) in various agro-ecosystems is regulated by climate, soil type, vegetation, and management practices. Available soil P in bahiagrass beef cattle pastures were compared with rhizoma peanut pastures and bermudagrass pastures. For each location, the pain plot was represente...

  5. Cesium-137, /sup 134/Cs and /sup 110m/Ag in lambs grazing pasture in NE Scotland contaminated by Chernobyl fallout

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, C.J.; Heaton, B.; Thompson, J.

    1989-04-01

    The decline in Cs radioisotope levels has been studied in tissues from lambs grazing lowland pasture. The lambs were slaughtered 18 and 115 d after contamination with Chernobyl fallout. During this time the Cs activity decreased to 13% of the initial amount in animals that had continued to graze contaminated pasture and to 3.5% in animals consuming uncontaminated feed. The /sup 137/Cs concentration in grass from the field grazed by the lambs decreased with a half-time of 22 d over the period 11-100 d after contamination. The amounts of Cs radionuclides removed from the pasture by the grazing animals amounted to only 0.01% of the total, the rest remaining in the soil, with over 40% in the upper 10 mm. Small amounts of /sup 110m/Ag, found in grass, declined with a half-time of 8.9 d, and the radionuclide was found to accumulate in liver tissue.

  6. Bartonella chomelii Is the Most Frequent Species Infecting Cattle Grazing in Communal Mountain Pastures in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Antequera-Gómez, M. L.; Lozano-Almendral, L.; Barandika, J. F.; González-Martín-Niño, R. M.; Rodríguez-Moreno, I.; García-Pérez, A. L.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Bartonella spp. was investigated in domestic ungulates grazing in communal pastures from a mountain area in northern Spain, where 18.3% (17/93) of cattle were found to be positive by PCR combined with a reverse line blot (PCR/RLB), whereas sheep (n = 133) or horses (n = 91) were found not to be infected by this pathogen. Bartonella infection was significantly associated with age, since older animals showed a higher prevalence than heifers and calves. In contrast to other studies, B. chomelii was the most frequent species found in cattle (14/17), while B. bovis was detected in only three animals. Moreover, 18 B. chomelii isolates and one B. bovis isolate were obtained from nine animals. Afterwards, B. chomelii isolates were characterized by a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) method which was adapted in this study. This method presented a high discrimination power, identifying nine different sequence types (STs). This characterization also showed the presence of different STs simultaneously in the same host and that STs had switched over time in one of the animals. In addition, B. chomelii STs seem to group phylogenetically in two different lineages. The only B. bovis isolate was characterized with a previously described MLST method. This isolate corresponded to a new ST which is located in lineage I, where the B. bovis strains infecting Bos taurus subsp. taurus are grouped. Further studies on the dynamics of Bartonella infection in cattle and the potential ectoparasites involved in the transmission of this microorganism should be performed, improving knowledge about the interaction of Bartonella spp. and domestic ungulates. PMID:25381240

  7. The effect of sustained release boli with ammoniumiron(III)-hexacyanoferrate(II) on radiocesium accumulation in sheep grazing contaminated pasture

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, H.S.; Hove, K.; Barvik, K.

    1996-11-01

    Sustained release boli with the cesium binder ammoniumiron(III)-hexacyanoferrate(II) (AFCF) were tested under practical conditions for sheep grazing on pastures contaminated with radiocesium ({sup 134}Cs+{sup 137}Cs) from the Chernobyl fallout. Two types of AFCF boli were developed: boli without a protective surface coating intended to last 4-8 wk; and boli coated by a wax-mixture with an extended duration of 10-12 wk. From 1989 to 1993 we measured the effect of wax-coated and uncoated boli administered at various times during the grazing season to a total of 3,248 animals. Reductions in radiocesium levels in meat of sheep were measured by in vivo monitoring. Administration of AFCF boli without a wax-coating reduced the mean radiocesium levels in lambs by 42-75% over a 408 wk period, and administration of the wax-coated AFCF boli reduced the mean radiocesium levels by 48-65% over a 9-11 wk period. The coefficients of variation in meat radiocesium levels were similar in treated and control groups at the end of the observation period, showing that the reduction of meat radiocesium values was homogeneous throughout the treated groups. The boli giving sustained release of AFCF is a labor-saving and cost effective counter-measure for sheep grazing radiocesium contaminated pastures. 16 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Additive effects of growth promoting technologies on performance of grazing steers and economics of the wheat pasture enterprise.

    PubMed

    Beck, P; Hess, T; Hubbell, D; Hufstedler, G D; Fieser, B; Caldwell, J

    2014-03-01

    This research was designed to evaluate the effect of monensin (Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) supplementation via mineral or pressed protein block with or without a growth-promoting implant on performance of steers grazing wheat pasture in Arkansas over 2 yr. Preconditioned steers (n = 360, BW = 238 ± 5.1 kg) grazed 15 1.6-ha wheat pastures in the fall (n = 60 steers each fall, stocking rate of 2.5 steers/ha) or 30 0.8-ha wheat pastures in the spring (n = 120 steers each spring, stocking rate of 5 steers/ha). Steers in each pasture were given free-choice access to nonmedicated mineral (CNTRL; MoorMan's WeatherMaster Range Minerals A 646AAA; ADM Alliance Nutrition, Inc., Quincy, IL), or were supplemented with monensin (Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) via mineral containing 1.78 g monensin/kg (RMIN; MoorMan's Grower Mineral RU-1620 590AR; ADM Alliance Nutrition, Inc.), or pressed protein block containing 0.33 g monensin/kg (RBLCK; MoorMan's Mintrate Blonde Block RU; ADM Alliance Nutrition, Inc.). Additionally, one-half of the steers in each pasture were implanted (IMPL) with 40 mg trenbolone acetate and 8 mg estradiol (Component TE-G with Tylan; Elanco Animal Health). There was no interaction (P ≥ 0.71) between supplement treatment and growth-promoting implants, and ADG for RMIN and RBLCK were increased (P < 0.01) over CNTRL by 0.07 to 0.09 kg/d, respectively. Implanting steers with Component TE-G increased (P < 0.01) ADG by 0.14 kg/d. The combination of these growth-promoting technologies are a cost-effective means of increasing beef production by 22% without increasing level of supplementation or pasture acreage. Utilizing ionophores and implants together for wheat pasture stocker cattle decreased cost of gain by 26%. Utilizing both IMPL and monensin increased net return by $30 to $54/steer for RMIN or $18 to $43/steer for RBLCK compared with UNIMPL CNTRL at Low and High values of BW gain, respectively. PMID:24492552

  9. Low Spatial and Inter-Annual Variability in Evaporation from an Intensively Grazed Temperate Pasture System in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronger, J.; Campbell, D.; Clearwater, M.; Rutledge, S.; Wall, A.; Schipper, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Ecosystem scale measurements of evaporation (E) from intensively managed pasture systems are scarce and are important for informing water resource decision making, drought forecasting, and validation of Earth system models and remote sensing. We measured E from intensively grazed, unirrigated, ryegrass and clover pasture in New Zealand using eddy covariance (EC) for three years (2012 - 2014). Spatial variation in E was less than 3% during the initial study period when up to three sites were operating simultaneously. Inter-annual variability was also less than 3% over the three consecutive years (710 - 730 mm) at one site. The absence of spatial and inter-annul variation largely occurred because E was strongly controlled by net radiation (daytime half-hourly data r2 = 0.83, p < 0.01) which was relatively consistent between sites and years. However, soil moisture decreased surface conductance during seasonal drought constraining E relative to net radiation. Variation in drought severity between years caused variation in seasonal E between years, for example, a relatively severe autumn drought in 2013 reduced E over autumn by 13% compared to 2012. Coincidentally, two unusually large spring and early summer rainfall events during warm conditions later in 2013 increased summer E by 12% compared to 2012 and therefore similar annual totals were measured between years. The FAO56 Penman-Monteith model was able to accurately predict daily E over an annual cycle (r2 = 0.81) to within 5 % of measured cumulative E with a crop factor of 0.96 (determined under non water-limiting conditions) and a water stress coefficient to account for soil moisture restrictions. Intensive grazing events, that remove a large fraction of standing pasture biomass, were found to have no effect on evaporation. The absence of a grazing effect suggests that leaf area was not an important control of E, likely because increases in soil E were able to compensate for decreased transpiration.

  10. Efficacy of broadcast and perimeter applications of S-methoprene bait on the red imported fire ant in grazed pastures.

    PubMed

    Aubuchon, Matthew D; Mullen, G R; Eubanks, M D

    2006-06-01

    The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Buren), is a major pest in the United States because of its painful sting. Toxic bait has been an important management tool against fire ants, but site registrations prohibit applications of most baits on grazed pastures. Extinguish, containing the insect growth regulator methoprene, was selected for this study because it has a broad site registration that includes grazed pastures. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy for control of red imported fire ants by using broadcast applications of methoprene bait at a label rate of 1,121 g/ha versus applications around the perimeter of a target area at the reduced rate of 280 g/ha. Grazed pastures in Lee County, Alabama, and Chambers County, Alabama, were selected for this study, with broadcast treatments, perimeter treatments, and controls replicated three times at each site. All mounds were counted and rated using the USDA population index before applications and then at 8 and 16 wk posttreatment. Perimeter applications did not significantly reduce S. invicta mound abundance, but bait treatments significantly reduced mound abundance at 16 wk posttreatment at site 1 where applications were conducted in early evening. However, broadcast applications were not effective at site 2 where treatments were conducted in early morning with warmer temperatures. Emergence of winged alates was observed at 12 wk posttreatment, followed by a high density of incipient mounds that may have masked the full treatment effect of methoprene applications at site 2. Methoprene bait was effective in reducing abundance of S. invicta only when full label rates were applied. PMID:16813290

  11. Effect of Herbage Depletion on the Grazing Dynamics and Short-Term Intake Rate of Steers Grazing Wheat Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduction of herbage mass may not accurately predict herbage intake rate, as it does not incorporate aspects of availability and accessibility of preferred plant parts. There is little research attempting to understand cattle foraging strategies during pasture depletion. This study aimed to assess g...

  12. Soil organic carbon stocks and composition under grazed and ungrazed Kobresia pygmaea pasture of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breidenbach, Andreas; Schleuß, Per; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Guggenberger, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Kobresia pastures represent the world's largest alpine ecosystem and an important sink but also a potential source of CO2. Specific features of Kobresia root mats provide unique mechanisms protecting against degradation even by moderate overgrazing and leading to large carbon storage in soil. Thus it is necessary to analyse how management- and/or climate-induced changes in above and belowground litter production affect the OC stock and composition in these grassland soils. We analyzed soils from a grazing exclosure experiment to study alterations using elemental analysis and analysis of solvent extractable as well as hydrolysable aliphatic lipids (e.g. n-alkanes, n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, as well as cutin- and suberin-derived hydroxy-fatty acids). We investigated bulk soils and density fractions taken from three different depth increments (0-5 cm, 5-15 cm and 15-35 cm) from two grazed and two ungrazed plots. Grazing exclosure resulted in an OC gain up to 1.0 kg m-2 at the site where plant community changes after grazing cessation were most pronounced. These OC gains were caused by increased stocks of OC in the particulate fraction of the two deeper soil increments whereas the OC of the mineral associated fraction and the depth increment 0-5 cm showed no changes. Moreover, the concentration of solvent extractable C16 and C18 acids decreased in the particulate fraction whereas the concentration of C24 and C26 acids increased. Our results show that seven years of grazing cessation increased the OC-pool with short turnover rates and changed its chemical composition, but had no major impact on the more stable OC pools of the mineral soil.

  13. Biogeochemical Changes Associated With Conversion of Grazed Pastures to Plantation Forests in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, N. A.; Tate, K. R.; Ross, D. J.; Parfitt, R.; Parshotam, A.; Halliday, J.; McMurtrie, R.

    2001-05-01

    Since the 1930s, large areas of marginally productive pasture and/or scrubland have been converted to plantation forests dominated by Pinus radiata. In the 1990s, up to 100,000 hectares of new plantings occurred each year, many into land used previously for pasture. Current plantation forest area is about 1.7 million hectares. This land-use change impacts many biogeochemical and hydrological processes, and plays an important role in several current environmental issues. Conversion of pasture to plantation forests increases evapotranspiration, and can reduce streamflow and regional water availability. However, afforestation also stabilizes pasture soils that would be highly erodible when covered with pasture vegetation. Soil temperatures are also lower in plantation forests than in pasture, influencing carbon and nitrogen cycling rates. Because of differences in plant litter quality and distribution of carbon inputs to the soil, afforestation often leads to a reduction in soil pH, lower soil carbon turnover rates, lower net N mineralization, lower total mineral soil N, and reduced numbers of soil invertebrates (particularly earthworms). At many sites, these changes can lead to a reduction in mineral soil C stocks, with the reduction sometimes greater than the C accumulated in the forest floor. High N availability associated with pastures can often lead to N leaching losses when tree seedlings are established and uptake of N by pasture grasses inhibited by e.g. herbicide application. We discuss the ability of ecosystem models to simulate these complex biogeochemical changes associated with afforestation, the potential importance of forest management on these changes, and the implications for key environmental issues such as the rate of carbon sequestration in Kyoto forests and decreased emissions of agricultural trace gases.

  14. More milk from forage: Milk production, blood metabolites, and forage intake of dairy cows grazing pasture mixtures and spatially adjacent monocultures.

    PubMed

    Pembleton, Keith G; Hills, James L; Freeman, Mark J; McLaren, David K; French, Marion; Rawnsley, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    There is interest in the reincorporation of legumes and forbs into pasture-based dairy production systems as a means of increasing milk production through addressing the nutritive value limitations of grass pastures. The experiments reported in this paper were undertaken to evaluate milk production, blood metabolite concentrations, and forage intake levels of cows grazing either pasture mixtures or spatially adjacent monocultures containing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens), and plantain (Plantago lanceolata) compared with cows grazing monocultures of perennial ryegrass. Four replicate herds, each containing 4 spring-calving, cross-bred dairy cows, grazed 4 different forage treatments over the periods of early, mid, and late lactation. Forage treatments were perennial ryegrass monoculture (PRG), a mixture of white clover and plantain (CPM), a mixture of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain (RCPM), and spatially adjacent monocultures (SAM) of perennial ryegrass, white clover, and plantain. Milk volume, milk composition, blood fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, blood urea N concentrations, live weight change, and estimated forage intake were monitored over a 5-d response period occurring after acclimation to each of the forage treatments. The acclimation period for the early, mid, and late lactation experiments were 13, 13, and 10 d, respectively. Milk yield (volume and milk protein) increased for cows grazing the RCPM and SAM in the early lactation experiment compared with cows grazing the PRG, whereas in the mid lactation experiment, milk fat increased for the cows grazing the RCPM and SAM when compared with the PRG treatments. Improvements in milk production from grazing the RCPM and SAM treatments are attributed to improved nutritive value (particularly lower neutral detergent fiber concentrations) and a potential increase in forage intake. Pasture mixtures or SAM containing plantain and white clover could be a

  15. Genotype x environment interactions for postweaning performance in crossbred calves grazing winter wheat pasture or dormant native prairie.

    PubMed

    Phillips, W A; Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Coleman, S W

    2001-06-01

    Data from 403 calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows sired by Polled Hereford bulls were used to evaluate the impact of postweaning backgrounding forages on postweaning BW, gains, and carcass traits. Calves were born (spring of 1991 through 1994) and reared on either endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass pastures. After weaning, calves were transported 360 km to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, west of El Reno, OK, and, within breed and preweaning forage, were assigned to one of the following winter stocker treatments: 1) winter wheat pasture or 2) dormant native prairie plus supplemental CP. In March, winter stocker treatments were ended and calves were grazed as a single group on cool-season grasses until early July (1992, 1993, and 1994) or late May (1995), when the feedlot phase began. In the feedlot, calves were fed a high concentrate diet for an average of 120 d until a backfat thickness of > 10 mm was reached. Calves were shipped in truck load lots to Amarillo, TX (350 km), for processing and collection of carcass data. Averaged over calf breed group, calves wintered on wheat pasture gained faster (P < 0.01) during the stocker phase (0.71 vs 0.43 kg); had heavier (P < 0.01) final feedlot weights (535 vs 512 kg); lower feedlot (P < 0.01) ADG (1.37 vs 1.53 kg); heavier (P < 0.01) carcass weights (337 vs 315 kg); larger (P < 0.01) longissimus muscle (84.9 vs 81.8 cm2); higher percentage (P < 0.01) of kidney, heart, and pelvic fat (2.32 vs 2.26); and higher (P < 0.01) dressing percentage (62.2 vs 61.3) than calves backgrounded on native prairie. Maternal heterosis for stocker ADG was evident in calves backgrounded on native prairie but not on winter wheat (P < 0.10), but the two environments were similar in maternal heterosis for feedlot ADG and carcass traits. Calves wintered on native prairie were restricted in growth and expressed compensatory gain during the feedlot phase but not during the spring stocker phase. Dormant

  16. Beef heifer growth and reproductive performance following two levels of pasture allowance during the fall grazing period.

    PubMed

    Bailey, B L; Griggs, T C; Rayburn, E B; Krause, K M

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare heifer growth and reproductive performance following 2 levels of stockpiled fall forage allowance of orchardgrass (30.5%) and tall fescue (14.1%). Spring-born heifers (n = 203 and BW = 246 ± 28.9 kg) of primarily Angus background were allocated to 2 grazing treatments during the fall period (November 12 to December 17 in yr 1, November 7 to January 4 in yr 2, and November 7 to January 14 in yr 3) each replicated 3 times per year for 3 yr. Treatments consisted of daily pasture DM allowance of 3.5% of BW (LO) or daily pasture DM allowance of 7.0% of BW (HI) under strip-grazing management. Throughout the winter feeding period, mixed grass-legume haylage and soybean hulls were fed. Heifers were grazed as 1 group under continuous stocking after the winter period. Heifers in the LO group gained less than heifers in the HI group during the fall grazing period (0.12 vs. 0.40 kg/d; P < 0.0001). For each 1 10 g increase in NDF/kg fall pasture (DM basis), fall ADG decreased 0.14 kg (P = 0.01). During winter feeding, ADG was 0.30 and 0.39 kg/d for LO vs. HI heifers, respectively (P = 0.0008). During the spring grazing period (April 16 to May 24 in yr 1, April 22 to May 26 in yr 2, and April 5 to May 16 in yr 3), LO heifers had numerically greater ADG than HI heifers (1.38 vs. 1.30 kg/d; P = 0.64). Hip height (122.7 vs. 121.4 cm; P = 0.0055), BCS (5.8 vs. 5.6; P = 0.0057), and BW (356 vs. 335 kg; P < 0.0001) at the end of spring grazing was greater for HI than LO heifers. Heifers in the LO group compensated with greater summer ADG than heifers in the HI group (0.74 vs. 0.66 kg/d; P = 0.03). Total ADG from treatment initiation (November) through pregnancy diagnosis (August) was greater for HI than LO heifers (0.61 vs. 0.55 kg/d; P < 0.001) as was BW at pregnancy diagnosis (415 vs. 402 kg; P = 0.0055). Percentage of heifers reaching puberty by the time of AI was 34% for both groups (P = 0.93). Percentage of heifers becoming pregnant to

  17. The detectability of nitrous oxide mitigation efficacy in intensively grazed pastures using a multiple plot micrometeorological technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillan, A. M. S.; Harvey, M. J.; Martin, R. J.; Bromley, A. M.; Evans, M. J.; Mukherjee, S.; Laubach, J.

    2013-10-01

    Methodologies are required to verify agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation at scales relevant to farm management. Micrometeorological techniques provide a viable approach for comparing fluxes between fields receiving mitigation treatments and control fields. However, they have rarely been applied to spatially verifying treatments aimed at mitigating nitrous oxide emission from intensively grazed pastoral systems. We deployed a micrometeorological system to compare N2O flux among several ~ 1.5 ha plots in intensively grazed dairy pasture. The sample collection and measurement system is referred to as the Field-Scale Nitrous Oxide Mitigation Assessment System (FS-NOMAS) and used a tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometer to measure N2O gradients to high precision at four locations along a 300 m transect. The utility of the FS-NOMAS to assess mitigation efficacy depends largely on its ability to resolve very small vertical N2O gradients. The performance of the FS-NOMAS was assessed in this respect in laboratory and field-based studies. The FS-NOMAS could reliably resolve gradients of 0.039 ppb between a height of 0.5 m and 1.0 m. The gradient resolution achieved corresponded to the ability to detect an inter-plot N2O flux difference of 26.4 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 under the most commonly encountered conditions of atmospheric mixing (quantified here by a turbulent transfer coefficient), but this ranged from 11 to 59 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 as the transfer coefficient ranged between its 5th and 95th percentile. Assuming a likely value of 100 μg N2O-N m-2 h-1 for post-grazing N2O fluxes from intensively grazed New Zealand dairy pasture, the system described here would be capable of detecting a mitigation efficacy of 26% for a single (40 min) comparison. We demonstrate that the system has considerably greater sensitivity to treatment effects by measuring cumulative fluxes over extended periods.

  18. In-vivo estimates for the uptake of caesium-137 by cattle grazing contaminated pasture around the ESK and IRT estuaries, Cumbria, U.K.

    PubMed

    Sumerling, T J

    1981-12-01

    Sea water contaminated with diluted radioactive effluent from the Windscale nuclear complex in Cumbria periodically floods low-lying grazing pasture around the estuaries of the rivers Esk, Irt and Mite near Ravenglass. During 1979, an experiment was carried out to measure the transfer of caesium-137 from grass to muscle in cows grazing these pastures. Grass samples were taken in a vivo external gamma-ray measurements were made on cattle. A very low transfer coefficient was found, less than 9 X 10-4 days kg-1 with a best estimate of 4 X 10-4 days kg-1, compared with a more usual value of around 3 X 10-2 days kg-1. The low transfer seems to occur because the bulk of the caesium-137 on the grass is bound to resuspended estuarine surface sediment deposited during flooding. In this form, the caesium-137 is only poorly absorbed across the gut of the grazing cattle. PMID:7336201

  19. Performance by Fall-Calving Cows Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Different Proportions Stockpiled

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] is often stockpiled to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. Over two consecutive years, a total of 158 Gelbvieh × Angus fall-calving cows (599 ± 6.0 kg) were allocated randomly to one of eight 10-ha tall fescue pastures (subdivided into six 1.6-h...

  20. Performance by Fall-Calving Cows Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures With Different Proportions Stockpiled

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire.] is often stockpiled to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. Over two consecutive years, a total of 158 Gelbvieh × Angus fall-calving cows (1318 plus/minus 13.2 lb) were allocated randomly to one of eight 24-acre tall fescue pastures on 18 ...

  1. Steer and tall fescue pasture responses to grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is the principal cool-season species within pastures of the southeastern USA and is known to have a mutualistic relationship with a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that produces the ergot alkaloids responsible for tall fescue toxicosis. Management of t...

  2. The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Matthew J.; Cullen, Brendan R.; Eckard, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Livestock production systems and the agricultural industries in general face challenges to meet the global demand for food, whilst also minimizing their environmental impact through the production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Livestock grazing systems in southern Australia are low input and reliant on pasture as a low-cost source of feed. The balance between productivity and GHG emission intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems was studied at sites chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. While the climatic and edaphic characteristics of a location may impact on the emissions from a grazing system, management to efficiently use pasture can reduce emissions per unit product. Abstract A biophysical whole farm system model was used to simulate the interaction between the historical climate, soil and pasture type at sites in southern Australia and assess the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq.) intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems. Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. Poorer feed quality and supply limited the annual carrying capacity of the kikuyu pasture compared to phalaris pastures, with an average long-term carrying capacity across sites estimated to be 0.6 to 0.9 cows/ha. A relative reduction in level of feed intake to productivity of calf live weight/ha at weaning by feeding supplementary feed reduced the average CO2-eq. emissions/kg calf live weight at weaning of cows on the kikuyu pasture (18.4 and 18.9 kg/kg with and without supplementation, respectively), whereas at the other sites studied an increase in intake level to productivity and emission intensity was seen (between 10.4 to 12.5 kg/kg without and with supplementary feed, respectively). Enteric fermentationand nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity

  3. The effect of pasture pregrazing herbage mass on methane emissions, ruminal fermentation, and average daily gain of grazing beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Boland, T M; Quinlan, C; Pierce, K M; Lynch, M B; Kenny, D A; Kelly, A K; Purcell, P J

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pregrazing pasture herbage mass (HM) on CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation, and ADG of grazing beef heifers at 2 stages of the grazing season. Thirty Limousin cross heifers were allocated to 1 of 2 target pregrazing HM treatments [a low HM (LHM) or high HM (HHM) treatment] for 126 d in a randomized block design experiment. Pasture herbage and heifer rumen fluid samples were collected, and enteric CH4 emissions were determined using an SF6 tracer technique during two 5-d measurement periods [MP; MP 1 (25 to 29 May) and MP 2 (6 to 10 September)]. Both DMI and GE intake (GEI) were measured during MP 2, and ADG of the heifers was measured every 14 d throughout the 126-d grazing period. Mean HM for the LHM and HHM treatments were 1,300 and 2,000 kg DM/ha, respectively, during MP 1 and 2,800 and 3,200 kg DM/ha, respectively, during MP 2. The CP concentration of the offered herbage was greater (P < 0.01) for the LHM treatment during MP 1 and tended (P < 0.1) to be greater for the LHM herbage during MP 2. No difference (P > 0.10) in the NDF concentration of the herbage was found between the HM treatments during MP 1 or 2. There was no effect (P > 0.10) of HM treatment on total CH4 emissions (g/d) for either MP [mean value across HM treatments of 121 (SED 5.4) g/d during MP 1 and 132 (8.8) g/d during MP 2], but CH4 emissions (g) per kilogram of ADG were reduced (P < 0.05) from heifers fed the LHM treatment during MP 1 and 2 [mean values for LHM and HHM of 135 and 163 (SED 9.5) g/kg, respectively, during MP 1 and corresponding values of 150 and 194 (9.9) g/kg during MP 2]. Heifers fed the LHM treatment had greater (P < 0.001) ADG throughout the grazing period [mean value across the 126-d grazing period of 0.88 (SEM 0.032) kg/d] than those fed the HHM treatment [corresponding value of 0.73 (0.034)]. For MP 2, CH4 emissions per kilogram of DMI (g CH4/kg DMI) and per megajoule of GEI (MJ CH4/MJ GEI) tended (P ≤ 0

  4. A recent assessment of the elemental composition of New Zealand pastures in relation to meeting the dietary requirements of grazing livestock.

    PubMed

    Knowles, S O; Grace, N D

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the benefits and limitations of pasture feeding underpins sustainable grazing systems that produce milk and meat from ruminant livestock. We evaluated the mineral composition of 1,106 pasture samples collected independently from locations across New Zealand from 2001 to 2006. About half were submitted during 2002 and 2003, and 87% came from the North Island. Most herbage was from ryegrass and clover-dominated swards. The concentrations of Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, S, Se, or Zn were measured by nitric acid digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy or atomic absorption spectroscopy. Median concentrations for the macro elements were Ca 5.5, K 33, Mg 2.2, Na 2.0, P 4.0, and S 3.6 g/kg DM and for the trace elements were Co 0.10, Cu 8.4, Fe 131, Mn 74, Mo 0.66, Se 0.050, and Zn 43 mg/kg DM. Frequency histograms of concentrations revealed distributions ranging from near-normal to bottom-heavy skew with a long tail of high values. The minerals required for good plant growth were found at adequate concentrations in the majority of pastures. The exception was P; only 74% of pastures contained the recommended 3.5 mg P/kg DM. Results of the pasture survey were compared to the dietary intake requirements of cattle and sheep. For 7 elements, >95% of the pastures contained sufficiently high concentrations to meet the needs of unsupplemented animals. Exceptions were the Se dietary requirement, which was met by only 76% of pastures, the Co requirement of sheep met by only 54% of pastures, and the Cu, Na, and P requirements of cattle met by 25, 78, and 87% of pastures, respectively. Pasture analysis is an essential tool for identifying dietary insufficiency as well as unfavorable mineral balances where interactions could induce a deficiency, such as Cu × Mo and Mg × K. Monitoring of animals' nutritional status is also required to manage complex metabolic disorders related to peripartum flux of Ca and Mg. This

  5. Effect of grazing seedhead-suppressed tall fescue pasture on the vasoactivity of serotonin receptors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to ergot alkaloids reduces vasoactivity of serotonin (5HT) receptors. Chemical suppression of tall fescue seedhead production is a tool to reduce the level of exposure to ergot alkaloids by a grazing animal. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate co...

  6. Cattle methane emission and pasture carbon dioxide balance of a grazed grassland.

    PubMed

    McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A; Coates, T; McGeough, E J

    2014-05-01

    Grasslands constitute a major land use globally and are a potential sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO). They are also an important habitat for wildlife and a source of feed that supports ruminant livestock production. However, the presence of ruminants grazing these grasslands is also a source of methane (CH) that contributes to buildup of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Our study measured enteric CH from 40 confined heifers in 1-ha paddocks using a dispersion model and CO exchange from an adjacent grassland site using a micrometeorological technique. The study was conducted at a mixed prairie grassland located in southern Alberta, Canada. The mean (standard error) CH emission was 189 (± 6) g animal d over four campaigns (over a 3-yr period). The daily averaged CO exchange from the grassland peaked at +2.2 g m h (sink) in early July and declined to negative values (source) in mid-August. Annually, the grazed grassland was either a net sink for carbon (C) at +40 kg C ha or a small source at -7 kg C ha depending on a cattle stocking density of 0.1 or 0.2 animals ha, respectively. However, in basing the exchange on CO equivalence (CO), both stocking densities resulted in the grazed grassland being a source of greenhouse gas of -9 or -338 kg CO ha y. This study illustrates the need to consider the cattle CH emissions and the stocking density when evaluating the environmental sustainability of grazed grasslands. PMID:25602811

  7. Effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on performance of young beef cows grazing winter-stockpiled tall fescue-red clover pasture.

    PubMed

    Driskill, R; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G; Barnhart, S K; Lawrence, J D

    2007-06-01

    A winter grazing experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on forage mass and composition and the BW and BCS of bred 2-yr-old cows grazing stockpiled forage during winter. Two 12.2-ha blocks containing Fawn, endophyte-free, tall fescue and red clover were each divided into 4 pastures of 2.53 or 3.54 ha. Hay was harvested from the pastures in June and August of 2003 and 2004, and N was applied at 50.5 kg/ha at the initiation of stockpiling in August. On October 22, 2003, and October 20, 2004, twenty-four 30-mo-old Angus-Simmental and Angus cows were allotted by BW and BCS to strip-graze for 147 d at 0.84 or 1.19 cow/ha. Eight similar cows were allotted to 2 dry lots and fed tall fescue-red clover hay ad libitum. Corn gluten feed was fed to cows in 2 pastures to maintain a mean BCS of 5 (9-point scale) at each stocking rate and in the dry lots (high supplementation level) or when weather prevented grazing (low supplementation level) in the remaining 2 pastures at each stocking rate. Mean concentrations of CP in yr 1 and 2 and IVDMD in yr 2 were greater (P < 0.10) in hay than stockpiled forage over the winter. At the end of grazing, cows fed hay in dry lots had greater (P < 0.05) BCS in yr 1 and greater (P < 0.10) BW in yr 2 than grazing cows. Grazing cows in the high supplementation treatment had greater (P < 0.10) BW than cows grazing at the low supplementation level in yr 1. Cows in the dry lots were fed 2,565 and 2,158 kg of hay DM/cow. Amounts of corn gluten feed supplemented to cows in yr 1 and 2 were 46 and 60 kg/ cow and did not differ (P = 0.33, yr 1; P = 0.50, yr 2) between cows fed hay or grazing stockpiled forage in either year. Estimated production costs were greater for cows in the dry lots because of hay feeding. PMID:17296771

  8. Methane emission measurements in a cattle grazed pasture: a comparison of four methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallec, T.; Klumpp, K.; Hensen, A.; Rochette, Y.; Soussana, J.-F.

    2012-10-01

    Methane (CH4) is considered to be the second main contributor to the global greenhouse gas effect, with major CH4 emissions originating from livestock. Accurate measurements from ruminating herds are required to improve emission coefficients used in national emission inventories, and to evaluate mitigation strategies. Previous measurements of enteric methane emissions from domestic animals have been carried out in artificial conditions such as laboratory chambers, or by fitting individual animals with capillary tubes and using SF6 as a tracer. Here we evaluated the reliability of eddy covariance technique (EC), already used for CO2 fluxes, for continuous CH4 measurements over a grazed field plot. Analyzer accuracy and reliability of eddy covariance technique were tested against field scale measurements with the SF6 tracer technique, Gaussian plume model and emission factors (i.e. IPCC). Results indicate a better agreement between EC and SF6 method when grazing heifers were parked close to the EC setup. However, a systematic underestimation of EC data appeared and even more when the distance between the source (ruminating heifers) and EC setup (mast) was increased. A two-dimensional footprint density function allowed to correct for the dilution effect on measured CH4 and led to a good agreement with results based on the SF6 technique (on average 231 and 252 g CH4 ha-1 over the grazing experiment, respectively). Estimations of the CH4 budgets for the whole grazing season were in line with estimates (i.e. emission factor coefficients) based on feed intake and animal live weight as well as SF6 technique. IPCC method Tier 2, however, led to an overestimation of CH4 fluxes on our site.

  9. Methane emission measurements in a cattle grazed pasture: A comparison of four methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tallec, Tiphaine; Klumpp, Katja; Darsonville, Olivier; Hensen, Adrian; Rochette, Yvanne

    2015-04-01

    Methane (CH4) is considered to be the second main contributor to the global greenhouse gas effect, with major CH4 emissions originating from livestock. Accurate measurements from ruminating herds are required to improve emission coefficients used in national emission inventories, and to evaluate mitigation strategies. Here we evaluated the reliability of eddy covariance technique (EC), for continuous CH4 measurements over a grazed field plot. Analyzer reliability of eddy covariance technique was tested against field scale measurements with the SF6 tracer technique [1], Gaussian plume model [2] and emission factors [3]. Results indicate a good agreement between methods. However, a systematic underestimation of EC data appeared when the distance between the source (ruminating heifers) and EC set-up (mast) was increased. A two-dimensional footprint density function allowed to correct for the dilution effect on measured CH4 and led to a good agreement with results based on the SF6 technique (on average 74 and 78 g CH4 head-1 day-1 (24 h) over the grazing experiment, respectively). Estimations of the CH4 budgets for the whole grazing season were in line with estimates (i.e. emission coefficients) based on feed intake and animal live weight as well as SF6 technique.

  10. Effect of forage supplements on the incidence of bloat in dairy cows grazing high clover pastures.

    PubMed

    Phillips, C J; James, N L; Murray-Evans, J P

    1996-08-17

    The effect of offering forage supplements of different compositions was examined in two experiments with cows grazing high clover swards. In the first experiment strawmix supplements of high or low energy content (11 and 9 MJ metabolisable energy/kg dry matter [DM]) and high or low crude protein content (17 and 4 g/kg DM) were offered for periods of three weeks. The energy and protein contents were varied by the content of molasses and soyabean meal, respectively. The high energy, high protein supplement increased the incidence of bloat, and the low energy, high protein supplement reduced it, compared with grazing alone. Bloat was most evident in the first two weeks of each feeding period, suggesting that the cows partially adapted to the diets within three weeks. In the second experiment silage supplements reduced the incidence of bloat among cows grazing both tall and short swards. The most suitable forages to feed when there is a risk of bloat are those that are slowly fermented in the rumen but are eaten in sufficient quantity to reduce periods of rapid herbage intake. PMID:8870201

  11. Effects of butter from mountain-pasture grazing cows on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome compared with conventional Danish butter: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is considerable interest in dairy products from low-input systems, such as mountain-pasture grazing cows, because these products are believed to be healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. This may be due to a higher content of bioactive components, such as phytanic acid, a PPAR-agonist derived from chlorophyll. However, the effects of such products on human health have been poorly investigated. Objective To compare the effect of milk-fat from mountain-pasture grazing cows (G) and conventionally fed cows (C) on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome. Design In a double-blind, randomized, 12-week, parallel intervention study, 38 healthy subjects replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 39 g fat from test butter made from milk from mountain-pasture grazing cows or from cows fed conventional winter fodder. Glucose-tolerance and circulating risk markers were analysed before and after the intervention. Results No differences in blood lipids, lipoproteins, hsCRP, insulin, glucose or glucose-tolerance were observed. Interestingly, strong correlations between phytanic acid at baseline and total (P<0.0001) and LDL cholesterol (P=0.0001) were observed. Conclusions Lack of effects on blood lipids and inflammation indicates that dairy products from mountain-pasture grazing cows are not healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. Considering the strong correlation between LDL cholesterol and phytanic acid at baseline, it may be suggested that phytanic acid increases total and LDL cholesterol. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01343589 PMID:23842081

  12. Reproduction Symposium: does grazing on biosolids-treated pasture pose a pathophysiological risk associated with increased exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds?

    PubMed

    Evans, N P; Bellingham, M; Sharpe, R M; Cotinot, C; Rhind, S M; Kyle, C; Erhard, H; Hombach-Klonisch, S; Lind, P M; Fowler, P A

    2014-08-01

    Biosolids (processed human sewage sludge), which contain low individual concentrations of an array of contaminants including heavy metals and organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans known to cause physiological disturbances, are increasingly being used as an agricultural fertilizer. This could pose a health threat to both humans and domestic and wild animal species. This review summarizes results of a unique model, used to determine the effects of exposure to mixtures of environmentally relevant concentrations of pollutants, in sheep grazed on biosolids-treated pastures. Pasture treatment results in nonsignificant increases in environmental chemical (EC) concentrations in soil. Whereas EC concentrations were increased in some tissues of both ewes and their fetuses, concentrations were low and variable and deemed to pose little risk to consumer health. Investigation of the effects of gestational EC exposure on fetal development has highlighted a number of issues. The results indicate that gestational EC exposure can adversely affect gonadal development (males and females) and that these effects can impact testicular morphology, ovarian follicle numbers and health, and the transcriptome and proteome in adult animals. In addition, EC exposure can be associated with altered expression of GnRH, GnRH receptors, galanin receptors, and kisspeptin mRNA within the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, gonadotroph populations within the pituitary gland, and regional aberrations in thyroid morphology. In most cases, these anatomical and functional differences do not result in altered peripheral hormone concentrations or reproductive function (e.g., lambing rate), indicating physiological compensation under the conditions tested. Physiological compensation is also suggested from studies that indicate that EC effects may be greater when exposure occurs either

  13. Inorganic fertilizer and poultry-litter manure amendments alter the soil microbial communities in agricultural systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of agricultural land management practices on soil prokaryotic diversity are not well described. We investigated three land usage systems (row cropped, ungrazed pasture, and cattle-grazed pasture) and two fertilizer systems (inorganic fertilizer or IF and poultry-litter or PL) and compare...

  14. Longitudinal shifts in bacterial diversity and fermentation pattern in the rumen of steers grazing wheat pasture.

    PubMed

    Pitta, D W; Pinchak, W E; Dowd, S; Dorton, K; Yoon, I; Min, B R; Fulford, J D; Wickersham, T A; Malinowski, D P

    2014-12-01

    Grazing steers on winter wheat forage is routinely practiced in the Southern Great Plains of the US. Here, we investigated the dynamics in bacterial populations of both solid and liquid ruminal fractions of steers grazing on maturing wheat forage of changing nutritive quality. The relationship between bacterial diversity and fermentation parameters in the liquid fraction was also investigated. During the first 28 days, the wheat was in a vegetative phase with a relatively high crude protein content (CP; 21%), which led to the incidence of mild cases of frothy bloat among steers. Rumen samples were collected on days 14, 28, 56 and 76, separated into solid and liquid fractions and analyzed for bacterial diversity using 16S pyrotag technology. The predominant phyla identified were Bacteroidetes (59-77%) and Firmicutes (20-33%) across both ruminal fractions. Very few differences were observed in the rumen bacterial communities within solid and liquid fractions on day 14. However, by day 28, the relatively high CP content complemented a distinct bacterial and chemical composition of the rumen fluid that was characterized by a higher ratio (4:1) of Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes and a corresponding lower acetate:propionate (3:1) ratio. Further, a greater accumulation of biofilm (mucopolysaccharide complex) on day 28 was strongly associated with the abundance of Firmicutes lineages such as Clostridium, Ruminococcus, Oscillospira and Moryella (P<0.05) in the fiber fraction. Such changes were diminished as the CP concentration declined over the course of the study. The abundance of Firmicutes was noticeable by 76 d in both fractions which signifies the development of a core microbiome associated with digestion of a more recalcitrant fiber in the mature wheat. This study demonstrates dynamics in the rumen microbiome and their association with fermentation activity in the rumen of steers during the vegetative (bloat-prone) and reproductive stages of wheat forage. PMID:25086244

  15. Performance of beef cows and calves fed different sources of rumen-degradable protein when grazing stockpiled limpograss pastures.

    PubMed

    Aguiar, A D; Vendramini, J M B; Arthington, J D; Sollenberger, L E; DiLorenzo, N; Hersom, M J

    2015-04-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of different sources of RDP on forage characteristics, animal performance, and ruminal and blood parameters of beef cattle grazing stockpiled limpograss (Hemarthria altissima) from January to May 2011 and 2012. In Exp. 1, 24 mature lactating beef cows and their respective calves were allocated to 8 stockpiled limpograss pastures (3 pairs/pasture). Treatments were 2 different sources of RDP, urea or cottonseed (Gossypium spp.) meal (CSM), distributed in a completely randomized design with 4 replicates. Feather meal and corn (Zea mays) meal were added to the urea treatments to balance RUP and energy. Treatments were mixed in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) molasses, which resulted in 3 kg DM/cow per day of supplement. There were no differences (P > 0.10) in herbage mass (HM; 3,200 ± 400 kg DM/ha), herbage allowance (HA; 1.9 ± 0.2 kg DM/kg of BW), CP (5.2 ± 0.2%), and in vitro digestible organic matter (IVDOM; 47 ± 0.5%) concentrations. There was a decrease (P < 0.10) in HM (from 4,100 to 2,600 kg/ha), IVDOM (from 46 to 39.9%), and HA (from 2.5 to 1.4 kg DM/kg BW) from January to March. Cow ADG (0.23 ± 0.08 kg/d), BCS (4.6 ± 0.2), milk yield (7.0 ± 0.4 kg/d), and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN; 16.1 ± 0.8 mg/dL) and calf ADG (0.71 ± 0.05 kg/d) were similar (P > 0.10) among treatments. Sixteen cow-calf pairs were moved to 8 drylot pens after Exp. 1, maintained on the same treatment, and evaluated for forage and total DMI. There was no difference in forage (P = 0.16; 2.1 ± 0.1% BW) and total DMI (P = 0.12; 2.5 ± 0.1% BW) between treatments. In Exp. 2, 2 rumen-cannulated steers were used in a 2 × 2 Latin square design, replicated in 2011 and 2012, to test the effects of the same treatments on rumen fluid and blood parameters. There was no difference (P > 0.10) in ruminal NH3-N (12.9 ± 0.3 mg/dL), pH (6.5 ± 0.1), propionic acid (25 ± 2.2 mol/100 mol), acetic acid (69.2 ± 2.9 mol/100 mol), and butyric acid (4.5 ± 0.5 mol

  16. Why is Mineral-Associated Organic Matter Enriched in 15N? Evidence from Grazed Pasture Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisden, W. T.; Wells, N. S.; Mudge, P. L.; Clough, T. J.; Schipper, L. A.; Ghani, A.; Stevenson, B.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the scientific literature, measurements across soil depth and density fractions suggest that, with few exceptions, mineral-associated organic matter (OM) has higher δ15N than non-mineral-associated OM. This implies that the δ15N difference between N inputs and mineral-stabilized OM may characterize the microbial processes involved in stabilization and mineral association. Yet current understanding of observed N isotope fractionation in terrestrial ecosystems suggests the large isotope effects are expressed during inorganic N transformations from NH4 to gaseous loss pathways of NH3 volatilization and denitrification. How can the relative importance of N isotope fractionation during OM stabilization versus loss pathways be resolved? We recently examined N isofluxes when a temporary nitrogen excess is created by urine deposition in a New Zealand dairy pasture. We found that the N isotopic composition of volatilized NH3, and NO3 available for leaching or denitrification could not be linked back to the added N using Rayleigh distillation models. Instead, the results imply that the added N was immobilized, and the N available for losses was increasingly derived from mineralization of organic matter during the course of the experiment. These results are consistent with recent evidence of enhanced OM mineralization in urine patches, understanding of N isotope mass balances and long-standing evidence that gross mineralization and immobilization fluxes greatly exceed net mineralization and nitrification, except at very high N saturation. These results suggest that where 15N enrichment occurs due to fractionating loss pathways, the isotope effects are primarily transmitted to immobilized N, forming 15N enriched stabilized OM. This further explains earlier findings that the δ15N of soil OM represents an integrated indicator of losses, reflecting the intensity and duration of pastoral agriculture. We suggest that development of an indicator based on δ15N in

  17. CHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF PASTURE RUNOFF

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural background characteristics and grazing cattle both influence the chemical and bacteriological quality of pasture runoff in south central Nebraska. The chemical quality of runoff from unstocked grassland was poorer than that from grazed pasture. The chemical quality of pas...

  18. Influence of fresh alfalfa supplementation on fat skatole and indole concentration and chop odour and flavour in lambs grazing a cocksfoot pasture.

    PubMed

    Devincenzi, T; Prunier, A; Meteau, K; Nabinger, C; Prache, S

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the influence of the level of fresh alfalfa supplementation on fat skatole and indole concentration and chop sensory attributes in grazing lambs. Four groups of nine male Romane lambs grazing a cocksfoot pasture were supplemented with various levels of alfalfa for at least 60days before slaughter. Perirenal fat skatole concentration was higher for lambs that consumed alfalfa than for those that consumed only cocksfoot. The intensity of 'animal' odour in the lean part of the chop and of 'animal' flavour in both the lean and fat parts of the chop, evaluated by a trained sensory panel, increased from the lowest level of alfalfa supplementation onwards and did not increase further with increasing levels of alfalfa supplementation. The outcome of this study therefore suggests that these sensory attributes may reach a plateau when perirenal fat skatole concentration is in the range 0.16-0.24μg/g of liquid fat. PMID:25089784

  19. The effects of protein supplement on leptin concentrations in lambs and meat goat kids grazing Bermudagrass pastures in Central Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lambs and kids weaned and pastured on bermudagrass (BG; Cynodon dactylon) may not receive enough protein to reach maximal growth during mid to late summer when protein in BG pastures declines. As an indicator of physiological status, leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that increases as body cond...

  20. Runoff phosphorus in a small rotationally-grazed pasture in Georgia with no history of broiler litter application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pastures are sources of phosphorus (P) into water sources and can contribute to eutrophication and impairment. Close to 4 million ha of land in the Southern Coastal Plain and the Southern Piedmont in eastern USA is used for pasture and hay production. We present an 11-yr (1999 to 2009) of dissolved ...

  1. Field Trial Assessment of Biological, Chemical, and Physical Responses of Soil to Tillage Intensity, Fertilization, and Grazing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas Gil, Silvina; Becker, Analia; Oddino, Claudio; Zuza, Mónica; Marinelli, Adriana; March, Guillermo

    2009-08-01

    Soil microbial populations can fluctuate in response to environmental changes and, therefore, are often used as biological indicators of soil quality. Soil chemical and physical parameters can also be used as indicators because they can vary in response to different management strategies. A long-term field trial was conducted to study the effects of different tillage systems (NT: no tillage, DH: disc harrow, and MP: moldboard plough), P fertilization (diammonium phosphate), and cattle grazing (in terms of crop residue consumption) in maize ( Zea mays L.), sunflower ( Heliantus annuus L.), and soybean ( Glycine max L.) on soil biological, chemical, and physical parameters. The field trial was conducted for four crop years (2000/2001, 2001/2002, 2002/2003, and 2003/2004). Soil populations of Actinomycetes, Trichoderma spp., and Gliocladium spp. were 49% higher under conservation tillage systems, in soil amended with diammonium phosphate (DAP) and not previously grazed. Management practices also influenced soil chemical parameters, especially organic matter content and total N, which were 10% and 55% higher under NT than under MP. Aggregate stability was 61% higher in NT than in MP, 15% higher in P-fertilized soil, and also 9% higher in not grazed strips, bulk density being 12% lower in NT systems compared with MP. DAP application and the absence of grazing also reduced bulk density (3%). Using conservation tillage systems, fertilizing crops with DAP, and avoiding grazing contribute to soil health preservation and enhanced crop production.

  2. Upscaling NZ-DNDC using a regression based meta-model to estimate direct N2O emissions from New Zealand grazed pastures.

    PubMed

    Giltrap, Donna L; Ausseil, Anne-Gaëlle E

    2016-01-01

    The availability of detailed input data frequently limits the application of process-based models at large scale. In this study, we produced simplified meta-models of the simulated nitrous oxide (N2O) emission factors (EF) using NZ-DNDC. Monte Carlo simulations were performed and the results investigated using multiple regression analysis to produce simplified meta-models of EF. These meta-models were then used to estimate direct N2O emissions from grazed pastures in New Zealand. New Zealand EF maps were generated using the meta-models with data from national scale soil maps. Direct emissions of N2O from grazed pasture were calculated by multiplying the EF map with a nitrogen (N) input map. Three meta-models were considered. Model 1 included only the soil organic carbon in the top 30cm (SOC30), Model 2 also included a clay content factor, and Model 3 added the interaction between SOC30 and clay. The median annual national direct N2O emissions from grazed pastures estimated using each model (assuming model errors were purely random) were: 9.6GgN (Model 1), 13.6GgN (Model 2), and 11.9GgN (Model 3). These values corresponded to an average EF of 0.53%, 0.75% and 0.63% respectively, while the corresponding average EF using New Zealand national inventory values was 0.67%. If the model error can be assumed to be independent for each pixel then the 95% confidence interval for the N2O emissions was of the order of ±0.4-0.7%, which is much lower than existing methods. However, spatial correlations in the model errors could invalidate this assumption. Under the extreme assumption that the model error for each pixel was identical the 95% confidence interval was approximately ±100-200%. Therefore further work is needed to assess the degree of spatial correlation in the model errors. PMID:26363395

  3. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization on the composition of rhizobacterial communities of two Chilean Andisol pastures.

    PubMed

    Jorquera, Milko A; Martínez, Oscar A; Marileo, Luis G; Acuña, Jacquelinne J; Saggar, Surinder; Mora, María L

    2014-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization on composition of rhizobacterial communities of volcanic soils (Andisols) from southern Chile at molecular level is poorly understood. This paper investigates the composition of rhizobacterial communities of two Andisols under pasture after 1- and 6-year applications of N (urea) and P (triple superphosphate). Soil samples were collected from two previously established sites and the composition of rhizobacterial communities was determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The difference in the composition and diversity between rhizobacterial communities was assessed by nonmetric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis and the Shannon-Wiener index. In Site 1 (fertilized for 1 year), PCR-DGGE targeting 16S rRNA genes and MDS analysis showed that moderate N application (270 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)) without P significantly changed the composition of rhizobacterial communities. However, no significant community changes were observed with P (240 kg P ha(-1) year(-1)) and N-P application (270 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) plus 240 kg P ha(-1) year(-1)). In Site 2 (fertilized for 6 years with P; 400 kg P ha(-1) year(-1)), PCR-DGGE targeting rpoB, nifH, amoA and alkaline phosphatase genes and MDS analysis showed changes in rhizobacterial communities only at the highest rate of N application (600 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)). Quantitative PCR targeting 16S rRNA genes also showed higher abundance of bacteria at higher N application. In samples from both sites, the Shannon-Wiener index did not show significant difference in the diversity of rhizobacterial communities. The changes observed in rhizobacterial communities coincide in N fertilized pastures with lower soil pH and higher pasture yields. This study indicates that N-P application affects the soil bacterial populations at molecular level and needs to be considered when developing fertilizer practices for Chilean pastoral Andisols. PMID

  4. Relationship between Reproductive Allocation and Relative Abundance among 32 Species of a Tibetan Alpine Meadow: Effects of Fertilization and Grazing

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Kechang; Schmid, Bernhard; Choler, Philippe; Du, Guozhen

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the relationship between species traits and species abundance is an important goal in ecology and biodiversity science. Although theoretical studies predict that traits related to performance (e.g. reproductive allocation) are most directly linked to species abundance within a community, empirical investigations have rarely been done. It also remains unclear how environmental factors such as grazing or fertilizer application affect the predicted relationship. Methodology We conducted a 3-year field experiment in a Tibetan alpine meadow to assess the relationship between plant reproductive allocation (RA) and species relative abundance (SRA) on control, grazed and fertilized plots. Overall, the studied plant community contained 32 common species. Principal Findings At the treatment level, (i) RA was negatively correlated with SRA on control plots and during the first year on fertilized plots. (ii) No negative RA–SRA correlations were observed on grazed plots and during the second and third year on fertilized plots. (iii) Seed size was positively correlated with SRA on control plots. At the plot level, the correlation between SRA and RA were not affected by treatment, year or species composition. Conclusions/Significance Our study shows that the performance-related trait RA can negatively affect SRA within communities, which is possibly due to the tradeoffs between clonal growth (for space occupancy) and sexual reproduction. We propose that if different species occupy different positions along these tradeoffs it will contribute to biodiversity maintenance in local communities or even at lager scale. PMID:22536385

  5. Nitrogen fertilization effects on pasture photosynthesis, respiration, and ecosystem carbon content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some studies have shown that increasing nitrogen (N) fertility can increase soil carbon (C) sequestration, whereas others suggest that N fertilization has no effect on sequestration. Increasing N fertilization typically increases annual photosynthetic C uptake (gross primary productivity or GPP) and...

  6. Impact of US Brown Swiss genetics on milk quality from low-input herds in Switzerland: interactions with grazing intake and pasture type.

    PubMed

    Stergiadis, S; Bieber, A; Franceschin, E; Isensee, A; Eyre, M D; Maurer, V; Chatzidimitriou, E; Cozzi, G; Bapst, B; Stewart, G; Gordon, A; Butler, G

    2015-05-15

    This study investigated the effect of, and interactions between, contrasting crossbreed genetics (US Brown Swiss [BS] × Improved Braunvieh [BV] × Original Braunvieh [OB]) and feeding regimes (especially grazing intake and pasture type) on milk fatty acid (FA) profiles. Concentrations of total polyunsaturated FAs, total omega-3 FAs and trans palmitoleic, vaccenic, α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids were higher in cows with a low proportion of BS genetics. Highest concentrations of the nutritionally desirable FAs, trans palmitoleic, vaccenic and eicosapentaenoic acids were found for cows with a low proportion of BS genetics (0-24% and/or 25-49%) on high grazing intake (75-100% of dry matter intake) diets. Multivariate analysis indicated that the proportion of OB genetics is a positive driver for nutritionally desirable monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs while BS genetics proportion was positive driver for total and undesirable individual saturated FAs. Significant genetics × feeding regime interactions were also detected for a range of FAs. PMID:25577126

  7. BIRDSFOOT TREFOIL, A VALUABLE TANNIN-CONTAINING LEGUME FOR MIXED PASTURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birdsfoot trefoil is well suited for use in grazed pastures, performing especially well on calcareous soils but it has also proven to be better adapted on soils too acidic or limited in fertility, texture, or rooting depth for successful alfalfa production. Although somewhat slow to establish, with ...

  8. Postgraze assessment of toxicosis symptoms for steers grazed on toxic and novel endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-yr pen experiment was conducted using 18 crossbred Angus steers each year to evaluate changes in body temperature, vasoconstriction, and prolactin concentrations in steers previously grazed on toxic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) as c...

  9. Performance of Stocker Cattle Fed Hay and Protein Supplements during the Winter and Grazed on Wheat Pasture during the Spring

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The southern Great Plains region perennial warm- and annual cool-season grasses are used to grow stocker cattle for the US beef industry. In the fall, when calves are readily available, producers may purchase not only those needed for winter grazing, but also calves to be used the following spring w...

  10. Assessment of heifer grazing experience on short-term adaptation to pasture and performance as lactating cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 3-yr study evaluated the carryover effects of dairy heifer grazing experience on behavior and first lactation performance as dairy cows. Forty-one Holstein and 23 Holstein-Jersey crossbred calves born between January and April 2008 were randomly assigned to one of four treatments (PP, PC, CP and C...

  11. Application of gypsum to control P runoff from poultry litter fertilization of pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper will discuss the utilization of gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O) to reduce P losses from surface runoff when poultry litter is used as a fertilizer source in agriculture. Utilization of poultry litter as a fertilizer source is common in regions with intense poultry production. While poultry litter ...

  12. Quantification of reductions in ammonia emissions from fertiliser urea and animal urine in grazed pastures with urease inhibitors for agriculture inventory: New Zealand as a case study.

    PubMed

    Saggar, Surinder; Singh, J; Giltrap, D L; Zaman, M; Luo, J; Rollo, M; Kim, D-G; Rys, G; van der Weerden, T J

    2013-11-01

    Urea is the key nitrogen (N) fertiliser for grazed pastures, and is also present in excreted animal urine. In soil, urea hydrolyses rapidly to ammonium (NH4(+)) and may be lost as ammonia (NH3) gas. Unlike nitrous oxide (N2O), however, NH3 is not a greenhouse gas although it can act as a secondary source of N2O, and hence contribute indirectly to global warming and stratospheric ozone depletion. Various urease inhibitors (UIs) have been used over the last 30 years to reduce NH3 losses. Among these, N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBTPT), sold under the trade name Agrotain®, is currently the most promising and effective when applied with urea or urine. Here we conduct a critical analysis of the published and non-published data on the effectiveness of nBTPT in reducing NH3 emission, from which adjusted values for FracGASF (fraction of total N fertiliser emitted as NH3) and FracGASM (fraction of total N from, animal manure and urine emitted as NH3) for the national agriculture greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory are recommended in order to provide accurate data for the inventory. We use New Zealand as a case study to assess and quantify the overall reduction in NH3 emission from urea and animal urine with the application of UI nBTPT. The available literature indicates that an application rate of 0.025% w/w (nBTPT per unit of N) is optimum for reducing NH3 emissions from temperate grasslands. UI-treated urine studies gave highly variable reductions (11-93%) with an average of 53% and a 95% confidence interval of 33-73%. New Zealand studies, using UI-treated urea, suggest that nBTPT (0.025% w/w) reduces NH3 emissions by 44.7%, on average, with a confidence interval of 39-50%. On this basis, a New Zealand specific value of 0.055 for FracGASF FNUI (fraction of urease inhibitor treated total fertiliser N emitted as NH3) is recommended for adoption where urea containing UI are applied as nBTPT at a rate of 0.025% w/w. Only a limited number of published data sets are

  13. Water quality and the grazing animal.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, R K; Newton, G L; Hill, G M

    2004-01-01

    Grazing animals and pasture production can affect water quality both positively and negatively. Good management practices for forage production protect the soil surface from erosion compared with conventionally produced crops. Grazing animals and pasture production can negatively affect water quality through erosion and sediment transport into surface waters, through nutrients from urine and feces dropped by the animals and fertility practices associated with production of high-quality pasture, and through pathogens from the wastes. Erosion and sediment transport is primarily associated with high-density stocking and/or poor forage stands. The two nutrients of primary concern relating to animal production are N and P. Nitrogen is of concern because high concentrations in drinking water in the NO(3) form cause methemoglobinemia (blue baby disease), whereas other forms of N (primarily nitrite, NO(2)) are considered to be potentially carcinogenic. Phosphorus in the PO(4) form is of concern because it causes eutrophication of surface water bodies. The effect of grazing animals on soil and water quality must be evaluated at both the field and watershed scales. Such evaluation must account for both direct input of animal wastes from the grazing animal and also applications of inorganic fertilizers to produce quality pastures. Watershed-scale studies have primarily used the approach of nutrient loadings per land area and nutrient removals as livestock harvests. A number of studies have measured nutrient loads in surface runoff from grazed land and compared loads with other land uses, including row crop agriculture and forestry. Concentrations in discharge have been regressed against standard grazing animal units per land area. Watersheds with concentrated livestock populations have been shown to discharge as much as 5 to 10 times more nutrients than watersheds in cropland or forestry. The other major water quality concern with grazing animals is pathogens, which may move

  14. Fact Sheet: Soil nutrient levels on grazing farms in the northeastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil nutrient levels are one indicator of the level of nutrient management on farms. Pastures in the northeastern U.S. have often been classified as low in soil fertility. These reports focused mainly on grazing lands managed at a relatively low intensity. Our objective was to gain some insight into...

  15. Metal exposure in cows grazing pasture contaminated by iron industry: Insights from magnetic particles used as tracers.

    PubMed

    Ayrault, Sophie; Catinon, Mickaël; Boudouma, Omar; Bordier, Louise; Agnello, Gregory; Reynaud, Stéphane; Tissut, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic particles (MP) emitted by an iron smelter were used to investigate the exposure of cows grazing on a grassland polluted by these MP and by large amounts of potentially toxic elements (PTE). The morphology as well as the chemical composition of the MP separated from cow dung were studied. Large amounts of typical MP were found (1.1 g kg(-1) dry weight) in the cow dung sampled from the exposed site, whereas these particles were absent from the reference unpolluted site. The ingested MP were mainly technogenic magnetic particles (TMP) emitted by the smelter. Considering the MP concentration in the grazed grass on the exposed site, it was concluded that cows absorb the MP not only from the grass but also from the soil surface. The results of a mild acidic leaching of the MP suggested that the particles were possibly submitted to a superficial dissolution in the abomasum, pointing at a potential route of transfer of the PTE originating from the TMP and leading into food chains. TMP were only a small part of the anthropogenic contamination having affected the soil and the dung. However, due to their unequivocal signature, TMP are a powerful tracer of the distribution of PTE in the different compartments constituting the food chains and the ecosystems. Furthermore, the measurement of the particle sizes gave evidence that a noticeable proportion of the MP could enter the respiratory tract. PMID:26986087

  16. Intake and Performance of Yearling Steers Grazing Guineagrass (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia) Pasture Supplemented with Different Energy Sources

    PubMed Central

    Santana, M. C. A.; Euclides, V. B. P.; Mancio, A. B.; Medeiros, S. R.; Costa, J. A. R.; Oliveira, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of supplements containing different energy sources in relation to mineral supplementation of steers grazing guineagrass (Panicum maximum cv Tanzânia) pasture, during the dry season. The experimental design was a randomized block with three treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of a mineral supplementation and two other supplements, one based on corn seed and the other based on soybean hulls, and provided at 0.8% of body weight. Forty-eight, 12 month-old crossbred steers with an average initial body weight of 267 kg, were assigned to twelve paddocks (1,125 ha) of guineagrass. The animals that were fed with soybean hulls and corn seed presented a greater average daily gain (0.982 and 0.937) when compared with the mineral supplementation. Soybean hulls can be used as a satisfactory food source, replacing corn as an energy source in the supplementation of beef cattle without compromising animal performance. PMID:25049797

  17. Intake and Performance of Yearling Steers Grazing Guineagrass (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia) Pasture Supplemented with Different Energy Sources.

    PubMed

    Santana, M C A; Euclides, V B P; Mancio, A B; Medeiros, S R; Costa, J A R; Oliveira, R L

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of supplements containing different energy sources in relation to mineral supplementation of steers grazing guineagrass (Panicum maximum cv Tanzânia) pasture, during the dry season. The experimental design was a randomized block with three treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of a mineral supplementation and two other supplements, one based on corn seed and the other based on soybean hulls, and provided at 0.8% of body weight. Forty-eight, 12 month-old crossbred steers with an average initial body weight of 267 kg, were assigned to twelve paddocks (1,125 ha) of guineagrass. The animals that were fed with soybean hulls and corn seed presented a greater average daily gain (0.982 and 0.937) when compared with the mineral supplementation. Soybean hulls can be used as a satisfactory food source, replacing corn as an energy source in the supplementation of beef cattle without compromising animal performance. PMID:25049797

  18. Factors affecting arsenic and copper runoff from pastures fertilized with poultry litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heavy metal runoff from soils fertilized with poultry litter has received increasing attention in recent years, although it is not really known if heavy runoff from poultry litter poses a significant threat to the environment. The objective of this study was to evaluate arsenic (As) and copper (Cu)...

  19. Effect of fertility on the economics of pasture-based dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Shalloo, L; Cromie, A; McHugh, N

    2014-05-01

    There are significant costs associated with reproductive inefficiency in pasture-based dairy herds. This study has quantified the economic effect of a number of key variables associated with reproductive inefficiency in a dairy herd and related them to 6-week calving rate for both cows and heifers. These variables include: increased culling costs, the effects of sub optimum calving dates, increased labour costs and increased artificial insemination (AI) and intervention costs. The Moorepark Dairy Systems Model which is a stochastic budgetary simulation model was used to simulate the overall economic effect at farm level. The effect of change in each of the components was simulated in the model and the costs associated with each component was quantified. An analysis of national data across a 4-year period using the Irish Cattle Breeding Federation database was used to quantify the relationship between the 6-week calving rate of a herd with survivability (%), calving interval (days) and the level of AI usage. The costs associated with increased culling (%), calving date slippage (day), increased AI and intervention costs (0.1 additional inseminations), as well as, increased labour costs (10%) were quantified as €13.68, €3.86, €4.56 and €29.6/cow per year. There was a statistically significant association between the 6-week calving rate and survivability, calving interval and AI usage at farm level. A 1% change in 6-week calving rate was associated with €9.26/cow per annum for cows and €3.51/heifer per annum for heifers. This study does not include the indirect costs such as reduced potential for expansion, increased costs associated with failing to maintain a closed herd as well as the unrealised potential within the herd. PMID:24679449

  20. Diet Selection and Grazing Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet summarizes some of the current knowledge regarding grazing behavior. A grazing ruminant is presented with a smorgasbord of choices when turned out onto a pasture. However, little is understood on how selection decisions are made by the animal. Grazing behavior research is attempting...

  1. Nitrous oxide emissions and herbage accumulation in smooth bromegrass pastures with nitrogen fertilizer and ruminant urine application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural soils contribute significantly to nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, but little data is available on N2O emissions from smooth bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyss.) pastures. This study evaluated soil N2O emissions and herbage accumulation from smooth bromegrass pasture in eastern Nebraska, US...

  2. Temperate grass response to timing of grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing management has a significant impact on pasture growth. We determined how timing of grazing influences grass productivity, yield distribution, and persistence. Meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.], orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), quackgrass [Elymus repens (L.) Gould...

  3. Studies of pasture production in Extremadura (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Vilanova, M.; González López, F.; Paredes Galán, J.; Prieto Macías, P. M.; Blanco, V. Maya

    2009-04-01

    The region of Extremadura covers more than four million hectares in the South West of Spain, with dehesas occupying almost 1.5 million hectares of its surface. This agro-silvo-pastoral land use system constitutes the most recommendable model for extensive exploitation in Mediterranean areas in which the semiarid climate and the poor, shallow soils are constraints on any other type of agricultural use. It is characterized by a grassland with a disperse cover of oak trees and shrubs, where the main production is extensive livestock combined with agriculture and forestry. The pastures are the basis for animal breeding in the dehesas being these ecosystems of great economic, social as well as environmental value in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula. These facts justify the investigation on pasture improvement and the study on spatial and temporal variations of pasture production in the whole region. Pasture production is quite variable, highly determined by soil and climate conditions. Rainfall variability produces large seasonal and annual variations, with the highest production in spring, low production in autumn and very scarce in winter. During summer, while pastures are wilting, hard seeds stay latent in the soil and gradually germinate in consecutive months. But variability of pasture production in such a heterogeneous ecosystem does not only depend on edaphic and climate conditions, but also on other factors, such as grazing management, improvement measures, fertilization, exploitation infrastructures, stocking rates, etc. The present study, carried out in the framework of the "Montado/Dehesa" INTERREG project, aimed to sample pasture production in Extremadura, in order to provide a large amount of real data for determining the influence of the different factors involved, which will constitute the basis for the developement of a production model. The latter will be integrated into a tool helping to decide on the best practice of dehesa management. Pastures were

  4. The Effects of Steroid Implant and Dietary Soybean Hulls on Estrogenic Activity of Sera of Steers Grazing Toxic Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Pasture

    PubMed Central

    Shappell, Nancy W.; Flythe, Michael D.; Aiken, Glen E.

    2015-01-01

    Soybean hulls (SBHs) have been fed to cattle pasturing on endophyte-infected tall fescue in attempts to increase rate of gain. Literature reports indicated some symptoms associated with fescue toxicosis were ameliorated by the use of steroidal implants containing estradiol (E2) and progesterone [implantation (IMP)], feeding SBHs, or the combination of the two. While the mechanism for amelioration was unclear, the SBHs were postulated as acting as a diluent of the toxic factors of the fescue. Alternatively, estradiol and phytoestrogens of SBHs might be acting through relaxation of the persistent vasoconstriction found in animals ingesting ergot alkaloids of endophyte-infected fescue. If so, estrogenic activity of serum of steers receiving SBHs, IMP, or a combination of the two should be elevated. Using the cellular proliferation assay of estrogenicity (E-Screen), estradiol equivalents (E2Eqs) were determined on both SBHs and the serum of steers from a previously reported study. Range of SBHs was 5.0–8.5 ng Eqs g−1 DM (mean 6.5, n = 4 from different commercial sources of SBHs). At the rate fed, theoretically calculated blood E2Eq could be physiologically relevant (~80 pg mL−1, based on 2.3 kg SBHs d−1, 300 kg steer, 5.7% blood volume, and 10% absorption). Serum E2Eqs did increase in steers (P ≤ 0.05) with steroidal implants or fed SBHs by 56 and 151% over control, respectively, and treatments were additive (211% increase). Serum prolactin was also greatest for the SBH + IMP group (188 ng mL−1, P < 0.05), concentrations comparable to values reported for steers grazing endophyte-free fescue. Prolactin in the SBH group was higher than IMP or control groups (146 versus 76 and 60 ng mL−1, respectively). Still unknown is if additional E2Eqs from dietary phytoestrogens or exogenous sources of estradiol can further reduce symptoms of fescue toxicosis. The E-Screen assay was an effective tool in monitoring serum for estrogenic effects

  5. Treatment with a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug after calving did not improve milk production, health, or reproduction parameters in pasture-grazed dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Meier, S; Priest, N V; Burke, C R; Kay, J K; McDougall, S; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Heiser, A; Loor, J J; Roche, J R

    2014-05-01

    Previous research results have indicated an increase in pregnancy rate in pasture-grazed cows treated with a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID) 3 to 4 wk postcalving, when a high proportion of nucleated cells from within the uterus were polymorphonucleated; however, no effect on milk production was detected. It was hypothesized that this lack of effect on milk production was because the administration of the NSAID was too late after calving. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the timing of administering a propionic acid-derived NSAID (i.e., carprofen) on milk production, metabolic status, uterine health, and reproductive performance. Six-hundred and thirty-nine cows (134 primiparous and 505 multiparous) calving between July 4 and September 5, 2012, in 2 herds (herd 1: n=228; herd 2: n=411) were enrolled. Using a randomized block design, cows were allocated to 1 of 3 treatment groups as they calved: (1) no treatment (control; n=221), (2) NSAID administered on d 1, 3, and 5 postcalving (early; n=214), and (3) NSAID administered on d 19, 21, and 23 postcalving (late; n=204). Milk production and composition, and body condition were determined weekly. Blood was sampled at 4 time points (1 precalving and 3 postcalving) to determine the effects of treatment on indicators of metabolic health and energy status. Uterine health was determined by measuring the proportion of nucleated cells that were polymorphonucleated following cytobrush sampling of the uterus between d 13 to 24 and d 30 to 49 postcalving. Irrespective of timing of application, NSAID did not affect milk production, body weight, or body condition during early lactation. Treatment with an NSAID 19 to 23 d postcalving increased the proportion of cows submitted for breeding during the first 3 wk of the seasonal breeding program (control: 85%, early: 83%, and late: 92%), but did not affect conception or pregnancy rates. No detectable effect of treatment on uterine health or circulating

  6. Influence of grain and monensin supplementation on ruminal fermentation, intake, digesta kinetics and incidence and severity of frothy bloat in steers grazing winter wheat pastures.

    PubMed

    Branine, M E; Galyean, M L

    1990-04-01

    Three 10-d collection periods (April 4 to 14, early April, EApr; April 23 to May 3, late April, LApr; May 10 to 20, 1984, mid-May, MMay) were conducted to evaluate effects of no supplement (C), .5 kg-head-1.d-1 (as-fed basis) supplemental grain (steam-flaked milo, G) or G plus 170 mg monensin.head-1.d-1 (M) on forage intake and digestion by 12 ruminally cannulated beef steers (four/treatment; avg initially BW = 393 kg) grazing irrigated winter wheat pasture. Ruminal pH was greater (P less than .01) for M than for C or G during EApr but was not altered by treatments in LApr or MMay. Compared with C, ruminal NH3 was decreased (P less than .10) by G and M (5 h after supplementation) in EApr, decreased (P less than .05) by G (2h) and increased (P less than .05) by M (8 h) in LApr and decreased (P less than .10) by G (-1h) in MMay. Treatments had little influence on total VFA concentrations or on molar proportions of acetate and propionate. Butyrate molar proportion was decreased (P less than .10) by M during EApr and LApr, but not during MMay. Monensin increased (P less than .05) fluid passage rate compared with C and G in EApr but not in other periods, Particulate passage measurements did not differ (P greater than .10) among treatments within periods. Forage DM intake was not influenced (P greater than .10) by supplementation during any period. Extent of in situ forage DM disappearance was greater (P less than .10) for M than for C or G during EApr (12 and 30 h of incubation) but was not different (P greater than .10) in LApr or MMay. Incidence of frothy bloat was decreased (P less than .05) by M during EApr; this reduction may have been related to effects of M on ruminal pH, forage digestion and fluid passage. PMID:2332388

  7. Nitrogen recovery and agronomic efficiency of forages with nitrogen fertilization under flooded condition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cow-calf (Bos taurus) industry in subtropical United States especially in Gulf Coast states and other parts of the world that depends almost totally on grazed pastures is facing several production constraints like changing climatic conditions and increasing cost of fertilizers, especially nitrog...

  8. How long and when should I graze my cattle?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle instinctively concentrate grazing during dusk, when pasture is more nutritive. Afternoon allocations of fresh pasture increase duration and intensity of dusk grazing bouts and consequently pasture intake at that time of day, which certainly has demonstrated to improve animal performance when ...

  9. A Few Hours Grazing Session Seems To Be Enough

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle instinctively intensify grazing during dusk, when pasture is more nutritive. Afternoon allocations of fresh pasture (PM) increase duration and intensity of dusk grazing bouts and consequently pasture intake at that time of day, which certainly has demonstrated to improve animal performance wh...

  10. Performance by Spring-Calving Cows Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Either the Wild-Type Toxic Endophyte or a Non-Toxic Novel Endophyte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cows grazing 'Kentucky-31' tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] infected with its wild-type endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum; E+) generally display suboptimal performance. Recently, endophyte strains that do not produce compounds toxic to cattle have been incorporated into tall ...

  11. The effects of steroid implant and dietary soybean hulls on estrogenic activity of sera of steers grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean hulls (SBHs), a co-product of soybean meal milling, have been fed to cattle pasturing on endophyte-infected tall fescue in attempts to increase rate of gain. Literature reports indicated some symptoms associated with fescue toxicosis were ameliorated by the use of steroidal implants contain...

  12. Cow and Calf Performance While Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Either the Wild-Type Toxic Endophyte or a Non-Toxic Novel Endophyte

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fescue (Festuca arundinacea, Schreb.) pastures are common in Northwest Arkansas but cattle performance has declined due to the toxicity caused by the wild-type endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum in the fescue plant. Gelbvieh x Angus crossbred cows (n = 52; 1,023 lb initial BW) were allocated random...

  13. Profitability of moderate intensive grazing of diary cows in the northeast.

    PubMed

    Hanson, G D; Cunningham, L C; Morehart, M J; Parsons, R L

    1998-03-01

    Empirical analysis of the profitability of moderate grazing are presented based on sample dairy farms in Pennsylvania and New York. Net income per cow was higher for dairy farms that employed moderate intensive grazing than for dairy farms that employed extensive grazing. Income appeared to be adequate for family living expenses, but moderate intensive grazing could not be considered a high profit system. Detailed analyses of dairy farms that employed moderate and extensive grazing in northern Pennsylvania indicated that returns to management and owner equity were higher for pasture enterprises than for corn silage or hay enterprises. Positive dairy profits were related to lower feed costs. Milk production was lower on farms that employed moderate grazing than on farms that employed extensive grazing. Logit regression analysis characterized farms that employed moderate intensive grazing as oriented toward dairy rather than toward crop production; these farms had lower culling rates and a greater dependence on milk sales as a share of total sales. The reduced use of fertilizers and chemicals suggests that moderate grazing had environmentally sustainable features. PMID:9565887

  14. Stream bank erosion as a source of sediment and phosphorus in grazed pastures of the Rathbun Lake Watershed in southern Iowa, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock grazing of riparian areas can have a major impact on stream banks and stream integrity if improperly managed. The goals of this study were to determine the sediment and phosphorus (P) losses from stream bank soils under varying cattle stocking rates and to identify additional factors that ...

  15. Regional distribution of soil phosphorus across congregation-grazing zones of forage-based pastures with cow-calf operations in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The arrangement of supplemental feed, water, shelter, and their concurrent interactions with topographic features may influence the distribution of animals and their simultaneous use of pasture’s resources. Grazing can accelerate and alter the timing of nutrient transfers, and could increase the amo...

  16. Effects of supplemental flaxseed on site and extent of digestion in beef heifers grazing summer native pasture in the northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Six Angus heifers (367 ± 8.0 kg) fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a split-plot designed experiment to determine the effects of ground flaxseed or corn and advancing season on site and extent of digestion when beef heifers grazed summer range in the northern Great Plains. Start...

  17. Hypoglycin A Content in Blood and Urine Discriminates Horses with Atypical Myopathy from Clinically Normal Horses Grazing on the Same Pasture

    PubMed Central

    Bochnia, M.; Ziegler, J.; Sander, J.; Uhlig, A.; Schaefer, S.; Vollstedt, S.; Glatter, M.; Abel, S.; Recknagel, S.; Schusser, G. F.; Wensch-Dorendorf, M.; Zeyner, A.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycin A (HGA) in seeds of Acer spp. is suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy (AM) in Europe, fatal diseases in horses on pasture. In previous studies, this suspicion was substantiated by the correlation of seed HGA content with the concentrations of toxic metabolites in urine and serum (MCPA-conjugates) of affected horses. However, seed sampling was conducted after rather than during an outbreak of the disease. The aim of this study was to further confirm the causality between HGA occurrence and disease outbreak by seed sampling during an outbreak and the determination of i) HGA in seeds and of ii) HGA and MCPA-conjugates in urine and serum of diseased horses. Furthermore, cograzing healthy horses, which were present on AM affected pastures, were also investigated. AM-pastures in Germany were visited to identify seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus and serum (n = 8) as well as urine (n = 6) from a total of 16 diseased horses were analyzed for amino acid composition by LC-ESI-MS/MS, with a special focus on the content of HGA. Additionally, the content of its toxic metabolite was measured in its conjugated form in body fluids (UPLC-MS/MS). The seeds contained 1.7–319.8 μg HGA/g seed. The content of HGA in serum of affected horses ranged from 387.8–8493.8 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), and in urine from 143.8–926.4 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), respectively. Healthy cograzing horses on AM-pastures showed higher serum (108.8 ± 83.76 μg/L) and urine concentrations (26.9 ± 7.39 μg/L) compared to control horses, but lower concentrations compared to diseased horses. The range of MCPA-carnitine and creatinine concentrations found in diseased horses in serum and urine were 0.17–0.65 mmol/L (controls < 0.01), and 0.34–2.05 μmol/mmoL (controls < 0.001), respectively. MCPA-glycine levels in urine of cograzing horses were higher compared to controls. Thus, the causal link between HGA intoxication and disease outbreak

  18. Hypoglycin A Content in Blood and Urine Discriminates Horses with Atypical Myopathy from Clinically Normal Horses Grazing on the Same Pasture.

    PubMed

    Bochnia, M; Ziegler, J; Sander, J; Uhlig, A; Schaefer, S; Vollstedt, S; Glatter, M; Abel, S; Recknagel, S; Schusser, G F; Wensch-Dorendorf, M; Zeyner, A

    2015-01-01

    Hypoglycin A (HGA) in seeds of Acer spp. is suspected to cause seasonal pasture myopathy in North America and equine atypical myopathy (AM) in Europe, fatal diseases in horses on pasture. In previous studies, this suspicion was substantiated by the correlation of seed HGA content with the concentrations of toxic metabolites in urine and serum (MCPA-conjugates) of affected horses. However, seed sampling was conducted after rather than during an outbreak of the disease. The aim of this study was to further confirm the causality between HGA occurrence and disease outbreak by seed sampling during an outbreak and the determination of i) HGA in seeds and of ii) HGA and MCPA-conjugates in urine and serum of diseased horses. Furthermore, cograzing healthy horses, which were present on AM affected pastures, were also investigated. AM-pastures in Germany were visited to identify seeds of Acer pseudoplatanus and serum (n = 8) as well as urine (n = 6) from a total of 16 diseased horses were analyzed for amino acid composition by LC-ESI-MS/MS, with a special focus on the content of HGA. Additionally, the content of its toxic metabolite was measured in its conjugated form in body fluids (UPLC-MS/MS). The seeds contained 1.7-319.8 μg HGA/g seed. The content of HGA in serum of affected horses ranged from 387.8-8493.8 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), and in urine from 143.8-926.4 μg/L (controls < 10 μg/L), respectively. Healthy cograzing horses on AM-pastures showed higher serum (108.8 ± 83.76 μg/L) and urine concentrations (26.9 ± 7.39 μg/L) compared to control horses, but lower concentrations compared to diseased horses. The range of MCPA-carnitine and creatinine concentrations found in diseased horses in serum and urine were 0.17-0.65 mmol/L (controls < 0.01), and 0.34-2.05 μmol/mmoL (controls < 0.001), respectively. MCPA-glycine levels in urine of cograzing horses were higher compared to controls. Thus, the causal link between HGA intoxication and disease outbreak could be

  19. Steers performance in dwarf elephant grass pastures alone or mixed with Arachis pintoi.

    PubMed

    Crestani, Steben; Ribeiro Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Miguel, Marcolino Frederico; de Almeida, Edison Xavier; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2013-08-01

    The inclusion of legumes in pasture reduces the need for mineral nitrogen applications and the pollution of groundwater; however, the agronomic and animal husbandry advantages with tropical legumes are still little known. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the use of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) in dwarf elephant grass pastures (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) on forage intake and animal performance. The experimental treatments were dwarf elephant grass fertilized with 200 kg N/ha, and dwarf elephant grass mixed with forage peanut without mineral fertilizers. The animals used for the experiment were 12 Charolais steers (body weight (BW) = 288 ± 5.2 kg) divided into four lots (two per treatment). Pastures were managed under intermittent stocking with an herbage allowance of 5.4 kg dry matter of green leaves/100 kg BW. Dry matter intake (mean = 2.44% BW), the average daily gain (mean = 0.76 kg), and the stocking rate (mean = 3.8 AU/ha) were similar between the studied pastures, but decreased drastically in last grazing cycle with the same herbage allowance. The presence of peanut in dwarf elephant grass pastures was enough to sustain the stocking rate, but did not allow increasing forage intake and animal performance. PMID:23413007

  20. Invited review: Genetic considerations for various pasture-based dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Washburn, S P; Mullen, K A E

    2014-10-01

    Pasture-based dairy systems use grazing to supply significant percentages of the dry matter intake of cows and heifers. Such systems vary from those for which pasture is used only as a supplemental feed for cows primarily fed a total mixed ration to those for which pasture is the primary source of dry matter for the herd. Cows that are optimal in a pasture system share many general characteristics with cows that are appropriate for a nonpasture system, including feed efficiency, maintenance of body condition, reproductive fitness, udder health, longevity, and the ability to adapt to various management systems. However, in such divergent feeding systems, the relative importance of various traits can differ. In pasture systems where cow nutrient demand intentionally coincides with seasonal forage availability, the focus of selection has emphasized fertility and other fitness traits, as well as yields of milk or milk components. Breeds or strains with higher yields of protein and fat typically have advantages in grazing systems that supply milk to solids-based or cheese markets. Holstein cows with high percentages of North American ancestry can work well in grazing systems that include supplemental concentrates or partial mixed rations, particularly if calving intervals are less restrictive. Crossbred cows can be selected for use in specific grazing systems as well as for specific milk markets, with the added advantage of heterosis. Breeds and crosses with high fertility are important for seasonal breeding and calving. The ability of cattle to both milk and maintain sufficient body condition for reproduction is important for any dairy production system but is critical in a seasonal system. Dairy farms that depend on pasture for most of dry matter for cows typically have lower production per cow than nongrazing dairies but have the potential to be economically competitive because of lower operating and overhead costs. Although the principles of selection are similar

  1. Mycotoxicoses of grazing animals in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Smith, B L; Towers, N R

    2002-01-01

    Mycotoxicoses are some of the most important diseases of animals grazing pastures in New Zealand, especially in northern areas where the disease, facial eczema, occurs. New Zealand scientists have led the world in research on facial eczema and endophyte-related diseases associated with tremoring. Facial eczema (pithomycotoxicosis) was one of the first mycotoxicoses to be studied systematically and successful methods for its control now exist. Toxicity is caused by the concentration of sporidesmin in the biliary system and its redox cycling which leads to the formation of toxic free-radicals. Zinc salts are capable of preventing facial eczema. Their efficacy and safety for farm use has been demonstrated and intraruminal boluses containing zinc have been developed for use in sheep and cattle. Endophyte-related diseases have received special attention over the last 15 years. It is now recognised that Neotyphodium spp and grasses (especially ryegrass and fescue) are an essential symbiosis, making control of these diseases in grazing animals difficult. New Zealand research has demonstrated inhibitory effects of zearalenone, from Fusarium spp growing on pasture litter, on sheep fertility. PMID:16032233

  2. National-Scale Changes in Soil Profile C and N in New Zealand Pastures are Determined by Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schipper, L. A.; Parfitt, R.; Ross, C.; Baisden, W. T.; Claydon, J.; Fraser, S.

    2010-12-01

    Grazed pasture is New Zealand’s predominant agricultural land-use and has been relatively recently developed from forest and native grasslands/shrub communities. From the 1850s onwards, land was cleared and exotic pastures established. Phosphorus fertilizer was increasingly used after 1950 which accelerated N fixation by clover. In the last two decades N fertilizers have been used, and grazing intensity has increased, thus affecting soil C and N. Re-sampling of 31 New Zealand soil profiles under grazed pasture measured surprisingly large losses of C and N over the last 2-3 decades (Schipper et al., 2007 Global Change Biology 13:1138-1144). These profiles were predominantly on the most intensively grazed flat land. We extended this re-sampling to 83 profiles (to 90 cm depth), to investigate whether changes in soil C and N stocks also occurred in less intensively managed pasture. Archived soils samples were analysed for total soil C and N alongside the newly collected samples. Intact cores were collected to determine bulk density through the profile. Over an average of 27 years, soils (0-30 cm) in flat dairy pastures significantly lost 0.73±0.16 Mg C ha-1y-1 and 57±16 kg N ha-1y-1 while we observed no change in soil C or N in flat pasture grazed by “dry stock” (e.g., sheep, beef), or in grazed tussock grasslands. Grazed hill country soils (0-30 cm) gained 0.52±0.18 Mg C ha-1y-1 and 66±18 kg N ha-1y-1. The losses of C and N were strongly correlated and C:N ratio has generally declined suggesting soils are becoming N saturated. Losses and gains also occurred in soil layers below 30 cm demonstrating that organic matter throughout the profile was responding to land use. The losses under dairying may be due to greater grazing pressure, fertilizer inputs and exports of C and N. There is evidence that grazing pressure reduces inputs of C below ground, reduces soil microbial C, and that dairy cow urine can mobilise C and N. Gains in hill country pastures may be due

  3. Stocking Rates for Horse Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decision on which stocking rate to graze a horse pasture is critical, particularly if the forage is expected to meet the nutrient needs of the horses. Challenges and management for targeting the optimum stocking rate, defined as the stocking rate that allows forage consumption to approximately equ...

  4. Sequestration of carbon and phosphorus in subtropical grazed historically isolated wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, J. D.; Jawitz, J. W.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrologic restoration of ditched and drained wetlands within the 12000 km2 Lake Okeechobee basin (LOB), FL is expected to promote carbon (C) accretion and phosphorus (P) retention. The majority of P loading to Lake Okeechobee is attributed to historical pasture fertilization and continued high density cattle activity which perpetuate elevated P transport to the lake from dairies and cow/calf operations. Isolated wetlands which dominate the LOB landscape have been historically ditched to increase pasture area for grazing. Current best management practices intended to reduce P transport to the lake include the option of fencing wetlands in cattle pastures to prevent cattle access. The objective of this study was to develop a predictive model of the dynamics of wetland biomass, soil accretion, C and P. The coupled effects of grazing intensity, highly transient water level, and seasonality were incorporated. The model was conditioned based on approximately three years of monitoring data from four isolated wetlands in the LOB. Drought-induced declining water table resulted in decreased wetland plant biomass in both grazed and ungrazed simulations but reduction was more severe in the grazed simulations. High intensity grazing during flooded conditions resulted in declines in wetland plant biomass due to disconnection between leaves and the air column. Standing biomass and C and P storage in vegetation increased with the exclusion of grazing in these wetlands. Although vegetation nutrient storage is short term, biomass turnover supports accretion of soil and associated C and P. Predicted implications for C and P sequestration at the watershed scale and reduction of P load to the lake are directly related to the wetland area that can be excluded from grazing.

  5. Ardacin for steers grazing endophyte-free fescue pasture: effects on live weight gain, forage intake, nitrogen and fiber digestion, ruminal fluid kinetics, ruminal fermentation, and serum hormones and metabolites.

    PubMed

    Judkins, M B; Holcombe, D W; Hess, B W; Krysl, L J; Branine, M A; Hess, J D

    1997-04-01

    Growth and digestion studies were conducted to evaluate the use of ardacin as a feedgrade antibiotic for enhancing digestive function and growth in grazing steers. In Exp. 1, 90 yearling steers (average initial BW of 248 kg) used in a randomized complete block design (block = weight group) grazed fescue pasture without supplementation (CON) or with daily supplements (DM basis) of .4% of BW supplemental ground corn (CRN) or .4% of BW supplemental corn supplying 120 mg of ardacin (ARD). In Exp. 2, 12 ruminally and duodenally cannulated steers and three ruminally cannulated steers (Hereford x Angus; average BW of 347 kg) were used to evaluate the effects of the same supplements used in Exp. 1 on ruminal fermentation and digestion. In Exp. 1, ARD-supplemented steers weighed more (P < .01) at the conclusion of the study than CRN steers, which together weighed more (P < .01) than CON steers. Average daily gain was greater (P < .10) in supplemented than in CON steers; ARD steers had greater (P < .01) ADG than CRN steers. In Exp. 2, forage intake and harvesting efficiency did not vary (P > .10) with supplementation or type of supplement, but total intake reflected (P = .03) the addition of corn to the forage diet. Addition of ardacin increased (P = .02) ruminal pH compared with CRN steers. Ardacin decreased ruminal molar proportions of acetate and increased (P = .01) propionate proportions when compared with CRN steers. Total tract N digestibility was affected (P < .10) by supplementation and by addition of ardacin to the diet. Addition of ardacin to the ground corn supplement increased ADG, in part by enhancing acetate:propionate ratios and increasing N digestion. PMID:9110226

  6. Production potential of warm-season annual pastures in rotation with corn silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm-season grasses can provide a pasture resource and give relief to cool-season pastures during the hot summer months when cool-season pasture production declines. Increased pasture availability is especially important for organic producers because of the newly defined grazing requirement for org...

  7. Reduction of phosphorus concentration in mineral supplement on fertility rate, maternal ability and costs of beef cows reared in pastures of Urochloa decumbens.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rogério Magnoli; Ponsano, Elisa Helena Giglio; de Souza, Vinícius Carneiro; Malafaia, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    Manufacturing and marketing of mineral mixtures with less than 40 g kg(-1) phosphorus (P) is prohibited under Brazilian regulations, although scientific evidence rejects this recommendation. Considering the hypothesis that P levels in commercial mineral supplements can be reduced without affecting animal performance and health, the objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of reducing the concentration of P in the mineral supplement (from 40 to 18 g kg(-1)) of a herd of beef cows grazing tropical pastures of signal grass (Urochloa decumbens). The experiment was carried out in the savanna region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, during the years 2011 to 2013. Variables analyzed included pregnancy rate, calving interval, weight of calves at weaning, and cost of mineral supplementation. There were no changes in the reproductive parameters of the herd and the weight at weaning of the calves. However, the cost of mineral supplementation was significantly lower when the herd was supplemented with the mineral mix containing only 18 g kg(-1) P. Phosphorus concentration of the forage was analyzed monthly during 1 year and averaged 1.9 ± 0.45 g kg(-1) DM. Thus, it appears possible to reduce P content and cost of mineral supplementation without any adverse effects on the health and productivity of beef cattle herds in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul. However, the final decision should be made based on the clinical-nutritional examination and by constant technical assistance to the farm. PMID:26685846

  8. From the lab bench: A systematic approach to grazing cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A column was written to discuss the use of grazing systems to overcome challenges of managing grazed pastures. Kentucky cattlemen must manage around summer slumps in growth of cool-season perennial grasses, periodic drought, and cattle markets that do not always cooperate with pasture growth patter...

  9. Pasture Management Strategies for Sequestering Soil Carbon - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Franzluebbers, Alan J.

    2006-03-15

    Pasturelands account for 51 of the 212 Mha of privately held grazing land in the USA. Tall fescue is the most important cool-season perennial forage for many beef cattle producers in the humid region of the USA. A fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, infects the majority of tall fescue stands with a mutualistic association. Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte have negative impacts on cattle performance. However, there are indications that endophyte infection of tall fescue is a necessary component of productive and persistent pasture ecology. The objectives of this research were to characterize and quantify changes in soil organic carbon and associated soil properties under tall fescue pastures with and without endophyte infection of grass. Pastures with high endophyte infection had greater concentration of soil organic carbon, but lower concentration of biologically active soil carbon than pastures with low endophyte infection. A controlled experiment suggested that endophyte-infected leaf tissue may directly inhibit the activity of soil microorganisms. Carbon forms of soil organic matter were negatively affected and nitrogen forms were positively affected by endophyte addition to soil. The chemical compounds in endophyte-infected tall fescue (ergot alkaloids) that are responsible for animal health disorders were found in soil, suggesting that these chemicals might be persistent in the environment. Future research is needed to determine whether ergot alkaloids or some other chemicals are responsible for increases in soil organic matter. Scientists will be able to use this information to better understand the ecological impacts of animals grazing tall fescue, and possibly to identify and cultivate other similar associations for improving soil organic matter storage. Another experiment suggested that both dry matter production and soil microbial activity could be affected by the endophyte. Sampling of the cumulative effects of 20 years of tall fescue

  10. Water quantity and quality from a small Georgia Piedmont pasture during 1998-2009: Impact of drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The water quality impact of pasture grazing in the Piedmont, which generally occurs under low-input management, is not well studied. Cattle, hydrologic and water quality data were collected from 1999 to 2009 from a rotationally grazed 7.8-ha pasture near Watkinsville Georgia. Grazing occurred during...

  11. Blood metabolite profiles in cycling and non-cycling Friesian-Sanga cross-bred cows grazing natural pasture during the post-partum period.

    PubMed

    Obese, F Y; MacCarthy, C; Osei-Amponsah, R; Ayizanga, R A; Damptey, J K

    2015-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of plasma concentrations of the metabolic hormones [Growth hormone (GH), insulin and insulin-like growth factor -I (IGF-I)] and nutritional metabolites (Glucose, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine) on the resumption of post-partum ovarian activity in sixteen Friesian-Sanga cows grazing extensively on native grassland. Blood samples were taken from cows from week 1 to 16 post-partum. Cows were classified as having resumed ovarian activity when a plasma progesterone concentration of ≥ 1.0 ng/ml was recorded for two consecutive weekly samples. Based on the resumption of ovarian activity, cows were classified as early-cycling, late-cycling or non-cycling. The concentrations of the metabolic hormones were measured from week 1 to 10, while those of the nutritional metabolites were measured during week 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 during the study period. The concentrations of the metabolic hormones, GH and insulin were similar (p > 0.05) in the three ovarian activity groups, likewise the concentrations of the nutritional metabolites, glucose, total protein, globulin, urea and creatinine. Plasma IGF-I concentration was higher (p < 0.001) in early-cycling (18.7 ± 0.74 ng/ml) than in late-cycling (12.4 ± 0.75 ng/ml) and non-cycling (10.4 ± 0.91 ng/ml) cows. Plasma cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in early-cycling (1.94 ± 0.15 mmol/l) compared with late-cycling (2.48 ± 0.12 mmol/l) and non-cycling (2.61 ± 0.11 mmol/l) cows. For plasma albumin concentrations, the levels recorded for early-cycling cows were higher (40.7 ± 2.85 g/l) than in late-cycling (34.4 ± 1.97 g/l) and non-cycling (33.6 ± 2.66) cows. The results suggest that cows with lower plasma concentrations of IGF-I and albumin, but higher plasma cholesterol concentrations were at risk of delayed resumption of post-partum ovarian activity. PMID:25683608

  12. Cattle grazing on the shortgrass steppe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of this book chapter is research pertaining to three management practices important to cattle ranching on shortgrass steppe: stocking rates, grazing systems, and extending the grazing season via complementary pastures and use of Atriplex canescens [Pursh] Nutt (fourwing saltbush) -dominate...

  13. Dietary selection by domestic grazing ruminants: Current state of knowledge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminants grazing biodiverse pasture face many choices, including when and where to graze and how much herbage to consume. Scientific research has led to considerable knowledge about some of these choices (e.g. herbage DMI), but other aspects of the complex decision-making process of a grazing rumin...

  14. Open pasture, silvopasture, and sward herbage maturity effects on nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of cool-season pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Appalachian USA, growing forages within woodlots offers promise of increased farm productivity. A synchronized, temporal understanding of open (OP) and silvopasture (SP) nutritive characteristics is essential for grazing system development. We examined pasture type nutritive value relationships w...

  15. PLANT SPECIES DIVERSITY, ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION, AND PASTURE MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grassland farmers face new challenges in pasture management including improving sustainability, reducing inputs of fertilizers and pesticides, and protecting soil resources. Managing plant diversity within and among pastures may be one tool to aid producers in meeting these new challenges. Pasture e...

  16. Metabolic profile in Chilota lambs grazing Calafatal.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, María Asunción; Noro, Mirela; De la Barra, Rodrigo; Pulido, Rubén

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the productive and metabolic response in Chilota lambs grazing Calafatal or naturalized pasture. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station Butalcura (INIA, Chiloé) during October, November, and December 2011. Eight Chilota and six Suffolk Down 2-month-old lambs, uncastrated males, no twin, were located to graze a typical secondary succession of the Chiloé Archipelago, as a Calafatal (a secondary succession which derivates from human intervention on native forest in Chiloé Archipelago). Simultaneously, eight male 2-month-old Chilota lambs were located to graze a naturalized pasture, another secondary succession derived from human intervention on native forest in Chiloé Archipelago. Animals had free access to water sources. Measurements were performed one time a month, for three consecutive months for productive indicators: live weight, average daily gain and body condition score, and blood indicators of protein and energetic metabolism. Productive and metabolic response was similar between both types of pastures (P > 0.05). However, Chilota and Suffolk Down lambs grazing Calafatal showed higher plasma concentrations of βOH-butyrate, but lower non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) than Chilota lambs grazing naturalized pasture (P < 0.05). Chilota lambs grazing naturalized pasture showed the highest plasma concentrations of NEFA and urea (P < 0.05). It was concluded that, under the conditions of the study, Chilota lambs grazing naturalized pasture, which had higher contents of crude protein and metabolizable energy, showed better metabolic balance, but not performance, than Chilota and Suffolk Down lambs grazing Calafatal. PMID:24420763

  17. Quantifying phosphorus levels in landscapes associated with Bahiagrass-based pastures and beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relatively little information exists regarding possible magnitudes of P losses from grazed pastures. Whether or not P losses from grazed pastures are significantly greater than background losses and how these losses are affected by soil, forage management, or stocking density are not well understood...

  18. Pasture condition scoring at the whole-farm scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers need monitoring and assessment tools to aid in pasture management. The Pasture Condition Score (PCS) system was developed by the USDA-NRCS as a monitoring and management tool. Information is lacking, however, on how PCS results vary within and among grazing seasons and within and among far...

  19. Prevalence of periparturient diseases and effects on fertility of seasonally calving grazing dairy cows supplemented with concentrates.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, E S; Lima, F S; Greco, L F; Bisinotto, R S; Monteiro, A P A; Favoreto, M; Ayres, H; Marsola, R S; Martinez, N; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P

    2013-09-01

    The objectives were to characterize the prevalence of periparturient diseases and their effects on reproductive performance of dairy cows in seasonal grazing farms. A total of 957 multiparous cows in 2 farms (555 in farm A and 402 in farm B) were evaluated and diseases characterized. At calving, dystocia, twin birth, stillbirth, and retained fetal membranes were recorded and grouped as calving problems. On d 7±3 and 14±3 postpartum, cows were evaluated for metritis and on d 28±3 for clinical endometritis based on scoring of the vaginal discharge. From parturition to 30 d after artificial insemination (AI), prevalence of mastitis, lameness, and digestive and respiratory problems were recorded. For subclinical diseases, diagnosis was based on blood samples collected from 771 cows and analyzed for concentrations of Ca, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate. Cows were considered as having elevated NEFA concentration if the concentration was ≥0.70 mM, subclinical ketosis if the β-hydroxybutyrate concentration was ≥0.96 mM, and subclinical hypocalcemia if the Ca concentration was ≤2.14 mM. Ovaries were scanned on d 35±3 and 49±3 postpartum for determination of estrous cyclicity. All cows were enrolled in a timed AI program and inseminated on the first day of the breeding season: on average, 86 d postpartum. Overall, 37.5% (359/957) of the cows presented at least 1 clinical disease and 59.0% (455/771) had at least 1 subclinical health problem. Prevalence of individual diseases was 8.5% for calving problems, 5.3% for metritis, 15.0% for clinical endometritis, 13.4% for subclinical endometritis, 15.3% for mastitis, 2.5% for respiratory problems, 4.0% for digestive problems, 3.2% for lameness, 20.0% for elevated NEFA concentration, 35.4% for subclinical ketosis, and 43.3% for subclinical hypocalcemia. Clinical and subclinical diseases had additive negative effects on reproduction, delaying resumption of estrous cyclicity and reducing pregnancy

  20. Cattle use patterns of riparian pastures in northeastern Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock use of riparian areas has been fraught with controversy, with some arguing that livestock should be excluded while others emphasize the benefits of controlled grazing. Our study was designed to 1) characterize the nature of cattle grazing in riparian pastures, 2) determine intensity and s...

  1. Nutritive value in relation to plant species diversity of pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting forage mixtures may benefit pasture herbage production; however, changes in botanical composition could cause unstable nutritive value. Data from two grazing studies and a farm survey were used to examine how plant species diversity influenced herbage nutritive value. In one grazing study,...

  2. Queensland Pastures

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Local graziers hope for good long-term responses in pasture growth from the heavy rains. These images and maps from the Multi-angle Imaging ... for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and uses plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar ...

  3. Evaluating Attitudes towards Changes in Rural Landscape by Grazing Cattle on Abandoned Paddy Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuhito, Kitai; Toshihiro, Hattori; Hiroshi, Takahashi

    The appearance of cattle grazing abandoned paddy fields can be used to evaluate attitudes towards this land-use change. The semantic differential (SD) method was used families of a university student to evaluate and compare attitudes towards five types of rural landscape: pasture, pasture grazed by cattle, rice paddy field, abandoned paddy field converted to pasture and abandoned paddy field converted to pasture grazed by cattle. Cattle grazing abandoned paddy fields were determined to have a positive effect on the landscape. However, all grazing cattle created a negative attitude because of the unclean appearance of the landscape. Grazing cattle at high stocking rates in small areas could create a negative attitude because of the oppressive appearance of the landscape. The acceptance of grazing cattle was lower if the animals ware newly introduced to the landscape.

  4. Exploiting the Potential Differences in Pasture Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperate grasses grown for pasture in Wisconsin exhibit a range of chemical and physical characteristics that influence their utilization by grazing cattle. Potential intake of all grasses declines with maturity due to decreasing cell wall digestiblity, but the leaves and stems of orchardgrass and...

  5. Measuring and budgeting available forage in pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We modeled two farms that differed in size, grazing management, and feeding strategy. We first modeled the optimal management and performance conditions for each farm with the assumption that forage on pasture was measured accurately and budgeted optimally. We also established an economically optimu...

  6. Impact of Rotation Frequency and Weaning Date on Forage Availability and Nutrient Composition, Species Composition, and Growth Performance by Cows and Calves Grazing Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Pastures Overseeded with Cra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A grazing study was initiated in April 2000 and continued through three calving and weaning cycles (ending July 2003) to investigate the effects of rotational grazing management (twice monthly [2M] vs. twice weekly [2W]) and weaning date (mid-April [EARLY] vs. early June [LATE]) on production of fal...

  7. Managing Broiler Litter Application Rate and Grazing to Decrease Watershed Runoff Losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture management and broiler litter application rate are critical factors influencing the magnitude of nutrients being transported by runoff from fields. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of pasture management (haying, grazing, and a haying and grazing combination) and broiler lit...

  8. Diet Selection Fact Sheet - Choices, Choices, Choices- Interpreting the Pasture "Salad Bar"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet summarizes some of the current knowledge regarding grazing behavior. A grazing ruminant is presented with a smorgasbord of choices when turned out onto a pasture. However, little is understood on how selection decisions are made by the animal. Grazing behavior research is attempting...

  9. Dairy farm impacts of fencing riparian land: pasture production and farm productivity.

    PubMed

    Aarons, Sharon R; Melland, Alice R; Dorling, Lianne

    2013-11-30

    Dairy farmers are encouraged to restrict stock access by fencing riparian zones to reduce stream pollution and improve biodiversity. Many farmers are reluctant to create fenced riparian zones because of the perceived loss of productive pasture. Anecdotal reports indicate that pasture production in fenced areas is especially valued during summer months when water stress is likely to limit pasture growth in other areas of the farm. We measured pasture production, botanical composition, soil moisture, and fertility in Riparian (within 20 m of the riverbank), Flat (greater than 20 but less than 50 m from the riverbank), and Hill (elevated) areas on three commercial dairy farms from October 2006 to November 2007 in south eastern Australia. Riparian and Flat areas produced significantly more pasture, with on average approximately 25% more dry matter per ha grown in these areas compared with Hill paddocks. Percentage ryegrass was 14% lower on Hill slopes compared with Riparian and Flat areas and was compensated for by only a 5% increase in other grass species. Significant seasonal effects were observed with the difference in pasture production between Hill, and Riparian and Flat areas most pronounced in summer, due to soil moisture limitations on Hill paddocks. To examine potential productivity impacts of this lost pasture, we used a questionnaire-based survey to interview the farmers regarding their farm and riparian management activities. The additional pasture that would have been available if the riverbanks were not fenced to their current widths ranged from 6.2 to 27.2 t DM for the 2006/2007 year and would have been grown on 0.4-3.4% of their milking area. If this pasture was harvested instead of grazed, the farmers could have saved between $2000 and $8000 of their purchased fodder costs in that year. By fencing their riparian areas to 20 m for biodiversity benefits, between 2.2% and 9.8% of their milking area would be out of production amounting to about $16

  10. Reproductive Performance of Holstein Dairy Cows Grazing in Dry-summer Subtropical Climatic Conditions: Effect of Heat Stress and Heat Shock on Meiotic Competence and In vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Pavani, Krishna; Carvalhais, Isabel; Faheem, Marwa; Chaveiro, Antonio; Reis, Francisco Vieira; da Silva, Fernando Moreira

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate how environmental factors in a dry-summer subtropical climate in Terceira-Azores (situated in the North Atlantic Ocean: 38° 43′ N 27° 12′ W) can affect dairy cow (Holstein) fertility, as well as seasonal influence on in vitro oocytes maturation and embryos development. Impact of heat shock (HS) effects on in vitro oocyte’s maturation and further embryo development after in vitro fertilization (IVF) was also evaluated. For such purpose the result of the first artificial insemination (AI) performed 60 to 90 days after calving of 6,300 cows were recorded for one year. In parallel, climatic data was obtained at different elevation points (n = 5) from 0 to 1,000 m and grazing points from 0 to 500 m, in Terceira island, and the temperature humidity index (THI) was calculated. For in vitro experiments, oocytes (n = 706) were collected weekly during all year, for meiotic maturation and IVF. Further, to evaluate HS effect, 891 oocytes were collected in the cold moths (December, January, February and March) and divided in three groups treated to HS for 24 h during in vitro maturation at: C (Control = 38.5°C), HS1 (39.5°C) and HS2 (40.5°C). Oocytes from each group were used for meiotic assessment and IVF. Cleavage, morula and blastocyst development were evaluated respectively on day 2, 6, and 9 after IVF. A negative correlation between cow’s conception rate (CR) and THI in grazing points (−91.3%; p<0.001) was observed. Mean THI in warmer months (June, July, August and September) was 71.7±0.7 and the CR (40.2±1.5%) while in cold months THI was 62.8±0.2 and CR was 63.8±0.4%. A similar impact was obtained with in vitro results in which nuclear maturation rate (NMR) ranged from 78.4% (±8.0) to 44.3% (±8.1), while embryos development ranged from 53.8% (±5.8) to 36.3% (±3.3) in cold and warmer months respectively. In vitro HS results showed a significant decline (p<0.05) on NMR of oocytes for every 1°C rising

  11. Energy and protected protein supplements to lambs on endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture.

    PubMed

    Daura, M T; Reid, R L

    1991-01-01

    The effect of supplements on intake, digestibility, N retention, ADG and blood and body composition of growing lambs fed cut herbage or grazing KY 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) pastures at two levels of N fertilization (92 and 318 kg/ha) was determined. Supplements were corn (C), corn with soybean meal (U-SBM) and corn with heat-treated SBM (H-SBM). Metabolism trials were run at three growth stages in the 1st yr with 24 lambs. Although all supplements increased total DMI and DM digestibility, they decreased NDF digestibility relative to grass (G), with no difference between supplements; C depressed apparent CP digestibility. Nitrogen retention increased from -2.5 g/d on G to -.4 g/d on C and 3.2 and 4.1 g/d on U-SBM and H-SBM, respectively, for combined periods and N rates. Blood urea N (BUN) concentrations differed (P less than .01) in the following order: G greater than U-SBM greater than H-SBM greater than C. In the 2nd yr, lambs (n = 64) grazed fescue pastures at the same N fertilizer rates and were given the same supplements. Gains were not different (P less than .05) on low-N (LN) and high-N (HN) pastures. Seasonal ADG were 80, 115, 122 and 130 g/d for G, C, U-SBM and H-SBM treatments, respectively, with no difference (P less than .05) between U-SBM and H-SBM. At slaughter, lambs from G had lower dressing percentages (P less than .05) and fat content (P less than .01) than lambs on C, U-SBM and H-SBM treatments, with no differences between supplements. Results indicated a better performance of growing lambs on fescue with both energy and protein supplements. Response to protected vs unprotected protein was small. PMID:2005030

  12. Let’s graze the cattle at dusk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research conducted in Argentina, US, Australia and Europe has shown significant variations in chemical composition of pasture throughout the day, which results in an increase in pasture digestibility and energy concentration as the day progresses. Cattle have adapted their grazing patterns during th...

  13. Carbon flux assessment in cow-calf grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Chiavegato, M B; Rowntree, J E; Powers, W J

    2015-08-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes and soil organic carbon (SOC) accumulation in grassland ecosystems are intimately linked to grazing management. This study assessed the carbon equivalent flux (Ceq) from 1) an irrigated, heavily stocked, low-density grazing system, 2) a nonirrigated, lightly stocked, high-density grazing system, and 3) a grazing-exclusion pasture site on the basis of the GHG emissions from pasture soils and enteric methane emissions from cows grazing different pasture treatments. Soil organic carbon and total soil nitrogen stocks were measured but not included in Ceq determination because of study duration and time needed to observe a change in soil composition. Light- and heavy-stocking systems had 36% and 43% greater Ceq than nongrazed pasture sites, respectively ( < 0.01). The largest contributor to increased Ceq from grazing systems was enteric CH emissions, which represented 15% and 32% of the overall emissions for lightly and heavily stocked grazing systems, respectively. Across years, grazing systems also had increased nitrous oxide (N2O; < 0.01) and CH emissions from pasture soils ( < 0.01) compared with nongrazed pasture sites but, overall, minimally contributed to total emissions. Results indicate no clear difference in Ceqflux between the grazing systems studied when SOC change is not incorporated ( = 0.11). A greater stocking rate potentially increased total SOC stock ( = 0.02), the addition of SOC deeper into the soil horizon ( = 0.01), and soil OM content to 30 cm ( < 0.01). The incorporation of long-term annual carbon sequestration into the determination of Ceq could change results and possibly differentiate the grazing systems studied. PMID:26440199

  14. 77 FR 70137 - Okanogan-Wenatchee National Forest, Okanogan County, WA; Bannon, Aeneas, Revis, and Tunk Grazing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... continue authorizing cattle grazing on all or portions of four existing grazing allotments: Bannon, Aeneas... to authorize grazing at current permitted cattle numbers and seasons of use. DATES: Comments... be reached and cattle need to be moved. The length of time each pasture is grazed and...

  15. Managing variations in dairy cow nutrient supply under grazing.

    PubMed

    Peyraud, J L; Delagarde, R

    2013-03-01

    Grazed pasture, which is the cheapest source of nutrients for dairy cows, should form the basis of profitable and low-input animal production systems. Management of high-producing dairy cows at pasture is thus a major challenge in most countries. The objective of the present paper is to review the factors that can affect nutrient supply for grazing dairy cows in order to point out areas with scope for improvement on managing variations in nutrient supply to achieve high animal performance while maintaining efficient pasture utilisation per hectare (ha). Reviewing the range in animal requirements, intake capacity and pasture nutritive values shows that high-producing cows cannot satisfy their energy requirements from grazing alone and favourable to unfavourable situations for grazing dairy cows may be classified according to pasture quality and availability. Predictive models also enable calculation of supplementation levels required to meet energy requirements in all situations. Solutions to maintain acceptable level of production per cow and high output per ha are discussed. Strategies of concentrate supplementation and increasing use of legumes in mixed swards are the most promising. It is concluded that although high-producing cow cannot express their potential milk production at grazing, there is scope to improve animal performance at grazing given recent developments in our understanding of factors influencing forage intake and digestion of grazed forages. PMID:23031792

  16. Biodiversity on Swedish pastures: estimating biodiversity production costs.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Fredrik Olof Laurentius

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the costs of producing biological diversity on Swedish permanent grasslands. A simple model is introduced where biodiversity on pastures is produced using grazing animals. On the pastures, the grazing animals create a sufficient grazing pressure to lead to an environment that suits many rare and red-listed species. Two types of pastures are investigated: semi-natural and cultivated. Biological diversity produced on a pasture is estimated by combining a biodiversity indicator, which measures the quality of the land, with the size of the pasture. Biodiversity is, in this context, a quantitative measure where a given quantity can be produced either by small area with high quality or a larger area with lower quality. Two areas in different parts of Sweden are investigated. Box-Cox transformations, which provide flexible functional forms, are used in the empirical analysis and the results indicate that the biodiversity production costs differ between the regions. The major contribution of this paper is that it develops and tests a method of estimating biodiversity production costs on permanent pastures when biodiversity quality differs between pastures. If the method were to be used with cost data, that were more thoroughly collected and covered additional production areas, biodiversity cost functions could be estimated and used in applied policy work. PMID:18079049

  17. Persistence of rotationally grazed red clover in mixed stands.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Red Clover (Trifolium pratense) is an important forage legume in grazing pastures. Historically red clover was limited by its comparatively lower stand persistence in hay and grazed systems. Smith (2000) demonstrated increased persistence under hay management achieved through over 30 years of bree...

  18. Contrasting impacts of grass species on nitrogen cycling in a grazed Sudanian savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yé, Lambiénou; Abbadie, Luc; Bardoux, Gérard; Lata, Jean-Christophe; Nacro, Hassan Bismarck; Masse, Dominique; de Parseval, Henri; Barot, Sébastien

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the impact of perennial and annuals grass species on nitrogen cycling in a Sudanian savanna of Burkina Faso. We also analysed how the local context in terms of grazing and soil properties modifies these impacts. We selected four plots differing both by the intensity of grazing by cattle and soil depth, and used soil and grass biomass 15N as integrative indicators of N cycle. If perennials are able to foster a more efficient nitrogen cycling there should be lower 15N abundances in their biomass and soil. If soil depth and cattle pressure significantly modify nitrogen fluxes, soil depth and cattle pressure should influence 15N signatures. Our results suggest that perennial grasses are more conservative for nitrogen (inhibition of nitrification, less leaching via a perennial root system, slower cycling). The increase in leaf δ15N with N concentration is steeper in Loudetia togoensis than in the three other grasses. No significant difference was found between the 15N signatures of the four plots. Our results on 15N signatures and the fact that perennial grasses are much more abundant in the plots that are less grazed and have deeper soils, confirm that the switch from perennial to annual grasses is linked to a degradation in soil fertility and pasture quality. This suggests that 15N signatures can be used as indicators of fertility.

  19. Digestible energy content of pasture species in growing European wild boar (Sus scrofa L.).

    PubMed

    Quijada, R P; Bitsch, N I; Hodgkinson, S M

    2012-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the apparent energy digestibility of six pasture species frequently grazed by European wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) and to estimate the digestible energy (DE) consumption from pasture by grazing wild boar. Seven diets were prepared; a base diet (BD) which did not contain any pasture species, diets D1 to D5 which included 75% of the BD and 25% of the dried pasture species Lolium perenne (D1), Festuca arundinacea (D2), Agrostis capillaris (D3), Bromus staminius (D4) or Trifolium repens (D5) and D6 which contained 85% BD and 15% dried Plantago lanceolata. Seven purebred European wild boar (initial liveweight 24.4 ± 0.8 kg, average ± SEM) were given access to the diets following a Latin Square design. The animals received each diet for eight days, with faecal sampling on days 6, 7 and 8. The total apparent DE consumption from pasture by grazing wild boar was estimated using previously collected pasture consumption data from wild boar. The digestibility coefficients and DE contents of the pasture species ranged from 0.29 to 0.65, and 5.8 to 12.6 MJ/kg DM respectively, with L. perenne and P. lanceolata having the greatest digestibility coefficients and DE contents. The wild boar were estimated to satisfy between 52% and 142% of their maintenance energy requirements through pasture consumption. Grazing wild boar are able to utilise an important proportion of the energy present in pasture species. PMID:21575078

  20. Carbon balance of an intensively grazed permanent grassland in southern Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourlez de la Motte, Louis; Jérôme, Elisabeth; Mamadou, Ossénatou; Beckers, Yves; Bodson, Bernard; Heineisch, Bernard; Aubinet, Marc

    2016-04-01

    Grasslands are an important component of the global carbon balance but their carbon storage potential is still highly uncertain. Especially, the impact of weather variability and management practices on grassland carbon budgets need to be assessed. This study investigates the carbon balance of an intensively managed permanent grassland (Dorinne Terrestrial Observatory (DTO)) and its uncertainties by combining 5-years of eddy covariance measurements and other organic carbon exchanges estimates. The specificities of this study lie in: (i) the age of the pasture, which has probably been established since more than one century; (ii) the intensive character of the management with a mean grazing pressure larger than 2 livestock unit ha-1 and stocking cycle including stocking and rest periods, (iii) the livestock production system, typical of Wallonia, farming intensively Belgian Blue breed of cattle in order to produce meat. The results showed that, despite the high stocking rate and the old age of the pasture and the high stocking rate, the site acted as a relatively stable carbon sink from year to year with a 5-year average Net Biome Productivity of ‒173 [‒128 ‒203] g C m-2 yr-1. The carbon sink behavior of the pasture was directly increased by management practices through food complementation and organic fertilization and indirectly by mineral fertilization. The relatively low carbon budget inter-annual variability could be explained both by: (i) grazing management of the farmer that regulated Growth Primary Productivity by adapting the stocking rate to the Leaf Area Index which itself depends on weather conditions, (ii) carbon imports through food complements only when grass regrowth was not sufficient to feed the cattle. The results suggest that management practices that tend to optimize forage availability for meat production could contribute to maintaining a carbon sink. Keywords : grassland, carbon budget, carbon dioxide flux, management, eddy covariance

  1. Lake-dredged material for beef cattle pasture establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbonatic lake-dredged materials can be used as soil amendments (lime and fertilizer) for early establishment of bahiagrass in beef cattle pastures in Florida. Some of the indirect benefits of the liming effects of this material for pastures include enhancing nutrient availability, nitrification, n...

  2. Grazing-Based Dairy Production in Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confinement and grazing-based dairy producers face many challenges, including rising cost of inputs (labor, fertilizer, energy, machinery), economic disadvantages relative to commodity feeds, potential negative environmental impacts, legislation restricting operations, and variable climatic conditio...

  3. Purple Prairie Clover (Dalea purpurea Vent) Reduces Fecal Shedding of Escherichia coli in Pastured Cattle.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Wang, Y; Iwaasa, A D; Li, Y; Xu, Z; Schellenberg, M P; Liu, X L; McAllister, T A; Stanford, K

    2015-08-01

    A 3-year (2009 to 2011) grazing study was conducted to assess the effects of purple prairie clover (PPC; Dalea purpurea Vent) on fecal shedding of total Escherichia coli in cattle. Three pasture types were used in the experiment: bromegrass (Check), mixed cool season grasses with PPC (Simple), and mixed cool and warm grasses with PPC (Complex). Pastures were rotationally grazed during a summer and fall grazing period. PPC was grazed in summer at the vegetative or early flower stage and at the flower or early seed stage during the fall. Fecal samples were collected for enumeration of E. coli and chemical analyses. Forage samples were collected throughout grazing for analysis. Condensed tannins (CT) were only detected in Simple and Complex pastures that contained PPC, with higher concentrations found in the fall than in the summer. Fecal counts of E. coli in cattle grazing Simple and Complex pastures linearly decreased (P < 0.05) over summer to fall in all 3 years, an outcome not observed in cattle grazing the Check pasture. Across the three grazing seasons, fecal E. coli was lower (P < 0.05) in cattle grazing Simple and Complex pastures than in those grazing the Check pasture during the fall. During the fall, feces collected from cattle grazing the Check pasture had higher (P < 0.05) values for pH, N, NH3-N, total volatile fatty acids, and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, but a lower (P < 0.05) acetate:propionate ratio than feces collected from cattle grazing Simple or Complex pastures. In a second experiment, two strains of E. coli were cultured in M9 medium containing 25 to 200 μg/ml of PPC CT. Growth of E. coli was linearly (P < 0.01) reduced by increasing levels of PPC CT. Scanning electron micrographs showed electron-dense filamentous material associated with the outer membrane of E. coli cells exposed to CT. Incorporation of PPC into forage reduced the fecal shedding of E. coli from grazing cattle, likely due to the anti-E. coli properties of PPC CT. PMID

  4. Allocating fresh pasture during the afternoon enhances daily weight gains… what about milk yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research conducted in Argentina, US, Australia and Europe has shown significant variations in chemical composition of pasture throughout the day, which results in an increase in pasture digestibility and energy concentration as the day progresses. Cattle have adapted their grazing patterns during th...

  5. [Effect of grazing on sandy grassland ecosystem in Inner Mongolia].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Halin; Zhang, Tonghui; Zhao, Xueyong; Zhou, Ruilian

    2004-03-01

    This experiment was carried out for 5 years in Horqin sandy land, lnner Mongolia, which had 4 treatments: Non-grazing (NG), light grazing (LG), moderate grazing (MG) and over grazing (OG). The results showed that different grazing intensities resulted in different development trend of the pasture ecosystem, of which, the injury of OG on pasture ecosystem was very great. The plant diversity, vegetation coverage, plant height and primary productivity under continuous overgrazing for 5 year were 87.9%, 82.1%, 94.0% and 57.0%, respectively, lower than those in NG. The biomass on the OG pasture was only 2.1% of NG, and the contents of soil clay, C and N as well as the quantities of soil microbes and small animals in OG were respectively 6.0%, 31.9%, 25.0%, 95.0% and 75.9% lower than those in NG, but the soil hardness was raised by 274.0%. Especially, the secondary productivity of the pasture became negative from the third year, and the productive foundation of the pasture ecosystem was completely destroyed. Non-grazing was beneficial to pasture, and enclosure caused an increase in vegetation coverage, plant height and primary productivity. The vegetation coverage, plant height and soil status in LG and MG were not as good as those in NG, but were stable and didn't show worsening trend. Based on the above results, it's considered that on the sandy pasture in the semi-arid area of Inner Mongolia, the rational grass utilization ratio is 45%-50%, and the suitable loading capacity is 3-4 sheep unit.hm-2. PMID:15227991

  6. Pasture Fallowing Fact Sheet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture fallowing is the practice of leaving pastures ungrazed for a period to encourage grass reseeding and increase pasture diversity. Fallowing may have negative effects as well, by reducing legume cover and allowing thistles and other invasive weeds to increase. We looked at the effects of fallo...

  7. Pastures and biodiversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers often plant monocultures or simple grass-legume mixtures in their pastures. Increased biodiversity in pastures may be one tool to improve sustainability and productivity. This fact sheet addresses some common questions regarding biodiversity in pastures. Very broadly, biodiversity refers to ...

  8. Pasture diversity and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of pastures in the northeastern United States, not much is known about their ecology, including taxonomic and functional diversity. This factsheet presents results from a 1998-2005 survey of pastures on 44 farms from Maine to Maryland. Pastures are quite diverse; the ...

  9. Pasture diversity and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists at the USDA-ARS Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit have been collecting pasture plant biodiversity data for over ten years and across the northeastern United States. We have identified more than three hundred species of vascular plants. The average pasture in this regi...

  10. Effects of herbage intake on goat performance in the mediterranean type natural pastures.

    PubMed

    Hakyemez, Basri H; Gokkus, Ahmet; Savas, Turker; Yurtman, Ismail Y

    2009-02-01

    This study aimed at identifying changes in natural pastures during the grazing season and investigating the effects of these changes on pasture feeding potential for high yielding dairy goats. During the study, 12 dairy goats were grazed on a 1.5 ha natural pasture for three months from April to June in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The goats were fed 0.5 kg/day of concentrate as a supplement during the grazing season. Botanical composition, herbage production and intake, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of the pasture were determined. Live weight, milk yield, milk dry matter (DM) and fat content of the goats were monitored. The data were analyzed using a linear model, which evaluated the effects of grazing seasons in each year. Based on the three-year average, 87% of pasture was herbaceous plants and the remaining was shrubs in DM basis with Cistus creticus, Quercus ithaburensis, Pistacia atlantica and Asparagus acutifolius being the major shrub species. The herbage yield in June was significantly lower than in other months in all years (P = 0.001). In all experimental years, the CP content of the pasture decreased but the structural carbohydrates increased as the grazing season proceeded. While live weight was not affected by grazing periods except for 2004 (P = 0.001), milk yield significantly decreased with advancing grazing period (P = 0.001). The results of the present study indicate that natural pasture has a supportive effect in April and May on the milk yield of lactating goats which are in mid-lactation, and suggested that supplementary feeding is required in consecutive grazing periods. PMID:20163465

  11. Composition of horse diets on cool-season grass pastures using microhistological analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing patterns and diet composition can be difficult to determine with horses, but are important when pastures contain species that have the potential to cause animal toxicity. The objective of this study was to determine the composition of domesticated horse diets when grazing mixed cool-season p...

  12. DIFFERENT METHODS OF ESTIMATING CRUDE PROTEIN CONCENTRATION OF BERMUDAGRASS PASTURES FOR STOCKER CALF PRODUCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Providing supplemental protein during the last half of the summer grazing season to stocker calves grazing warm-season grass pastures can increase animal performance. The most efficient supplementation strategy for stocker calf enterprises is to monitor forage crude protein (CP) content and to begin...

  13. Evaluating Pasture Grasses: Fescues and Other Freaks of Nature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) has excellent potential for grazing-based dairy and beef systems in Wisconsin, but producer awareness of this temperate grass is lacking. Previous research established that its intake potential is comparable or superior to other pasture grasses, and winter-ha...

  14. Canopy-Coverage Method Compares Pasture and Prairie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the procedures used by a high school biology class in an ecological study related to the degeneration of grasslands. The canopy-coverage method of vegetational analysis was used to compare a low-grade, over-grazed pasture with a nearby high-quality prairie. An interpretation of the results is also presented. (JR)

  15. Using lake dredged material to enhance pasture establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cow-calf (Bos taurus) industry in subtropical United States and other parts of the world depends almost totally on grazed pastures. Establishment of complete, uniform stand of bahiagrass in a short time period is vital economically. Domestic wastewater sludge or sewage sludge, composted urban pl...

  16. Reestablishing Chicory into Multi-Species Perennial Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) has the potential to provide abundant, high quality forage during periods of drought stress, but poor persistence limits its usefulness in permanent pasture. This experiment compared the ability of three seeding methods to reestablish chicory into a grazed multi-specie...

  17. Heifer growth performance from fall-oat pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall-grown oat has shown promise as an emergency fall forage option, or to extend the grazing season in Wisconsin. Our objectives for this project were: i) to assess the pasture productivity and forage characteristics of 2 fall-grown oat cultivars (Ogle and ForagePlus; OG and FP, respectively) using...

  18. Amazing Grazing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Cris

    Countless acres of grasslands stretch across the American West. Centuries ago, bison roamed the range freely and lived off the grass. By the 19th century, herds of cattle grazed the same land. Over time, much of the original grassland was either plowed and planted or trampled to dust, causing the topsoil to dry up and blow away. Today many…

  19. Pasture improvement in Spanish Dehesas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Vilanova, M.; González López, F.

    2009-04-01

    In the south-west of the Iberian Peninsula, the dehesa is a widespread agro-silvo-pastoral land use system, characterized by a grassland with a disperse cover of oak trees and shrubs, where the main production is extensive livestock combined with agriculture and forestry. Many years of inappropriate management of dehesas (deforestation, overgrazing, excessive agricultural activities, etc.) has led to the degradation of vegetation and soils in extensive areas, causing reductions in biomass and biodiversity, affecting the permanence of plants and causing important losses of palatable species. As there is growing interest in these wooded rangeland ecosystems due to their economic importance and high environmental value, the recovery of the original pasture biodiversity and the increase of productivity, together with the conservation of the environment, are the main goals in these areas of low productive potential, degraded and subject to soil erosion. Soil and climate conditions have a great influence on grassland production, with rainfall producing strong seasonal and interannual variations. These natural pastures, mainly composed of summer withering annual species, reach maximum productions in spring and register low values in autumn, slowing down in winter. During the summer dry season, the wilting pastures can offer a good forage for animals. Autochthonous annual legumes play an important role because they are well adapted to local edaphic and climatic conditions and produce hard seeds which germinate in autumn. This helps them to survive the frequent droughts and offer a high quality forage, which is a valuable complement to other pasture plants with lower protein content. Therefore, for several decades, legume seeding combined with the application of phosphate fertilizer has been the most common strategy used to improve pastures in SW Spain, where dehesas cover an area of about four million hectares. This paper examines the whole process of pasture improvement

  20. The impact of buffer strips and stream-side grazing on small mammals in southwestern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, Erik W.; Ribic, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The practice of continuously grazing cattle along streams has caused extensive degradation of riparian habitats. Buffer strips and managed intensive rotational grazing (MIRG) have been proposed to protect and restore stream ecosystems in Wisconsin. However, the ecological implications of a switch from traditional livestock management to MIRG or buffer strip establishment have not been investigated. Differences in small mammal communities associated with riparian areas on continuously grazed and MIRG pastures, as well as vegetative buffer strips adjacent to row crops, were investigated in southwestern Wisconsin during May-September 1997 and 1998. More species (mean of 6-7) were found on the buffer sites than on the pasture sites (mean of 2-5). Total small mammal abundance on buffer sites was greater than on the pastures as well: there were 3-5 times as many animals on the buffer sites compared to the pasture sites, depending on year. There were no differences in species richness or total abundance between MIRG and continuously grazed pastures in either year. Total small mammal abundance was greater near the stream than away from the stream, regardless of farm management practice but there were no differences in species richness. Buffer strips appear to support a particularly rich and abundant small mammal community. Although results did not detect a difference in small mammal use between pasture types, farm-wide implications of a conversion from continuous to MIRG styles of grazing may benefit small mammals indirectly by causing an increase in the prevalence of pasture in the agricultural landscape.

  1. Soil organic carbon in managed pastures of the southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing lands in the southeastern USA are managed primarily for introduced plant species that have high forage production potential or that fit a niche within a farming system. Forages are typically managed with fertilization and grazing pressure on a seasonal basis, depending upon growth habit. N...

  2. Limitations of Vegetation Indices For Detecting Pasture Degradation: A Case Study of Montane Pastoral Systems in Central Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddy, I. M. S.; Gergel, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Grazing is the most extensive land use on Earth. Widespread consequences of overgrazing pastures include long-term decreases in plant biomass and limited recovery of vegetation. Remotely-sensed vegetation indices linked to biomass (e.g. NDVI) are routinely used to monitor pasture health over broad areas to track pasture degradation and recovery over time. Unfortunately, overgrazing can impact vegetation in various other ways not easily evaluated using satellite imagery, such as by altering species composition. Furthermore, the response of vegetation to grazing may be influenced by underlying terrain and topographic gradients. We examined multi-decadal trends in pasture condition in Kyrgyzstan, a country where pasture degradation is of serious concern. Using a chronosequence of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery, we compared fifteen-year trends in NDVI with contemporary field-based measurements of pasture health in thirty 1-km 2 sites. Multivariate regression was used to discern the relationship between long-term NDVI trends and pasture health in pastures of differing terrain (areas of varying topographic wetness index and solar insolation). Preliminary results suggest that pasture degradation can be correlated with either positive or negative changes in NDVI depending upon the topographic position of the pasture. Furthermore, terrain characteristics explained a considerable portion of the observed variance in NDVI trends across the region. Improving our understanding of grazing impacts in montane systems is critical given their vulnerability to impending climate change.

  3. Using tall fescue in a complementary grazing program for spring calving beef cows in southern Arkansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of endophyte toxicity in clover additions to tall fescue pastures used as a limit-grazed complement to warm-season grass pastures. Over 3 years, beef cows (n = 108, Year 1; n = 72, Year 2 and 3; initial fall body weight = 480 ± 8.6 kg, bo...

  4. Nutritional and dietary interrelationships with diseases of grazing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Wikse, S E; Craig, T M; Hutcheson, D P

    1991-03-01

    This article describes current methods of controlling acute bovine pulmonary emphysema (ABPEE) and edema, lungworm and gastrointestinal nematodes, and bloat in grazing beef cattle. Success in handling outbreaks of these conditions and in their prevention depends on an understanding of their epidemiology and pathogenesis. Supplementation with ionophore antibiotics is effective in prevention of ABPEE and bloat and may also prevent other diseases of cattle that graze lush pastures. PMID:1828709

  5. Factors associated with fertility outcomes in cows treated with protocols to synchronize estrus and ovulation in seasonal-calving, pasture-based dairy production systems.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, M M; Crowe, M A; Berry, D P; Diskin, M G; Butler, S T

    2013-03-01

    Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with fertility outcomes in cows treated with protocols to synchronize estrus and ovulation. Lactating dairy cows (n=1,538) were enrolled in a completely randomized block design study to evaluate synchronization treatments. Within each herd (n=8), cows were divided into 3 calving groups: early [≥ 42 d in milk (DIM) at mating start date (MSD); n=1,244], mid (21 to 41 DIM at MSD; n=179), and late (0 to 20 DIM at MSD; n=115), based on DIM at MSD. Cows in the early-, mid-, and late-calving groups were synchronized to facilitate estrus or timed artificial insemination (TAI) at MSD (planned breeding 1; PB1), 21 d (PB2), and 42 d (PB3) after MSD, respectively. For each PB, cows in the relevant calving group were stratified by parity and calving date and randomly assigned to (1) d -10 GnRH (10 μg i.m. of buserelin) and CIDR [controlled internal drug release insert, 1.38 g of progesterone (P4)]; d -3 PGF(2α) (25mg i.m. of dinoprost); d -2 CIDR out and AI at observed estrus (CIDR_OBS); (2) same as CIDR_OBS, but GnRH 36 h after CIDR out and TAI 18 h later (CIDR_TAI); (3) same as CIDR_TAI, but no CIDR (i.e., Ovsynch); or (4) untreated controls (CTRL). Use of a CIDR-based ovulation synchronization protocol (i.e., CIDR_TAI) increased synchronization rates in anovular cows. Both CIDR_OBS and CIDR_TAI animals without a corpus luteum (CL) had increased likelihood of conception at first service compared with Ovsynch animals without a CL. Animals with low body condition score (BCS) treated with CIDR_OBS had an increased likelihood of conceiving at first service compared with low-BCS animals treated with CIDR_TAI, Ovsynch, or CTRL. Animals <60 d in milk (DIM) treated with CIDR_OBS and CIDR_TAI had increased likelihood of conceiving at first service compared with animals treated with Ovsynch. Treatment with CIDR_TAI increased synchronization rate in cows categorized as low BCS, anovulatory, and <60 DIM compared with both

  6. Soil aggregates and their associated carbon and nitrogen content in winter annual pastures using different tillage management options

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, winter annual pastures are established on grazing areas that are steeply sloping and not regarded as suitable for row-crop production. Using conventional (CT) tillage methods to prepare these fragile lands for winter annual pastures leads to increased erosion and rapid soil degradatio...

  7. Feeding strategy and pasture quality relative to nutrient requirements of dairy cows in the northeastern U.S.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture samples (n = 380) collected during the grazing season on 14 dairy farms from 2012 to 2014 were analyzed for nutritional composition to determine the frequency of pasture samples that met minimum net energy for lactation (NEl), crude protein (CP), and macro-mineral requirements according to t...

  8. Effect of forage species during finishing on growth rate, final weight and carcass parameters from pasture finished cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2005 and 2006, angus-crossbred steers (n = 72) were used to compare growth rate, final weight and carcass parameters from pasture-finished cattle grazing cool-season mixed (MP), alfalfa (AL), or pearl millet (PM) pastures during the final 44 d of finishing. Steers were harvested on the same dates...

  9. Eastern Gamagrass Management for Pastures in the Mid-Atlantic Region: II. Diet and Canopy Characteristics and Stand Persistence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern gamagrass [Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L.], a native warm-season perennial grass, lacks evaluation for use in grazing systems. Our objective was to test eastern gamagrass (EG) in a 4-yr experiment to estimate forage mass (FM) that maximizes steer performance and pasture productivity. Pasture ...

  10. Sheep grazing to manage crop residues, insects and weeds in Northern Plains grain and alfalfa systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sheep are traditionally produced on rangelands or pasture forages and supplemented during winter with harvested feeds. In recent years, sheep producers have made great strides using commercial-scale grazing on native rangelands to control noxious weeds and excess fire fuels. Incorporating grazing in...

  11. KNOWLEDGE GAPS IN ASSESS AND PREDICTING GRAZING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: ART OR SCIENCE?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The adoption of research techniques associated with tame pastures has improved the community scale understanding of rangeland grazing systems. While our undertanding of grazing behavior, diet selection and intake has benefited by a more intensive approach, there is little evidence that livestock pe...

  12. Grazing Management Effects on Potential Sediment and Phosphorus Loss from Streambanks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal grazing on lands near streams has the potential to contribute sediment and nutrients to surface waters. To minimize the impact of these systems, we must understand the interactions of grazing systems on streambank erosion. In this study, we used six 12-ha grass pastures that were bisected by ...

  13. Vegetation selection by Angus crossbred vs. Raramuri Criollo nursing cows grazing Chihuauan Desert rangeland in summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined vegetation selection patterns of nursing Angus X Hereford crossbred (AH) and Raramuri Criollo (RC) cows grazing Chihuahuan Desert vegetation during the growing season. Eleven cows of each group grazed separately in two large pastures (1190ha, 1165ha) from mid-July until mid-August 2015 (...

  14. Sward structure and nutritive value of Alexandergrass fertilized with nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Paulo R; Pötter, Luciana; Rocha, Marta G; Hundertmarck, Anelise P; Sichonany, Maria José O; Amaral Neto, Luiz G; Negrini, Mateus; Moterle, Paulo H

    2016-03-01

    This experiment evaluated forage production, sward structure, stocking rate, weight gain per area and nutritive value of forage as grazed by beef heifers on Alexandergrass (Urochloa plantaginea (Link) Hitch) pasture fertilized with nitrogen (N): 0; 100; 200 or 300 kg of N/ha. The experiment was a completely randomized design following a repeated measurement arrangement. The experimental animals were Angus heifers with initial age and weight of 15 months and 241.5±5 kg, respectively. The grazing method was continuous, with put-and-take stocking. N utilization, regardless of the level, increase by 25% the daily forage accumulation rate and the weight gain per area by 23%. The level of 97.2 kg N/ha leads to a higher leaf blade mass and increases by 20% the leaf:stem ratio. Alterations in sward structure changes the nutritive value of forage as grazed. The utilization of 112.7 kg of N/ha allows the highest stocking rate (2049.8 kg of BW/ha), equivalent to 7.5 heifers per hectare. PMID:26959324

  15. Chaparral Herbicide Application for Suppression of Seedhead Emergence in Tall Fescue Pastures and Possible Alleviation of Fescue Toxicosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chaparral® herbicide has shown in small-plot experiments to suppress seed head emergence in tall fescue. A two-yr grazing experiment is being conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures that are either treated or untreated with Chaparral® herbicide. The objective of the...

  16. Evaluating the Potential of Meadow Fescue for Grazing Lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) has potential for grazing-based livestock systems, but producer knowledge of this temperate grass is lacking. Previous research established that it has excellent intake compared to other pasture grasses, and winter-hardy, disease-resistant varieties have been...

  17. Grazing Behavior of Heifers Measured by Handheld GPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess how previous grazing experience affects animal movement on pasture. Portable GPS units were used to monitor movements of 32 Holstein (n=21) and Holstein-Jersey (n=11) yearlings. Total distance walked was measured and analyzed as a randomized complete block e...

  18. STOCKPILED PRAIRIEGRASS PROVIDES HIGH-QUALITY FALL GRAZING FOR LAMBS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New varieties of prairiegrass (Bromus catharticus Vahl. = B. willdenowii Kunth.) exhibit improved persistence over ‘Matua’ under USA growing conditions, but animal performance data is lacking. We evaluated performance of lambs grazing stockpiled ‘Dixon’ prairiegrass on West Virginia hill pasture in...

  19. Land use intensity trajectories on Amazonian pastures derived from Landsat time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufin, Philippe; Müller, Hannes; Pflugmacher, Dirk; Hostert, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring changes in land use intensity of grazing systems in the Amazon is an important prerequisite to study the complex political and socio-economic forces driving Amazonian deforestation. Remote sensing offers the potential to map pasture vegetation over large areas, but mapping pasture conditions consistently through time is not a trivial task because of seasonal changes associated with phenology and data gaps from clouds and cloud shadows. In this study, we tested spectral-temporal metrics derived from intra-annual Landsat time series to distinguish between grass-dominated and woody pastures. The abundance of woody vegetation on pastures is an indicator for management intensity, since the duration and intensity of land use steer secondary succession rates, apart from climate and soil conditions. We used the developed Landsat-based metrics to analyze pasture intensity trajectories between 1985 and 2012 in Novo Progresso, Brazil, finding that woody vegetation cover generally decreased after four to ten years of grazing activity. Pastures established in the 80s and early 90s showed a higher fraction of woody vegetation during their initial land use history than pastures established in the early 2000s. Historic intensity trajectories suggested a trend towards more intensive land use in the last decade, which aligns well with regional environmental policies and market dynamics. This study demonstrates the potential of dense Landsat time series to monitor land-use intensification on Amazonian pastures.

  20. Spatial and temporal variation in mined land pastures

    SciTech Connect

    Teutsch, C.D.; Collins, M.; Ditsch, D.C.; Johns, J.; Larson, B.; Turner, W.; Hamilton, T.; May, C.; Clay, L.

    1998-12-31

    Kentucky has large areas of reclaimed surface mined land that could provide grazing for livestock. Research is needed to define optimum stocking densities and to determine the sustainability of such grazing systems for this region. A long-term field study was initiated in 1997 on 151 ha of reclaimed land near Chavies, KY to assess spatial and temporal variation under grazing with stocking densities of 0, 0.28, 0.42, or 0.83 beef cow/calf pairs/ha. Global Positioning System and GIS technologies were employed to interpolate surface maps of the site using 11,000 points. Herbage and soil samples were collected around permanent markers systematically placed over the entire area at a density of 1 per 0.4 ha. Elevation ranged from 295 to 371 m and pasture slope ranged from 0 to 57{degree} with a mean of 13{degree}. Biomass density in late April ranged from 0 to 2500 kg/ha and was lowest at the highest stocking density, where grazing activity was highest. Spring-born calves averaged 240 kg at weaning. Cow weight and body condition score at the end of the grazing season was reduced at the highest stocking density and suggests that the highest stocking density may be excessive for mined land pastures in this region.

  1. Effect of protein supplementation on milk production and metabolism of dairy cows grazing tropical grass.

    PubMed

    Danes, M A C; Chagas, L J; Pedroso, A M; Santos, F A P

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if midlactation dairy cows (Bos taurus L.) grazing intensively managed elephantgrass would have their protein requirement met exclusively with the pasture and an energy concentrate, making the use of protein ingredients unnecessary, as well as to determine the dietary crude protein (CP) content that would optimize the efficiency of N utilization (ENU). Thirty-three Holstein and crossbred (Holstein × Jersey) midlactation dairy cows, producing approximately 20 kg/d, were grouped within breed into 11 blocks according to milk yield and days in milk. Within blocks, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments and remained in the study for 11 wk. The control treatment contained only finely ground corn, minerals, and vitamins, and it was formulated to be 8.7% CP. Two higher levels of CP (formulated to be 13.4 and 18.1%) were achieved by replacing corn with solvent-extracted soybean meal (SSBM). Pasture was fertilized with 50 kg of N/ha after each grazing cycle and averaged 18.5% CP (dry matter basis). No differences were observed in milk yield or milk fat, protein, and casein content or casein yield. In addition, pasture intake was not different among treatments. Milk urea N increased linearly as the concentrate CP content increased. Cows fed the 8.7% CP concentrate had higher ENU. In another experiment, 4 ruminally cannulated Holstein dry cows were used in a metabolism trial designed in a 4×4 Latin square. Cows were fed the same treatments described as well as a fourth treatment with 13.4% CP in the concentrate, in which urea replaced SSBM as the main N source. Ruminal volatile fatty acid concentration and microbial synthesis were not affected by levels or sources of N in the concentrate. Ruminal NH(3)N content increased as the concentrate CP content increased. Inclusion of SSBM in the concentrate did not increase production and decreased the ENU of midlactation dairy cows grazing on tropical forage. Supplementation of

  2. Mixed Grazing Systems Benefit both Upland Biodiversity and Livestock Production

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Mariecia D.; Moorby, Jon M.; Vale, James E.; Evans, Darren M.

    2014-01-01

    Background With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously. Methods Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management ‘systems’ we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i) incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii) integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii) altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv) replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years. Results, Conclusion and Significance We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity

  3. Production and economic potentials of cattle in pasture-based systems of the western Amazon region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rueda, B L; Blake, R W; Nicholson, C F; Fox, D G; Tedeschi, L O; Pell, A N; Fernandes, E C M; Valentim, J F; Carneiro, J C

    2003-12-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate strategies to improve productivity and economic returns from beef and dual-purpose cattle systems based on data collected on one dual-purpose (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) and two beef (Nellore) cattle farms in the western Amazon region of Brazil. Forage chemical composition and digestion rates of carbohydrate fractions of grazed Brachiaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu grasses and Pueraria phaseoloides (tropical kudzu) legume were measured monthly during a 9-mo period from the end of one dry season to the end of the subsequent rainy season. Measurements of milk and growth responses to grazing these forages were used to predict animal productivity responses to dietary nutrient availability throughout an annual cycle. The ME available for gain in our simulations was always more limiting than metabolizable protein. The predicted ME available for gain was 0.50 kg/d for steers grazing B. brizantha and 0.40 kg/d for finishing steers grazing B. decumbens. Grasses contained more NDF and neutral detergent insoluble protein and less ME (P < 0.05) in the rainiest months than in the less rainy season, which resulted in 20% less predicted weight gain by growing steers (P < 0.05). Supplementation with sorghum grain was required to increase milk production and growth by 25 or 50% per animal, respectively, but this strategy was less profitable than current forage-only diets. Greater productivity of land and labor from higher stocking indicated greater net margins for beef production, but not for milk. This study suggested that more intensive beef production by judicious fertilization of grass-legume pastures and greater stocking density is the preferable strategy for owners of these cattle systems to improve economic returns under current conditions. It also might help decrease the motivation for additional forest clearing. PMID:14677847

  4. Determination of pasture quality using airborne hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullanagari, R. R.; Kereszturi, G.; Yule, Ian J.; Irwin, M. E.

    2015-10-01

    Pasture quality is a critical determinant which influences animal performance (live weight gain, milk and meat production) and animal health. Assessment of pasture quality is therefore required to assist farmers with grazing planning and management, benchmarking between seasons and years. Traditionally, pasture quality is determined by field sampling which is laborious, expensive and time consuming, and the information is not available in real-time. Hyperspectral remote sensing has potential to accurately quantify biochemical composition of pasture over wide areas in great spatial detail. In this study an airborne imaging spectrometer (AisaFENIX, Specim) was used with a spectral range of 380-2500 nm with 448 spectral bands. A case study of a 600 ha hill country farm in New Zealand is used to illustrate the use of the system. Radiometric and atmospheric corrections, along with automatized georectification of the imagery using Digital Elevation Model (DEM), were applied to the raw images to convert into geocoded reflectance images. Then a multivariate statistical method, partial least squares (PLS), was applied to estimate pasture quality such as crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) from canopy reflectance. The results from this study revealed that estimates of CP and ME had a R2 of 0.77 and 0.79, and RMSECV of 2.97 and 0.81 respectively. By utilizing these regression models, spatial maps were created over the imaged area. These pasture quality maps can be used for adopting precision agriculture practices which improves farm profitability and environmental sustainability.

  5. The impact of grazing management on Orthoptera abundance varies over the season in Mediterranean steppe-like grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonderflick, Jocelyn; Besnard, Aurélien; Beuret, Aurore; Dalmais, Mathieux; Schatz, Bertrand

    2014-10-01

    As semi-natural grassland has a high level of biological diversity, understanding the effects of grazing and its variation over time is important in order to identify sustainable grazing practices. We measured temporal variation in Orthoptera abundance and spatial vegetation structure during seasonal grazing in an extensive sheep-farming system. We studied five grazed pasture areas (pre-grazing and post-grazing) and two adjacent ungrazed grasslands. We recorded the total abundance of Orthoptera and described the vegetation structure of 175 replicate plots (25 per pasture/grassland) during six field sampling sessions. We demonstrated that the impact of grazing on Orthoptera abundance is species-specific and greatly varies over the grazing season. The decrease of phytovolume is significant after 4-7 weeks of sheep grazing. Total Orthoptera abundance was higher in pre-grazed plots than in ungrazed plots, and higher in ungrazed plots than in post-grazed plots. These differences were particularly high during the peak of adult abundance. No difference in species richness was observed between grazing intensities. Total Orthoptera abundance positively correlated to phytovolume only when grazing pressure was high. However, the relationship between abundance and phytovolume differed between species. Extensive grazing by sheep tends to homogenize spatial vegetation structure and to temporarily reduce total Orthoptera abundance at pasture scale. However, rotational grazing allows spatial and temporal heterogeneity in vegetation structure to be maintained at farm scale, heterogeneity that is beneficial for Orthoptera. In contrast, absence of grazing has a negative impact on Orthoptera abundance as it favours the accumulation of litter, which is detrimental for a high proportion of xerothermophilic Orthoptera associated with bare ground and short vegetation.

  6. Management of tall fescue pastures and nutrients in a Southern Piedmont environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pastures have replaced row-crop agriculture in many parts of the Southern Piedmont in response to soil and water conservation needs where tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is a common pasture grass. However, nutrient losses from livestock manure and/or poultry fertilization can contribute to ...

  7. Reproductive performance of ewes grazing lucerne during different periods around mating.

    PubMed

    Robertson, S M; Clayton, E H; Friend, M A

    2015-11-01

    High intake of lucerne pastures or feeding of other high quality diets during early pregnancy may increase embryo mortality, negating any benefit of improved nutrition on ovulation rate in ewes. This study was conducted to determine whether grazing ewes on lucerne (Medicago sativa) pastures for 7 days prior to and throughout joining would result in greater foetal numbers than if ewes were removed 7 days after the commencement of joining, or if ewes grazed senescent pasture throughout the joining period. Merino ewes (300) were allocated to two replicates of three treatments, grazing pastures between Days -7 and 36 of an unsynchronised, natural autumn joining. Grazing lucerne to Day 7 of joining resulted in 30% more (P<0.05) foetuses per ewe than grazing senescent pasture (1.60±0.07 and 1.31±0.07, respectively), and 19% more lambs marked per ewe joined. Extending grazing of lucerne past Day 7 of joining did not result in additional foetuses per ewe (1.61±0.06) in comparison with only grazing lucerne to Day 7 of joining. Greater than 80% of ewes mated during the first 14 days of joining, and the proportions of ewes returning to oestrus and re-mating (0.18±0.022) and of non-pregnant (0.09±0.017) ewes were similar (P>0.05) among all treatment groups, suggesting no differences between treatments in embryo mortality. Grazing naturally cycling ewes on lucerne prior to and during joinings in autumn is recommended as a means to increase the number of lambs born, although additional gains may not be obtained by grazing past day seven of joining. PMID:26454684

  8. Soil nitrogen and carbon impacts of raising chickens on pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryals, R.; Leach, A.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Galloway, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Chicken is the most consumed meat in the US, and production continues to intensify rapidly around the world. Chicken manure from confined feeding operations is typically applied in its raw form to nearby croplands, resulting in hotspots of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Pasture-raised chicken is an alternative to industrial production and is growing in popularity with rising consumer demand for more humanely raised protein sources. In this agricultural model, manure is deposited directly onto grassland soils where it is thought to increase pools of soil carbon and nitrogen. The fate of manure nitrogen from pasture-raised chicken production remains poorly understood. We conducted a controlled, replicated experiment on a permaculture farm in Charlottesville, Virginia (Timbercreek Organics) in which small chicken coops (10 ft x 12 ft) were moved daily in a pasture. We measured manure deposition rates, soil inorganic nitrogen pools, soil moisture, and soil N2O and CO2 emissions. Measurements were made for the 28-day pasture life of three separate flocks of chickens in the spring, summer, and fall. Each flock consisted of approximately 200-300 chickens occupying three to five coops (~65 chickens/coop). Measurements were also made in paired ungrazed control plots. Manure deposition rates were similar across flocks and averaged 1.5 kgdrywt ha-1 during the spring grazing event and 4.0 kgdrywt ha-1 during the summer and fall grazing events. Manure deposition was relatively constant over the four weeks pasture-lifetime of the chickens. Compared to control plots, grazed areas exhibited higher soil N2O and CO2 fluxes. The magnitude of these fluxes diminished significantly over the four-week span. Soil gas fluxes significantly increased following rainfall events. For a given rainfall event, higher fluxes were observed from transects that were grazed more recently. Soil gaseous reactive nitrogen losses were less in this pasture system compared to cultivated field amended

  9. Bison grazing ecology at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germaine, Stephen; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal (RMA) National Wildlife Refuge reintroduced bison to a small pasture in 2007. Refuge managers needed information on the effects of bison grazing on vegetation communities in the bison pasture as well as information on how bison might affect other management priorities at RMA. In particular, RMA managers were interested in bison grazing effects on vegetation productivity, amount of vegetation utilization by bison, and habitat selection by bison to inform RMA herd managers and for potential expansion of bison range on the refuge. In 2007, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) designed a study to investigate bison grazing effects through measurement of vegetation in the 600-hectare enclosure where the bison are currently pastured. This research was a collaborative effort between USGS and RMA refuge staff and had active field components in 2007 and 2010. We found that the effects and intensity of bison grazing on vegetation in the RMA bison pasture is linked to prairie dog presence. Where both species were present, they were removing a significant amount of biomass compared to areas where only bison were present. Also, prairie dogs appeared to enhance the greater production of native forbs, but we were not able to identify the mechanism for this increased production. We were not able, however, to generate an accurate vegetation map for the bison pasture, and this limited our ability to achieve the level of statistical precision necessary to identify grazing impacts and habitat selection of bison.

  10. Perspectives on pasture versus indoor feeding of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Wilhelm

    2016-01-15

    The dairy industry in many regions of the world has moved towards a high-input/high-output system maximising annual milk production per cow, primarily through increasing concentrate-based total mixed rations fed indoors year round, as opposed to allowing cows to feed on pasture. Pasture-based dairy systems in regions like New Zealand and Ireland are oriented towards maximum milk yield per unit of pasture, which has led to Holstein strains that are 50 to 100 kg lighter, exhibit a higher body condition score, and produce roughly half the annual amount of milk as compared to their Holstein counterparts kept in confinement in North America and Europe. Freedom from hunger might not be guaranteed when high-yielding dairy cows are kept on pasture without any supplemental feed, but at the same time no access to pasture can be considered an animal welfare concern, because pasturing is generally beneficial to the animals' health. On pasture, lighter-weight dairy cows with a medium milk production potential have proven to be superior with regard to feed efficiency and fertility. The year-round indoor feeding of high-yielding dairy cows with total mixed rations containing substantial amounts of human-edible crops from arable land puts global food security at risk and fails to utilise the evolutionary advantages of ruminants. PMID:26010136

  11. Prescribed grazing as a secondary impact in a western riparian floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, J.A.; Knopf, F.L.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of late-autumn cattle grazing on plant biomass was examined in a western Great Plains cottonwood riparian zone prone to catastrophic flooding every 5-8 years. Following 1 year of pre-treatment data collection in 1982, five 16-ha pastures were grazed from 1982 to 1984 and compared to 5 control pastures within the South Platte River floodplain in northeastern Colorado. At a prescribed grazing level of 0.46 ha/AUM, riparian vegetation proved to be resilient to the impacts of grazing. We detected only a few significant treatment effects for above-ground biomass after succeeding growing seasons. Willows (Salix spp.) responded negatively to grazing whereas biomass of prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link) was greater on grazed plots. Yearly changes in above-ground biomass, especially dramatic following a severe flood in 1983, suggest that periodic, catastrophic flooding is a major perturbation to the ecosystem, and in conjunction with our results on grazing impacts, indicate that dormant-season grazing within Soil Conservation Service (SCS) guidelines is a comparatively minor impact within the floodplain. In addition, grazing impacts were probably further mitigated by a major forage supplement of cottonwood leaves which was available at the time of cattle introductions. This local forage supplement ultimately created a lighter grazing treatment than that originally prescribed.

  12. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving efficiency of production in pasture- and range-based beef and dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Mulliniks, J T; Rius, A G; Edwards, M A; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; Nave, R L G

    2015-06-01

    Despite overall increased production in the last century, it is critical that grazing production systems focus on improving beef and dairy efficiency to meet current and future global food demands. For livestock producers, production efficiency is essential to maintain long-term profitability and sustainability. This continued viability of production systems using pasture- and range-based grazing systems requires more rapid adoption of innovative management practices and selection tools that increase profitability by optimizing grazing management and increasing reproductive performance. Understanding the genetic variation in cow herds will provide the ability to select cows that require less energy for maintenance, which can potentially reduce total energy utilization or energy required for production, consequently improving production efficiency and profitability. In the United States, pasture- and range-based grazing systems vary tremendously across various unique environments that differ in climate, topography, and forage production. This variation in environmental conditions contributes to the challenges of developing or targeting specific genetic components and grazing systems that lead to increased production efficiency. However, across these various environments and grazing management systems, grazable forage remains the least expensive nutrient source to maintain productivity of the cow herd. Beef and dairy cattle can capitalize on their ability to utilize these feed resources that are not usable for other production industries. Therefore, lower-cost alternatives to feeding harvested and stored feedstuffs have the opportunity to provide to livestock producers a sustainable and efficient forage production system. However, increasing production efficiency within a given production environment would vary according to genetic potential (i.e., growth and milk potential), how that genetic potential fits the respective production environment, and how the grazing

  13. Long-term effects of municipal sewage on soils and pastures.

    PubMed

    van de Graaff, Robert H M; Suter, Helen C; Lawes, Sophy J

    2002-01-01

    Land application of municipal wastewater is widely practised worldwide as a means of treating wastes and obtaining a benefit from the water and nutrients by growing pastures, trees, and sometimes edible crops such as vegetables, fruit and fibre, etc. Irrigation of pastures by treated and untreated sewage near Melbourne, Australia, for more than a century has increased heavy metals concentrations in the soil, but appears not to have increased their concentrations in the herbage and in animal tissues of animals grazed on these pastures. There seem to be sound reasons why this practice may be sustainable. PMID:12046671

  14. Plant interspaces resulting from contrasting grazing management in northern mixed-grass prairie:Implications for ecosystem function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We assessed plant basal gaps in July 2007 using continuous line intercepts in twice-replicated pastures of northern mixed-grass prairie with two grazing treatments: 1) long-term (25 years) heavily grazed, dominated by the bunchgrass blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), and 2) ungrazed, dominated by the ...

  15. Alterations in serotonin receptor-induced contractility of bovine lateral saphenous vein in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a large 2-year study documenting the physiologic impact of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue on growing cattle, 2 experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate the effects of grazing 2 levels of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on vascular contractility and ser...

  16. The influence of grazing on surface climatological variables of tallgrass prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seastedt, T. R.; Dyer, M. I.; Turner, Clarence L.

    1992-01-01

    Mass and energy exchange between most grassland canopies and the atmosphere are mediated by grazing activities. Ambient temperatures can be increased or decreased by grazers. Data have been assembled from simulated grazing experiments on Konza Prairie Research Natural Area and observations on adjacent pastures grazed by cattle show significant changes in primary production, nutrient content, and bidirectional reflectance characteristics as a function of grazing intensity. The purpose of this research was to provide algorithms that would allow incorporation of grazing effects into models of energy budgets using remote sensing procedures. The approach involved: (1) linking empirical measurements of plant biomass and grazing intensities to remotely sensed canopy reflectance, and (2) using a higher resolution, mechanistic grazing model to derive plant ecophysiological parameters that influence reflectance and other surface climatological variables.

  17. Effect of frame size and time-on-pasture on steer performance, longissimus muscle fatty acid composition and tenderness in a forage-finishing system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-cross steers (n = 96; BW = 309 + 34 kg; 13.5 mo of age) were used to determine the effects of frame size (medium, MED or small, SM) and time-on-pasture (TOP) on meat composition and palatability in a two-year study. Finishing steers grazed mixed pastures (bluegrass/white clover; April start) a...

  18. Objective indicators of pasture degradation from spectral mixture analysis of Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Asner, Gregory P.; Stone, Thomas A.; Neill, Christopher; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.

    2008-03-01

    Degradation of cattle pastures is a management concern that influences future land use in Amazonia. However, "degradation" is poorly defined and has different meanings for ranchers, ecologists, and policy makers. Here we analyze pasture degradation using objective scalars of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV), and exposed soil (S) derived from Landsat imagery. A general, probabilistic spectral mixture model decomposed satellite spectral reflectance measurements into subpixel estimates of PV, NPV, and S covers at ranches in western and eastern Amazonia. Most pasture management units at all ranches fell along a single line of decreasing PV with increasing NPV and S, which could be considered a degradation continuum. The ranch with the highest stocking densities and most intensive management had greater NPV and S than a less intensively managed ranch. The number of liming, herbiciding, and disking treatments applied to each pasture management unit was positively correlated with NPV and negatively correlated with PV. Although these objective scalars revealed signs of degradation, intensive management kept exposed soil to <40% cover and maintained economically viable cattle production over several decades. In ranches with few management inputs, the high PV cover in young pastures declined with increasing pasture age, while NPV and S increased, even where grazing intensity was low. Both highly productive pastures and vigorous regrowth of native vegetation cause high PV values. Analysis of spectral properties holds promise for identifying areas where grazing intensity has exceeded management inputs, thus increasing coverage of senescent foliage and exposed soil.

  19. Linking pasture and animal processes. Why graze cattle at dusk?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work aimed and designed to assess the impact of timing of herbage allocation and fasting on patterns of ingestive behavior, herbage intake, ruminal fermentation, and nutrient flow to the duodenum. Treatments were daily herbage allocation in the afternoon (1500, AHA), morning (0800, MHA), AHA af...

  20. Birdshooting, lead pellets, and grazing cattle

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorn, H.; Gyrd-Hansen, N.; Kraul, I.

    1982-08-01

    Blood samples from cattle grazing near an area of intense birdshooting were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. No difference in lead blood levels could be demonstrated between heifers in the birdshooting pasture and the control heifers, not even during the dry summer of 1981 when there was little grass, which should have facilitated the uptake of lead pellets deposited on the ground. On the basis of blood values found, even the most intensive birdshooting seems to have little effect on the lead levels in cattle in the area. (JMT)

  1. Plant physiology for profitable pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A basic question of pasture-based livestock production is whether producers should manage pastures on the basis of what is best for the animal or what is best for the plant. Given that pastures are the principal and most economical source of feed, producers should carefully consider how they manage...

  2. Ryegrass pasture combined with partial total mixed ration reduces enteric methane emissions and maintains the performance of dairy cows during mid to late lactation.

    PubMed

    Dall-Orsoletta, Aline C; Almeida, João Gabriel R; Carvalho, Paulo C F; Savian, Jean V; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique M N

    2016-06-01

    The inclusion of grazed pasture in dairy feeding systems based on a total mixed ration (TMR) reduces feed costs, benefits herd health, and reduces environmental impact. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ryegrass pasture combined with a partial TMR on enteric methane emissions, dry matter intake (DMI), and performance of dairy cows from mid to late lactation. The experimental treatments included 100% TMR (control), partial TMR + 6h of continuous grazing (0900-1500 h), and partial TMR + 6h of grazing that was divided into 2 periods of 3h each that took place after milking (0900-1200 h; 1530-1830 h). Twelve F1 cows (Holstein × Jersey; 132±44 DIM) were divided into 6 lots and distributed in a 3×3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 21 d (15 d of adaptation and 6 d of evaluation). Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pasture was used, and the TMR was composed of 80% corn silage, 18% soybean meal, and 2% mineral and vitamin mixture, based on dry matter. The same mixture was used for cows with access to pasture. The total DMI, milk production, and 4% fat-corrected milk were similar for all cows; however, the pasture DMI (7.4 vs. 6.0kg/d) and grazing period (+ 40 min/d) were higher in cows that had access to pasture for 2 periods of 3h compared with those that grazed for a continuous 6-h period. Methane emission was higher (656 vs. 547g/d) in confined cows than in those that received partial TMR + pasture. The inclusion of annual ryegrass pasture in the diet of dairy cows maintained animal performance and reduced enteric methane emissions. The percentage of grazed forage in the cows' diet increased when access to pasture was provided in 2 periods after the morning and afternoon milking. PMID:27016830

  3. Discrimination of "grazing milk" using milk fatty acid profile in the grassland dairy area in Hokkaido.

    PubMed

    Mitani, Tomohiro; Kobayashi, Kuniyuki; Ueda, Koichiro; Kondo, Seiji

    2016-02-01

    Milk produced by the grazing system, referred to as "grazing milk" contains many components required for human health. The milk fatty acid (FA) profile is strongly associated with the diet on the farms. In the present study, based on the FA profile of farmer's bulk milk, we determined how to discriminate between milk produced on grazing and on a confinement system. A field survey was conducted four times (grazing and confinement season) in the Konsen (29 farms) and Okhotsk (25 farms) area in Hokkaido. Farmer's bulk milk samples and details of feeding management were collected and the FA profile of milk was measured. Milk produced during the grazing season contained less C16:0 and cis-9 C16:0, and more C18:0, cis-9 C18:1, trans-11 C18:1, cis-9,12 C18:2, cis-9,trans-11 C18:2 and cis-9,12,15 C18:3 than milk produced during the confinement season. Discrimination analysis using 16 FA revealed that almost all milk samples were discriminated correctly (confinement season: 90% correct and 10% borderline, grazing season: 88% correct, 9% borderline and 3% incorrect). For farmers that were categorized incorrectly and were considered borderline in the grazing season, the dependency on pasture was low compared with that for farmers correctly discriminated. Therefore, to claim "grazing milk", a high dependency on pasture is required for grazing dairy farmers. PMID:26220515

  4. Seasonal and diurnal variation in simple sugar and fructan composition of orchardgrass pasture and hay in the Piedmont region of the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laminitis, a disease that causes lameness in horses, is thought to result from grazing on grass high in carbohydrates. Consequently, knowing the amounts and types of carbohydrates in a pasture may help horse owners to manage grazing in a way that reduces the risk of laminitis. This study describes...

  5. Community responses of arthropods to a range of traditional and manipulated grazing in shortgrass steppe.

    PubMed

    Newbold, T A Scott; Stapp, Paul; Levensailor, Katherine E; Derner, Justin D; Lauenroth, William K

    2014-06-01

    Responses of plants to grazing are better understood, and more predictable, than those of consumers in North American grasslands. In 2003, we began a large-scale, replicated experiment that examined the effects of grazing on three important arthropod groups-beetles, spiders, and grasshoppers-in shortgrass steppe of north-central Colorado. We investigated whether modifications of the intensity and seasonality of livestock grazing alter the structure and diversity of macroarthropod communities compared with traditional grazing practices. Treatments represented a gradient of grazing intensity by cattle and native herbivores: long-term grazing exclosures; moderate summer grazing (the traditional regime); intensive spring grazing; intensive summer grazing; and moderately summer-grazed pastures also inhabited by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus Ord). Beetles and spiders were the most common groups captured, comprising 60% and 21%, respectively, of 4,378 total pitfall captures. Grasshopper counts were generally low, with 3,799 individuals observed and densities <4 m(-2). Two years after treatments were applied, vegetation structure differed among grazing treatments, responding not only to long-term grazing conditions, but also to the short-term, more-intensive grazing manipulations. In response, arthropods were, in general, relatively insensitive to these grazing-induced structural changes. However, species-level analyses of one group (Tenebrionidae) revealed both positive and negative effects of grazing treatments on beetle richness and activity-density. Importantly, these responses to grazing were more pronounced in a year when spring-summer rainfall was low, suggesting that both grazing and precipitation-which together may create the greatest heterogeneity in vegetation structure-are drivers of consumer responses in this system. PMID:24780073

  6. Pasture seed banks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our surveys of northeastern pastures, we found the equivalent of more than 8 million seeds per acre in the surface soil (the top four inches) from the seed bank study. These seeds came from 58 species of plants. The annual forbs (all broadleaf plants with the exception of legumes and trees) domin...

  7. Pasture Research Summaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal is to develop diverse, stable, and persistent forage and pasture lands that provide a permanent cover and protect the natural resource base for future generations. Research on forage-livestock systems seeks to improve the productivity, sustainability, and profitability of northeastern forag...

  8. Plant Species Diversity and Distribution in Pastures of the Northeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazed pastures in the northeastern United contain far more than planted forage species. These species may contribute to forage production, but they may also detract from forage production or palatability. As the first step toward identifying the role of plant diversity in forage systems, we collect...

  9. Steer responses to feeding soybean hulls and steroid hormone implantation on toxic tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yearling steers were grazed on endophyte-infected ‘Kentucky-31’ tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) pastures for 77 days in 2007 and for 86 days in 2008 to evaluate effects of feeding pelleted soybean hulls (PSBH) and steroid hormone implants (SHI) on steer performance and physiology. Steers were str...

  10. Economic and environmental issues associated with confinement and pasture-based dairy systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Milk is produced in a continuum of dairy systems from full confinement to full pasture grazing. Climate, available feeds, and milk price: feed cost ratio influence the preferred system. All dairy systems have an environmental impact and inputs to maximise profit may lead to pollution levels unacce...

  11. Nutritive Value and Herbage Accumulation Rates of Pasture Sown to Grass, Legume, and Chicory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting pastures to mixtures of forages may benefit herbage production; however, wide fluctuations in botanical composition could cause unstable nutritive value. A grazing study was conducted to examine how forage mixture complexity influenced nutritive value and accumulation rate during spring, su...

  12. Feeding strategy and pasture quality relative to nutrient requirements of organic dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture samples (n = 216) were collected during the grazing season from 14 certified northeastern organic dairy farms in 2012 and 2013 for nutritive composition (Dairy One). A Mixed model (SAS Inst., 1998) was used to test effect of year of sampling, month of sampling, and farm on crude protein (CP...

  13. The effect of pasture fallowing on plant community cover and seed bank properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The practice of fallowing pastures in a rotational grazing dairy system is believed to increase plant diversity, increase organic matter and improve the soil. Fallowing is practiced in New Zealand, and delivers these benefits, but has been adopted in the northeastern United States with little quanti...

  14. Effect of stocking rate on milk and pasture productivity and supplementary feed use for spring calving pasture fed dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Patton, D; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2016-07-01

    The productivity of grazing systems is primarily limited by the scale and efficiency of systems applied to the grazable land platform adjacent to the milking parlor. The objective of this study was to compare forage production, utilization and quality, milk production, and requirement for supplementary feeds for 2 different grazing platform stocking rate (GPSR) treatments over 4 yr. Animals were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 GPSR treatments: high-closed (HC; 3.1 cows/ha) and high-open (HO; 4.5 cows/ha), which were designed to represent alternative GPSR in a post-European Union milk quota, spring calving, pasture-based milk production system. Animal production data were analyzed using Proc MIXED of SAS with GPSR, year, and parity included as fixed effects in the final model. Within a seasonal spring calving grazing system, at high GPSR and offering moderate amounts of additional supplements based on pasture supply deficits, both systems produced more milk and fat plus protein per hectare in comparison with Irish commercial dairy farms. Although requiring additional supplementation, increased GPSR resulted in increased milk production per hectare but also in an increased requirement for concentrate and forage supplementation during lactation. No significant influence of GPSR was found on body weight and body condition score or reproductive performance during the 4-yr study period. In addition, GPSR also had no effect on pasture production, utilization, or quality during the study period. The strategic use of additional supplements with restricted pasture availability at higher GPSR maintained milk production per cow and significantly increased milk production per hectare. PMID:27108176

  15. Positive effects of millennial grazing on soils in the western French Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, David; Gragson, Ted; Coughlan, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Many hillslopes of the western French Pyrenees have been grazed for thousands of years following the introduction of sheep about 7500 years ago, yet little is known about the long-term effects of pastoral activities on soil properties and pedogenic processes in this humid-temperate mountain range. In the 13 square kilometer Basque commune of Larrau we compare the status of soils under old pastures to those under old-growth forests at elevations ranging from 1000 to 1600 masl. Four separate tracts of side-by-side pairs of pasture and old-growth forest were sampled to discriminate differences in physical and chemical soil properties. Five paired soil profile samples were taken from each vegetation type on each tract so that all factors of soil formation, except vegetation type, were similar for each pair. Animal trails were excluded from sampling. We also developed radiocarbon chronologies of sedimentation rates from colluvial deposits at four other pasture sites to evaluate possible differences in the magnitude of soil erosion and sedimentation before and after conversion to pastures during the Holocene. Results indicate pastured A horizons are about three times as thick as forested soils, have significantly lower soil bulk densities, and much finer and stronger structural development of soil aggregates. These traits favor much greater infiltration and water holding capacities of the pastured soils. Thus, very significant pedogenic reorganization occurred in the pastures that can be viewed as improvements in soil quality. Inorganic nutrients in the pastured soils have significantly lower concentrations than in forested soils, except that amorphous silica is more abundant within pastured soils presumably due to greater phytolith production. The amount of nutrient depletion does not appear to be a limiting factor for grass growth and biomass production. Sedimentation chronologies indicate that erosion and sedimentation rates slightly increased following the earliest

  16. Relationship between annual canopy photosynthesis and ecosystem respiration in humid-temperate pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing nitrogen fertilization of a mature cool-season pasture increased annual photosynthetic C uptake (GPP) and forage yield but also increased ecosystem respiration (Re), such that net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and soil C sequestration were not affected by the increased fertility. A nine-year s...

  17. Influence of grazing practices on cow milk quality: a case study on the Comarnic-Poieni bauxite quarry, Romania.

    PubMed

    Lorinţ, Csaba; Rădulescu, Monica; Buia, Grigore

    2012-04-01

    The current study represents a preliminary investigation made into the influence of cattle grazing in the area of a bauxite quarry (Comarnic-Poieni, Romania) on the cow milk chemistry. Weathering and surface runoff in the bauxite quarry contaminate the local chemistry of the soil, vegetation and water. During cattle transhumance, cyclic feeding patterns occur, with grazing alternating between clean pastures and the area of the quarry. Soil and water samples were collected from the contaminated area of the quarry. Raw milk samples were collected during two stages, corresponding to the periods of grazing on clean pasture and the quarry area, respectively. Based on the obtained data, the relationship between cattle grazing and the composition of milk was interpreted. Preliminary results indicated a direct correlation of increased concentration of Al in the milk, following grazing in the bauxite quarry. PMID:21986677

  18. Potential Pasture Nitrogen Concentrations and Uptake from Autumn or Spring Applied Cow Urine and DCD under Field Conditions.

    PubMed

    Moir, Jim; Cameron, Keith; Di, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) cycling and losses in grazed grassland are strongly driven by urine N deposition by grazing ruminants. The objective of this study was to quantify pasture N concentrations, yield and N uptake following autumn and spring deposition of cow urine and the effects of fine particle suspension (FPS) dicyandiamide (DCD). A field plot study was conducted on the Lincoln University dairy farm, Canterbury, New Zealand from May 2003 to May 2005. FPS DCD was applied to grazed pasture plots at 10 kg·ha(-1) in autumn and spring in addition to applied cow urine at a N loading rate of 1000 kg·N·ha(-1), with non-urine control plots. Pasture N ranged between 1.9 and 4.8% with higher concentrations from urine. Results indicated that urine consistently increased N concentrations for around 220 days post deposition (mid December/early summer) at which point concentrations dropped to background levels. In urine patches, pasture yield and annual N uptake were dramatically increased on average by 51% for autumn and 28% for spring applied urine, in both years, when DCD was applied. This field experiment provides strong evidence that annual pasture N uptake is more strongly influenced by high urine N deposition than pasture N concentrations. FPS DCD has the potential to result in very high N uptake in urine patches, even when they are autumn deposited. PMID:27304974

  19. Potential Pasture Nitrogen Concentrations and Uptake from Autumn or Spring Applied Cow Urine and DCD under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Moir, Jim; Cameron, Keith; Di, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) cycling and losses in grazed grassland are strongly driven by urine N deposition by grazing ruminants. The objective of this study was to quantify pasture N concentrations, yield and N uptake following autumn and spring deposition of cow urine and the effects of fine particle suspension (FPS) dicyandiamide (DCD). A field plot study was conducted on the Lincoln University dairy farm, Canterbury, New Zealand from May 2003 to May 2005. FPS DCD was applied to grazed pasture plots at 10 kg·ha−1 in autumn and spring in addition to applied cow urine at a N loading rate of 1000 kg·N·ha−1, with non-urine control plots. Pasture N ranged between 1.9 and 4.8% with higher concentrations from urine. Results indicated that urine consistently increased N concentrations for around 220 days post deposition (mid December/early summer) at which point concentrations dropped to background levels. In urine patches, pasture yield and annual N uptake were dramatically increased on average by 51% for autumn and 28% for spring applied urine, in both years, when DCD was applied. This field experiment provides strong evidence that annual pasture N uptake is more strongly influenced by high urine N deposition than pasture N concentrations. FPS DCD has the potential to result in very high N uptake in urine patches, even when they are autumn deposited. PMID:27304974

  20. Rewetting effects on soil CO2 flux and nutrients leaching in alpine Kobresia pasture on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shibin; Schleuss, Per; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Kobresia pygmaea pastures of the Tibetan Plateau are one of the most important ecosystems around the world due to its large grazing area and very high soil organic carbon storage. Since the last decades grasslands of the TP are highly affected by grassland degradation because of various sedimentary programs and strongly increase grazing pressure. Climate changes (e.g. increased precipitation and temperature) may accelerate this degradation processes by enhancing soil organic matter mineralization and nutrients leaching. We exposed repeated rewetting cycles to test the effects of increased precipitation frequency on CO2 fluxes and leaching on varying K. pygmaea root mats (including: intact root mats (KL); recently died root mats (KD); crust covered root mats (LI)). Two phases were conducted (a) to identify the response of nighttime CO2 flux to changing soil moisture and (b) to investigate the impacts of rewetting cycles on day-, night-, and full day CO2 fluxes together with leaching of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). Nighttime CO2 fluxes correlated positively with soil moisture, indicating that increasing precipitation will accelerate SOC losses due to increasing mineralization rates. KD showed highest C losses as CO2 efflux and also the highest leaching compared to KL and LI. It indicates that dying of Kobresia root mats (as induced by overgrazing and continuously removal of photosynthetically active shoot biomass) will rapidly decrease SOC storage. The lowest C losses (from soil respiration and DOC leaching) were obtained in the crust covered root mats (LI), because most C losses have already occurred during the early period. Highest N losses (especially NO3-) were obtained in the highly degraded pasture (LI). Due to long-term SOM decomposition of crust covered root mats (LI) in situ, inorganic nitrogen (NO3-) was accumulated in and was leached out during the first rewetting cycles. In contrast, no losses of NH4+ and NO3- occurred for intact Kobresia root mats (KL

  1. Effects on ground-water quality from irrigating pasture with sewage effluent near Lakeland, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reichenbaugh, R.C.

    1977-01-01

    Since 1969 an average of 25,000 gpd of domestic secondary-treated effluent has been used to supplement irrigation of 30 acres of grazed pasture north of Lakeland, Florida. Monitor wells were contructed near the effluent-irrigated pasture. The water table in the surficial aquifer under the pasture varied from 1.0 to 3.3 feet below land surface. Total nitrogen was less than 20 percent of the effluent content after percolating 8 feet; no increase in nitrogen was detected 20 feet below the surface, or in down-gradient ground water. There was no evidence of phosphorus or carbon contamination of ground water. Low numbers of bacteria (generally coliform) were noted in some samples from nine wells. Four wells sampled contained bacteria of probable fecal origin. Low-rate application of the effluent to the pasture apparently has had little effect on the soil and ground water. (Woodard-USGS)

  2. Carbon fluxes of Kobresia pygmaea pastures on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babel, Wolfgang; Biermann, Tobias; Falge, Eva; Ingrisch, Johannes; Leonbacher, Jürgen; Schleuss, Per; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Ma, Yaoming; Miehe, Georg; Foken, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    With an approximate cover of 450,000 km² on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the Cyperaceae Kobresia pygmaea forms he world's largest alpine ecosystem. This species, especially adapted to grazing pressure, grows to a height of only 2-6 cm and can be found in an altitudinal range of 4000 to 5960 m a.s.l. A special characteristic of this ecosystem is the stable turf layer, which is built up from roots and plays a significant role in protecting soil from erosion. This is of great importance since soils on the TP store 2.5 % of the global soil organic carbon stocks. The aim of the investigation was the study of the carbon storage and the impact of human-induced land use change on these Kobresia pygmaea pastures. We therefore applied eddy-covariance measurements and modelling as a long-term control of the fluxes between the atmosphere and the pastures and 13C labelling for the investigation of flux partitioning, and chamber measurements to investigate the degradation of the pastures. Combining CO2 budgets observed in 2010 with eddy-covariance measurements and relative partitioning of carbon fluxes estimated with 13C labelling enabled us to characterise the C turnover for the vegetation period with absolute fluxes within the plant-soil-atmosphere continuum. These results revealed that this ecosystem indeed stores a great amount of C in below-ground pools, especially in the root turf layer. To further investigate the importance of the root layer, the experiments in 2012 focused on flux measurements over the different surface types which make up the heterogeneity of the Kobresia pygmaea pastures and might result from degradation due to extensive grazing. The three surface types investigated with a LiCOR long-term monitoring chamber system include Kobresia pygmaea with intact turf layer (IRM), a surface type where the turf layer is still present but the vegetation is sparse and mainly consists of Cryptogam crusts (DRM) and finally areas without the turf layer (BS). According to

  3. Productivity and hay requirements of beef cattle in a Midwestern year-round grazing system.

    PubMed

    Janovick, N A; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G

    2004-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate a replicated (n = 2) Midwestern year-round grazing system's hay needs and animal production compared with a replicated (n = 2) conventional (minimal land) system over 3 yr. Because extended grazing systems have decreased hay needs for the beef herd, it was hypothesized that this year-round system would decrease hay needs without penalizing animal production. In the minimal land (ML) system, two replicated 8.1-ha smooth bromegrass-orchardgrass-birdsfoot trefoil (SB-OG-BFT) pastures were rotationally stocked with six mature April-calving cows and calves and harvested as hay for winter feeding in a drylot. After weaning, calves were finished on a high-concentrate diet. Six mature April-calving cows, six mature August-calving cows, and their calves were used in the year-round (YR) grazing system. During the early and late summer, cattle grazed two replicated 8.1-ha SB-OG-BFT pastures by rotational stocking. In mid-summer and winter, April- and August-calving cows grazed two replicated 6.1-ha, endophyte-free tall fescue-red clover (TF-RC) and smooth bromegrass-red clover (SB-RC) pastures, respectively, by strip-stocking. In late autumn, spring-calving cows grazed 6.1-ha corn crop residue fields by strip-stocking. Calves were fed hay with corn gluten feed or corn grain over winter and used as stocker cattle to graze SB-OG-BFT pastures with cows until early August the following summer. First-harvest forage from the TF-RC and SB-RC pastures was harvested as hay. Body condition scores of April-calving cows did not differ between grazing systems, but were lower (P < or = 0.03) than those of August-calving cows from mid-gestation through breeding. Preweaning calf BW gains were 47 kg/ha of perennial pasture (P < 0.01) and 32 kg/cow (P = 0.01) lower in the YR grazing system than in the ML system. Total BW gains ofpreweaning calf and grazing stocker cattle were 12 kg/ha of perennial pasture less (P = 0.07), but 27 kg/cow greater (P = 0.02) in

  4. Trace Element Supplementation of Livestock in New Zealand: Meeting the Challenges of Free-Range Grazing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Neville D.; Knowles, Scott O.

    2012-01-01

    Managing the mineral nutrition of free-range grazing livestock can be challenging. On farms where grazing animals are infrequently yarded, there are limited opportunities to administer trace element supplements via feeds and concentrates. In New Zealand, where the majority of sheep, cattle, and deer graze pasture year round, inadequate intake of cobalt, copper, iodine and selenium is prevalent. Scientists and farmers have developed efficient strategies to monitor and treat these dietary deficiencies. Supplementation methods suited to grazing livestock include long-acting injections, slow-release intraruminal boluses, trace element-amended fertilisers, and reticulated water supplies on dairy farms. PMID:23316417

  5. Simulated grazing responses on the proposed prairies National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parton, William J.; Wright, R. Gerald; Risser, Paul G.

    1980-03-01

    The tallgrass prairie version of the ELM Grassland Model was used to evaluate the potential impact of establishing a tallgrass prairie National Park in the Flint Hills region of Kansas. This total ecosystem model simulates ( a) the flow of water, heat, nitrogen, and phosphorus through the ecosystem and( b) the biomass dynamics of plants and consumers. It was specifically developed to study the effects of levels and types of herbivory, climatic variation, and fertilization upon grassland ecosystems. The model was used to simulate the impact of building up herds of bison, elk, antelope, and wolves on a tallgrass prairie. The results show that the grazing levels in the park should not be decreased below the prepark grazing levels (moderate grazing with cattle) and that the final grazing levels in the park could be maintained at a slightly higher level than the prepark grazing levels.

  6. The effectiveness of faecal removal methods of pasture management to control the cyathostomin burden of donkeys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The level of anthelmintic resistance within some cyathostomin parasite populations has increased to the level where sole reliance on anthelmintic-based control protocols is not possible. Management-based nematode control methods, including removal of faeces from pasture, are widely recommended for use in association with a reduction in anthelmintic use to reduce selection pressure for drug resistance; however, very little work has been performed to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of such methods. Methods We analysed data obtained from 345 donkeys at The Donkey Sanctuary (Devon, UK), managed under three different pasture management techniques, to investigate the effectiveness of faeces removal in strongyle control in equids. The management groups were as follows: no removal of faeces from pasture, manual, twice-weekly removal of faeces from pasture and automatic, twice-weekly removal of faeces from pasture (using a mechanical pasture sweeper). From turn-out onto pasture in May, monthly faecal egg counts were obtained for each donkey and the dataset subjected to an auto regressive moving average model. Results There was little to no difference in faecal egg counts between the two methods of faecal removal; both resulted in significantly improved cyathostomin control compared to the results obtained from the donkeys that grazed pasture from which there was no faecal removal. Conclusions This study represents a valuable and unique assessment of the effectiveness of the removal of equine faeces from pasture, and provides an evidence base from which to advocate twice-weekly removal of faeces from pasture as an adjunct for equid nematode control. Widespread adoption of this practice could substantially reduce anthelmintic usage, and hence reduce selection pressure for nematode resistance to the currently effective anthelmintic products. PMID:24460700

  7. Reviving wood-pastures for biodiversity and people: A case study from western Estonia.

    PubMed

    Roellig, Marlene; Sutcliffe, Laura M E; Sammul, Marek; von Wehrden, Henrik; Newig, Jens; Fischer, Joern

    2016-03-01

    Wood-pastures are associated with high cultural and biodiversity values in Europe. However, due to their relatively low productivity, large areas of wood-pastures have been lost over the last century. In some areas, incentive schemes have been developed to revive wood-pastures. We investigated the effects of one such scheme in western Estonia. We compared the structure of grazed wood-pastures (old and restored) to those of abandoned wood-pastures and ungrazed forest stands to explore the effects of management, and conducted interviews with 24 farmers to investigate their motivations to carry out the management. We found a positive influence of active management on the semi-open structure of wood-pastures. Financial support was vital for management, but personal values related to tradition also played an important role. The interviewees differed widely in their range of motivations, suggesting that other strategies in addition to financial incentives would further improve the management of wood-pastures in the region. PMID:26458391

  8. Grazing effects on species composition in different vegetation types (La Palma, Canary Islands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arévalo, J. R.; de Nascimento, L.; Fernández-Lugo, S.; Mata, J.; Bermejo, L.

    2011-05-01

    Grazing management is probably one of the most extensive land uses, but its effects on plant communities have in many cases been revealed to be contradictory. Some authors have related these contradictions to the stochastic character of grazing systems. Because of that, it is necessary to implement specific analyses of grazing effects on each community, especially in natural protected areas, in order to provide the best information to managers. We studied the effects of grazing on the species composition of the main vegetation types where it takes place (grasslands, shrublands and pine forests) on the island of La Palma, Canary Islands. We used the point-quadrat intersect method to study the species composition of grazed and ungrazed areas, which also were characterized by their altitude, distance to farms, distance to settlements, year of sampling, herbaceous aboveground biomass and soil organic matter. The variables organic matter, productivity and species richness were not significantly affected by grazing. The species composition of the analyzed plant communities was affected more by variables such as altitude or distance to farms than by extensive grazing that has been traditionally carried out on the island of La Palma involving certain practices such as continuous monitoring of animals by goat keepers, medium stocking rates adjusted to the availability of natural pastures, supplementation during the dry season using local forage shrubs or mown pastures and rotating animals within grazing areas Although some studies have shown a negative effect of grazing on endangered plant species, these results cannot be freely extrapolated to the traditional grazing systems that exert a low pressure on plant communities (as has been found in this study). We consider extensive grazing as a viable way of ensuring sustainable management of the studied ecosystems.

  9. Changes in vegetation and grazing capacity following honey mesquite control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDaniel, Kirk C.; Brock, John H.; Haas, Robert H.

    1982-01-01

    Honey mesquite kill and suppression, vegetation response, and changes in grazing use and capacity were evaluated following brush control in north-central Texas. Tree grubbing was most effective for eliminating honey mesquite, but because of soil and plant damage the treatment did not increase grazing capacity or improve range condition compared to nontreated rangeland. Aerial application of 2,4,5-T + picloram was more effective in klllmg and defoliating honey mesquite than 2,4,5-T alone, but both treatments significantly increased forage production. The 2,4,5-T + picloram and 2,4,5-T sprays provided a 7 to 16% increase in grazing capacity over a 4-year period on light and heavy honey mesquite infested pastures, respectively.

  10. Prescribed grazing on pasturelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Principles of grazing management center round the temporal and spatial distribution of various kinds and number of livestock. Within the context of this chapter, management of grazing or browsing will be characterized in terms of intensity, method, and season (timing), and as a function of the type ...

  11. MONITORING GRAZING LANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important step in developing a ranch or allotment management plan for grazing lands is defining a rangeland monitoring program to evaluate progress toward achieving management objectives. A monitoring program can: 1) help determine the benefits gained from changes in grazing management or invest...

  12. Dairy cows increase ingestive mastication and reduce ruminative chewing when grazing chicory and plantain.

    PubMed

    Gregorini, P; Minnee, E M K; Griffiths, W; Lee, J M

    2013-01-01

    Although the nutritive value of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) has been thoroughly studied, little is known about the grazing behavior of cattle feeding on chicory and plantain swards. The objective of the present study was to assess and describe the grazing behavior of dairy cows as affected by dietary proportions of chicory and plantain fed as monocultures for part of the day. Ninety Holstein-Friesian cows (489±42 kg of body weight; 4.1±0.3 body condition score, and 216±15 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 15 groups (6 cows per group) and grazed according to 7 treatments: control (CTL, 3 groups), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) dominant sward (24-h pasture strip); 3 chicory treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of chicory to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment); and 3 plantain treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of plantain to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment). Four focal animals per group were equipped with 3-dimensional motion sensors, which provided the number of steps taken at each minute of the day. These cows were also fitted with automatic jaw-movement recorders that identified bites, mastication during ingestion, chewing during rumination, and determined grazing, rumination and idling times and bouts. Daily grazing time and bouts were not affected by treatments but rumination time differed and was reduced by up to 90 min when cows were allocated to chicory and plantain as 60% of their diet. Ruminative chewing was reduced in cows grazing chicory and plantain by up to 20% in cows allocated to the 60% treatments. Compared with perennial ryegrass, as the dietary proportion of chicory and plantain increased, cows spent more time idling and less time ruminating

  13. Short- and Long-Term Economic Analysis of Forage Mixtures and Grazing Strategies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of complex forage mixtures (mixtures of more than three species) has been researched as a means to increase yield and sustain forage production in pastures of the northeastern USA. However, little research has focused on the economic impact of forage mixture complexity and grazing strategy o...

  14. Using the Q10 model to simulate E. coli survival in cowpats on grazing lands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbiological quality of surface waters can be affected by microbial load in runoff from grazing lands. This effect, with other factors, depends on the survival of microorganisms in animal waste deposited on pastures. Since temperature is a leading environmental parameter affec...

  15. Effects of Grain By-Products as Supplements for Stocker Cattle Grazing Bermudagrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to compare corn, dried distillers' grains (DDG), and pelleted soybean hulls (SH) as supplements for cattle grazing bermudagrass. In Exp. 1, 66 crossbred steers (675 ± 7.1 lb) were stratified by weight and allotted randomly to six 6-acre bermudagrass pastures for a 107-...

  16. Using the Q10 model to simulate the E. coli survival in cowpats on grazing lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbiological quality of surface water sources can be affected by microbial load in runoff from grazing lands. This effect depends, among other factors, on survival of microorganisms in animal waste deposited at pastures. Temperature is one of leading environmental parameters affecting the surviva...

  17. Whole-farm phosphorus loss from grazing-based dairy farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural farms persists as a water quality impairment issue. For dairy farms, P can be lost from cropland, pastures, and open-air lots. We used interview surveys to document land use, cattle herd characteristics, and manure management for four grazing-based dairy farms i...

  18. Spatial behavior and distribution of cattle grazing riparian zones in northeastern Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research is to document and quantify the spatial movement of cattle grazing riparian pastures so that accurate assessment of use and ecological interaction can be made. Track logs with 1 second data collection intervals indicate that cows spent about 63% of their time stationar...

  19. PROFITABILITY OF PRODUCTION SYSTEMS WITH COTTON AND PEANUTS INCORPORATING WINTER ANNUAL GRAZING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of contracts in livestock production has been widespread since at least the 1950s. Under grazing contracts, cattle owners usually place stocker cattle on pasture, owned or leased by a caretaker (e.g. farmer or landowner). These contacts provide farmers an increase in revenue by utilizing win...

  20. Growth of lambs and meat goat kids grazing warm season grasses with or without protein supplement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing provides most nutrients for normal physiological function in ruminants, however; there are times when nutritional needs of the animals exceed the nutritional quality of forages. Bermudagrass is an economically important grass grown on pastures throughout the South and Midwest, however; it ma...

  1. MODELING THE POTENTIAL SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF BEEF CATTLE GRAZING USING A GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data regarding grazing utilization in the western United States are typically compiled within administrative boundaries(e.g. allotment,pasture). For large areas, an assumption of uniform distribution is seldom valid. Previous studies show that vegetation type, degree of slope, an...

  2. Development of a lifetime merit-based selection index for US dairy grazing systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture-based dairy producers in the US face costs, revenues and management challenges that differ from those associated with conventional dairy production systems. Three Grazing Merit indexes (GM$1, GM$2, and GM$3), parallel to the US Lifetime Net Merit (NM$) index, were constructed using economic ...

  3. Use of cuticular wax alkanes to estimate digestibility and intake of cows as pasture with a view to estimating efficiency.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determination of feed efficiency requires estimates of intake and digestibility of the diet, but they are difficult to measure on pasture. The objective of this research was to determine if plants cuticular alkanes were suitable as markers to estimate intake and diet digestibility of grazing cows wi...

  4. Pasture management effects on diet composition and cattle performance on continuously stocked rhizoma peanut-mixed grass swards.

    PubMed

    Valencia, E; Williams, M J; Chase, C C; Sollenberger, L E; Hammond, A C; Kalmbacher, R S; Kunkle, W E

    2001-09-01

    In Florida, rhizoma peanut (RP; Arachis glabrata Benth.), a tropical legume, combines the attributes of excellent nutritive value, competitive ability with tropical grasses, and high animal performance. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of spring N fertilization (0 vs 35 kg/ha) and summer stocking rate (1.5 and 2.5 bulls/ha) on herbage mass, nutritive value, herbage allowance, and diet botanical composition of grazed RP-grass swards and their interaction with growth and development of bulls (Senepol, and Brahman or Angus). The study was conducted in 1995 and 1996 at the USDA, ARS, Subtropical Agriculture Research Station in Brooksville, FL. Nitrogen was applied in April of each year, and all pastures were stocked with 1.5 bulls/ha until approximately July of each year, when stocking rate was increased on half the pastures to 2.5 bulls/ha. Herbage mass (HM, kg/ha), herbage allowance (HA, kg/kg BW), nutritive value (CP and in vitro organic matter digestibility [IVOMD]), and diet botanical composition (fecal microhistological) readings were determined. Animal measurements included total and seasonal (spring vs summer), ADG, hip height (cm), scrotal circumference (SC, cm), and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN, mg/dL). Herbage mass (3.0 +/- 0.12 Mg/ha and 3.4 +/- 0.13 Mg/ha in 1995 and 1996, respectively) was not affected by nitrogen fertilization or stocking rate but was affected by season (P < 0.05) due to increased plant growth rate associated with summer rainfall. Stocking rate did affect herbage availability, but it never fell below 3 kg/kg BW, indicating herbage availability was never limiting. Crude protein (200 to 140 g/kg) and IVOMD (650 to 540 g/kg) were not affected by treatment, but declined (P < 0.001) from spring until fall. Treatments also had no effect on diet botanical composition. Summer ADG averaged about 0.2 kg/d lower than spring ADG, due, in part, to seasonal declines in nutritive value. Because herbage allowance was never limiting

  5. Grazing season and forage type influence goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties.

    PubMed

    Inglingstad, R A; Steinshamn, H; Dagnachew, B S; Valenti, B; Criscione, A; Rukke, E O; Devold, T G; Skeie, S B; Vegarud, G E

    2014-01-01

    Two different types of pasture (cultivated and rangeland) and 2 different hay qualities (high and low quality) were examined for their effects on goat milk composition and rennet coagulation properties. Furthermore, the effect of dietary treatments in both the early and late grazing season was studied. As lactation stage is known to influence milk composition, the goats in the early and late grazing season were in the same lactation stage at the start of the experiment. The milk composition was influenced both by dietary treatment and season. Milk from goats on pasture was superior to those on hay by containing a higher content of protein and casein, and the goats on cultivated pasture had the highest milk yield. Casein composition was significantly influenced by forage treatment. Goats grazing on cultivated pasture had higher contents of αs1-casein and also of κ-casein compared with the other treatments, whereas goats grazing on rangeland had the highest content of β-casein. Factors such as milk yield, casein micelle size, αs2-casein, and calcium content were reduced in late compared with early season. More favorable rennet coagulation properties were achieved in milk from the early grazing season, with shorter firming time and higher curd firmness compared with milk from the late grazing season, but the firming time and curd firmness were not prominently influenced by forage treatment. The content of αs2-casein and calcium in the milk affected the firming time and the curd firmness positively. The influence of season and forage treatment on especially milk yield, casein content, and rennet coagulation properties is of economic importance for both the dairy industry and goat milk farmers. PMID:24704223

  6. Effect of alternate and simultaneous grazing on endoparasite infection in sheep and cattle.

    PubMed

    Brito, Daiana Lima; Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Louvandini, Helder; dos Santos, Viviane Rodrigues Verdolin; Torres, Sonia Emília Figueirêdo de Araújo; Gomes, Edgard Franco; do Amarante, Alessandro Francisco Talamini; de Melo, Cristiano Barros; McManus, Concepta Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was carried out on 8 ha of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania pastures, with rotational grazing consisting of 7 days of occupation and 21 days of rest. Four treatments were evaluated: cattle grazing alone (BOV), sheep grazing alone (OVI), cattle and sheep grazing simultaneously (SIM) and cattle grazing followed by sheep (alternate - ALT). Twenty heifers and 30 male Santa Inês lambs were used. Fecal egg count (FEC) and fecal cultures were carried out. Blood was also collected to examine red and white cell series, total plasma protein (TPP), albumin and hemoglobin. FEC and estimated nematode pathogenicity index in sheep were lower in the SIM treatment. The Haemonchus spp. proportion was higher in isolated grazing systems. For sheep, mixed grazing was shown to reduce endoparasite infection, and SIM was better than ALT. For cattle, no difference between grazing systems was seen. Therefore, simultaneous grazing (sheep and cattle) may be a tool for reducing the need for anthelmintic treatments in sheep. PMID:24473872

  7. Improved grazing management may increase soil carbon sequestration in temperate steppe

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenqing; Huang, Ding; Liu, Nan; Zhang, Yingjun; Badgery, Warwick B.; Wang, Xiaoya; Shen, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Different grazing strategies impact grassland plant production and may also regulate the soil carbon formation. For a site in semiarid temperate steppe, we studied the effect of combinations of rest, high and moderate grazing pressure over three stages of the growing season, on the process involved in soil carbon sequestration. Results show that constant moderate grazing (MMM) exhibited the highest root production and turnover accumulating the most soil carbon. While deferred grazing (RHM and RMH) sequestered less soil carbon compared to MMM, they showed higher standing root mass, maintained a more desirable pasture composition, and had better ability to retain soil N. Constant high grazing pressure (HHH) caused diminished above- and belowground plant production, more soil N losses and an unfavorable microbial environment and had reduced carbon input. Reducing grazing pressure in the last grazing stage (HHM) still had a negative impact on soil carbon. Regression analyses show that adjusting stocking rate to ~5SE/ha with ~40% vegetation utilization rate can get the most carbon accrual. Overall, the soil carbon sequestration in the temperate grassland is affected by the grazing regime that is applied, and grazing can be altered to improve soil carbon sequestration in the temperate steppe. PMID:26137980

  8. Improved grazing management may increase soil carbon sequestration in temperate steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenqing; Huang, Ding; Liu, Nan; Zhang, Yingjun; Badgery, Warwick B.; Wang, Xiaoya; Shen, Yue

    2015-07-01

    Different grazing strategies impact grassland plant production and may also regulate the soil carbon formation. For a site in semiarid temperate steppe, we studied the effect of combinations of rest, high and moderate grazing pressure over three stages of the growing season, on the process involved in soil carbon sequestration. Results show that constant moderate grazing (MMM) exhibited the highest root production and turnover accumulating the most soil carbon. While deferred grazing (RHM and RMH) sequestered less soil carbon compared to MMM, they showed higher standing root mass, maintained a more desirable pasture composition, and had better ability to retain soil N. Constant high grazing pressure (HHH) caused diminished above- and belowground plant production, more soil N losses and an unfavorable microbial environment and had reduced carbon input. Reducing grazing pressure in the last grazing stage (HHM) still had a negative impact on soil carbon. Regression analyses show that adjusting stocking rate to ~5SE/ha with ~40% vegetation utilization rate can get the most carbon accrual. Overall, the soil carbon sequestration in the temperate grassland is affected by the grazing regime that is applied, and grazing can be altered to improve soil carbon sequestration in the temperate steppe.

  9. Improved grazing management may increase soil carbon sequestration in temperate steppe.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenqing; Huang, Ding; Liu, Nan; Zhang, Yingjun; Badgery, Warwick B; Wang, Xiaoya; Shen, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Different grazing strategies impact grassland plant production and may also regulate the soil carbon formation. For a site in semiarid temperate steppe, we studied the effect of combinations of rest, high and moderate grazing pressure over three stages of the growing season, on the process involved in soil carbon sequestration. Results show that constant moderate grazing (MMM) exhibited the highest root production and turnover accumulating the most soil carbon. While deferred grazing (RHM and RMH) sequestered less soil carbon compared to MMM, they showed higher standing root mass, maintained a more desirable pasture composition, and had better ability to retain soil N. Constant high grazing pressure (HHH) caused diminished above- and belowground plant production, more soil N losses and an unfavorable microbial environment and had reduced carbon input. Reducing grazing pressure in the last grazing stage (HHM) still had a negative impact on soil carbon. Regression analyses show that adjusting stocking rate to ~5SE/ha with ~40% vegetation utilization rate can get the most carbon accrual. Overall, the soil carbon sequestration in the temperate grassland is affected by the grazing regime that is applied, and grazing can be altered to improve soil carbon sequestration in the temperate steppe. PMID:26137980

  10. Spatial distribution of nitrogen on grazed karst landscapes.

    PubMed

    Boyer, D G; Alloush, G A

    2001-11-27

    The impact on water quality by agricultural activity in karst terrain is an important consideration for resource management within the Appalachian region. Karst areas comprise about 18% of the region"s land area. An estimated one-third of the region"s farms, cattle, and agricultural market value are located on karst terrain. Mean nitrate concentrations in several karst springs in southeastern West Virginia exhibit a strong linear relationship with the percentage of agriculture land cover. Development of best management practices for efficient nitrogen (N) use and reduction of outflow of N to water from karst areas requires knowledge about N dynamics on those landscapes. Water extractable NO3-N and NH4-N were measured along transects at four soil depths in two grazed sinkholes and one wooded sinkhole. Distribution of soil NO3-N and NH4-N were related to frequency of animal presence and to topographic and hydrologic redistribution of soil and fecal matter in the grazed sinkholes. Karst pastures are characterized by under drainage and funneling of water and contaminants to the shallow aquifer. Control of NO3-N leaching from karst pasture may depend on management strategies that change livestock grazing behavior in sinkholes and reduce the opportunity for water and contaminants to quickly reach sinkhole drains. PMID:12805831

  11. Practical Grazing Management and Feed Strategies to Alleviate Fescue Toxicosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fescue has tolerances to drought, low fertility, and over-grazing that are attributed to a fungal endophyte which infects most tall fescue plants. Unfortunately, these advantages of tall fescue that livestock producers appreciate are offset by reduced calving percentages and calf weight gains cause...

  12. Intensive soil organic carbon losses by degradation of alpine Kobresia pasture on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleuss, Per-Marten; Heitkamp, Felix; Seeber, Elke; Spielvogel, Sandra; Miehe, Georg; Guggenberger, Georg; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Kobresia grasslands of the Tibetan Plateau cover an area of ca. 450,000 km2. They are of high global and regional importance as they store large amounts of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) and provide food for grazing animals. However, intensive grassland degradation in recent decades destroyed mainly the upper root-mat/soil horizon. This has dramatic consequences for SOC storage against the background of climate change and further grazing pressure. We investigated the impact of pasture degradation on SOC storage and hypothesized that SOC stocks strongly decreased due to a reduction of C-input by roots as consequence of vegetation cover loss by overgrazing, SOM decomposition and soil erosion. We selected a sequence of six degradation stages (DS1-6). As initial trigger of grassland degradation, the high grazing pressure reduces the ability of Kobresia pastures to recover from disturbances (e.g. by freezing and drying events, herbivory, trampling). Once the root mats are destroyed, the occurring root-mat cracks increase due to soil erosion, SOC decomposition and trampling activities of livestock. The SOC stocks and contents decreased along the degradation sequence from intact to highly disturbed stages. Carbon stocks declined from intact Kobresia root mats (DS1) to bare soil patches (DS6) by about 70%. The thickness of the upper soil horizons strongly declined from DS1 to DS6. Considering the bare soil patches (DS6) on average 10 cm of the most fertile topsoil were removed. This clearly suggests that soil erosion strongly contributed to SOC losses, especially from topsoil with highest SOC contents. A strong decrease of the vegetation cover (mainly K. pygmaea) demonstrated that soil degradation also resulted in die-back of K. pygmaea. Consequently, root biomass decreased along the degradation sequence (DS1-2 > DS3-4 > DS5-6), indicating lower belowground C input from roots. We found decreasing δ13C values with increasing degradation stages within the upper 20 cm of soil

  13. Sound management may sequester methane in grazed rangeland ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengjie; Han, Guodong; Wang, Shiping; Zhai, Xiajie; Brown, Joel; Havstad, Kris M; Ma, Xiuzhi; Wilkes, Andreas; Zhao, Mengli; Tang, Shiming; Zhou, Pei; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Lu, Tingting; Wang, Zhongwu; Li, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Considering their contribution to global warming, the sources and sinks of methane (CH4) should be accounted when undertaking a greenhouse gas inventory for grazed rangeland ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mitigation potential of current ecological management programs implemented in the main rangeland regions of China. The influences of rangeland improvement, utilization and livestock production on CH4 flux/emission were assessed to estimate CH4 reduction potential. Results indicate that the grazed rangeland ecosystem is currently a net source of atmospheric CH4. However, there is potential to convert the ecosystem to a net sink by improving management practices. Previous assessments of capacity for CH4 uptake in grazed rangeland ecosystems have not considered improved livestock management practices and thus underestimated potential for CH4 uptake. Optimal fertilization, rest and light grazing, and intensification of livestock management contribute mitigation potential significantly. PMID:24658176

  14. Sound management may sequester methane in grazed rangeland ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengjie; Han, Guodong; Wang, Shiping; Zhai, Xiajie; Brown, Joel; Havstad, Kris M.; Ma, Xiuzhi; Wilkes, Andreas; Zhao, Mengli; Tang, Shiming; Zhou, Pei; Jiang, Yuanyuan; Lu, Tingting; Wang, Zhongwu; Li, Zhiguo

    2014-01-01

    Considering their contribution to global warming, the sources and sinks of methane (CH4) should be accounted when undertaking a greenhouse gas inventory for grazed rangeland ecosystems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mitigation potential of current ecological management programs implemented in the main rangeland regions of China. The influences of rangeland improvement, utilization and livestock production on CH4 flux/emission were assessed to estimate CH4 reduction potential. Results indicate that the grazed rangeland ecosystem is currently a net source of atmospheric CH4. However, there is potential to convert the ecosystem to a net sink by improving management practices. Previous assessments of capacity for CH4 uptake in grazed rangeland ecosystems have not considered improved livestock management practices and thus underestimated potential for CH4 uptake. Optimal fertilization, rest and light grazing, and intensification of livestock management contribute mitigation potential significantly. PMID:24658176

  15. Spatial variation in spoil and vegetative characteristics of pastures on reclaimed surface mined land

    SciTech Connect

    Teutsch, C.D.; Collins, M.; Ditsch, D.C.

    1999-07-01

    Kentucky has large areas of reclaimed surface mined land that could provide grazing for livestock. Research is needed to determine optimal stocking densities and to evaluate the sustainability of such grazing systems for this region. A long-term grazing study was initiated in 1997 on 151 ha of reclaimed land near Chavies, KY to determine spatial and temporal variation with stocking densities of 0, 0.28, 0.42, or 0.83 beef cow-calf units/ha. Global Positioning System and GIS technologies were used to establish pasture boundaries, locate permanent sampling markers at a density of 1 per 0.4 ha, and interpolate maps of physical, spoil, and vegetable pasture characteristics. Herbage and spoil samples were collected around the permanent markers in May of 1997. Stepwise regression was used to determine factors affecting the vegetative characteristics of the sites. Biomass density ranged from 0 to 2500 kg/ha with a mean of 570 kg/ha. Factors affecting biomass included legume and weed proportions in the sward, grazing activity, soil potassium, elevation, and potential acidity, cumulatively accounting for 32% of the variation. Ground cover ranged from 10 to 100% with an average of 74%. Soil pH, potassium, and grass in the sward accounted for 14% of the variation in ground cover. Legumes made up 0 to 61% of the sward with a mean of 13% over the pasture area. Variables affecting the amount of legume in the sward included biomass density, slope, elevation, pH, and stocking density, together accounting for 21% of the variation. Spatial variation in the physical, spoil, and vegetative characteristics of the pastures was large. Overall, regression accounted for a limited amount of the variation in the vegetative characteristics of the site indicating that other important variables exist.

  16. Discerning the cows from the pasture when determining annual NEE and carbon budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, Christof; Felber, Raphael; Neftel, Albrecht

    2015-04-01

    The CO2 exchange of ecosystems and the resulting annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) and total carbon budget (soil carbon sequestration) is commonly investigated using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. For the carbon budget of managed ecosystems also the import and export of organic carbon has to be taken into account. Grazed pasture systems represent a special challenge because their respiration can considerably contribute to the measured CO2 flux, but this contribution depends on the spatial distribution of the cows relative to the footprint and thus is variable in time. This has implications for the gap filling of CO2 flux time series necessary to determine annual NEE. In few existing studies two procedures have been suggested to determine the NEE of grazed pasture: (a) discarding all cases with cows in the footprint and gap-filling the remaining dataset; (b) treating the cow respiration as part of total ecosystem respiration and gap fill the entire flux dataset including cow contributions. Both approaches rely on idealized assumptions and have limitations. In our study we evaluated and compared the two approaches (for the first time to our knowledge) for a grazed pasture in Switzerland. For this purpose, the grazing cows were equipped with GPS sensors to monitor their position relative to the flux footprint. We found that the resulting annual NEE strongly depends on the flux data selection (e.g. u* filtering) and the applied gap filling procedure. Using an optimized procedure, the annual NEE with approach (b) was several times larger than the result of approach (a), but the difference agreed fairly well with independent estimates of cow respiration. Necessary assumptions and requirements of the two approaches for the determination of the pasture carbon budget will be discussed.

  17. Controlling herbaceous competition in pasture planted with loblolly pine seedlings. Forest Service research note

    SciTech Connect

    Haywood, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    Three treatments designed to control herbaceous vegetation competing with loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings planted in grazed and ungrazed pasture were tested. Effects of the treatments on seedling survival and growth during the first 3 years after planting were determined. The treatments were directed application of herbicides (glyphosate in the first 2 years and hexazinone in the third year), rotary mowing, and mulching with pine straw around individual pine seedlings.

  18. Habitat productivity influences root mass vertical distribution in grazed Mediterranean ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, Marta; Rebollo, Salvador; Rodríguez, Miguel Á.

    2010-07-01

    Herbivores are expected to influence grassland ecosystems by modifying root biomass and root spatial distribution of plant communities. Studies in perennial dominated grasslands suggest that grazing intensity and primary productivity may be strong determinants of the vertical distribution of subterranean biomass. However, no studies have addressed this question in annual dominated pastures. In this study we assess the effect of grazing and habitat productivity on the vertical distribution of root mass in an annual dominated Mediterranean pasture grazed by free-ranging sheep and wild rabbits. We evaluate the effects of grazing on total root mass and vertical root distribution (0-4, 4-8 and 8-12 cm depths) in two neighboring topographic sites (uplands and lowlands) with different productivity using a replicated fence experiment which excludes sheep and sheep plus rabbits. We found evidences that grazing affected root biomass and vertical distribution at lowlands (high productivity habitats), where places grazed by sheep plus rabbits exhibit more root mass and a higher concentration of it towards the soil surface than only rabbits and ungrazed places. In contrast, grazing did not affect root biomass and vertical distribution at uplands (low productivity habitats). We suggest that higher nitrogen and organic matter found in lowlands permit a plant adjustment for nitrogen acquisition by increasing biomass allocation to root production which would allow plant regrowth and the quick completion of the annual life cycle. Contrary, soil resources scarcity at uplands do not permit plants modify their root growth patterns in response to grazing. Our study emphasizes the importance of primary productivity in predicting grazing effect on belowground processes in Mediterranean environments dominated by annuals.

  19. Traditional Cattle Grazing in a Mosaic Alkali Landscape: Effects on Grassland Biodiversity along a Moisture Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Török, Péter; Valkó, Orsolya; Deák, Balázs; Kelemen, András; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2014-01-01

    Extensively managed pastures are of crucial importance in sustaining biodiversity both in local- and landscape-level. Thus, re-introduction of traditional grazing management is a crucial issue in grassland conservation actions worldwide. Traditional grazing with robust cattle breeds in low stocking rates is considered to be especially useful to mimic natural grazing regimes, but well documented case-studies are surprisingly rare on this topic. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional Hungarian Grey cattle grazing as a conservation action in a mosaic alkali landscape. We asked the following questions: (i) How does cattle grazing affect species composition and diversity of the grasslands? (ii) What are the effects of grazing on short-lived and perennial noxious species? (iii) Are there distinct effects of grazing in dry-, mesophilous- and wet grassland types? Vegetation of fenced and grazed plots in a 200-ha sized habitat complex (secondary dry grasslands and pristine mesophilous- and wet alkali grasslands) was sampled from 2006–2009 in East-Hungary. We found higher diversity scores in grazed plots compared to fenced ones in mesophilous- and wet grasslands. Higher cover of noxious species was typical in fenced plots compared to their grazed counterparts in the last year in every studied grassland type. We found an increasing effect of grazing from the dry- towards the wet grassland types. The year-to-year differences also followed similar pattern: the site-dependent effects were the lowest in the dry grassland and an increasing effect was detected along the moisture gradient. We found that extensive Hungarian Grey cattle grazing is an effective tool to suppress noxious species and to create a mosaic vegetation structure, which enables to maintain high species richness in the landscape. Hungarian Grey cattle can feed in open habitats along long moisture gradient, thus in highly mosaic landscapes this breed can be the most suitable livestock type

  20. Characterization of two Agrostis-Festuca alpine pastures and their influence on cheese composition.

    PubMed

    Povolo, Milena; Pelizzola, Valeria; Passolungo, Luigi; Biazzi, Elisa; Tava, Aldo; Contarini, Giovanna

    2013-01-16

    Recently, there has been a renewed interest in mountain farming, and several studies have been carried out on milk and cheese obtained in the unique environmental conditions of the Alps, a 1300 km mountain chain, located in the north of Italy. In this paper, the influence, on some cheese constituents, of two very similar mountain grasslands, both dominated by Festuca - Agrostis , was investigated. The two pastures were located in the same area in the southeastern Italian alpine region and differed in sunshine orientation and exposure. Milk obtained from cows grazing on these pastures was used to produce a semi-hard traditional cheese. The differences observed between the cheeses of the two areas for both some hydrocarbons (1-phytene and 2-phytene) and trans-fatty acids can be explained by a different rumen environment created by the botanical composition of the two pastures. The multidisciplinary approach can be considered a successful strategy, suitable for studying markers of authenticity. PMID:23259614

  1. Tree water use and rainfall partitioning in a mature poplar-pasture system.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Escobar, A.; Edwards, W. R. N.; Morton, R. H.; Kemp, P. D.; Mackay, A. D.

    2000-01-01

    Traditionally, poplars (Populus) have been planted to control erosion on New Zealand's hill-slopes, because of their capacity to dry out and bind together the soil, by reducing effective rainfall and increasing evapotranspiration and soil strength. However, the effect of widely spaced poplars on the partitioning of soil water and rainfall has not been reported. This study determined rainfall partitioning for 18 mid-spring days in a mature P. deltoides (Bart. ex Marsh, Clone I78)-pasture association (37 stems per hectare, unevenly spaced at 16.4 +/- 0.4 m) and compared it with a traditional open pasture system in grazed areas of a hill environment. Tree transpiration was measured by the heat pulse technique. A time-driven mathematical model was used to set a zero offset, adjust anomalous values and describe simultaneous sap velocity time courses of trees. The model showed that daylight sap flow velocities can be represented with a nonlinear Beta function (R(2) > 0.98), and differences in the parameters representing the initiation, duration and conformation of the sap velocity can be tested statistically to discern tree transpiration differences during the day. Evapotranspiration was greater for the poplar-pasture association than for the open pasture (2.7-3.0 versus 2.2 mm day(-1)). The tree canopy alone contributed 0.92 mm day(-1) as transpiration and 1.37 mm day(-1) as interception, whereas evapotranspiration of the pasture understory was only 0.4-0.6 mm day(-1). Despite the higher water use of the poplar-pasture association, soil water in the 0-300 mm soil stratum was higher than, or similar to, that of the open pasture. Tree shading decreased evapotranspiration and pasture accumulation under the trees. PMID:12651477

  2. Fecal coliform concentrations in runoff from a grazed, reclaimed surface mine

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, D.G.; Perry, H.D.

    1987-10-01

    The relatively scarcity of flat or moderately sloping land in Central Appalachia make reclaimed surface mined lands attractive for agricultural uses. A reclaimed surface coal mine in southern West Virginia was placed under grazing management during the 1984 and 1985 grown seasons. Discharge was collected from summer-grazed watersheds of about 2.8 ha and 8.9 ha and analyzed, by the membrane-filtration method, for fecal coliforms (FC). Prior to grazing in 1984, FC counts were < 200/100 ml. During the grazing season, FC ranged from < 0/100 ml to > 1000/100 ml in 1984 and from 0/100 ml to > 2500/100 ml in 1985. FC counts remained high during warm periods for several months after grazing ceased. It was concluded that the bacteriological quality of receiving streams was impacted by grazing the reclaimed area and recommended standards for point sources were often exceeded; however, the FC counts did not appear to be any greater than what would have been expected from grazed, undisturbed areas. Reclaimed surface mines areas in Appalachia have the potential to be a valuable flat land resource and grazing appears to be an alternative post mine land use that affects bacteriological water quality in a similar manner as natural pastures. However, good management practices may be necessary to avoid bacterial contamination of adjacent bodies of water.

  3. Spatial Simulation of the Dynamics of Establishment of Secondary Forest in Abandoned Pasture in the Central Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebel, K. T.; Riha, S. J.; Rondon, M. A.; Feldpausch, T. R.; Fernandes, E. C.

    2001-05-01

    In the Amazon, approximately 35 million hectares of primary forest that was converted to pasture is now being abandoned. This represents about 70% of all pastureland that was previously established. The dynamics of reconversion of this land to secondary forest is of interest because the length of time required for pasture to convert to secondary forest will impact net primary productivity and the amount of carbon being stored on abandoned pastures. In addition, the length of time required for pasture to convert to secondary forest may depend on the size of the pasture, whether it is surrounded by primary or secondary forest, and on pasture productivity at the time of abandonment. Pasture productivity at the time of abandonment will depend primarily on the age structure of the pasture grasses and on weediness, which are influenced by grazing and fire history. Also, an understanding of the dynamics of conversion of pastureland to forest can serve as the basis for management strategies to inhibit pasture conversion. A spatial, dynamic model of the conversion of pasture to secondary forest was developed using the PCRaster Dynamic Modeling Package. This software provides a computer language specially developed for modeling temporal and spatial processes in a GIS, and is well suited for the development of ecological, dynamic models. The model of pasture conversion is implemented for the central Amazon. We assume that succession involves only three plant types: pasture grass, weeds and woody plants. The pasture grass is parameterized for Brachiaria (brizantha, humidicola), the weeds for Borreria and Rolandra, and the woody plants for Vismia spp. The model uses a 1m x 1m grid and 2-month time step. Each initial plant and each surviving propagule is referred to as a plant and only occupies one grid cell. A number of values are calculated for each grid cell for each time-step. These include whether vegetation is present and, if so, which species, the age of the species, the

  4. Optimising stocking rate and grazing management to enhance environmental and production outcomes for native temperate grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badgery, Warwick; Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Broadfoot, Kim; Kemp, David; Mitchell, David

    2015-04-01

    Stocking rate and grazing management can be altered to enhance the sustainable production of grasslands but the relative influence of each has not often been determined for native temperate grasslands. Grazing management can range from seasonal rests through to intensive rotational grazing involving >30 paddocks. In large scale grazing, it can be difficult to segregate the influence of grazing pressure from the timing of utilisation. Moreover, relative grazing pressure can change between years as seasonal conditions influence grassland production compared to the relative constant requirements of animals. This paper reports on two studies in temperate native grasslands of northern China and south eastern Australia that examined stocking rate and regionally relevant grazing management strategies. In China, the grazing experiment involved combinations of a rest, moderate or heavy grazing pressure of sheep in spring, then moderate or heavy grazing in summer and autumn. Moderate grazing pressure at 50% of the current district average, resulted in the better balance between maintaining productive and diverse grasslands, a profitable livestock system, and mitigation of greenhouse gases through increased soil carbon, methane uptake by the soil, and efficient methane emissions per unit of weight gain. Spring rests best maintained a desirable grassland composition, but had few other benefits and reduced livestock productivity due to lower feed quality from grazing later in the season. In Australia, the grazing experiment compared continuous grazing to flexible 4- and 20-paddock rotational grazing systems with sheep. Stocking rates were adjusted between systems biannually based on the average herbage mass of the grassland. No treatment degraded the perennial pasture composition, but ground cover was maintained at higher levels in the 20-paddock system even though this treatment had a higher stocking rate. Overall there was little difference in livestock production (e.g. kg

  5. An international terminology for grazing lands and grazing animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1991, Terminology for Grazing Lands and Grazing Animals was published with the objective of ‘developing a consensus of clear definitions of terms used in the grazing of animals.’ During the XVIII International Grassland Congress, held in Canada in 1997, a new Terminology working group was formed ...

  6. Herbivory and Competition of Tibetan Steppe Vegetation in Winter Pasture: Effects of Livestock Exclosure and Plateau Pika Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Richard B.; Wenying, Wang; Badinqiuying; Smith, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Rangeland degradation has been identified as a serious concern in alpine regions of western China on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (QTP). Numerous government-sponsored programs have been initiated, including many that feature long-term grazing prohibitions and some that call for eliminating pastoralism altogether. As well, government programs have long favored eliminating plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae), assumed to contribute to degraded conditions. However, vegetation on the QTP evolved in the presence of herbivory, suggesting that deleterious effects from grazing are, to some extent, compensated for by reduced plant-plant competition. We examined the dynamics of common steppe ecosystem species as well as physical indicators of rangeland stress by excluding livestock and reducing pika abundance on experimental plots, and following responses for 4 years. We established 12 fenced livestock exclosures within pastures grazed during winter by local pastoralists, and removed pikas on half of these. We established paired, permanent vegetation plots within and outside exclosures and measured indices of erosion and biomass of common plant species. We observed modest restoration of physical site conditions (reduced bare soil, erosion, greater vegetation cover) with both livestock exclusion and pika reduction. As expected in areas protected from grazing, we observed a reduction in annual productivity of plant species avoided by livestock and assumed to compete poorly when protected from grazing. Contrary to expectation, we observed similar reductions in annual productivity among palatable, perennial graminoids under livestock exclusion. The dominant grass, Stipa purpurea, displayed evidence of density-dependent growth, suggesting that intra-specific competition exerted a regulatory effect on annual production in the absence of grazing. Complete grazing bans on winter pastures in steppe habitats on the QTP may assist in the recovery of highly eroded pastures, but may not

  7. Herbivory and Competition of Tibetan Steppe Vegetation in Winter Pasture: Effects of Livestock Exclosure and Plateau Pika Reduction.

    PubMed

    Harris, Richard B; Wenying, Wang; Badinqiuying; Smith, Andrew T; Bedunah, Donald J

    2015-01-01

    Rangeland degradation has been identified as a serious concern in alpine regions of western China on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau (QTP). Numerous government-sponsored programs have been initiated, including many that feature long-term grazing prohibitions and some that call for eliminating pastoralism altogether. As well, government programs have long favored eliminating plateau pikas (Ochotona curzoniae), assumed to contribute to degraded conditions. However, vegetation on the QTP evolved in the presence of herbivory, suggesting that deleterious effects from grazing are, to some extent, compensated for by reduced plant-plant competition. We examined the dynamics of common steppe ecosystem species as well as physical indicators of rangeland stress by excluding livestock and reducing pika abundance on experimental plots, and following responses for 4 years. We established 12 fenced livestock exclosures within pastures grazed during winter by local pastoralists, and removed pikas on half of these. We established paired, permanent vegetation plots within and outside exclosures and measured indices of erosion and biomass of common plant species. We observed modest restoration of physical site conditions (reduced bare soil, erosion, greater vegetation cover) with both livestock exclusion and pika reduction. As expected in areas protected from grazing, we observed a reduction in annual productivity of plant species avoided by livestock and assumed to compete poorly when protected from grazing. Contrary to expectation, we observed similar reductions in annual productivity among palatable, perennial graminoids under livestock exclusion. The dominant grass, Stipa purpurea, displayed evidence of density-dependent growth, suggesting that intra-specific competition exerted a regulatory effect on annual production in the absence of grazing. Complete grazing bans on winter pastures in steppe habitats on the QTP may assist in the recovery of highly eroded pastures, but may not

  8. The effects of a modified glucomannan on the performance of stocker cattle grazing endophyte infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the efficacy of a modified glucomannan to mitigate fescue toxicosis, 45 Angus cross (BW = 281 ± 7.0 kg) steer calves were randomly assigned to nine 2-ha pastures of endemically-infected tall fescue in March of 2 yr and allowed to graze for 133 d. The 3 treatments were: non supplemented (...

  9. Performance by heifers grazing sod-seeded cool-season annuals seeded on different dates using two tillage intensities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 120 Gelbvieh x Angus crossbred heifers (552'2.5 lb initial BW) grazed pastures of common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] overseeded with wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) for a 3-year study to compare the effect of seeding dates and till...

  10. The effects of free choice protein supplementation on growth of lambs and meat goat kids grazing warm season grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing provides most nutrients for growth in ruminants, however; there are times when nutritional needs of the animal exceed the nutritional quality of forages. Forages common to pastures in the South and Midwest may be insufficient in crude protein to meet the demands of growing lambs and meat goa...

  11. Hydrology and Soil Erosion in Tropical Rainforests and Pasture Lands on the Atherton Tablelands, North Queensland, Australia - a rainfall simulator study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joanne, Joanne; Ciesiolka, Cyril

    2010-05-01

    The Barron and Johnstone Rivers rise in the basaltic Atherton Tableland, North Queensland, Australia, and flow into the Coral Sea and Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA). Natural rainforest in this region was cleared for settlement in the early 20th century. Rapid decline in soil fertility during the 1940's and 50's forced landholders to turn to pasture based industries from row crop agriculture. Since then, these pasture based industries have intensified. The intensified land use has been linked to increases in sediment and nutrient levels in terrestrial runoff and identified as a major environmental threat to the GBRWHA, which has raised alarm for the tourist industry and resource managers. Studies linking land-use to pollutant discharge are often based on measurements and modelling of end of catchment measurements of water quality. Whilst such measurements can be a reasonable indicator of the effects of land use on pollutant discharge to waterways, they are often a gross assessment. This project used rainfall simulations to investigate the relationship between land use and management with sources and sinks of runoff and soil erosion within the Barron and Johnstone Rivers catchments. Rainfall simulations were conducted and pollutant loads measured in natural rainforest, as well as dairy and beef farming systems. The dairy farming systems included an effluent fed pasture, a high mineral fertilizer and supplementary irrigation farm, and a rainfed organic pasture that relied on tropical legumes and introduced grasses and returned organic material to the soil. One of the beef farming systems used a 7-10 day rotation with a low fertilizer regime (kikuyu mostly), while the other, used a long period- two paddock-rotation with no fertiliser and paspalum pastures. The rainforests were generally small isolated enclaves with a well developed shrub layer (1-3 m), and a presence of scattered, deciduous trees. Simulations were carried out on sites which were

  12. Fatty acid composition in adipose tissue of pasture and feedlot-finished beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-seven Angus crossbred steers were used to evaluate the effects of N fertilization on pasture- vs. feedlot-finishing beef steers on fatty acid (FA) composition in subcutaneous adipose tissue. A completely randomized design with repeated measures was used with steers arranged into 3 treatments...

  13. PASTURE MANAGEMENT, THE RED IMPORTED FIRE ANT (SOLENOPSIS INVICTA), AND DUNG BEETLE MEDIATED ECOSYSTEM SERVICES

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is expected to find greater diversity of dung beetle species and functional groups in the semi-natural pastures on MAERC, as it is suspected that intensive management practices such as high fertilizer use and frequent mechanical disturbance will result in localized extin...

  14. Effect of application of fluidized bed combustion residue to reclaimed mine pastures on forage yield, composition, animal performance, and mineral status

    SciTech Connect

    Smedley, K.O.

    1985-01-01

    Reclaimed surface mined soils in Appalachia are typically infertile and must be amended for optimum vegetative growth. Fluidized bed combustion residue (FBCR) has high levels of Ca, S, Zn, Fe, and Al, and 50% of the neutralizing capacity of limestone. Three treatments were applied to three capacity of limestone. Three treatments were applied to three replicated 0.81 ha reclaimed mine pastures: (A) control (no amendment), (B) 6760 kg FBCR/ha, and (C) 3380 kg limestone/ha. Based on forage availability, six steers were rotationally grazed on pastures receiving each treatment. Steers were weighed and blood samples collected at 14-d intervals and all animals were sacrificed for tissue sampling at the end of the 114-d trial. B and C increased soil pH above control levels. Forage yield and steer gain were not significantly affected by treatment. Forage samples collected during the trial indicated that B and C amendments elevated forage ash, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Ca:P ratio and depressed cellulose and NDF. The forage sampled the following spring was lower in hemicellulose, Zn, Mn and Ni; and higher in ash, Ca, S, the Ca:P ratio in the B and C pastures. Mean serum mineral levels of steers were not affected by pasture treatment. The blood packed cell volume was higher in cattle grazing pastures. Liver levels of Fe, Mn, Ni, and Na and bile levels of Mn were depressed in cattle grazing B and C and serum was at deficiency levels and was not detectable in bile, regardless of treatment. Kidney levels of Ca, Mg and P were higher, hair Zn was higher, rib Cr and long bone Cd levels were lower in animals grazing the pastures. This study suggests that FBCR amendment enhances nutrient quality of forage and minerals status of animals at least as well as limestone application to acidic reclaimed mine pastures.

  15. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period.

    PubMed

    Black, Randi A; Krawczel, Peter D

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls ( n = 14) or pasture ( n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows calved in pasture. After calving, all cows were commingled in a pen identical to the freestall housing treatment. Cows housed in freestalls laid down for longer during far-off and close-up periods, had fewer lying bouts during the calving period and took fewer steps throughout the study period when compared to pastured cows. Freestall housed cows experienced more displacements after feeding than did pastured cows. Respiration rates increased with an increasing temperature humidity index, more in pastured cows than in freestall housed cows. Pastured cows altered their lying behaviour and activity, suggesting a shift in time budget priorities between pastured and confined dry cows. Pastured cows also experienced less aggression

  16. Changes in nutrient dynamics throughout water transfers in a Tropical Forest and Pasture of Rondonia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccolo, M. D.; Neill, C.; Krusche, A.; Laclau, J. P.; Cerri, C. C.

    2006-12-01

    The clearing of tropical forest in the Brazilian Amazon for cattle pasture since the 70s is a globally important land use change that has consequences for soil biogeochemical cycles. Generally, five to ten years after deforestation, pastures become degraded due to inadequate management practices. Development of strategies for restoration of low productivity pastures constitutes the main goal for Rondônia state. We analyzed the concentrations of the main nutrient of the biogeochemical cycles in three representative land uses at Fazenda Nova Vida, in central Rondônia (10o30'S, 62o30'W). The treatments were: (1) native forest; (2) pasture dominated by the forage grass Brachiaria brizantha but containing some weeds, under non- intensive management and; (3) a section of the same pasture that was subjected to tilling, replanting and fertilization (NPK + micronutrients) to eliminate weeds and improve grass productivity. Water samples from rain, throughfall, overland flow, tension lysimeter and zero-tension lysimeter (1.0 m soil depth), were collected during the rainy seasons from January to May of 2002 and 2003. The concentrations of C (DOC and DIC), inorganic-N (NH4+, NO3- and NO2-), Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, SO42- and Cl- were measured in all treatments. Rain water was dominated by the nutrients (NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Cl-) and DOC. Forest throughfall was enriched in most of the elements. Concentrations of elements in the overland flow showed higher variations in the pasture and in the plowed pasture, however samples were not collected in forest. Soil solution waters (tension lysimeter) and lysimeter waters (zero-tension lysimeter) too had higher variations for elements concentrations in all treatments. Forest clearing for pasture and pasture submitted to tillage practices profoundly influence soil properties and, consequently, the nutrient availability in soil profiles. The soil solution composition may be indicative of altered patterns of nutrient availability in this

  17. Cadmium concentrations in new zealand pastures: relationships to soil and climate variables.

    PubMed

    Reiser, René; Simmler, Michael; Portmann, Denise; Clucas, Lynne; Schulin, Rainer; Robinson, Brett

    2014-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential element that occurs at above-background concentrations in many New Zealand (NZ) soils. Most of this Cd is due to the historical application of single superphosphate that was made from Nauru phosphate rock containing between 400 and 600 mg Cd kg P. Pasture Cd uptake exacerbates the entry of Cd into animal products. We sought to determine the critical environmental factors affecting Cd uptake in NZ pastures and to calculate the likely Cd intake of sheep and cattle. We tested 69 pastures throughout NZ for a range of variables, including Cd. Soil Cd and pasture Cd were positively correlated with soil P and soil concentrations of other elements found in phosphate fertilizers. We found that no single environmental variable adequately predicted pasture Cd uptake. Nevertheless, pseudo-total soil Cd and Cd extracted using a 0.05 mol L Ca(NO) solution were positively correlated with pasture Cd. Although soil pH, soil Fe, and soil Cd provided an excellent predictor of the Ca(NO)-extractable soil Cd fraction, regression models explained just 38% of the variation of the Cd concentration in pasture grasses. Incorporating the effect of pasture species composition is a crucial next step in improving these models. A calculation of the likely exposure to Cd of sheep and cattle revealed that no pastures tested resulted in sheep and cattle ingesting Cd at a rate that would result in breaching muscle-tissue food standards. For offal products, which the NZ meat industry does not sell for human consumption, food safety standards exceedence was calculated in a few cases. PMID:25602820

  18. Cheatgrass and Grazing Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charles Elliot Fleming was one of the first scientists to work on the western range. In 1946 he published a series of questions concerning grazing of the exotic annual cheatgrass (Bromus tectorm), which had invaded millions of acres of the western rangelands. The introduction and subsequent invasi...

  19. Grazing: the whole picture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental concerns for our farms include nutrient leaching to ground water, runoff in surface water, gaseous emissions, and the carbon footprint of our production systems. Recent reports have labeled grazing-based dairies as less environmentally sustainable compared to year around confinement sy...

  20. Rangelands and Grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands are a type of land cover dominated by grasses, grass-like plants, forbs, and shrubs, where the land is managed as a natural ecosystem for multiple uses including wildlife habitat, biodiversity, recreation, and grazing by livestock. The area cover by rangelands is 48.2% of the land surfac...

  1. Tall Fescue Grazing Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue is a cool-season perennial grass that is well adapted in the upper transition zone between the temperate northeast and subtropical southeast. Its adaptation in the “fescue belt” is primarily due to a fungal endophyte that imparts tolerance to drought, heat, and grazing stresses. Unfort...

  2. Intake estimation of horses grazing tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) or fed tall fescue hay.

    PubMed

    Chavez, S J; Siciliano, P D; Huntington, G B

    2014-05-01

    Six mature geldings of light horse breeds (557 ± 37 kg) were randomly assigned to a nontoxic endophyte-infected tall fescue hay (n = 3) or pasture treatment (n = 3) in a crossover design with 14-d periods to estimate DMI with alkane markers and to compare DMI of hay and pasture. When fed pasture, horses were housed in stalls from 0700 to 1300 h daily with access to water and then grazed pasture as a group in a single 0.4 ha pasture from 1300 to 0700 h. When fed hay, horses were maintained individually in stalls and given access to hay ad libitum from 1300 to 0700 h. All horses were individually fed 225 g oats twice daily treated with hexatriacontane (C36; external marker) and fecal samples were collected at 0700 and 1900 h on d 10 to 14. Fecal samples were mixed, dried, subsampled, and analyzed for tritriacontane (C33) and hentriacontane (C31) as internal markers and C36 as the external marker using gas chromatography. Estimated hay DMI using either C33 (1.75 kg/100 kg BW) or C31 (1.74 kg/100 kg BW) as internal alkane marker did not differ (P = 0.55) from measured hay DMI (1.70 kg/100 kg BW). Pasture DMI and DM digestibility (DMD) estimated with C31 (2.24 kg/100 kg BW and 53.1 g/100 g DMI) or with C33 (2.34 kg/100 kg BW and 56.2 g/100 g DMI) was greater (P = 0.05) than hay DMI and DMD (1.74 kg/100 kg BW and 44.5 g/100 g DMI). Intake estimated with C33 or C31 did not differ (P = 0.35) during hay or pasture. In conclusion, alkanes can be used to estimate pasture or hay DMI and DMD, and pasture intake exceeded hay intake when offered ad libitum. PMID:24663171

  3. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    PubMed Central

    Black, Randi A.; Krawczel, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Pasture and freestall systems offer benefits and consequences during lactation but have not been investigated during the dry period. The effect of pasture or confined systems during the dry period on behaviour and milk quality was investigated. Freestall housing resulted in more resting behaviour and less locomotor activity during the dry period compared to pastured cows. At calving, freestall housed cows performed fewer lying bouts and less locomotor activity compared to pastured cows. Pasture resulted in less aggression around feeding but high respiration rates during peak heat times. Pasture during the dry period altered lying behavior, reduced feed bunk aggression and increased heat stress behaviors. Abstract The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls (n = 14) or pasture (n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows

  4. Pasture management controls soil organic matter stocks, properties, and biochemical functioning in Tibetan grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spielvogel, Sandra; Breidenbach, Andreas; de la Haye, Tilman; Schleuß, Per; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Guggenberger, Georg

    2016-04-01

    The Tibetan Plateau hosts the highest and largest pasture ecosystem worldwide, and provides tremendous sinks for carbon. Due to the sheer size of the of the Tibetan Plateau, feedback effects of soil organic carbon (OC) losses from inadequate grassland management are of undisputed relevance for ecosystem stability and future global change scenarios. Given the vital importance of the Tibetan steppes as global OC sinks, we combined data on OC stocks from own studies with an extensive literature review on soils developed under montane and alpine Kobresia pygmaea and Stipa grandis pastures. We calculated soil OC stocks at the Tibetan Plateau within the first 30 cm of the soil profile depending on pasture management and climate. Vertical gradients of δ13C values, neutral sugar, cutin and suberin contents, lignin phenol contents as well as microbial community composition (t-RFLP analysis, 16S rDNA und IST sequencing) and activities of six extracellular enzymes involved in the C, N, and P cycle were assessed. The depth gradients of these parameters reflected degradation processes from intact Kobresia pastures (stage 0) to pronounced degradation (bare soil; stage 5). Moderate husbandry is beneficial for the storage of OC, nitrogen (N) and other nutrients (e.g. phosphorus) for the majority of the montane grasslands of the Tibetan Plateau (i.e., Kobresia pygmaea pastures). However, Kobresia root mats originated from grazing are affected by desiccations and frost, which cause polygonal cracking and initiates soil erosion. This process is accelerated under high grazing pressure (overgrazing) that enhances root mat degradation. Increasing degradation caused by large herbivore densities resulted in an increased OC decomposition demonstrated by decreasing δ13C values. The δ13C shift towards more negative values reflects the relative enrichment of 13C depleted lignin components during OC decomposition in the strongly disturbed soil. Translocation of topsoil material into the

  5. Guide to Managing Pasture Water: Streamside Buffers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Properly managed pasture water not only provides high-quality water which promotes healthy and productive livestock, but also contributes to maintaining water quality downstream. Riparian (streamside) areas serve as a transition between upland pastures and waterways. In other words, they link pastur...

  6. Effects of Chicory/Perennial Ryegrass Swards Compared with Perennial Ryegrass Swards on the Performance and Carcass Quality of Grazing Beef Steers

    PubMed Central

    Marley, Christina L.; Fychan, Rhun; Davies, John W.; Scollan, Nigel D.; Richardson, R. Ian; Theobald, Vince J.; Genever, Elizabeth; Forbes, Andy B.; Sanderson, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An experiment investigated whether the inclusion of chicory (Cichorium intybus) in swards grazed by beef steers altered their performance, carcass characteristics or parasitism when compared to steers grazing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Triplicate 2-ha plots were established with a chicory/ryegrass mix or ryegrass control. Forty-eight Belgian Blue-cross steers were used in the first grazing season and a core group (n = 36) were retained for finishing in the second grazing season. The experiment comprised of a standardisation and measurement period. During standardisation, steers grazed a ryegrass/white clover pasture as one group. Animals were allocated to treatment on the basis of liveweight, body condition and faecal egg counts (FEC) determined 7 days prior to the measurement period. The measurement period ran from 25 May until 28 September 2010 and 12 April until 11 October 2011in the first and second grazing year. Steers were weighed every 14 days at pasture or 28 days during housing. In the first grazing year, faecal samples were collected for FEC and parasite cultures. At the end of the first grazing year, individual blood samples were taken to determine O. ostertagi antibody and plasma pepsinogen levels. During winter, animals were housed as one group and fed silage. In the second grazing year, steers were slaughtered when deemed to reach fat class 3. Data on steer performance showed no differences in daily live-weight gain which averaged 1.04 kg/day. The conformation, fat grade and killing out proportion of beef steers grazing chicory/ryegrass or ryegrass were not found to differ. No differences in FEC, O. ostertagi antibody or plasma pepsinogen levels of beef steers grazing either chicory/ryegrass or ryegrass were observed. Overall, there were no detrimental effects of including chicory in swards grazed by beef cattle on their performance, carcass characteristics or helminth parasitism, when compared with steers grazing ryegrass. PMID:24489708

  7. Effects of chicory/perennial ryegrass swards compared with perennial ryegrass swards on the performance and carcass quality of grazing beef steers.

    PubMed

    Marley, Christina L; Fychan, Rhun; Davies, John W; Scollan, Nigel D; Richardson, R Ian; Theobald, Vince J; Genever, Elizabeth; Forbes, Andy B; Sanderson, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    An experiment investigated whether the inclusion of chicory (Cichorium intybus) in swards grazed by beef steers altered their performance, carcass characteristics or parasitism when compared to steers grazing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Triplicate 2-ha plots were established with a chicory/ryegrass mix or ryegrass control. Forty-eight Belgian Blue-cross steers were used in the first grazing season and a core group (n = 36) were retained for finishing in the second grazing season. The experiment comprised of a standardisation and measurement period. During standardisation, steers grazed a ryegrass/white clover pasture as one group. Animals were allocated to treatment on the basis of liveweight, body condition and faecal egg counts (FEC) determined 7 days prior to the measurement period. The measurement period ran from 25 May until 28 September 2010 and 12 April until 11 October 2011 in the first and second grazing year. Steers were weighed every 14 days at pasture or 28 days during housing. In the first grazing year, faecal samples were collected for FEC and parasite cultures. At the end of the first grazing year, individual blood samples were taken to determine O. ostertagi antibody and plasma pepsinogen levels. During winter, animals were housed as one group and fed silage. In the second grazing year, steers were slaughtered when deemed to reach fat class 3. Data on steer performance showed no differences in daily live-weight gain which averaged 1.04 kg/day. The conformation, fat grade and killing out proportion of beef steers grazing chicory/ryegrass or ryegrass were not found to differ. No differences in FEC, O. ostertagi antibody or plasma pepsinogen levels of beef steers grazing either chicory/ryegrass or ryegrass were observed. Overall, there were no detrimental effects of including chicory in swards grazed by beef cattle on their performance, carcass characteristics or helminth parasitism, when compared with steers grazing ryegrass. PMID:24489708

  8. Access to pasture for dairy cows: responses from an online engagement.

    PubMed

    Schuppli, C A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2014-11-01

    An online engagement exercise documented the views of Canadian and U.S. participants affiliated and unaffiliated with the dairy industry on the issue of pasture access for dairy cows. A total of 414 people participated in 10 independent web forums. Providing access to more natural living conditions, including pasture, was viewed as important for the large majority of participants, including those affiliated with the dairy industry. This finding is at odds with current practice on the majority of farms in North America that provide little or no access to pasture. Participant comments showed that the perceived value of pasture access for dairy cattle went beyond the benefits of eating grass; participants cited as benefits exposure to fresh air, ability to move freely, ability to live in social groups, improved health, and healthier milk products. To accommodate the challenges of allowing pasture access on farms, some participants argued in favor of hybrid systems that provide a mixture of indoor confinement housing and grazing. Understanding the beliefs and concerns of participants affiliated and unaffiliated with the dairy industry allows for the identification of contentious topics as well as areas of agreement; this is important in efforts to better harmonize industry practices with societal expectations. PMID:25261215

  9. Tropical rain forest conversion to pasture: Changes in vegetation and soil properties

    SciTech Connect

    Reiners, W.A. ); Bouwman, A.F. ); Parsons, W.F.J. Institute of Marine and Coastal Sciences, Rugers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ ); Keller, M. )

    1994-05-01

    The effect of converting lowland tropical rainforest to pasture, and of subsequent succession of pasture lands to secondary forest, were examined in the Atlantic Zone of Costa Rica. Three replicate sites of each of four land-use types representing this disturbance-recovery sequence were sampled for changes in vegetation, pedological properties, and potential nitrogen mineralization and nitrification. The four land-use types included primary forest, actively grazed pasture (10-36 yr old), abandoned pasture (abandoned 4-10 yr) and secondary forest (abandoned 10-20 yr). Conversion and succession had obvious and significant effects on canopy cover, canopy height, species composition, and species richness; it appeared that succession of secondary forests was proceeding toward a floristic composition like that of the primary forests. Significant changes in soil properties associated with conversion of forest to pasture included: (1) a decrease in acidity and increase in some base exchange properties, (2) and increase in bulk density and a concomitant decrease in porosity, (3) higher concentrations of NH[sub 4][sup +], (4) lower concentrations of NO[sub 3][sup [minus

  10. Technical note: utilization of sainfoin by grazing steers and a method for predicting daily gain from small-plot grazing data.

    PubMed

    Mowrey, D P; Matches, A G; Preston, R L

    1992-07-01

    Sainfoin (Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop.) is adapted to the calcareous soils of the southern Great Plains and can provide early season forage that does not induce bloating; however, little is known about performance by ruminants grazing sainfoin. Our objective was to determine the effect of plant growth stage and grazing pressures on potential animal production from sainfoin as predicted from energy intake as a multiple of maintenance. Nitrogen-fertilized (100 kg of N/ha) Renumex sainfoin was grown under irrigation on a Pullman clay loam (fine, mixed, thermic Torretic Paleustoll) near Lubbock, TX. Light (L), medium (M), and heavy (H) grazing pressures were applied with steers grazing sainfoin that was at the bud (B), flower (F), and seed shatter (S) stages of growth. The L, M, and H pressures were grazed to remove 50, 75, and 90% of the standing plant height. Across growth stages, L, M, and H grazing pressures averaged 52, 69, and 87% removal of pregrazed herbage mass. Dry matter intake as a percentage of BW of steers averaged 3.9, 2.8, and 1.7 for L, M, and H grazing pressures. Across growth stages, predicted live weight gain for L, M, and H grazing pressures averaged .86, .67, and .03 kg/d. Our findings indicate that the multiple of maintenance method may be useful for evaluating treatments from small-plot grazing experiments. PMID:1644700

  11. Guild structure of a riparian avifauna relative to seasonal cattle grazing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knopf, F.L.; Sedgwick, J.A.; Cannon, R. W.

    1988-01-01

    Knopf et al. found that summer cattle grazing has an adverse effect on the presence of certain willow-dependent songbirds. Pastures that have historical summer grazing no longer have the Willow flycatcher, Lincoln's sparrow and the White-crowned sparrow present. Yet in these same areas, birds like the American Robin, Brown-headed cowbird and the Red-winged blackbird have increased in density. One possible answer for the decrease in some songbirds is the fact that the main focus of the Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge is on waterfowl habitat, which requires large amounts of open space (opposite of desirable songbird habitat).

  12. Discontinuous dynamics with grazing points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmet, M. U.; Kıvılcım, A.

    2016-09-01

    Discontinuous dynamical systems with grazing solutions are discussed. The group property, continuation of solutions, continuity and smoothness of solutions are thoroughly analyzed. A variational system around a grazing solution which depends on near solutions is constructed. Orbital stability of grazing cycles is examined by linearization. Small parameter method is extended for analysis of grazing orbits, and bifurcation of cycles is observed in an example. Linearization around an equilibrium grazing point is discussed. The results can be extended on functional differential equations, partial differential equations and others. Appropriate illustrations are depicted to support the theoretical results.

  13. Influence of elk grazing on soil properties in Rocky Mountain National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Binkley, D.; Singer, F.; Kaye, M.; Rochelle, R.

    2003-01-01

    We used three 35-year exclosures to examine the effects of high elk populations on a variety of soil properties in three vegetation types: upland sagebrush, aspen, and meadow. Grazing and hoof action by elk significantly increased bulk density (from 0.87 kg/l ungrazed to 0.94 kg/l grazed), with greater effects on soils with fewer rocks. Grazing substantially reduced extractable calcium, magnesium, potassium and phosphorus in the sagebrush type, but not in the aspen or meadow types. The only grazing effect on pH came in aspen types, where grazing prevented aspen establishment, and kept soil pH about 0.7 units higher than under aspen inside the exclosures. Grazing had no overall effect on total soil C and N across all exclosures and vegetation types. The availability of soil nitrogen, indexed by in-field resin bags and net mineralization in soil cores, showed little overall effect of grazing. Limited data on soil leaching indicated a possibility of strong increases in nitrate leaching with grazing for an aspen vegetation type at one exclosure. Although we found little effect of grazing on soil N supply, we note that N fertilization doubled the production of grasses and shrubs; if grazing eventually led to changes in soil N supply, species composition and growth would likely change. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of molasses, corn meal or a combination of molasses plus corn meal on ruminal fermentation of orchardgrass pasture in continuous culture fermenters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although molasses is being used by organic dairy farmers as a lower-cost energy alternative to corn, little research currently exists evaluating the effects of molasses as the sole supplement on ruminal fermentation of grazing dairy cows. This study evaluated the effects of pasture supplementation w...

  15. Ingestive Behavior of Heifers Supplemented with Glycerin in Substitution of Corn on Brachiaria brizantha Pasture

    PubMed Central

    Facuri, L. M. A. M.; Silva, R. R.; da Silva, F. F.; de Carvalho, G. G. P.; Sampaio, C. B.; Mendes, F. B. L.; Lisboa, M. M.; Barroso, D. S.; Carvalho, V. M.; Pereira, M. M. S.

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of crossbred heifers finished on a Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture receiving four levels of glycerin in their supplementation. Thirty-six crossbred heifers with average initial weight of 264.83±3.83 kg and 20 months of age were distributed into a completely randomized design with four treatments and nine replications: control (0%), 4.82%, 10.12%, and 15.56% glycerin in the dry matter. The grazing time reduced linearly (p<0.05), whereas the time spent on activities like rumination, idleness, trough and total chewing time were quadratically affected (p<0.05). Bite rate and number of bites/day were quadratically influenced (p<0.05). The number of bites/swallowed cud and the number of bites/minute, however, increased linearly (p<0.05). Although the time spent on each cud and number of chews per cud were not affected (p>0.05). The number of rumination periods reduced linearly (p<0.05), whereas the number of grazing, idle and trough periods, and the times per grazing, idle, rumination and trough periods were quadratically affected (p<0.05). The feed and rumination efficiencies of the dry matter, non-fibrous carbohydrates, pasture dry matter and concentrate were quadratically affected (p>0.05) whereas the feed efficiency of neutral detergent fiber reduced linearly (p<0.05). Addition of glycerin in substitution of corn in supplements for animals managed on pastures does not influenced feed intake, but reduces the grazing time and increases the idle time. The supplementation also improves feed and rumination efficiencies. PMID:25358318

  16. Capturing urine while maintaining pasture intake, milk production, and animal welfare of dairy cows in early and late lactation.

    PubMed

    Clark, C E F; McLeod, K L M; Glassey, C B; Gregorini, P; Costall, D A; Betteridge, K; Jago, J G

    2010-05-01

    Capturing urine and spreading it evenly across a paddock reduces the risk of nitrogen loss to the environment. This study investigated the effect of 16h/d removal from pasture on the capture of urination events, milk production, pasture intake, and animal welfare from cows grazing fresh pasture in early and late lactation. Forty-eight Holstein-Friesian cows in early [470+/-47kg of body weight (BW); 35+/-9 days in milk] and late (498+/-43kg of BW; 225+/-23 days in milk) lactation were allocated to 3 treatment groups. Cows had access to pasture for either 4h after each milking (2 x 4), for 8h between morning and afternoon milkings (1 x 8), or for 24h, excluding milking times (control). When not grazing, the 2 x 4 and 1 x 8 groups were confined to a plastic-lined loafing area with a woodchip surface. In early lactation, the proportion of urinations on pasture and laneways was reduced from 89% (control) to 51% (1 x 8) and 54% (2 x 4) of total urinations. The 1 x 8 cows ate less pasture [10.9kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day] than the control (13.6kg of DM/cow per day) and 2 x 4 (13.0kg of DM/cow per day) cows, which did not differ from each other. The 1 x 8 and 2 x 4 cows produced less milk (21 and 22kg of milk/cow per day, respectively) compared with control cows (24kg of milk/cow per day). There were no differences in BW or body condition score (BCS) change across treatment groups, with all groups gaining BW and BCS during the experimental period. In late lactation, there was no difference in pasture intake (mean=8.8kg of DM/cow per day), milk production (mean=10kg of milk/cow per day), and BW or BCS change (mean=3.7kg and -0.2U/cow per week, respectively) between treatment groups. As in early lactation, urinations on pasture and laneways were reduced from 85% (control) to 56% (1 x 8) and 50% (2 x 4) of total urinations. These findings highlight an opportunity to maintain performance and welfare of grazing cows in early and late lactation while capturing additional

  17. The effects of a ration change from a total mixed ration to pasture on health and production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Schären, M; Jostmeier, S; Ruesink, S; Hüther, L; Frahm, J; Bulang, M; Meyer, U; Rehage, J; Isselstein, J; Breves, G; Dänicke, S

    2016-02-01

    In pasture-based dairy production systems, dairy cows often receive a silage- and concentrate-based ration [total mixed ration (TMR)] during wintertime and are gradually introduced to fresh herbage in spring. The present study aimed to investigate how the transition to this new nutritional situation influenced different production and health indicators. A 10-wk trial was performed in spring 2014, including 60 dairy cows of the German Holstein breed (166±23 d in milk, 23.5±3.7 kg of milk/d; means ± SD). The cows were divided into a pasture and a confinement group (PG and CG, respectively). The CG stayed on a TMR-based diet (35% corn silage, 35% grass silage, 30% concentrate; DM basis), whereas the PG was gradually transitioned from a TMR- to a pasture-based ration (wk 1=TMR-only, wk 2=3 h/d on pasture, wk 3 and 4=12 h/d on pasture, wk 5-10=pasture-only). A continuous grazing system was implemented on a ryegrass dominated pasture and temperature humidity indices were assessed based on continuous recording of temperature and humidity indoors as well as outdoors. Dry matter intake (DMI) from TMR, milk production, body weight (BW), and body condition score decreased as soon as the PG had partial access to pasture. Milk production and BW decreased even further in the first week on a full grazing ration, but thereafter BW increased again and milk production stabilized. The DMI estimation using the n-alkane method in wk 7 and 9 revealed an increase in DMI from pasture between the 2 time points and indicates an adaptation of grazing behavior and metabolism over several weeks. Increased serum β-hydroxybutyrate and fatty acids concentrations at several time points, as well as a continuous body condition score decrease during the whole course of the trial, indicate an energy deficit in the PG. A significant correlation between serum glucose concentrations and the temperature humidity indices was observed. An increase in serum and milk urea concentrations as well as an

  18. Impacts of cattle grazing on spatio-temporal variability of soil moisture and above-ground live plant biomass in mixed grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virk, Ravinder

    Areas with relatively high spatial heterogeneity generally have more biodiversity than spatially homogeneous areas due to increased potential habitat. Management practices such as controlled grazing also affect the biodiversity in grasslands, but the nature of this impact is not well understood. Therefore this thesis studies the impacts of variation in grazing on soil moisture and biomass heterogeneity. These are not only important in terms of management of protected grasslands, but also for designing an effective grazing system from a livestock management point of view. This research is a part of the cattle grazing experiment underway in Grasslands National Park (GNP) of Canada since 2006, as part of the adaptive management process for restoring ecological integrity of the northern mixed-grass prairie region. An experimental approach using field measurements and remote sensing (Landsat) was combined with modelling (CENTURY) to examine and predict the impacts of grazing intensity on the spatial heterogeneity and patterns of above-ground live plant biomass (ALB) in experimental pastures in a mixed grassland ecosystem. The field-based research quantified the temporal patterns and spatial variability in both soil moisture (SM) and ALB, and the influence of local intra-seasonal weather variability and slope location on the spatio-temporal variability of SM and ALB at field plot scales. Significant impacts of intra-seasonal weather variability, slope position and grazing pressure on SM and ALB across a range of scales (plot and local (within pasture)) were found. Grazing intensity significantly affected the ALB even after controlling for the effect of slope position. Satellite-based analysis extended the scale of interest to full pastures and the surrounding region to assess the effects of grazing intensity on the spatio-temporal pattern of ALB in mixed grasslands. Overall, low to moderate grazing intensity showed increase in ALB heterogeneity whereas no change in ALB

  19. Forages and pastures symposium: fungal endophytes of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass: pasture friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Young, C A; Hume, D E; McCulley, R L

    2013-05-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. syn. Festuca arundinacea Schreb.] and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) are important perennial forage grasses utilized throughout the moderate- to high-rainfall temperate zones of the world. These grasses have coevolved with symbiotic fungal endophytes (Epichloë/Neotyphodium spp.) that can impart bioactive properties and environmental stress tolerance to the grass compared with endophyte-free individuals. These endophytes have proven to be very important in pastoral agriculture in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia, where forage grasses are the principal feed for grazing ruminants. In this review, we describe the biology of these grass-endophyte associations and implications for the livestock industries that are dependent on these forages. Endophyte alkaloid production is put in context with endophyte diversity, and we illustrate how this has facilitated utilization of grasses infected with different endophyte strains that reduce livestock toxicity issues. Utilization of tall fescue and use of perennial ryegrass in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia are compared, and management strategies focused predominantly on the success of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass in New Zealand and Australia are discussed. In addition, we consider the impact of grass-endophyte associations on the sustainability of pasture ecosystems and their likely response to future changes in climate. PMID:23307839

  20. Ammonia emissions from urea application to permanent pasture on a volcanic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, F.; Martínez-Lagos, J.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.

    2012-12-01

    Agriculture is the largest source of ammonia (NH3) emission to the atmosphere, deriving mainly from livestock urine and manures, but fertilizer applications to pastures and crops also represent an important source. In Chile, where agriculture and cattle production are important activities (accounting for 4.5% of GDP along with the forestry sector), there are very few published data regarding NH3 emissions from pasture and crop fertilization. This study aimed to provide the first empirical field data for Chile on N losses due to NH3 volatilization following urea application to permanent pasture on a volcanic soil and to assess the influence of environmental conditions on emissions. Four field experiments were carried out on a volcanic acid soil using the micrometeorological integrated horizontal flux (IHF) mass balance method. Measurements were made in winter 2005 and 2007, and spring 2007 and 2008 following urea N fertilization to a permanent pasture at a rate equivalent to 100 kg N ha-1. Cumulative NH3 emissions over the measurement period were 1.4 and 7.7 kg N ha-1 for winter applications, and 12.2 and 26.7 kg N ha-1 for spring dressings. These N losses due to NH3 volatilization are within the range of emissions reported elsewhere. Consideration of urea application timing in Chile, with regards to weather and soil conditions, could have important consequences on minimising potential N losses via volatilization with associated financial benefits to farmers.

  1. [Control of gastrointestinal helminthiasis in pasture-reared lambs].

    PubMed

    Chroust, K

    1997-03-01

    Two sheep herds kept in different geographic conditions with spring lambing by the end of March and April (herd No. 1: 400 ewes, 600 metres above sea level; herd No. 2: 450 ewes, 300 metres above sea level) were examined. The dynamics of gastrointestinal nematode and Moniezia spp. cestode egg counts in samples taken regularly every 4 to 5 weeks was studied during the year 1995 with the intention to verify the system of effective control of these helminth infections under pasture conditions of lamb rearing. In ewes a significant rise in gastrointestinal nematode egg counts was proved during the lambing season, "spring rise phenomenon", and during the summer pasture until autumn months with maximum EPG values reaching 150 (Figs. 1 and 2). In lambs that started grazing at 1 to 4 weeks of age, the excretion steeply rose to maximum EPG values 350 and 290, respectively, after 4 to 5 weeks of grazing (Figs. 1 and 2). In order to control these rising infections, ewes were treated with antihelmintic albendazol by the end of February (herd No. 1) and in March (herd No. 2) and lambs during the first or third decade of July. This anthelmintic treatment significantly lowered egg excretion to EPG values lower than 30 in ewes and 50 or 60, respectively, in lambs. Later, during the summer and autumn months, a mild rise of egg counts was found in lambs. These maxima were liquidated anthelmintis treatment in both herds in late autumn months and it also lowered helminth infections to minimum during winter months (EPG values lower than 50). The excretion of Moniezia spp. eggs had the same dynamics as that gastrointestinal nematodes. Values of lamb infection prevalence reached 21% in herd No. 1 and 29% in herd No. 2. Anthelmintic treatment during July controlled cestode findings in lambs. Albendazol (Vermitan susp. 2.5%), dosed 5 mg/kg of body weight, proved highly effective in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes and Moniezia spp. cestodes. PMID:9182393

  2. Factors associated with the financial performance of spring-calving, pasture-based dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Ramsbottom, G; Horan, B; Berry, D P; Roche, J R

    2015-05-01

    As land becomes a limiting resource for pasture-based dairy farming, the inclusion of purchased supplementary feeds to increase milk production per cow (through greater dry matter intake) and per hectare (through increased stocking rate) is often proposed as a strategy to increase profitability. Although a plausible proposition, virtually no analysis has been done on the effect of such intensification on the profitability of commercial pasture-based dairy farm businesses. The objective of this study was to characterize the average physical and financial performance of dairy systems differing in the proportion of the cow's diet coming from grazed pasture versus purchased supplementary feeds over 4 yr, while accounting for any interaction with geographic region. Physical, genetic, and financial performance data from 1,561 seasonal-calving, pasture-based dairy farms in Ireland were available between the years 2008 and 2011; data from some herds were available for more than 1 yr of the 4-yr study period, providing data from 2,759 dairy farm-years. The data set was divided into geographic regions, based on latitude, rainfall, and soil characteristics that relate to drainage; these factors influence the length of the pasture growth season and the timing of turnout to pasture in spring and rehousing in autumn. Farms were also categorized by the quantity of feed purchased; farms in which cows received <10, 11-20, 21-30, or >30% of their annual feed requirements from purchased feed were considered to be categories representative of increasing levels of system intensification. Geographic region was associated with differences in grazing days, pasture harvested per hectare, milk production per cow and per hectare, and farm profitability. Farms in regions with longer grazing seasons harvested a greater amount of pasture [an additional 19kg of dry matter (DM)/ha per grazing day per hectare], and greater pasture harvested was associated with increased milk component yield per

  3. Influence of Restricted Grazing Time Systems on Productive Performance and Fatty Acid Composition of Longissimus dorsi in Growing Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yong; Luo, Hailing; Liu, Xueliang; Liu, Kun

    2015-01-01

    Fifty 3-month-old male Tan lambs (similar in body weight) were divided into 5 groups to investigate the effects of different restricted pasture grazing times and indoor supplementation on the productive performances and fatty acid composition of the intramuscular fat in growing lambs. The lambs grazed for different periods of time (12 h/d, 8 h/d, 4 h/d, 2 h/d, and 0 h) and received various amounts of supplementary feedings during the 120-day trial. Pasture dry matter intake (DMI), total DMI, average daily gains and the live body weights of the lambs were measured during the experiment. The animals were slaughtered at the end of the study, their carcass traits were measured, and their longissimus dorsi muscles were sampled to analyze the intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid profiles. The results indicated that the different durations of grazing and supplementary feedings affected the animal performances and the composition of fatty acids. Grazing for 8 h/d or 2 h/d with the corresponding supplementary concentrate resulted in lambs with higher body weights, carcass weights and IMF contents. Lambs with longer grazing times and less concentrate accumulated more healthy fatty acids such as conjugated linoleic acid and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and had higher n-3/n-6 ratios. Overall, a grazing allowance of 8 h/d and the corresponding concentrate was recommended to maintain a high quantity and quality of lamb meat. PMID:26104518

  4. The energy expenditure of 2 Holstein cow strains in an organic grazing system.

    PubMed

    Thanner, S; Dohme-Meier, F; Görs, S; Metges, C C; Bruckmaier, R M; Schori, F

    2014-05-01

    Until recently, measurements of energy expenditure (EE; herein defined as heat production) in respiration chambers did not account for the extra energy requirements of grazing dairy cows on pasture. As energy is first limiting in most pasture-based milk production systems, its efficient use is important. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare EE, which can be affected by differences in body weight (BW), body composition, grazing behavior, physical activity, and milk production level, in 2 Holstein cow strains. Twelve Swiss Holstein-Friesian (HCH; 616 kg of BW) and 12 New Zealand Holstein-Friesian (HNZ; 570 kg of BW) cows in the third stage of lactation were paired according to their stage of lactation and kept in a rotational, full-time grazing system without concentrate supplementation. After adaption, the daily milk yield, grass intake using the alkane double-indicator technique, nutrient digestibility, physical activity, and grazing behavior recorded by an automatic jaw movement recorder were investigated over 7d. Using the (13)C bicarbonate dilution technique in combination with an automatic blood sampling system, EE based on measured carbon dioxide production was determined in 1 cow pair per day between 0800 to 1400 h. The HCH were heavier and had a lower body condition score compared with HNZ, but the difference in BW was smaller compared with former studies. Milk production, grass intake, and nutrient digestibility did not differ between the 2 cow strains, but HCH grazed for a longer time during the 6-h measurement period and performed more grazing mastication compared with the HNZ. No difference was found between the 2 cow strains with regard to EE (291 ± 15.6 kJ) per kilogram of metabolic BW, mainly due to a high between-animal variation in EE. As efficiency and energy use are important in sustainable, pasture-based, organic milk production systems, the determining factors for EE, such as methodology, genetics, physical activity, grazing

  5. Natural Wetlands Mediate Non-point Source Water Pollution From Irrigated Pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knox, K.; Dahlgren, R. A.; Tate, K. W.

    2005-12-01

    Non-point source discharge from grazed pastures may be high in nutrients, sediment, and pathogens, three major contributors to water quality impairment in California. Intercepting pollution at its source and managing water quality within the landscape are essential to maintaining healthy downstream waters. We investigated the efficacy of flow-through wetlands interspersed throughout the agricultural landscape to reduce non-point source pollution of tailwater from cattle-grazed, irrigated pastures in the Sierra Nevada Foothills of California. Wetlands are known to positively impact water quality through ecological processes such as filtration, sedimentation, microbial transformations and plant uptake of nutrients. Influent and effluent water of small (0.25 ha), natural wetlands located downstream from flood irrigated pastures was analyzed for Escherichia coli, NO3-N, total N, total suspended solids (TSS), total P, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) throughout two summer irrigation seasons (June to October). We compared reductions of sediment, nutrients and E. coli provided by a healthy, non-degraded wetland with reductions from flow through a channelized, degraded wetland. Large reductions in E. coli (>75%) and TSS (>50%) were observed in water exiting the healthy wetland while nutrient and DOC (~ 20%) concentrations were less affected by flow through the wetland. The channelized wetland provided smaller reductions in all constituents than did the non-degraded wetland. Results from this study demonstrate that small flow-through wetlands can improve water quality through the attenuation of E. coli and suspended sediments, and to a lesser degree DOC and nutrients.

  6. Fertilizing cotton with broiler litter is superior to inorganic fertilizers in Mississippi soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry litter, a mixture of mainly manure and bedding material, is well known as a source of mineral plant nutrients and as a soil conditioner. It has been shown to be an effective fertilizer for row crops, forage and pasture crops, and even for forest trees. The effectiveness of litter as a fert...

  7. Alternative pastures for small ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small ruminant livestock have some unique considerations for grazing compared to cattle. Like cattle, sheep are natural grazers that readily eat grass, but goats are browsers that prefer to eat leaves from shrubs. Sheep and goats require greater nutritive quality in the diet than cattle, and if st...

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are the primary greenhouse gases associated with global climate change. Livestock production’s contribution to carbon dioxide emissions is minimal, but it is a substantial contributor to both nitrous oxide and methane emissions. In both grazing and confin...

  9. Dental pathology in conventionally fed and pasture managed dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Fadden, A N; Poulsen, K P; Vanegas, J; Mecham, J; Bildfell, R; Stieger-Vanegas, S M

    2016-01-01

    Healthy teeth are important in the first stages of digestion for dairy cattle, yet little is known about bovine dental disease. This study aimed to investigate dental pathology of dairy cattle in two parts. First dairy cattle cadaver heads (n=11) were examined at the time of culling. Second, the authors performed oral exams in cattle fed a total mixed ration (TMR) (n=200) and pasture-based (n=71) grazing cattle. Cadaver heads were imaged using radiography and computed tomography before gross dissection to study dental anatomy and pathology. The most prevalent dental abnormalities were excessive transverse ridging of the occlusal surface, the presence of diastemas and third molar dental overgrowths (M3DO) in cadaver heads. Average thickness of subocclusal dentine ranged from 3.5 mm to 5.8 mm in cheek teeth but was >10 mm in maxillary teeth with M3DO. Radiographic findings were compared with oral examinations in live cattle. Prevalence of M3DO upon oral examination was 19 per cent and 28 per cent in herds of cattle fed a TMR diet and 0 per cent in a herd of grazing cattle. Dental abnormalities are prevalent in dairy cattle but due to thin subocclusal dentine in the cheek teeth, established equine dental treatment methodology is not appropriate for bovine cheek teeth with the exception of those that have developed M3DO. PMID:26700105

  10. Influence of cattle wastes on nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in pasture land

    SciTech Connect

    Flessa, H.; Doersch, P.; Beese, F.

    1996-11-01

    Agricultural practices are assumed to contribute significantly to the increase in atmospheric N{sub 2}O concentrations observed in the last decades, and they might influence the consumption of atmospheric CH{sub 4}. We report on measurements of N{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} exchange of a pasture soil, as influenced by droppings of a grazing cattle (Bos taurus) herd. Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes in pasture soil were largely determined by the emission rates from cattle excrement with dung patches being hot spots of CH{sub 4} production and urine-affected areas showing extremely high N{sub 2}O release rates. Methane emissions from dung patches (0.778 g CH{sub 4}-C per animal and day) were insignificant when compared with those from the rumen of the cattle. Total N{sub 2}O-N losses from the droppings were equivalent to 3.2% of the nitrogen excreted. Based on global data of total nitrogen excretion by dairy cattle, non-dairy cattle, buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and bison during grazing, we estimate the global N{sub 2}O emission from this source to be {approximately}1.18 teragrams N{sub 2}O-N per year, indicating that grazing cattle excretory products are one of the most important sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide. Our work suggests that these sources have been drastically underestimated. 27 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Carbon sequestration in grasslands: grazing versus fire under climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachelet, D. M.; Kelly, R.; Parton, W. J.

    2009-12-01

    We simulated different levels of grazing and frequencies of fire using the biogeochemical model DAYCENT across a climate gradient from Montana to New Mexico to look at their long-term implications on carbon sequestration in grasslands. We also used 3 future climate scenarios and 2 CO2 emission levels to estimate interactions between disturbance and climate. In all cases, total ecosystem carbon was driven by grazing pressure with carbon stocks declining by 15-35% under moderate to heavy grazing. Fire frequency had no effect on carbon levels when 50% of the aboveground biomass was consumed by grazers and has the most impact when no grazing occurred. Warmer drier climate scenarios increased the stress to growth and caused declines in carbon stocks unless a CO2 fertilization effect increased the water use efficiency. Again, under future climate change scenario, grazing had a greater impact than fire frequency in defining the overall levels of total ecosystem carbon. Potential woody plant invasion of grasslands would alter the role of disturbance on carbon sequestration potential since frequent fires would remove shrubs from the landscape reducing the potential for increased aboveground carbon stocks with lower palatability to grazers than grasses.

  12. Grazing management options in meeting objectives of grazing experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decisions on which grazing management option to use in grazing experiments can be critical in meeting research objectives and generating information for the scientific community or technologies that meets the needs of forage-based enterprises. It is necessary to have an understanding of animal per...

  13. Methane emissions of beef cattle on forages: efficiency of grazing management systems.

    PubMed

    DeRamus, H Alan; Clement, Terry C; Giampola, Dean D; Dickison, Peter C

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation in the rumen of cattle produces methane (CH4). Methane may play a role in global warming scenarios. The linking of grazing management strategies to more efficient beef production while reducing the CH4 emitted by beef cattle is important. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique was used to determine the effects of best management practices (BMP) grazing compared with continuous grazing on CH4 production in several Louisiana forages during 1996-1998. Cows and heifers (Bos taurus) grazed common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pastures and were wintered on bahiagrass hay with supplements of protein molasses blocks (PMB), cottonseed meal and corn (CSMC), urea and corn (URC), or limited ryegrass grazing (LRG). Daily CH4 emissions were between 89 and 180 g d(-1) for young growing heifers and 165 to 294 g d(-1) for mature Simbrah cows. Heifers on "ad lib" ryegrass in March and April produced only one-tenth the CH4 per kg of gain as heifers on LRG of 1 h. Using BMP significantly reduced the emission of CH4 per unit of animal weight gain. Management-intensive grazing (MIG) is a BMP that offers the potential for more efficient utilization of grazed forage crops via controlled rotational grazing and more efficient conversion of forage into meat and milk. Projected CH4 annual emissions in cows reflect a 22% reduction from BMP when compared with continuous grazing in this study. With the BMP application of MIG, less methane was produced per kilogram of beef gain. PMID:12549566

  14. Pasture BMP effectiveness using an HRU-based subarea approach in SWAT.

    PubMed

    Sheshukov, Aleksey Y; Douglas-Mankin, Kyle R; Sinnathamby, Sumathy; Daggupati, Prasad

    2016-01-15

    Many conservation programs have been established to motivate producers to adopt best management practices (BMP) to minimize pasture runoff and nutrient loads, but a process is needed to assess BMP effectiveness to help target implementation efforts. A study was conducted to develop and demonstrate a method to evaluate water-quality impacts and the effectiveness of two widely used BMPs on a livestock pasture: off-stream watering site and stream fencing. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was built for the Pottawatomie Creek Watershed in eastern Kansas, independently calibrated at the watershed outlet for streamflow and at a pasture site for nutrients and sediment runoff, and also employed to simulate pollutant loads in a synthetic pasture. The pasture was divided into several subareas including stream, riparian zone, and two grazing zones. Five scenarios applied to both a synthetic pasture and a whole watershed were simulated to assess various combinations of widely used pasture BMPs: (1) baseline conditions with an open stream access, (2) an off-stream watering site installed in individual subareas in the pasture, and (3) stream or riparian zone fencing with an off-stream watering site. Results indicated that pollutant loads increase with increasing stocking rates whereas off-stream watering site and/or stream fencing reduce time cattle spend in the stream and nutrient loads. These two BMPs lowered organic P and N loads by more than 59% and nitrate loads by 19%, but TSS and sediment-attached P loads remained practically unchanged. An effectiveness index (EI) quantified impacts from the various combinations of off-stream watering sites and fencing in all scenarios. Stream bank contribution to pollutant loads was not accounted in the methodology due to limitations of the SWAT model, but can be incorporated in the approach if an amount of bank soil loss is known for various stocking rates. The proposed methodology provides an adaptable framework for

  15. Simulating rotational grazing management.

    PubMed

    Cros, M J; Duru, M; Garcia, F; Martin-Clouaire, R

    2001-09-01

    Dairy systems predominantly based on rotational grazing are notoriously hard to manage. In order to ensure profitability, this type of production requires quite good organisation, planning, and operating capability on the part of the farmer. A simulation-based decision support system, called SEPATOU, has been developed for this purpose. At the core of the decision support approach lies an explicit and rigorous modelling of the management strategy that underlies a dairy farmer's decision-making behaviour (real or hypothetical). The SEPATOU system is a discrete-event simulator that reproduces the day-to-day dynamics of the farmer's decision process and the response of the controlled biophysical system for which models of grass growth, animal consumption, and milk production are used. SEPATOU provides the means to evaluate and compare tentative strategies by simulating their application throughout the production season under different hypothetical weather conditions. The relative worth of a strategy can be assessed by analysing the effects on the biophysical system and their variability across the representative range of possible conditions that is considered. The activities to be managed concern the type and amount of conserved feed, where to fertilise and how much, the choice of fields to harvest, and most importantly, which field to graze next. Typically, SEPATOU is designed to be used by extension services and farming system scientists. It is implemented in C++ and is currently undergoing a validation process with the intended users. PMID:11697661

  16. Subsurface application of poultry litter in pasture and no-till soils.

    PubMed

    Pote, D H; Way, T R; Kleinman, P J A; Moore, P A; Meisinger, J J; Sistani, K R; Saporito, L S; Allen, A L; Feyereisen, G W

    2011-01-01

    Poultry litter provides a rich nutrient source for crops, but the usual practice of surface-applying litter can degrade water quality by allowing nutrients to be transported from fields in surface runoff while much of the ammonia (NH3)-N escapes into the atmosphere. Our goal was to improve on conventional titter application methods to decrease associated nutrient losses to air and water while increasing soil productivity. We developed and tested a knifing technique to directly apply dry poultry litter beneath the surface of pastures. Results showed that subsurface litter application decreased NH3-N volatilization and nutrient losses in runoff more than 90% (compared with surface-applied litter) to levels statistically as low as those from control (no litter) plots. Given this success, two advanced tractor-drawn prototypes were developed to subsurface apply poultry litter in field research. The two prototypes have been tested in pasture and no-till experiments and are both effective in improving nutrient-use efficiency compared with surface-applied litter, increasing crop yields (possibly by retaining more nitrogen in the soil), and decreasing nutrient losses, often to near background (control plot) levels. A paired-watershed study showed that cumulative phosphorus losses in runoff from continuously grazed perennial pastures were decreased by 55% over a 3-yr period if the annual poultry litter applications were subsurface applied rather than surface broadcast. Results highlight opportunities and challenges for commercial adoption of subsurface poultry litter application in pasture and no-till systems. PMID:21520747

  17. Mob grazing for dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proponents of mob grazing emphasize increased forage use efficiency and soil improvement by grazing mature forage with stocking densities up to 560,425 lb/ac of beef cattle on small paddocks with rest periods up to 125 days. However, it is unclear if this management technique is appropriate for dair...

  18. Diet Selection and Grazing Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing behavior and diet selection of grazing ruminants can be influenced by a lot of factors. Firstly, they learn from their dams. Secondly, they learn from peers. Thirdly, they learn by trial and error. Work at our USDA-ARS lab showed that ‘ruminal fill’, or how ‘hungry’ the cow is, can affect gr...

  19. Assessment of Grazing Effect on Sheep Fescue (Festuca valesiaca)Dominated Steppe Rangelands in the semi-arid Central Anatolian Region of Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of increased grazing pressure over the last fifty years, vegetation of the steppe rangelands in the semi-arid Central Anatolian Region of Turkey has been severely degraded. In these pastures, Festuca valesiaca (a sod forming short-grass) and Thymus sipyleus ssp rosulans (a prostrate shrub) a...

  20. Carbon fluxes of Kobresia pygmaea pastures on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foken, T.; Biermann, T.; Babel, W.; Ma, Y.

    2013-12-01

    With an approximate cover of 450,000 km2 on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the Cyperaceae Kobresia pygmaea forms he world's largest alpine ecosystem. This species, especially adapted to grazing pressure, grows to a height of only 2-6 cm and can be found in an altitudinal range of 4000 to 5960 m a.s.l. A special characteristic of this ecosystem is the stable turf layer, which is built up from roots and plays a significant role in protecting soil from erosion. This is of great importance since soils on the TP store 2.5 % of the global soil organic carbon stocks. The aim of the investigation was the study of the carbon storage and the impact of human-induced land use change on these Kobresia pygmaea pastures. We therefore applied eddy-covariance measurements and modelling as a long-term control of the fluxes between the atmosphere and the pastures and 13C labelling for the investigation of flux partitioning, and chamber measurements to investigate the degradation of the pastures. Combining CO2 budgets observed in 2010 with eddy-covariance measurements and relative partitioning of Carbon fluxes estimated with 13C labelling enabled us to characterise the C turnover for the vegetation period with absolute fluxes within the plant-soil-atmosphere continuum. These results revealed that this ecosystem indeed stores a great amount of C in below-ground pools, especially in the root turf layer. To further investigate the importance of the root layer, the experiments in 2012 focused on flux measurements over the different surface types which make up the heterogeneity of the Kobresia pygmaea pastures and might result from degradation due to extensive grazing. The three surface types investigated with a LiCOR long-term monitoring chamber system include Kobresia pygmaea with intact turf layer (IRM), a surface type where the turf layer is still present but the vegetation is sparse and mainly consists of Cryptogam crusts (DRM) and finally areas without the turf layer (BS). According to

  1. Pasture-feeding of Charolais steers influences skeletal muscle metabolism and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Cassar-Malek, I; Jurie, C; Bernard, C; Barnola, I; Micol, D; Hocquette, J-F

    2009-10-01

    Extensive beef production systems on pasture are promoted to improve animal welfare and beef quality. This study aimed to compare the influence on muscle characteristics of two management approaches representative of intensive and extensive production systems. One group of 6 Charolais steers was fed maize-silage indoors and another group of 6 Charolais steers grazed on pasture. Activities of enzymes representative of glycolytic and oxidative (Isocitrate dehydrogenase [ICDH], citrate synthase [CS], hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase [HAD]) muscle metabolism were assessed in Rectus abdominis (RA) and Semitendinosus (ST) muscles. Activities of oxidative enzymes ICDH, CS and HAD were higher in muscles from grazing animals demonstrating a plasticity of muscle metabolism according to the production and feeding system. Gene expression profiling in RA and ST muscles was performed on both production groups using a multi-tissue bovine cDNA repertoire. Variance analysis showed an effect of the muscle type and of the production system on gene expression (P<0.001). A list of the 212 most variable genes according to the production system was established, of which 149 genes corresponded to identified genes. They were classified according to their gene function annotation mainly in the "protein metabolism and modification", "signal transduction", "cell cycle", "developmental processes" and "muscle contraction" biological processes. Selenoprotein W was found to be underexpressed in pasture-fed animals and could be proposed as a putative gene marker of the grass-based system. In conclusion, enzyme-specific adaptations and gene expression modifications were observed in response to the production system and some of them could be candidates for grazing or grass-feeding traceability. PMID:19996487

  2. Influence of flue gas desulfurization gypsum on reducing soluble phosphorus in successive runoff events from a coastal plain bermudagrass pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlling the potential threat that pasture systems which have been intensively fertilized with poultry litter (PL) pose to accelerate eutrophication of surface waters has become a major issue in the southeastern U.S. Gypsum has been identified as a promising management tool for ameliorating the ...

  3. Biosolids and dredged materials: alternative sources of nutrients for crop productivity and sustainability of pasture-based agroecosystem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic sewage sludge or “biosolids” and lake-dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used to cut fertilizer costs in pasture-based animal agriculture. Sustainable biosolids and lake-dredged materials management is based upon controlling and influencing the quantity, quality and cha...

  4. Grazing incidence beam expander

    SciTech Connect

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  5. Biogeochemical and ecological impacts of livestock grazing in semi-arid southeastern Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fernandez, D.P.; Neff, J.C.; Reynolds, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Relatively few studies have examined the ecological and biogeochemical effects of livestock grazing in southeastern Utah. In this study, we evaluated how grazing has affected soil organic carbon and nitrogen to a depth of 50 cm in grasslands located in relict and actively-grazed sites in the Canyonlands physiographic section of the Colorado Plateau. We also evaluated differences in plant ground cover and the spatial distribution of soil resources. Results show that areas used by domestic livestock have 20% less plant cover and 100% less soil organic carbon and nitrogen compared to relict sites browsed by native ungulates. In actively grazed sites, domestic livestock grazing also appears to lead to clustered, rather than random, spatial distribution of soil resources. Magnetic susceptibility, a proxy for soil stability in this region, suggests that grazing increases soil erosion leading to an increase in the area of nutrient-depleted bare ground. Overall, these results, combined with previous studies in the region, suggest that livestock grazing affects both plant cover and soil fertility with potential long-term implications for the sustainability of grazing operations in this semi-arid landscape. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Short communication: grazing pattern of dairy cows that were selected for divergent residual feed intake as calves.

    PubMed

    Gregorini, P; Waghorn, G C; Kuhn-Sherlock, B; Romera, A J; Macdonald, K A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and assess differences in the grazing pattern of 2 groups of mature dairy cows selected as calves for divergent residual feed intake (RFI). Sixteen Holstein-Friesian cows (471±31kg of body weight, 100 d in milk), comprising 8 cows selected as calves (6-8 mo old) for low (most efficient: CSCLowRFI) and 8 cows selected as calves for high (least efficient: CSCHighRFI) RFI, were used for the purpose of this study. Cows (n=16) were managed as a single group, and strip-grazed (24-h pasture allocation at 0800h) a perennial ryegrass sward for 31 d, with measurements taken during the last 21 d. All cows were equipped with motion sensors for the duration of the study, and jaw movements were measured for three 24-h periods during 3 random nonconsecutive days. Measurements included number of steps and jaw movements during grazing and rumination, plus fecal particle size distribution. Jaw movements were analyzed to identify bites, mastication (oral processing of ingesta) during grazing bouts, chewing during rumination, and to calculate grazing and rumination times for 24-h periods. Grazing and walking behavior were also analyzed in relation to the first meal of the day after the new pasture was allocated. Measured variables were subjected to multivariate analysis. Cows selected for low RFI as calves appeared to (a) prioritize grazing and rumination over idling; (b) take fewer steps, but with a higher proportion of grazing steps at the expense of nongrazing steps; and (c) increase the duration of the first meal and commenced their second meal earlier than CSCHighRFI. The CSCLowRFI had fewer jaw movements during eating (39,820 vs. 45,118 for CSCLowRFI and CSCHighRFI, respectively), more intense rumination (i.e., 5 more chews per bolus), and their feces had 30% less large particles than CSCHighRFI. These results suggest that CSCLowRFI concentrate their grazing activity to the time when fresh pasture is allocated, and graze more efficiently

  7. Increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity of grazing Japanese Black heifers and cows in forestland in Japan.

    PubMed

    Haga, Satoshi; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Nakano, Miwa; Nakao, Seiji; Hirano, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Yoshito; Kitagawa, Miya; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Kariya, Yoshihiro

    2014-02-01

    Blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has become a key bio-marker for animal health. Forest-grazing cattle are known to forage various native plants that have high TAC. This study evaluated differences of plasma TAC between forest-grazing (FG) and pasture-grazing cattle (PG). Experiment 1 monitored the plasma TAC levels of 32 Japanese Black cattle. The level in PG did not change throughout the grazing period. However, that in FG, which increased from summer, was significantly higher than that in PG through fall (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, we used nine Japanese Black heifers and investigated their blood antioxidant parameters and the TAC in plants that the cattle consumed in late June and September. The plasma TAC levels in FG were significantly higher than those in PG in both periods (P < 0.05). Plasma levels of lipid peroxidation in FG tended to be lower than that in PG (P = 0.098). Furthermore, the TAC levels in various species of shrubs and trees consumed by FG were higher than those in pasture grasses. Results of this study show that plasma TAC of grazing Japanese Black cattle in forestland increase from summer through fall. PMID:23905879

  8. PASTURE PLANT COMMUNITIES IN THE NORTHEAST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pastures are important to the economy of the northeastern United States, but we still don't know much about their ecology. One of the areas where we need more information is in understanding how environment affects the success of forage and weedy species in pastures. We surveyed 44 farms from Maryla...

  9. Soil carbon cycling in pasture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon accumulation in soil under pastures occurs to various degrees depending upon management and length of time. This presentation describes research results on soil carbon sequestration under pastures from the southeastern USA to help inform the scientific basis for development of a protocol to ...

  10. Cycling and loss of nutrients in pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pastures are fundamentally different than croplands. When cropland is harvested, large amounts of plant nutrients are removed so relatively large rates of nutrients are often needed. In pasture, most of the nutrients harvested by livestock are returned. The proportion of nutrients returned by livest...

  11. Pasture Plants of the Northeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This factsheet contains summary information about the most common plant species encountered in northeastern pastures. Some information, such as plant size and flowering time, comes from standard reference works. Information on frequency and abundance in northeastern pastures is derived from an eight...

  12. Advantages of pasture-based milk products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research has focused on determining the biologically active compounds naturally occurring in milk from pasture-fed cows and evaluating the impact of processing on these compounds. This research addresses one of the critical goals of the Northeast Pasture Consortium to “summarize conjugated li...

  13. Productive responses of breeding Cashmere goats and their kids to different stocking rates on improved upland pastures.

    PubMed

    Celaya, R; Moreno-Gonzalo, J; López López, C; Ferreira, L M M; García, U; Ferre, I; Osoro, K

    2016-03-01

    Although goat meat production could be an option for diversification in improved upland pastures in northern Spain, precise information on the optimal grazing management to enhance goat performance and maximize production per unit land area is lacking. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of 3 stocking rates, high stocking rate (HSR; 20 goats/ha), medium stocking rate (MSR; 15 goats/ha), and low stocking rate (LSR; 10 goats/ha), on gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections and productive responses of Cashmere goats grazing such pastures. Treatments were replicated twice on 6 paddocks sown with and and with a high presence of the native grass . The experiment lasted 3 grazing seasons (from spring to autumn). Pastures were sampled for sward height and botanical and proximate composition. Body weight and BCS changes of goats were monitored and GI nematode infections were assessed by fecal egg counts (FEC). The established treatments resulted in lower mean sward height in the HSR than in the MSR and LSR (9.6, 11.5, and 14.4 cm, respectively; < 0.001). Pasture botanical composition and nutritive quality did not differ between treatments. The mean FEC of does across the 3 grazing seasons were greater ( < 0.05) in the HSR than in the LSR. spp., , and were the most prevalent nematode species identified in coprocultures. Does showed more favorable ( < 0.001) BW and BCS changes in the LSR than in the MSR and HSR (-14, -30, and -52 g/d and -0.1, -0.3, and -0.7 BCS units [scale 1 to 5], respectively). Greater ( < 0.001) kids' BW gains were observed in the LSR and MSR (average 94 g/d) compared with the HSR (70 g/d). Inversely, kid output per unit land area was greater in the HSR than in the MSR and LSR (320, 258, and 192 kg∙ha∙yr, respectively; < 0.001), whereas daily kids' BW gains per hectare were greater ( < 0.001) in the HSR and MSR (average 1.37 kg∙d∙ha) compared with the LSR (0.98 kg∙d∙ha). A medium stocking rate of 15 goats/ha could

  14. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-12-31

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  15. Fertilizer trends

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, R.

    1992-01-01

    This fourteenth edition of Fertilizer Trends presents historical fertilizer market data to aid industry, government, and financial market analysis and planners in their study of fertilizer and agricultural market cycles, market planning, and investment decisions. A 27-year summary of the US fertilizer market is presented in graphic and tabular form. Production, use, and trade data are included for each plant nutrient and sulfur. Canadian statistics have been included because of the important role of the Canadian fertilizer industry in the US fertilizer market. World production and consumption of nitrogen, phosphate, and potash are included because of the strong influence of world markets on the domestic market. Planted acreage and plant nutrient application rates for the major crops have been included to illustrate their effect on fertilizer use. Retail prices of the leading US fertilizer materials also are given.

  16. Thiamin supplementation and the ingestive behavior of beef cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Lauriault, L M; Dougherty, C T; Bradley, N W; Cornelius, P L

    1990-05-01

    Livestock grazing endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones and Gams)-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) perform poorly due to tall fescue toxicosis, especially when animals are under heat stress. In order to determine whether thiamin promotes recovery from tall fescue toxicosis, 1 or 0 g of thiamin per day, as mononitrate, was fed orally to adult Angus (Bos taurus) cows (380 +/- 8 kg) grazing either tall fescue pasture with and without endophyte or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). A tethered grazing system employing a split-plot design was used to estimate intake and components of ingestive behavior. No significant differences attributable to thiamin supplements were seen in rates of intake and biting, grazing time and intake per bite when cows grazed endophyte-infected tall fescue during the first 4 d of exposure. When cows grazed endophyte-infected (greater than 95%) tall fescue with 2,091 micrograms/g loline alkaloids after 4 d of exposure, the untreated animals ingested herbage dry matter (DM) at 1.19 kg/h, whereas the cows receiving thiamin ate 1.57 kg/h (P less than .05). Cattle achieved these rates of DM intake by forming bites of 1.0 and 1.2 g DM at 24 and 26 bites/min when treated with 0 and 1 g of thiamin per day, respectively. Thiamin supplements had no effect on ingestive behavior of cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue or alfalfa after exposure to these forages for 4 d. Responses to thiamin generally were greater when cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue were exposed to heat stress. Oral thiamin supplementation may alleviate tall fescue toxicosis of beef cattle during warm weather. PMID:2365641

  17. Conversion from forests to pastures in the Colombian Amazon leads to contrasting soil carbon dynamics depending on land management practices.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Diego; Sitch, Stephen; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Pedroni, Lucio

    2016-10-01

    Strategies to mitigate climate change by reducing deforestation and forest degradation (e.g. REDD+) require country- or region-specific information on temporal changes in forest carbon (C) pools to develop accurate emission factors. The soil C pool is one of the most important C reservoirs, but is rarely included in national forest reference emission levels due to a lack of data. Here, we present the soil organic C (SOC) dynamics along 20 years of forest-to-pasture conversion in two subregions with different management practices during pasture establishment in the Colombian Amazon: high-grazing intensity (HG) and low-grazing intensity (LG) subregions. We determined the pattern of SOC change resulting from the conversion from forest (C3 plants) to pasture (C4 plants) by analysing total SOC stocks and the natural abundance of the stable isotopes (13) C along two 20-year chronosequences identified in each subregion. We also analysed soil N stocks and the natural abundance of (15) N during pasture establishment. In general, total SOC stocks at 30 cm depth in the forest were similar for both subregions, with an average of 47.1 ± 1.8 Mg C ha(-1) in HG and 48.7 ± 3.1 Mg C ha(-1) in LG. However, 20 years after forest-to-pasture conversion SOC in HG decreased by 20%, whereas in LG SOC increased by 41%. This net SOC decrease in HG was due to a larger reduction in C3-derived input and to a comparatively smaller increase in C4-derived C input. In LG both C3- and C4-derived C input increased along the chronosequence. N stocks were generally similar in both subregions and soil N stock changes during pasture establishment were correlated with SOC changes. These results emphasize the importance of management practices involving low-grazing intensity in cattle activities to preserve SOC stocks and to reduce C emissions after land-cover change from forest to pasture in the Colombian Amazon. PMID:26929394

  18. Increased stocking rate and associated strategic dry-off decision rules reduced the amount of nitrate-N leached under grazing.

    PubMed

    Roche, J R; Ledgard, S F; Sprosen, M S; Lindsey, S B; Penno, J W; Horan, B; Macdonald, K A

    2016-07-01

    The effect of intensive agricultural systems on the environment is of increasing global concern, and recent review articles have highlighted the need for sustainable intensification of food production. In grazing dairy systems, the leaching of nitrate-N (NO3-N) to groundwater is a primary environmental concern. A herd-level factor considered by many to be a key contributor to the amount of NO3-N leached from dairy pastures is stocking rate (SR), and some countries have imposed limits to reduce the risk of NO3-N loss to groundwater. The objective of the current experiment was to determine the effect of dairy cow SR on NO3-N leached in a grazing system that did not import feed from off-farm and had the same N fertilizer input. Five SR were evaluated (2.2, 2.7, 3.1, 3.7, and 4.3 cows/ha) in a completely randomized design (i.e., 2 replicates of each SR as independent farmlets) over 2 y. Pasture utilization, milk production/hectare, and days in milk/hectare increased with SR, but days in milk/cow and milk production/cow declined. The concentration of NO3-N in drainage water and the quantity of NO3-N leached/ha per year declined linearly with increasing SR, and the operating profit/kg NO3-N leached per ha increased. Higher SR was associated with fewer days in milk/cow, resulting in a reduction in estimated urine N excretion/cow (the main source of N leaching) during the climatically sensitive period for NO3-N leaching (i.e., late summer to winter). We hypothesized that the reduction in estimated urine N excretion per cow led to an increase in urinary N spread and reduced losses from urine patches. The results presented indicate that lowering SR may not reduce nitrate leaching and highlight the need for a full farm system-level analysis of any management change to determine its effect on productivity and environmental outcomes. PMID:27157574

  19. 25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.8 Grazing... permits in their own right. (c) No person can hold a grazing permit in more than one district on...

  20. 25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.8 Grazing... permits in their own right. (c) No person can hold a grazing permit in more than one district on...

  1. 25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.8 Grazing... permits in their own right. (c) No person can hold a grazing permit in more than one district on...

  2. 25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167.8 Indians BUREAU OF... rights. (a) The Superintendent shall determine grazing rights of bona fide live-stock owners based on recommendations of District Grazing Committees. Grazing rights shall be recognized for those permittees...

  3. Response of vegetation and soil carbon and nitrogen storage to grazing intensity in semi-arid grasslands in the agro-pastoral zone of northern china.

    PubMed

    Xu, Min-Yun; Xie, Fan; Wang, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Overgrazing has been the primary cause of grassland degradation in the semi-arid grasslands of the agro-pastoral transition zone in northern China. However, there has been little evidence regarding grazing intensity impacts on vegetation change and soil C and N dynamics in this region. This paper reports the effects of four grazing intensities namely un-grazed (UG), lightly grazed (LG), moderately grazed (MG) and heavily grazed (HG) on vegetation characteristics and soil properties of grasslands in the Guyuan county in the agro-pastoral transition region, Hebei province, northern China. Our study showed that the vegetation height, canopy cover, plant species abundance and aboveground biomass decreased significantly with increased grazing intensity. Similarly, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (STN) in the 0-50 cm were highest under UG (13.3 kg C m-2 and 1.69 kg N m-2) and lowest under HG (9.8 kg C m-2 and 1.22 kg N m-2). Soil available nitrogen (SAN) was significantly lower under HG (644 kg N hm-2) than under other treatments (725-731 kg N hm-2) in the 0-50 cm. Our results indicate that the pasture management of "take half-leave half" has potential benefits for primary production and livestock grazing in this region. However, grazing exclusion was perhaps the most effective choice for restoring degraded grasslands in this region. Therefore, flexible rangeland management should be adopted in this region. PMID:24819162

  4. Response of Vegetation and Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Storage to Grazing Intensity in Semi-Arid Grasslands in the Agro-Pastoral Zone of Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min-yun; Xie, Fan; Wang, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Overgrazing has been the primary cause of grassland degradation in the semi-arid grasslands of the agro-pastoral transition zone in northern China. However, there has been little evidence regarding grazing intensity impacts on vegetation change and soil C and N dynamics in this region. This paper reports the effects of four grazing intensities namely un-grazed (UG), lightly grazed (LG), moderately grazed (MG) and heavily grazed (HG) on vegetation characteristics and soil properties of grasslands in the Guyuan county in the agro-pastoral transition region, Hebei province, northern China. Our study showed that the vegetation height, canopy cover, plant species abundance and aboveground biomass decreased significantly with increased grazing intensity. Similarly, soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (STN) in the 0–50 cm were highest under UG (13.3 kg C m−2 and 1.69 kg N m−2) and lowest under HG (9.8 kg C m−2 and 1.22 kg N m−2). Soil available nitrogen (SAN) was significantly lower under HG (644 kg N hm−2) than under other treatments (725–731 kg N hm−2) in the 0–50 cm. Our results indicate that the pasture management of “take half-leave half” has potential benefits for primary production and livestock grazing in this region. However, grazing exclusion was perhaps the most effective choice for restoring degraded grasslands in this region. Therefore, flexible rangeland management should be adopted in this region. PMID:24819162

  5. Sward characteristics and performance of dairy cows in organic grass-legume pastures shaded by tropical trees.

    PubMed

    Paciullo, D S C; Pires, M F A; Aroeira, L J M; Morenz, M J F; Maurício, R M; Gomide, C A M; Silveira, S R

    2014-08-01

    The silvopastoral system (SPS) has been suggested to ensure sustainability in animal production systems in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate pasture characteristics, herbage intake, grazing activity and milk yield of Holstein×Zebu cows managed in two grazing systems (treatments): SPS dominated by a graminaceous forage (Brachiaria decumbens) intercropped with different leguminous herbaceous forages (Stylosanthes spp., Pueraria phaseoloides and Calopogonium mucunoides) and legume trees (Acacia mangium, Gliricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala), and open pasture (OP) of B. decumbens intercropped only with Stylosanthes spp. Pastures were managed according to the rules for organic cattle production. The study was carried out by following a switch back format with 12 cows, 6 for each treatment, over 3 experimental years. Herbage mass was similar (P>0.05) for both treatments, supporting an average stocking rate of 1.23 AU/ha. Daily dry matter intake did not vary (P>0.05) between treatments (average of 11.3±1.02 kg/cow per day, corresponding to 2.23±0.2% BW). Milk yield was higher (P0.05) in subsequent years. The highest (P0.05) milk yields. Low persistence of Stylosanthes guianensis was observed over the experimental period, indicating that the persistence of forage legumes under grazing could be improved using adapted cultivars that have higher annual seed production. The SPS and a diversified botanical composition of the pasture using legume species mixed with grasses are recommended for organic milk production. PMID:24703358

  6. Soil degradation in semi-arid grasslands due to intensive grazing in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmeier, M.; Steffens, M.; Kölbl, A.; Kögel-Knabner, I.

    2012-04-01

    organic matter input, destruction of soil aggregates due to enhanced animal trampling associated with mineralization of formerly protected SOM and enhanced soil erosion. The analysis of the spatial distribution of SOM showed a small-scale homogenization of SOM at grazed sites compared with a heterogeneous pattern at ungrazed sites. Apparently, heterogeneously distributed grass tussocks, which act as "islands of fertility" in undisturbed steppe ecosystems, are removed by heavy grazing that in turn deteriorates the accumulation of SOM. We conclude that semi-arid grasslands of Northern China are very susceptible to intensive grazing, which led to a considerable depletion and a spatial homogenization of SOM. Further intensification of the grazing management or an extension into undisturbed boundary areas of the steppe should be prevented.

  7. The GEOGLAM Rangelands and Pasture Productivity Activity: Recent Progress and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerschman, J. P.; Held, A. A.; Donohue, R. J.; Renzullo, L. J.; Sims, N.; Kerblat, F.; Grundy, M.

    2015-12-01

    Rangelands and pastures cover about a third of the world's land area and support livestock production which represents ~40% of global agricultural gross domestic product. The global consumption of animal protein shows a clear increasing trend, driven by both total population and per capita income increases, putting a growing pressure on the sustainability of grazing lands worldwide. Despite their relevance, rangelands have received less attention than croplands regarding global monitoring of the resource productivity and condition. The Rangelands and Pasture Productivity (RaPP) activity is a component within the Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative established under the Group on Earth Observations (GEOGLAM) in 2013. GEOGLAM RaPP is aimed at providing the global community with the means to monitor the world's rangelands and pastures on a routine basis, and the capacity to produce animal protein in real-time, at global, regional and national levels. Since its launch two years ago GEOGLAM RAPP has made progress in the four implementation elements. These include: 1- the establishment of community of practice; 2- the development of a global monitoring system for rangeland condition; 3- the establishment of pilot sites in main rangeland systems for satellite data products validation and model testing; and 4- integration with livestock production models. Three international workshops have been held building the community of practice. A prototype monitoring system that provides global visualisations and querying capability of vegetation cover data and anomalies has been established. Pilot sites, mostly in areas with long records of field measurements of rangeland condition and productivity have been proposed for nine countries. The link to global livestock models, including physical and economic components, have been established. Future challenges for GEOGLAM RaPP have also been identified and include: better representation of the areas occupied by rangelands

  8. Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Benjamin D.; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.; Davis, Sarah C.; Keogh, Cindy; Long, Stephen P.; Parton, William J.; DeLucia, Evan H.

    2013-01-01

    Bioenergy related land use change would likely alter biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is a sugarcane variety and an emerging biofuel feedstock for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. It has potential for high yields and can be grown on marginal land, which minimizes competition with grain and vegetable production. The DayCent biogeochemical model was parameterized to infer potential yields of energy cane and how changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O) fluxes and soil C pools. The model was used to simulate energy cane production on two soil types in central Florida, nutrient poor Spodosols and organic Histosols. Energy cane was productive on both soil types (yielding 46–76 Mg dry mass⋅ha−1). Yields were maintained through three annual cropping cycles on Histosols but declined with each harvest on Spodosols. Overall, converting pasture to energy cane created a sink for GHGs on Spodosols and reduced the size of the GHG source on Histosols. This change was driven on both soil types by eliminating CH4 emissions from cattle and by the large increase in C uptake by greater biomass production in energy cane relative to pasture. However, the change from pasture to energy cane caused Histosols to lose 4493 g CO2 eq⋅m−2 over 15 years of energy cane production. Cultivation of energy cane on former pasture on Spodosol soils in the southeast US has the potential for high biomass yield and the mitigation of GHG emissions. PMID:23991028

  9. Predicting greenhouse gas emissions and soil carbon from changing pasture to an energy crop.

    PubMed

    Duval, Benjamin D; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; Davis, Sarah C; Keogh, Cindy; Long, Stephen P; Parton, William J; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-01-01

    Bioenergy related land use change would likely alter biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is a sugarcane variety and an emerging biofuel feedstock for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. It has potential for high yields and can be grown on marginal land, which minimizes competition with grain and vegetable production. The DayCent biogeochemical model was parameterized to infer potential yields of energy cane and how changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O) fluxes and soil C pools. The model was used to simulate energy cane production on two soil types in central Florida, nutrient poor Spodosols and organic Histosols. Energy cane was productive on both soil types (yielding 46-76 Mg dry mass · ha(-1)). Yields were maintained through three annual cropping cycles on Histosols but declined with each harvest on Spodosols. Overall, converting pasture to energy cane created a sink for GHGs on Spodosols and reduced the size of the GHG source on Histosols. This change was driven on both soil types by eliminating CH4 emissions from cattle and by the large increase in C uptake by greater biomass production in energy cane relative to pasture. However, the change from pasture to energy cane caused Histosols to lose 4493 g CO2 eq · m(-2) over 15 years of energy cane production. Cultivation of energy cane on former pasture on Spodosol soils in the southeast US has the potential for high biomass yield and the mitigation of GHG emissions. PMID:23991028

  10. Milk production responses to different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Auldist, M J; Marett, L C; Greenwood, J S; Wright, M M; Hannah, M; Jacobs, J L; Wales, W J

    2016-01-01

    Milk production responses of grazing cows offered supplements in different ways were measured. Holstein-Friesian cows, averaging 45 d in milk, were allocated into 8 groups of 24, with 2 groups randomly assigned to each of 4 feeding strategies. These were control: cows grazed a restricted allowance of perennial ryegrass pasture supplemented with milled wheat grain fed in the milking parlor and alfalfa hay offered in the paddock; FGM: same pasture and allowance as the control supplemented with a formulated grain mix containing wheat grain, corn grain, and canola meal fed in the parlor and alfalfa hay fed in the paddock; PMRL: same pasture and allowance as the control, supplemented with a PMR consisting of the same FGM but mixed with alfalfa hay and presented on a feed pad after each milking; and PMRH: same PMR fed in the same way as PMRL but with a higher pasture allowance. For all strategies, supplements provided the same metabolizable energy and grain:forage ratio [75:25, dry matter (DM) basis]. Each group of 24 cows was further allocated into 4 groups of 6, which were randomly assigned to receive 8, 12, 14, or 16 kg of DM supplement/cow per d. Thus, 2 replicated groups per supplement amount per dietary strategy were used. The experiment had a 14-d adaptation period and a 14-d measurement period. Pasture allowance, measured to ground level, was approximately 14 kg of DM/d for control, FGM, and PMRL cows, and 28 kg of DM/d for the PMRH cows, and was offered in addition to the supplement. Positive linear responses to increasing amounts of supplement were observed for yield of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein for cows on all 4 supplement feeding strategies. Production of energy-corrected milk was greatest for PMRH cows, intermediate for FGM and PMRL cows, and lowest for control cows. Some of these differences in milk production related to differences in intake of pasture and supplement. Milk fat concentration decreased with increasing amount of supplement

  11. Effect of a hay-based diet or different upland grazing systems on milk volatile compounds.

    PubMed

    Coppa, Mauro; Martin, Bruno; Pradel, Philippe; Leotta, Barbara; Priolo, Alessandro; Vasta, Valentina

    2011-05-11

    The effect of animal feeding on milk volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of metabolic origin was tested on a hay-based diet (H), a highly diversified pasture under continuous grazing (CG), or a less diversified pasture under rotational grazing (RG). Individual milk of 24 Montbéliarde cows (8 per treatment) were sampled after 2 weeks. Pasture-derived milk was richer (p < 0.05) in camphene, sabinene, β-caryophyllene, and skatole than H milk. Neither milk yield nor fat content affected the majority of VOCs measured. Skatole increased slightly with milk yield, while indole and cineole decreased slightly with milk fat content but with poor regression (R(2) < 0.54). Multivariate analysis showed that, on the basis of those VOCs of metabolic origin whose concentration differed between treatment (dimethyl-sulfone, skatole, toluene, undecanoic acid, 1-octadecene, benzeneacetaldehyde, octanoic acid, and 2-pentanone-4-hydroxy-4-methyl), it was possible to obtain good discriminations among feeding systems. This study is promising for a future use of VOCs of metabolic origin to trace animal feeding systems. PMID:21434695

  12. Seasonal foraging patterns of forest-grazing Japanese Black heifers with increased plasma total antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Haga, Satoshi; Nakano, Miwa; Nakao, Seiji; Hirano, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Yoshito; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Ishizaki, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Forest-grazing enables the intake of high total antioxidant capacity (TAC) plants that might be beneficial for the TAC status of cattle. This study evaluated the relation between the seasonal foraging patterns of forest-grazing Japanese Black (JB) heifers or the TAC levels in shrubs and trees and the changes of plasma TAC. We examined 12 JB heifers, four each of which were allocated to forest-grazing (F), pasture-grazing, and pen-housed groups. The plasma TAC level in F heifers on July 26, August 13, 30 and September 17 were significantly higher than those on April 27 and June 4 (P < 0.05). In F group, the mean rates of foraging frequency (FF) of shrubs and trees during July 5-8 and September 13-16 were much higher than that during May 31-June 3 (P < 0.05). The rate of FF of grass significantly decreased later in the season (P < 0.05). The mean TAC levels in these shrubs and trees were higher than those in grasses, concentrates, and timothy hay. Results suggest that an important factor in the increase of plasma TAC in forest-grazing cattle might be the increased foraging of TAC-rich shrubs and trees during summer-fall. PMID:26270936

  13. Effects of poor forage conditions on the behaviour of grazing ruminants.

    PubMed

    Manteca, X; Smith, A J

    1994-08-01

    This paper shows that the study of animal behaviour is a valuable aid to the improvement of the management of grazing livestock under extensive conditions. The food available to grazing animals in developing countries, and particularly in the dry season in the tropics, is often of very low quality and, in addition, is frequently available at low densities per unit area. Grazing ruminants attempt to adapt to these adverse conditions by increasing the time for which they graze each day and also by dispersing more widely. However, the time for which animals can graze may be limited by solar radiation and fly irritation in the day, and by the confining of the animals in pens at night. The adverse effects of the above limitations may be partially overcome when adapted local breeds are used. Dispersion of animals improves their ability to make use of extensive pasture and in order to encourage it, an understanding of the factors that affect it such as breed differences, social behaviour, adaptation and location of watering points and other unique environmental factors must be achieved. The paper concludes with recommendations of areas worth further research. PMID:7809984

  14. Nutrient and Bacterial Levels in Common Contiguous Soils With and Without Poultry Litter Fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Mid-South US, poultry litter is a valuable resource traditionally used to fertilize hay fields and pastures, but also used for small grains and row crops. Levels of nutrients and bacteria in litter, and nutrients in litter-fertilized (LF) soil are well documented, but less is known of litter...

  15. Variation in feeding behavior and milk production among dairy cows when supplemented with 2 amounts of mixed ration in combination with 2 amounts of pasture.

    PubMed

    Wright, M M; Auldist, M J; Kennedy, E; Dunshea, F R; Hannah, M; Wales, W J

    2016-08-01

    Variation in feeding behavior and milk production of grazing dairy cows fed a mixed ration was measured. Experiments were conducted in spring (early lactation) and autumn (late lactation) with 48 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Pasture allowance (low vs. high) and amounts of supplement (low vs. high) were applied to determine the effect on variation among cows in feeding behavior and milk production. The experiments investigated 4 dietary treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Daily pasture allowances were 15kg of DM/cow per day (low) and 37kg of DM/cow per day (high; to ground level); and 12kg of DM/cow per day (low) and 31kg of DM/cow per day (high; to ground level), for the spring and autumn experiments, respectively. Supplements were offered at 6kg of DM/cow per day (low) and 14kg of DM/cow per day (high); and 6kg of DM/cow per day (low) and 12kg of DM/cow per day (high), for the spring and autumn experiments, respectively. There were 2groups of 6 cows per treatment. All treatments received a partial mixed ration, defined as a total mixed ration fed between periods of grazing that contained wheat grain, corn grain, alfalfa hay, and canola meal. The grain-to-forage ratio of the supplements was 78:22 (DM basis) in both spring and autumn. In both experiments, the pre-experimental period was 14d followed by a 10-d experimental period. The variation among cows within a group in feeding behavior was influenced by the amount of supplement but not the amount of pasture offered. The variation among cows in pasture eating time approximately doubled when the amount of supplement offered increased, indicating that to reduce the variability among cows, supplement feeding management strategies need to be considered. Increasing pasture allowance had no effect on pasture eating time although pasture intake increased as a result of increased grazing intensity compared with the low pasture allowance. However, increasing the amount of supplement in the partial

  16. Permanent, biodiverse pastures in Montado ecosystems - biogeochemical and physiological implications for cork oak trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, C.; Dawson, T. E.; Santos Pereira, J.

    2012-12-01

    Sown biodiverse permanent pastures rich in legumes (SBPPRL) have been implemented in Portugal as a management tool to increase soil fertility, grassland productivity and animal carrying capacity and were later selected as a voluntary land-use change activity towards increased carbon sequestration within the context of the Kyoto protocol. SBPPRL are commonly found in the understory of Mediterranean-type agro-silvo-pastoral systems - Montados - with cork oak as a dominant tree species. However, little is known about the effects of these introduced pastures on co-occurring cork oak physiology and productivity. Understanding the impact of grassland conversion on carbon, water, and nutrient cycling - namely at the tree level - could be of great importance for future management and policy decisions. Cork oak trees growing in an LTER, flux-tower site in Southern Portugal have been selected among two types of understory land-use: natural grassland and sown biodiverse permanent pasture. A suite of leaf-based physiological and morphological parameters were measured in cork oak trees across both land-use scenarios and different seasons. Here we focus on the results from foliar 15δN and 13δC between spring and summer. 13δC ranged from-30.21 to -27.36, with an average value of -28.74 (± 0.12) and no significant differences found between pasture types (natural vs. improved) or time (spring vs. summer). Foliar 15δN on the other hand showed statistically significant differences between cork oaks in different pasture types (-2.96±0.09 natural vs. -2.21±0.17 improved pastures, t-test, p ≤ 0.05), but no differences across time points. Cork oak trees in the permanent pasture have a 15δN signature closer to zero, consistent with a higher percentage of legumes (and N2 fixation) in that system. Using a mixed-model approach we estimated these trees to be using ca. 25% of their nitrogen from legume-fixation in the pasture. Despite the clear signature influence of legume-fixed N

  17. Cattle grazing a riparian mountain meadow: effects of low and moderate stocking density on nutrition, behavior, diet selection, and plant growth response.

    PubMed

    Huber, S A; Judkins, M B; Krysl, L J; Svejcar, T J; Hess, B W; Holcombe, D W

    1995-12-01

    Twelve ruminally cannulated and six intact crossbred beef steers were used in a randomized complete block design to evaluate the effects of stocking density of a riparian pasture in the Sierra Nevada mountains on grazing behavior, dietary selection, forage intake, digesta kinetics, and growth rates of Carex nebraskensis and Juncus balticus. Nine .5-ha pastures were assigned to one of three treatments: ungrazed (CON) or grazed to leave either 1,500 kg/ha (LOW) or 1,000 kg/ha (MOD). Two collections were conducted during the summer of 1992 (following winter drought) and 1993 (following above-average winter precipitation). Standing crop biomass was greater (P < .05) in grazed pastures than in CON pastures at initiation of grazing in 1992 but not in 1993. After grazing in both 1992 and 1993, a treatment x intrapasture location interaction was noted (P < .05). Tiller growth rates in both 1992 and 1993 were affected (P < .05) by a treatment x growth period interaction. Stocking density did not alter (P > .10) botanical or chemical composition of the diet in 1992, and only minor differences were noted (P < .05) in 1993. Forage intake, passage rate measures, and total time spent loafing did not differ (P > .10) between LOW and MOD steers. Within the mid-meadow area in 1992, loafing time was greater (P< .05) for MOD steers than for LOW steers. In 1993, a treatment x trial interaction was noted for loafing time in all three areas. Total time spent grazing was greater (P < .05) for MOD steers than for LOW steers in 1992 and was affected (P < .05) by a treatment x trial interaction in 1993. In 1992 grazing time along the streamside was greater (P < .05) for LOW steers than for MOD steers, and significant treatment x trial interactions were noted for grazing time spent along the forest edge and mid-meadow areas. In 1993, only streamside grazing time was influenced by treatment being greater (P < .05) for MOD steers than for LOW steers. In general, our data suggest that

  18. Multi-decadal impacts of grazing on soil physical and biogeochemical properties in southeast Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, J.C.; Reynolds, R.L.; Belnap, J.; Lamothe, P.

    2005-01-01

    Many soils in southeastern Utah are protected from surface disturbance by biological soil crusts that stabilize soils and reduce erosion by wind and water. When these crusts are disturbed by land use, soils become susceptible to erosion. In this study, we compare a never-grazed grassland in Canyonlands National Park with two historically grazed sites with similar geologic, geomorphic, and geochemical characteristics that were grazed from the late 1800s until 1974. We show that, despite almost 30 years without livestock grazing, surface soils in the historically grazed sites have 38-43% less silt, as well as 14-51% less total elemental soil Mg, Na, P, and Mn content relative to soils never exposed to livestock disturbances. Using magnetic measurement of soil magnetite content (a proxy for the stabilization of far-traveled eolian dust) we suggest that the differences in Mg, Na, P, and Mn are related to wind erosion of soil fine particles after the historical disturbance by livestock grazing. Historical grazing may also lead to changes in soil organic matter content including declines of 60-70% in surface soil C and N relative to the never-grazed sites. Collectively, the differences in soil C and N content and the evidence for substantial rock-derived nutrient loss to wind erosion implies that livestock grazing could have long-lasting effects on the soil fertility of native grasslands in this part of southeastern Utah. This study suggests that nutrient loss due to wind erosion of soils should be a consideration for management decisions related to the long-term sustainability of grazing operations in arid environments.

  19. Confirmation of co-denitrification in grazed grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selbie, Diana R.; Lanigan, Gary J.; Laughlin, Ronald J.; di, Hong J.; Moir, James L.; Cameron, Keith C.; Clough, Tim J.; Watson, Catherine J.; Grant, James; Somers, Cathal; Richards, Karl G.

    2015-11-01

    Pasture-based livestock systems are often associated with losses of reactive forms of nitrogen (N) to the environment. Research has focused on losses to air and water due to the health, economic and environmental impacts of reactive N. Di-nitrogen (N2) emissions are still poorly characterized, both in terms of the processes involved and their magnitude, due to financial and methodological constraints. Relatively few studies have focused on quantifying N2 losses in vivo and fewer still have examined the relative contribution of the different N2 emission processes, particularly in grazed pastures. We used a combination of a high 15N isotopic enrichment of applied N with a high precision of determination of 15N isotopic enrichment by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry to measure N2 emissions in the field. We report that 55.8 g N m-2 (95%, CI 38 to 77 g m-2) was emitted as N2 by the process of co-denitrification in pastoral soils over 123 days following urine deposition (100 g N m-2), compared to only 1.1 g N m-2 (0.4 to 2.8 g m-2) from denitrification. This study provides strong evidence for co-denitrification as a major N2 production pathway, which has significant implications for understanding the N budgets of pastoral ecosystems.

  20. Confirmation of co-denitrification in grazed grassland

    PubMed Central

    Selbie, Diana R.; Lanigan, Gary J.; Laughlin, Ronald J.; Di, Hong J.; Moir, James L.; Cameron, Keith C.; Clough, Tim J.; Watson, Catherine J.; Grant, James; Somers, Cathal; Richards, Karl G.

    2015-01-01

    Pasture-based livestock systems are often associated with losses of reactive forms of nitrogen (N) to the environment. Research has focused on losses to air and water due to the health, economic and environmental impacts of reactive N. Di-nitrogen (N2) emissions are still poorly characterized, both in terms of the processes involved and their magnitude, due to financial and methodological constraints. Relatively few studies have focused on quantifying N2 losses in vivo and fewer still have examined the relative contribution of the different N2 emission processes, particularly in grazed pastures. We used a combination of a high 15N isotopic enrichment of applied N with a high precision of determination of 15N isotopic enrichment by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry to measure N2 emissions in the field. We report that 55.8 g N m−2 (95%, CI 38 to 77 g m−2) was emitted as N2 by the process of co-denitrification in pastoral soils over 123 days following urine deposition (100 g N m−2), compared to only 1.1 g N m−2 (0.4 to 2.8 g m−2) from denitrification. This study provides strong evidence for co-denitrification as a major N2 production pathway, which has significant implications for understanding the N budgets of pastoral ecosystems. PMID:26615911

  1. Confirmation of co-denitrification in grazed grassland.

    PubMed

    Selbie, Diana R; Lanigan, Gary J; Laughlin, Ronald J; Di, Hong J; Moir, James L; Cameron, Keith C; Clough, Tim J; Watson, Catherine J; Grant, James; Somers, Cathal; Richards, Karl G

    2015-01-01

    Pasture-based livestock systems are often associated with losses of reactive forms of nitrogen (N) to the environment. Research has focused on losses to air and water due to the health, economic and environmental impacts of reactive N. Di-nitrogen (N2) emissions are still poorly characterized, both in terms of the processes involved and their magnitude, due to financial and methodological constraints. Relatively few studies have focused on quantifying N2 losses in vivo and fewer still have examined the relative contribution of the different N2 emission processes, particularly in grazed pastures. We used a combination of a high (15)N isotopic enrichment of applied N with a high precision of determination of (15)N isotopic enrichment by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry to measure N2 emissions in the field. We report that 55.8 g N m(-2) (95%, CI 38 to 77 g m(-2)) was emitted as N2 by the process of co-denitrification in pastoral soils over 123 days following urine deposition (100 g N m(-2)), compared to only 1.1 g N m(-2) (0.4 to 2.8 g m(-2)) from denitrification. This study provides strong evidence for co-denitrification as a major N2 production pathway, which has significant implications for understanding the N budgets of pastoral ecosystems. PMID:26615911

  2. Nutritive value response of forage chicory cultivars to phosphorus fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is a productive plant that appears particularly well suited to improving summer yield of pastures in the USA. Poor palatability of some chicory cultivars in locations with low soil phosphorus fertility has been linked to high levels of sesquiterpene lactones, b...

  3. Yield and persistence response of forage chicory to phosphorus fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage chicory (Cichorium intybus) is a productive plant that appears particularly well suited to improving summer yield of pastures in the USA. Poor palatability of some chicory cultivars in locations with low soil phosphorus fertility has been linked to high levels of sesquiterpene lactone, a bit...

  4. The influence of grazing on high mountain soils in the Eastern Pamirs/Tajikistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bimüller, Carolin; Samimi, Cyrus; Zech, Michael; André Vanselow, Kim; Bäumler, Rupert; Dotter, Desiree

    2010-05-01

    Animal husbandry is the most important economic branch in the high mountain deserts of the Eastern Pamirs, a peripheral and ecologically unprivileged region in the east of Tajikistan. During the Soviet era the transhumant pasture rotation was strongly supported and transport to the partially remote summer pastures was organized. With the dissolution of the USSR and the independence of Tajikistan the subsidies ended. This resulted in significant structural alterations in the political and socioeconomic frame conditions for the whole district, including strong changes concerning pasture use. In this context our study focuses on the impact of grazing yaks, sheep and goats on the high mountain soils under the changing land use patterns of pastoralists due to transformation processes in the Eastern Pamirs of Tajikistan. The soil parameters organic carbon, nitrogen, humus and C/N-ratio were measured in the laboratory. Furthermore, the isotope signatures delta13C and delta15N were analysed. These factors are valuable traits to consider the grazing impact. Data mining was done using multivariate statistical methods. Finally, a link between vegetation and soils was presented using a Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) as an indirect ordination method. The results show that soil properties strongly influence the small-scale vegetation patterns. Furthermore, they are strongly dependent on the level of grazing intensity within the different ecosystems. Controlling ecological factors trace through the biosphere and pedosphere respectively in an interactive way. Grazing could therefore be examined as only one of a multitude of ecological factors influencing soil parameters. The major findings indicate significantly low correlations between grazing intensity and a higher Corg and N content and C/N-ratio as well as humus quality. Hence, the study area can be described as a sink under current land use conditions for carbon. The 15N-values are strongly related to the influence

  5. From rags to riches: the story of carbon, nutrients and pasture with dairy compost application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Jess; Cavagnaro, Tim; Patti, Tony; Wilkinson, Kevin; McDonald, Declan; Johnston, Priscilla; Wilson, Katrina; Rose, Mick; Jackson, Roy

    2014-05-01

    Around the world, dairy farmers are transforming dairy waste to compost for land application. In southeastern Australia, farmers are using composted dairy waste to increase production and reduce costs. In addition, the farmers are considering the benefits of compost for increasing sequestration of soil carbon, and on-farm nutrient retention. The "Carbon Farming Initative" in Australia is exploring the option to allow farmers to trade Carbon Credits for carbon stored in the soil. Compost also retains vital nutrients, such as N, on farm rather than importing N in the form of mineral fertilisers. Composting also reduces greenhouse gas emissions, such as CH4, compared to when stored in effluent ponds. This project will investigate if dairy compost applied to pasture improves carbon sequestration, nutrient retention and pasture production. In this project dairy compost, made from dairy effluent, feedpad waste, spoilt sillage and wood mulch, was applied onto a 1Ha field and companion plots at a rate of 0, 3, 6 and 12 t/ha. The field plot is open to grazing and normal farm management practices. The companion plots are being subjected to simulated grazing (mowing). The trials, currently underway will run for 18 months. Along with preliminary soil carbon results, this work will also include preliminary data for total and plant available nutrients, and farm biomass production. The outcomes of this research, and benefits it finds for "Carbon Farming" and nutrient retention has practical, policy and economic applications for world wide markets.

  6. Simulating modern-day cropland and pasture burning in an Earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Sam; Malyshev, Sergey; Shevliakova, Elena; Magi, Brian; Pacala, Steve

    2015-04-01

    Throughout the Holocene, humans have extended our influence across a larger and larger fraction of ecosystems, even creating some new ones in the process. Herds of livestock grazing either native vegetation (rangeland) or specially planted species (pasture) have modified huge areas of land. We have even developed new plant species and cultivated them as crops. The extent of our ecosystem modification intensified dramatically with the advent of industrialized agriculture, to the point where cropland and pasture (which will henceforth encompass rangeland as well) now cover over a third of the Earth's land area. One way we have altered the terrestrial biosphere is by intentionally and unintentionally altering fire's frequency, intensity, and seasonal timing. This is especially true for agricultural ecosystems. Because their maintenance and use require a level of human control, cropland and pasture often experience fire regimes substantially different from those of the ecosystems they replaced or what would occur in the absence of active fire management. For example, farmers might burn to prepare land for planting or to dispose of crop residues, and pastoralists often use fire to prevent encroachment of unpalatable woody plants. Due to the vast global extent of agriculture, and considering the myriad ways fire affects the Earth system, it is critical that we understand (a) the ways people manage fire on cropland and pasture and (b) the effects of this management on the Earth system. Earth system models are an ideal tool for examining this kind of question. By simulating the processes within and interactions among the atmosphere, oceans, land, and terrestrial ecosystems, Earth system models allow phenomena such as fire to be examined in their global context. However, while the past fifteen years have seen great progress in the simulation of vegetation fire within Earth system models, the direct human influence via cropland and pasture management burning has been mostly

  7. Grazing management and ecosystem health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbivore activity interacts with weather and vegetation to markedly affect soil condition, biotic activity, and nutrient cycling in pasture and range. In turn, soil condition regulates the impact of environment on nutrient cycling, vegetation, herd or flock management, and animal productivity. Ther...

  8. Plant Species Diversity and Pasture Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers face many challenges in pasture management, such as evolving agri-environmental schemes to protect natural resources, and need new management techniques to remain sustainable. Ecological research indicates that increased plant biodiversity benefits ecosystem functions such as primary product...

  9. New Developments in Grasses for Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New forage varieties with improved traits are an essential component of best management practices for livestock agriculture. This paper discusses new varieties of several cool-season forage grasses used for pasture production....

  10. Supplementing lactating dairy cows fed high-quality pasture with black wattle (Acacia mearnsii) tannin.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, W M; Clark, C E F; Clark, D A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-11-01

    A reduction in urinary nitrogen (N) excretion from dairy cows fed pasture containing a high N concentration in the dry matter (DM) will have environmental benefits, because losses to soil water and air by leachate and nitrous oxides (N2O) will be reduced. Condensed tannins (CT) reduce digestion of N, and provision as a dietary additive could have nutritional benefits for production, but the amount required and the responses to different sources of CT on milk production have not been defined. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of supplementation with CT extracted from black wattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild.) on milk production and faecal N concentration by lactating dairy cows grazing a vegetative Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)-based pasture. In one experiment, CT was administered as a drench, twice daily, to 38 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows assigned to four treatments; control (CONT, 0 g/day), low CT (LCT, 111 g/day), medium CT (MCT, 222 g/day) and high CT (HCT, 444 g/day), grazing as a single group. The CT supplementation affected milk yield (P < 0.001) with a trend of declining milk yield as CT concentration increased from about 0.6 to about 2.9% of dietary DM. Milk urea nitrogen (MUN) decreased at MCT and HCT levels of supplementation (P < 0.01) but milk fat, CP and lactose percentage were not affected by CT supplementation. The CT supplementation increased N concentration in faeces for LCT and MCT treatments (P < 0.05), suggesting partitioning of dietary N away from urine. When CT was pelleted with grain, in a second experiment and fed twice daily as a supplement at milking, it reduced the acceptability relative to pellets without CT, and tended to lower milk production from 25.4 to 24.5 kg/day, although the decline was not significant (P > 0.05). The diet of cows fed pellets with CT contained about 1.2% CT in the DM but neither milk constituents nor MUN were affected by CT-supplemented grain (P > 0.05). These findings demonstrate

  11. Effect of time at pasture and herbage intake on profile of volatile organic compounds of dairy cow milk.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Yasuko; Asakuma, Sadaki; Miyaji, Makoto; Akiyama, Fumiaki

    2016-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in milk were investigated as quantitative markers of herbage intake (HI) at pasture. Eight Holstein cows were fed indoors with concentrate and conserved forages (grass silage, corn silage and hay) (NG), then were divided into three treatments according to the duration of access to pasture: 4 h (G4), 8 h (G8), and 20 h (G20) per day. The HIs were 4.3, 8.6, and 13.0 kg dry matter/day for the G4, G8 and G20 treatments, respectively. Milk from cows was sampled and analyzed VOCs by the steam distillation-extraction method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). From the intensity of the GC peak area, the levels of 1-phytene (3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-1-hexadecene) and 2-phytene (3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecene) were lowest in NG treatment and markedly increased with grazing time at pasture. With simple regression analysis on the HI to each diterpenoid, a strong correlation was found between the intensity of 1-phytene in the milk and the HI (r = 0.807, P < 0.001). 1-phytene content in milk could be useful as a quantitative marker of the HI of grazing cows. PMID:26032306

  12. Invited review: An evaluation of the likely effects of individualized feeding of concentrate supplements to pasture-based dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hills, J L; Wales, W J; Dunshea, F R; Garcia, S C; Roche, J R

    2015-03-01

    In pasture-based dairy systems, supplementary feeds are used to increase dry matter intake and milk production. Historically, supplementation involved the provision of the same amount of feed (usually a grain-based concentrate feed) to each cow in the herd during milking (i.e., flat-rate feeding). The increasing availability of computerized feeding and milk monitoring technology in milking parlors, however, has led to increased interest in the potential benefits of feeding individual cows (i.e., individualized or differential feeding) different amounts and types of supplements according to one or more parameters (e.g., breeding value for milk yield, current milk yield, days in milk, body condition score, reproduction status, parity). In this review, we consider the likely benefits of individualized supplementary feeding strategies for pasture-based dairy cows fed supplements in the bail during milking. A unique feature of our review compared with earlier publications is the focus on individualized feeding strategies under practical grazing management. Previous reviews focused primarily on research undertaken in situations where cows were offered ad libitum forage, whereas we consider the likely benefits of individualized supplementary feeding strategies under rotational grazing management, wherein pasture is often restricted to all or part of a herd. The review provides compelling evidence that between-cow differences in response to concentrate supplements support the concept of individualized supplementary feeding. PMID:25582585

  13. Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer

    PubMed Central

    Begall, Sabine; Červený, Jaroslav; Neef, Julia; Vojtěch, Oldřich; Burda, Hynek

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate by means of simple, noninvasive methods (analysis of satellite images, field observations, and measuring “deer beds” in snow) that domestic cattle (n = 8,510 in 308 pastures) across the globe, and grazing and resting red and roe deer (n = 2,974 at 241 localities), align their body axes in roughly a north–south direction. Direct observations of roe deer revealed that animals orient their heads northward when grazing or resting. Amazingly, this ubiquitous phenomenon does not seem to have been noticed by herdsmen, ranchers, or hunters. Because wind and light conditions could be excluded as a common denominator determining the body axis orientation, magnetic alignment is the most parsimonious explanation. To test the hypothesis that cattle orient their body axes along the field lines of the Earth's magnetic field, we analyzed the body orientation of cattle from localities with high magnetic declination. Here, magnetic north was a better predictor than geographic north. This study reveals the magnetic alignment in large mammals based on statistically sufficient sample sizes. Our findings open horizons for the study of magnetoreception in general and are of potential significance for applied ethology (husbandry, animal welfare). They challenge neuroscientists and biophysics to explain the proximate mechanisms. PMID:18725629

  14. Ecohydrological Relationships in Dryland Grazing Systems of the Sahel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaptue, A.; Prihodko, L.; Hanan, N. P.

    2013-12-01

    In water-limited environments like the Sahel, rangelands function as strongly coupled ecological-hydrological systems. Rainfall and soil moisture availability are the main forces driving vegetation structure and composition, and vegetation exerts strong controls on the redistribution and infiltration of rainfall. The presence and duration of surface waters in the landscape, however, determines livestock access to and consumption of pasture resources, with feedbacks on vegetation structure and ecohydrology. In this study, we use the Tree Grass Vegetation Model (TGVM) to study the interactions between climate, vegetation, grazing and lake volume in the watersheds surrounding 260 ponds in the Sahel. Analyses focus on 4 regions (Southwestern Niger, Eastern Mali, Western Mali and Northern Senegal) representing a range of bioclimatic, edaphic and land use conditions and were performed during the period 1972-2011. Unsupervised land cover classification maps using Landsat time series data were used to provide soil information, assuming a strong correlation between vegetation type and the underlying soil type, and the curve number method was used to estimate runoff during rainfall. We will explore the socio-ecohydrological relationships in response to grazing disturbances and climate variability, and discuss how feedbacks mediated by anthropogenic control of herbivore density could be significant for the sustainable management of Sahelian and other dryland regions.

  15. Pasture Characteristics in Three Different Ecotypes at Khovd Aimag, Western Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Beher, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    The transition of nomadic pastoralism to more sessile forms of rangeland utilization and increased stocking rates can result in the degradation of pasture. After political changes in the 1990s in Mongolia, population growth and missing alternative livelihoods intensified the grazing pressure on pastures, and further decreased the condition of the fragile arid ecosystems. To learn more about the productivity and quality of pasture land in Khovd Aimag in the western region of Mongolia, standing biomass was measured in the alpine region, mountain steppe and semi-desert. Plant samples were analyzed for nitrogen and fiber contents by wet chemistry and Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS). Results show clear differences in distribution of biomass with reduced biomass in the vicinity of temporary settlements. From July to early September plant nitrogen contents decreased in the alpine region, remained unchanged in the mountain steppe and increased in the semi-desert. Nitrogen concentrations were elevated in vegetation close to temporary settlements. For fiber contents (ADF) no clear patterns were found. Neither biomass/m2 nor vegetation cover were appropriate indicators for food quality. PMID:25058023

  16. Sorption, Leaching, and Surface Runoff of Beef Cattle Veterinary Pharmaceuticals under Simulated Irrigated Pasture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Inna E.; Bair, Daniel A.; Tate, Kenneth W.; Parikh, Sanjai J.

    2014-01-01

    The use of veterinary pharmaceuticals in beef cattle has led to concerns associated with the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. Despite the potential negative consequences, data on the transport and mitigation of pharmaceuticals in grazed watersheds with irrigated pasture are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the transport of common beef cattle pharmaceuticals (i.e., oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, ivermectin) via surface runoff and leachate from manure amended to grass-vegetated soil boxes under irrigated pasture conditions. The transport of pharmaceuticals from animal manure in surface runoff and soil leachate was relatively low and appears to be limited by desorption and transport of pharmaceuticals entrained in the manure. In surface runoff, less than 4.2% of applied pharmaceuticals in manure (initial concentration: 0.2 mg kg−1 of manure) were detected after three weeks of irrigation. Concentrations of pharmaceuticals in surface runoff and leachate never exceeded 0.5 µg L−1. The major portion of pharmaceuticals (up to 99%) was retained in the manure or in the soil directly beneath the manure application site. Based on the minimal transport of oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and ivermectin, the risk of significant transport for these targeted beef cattle pharmaceuticals to surface water and groundwater from manure on irrigated pasture appears to be relatively low. PMID:24216368

  17. The effects of providing portable shade at pasture on dairy cow behavior and physiology.

    PubMed

    Palacio, S; Bergeron, R; Lachance, S; Vasseur, E

    2015-09-01

    Access to pasture has advantages for cows such as reduced lameness and improved udder health, but also may expose cows to stressors such as extreme heat. The objective of this study was to understand how portable shade affected physiological and behavioral responses of pastured dairy cows in a Canadian summer. Over 8wk, a total of 24 lactating Holstein cows were separated into 2 treatments, one with access to shade and a control without access to shade. The cows were pastured in groups of 4, with 3 field sections per treatment. Instantaneous scan sampling of behaviors (drinking, lying, grazing, other) performed in the shade or not were recorded every 5min for 3h/d during the hottest part of the day (peak hours: 1130-1530h) 3d/wk. Ambient temperature, humidity, and vaginal temperature were recorded at 10-min intervals. Daily milk production was also recorded. Differences between treatments by week were analyzed using the generalized linear mixed model with group as random effect and treatment as fixed effect. Cows with shade access were observed at the water trough up to 6.42 times less and lying down up to 1.75 times more. Cows with shade access grazed up to 1.5 times more but only when the temperature-humidity index was above their comfort threshold (≥72) during the hottest part of the day (wk 2). Cows sought shade when it was made available, but spent less than half of their time observed (%) in the shade (40.8±4.67) with the exception of wk 2 when most of the time was spent under the shade (74.3±4.77). Daily lying time was highest during peak hours for cows with shade access. However, no overall difference in total lying time between the 2 treatments was observed. No differences were found in vaginal temperature or milk production between treatments with the exception of wk 1 for daily milk production, which was higher for cows in the control treatment. In conclusion, cows sought shade when it was provided at pasture, whereas cows without access to shade

  18. Effects of alcohol ethoxylate and pluronic detergents on the development of pasture bloat in cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Stanford, K; Wang, Y; Berg, B P; Majak, W; McCartney, D H; Baron, V; McAllister, T A

    2001-01-01

    A series of studies was conducted to determine the efficacy and possible modes of action of a water-soluble mixture of alcohol ethoxylate and pluronic detergents (AEPD; Blocare 4511, ANCARE, Auckland, NZ) in preventing pasture bloat in ruminants grazing or fed freshly harvested alfalfa. Ten cannulated Suffolk wethers were offered freshly harvested alfalfa; five were given a daily intraruminal dose of 40 ml of 50% AEPD (vol/vol) 1 h before feeding, and five (controls) were dosed with water. Viscosity of ruminal fluid was reduced (P < 0.001) in AEPD-treated wethers, relative to the controls, for the first 2 h after feeding but not at 4 h after feeding and beyond. Treatment with AEPD did not affect dry matter (DM) intake, digestibility of DM, acid detergent fiber, or neutral detergent fiber, or N digestion and retention, implying that AEPD likely would not affect milk production. In a crossover grazing study, five of the wethers were given AEPD in drinking water (0.1%, vol/vol); treatment with AEPD was 100% effective for preventing bloat in sheep grazing early-bloom alfalfa for 4 h daily. Replicate grazing studies were conducted with cattle in Lethbridge, AB; Lacombe, AB; and Kamloops, BC. Treated animals received AEPD in the water (0.06%, vol/vol) and grazed vegetative alfalfa for 6 h daily. As it did with sheep, AEPD treatment effectively precluded the bloat observed in control animals. Consequently, AEPD may be a valuable tool for alfalfa pasture-based dairy production although further study is required to develop an integrated model for optimal administration under a variety of climatic conditions. PMID:11210030

  19. Testing functional trait-based mechanisms underpinning plant responses to grazing and linkages to ecosystem functioning in grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, S. X.; Li, W. H.; Lan, Z. C.; Ren, H. Y.; Wang, K. B.; Bai, Y. F.

    2014-09-01

    Abundant evidence has shown that grazing alters plant functional traits, ecological strategies, community structure, and ecosystem functioning of grasslands. Few studies, however, have examined how plant responses to grazing are mediated by resource availability and functional group identity. We test functional trait-based mechanisms underlying the responses of different life forms to grazing and linkages to ecosystem functioning along a soil moisture gradient in the Inner Mongolia grassland. A principal component analysis (PCA) based on 9 traits × 276 species matrix showed that the plant size spectrum (i.e., individual biomass), leaf economics spectrum (leaf N content and leaf density), and light competition spectrum (height and stem-leaf biomass ratio) distinguished plant species responses to grazing. The three life forms exhibited differential strategies as indicated by trait responses to grazing. The annuals and biennials adopted grazing-tolerant strategies associated with high growth rate, reflected by high leaf N content and specific leaf area. The perennial grasses exhibited grazing-tolerant strategies associated with great regrowth capacity and high palatability scores, whereas perennial forbs showed grazing-avoidant strategies with short stature and low palatability scores. In addition, the dominant perennial bunchgrasses exhibited mixed tolerance-resistance strategies to grazing and mixed acquisitive-conservative strategies in resource utilization. Grazing increased the relative abundance of perennial forbs with low palatability in the wet and fertile meadow, but it promoted perennial grasses with high palatability in the dry and infertile typical steppe. Our findings suggest that the effects of grazing on plant functional traits are dependent on both the abiotic (e.g., soil moisture) and biotic (e.g., plant functional group identity and composition) factors. Grazing-induced shifts in functional group composition are largely dependent on resource

  20. Belowground cycling of carbon in forests and pastures of eastern Amazonia

    SciTech Connect

    Trumbore, S.E.; Davidson, E.A.; Nepstad, D.C.

    1995-12-01

    Measurements of carbon stocks and fluxes in Amazon soils were used to model subsurface carbon cycling for the purpose of predicting carbon fluxes associated with deforestation and subsequent pasture management. Isotopic measurement of soil organic matter and soil carbon dioxide, measurements of aboveground and belowground carbon inputs, and estimates of carbon dioxide production as a function of soil depth were incorporated into a model describing turnover times of years, decades, and more than centuries. In degraded pastures, reduced carbon inputs to the soil were observed to cause a reduction in soil carbon inventory and delta carbon 14. Increases in carbon and carbon 14 were observed in managed pastures, which were fertilized and planted with productive grasses, over forest values. Predicted carbon losses from destruction of forest roots more than one meter deep in the soil partially offset carbon inventory increases in the upper meter of managed pasture soils. The major changes in soil carbon inventory after implementation of land management occur within the first 10 years. Due to this short turnover time, land management is an important factor in determining the effects of land use change on the global carbon budget. 54 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Terpenes and fatty acid profiles of milk fat and "Bitto" cheese as affected by transhumance of cows on different mountain pastures.

    PubMed

    Noni, Ivano De; Battelli, Giovanna

    2008-07-15

    The evolution of fatty acid (FA) and terpenoid profiles was studied in milk (n=20) and "Bitto" (n=3), a protected designation of origin cheese produced in a restricted Italian alpine area. Milk came from 25 Italian Brown cows successively grazing pastures at 1400, 2100 and 2200m during transhumance in June-September 2006. The fat matter was analyzed for FAs and terpenes by means of gas chromatography and purge & trap/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. FA composition of milk fat varied significantly (p<0.0001) in relation to contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), stearic, linoleic and trans-vaccenic acids. Similar monoterpene profiles characterized milk fat from cows grazing the different pastures and the highest amount of terpenes was measured in milk coming from cows grazing at 1400m. High levels of δ3-carene in milk fat were likely related to the important presence of Ligusticum mutellina in the pasture. Only negligible amounts of sesquiterpenes were detected in milk fat whereas they were the most abundant class in fodder. Both FA and terpene profiles of ripened (70 days) cheeses resembled those of the original milks. Overall, results confirm the influence of the botanical composition of mountain pastures both in enhancing the ruminal synthesis of CLA and in modifying the FA and terpenoid profiles of milk and "Bitto" cheese. Nevertheless, neither the FA nor the terpenoid profiles revealed here can be considered as "unique" to "Bitto" cheese and, for this reason, they can hardly be assumed to be biomarkers for defining a specific relationship among grazing area, milk and "Bitto" cheese. They better represent the chemical fingerprint of the cow feeding, adopted in mountain areas. PMID:26003351

  2. Influence of different systems for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on milk fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, Victor C; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Dunshea, Frank R; Ajlouni, Said

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of different strategies for feeding supplements to grazing dairy cows on the proportions of fatty acids in milk. Two hundred and sixteen cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different strategies; (1) CONTROL: cows grazed perennial ryegrass pasture (14 kg dry matter/d) supplemented with milled barley grain fed in the milking parlour and pasture silage offered in the paddock; (2) Partial mixed ration 1 (PMR1): same pasture allotment and supplement as CONTROL strategy, but the supplements presented as a mixed ration after each milking in feedpad, and; (3) Partial mixed ration 2 (PMR2): same pasture allotment, supplemented with a mixed ration of milled barley grain, alfalfa hay, corn silage and crushed corn grain fed in a feedpad. Within each strategy, cows were assigned to receive either 6, 8, 10 or 12 kg dry matter supplement/cow per d. Milk fatty acid proportions from cows fed CONTROL and PMR1 strategies were similar and different from those fed PMR2, particularly at 10 to 12 kg dry matter supplement/cow per d. The reduction in milk fat yield and concentration in cows fed high amounts of supplement as CONTROL and PMR1 was coincident with 4 × increase in 10t-18:1 proportion. The composition of the partial mixed ration (PMR) and the amount offered affected milk fatty acid proportions and milk fat content, however, the method of supplementation did not. PMID:24560061

  3. Controlling Fertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnay, France

    1991-01-01

    Recent developments in fertility control are presented in relation to the global demographic situation. Discussion focuses on changes in scientific knowledge and concepts that have shifted the focus from birth control to planned parenthood to the notion of controlled fertility. The place of family planning programs, including their socioeconomic…

  4. Characterization and typification of small ruminant farms providing fuelbreak grazing services for wildfire prevention in Andalusia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Mena, Y; Ruiz-Mirazo, J; Ruiz, F A; Castel, J M

    2016-02-15

    Several wildfire prevention programs in Spain are using grazing livestock to maintain fuelbreaks with low levels of biomass. Even though shepherds are remunerated for these services, many of their farms are hardly viable in the current socio-economic context. By analyzing 54 small ruminant farms participating in the Grazed Fuelbreak Network in Andalusia (southern Spain), this research aimed to identify the main types and characteristics of such farms and, considering the challenges they are facing, propose strategies to improve both their economic viability and their effectiveness in fuelbreak grazing. Based on data collected through a survey on key farm management aspects, a multivariate analysis was performed and four main types of farm were identified: two clusters of dairy goat farms and two composed mostly of meat-purpose sheep farms. Farms in all clusters could benefit from improvements in the feeding and reproductive management of livestock, either to enhance their productivity or to make better use of the pasture resources available. Dairy goat farms remain more dependent on external animal feed to ensure a better lactation, therefore they should either diminish their workforce costs per animal or sell transformed products directly to consumers to improve their economic viability. Best fuelbreak grazing results were related to larger flocks combining sheep and goats, lower ratios of fuelbreak surface area per animal, and longer (year-long) grazing periods on fuelbreaks. Therefore, such farm features and adjusted fuelbreak assignments should be favored in wildfire prevention programs using grazing services. PMID:26657367

  5. Conversion from forests to pastures in the Colombian Amazon leads to differences in dead wood dynamics depending on land management practices.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, Diego; Sitch, Stephen; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Pedroni, Lucio; Duque, Alvaro

    2016-04-15

    Dead wood, composed of coarse standing and fallen woody debris (CWD), is an important carbon (C) pool in tropical forests and its accounting is needed to reduce uncertainties within the strategies to mitigate climate change by reducing deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). To date, information on CWD stocks in tropical forests is scarce and effects of land-cover conversion and land management practices on CWD dynamics remain largely unexplored. Here we present estimates on CWD stocks in primary forests in the Colombian Amazon and their dynamics along 20 years of forest-to-pasture conversion in two sub-regions with different management practices during pasture establishment: high-grazing intensity (HG) and low-grazing intensity (LG) sub-regions. Two 20-year-old chronosequences describing the forest-to-pasture conversion were identified in both sub-regions. The line-intersect and the plot-based methods were used to estimate fallen and standing CWD stocks, respectively. Total necromass in primary forests was similar between both sub-regions (35.6 ± 5.8 Mg ha(-1) in HG and 37.0 ± 7.4 Mg ha(-1) in LG). An increase of ∼124% in CWD stocks followed by a reduction to values close to those at the intact forests were registered after slash-and-burn practice was implemented in both sub-regions during the first two years of forest-to-pasture conversion. Implementation of machinery after using fire in HG pastures led to a reduction of 82% in CWD stocks during the second and fifth years of pasture establishment, compared to a decrease of 41% during the same period in LG where mechanization is not implemented. Finally, average necromass 20 years after forest-to-pasture conversion decreased to 3.5 ± 1.4 Mg ha(-1) in HG and 9.3 ± 3.5 Mg ha(-1) in LG, representing a total reduction of between 90% and 75% in each sub-region, respectively. These results highlight the importance of low-grazing intensity management practices during ranching activities in the Colombian

  6. Rotational grazing systems and grazing management research: Mapping the future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent publication reviewed a substantial amount of evidence generated from a geographically diverse effort by university and agency scientists over the past 6 decades to investigate the impacts of rotational grazing on fundamental rangeland ecological processes. Their findings, and others as well...

  7. Faecal egg output, contamination of pastures and serum pepsinogen concentrations in heifers with natural gastrointestinal nematode infections in north-west Spain.

    PubMed

    Mezo-Menéndez, M; Díez-Baños, P; Morrondo-Pelayo, P; Díez-Baños, N

    1995-03-01

    In 1988, 1989 and 1990 second year grazing heifers, naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, were separated into two groups, one of which was treated orally with albendazole. In 1988 and 1989 treatment was administered immediately after parturition (February), and in 1990 during the last term of pregnancy (December). Both treated and control animals were grazed on separate plots in a rotational system. Maximum faecal egg counts were observed around parturition, except in 1990, when treatment was given at the end of gestation. The main genera identified were Cooperia, Trichostrongylus, Ostertagia and Oesophagostomum. The number of Ostertagia larvae in the treated groups increased from 1989 to 1990, while the others decreased. Pasture contamination with third stage larvae (L3) was lower on the plots grazed by treated heifers. Maximum numbers of L3 were found in autumn, at the end of winter, and at the beginning of spring. Mean serum pepsinogen concentrations were significantly higher in the untreated groups. This concurs with the pattern for L3 on pasture. The trial shows that if a single treatment against gastrointestinal nematodes is carried out, and the animals remain on contaminated pastures, the parasitic load tends to level out after 4-5 months under favourable climatic conditions. However, the percentages of nematode genera occurring in the new populations may differ from those in the original infection. PMID:7622791

  8. 25 CFR 700.722 - Grazing associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing associations. 700.722 Section 700.722 Indians THE... Grazing § 700.722 Grazing associations. (a) The Commissioner may recognize, cooperate with, and assist range unit livestock associations in the management of livestock and range resources. (b)...

  9. 25 CFR 700.722 - Grazing associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grazing associations. 700.722 Section 700.722 Indians THE... Grazing § 700.722 Grazing associations. (a) The Commissioner may recognize, cooperate with, and assist range unit livestock associations in the management of livestock and range resources. (b)...

  10. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF... WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such permits, such stock as may be required in connection with the...

  11. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF... WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such permits, such stock as may be required in connection with the...

  12. 25 CFR 700.709 - Grazing privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Grazing § 700.709 Grazing privileges. (a) A list of permittees eligible to receive grazing permits is kept at the Office of Navajo and Hopi Indian Relocation in Flagstaff, Arizona. This list is composed of.... Individuals on this list will receive a commitment that a permit will be issued to them. (b) If such...

  13. Assessment of Soil Quality for Grazed Pastures with Agroforestry Buffers and Row Crop Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of buffers are believed to enhance soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates have been identified as good indices for assessing soil quality to evaluate early responses to changes in soil management. However, studies comparing these p...

  14. Linking pasture and animal processes. The effect of appetite on the way they graze

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known regarding how foraging ruminants adjust bite dimensions and instantaneous herbage intake rate according to different ruminal fill levels, or if short-term temporal variations in ruminal fill reflect changes in the underlying endocrine physiology. Therefore, we determined the effect o...

  15. Velocity of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsonii) grazing a Northeast Oregon pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of global positioning systems (GPS) collars is becoming routine in scientific studies of animal activities on landscapes. Typically ecologists are interested in ecological site use, critical habitat, dispersal, and potential environmental impacts of overuse on rangelands and forests. GPS r...

  16. Reading Youth Writing: Grazing in the Pastures of Cultural Studies and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoechsmann, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Reading youth writing is an avenue for the youth where they can express their opinions and ideas. In this article, the author questions whether practitioners in the field of cultural studies are actually engaged in this particular dialogue. The author has examined several articles written by young people from "Toronto Star." He realized that while…

  17. Soil quality indicator responses to row crop, grazed pasture, and agroforestry buffer management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation of trees and establishment of grass buffers within agroecosystems are management practices shown to enhance soil quality. Soil enzyme activities and water stable aggregates (WSA) have been identified as sensitive soil quality indicators to evaluate early responses to soil management. ...

  18. Does uncus effusus enhance methane emissions from grazed pastures on peat?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberg, A.; Elsgaard, L.; Sorrell, B. K.; Brix, H.; Petersen, S. O.

    2015-10-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions from drained organic soils are generally low, but internal gas transport in aerenchymatous plants may result in local emission hotspots. In a paired-sample field study at three different sites we measured fluxes of CH4 with static chambers from adjacent sampling quadrats with and without Juncus effusus during four field campaigns. At all three sites, CH4 was observed in the soil at all sampling depths (5 to 100 cm), and in most cases both above and below the groundwater table. During spring, local maxima suggested methanogenesis also took place above the water table at all three sites. We found significant CH4 emissions at all three sites, but emission controls were clearly different. Across the three sites, average emission rates (±1 SE) for sampling quadrats with and without J. effusus were 1.47 ± 0.28 and 1.37 ± 0.33 mg CH4 m-2 h-1, respectively, with no overall effect of J. effusus on CH4 emissions. However, a significant effect of J. effusus was seen at one of the three sites. At this site, local CH4 maxima were closer to the soil surface than at the other sites, and the upper soil layers were dryer. This could have affected both root CH4 accessibility and CH4 oxidation respectively, and together with limited gas diffusivity in the soil column, cause elevated CH4 emissions from J. effusus. We conclude that J. effusus has the potential to act as point sources of CH4 from drained peatlands, but more studies on the specific conditions under which there is an effect, are needed before the results can be used in modelling of CH4 emissions.

  19. Does Juncus effusus enhance methane emissions from grazed pastures on peat?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberg, A.; Elsgaard, L.; Sorrell, B. K.; Brix, H.; Petersen, S. O.

    2015-06-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions from drained organic soils are generally low, but internal gas transport in aerenchymatous plants may result in local emission hotspots. In a paired-sample field study at three different sites we measured fluxes of CH4 with static chambers from adjacent sampling quadrats with and without Juncus effusus during four field campaigns. At all three sites, CH4 was observed in the soil at all sampling depths (5-100 cm), and in most cases both above and below the groundwater table. During spring, local maxima suggested methanogenesis took place above the water table at all three sites. We found significant CH4 emissions at all three sites, but emission controls were clearly different. Across the three sites, average emission rates (±1 SE) for sampling quadrats with and without J. effusus were 1.47 ± 0.28 and 1.37 ± 0.33 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 respectively, with no overall effect of J. effusus on CH4 emissions, but a significant effect at one of the three sites. At this site, local CH4 maxima were closer to the soil surface than at the other sites, and the upper soil layers were dryer. This could have affected both root CH4 accessibility and CH4 oxidation respectively, and together with limited gas diffusivity in the soil column, cause elevated CH4 emissions from J. effusus. We conclude that aerenchymatous plants has the potential to act as point sources of CH4 from drained peatlands, but more studies on the specific conditions under which there is an effect, are needed before the results can be used in modelling of CH4 emissions.

  20. Performance, ruminal and serum characteristics of steers fed lasalocid on pasture.

    PubMed

    Spears, J W; Harvey, R W

    1984-02-01

    Seventy-two growing steers were used in a 126-d study to determine the influence of varying levels of lasalocid on performance, ruminal and serum characteristics of animals grazing pasture. Treatments consisted of: 1) control; 2) 200 mg lasalocid/d and 3) 300 mg lasalocid/d. Each treatment was replicated three times and each replicate of eight steers was maintained on 3.0 ha of pasture. Pastures consisted of a mixture of tall fescue, orchard grass and ladino clover. In addition to pasture, each replicate of steers was group fed ground corn at a rate of .91 kg X head-1 X d-1 with the lasalocid incorporated into the grain. Average daily gains were .50, .60 and .57 kg, respectively, for steers on the control, and for the 200 and 300 mg lasalocid treatments, which differed (P less than .05) from controls. Ruminal acetate (mol/100 mol) was lower (P less than .05) in steers fed lasalocid at 28 d, but similar for all treatments at 56 and 112 d. Molar proportion of propionate was higher (P less than .05) and butyrate and valerate were lower (P less than .10) in rumen fluid of steers receiving 200 or 300 mg/d of lasalocid. Plasma glucose concentrations were similar for controls and steers receiving 200 mg lasalocid/d, but higher (P less than .05) in steers fed 300 mg lasalocid/d. Serum Mg concentrations were lower (P less than .01) in steers receiving lasalocid. Potassium concentrations in serum were slightly lower (P less than .01) in animals fed lasalocid at 112 d, but not at 28 or 56 d.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6706878

  1. Effect of Reindeer Grazing on Snowmelt, Albedo and Energy Balance Based on Satellite Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Juval; Pulliainen, Jouni; Ménard, Cécile; Johansen, Bernt; Oksanen, Lauri; Luojus, Kari; Ikonen, Jaakko

    2013-04-01

    Surface albedo has a major influence on the energy balance of the Earth. The albedo difference between snow-covered and snow-free tundra is very significant. Therefore, a delay in the snowmelt will decrease the absorbed solar energy on the ground. Earlier studies have shown that higher and denser vegetation causes earlier snowmelt, and that shrub height and abundance, as well as the total biomass in summer reindeer pastures is lower than in winter pastures. The possibility of using reindeer summer grazing to decrease the vegetation, delay the snowmelt and decrease the ground heating during the snowmelt season is investigated in this study. Satellite data is used to compare between summer and non-summer grazing areas in the northern tundra areas of Fennoscandia. A comparison of vegetation types, NDVI, fractional snow cover and albedo between the Finnish year-round pastures and the Norwegian non-summer pastures is performed. Other factors influencing the snowmelt, such as surface temperature, ground elevation and incoming solar radiation are taken into account. Information about the vegetation on the ground is based on a vegetation map compiled from Landsat TM/ETM+ satellite data and ancillary map information. The NDVI, snowmelt and albedo analyses are performed using multi-temporal remote sensing data such as GlobSnow SE and MODIS based NDVI, snow and albedo products. The results here support previous studies and indicate that vegetation in the summer pastures is shorter and sparser and that the snowmelt there occurs later than in the more densely vegetated, non-summer pastures. More shrubs protruding above the snowpack and earlier snowmelt on the Norwegian side lower the albedo during the snowmelt season. This causes higher solar energy absorption of up to 6 W/m2 in the snowmelt season and yearly contribution of up to 0.5 W/m2 to the yearly energy balance. Therefore this study suggests that summer reindeer herding can be used to delay snowmelt, increase surface

  2. Adaptive management of grazing lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands, the mainland type used as grazing lands, occupy ~54% of the world’s ice-free land surface, and grasslands dominate ~ 16% of all rangelands. China is the third largest country for rangeland resources in the world and has approximately 400 million ha rangeland, about 40% of China’s land s...

  3. Knowledge and tools to enhance resilience of beef grazing systems for sustainable animal protein production.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jean L; Engle, David M; Xiao, Xiangming; Saleh, Ali; Tomlinson, Peter; Rice, Charles W; Cole, N Andy; Coleman, Samuel W; Osei, Edward; Basara, Jeffrey; Middendorf, Gerad; Gowda, Prasanna; Todd, Richard; Moffet, Corey; Anandhi, Aavudai; Starks, Patrick J; Ocshner, Tyson; Reuter, Ryan; Devlin, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Ruminant livestock provides meat and dairy products that sustain health and livelihood for much of the world's population. Grazing lands that support ruminant livestock provide numerous ecosystem services, including provision of food, water, and genetic resources; climate and water regulation; support of soil formation; nutrient cycling; and cultural services. In the U.S. southern Great Plains, beef production on pastures, rangelands, and hay is a major economic activity. The region's climate is characterized by extremes of heat and cold and extremes of drought and flooding. Grazing lands occupy a large portion of the region's land, significantly affecting carbon, nitrogen, and water budgets. To understand vulnerabilities and enhance resilience of beef production, a multi-institutional Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP), the "grazing CAP," was established. Integrative research and extension spanning biophysical, socioeconomic, and agricultural disciplines address management effects on productivity and environmental footprints of production systems. Knowledge and tools being developed will allow farmers and ranchers to evaluate risks and increase resilience to dynamic conditions. The knowledge and tools developed will also have relevance to grazing lands in semiarid and subhumid regions of the world. PMID:25376887

  4. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcculley, Rebecca; Bush, Lowell; Carlisle, Anna; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim

    2014-10-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue’s ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause ‘fescue toxicosis’ in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3oC) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009 - 2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30-40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue

  5. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    McCulley, Rebecca L.; Bush, Lowell P.; Carlisle, Anna E.; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim A.

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue's ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause “fescue toxicosis” in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3°C) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009–2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30–40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue

  6. Fertility Awareness

    MedlinePlus

    ... planning, periodic abstinence, and the rhythm method. How Does It Work? If a couple doesn't have ... get pregnant should not have sex. How Well Does It Work? Fertility awareness is not a reliable ...

  7. Recycling biosolids and lake-dredged materials to pasture-based animal agriculture: Alternative nutrient sources for forage productivity and sustainability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic sewage sludge or biosolids and lake-dredged materials are examples of materials that can be used to cut fertilizer costs in pasture-based animal agriculture. Sustainable biosolids and lake-dredged materials management is based upon controlling and influencing the quantity, quality and chara...

  8. Corn oil or corn grain supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. I. Effects on in vivo digestibility, performance, and carcass quality.

    PubMed

    Pavan, E; Duckett, S K

    2008-11-01

    Twenty-eight Angus (289 +/- 3.8 kg) steers were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of isocaloric supplementation of 2 different energy sources to steers rotationally grazing tall fescue pastures for 197 d in comparison to positive and negative controls. Steers were supplemented with either corn grain (0.52% BW on a DM basis; PC) or soybean hulls plus corn oil (0.45% BW on a DM basis + 0.10% BW on an as-fed basis; PO) using Calan gates for individual intake measurement. Negative, pasture only (PA), and positive, high-concentrate control diets (85% concentrate:15% roughage on DM basis; C) were also included in the study. Steers on PC, PO, and PA treatments were managed together under a rotational grazing system, whereas C steers were fed a high-concentrate diet for the final 113 d using Calan gates. Forage DMI and apparent DM and NDF digestibility for the grazing treatments were evaluated using Cr(2)O(5) and indigestible NDF as digesta markers. Energy supplementation decreased (P = 0.02) forage DMI (% of BW) with respect to PA, but not (P = 0.58) total DMI. There were no differences (P = 0.53) among grazing treatments on apparent total DM digestibility. However, NDF digestibility was less (P < or = 0.05) in PC than in PO and PA; the latter 2 treatments did not differ (P > 0.05). Overall ADG was greater (P < 0.01) in supplemented, regardless of type, than in nonsupplemented grazing treatments. During the final 113 d, ADG was greater (P < 0.01) in C than in the grazing treatments. Overall supplement conversion did not differ (P = 0.73) between supplement types and was less (P = 0.006) than C. Carcass traits did not differ (P > 0.05) between energy sources. Dressing percentage and HCW were greater (P < 0.01) in supplemented cattle than in PA. Fat thickness and KPH percentage for PA were less (P < 0.05) than for PO but did not differ (P > 0.14) from PC. Marbling score, LM area, and quality grade did not differ (P > 0.05) between grazing

  9. The influence of trees on the thermal environment and behaviour of grazing heifers in Brazilian Midwest.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Luciano Bastos; Eckstein, Camila; Pina, Douglas Santos; Carnevalli, Roberta Aparecida

    2016-04-01

    The intensification of the livestock production system has gained prominence over the last decades. In addition to the reduction of grazing areas and increased productivity per hectare, the intercropping involving forest tree species and ruminants has been established as a sustainable production model, generating income and valuation of natural capital. Besides the social, economic, and environmental aspects, the animal welfare is a noteworthy factor. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microclimatic conditions in an open-pasture and in silvopastoral systems, considering the Temperature Humidity Index (THI) and alterations in animal behavior. Three different pasture arrangements were analyzed in this study: total absence of trees in an open-pasture (ArrA), presence of peripheral trees (Eucalyptus spp.) along the border fences (ArrB), and an intensive wooded area aggregated with pasture (ArrC). A herd of 24 crossbreed heifers (3/4 and 7/8 Holstein-Girolando breed) was evaluated. Behavior data were collected every 15 min starting at 08 h00 with readings ending at 16 h00. THI was used to evaluate the environmental comfort. The THI found in the system with open-pasture and in the two systems with silvopastoral arrangement reached critical levels. The two arrangements with eucalyptus rows were not capable of eliminating heat stress in the conditions found in the north region of Mato Grosso State although better conditions were obtained under the tree canopy. The differences between the microclimatic variables for the three arrangements modified the behavior of the animals regarding their location and activity, except for water consumption. PMID:26894499

  10. Cattle grazing and the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maintaining a balance between the amount of nutrients added to the soil as manure and fertilizer and the amount of nutrients removed as forages, hay, or livestock is critical for productive crop growth and water/environmental quality protection. Soil fertility levels over a 15-year period (1988-2002...

  11. Carbon, Water Vapor, and Energy Fluxes of Grazed and Ungrazed Tallgrass Prairie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owensby, C. E.; Ham, J. M.; Auen, L. M.

    2004-12-01

    To determine the impact of seasonal steer grazing on annual CO2 fluxes of annually-burned native tallgrass prairie, we used conditional sampling (relaxed eddy accumulation) on adjacent pastures of grazed (GR) and ungrazed (UG) tallgrass prairie from 1998 to 2001 and eddy correlation from 2002 to 2004. Fluxes of CO2 were measured almost continuously (24 hr) from immediately following burning through the burn date the following year (365 d). Aboveground biomass and leaf area were determined by clipping biweekly during the growing season. Carbon lost due to burning was estimated by clipping immediately prior to burning and collecting residual surface carbon after the burn. Soil CO2 flux was measured biweekly at midday each year using portable chambers from 1998 to 2002 and diurnally by large autochambers from 2002 to 2004. Steers were stocked at twice the normal season-long stocking rate (0.81 ha steer-1) for the first half of the grazing season (~May 1 to July 15) and the area left ungrazed the remainder of the year. That system of grazing is termed "intensive early stocking" and is commonly used throughout the Kansas Flint Hills. During the early growing season, grazing reduced net carbon exchange relative to the reduction in green leaf area, but as the growing season progressed on the grazed area, regrowth produced younger leaves that had an apparent higher photosynthetic efficiency. Despite a substantially greater green leaf area on the ungrazed area, greater positive net carbon flux occurred on the grazed area during the late season. Nighttime carbon losses were greater on the ungrazed area in the early season, but were greater on the grazed area late in the season. During the peak growth period, an amount equivalent to ~80% of the carbon fixed on a clear day was lost each day through soil CO2 flux and plant respiration. Soil CO2 flux followed a definite diurnal pattern during the growing season with daytime fluxes twice that of nighttime. During the dormant

  12. 1. South approach to the horse pasture store, looking north; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. South approach to the horse pasture store, looking north; U.S. Highway 58 (toward Martinsville) is in the foreground - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  13. Evidence for biological nitrification inhibition in Brachiaria pastures

    PubMed Central

    Subbarao, G. V.; Nakahara, K.; Hurtado, M. P.; Ono, H.; Moreta, D. E.; Salcedo, A. F.; Yoshihashi, A. T.; Ishikawa, T.; Ishitani, M.; Ohnishi-Kameyama, M.; Yoshida, M.; Rondon, M.; Rao, I. M.; Lascano, C. E.; Berry, W. L.; Ito, O.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrification, a key process in the global nitrogen cycle that generates nitrate through microbial activity, may enhance losses of fertilizer nitrogen by leaching and denitrification. Certain plants can suppress soil-nitrification by releasing inhibitors from roots, a phenomenon termed biological nitrification inhibition (BNI). Here, we report the discovery of an effective nitrification inhibitor in the root-exudates of the tropical forage grass Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick. Named “brachialactone,” this inhibitor is a recently discovered cyclic diterpene with a unique 5-8-5-membered ring system and a γ-lactone ring. It contributed 60–90% of the inhibitory activity released from the roots of this tropical grass. Unlike nitrapyrin (a synthetic nitrification inhibitor), which affects only the ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) pathway, brachialactone appears to block both AMO and hydroxylamine oxidoreductase enzymatic pathways in Nitrosomonas. Release of this inhibitor is a regulated plant function, triggered and sustained by the availability of ammonium (NH4+) in the root environment. Brachialactone release is restricted to those roots that are directly exposed to NH4+. Within 3 years of establishment, Brachiaria pastures have suppressed soil nitrifier populations (determined as amoA genes; ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing archaea), along with nitrification and nitrous oxide emissions. These findings provide direct evidence for the existence and active regulation of a nitrification inhibitor (or inhibitors) release from tropical pasture root systems. Exploiting the BNI function could become a powerful strategy toward the development of low-nitrifying agronomic systems, benefiting both agriculture and the environment. PMID:19805171

  14. Grazing behaviour and dry matter intake of llamas (Lama glama) and German black- head mutton sheep (Ovis orientalis forma aries) under Central European conditions.

    PubMed

    Stölzl, Anna Maria; Lambertz, Christian; Gauly, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the behaviour of llamas (Lama glama) and German blackhead mutton sheep (Ovis orientalis forma aries) when kept under Central European grazing conditions. In total, six adult female sheep and six adult female llamas were observed by direct observation during one week, in which each group was observed for a total time of 24 h. The animals were kept on the same pasture, but the species were raised in separate plots. Forage height before and after the experimental period were determined using a rising plate meter to calculate the average daily dry matter intake (DMI). Llamas had a daily DMI of 0.85%/BW and sheep of 1.04%/BW, respectively. The following behaviours were recorded by direct observation: grazing standing up, grazing lying down, ruminating standing up, ruminating lying down, lying down, lying down lateral and standing. Both species grazed for more than 50% of the time. Ruminating was predominantly performed while standing and lying by sheep (about 50% of the night and 12% of the day) and while lying by llamas (54% of the night and 10% of the day). In conclusion, sheep and llamas differed in grazing behaviour and daily biorhythm. These differences indicate that sheep and llamas may not synchronize their behaviour when co-grazed, though particularly in co-grazing studies the observation period should be extended. PMID:26591388

  15. Continuous measurement of reticuloruminal pH values in dairy cows during the transition period from barn to pasture feeding using an indwelling wireless data transmitting unit.

    PubMed

    Gasteiner, J; Horn, M; Steinwidder, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of the transition from barn feeding to pasture on the pattern of reticuloruminal pH values in 8 multiparous dairy cows. A indwelling wireless data transmitting system for pH measurement was given to 8 multiparous cows orally. Reticuloruminal pH values were measured every 600 s over a period of 42 days. After 7 days of barn feeding (period 1), all of the animals were pastured with increasing grazing times from 2 to 7 h/day over 7 days (period 2). From day 15 to day 21 (period 3), the cows spent 7 h/day on pasture. Beginning on day 22, the animals had 20 h/day access to pasture (day and night grazing). To study reticuloruminal adaptation to pasture feeding, the phase of day and night grazing was subdivided into another 3 weekly periods (periods 4-6). Despite a mild transition period from barn feeding to pasture, significant effects on reticuloruminal pH values were observed. During barn feeding, the mean reticuloruminal pH value for all of the cows was 6.44 ± 0.14, and the pH values decreased significantly (p < 0.001) during period 2 and 3 to 6.24 ± 0.17 and 6.21 ± 0.19 respectively. During periods 4, 5 and 6, the reticuloruminal pH values increased again (pH 6.25 ± 0.22; pH 6.31 ± 0.17; pH 6.37 ± 0.16). Our results showed that the animals had significantly lowered reticuloruminal pH during the periods of feed transition from barn to pasture feeding. Despite these significant changes, the decrease was not harmful, as indicated by data of feed intake and milk production. PMID:25266568

  16. Fact Sheet: Ten Questions about Pastures and Biodiversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, pasture management has emphasized balancing the quantity and quality of forage for livestock production. Thus, producers have often planted single species or simple grass-legume mixtures in their pastures. Today, producers face new challenges in pasture management, including sustainab...

  17. Fact Sheet: Accurately measuring forage yield in pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers have a few options for measuring pasture yield. These include pasture rulers, plate meters, and electronic gauges. Pasture rulers simply measure canopy height and assume that forage yield is directly related to height. Plate meters improve accuracy by measuring compressed height. Electronic ...

  18. A Review of USDFRC Grazing Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the manner in which cattle are fed, there is often less control of the variables influencing milk production on a pasture-based dairy than on a confinement dairy. Environment and management influence pasture productivity, quality, and utilization, which in turn influence stored feed and supp...

  19. Levels of Supplementation for Grazing Beef Heifers

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Carla Heloisa Avelino; Paulino, Mario Fonseca; Detmann, Edenio; de Campos Valadares Filho, Sebastião; de Barros, Lívia Vieira; Valente, Ériton Egidio Lisboa; de Oliveira Bauer, Maristela; Cabral, Carlos Eduardo Avelino

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of providing different levels of a supplement on the nutritional characteristics and productive performance of heifers on pasture during the rainy-dry transition and dry season in Brazil or tropical area. Thirty crossbred heifers with predominance of Zebu breed were used in a completely randomized experimental design. Treatments consisted of a mineral supplement and 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 kg/animal/d of a protein supplement containing 300 g crude protein (CP)/kg of dry matter (DM). In the rainy-dry transition season there was quadratic effect of the protein supplementation (p<0.10) on daily weight gain (DWG). A linear relationship (p<0.10) was found between increasing supplement intake and intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC) and total digestible nutrients (TDN). Coefficients of apparent digestibility of CP, EE, and NFC increased linearly (p<0.10) with increasing supplement levels, but there was no effect on the DM apparent digestibility (p>0.10); the microbial efficiency (g CPmic/kg TDN) and the relationship of microbial nitrogen flow with nitrogen intake (g/g nitrogen intake) were negative linear profiles. In the dry season, the descriptive pattern least squares means showed a trend of stabilization of DWG from the supply of 0.98 kg of protein supplement; the intakes of DM, OM, CP, EE, NFC, and TDN showed increasing linear relationship (p<0.10) with protein supplement levels; the means of apparent digestibility coefficients of the different dietary fractions presented a linear-response-plateau (LRP); the microbial nitrogen flow (g/d) showed positive linear profile (p<0.10) for supplementation levels. It is concluded that supplementation improves the productive performance of grazing heifers and that 1.0 kg/d of supplement per animal gives the maximum increment of weight gain. PMID:25050018

  20. Impact of cattle grazing on soil and vegetation - a case study in a mountainous region of Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohner, Andreas; Foldal, Cecilie; Jandl, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In mountainous regions of Austria and of many other European countries, climate change may cause a further intensification of grassland management. Therefore, the effects of intensive cattle grazing on selected soil chemical and physical properties, above- and below-ground phytomass, forage quality, plant species composition and plant species richness at the scale of a representative paddock in a mountainous region of Austria were investigated. At the study site (Styrian Enns valley; 675 m a.s.l.), climate is relatively cool and humid, with a mean annual air temperature of 6.7°C and a mean annual precipitation of 970 mm, of which 66% falls during the vegetation period (April-October). The soil is a deep, base-rich Cambisol with a loamy sand texture. The paddock investigated has a total area of about 2 ha and had been grazed by dairy cows (Brown Swiss) five times per grazing season. The stocking density was 4 cows ha-1 during 180 days from early May to the end of October with a grazing time of about 8 hours per day. The strip grazed permanent pasture was manured annually for a long time, mostly with cattle slurry. Vegetation surveys were carried out using the method of Braun-Blanquet. Above- and below-ground phytomass, forage quality and mineral element concentration in the harvestable above-ground plant biomass were determined by using standard methods. During the grazing season surface soil samples (0-10 cm depth) for chemical analyses were collected before each grazing period (5 analyses of composite samples per site). At the beginning and the end of the grazing season also soil samples for physical analyses were taken from the topsoil (0-15 cm depth). Heavy cattle treading led to a substantial soil compaction especially in the 5-10 cm layer and to a deterioration of topsoil structure. The porous crumb structure was replaced by a compact platy structure. The topsoil was enriched with nutrients (mainly nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and boron). The degree of