Science.gov

Sample records for grazing willow fodder

  1. Willow Bark

    MedlinePlus

    ... white willow or European willow, black willow or pussy willow, crack willow, purple willow, and others. The ... Purple Osier, Purple Osier Willow, Purple Willow, Purpurweide, Pussy Willow, Reifweide, Salicis Cortex, Salix alba, Salix daphnoides, ...

  2. Effect of browsing on willow in the Steel Creek grazing allotment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keigley, R.B.; Gale, Gil

    2000-01-01

    View upstream from the study area. Salix geyerriana is the dominant willow species. Salix drummondiana and S. Boothii are less common; older individuals of both species grow to about 2-m tall. Salix bebbiana is much less common, and where present, is browsed close to ground level. The carcass of an old Bebb willow that had attained typical stature is located near the study area. Beaver are absent. The remains of relic beaver dams indicate that beaver were once an important hydrologic influence.

  3. Willow Bark

    MedlinePlus

    ... reactions. Avoid use. Surgery: Willow bark might slow blood clotting. There is a concern it could cause extra ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Willow bark might slow blood ...

  4. Ethanol production from fodder beet

    SciTech Connect

    Kosaric, M.; Wieczorek, A.; Kliza, S.

    1983-07-01

    Various yeasts such as two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces diastaticus, and Kluyveromyces marxianus were investigated for their ability to ferment fodder beet juice to alcohol. Juice extracted from fodder beet roots without any additives was used as a fermentation substrate. The fermentation kinetic parameters were determined and compared for each species of yeast tested. The best species for fodder beet juice fermentation was chosen and products obtained by fermentation of one hectare of fodder beet plants are given. (Refs. 8).

  5. Living Willow Huts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2007-01-01

    Living Willow Huts are inexpensive to make, fun to plant, easy to grow, and make beautiful spaces for children. They involve planting dormant willow shoots in the ground and weaving them into shapes that will sprout and grow over time. People have been creating similar living architecture throughout the world for centuries in the forms of living…

  6. Blue Willow Story Plates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Kris

    2009-01-01

    In the December 1997 issue of "SchoolArts" is a lesson titled "Blue Willow Story Plates" by Susan Striker. In this article, the author shares how she used this lesson with her middle-school students many times over the years. Here, she describes a Blue Willow plate painting project that her students made.

  7. Hybrid sugarbeets - fuel from fodder

    SciTech Connect

    Yarris, L.

    1980-05-01

    Plant geneticists at Utah University are exploring the possibility of developing a hybrid sugarbeet especially bred for use in making alcohol fuel. They are aiming at increasing sugar quantity in the beet without having to worry about the quality factors that affect sugar crystallization. A cross between European fodder beets and U.S. sugarbeets which would be resistant to curly top virus disease is envisaged.

  8. Fodder Resource Uses and Assessment of Nitrogen Flows on Livestock Farming with Crop Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirahase, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Hisashi

    With understanding the livestock farming on cattle breeding practiced increasing of self-production of fodders by the farmland's operation as “Livestock Farming with crop production”, we investigated the utilizations of actual fodder resources and farmland for two selected different types of livestock farming systems: “Multiple Type” which practices cattle raising with fodder cultivation, and “Grazing Type” which practices grazing and fodder cultivation with similar feed self-sufficiency rates. We also prepared and compared material and nitrogen flow of both livestock farming systems. The amount of nitrogen flow is clearly different between the two types though feed self-sufficiency rates are at similar level. Moreover, we defined “Internal Nitrogen Rate (INR)” which indicates the rate of internal nitrogen use to total nitrogen use in cattle raising, “Internal Nitrogen Circulation Rate (NCR)” which indicates the ratio of nitrogen amount in internal circulation to the nitrogen amount introduced from outside, and Nitrogen Outflow Potential (Op), which is the balance of nitrogen amount between input to farmlands and uptake by plants, and analyzed the balance of the amounts of nitrogen flows in both livestock farming type. It is suggested that “Grazing type”, which had the values of relatively high NCR and absolutely low Op, was the livestock farming type with high rates of nitrogen procurement from the interregional farming and low risk of nitrogen outflow.

  9. WILLOW CREEK RECLAMATION PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Working in cooperation with the EPA, Colorado Division of Minerals and Geology, and others, the Willow Creek Reclamation Committee (WCRC) will investigate the sources and character of water entering the mine workings on the Amethyst vein near the town of Creede, Colorado. Activi...

  10. Factors influencing nest success of songbirds in aspen and willow riparian areas in the Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heltzel, J.M.; Earnst, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies have examined the effects of livestock grazing, agriculture, and human habitation on nest predation and brood parasitism in riparian areas in the western United States. However, we know little about factors influencing nest success in riparian areas lacking such anthropogenic influences, in part because the influences are so pervasive. We studied riparian bird communities in a 115 000 ha wildlife refuge where livestock grazing was discontinued > 10 years ago, and which has little nearby agriculture or human habitation. We monitored nests on 24 aspen (Populus tremuloides) and 10 willow (Salix spp.) plots. Brood parasitism rates were substantially lower than at other western sites and did not differ between aspen and willow habitats. Nest success in aspen was relatively high compared to that reported for other western sites and higher than in willow. Predators may have been able to find nests more efficiently in willow than in aspen because territory densities were higher in willow (40 versus 30 pairs per ha, respectively), because willow had less structural heterogeneity, or both. We did not find strong evidence that nest success was influenced by aspen patch size or distance to riparian edge, indicating that even small aspen patches provide valuable nesting habitat. Weather was an important cause of nest failure, particularly at higher elevations during late-spring snowstorms. Our results indicate that riparian areas without major anthropogenic impacts, especially aspen stands, constitute high-quality breeding habitat and warrant conservation focus. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2006.

  11. Ungulate herbivory on alpine willow in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeigenfuss, L.C.; Schoenecker, K.A.; Amburg, L.K.V.

    2011-01-01

    In many areas of the Rocky Mountains, elk (Cervus elaphus) migrate from low-elevation mountain valleys during spring to high-elevation subalpine and alpine areas for the summer. Research has focused on the impacts of elk herbivory on winter-range plant communities, particularly on woody species such as willow and aspen; however, little information is available on the effects of elk herbivory on alpine willows. In the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of south central Colorado, select alpine areas appear to receive high levels of summer elk herbivory, while other areas are nearly unbrowsed. In 2005 and 2008, we measured willow height, cover, and utilization on sites that appeared to be used heavily by elk, as well as on sites that appeared to be used lightly, to determine differences between these communities over time. We found less willow cover and shorter willows at sites that received higher levels of browsing compared to those that had lower levels of browsing. Human recreational use was greater at lightly browsed sites than at highly browsed sites. From 2005 to 2008, willow utilization declined, and willow cover and height increased at sites with heavy browsing, likely owing to ownership change of adjacent valley land which led to (1) removal of grazing competition from, cattle at valley locations and (2) increased human use in alpine areas, which displaced elk. We discuss the implications of increased human use and climate change on elk use of these alpine habitats. ?? 2011.

  12. Willow: a uniform search interface.

    PubMed Central

    Ketchell, D S; Freedman, M M; Jordan, W E; Lightfoot, E M; Heyano, S; Libbey, P A

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the Willow Project is to develop a uniform search interface that allows a diverse community of users to retrieve information from heterogeneous network-based information resources. Willow separates the user interface from the database management or information retrieval system. It provides a graphic user interface to a variety of information resources residing on diverse hosts, and using different search engines and idiomatic query languages through networked-based client-server and Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) protocols. It is based on a "database driver'' model, which allows new database hosts to be added without altering Willow itself. Willow employs a multimedia extension mechanism to launch external viewers to handle data in almost any form. Drivers are currently available for a local BRS/SEARCH system and the Z39.50 protocol. Students, faculty, clinicians, and researchers at the University of Washington are currently offered 30 local and remote databases via Willow. They conduct more than 250,000 sessions a month in libraries, medical centers and clinics, laboratories, and offices, and from home. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is implementing Willow as its uniform search interface to Z39.50 hosts. PMID:8750388

  13. Analysis of short-rotation willow

    SciTech Connect

    Raunonaa, T.; Samela, J.; Kantele, O.; Reponen, A.

    1986-01-01

    The applicability of the proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method to determination of the elemental composition of short-rotation willow is studied. The analysis samples were taken as a time series from different willow stands. The concentrations of 15 elements between aluminum and lead were determined, and the implications of certain correlations between two distinct groups of elements are considered. The elemental composition of gases from willow combustion was also tentatively measured by PIXE. Nutrient dynamics and growth of willow seedlings were in addition studied by this technique and a simple simulation model was developed to depict the nutrient dynamics in willow leaves.

  14. Sustainability of vegetation communities grazed by elk in Rocky Mountain National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenecker, K.A.; Singer, F.J.; Menezes, R.S.C.; Zeigenfuss, L.C.; Binkley, D.

    2002-01-01

    Current management of the worldsa?? grazing lands in either based on changes in plant species composition or on other management evaluation programs that emphasize changes in net aboveground production. Management is based solely on changes in aboveground production has been criticized as too limited in view, because it ignores root production, nitrogen pools, nutrient processes, and the long-term sustainability of the ecosystem. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of elk (Cervus elaphus) grazing on aboveground production, internal nitrogen (N) fluxes, N pools and inputs, and elk nutrient transfers across the landscape in different vegetation types in Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP), Colorado. Nitrogen processes and possibly N pools were significantly reduced in the willow community, but not in the upland grass/shrub community. Nitrogen mineralization rates were lower in grazed versus ungrazed short willow sites (P = 0.07; n = 4 sites), as were nitrate (NO3) pools (P = 0.10), but not in tall willow sites (P > 1.10 n = 4 sites) after 4 years. There was about half the annual N inputs to the soil surface in grazed willow sites (5.79g N/m2/yr = annual herbaceous biomass a?? offtake + litterfall + elk urine and feces) compared to ungrazed sites (9.66 g N/m2/yr = annual herbaceous biomass + litterfall), suggesting elk herbivory and movement led to a net loss of N in the willow vegetation type. Elk substantially reduced the annual growth of willows (Salix spp.) by 98% after 35 years and 66% after 4 years of treatment. Thus, height and canopy and N yield of willows were reduced as well as willow litter biomass (65 g/m2/yr in ungrazed versus 33 g/m2/yr in grazed), and N yield of willows was 64% less in grazed plots. Elk grazing had no significant effect on other soil N pools (NH4) or litter decomposition rates in either of the two willow types, nor on any nitrogen process rates or pools in the upland grass/shrub type (P > 0.10). Nitrogen concentrations

  15. Regionwide polygyny in willow flycatchers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1989-01-01

    Most species of North American flycatchers (Tyranidae) are believed to be normally monogamous (Skutch 1960, Verner and Willson 1969). Some instances of bigamy are known for the Eastern Phoebe (Sayornis phoebe; Sherman 1952), Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens; W. J. Smith, cited in Eckhardt 1976), Western Wood-Pewee (C. sordidulus; Eckhardt 1976), and Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax viriscens; Mumford 1964). Recently, local incidences of polygyny have also been reported for the Least (E. minimus; Briskie and Sealy 1987) and Willow (E. traillii; Prescott 1986) flycatchers. Here, we present details on two additional instances of polygyny in Willow Flycatchers in different regions of North America, including information on the behavior and nesting ecology of polygynous trios.

  16. Living Willow Huts--Part 2: Constructing a Living Willow Hut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a step-by-step "how-to" guide on the basics of living willow hut construction. While there certainly are time-tested techniques for building willow structures, the best advice the author has is to experiment. He also suggests that varieties of "salix vimnalis" can be an ideal type of willow to be used for constructing a…

  17. Guild structure of a riparian avifauna relative to seasonal cattle grazing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knopf, F.L.; Sedgwick, J.A.; Cannon, R. W.

    1988-01-01

    Knopf et al. found that summer cattle grazing has an adverse effect on the presence of certain willow-dependent songbirds. Pastures that have historical summer grazing no longer have the Willow flycatcher, Lincoln's sparrow and the White-crowned sparrow present. Yet in these same areas, birds like the American Robin, Brown-headed cowbird and the Red-winged blackbird have increased in density. One possible answer for the decrease in some songbirds is the fact that the main focus of the Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge is on waterfowl habitat, which requires large amounts of open space (opposite of desirable songbird habitat).

  18. Musings on Willower's "Fog": A Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Fenwick

    1998-01-01

    Professor Willower complains about the "fog" encountered in postmodernist literature and the author's two articles in "Journal of School Leadership." On closer examination, this miasma is simply the mildew on Willower's Cartesian glasses. Educational administration continues to substitute management and business fads for any real effort to create…

  19. Amazing Grazing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Cris

    Countless acres of grasslands stretch across the American West. Centuries ago, bison roamed the range freely and lived off the grass. By the 19th century, herds of cattle grazed the same land. Over time, much of the original grassland was either plowed and planted or trampled to dust, causing the topsoil to dry up and blow away. Today many…

  20. Using dual-purpose crops in sheep-grazing systems.

    PubMed

    Dove, Hugh; Kirkegaard, John

    2014-05-01

    The utilisation of dual-purpose crops, especially wheat and canola grown for forage and grain production in sheep-grazing systems, is reviewed. When sown early and grazed in winter before stem elongation, later-maturing wheat and canola crops can be grazed with little impact on grain yield. Recent research has sought to develop crop- and grazing-management strategies for dual-purpose crops. Aspects examined have been grazing effects on crop growth, recovery and yield development along with an understanding of the grazing value of the crop fodder, its implications for animal nutrition and grazing management to maximise live-weight gain. By alleviating the winter 'feed gap', the increase in winter stocking rate afforded by grazing crops allows crop and livestock production to be increased simultaneously on the same farm. Integration of dual-purpose wheat with canola on mixed farms provides further systems advantages related to widened operational windows, weed and disease control and risk management. Dual-purpose crops are an innovation that has potential to assist in addressing the global food-security challenge. PMID:24323974

  1. Shaping the Herders' "Mental Maps": Participatory Mapping with Pastoralists' to Understand Their Grazing Area Differentiation and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Wario, Hussein T; Roba, Hassan G; Kaufmann, Brigitte

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the perception of environmental resources by the users is an important element in planning its sustainable use and management. Pastoralist communities manage their vast grazing territories and exploit resource variability through strategic mobility. However, the knowledge on which pastoralists' resource management is based and their perception of the grazing areas has received limited attention. To improve this understanding and to document this knowledge in a way that can be communicated with 'outsiders', we adopted a participatory mapping approach using satellite imagery to explore how Borana pastoralists of southern Ethiopia differentiated and characterized their grazing areas. The Borana herders conceptualized their grazing areas as set of distinctive grazing units each having specific names and characteristics. The precise location and the borders of each grazing unit were identified on the satellite image. In naming of the grazing units, the main differentiating criteria were landforms, vegetation types, prevalence of wildlife species, and manmade features. Based on the dominant soil type, the grazing units were aggregated into seasonal grazing areas that were described using factors such as soil drainage properties, extent of woody cover, main grass species, and prevalence of ecto-parasites. Pastoralists ranking of the seasonal grazing areas according to their suitability for cattle grazing matched with vegetation assessment results on the abundance of desirable fodder varieties. Approaching grazing area differentiation from the pastoralists' perspectives improves the understanding of rangeland characteristics that pastoralists considered important in their grazing management and visualization of their mental representation in digital maps eases communication of this knowledge. PMID:25957624

  2. Shaping the Herders' "Mental Maps": Participatory Mapping with Pastoralists' to Understand Their Grazing Area Differentiation and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wario, Hussein T.; Roba, Hassan G.; Kaufmann, Brigitte

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the perception of environmental resources by the users is an important element in planning its sustainable use and management. Pastoralist communities manage their vast grazing territories and exploit resource variability through strategic mobility. However, the knowledge on which pastoralists' resource management is based and their perception of the grazing areas has received limited attention. To improve this understanding and to document this knowledge in a way that can be communicated with `outsiders', we adopted a participatory mapping approach using satellite imagery to explore how Borana pastoralists of southern Ethiopia differentiated and characterized their grazing areas. The Borana herders conceptualized their grazing areas as set of distinctive grazing units each having specific names and characteristics. The precise location and the borders of each grazing unit were identified on the satellite image. In naming of the grazing units, the main differentiating criteria were landforms, vegetation types, prevalence of wildlife species, and manmade features. Based on the dominant soil type, the grazing units were aggregated into seasonal grazing areas that were described using factors such as soil drainage properties, extent of woody cover, main grass species, and prevalence of ecto-parasites. Pastoralists ranking of the seasonal grazing areas according to their suitability for cattle grazing matched with vegetation assessment results on the abundance of desirable fodder varieties. Approaching grazing area differentiation from the pastoralists' perspectives improves the understanding of rangeland characteristics that pastoralists considered important in their grazing management and visualization of their mental representation in digital maps eases communication of this knowledge.

  3. Primary song by a juvenile willow flycatcher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sogge, M.K.

    1997-01-01

    The timing of song development in suboscines, in which song appears not to be learned from other adults is poorly known. The Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii) is a suboscine with a primary song typically referred to as fitz-bew. I report here an instance of very early singing by a 6-8-wk-old Willow Flycatcher, which sang in an aggressive context in response to a recording of adult flycatcher song. This is exceptionally early development of primary song, even among suboscines. Early song development may assist in the defense of winter territories.

  4. Willow Fire Near Payson, Arizona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    On July 3, 2004, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite acquired this image of the Willow fire near Payson, Arizona. The image is being used by the United States Department of Agriculture's Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC). The image combines data from the visible and infrared wavelength regions to highlight: the burned areas in dark red; the active fires in red-orange; vegetation in green; and smoke in blue.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. Science Team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, a long- term research effort dedicated to understanding the Earth as an integrated system and applying Earth System Science to improve prediction of climate, weather, and natural hazards using the unique vantage point of

  5. Prescribed grazing as a secondary impact in a western riparian floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, J.A.; Knopf, F.L.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of late-autumn cattle grazing on plant biomass was examined in a western Great Plains cottonwood riparian zone prone to catastrophic flooding every 5-8 years. Following 1 year of pre-treatment data collection in 1982, five 16-ha pastures were grazed from 1982 to 1984 and compared to 5 control pastures within the South Platte River floodplain in northeastern Colorado. At a prescribed grazing level of 0.46 ha/AUM, riparian vegetation proved to be resilient to the impacts of grazing. We detected only a few significant treatment effects for above-ground biomass after succeeding growing seasons. Willows (Salix spp.) responded negatively to grazing whereas biomass of prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link) was greater on grazed plots. Yearly changes in above-ground biomass, especially dramatic following a severe flood in 1983, suggest that periodic, catastrophic flooding is a major perturbation to the ecosystem, and in conjunction with our results on grazing impacts, indicate that dormant-season grazing within Soil Conservation Service (SCS) guidelines is a comparatively minor impact within the floodplain. In addition, grazing impacts were probably further mitigated by a major forage supplement of cottonwood leaves which was available at the time of cattle introductions. This local forage supplement ultimately created a lighter grazing treatment than that originally prescribed.

  6. Fodder beets as a feedstock for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, W.

    1981-09-01

    Fodder beets have been shown to be an attractive feedstock for alcohol production, yielding sufficient sugar to produce approximately 1000 gallons of alcohol per acre. Resistance to diseases found in a given region would have to be evaluated. Storage tests have demonstrated that beets can be stored long enough to make them of interest as a feedstock for alcohol production. Further testing is required to evaluate techniques for reducing sugar losses due to sprouting, respiration, and molding.

  7. Willow species and aspirin: different mechanism of actions.

    PubMed

    Vlachojannis, J; Magora, F; Chrubasik, S

    2011-07-01

    Many believe that willow is the natural source of aspirin. However, willow species contain only a low quantity of the prodrug salicin which is metabolized during absorption into various salicylate derivatives. If calculated as salicylic acid, the daily salicin dose is insufficient to produce analgesia. Salicylic acid concentrations following an analgesic dose of aspirin are an order of magnitude higher. Flavonoids and polyphenols contribute to the potent willow bark analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect. The multi-component active principle of willow bark provides a broader mechanism of action than aspirin and is devoid of serious adverse events. In contrast to synthetic aspirin, willow bark does not damage the gastrointestinal mucosa. An extract dose with 240 mg salicin had no major impact on blood clotting. In patients with known aspirin allergy willow bark products are contraindicated. PMID:21226125

  8. Wood biomass: The potential of willow

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P. . Coll. of Environmental Science and Forestry)

    1991-10-01

    Experiments were established in central New York State in spring, 1987, to evaluate the potential of Salix for wood biomass production using ultrashort-rotation intensive-culture techniques. Five selected willow clones and one hybrid poplar clone planted at 1 {times} 1 foot spacing were tested for biomass production with annual coppicing. This report presents results of this research as of December 31, 1990. (VC)

  9. Models in Educational Administration: Revisiting Willower's "Theoretically Oriented" Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Paul; Burgess, David; Burns, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Three decades ago, Willower (1975) argued that much of what we take to be theory in educational administration is in fact only theoretically oriented. If we accept Willower's assessment of the field as true, what implications does this statement hold for the academic study and practical application of the theoretically oriented aspects of our…

  10. Testing of Willow Clones for Biomass Production in Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiske, Marke E.

    2005-01-01

    A core experiment with 31 willow clones and 8 standard poplar clones was established at the Harshaw Experimental Farm, Rhinelander, WI in 1997. Data analysis is continuing for survival, growth, and biomass data for all willow test sites in this project.

  11. Willow Shrub Expansion Following Tundra Fires in Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racine, C.

    2010-12-01

    Climate warming in the Arctic is predicted to result in the expansion of woody shrubs and increased frequency and size of tundra fires. How will fire influence this shrub expansion? Over a period of 32 years, following a 1977 tundra fire in the central Seward Peninsula, we sampled seven times the post-fire vegetation at eight permanently marked sites on a long (2 Km) hillslope (Nimrod Hill). We had previously sampled vegetation here in 1973 prior to the fire. By 2001, 24 years post-fire conspicuous willow shrubs (mostly Salix pulchra) had increased in numbers, size and cover over the entire slope in moist tussock-shrub tundra, well-drained heath, and wet meadow. Prior to fire, willow on this slope was largely restricted to small drainages or watertracks. Willows here have originated from both seed and vegetative resprouting - the latter mostly in moist tussock-shrub tundra from willows resprouting within one to three years post-fire. With fire-induced removal of vascular plant competition and Spagnum moss cover and litter in tussock-shrub tundra, both seedling and resprouting willows have grown rapidly to overtop tussocks by 30-40 cm. Similar rapid post-fire resprouting of willows has been observed in tussock-shrub tundra after the 2007 Anaktuvuk River tundra fire and after the 1977 tundra fires in the Noatak River basin. On Nimrod Hill the most striking willow expansion has occurred on the severely burned and well-drained backslope where willow establishment from seed 5-10 years after fire has resulted in up to 40% cover of rapidly growing willows of both upright and spreading growth form. At several sites along the slope there is evidence of continuing willow expansion from seedlings 24 to 32 years post-fire, when we might expect the effects of fire on seedbeds would have ceased. We conclude that tundra fire may promote shrub expansion in the Arctic.

  12. Grazing impact on desert plants and soil seed banks: Implications for seed-eating animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pol, Rodrigo G.; Sagario, M. Cecilia; Marone, Luis

    2014-02-01

    We assess whether the knowledge of livestock diet helps to link grazing effects with changes in plant cover and soil seed bank size, aiming at inferring the consequences of grazing on seed-eating animals. Specifically, we test whether continuous and heavy grazing reduce the cover, number of reproductive structures and seed reserves of the same grass species whose seeds are selected and preferred by granivorous animals in the central Monte desert, Argentina. Grass cover and the number of grass spikes usually diminished under grazing conditions in the two localities studied (Telteca and Ñacuñán), and soil seed bank was consistently reduced in all three years evaluated owing to a decline of perennial grass and forb seeds. In particular, the abundance of those seeds selected and preferred by birds and ants (in all cases grass species) declined 70-92% in Ñacuñán, and 52-72% in Telteca. Reduction of perennial grass cover and spike number in grazed sites reinforced the causal link between livestock grazing and the decline of grass soil seed reserves throughout failed plant reproduction. Grass seed bank depletion suggests that grazing may trigger a "cascade" of mechanisms that affect the abundance and persistence of valuable fodder species as well as the availability of seed resources for granivorous animals.

  13. Prescribed grazing on pasturelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Principles of grazing management center round the temporal and spatial distribution of various kinds and number of livestock. Within the context of this chapter, management of grazing or browsing will be characterized in terms of intensity, method, and season (timing), and as a function of the type ...

  14. MONITORING GRAZING LANDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important step in developing a ranch or allotment management plan for grazing lands is defining a rangeland monitoring program to evaluate progress toward achieving management objectives. A monitoring program can: 1) help determine the benefits gained from changes in grazing management or invest...

  15. Bioenergy from willow. 1995 Annual report, November 1987--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.

    1997-07-01

    Experiments were established at Tully, New York, by the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, in cooperation with the University of Toronto and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, to assess the potential of willows for wood biomass production. Specific objectives included determining the effects of clone type, fertilization, spacing, cutting cycle, and irrigation on biomass production. Production was high, with willow clone SV1 yielding nearly 32 oven dry tons per acre (odt ac{sup -1}) with three-year harvest cycle, irrigation, and fertilization. Clone type, fertilization, spacing, cutting cycle, and irrigation all significantly affected biomass production. Willow clone-site trials planted at Massena, and Tully, NY in 1993 grew well during 1994 and 1995, but some clones in the Massena trial were severely damaged by deer browse. Several new cooperators joined the project, broadening the funding base, and enabling establishment of additional willow plantings. Willow clone-site trials were planted at Himrod, King Ferry, Somerset, and Tully, NY, during 1995. A willow cutting orchard was planted during 1995 at the NYS Department of Environmental Conservation Saratoga Tree Nursery in Saratoga, NY. Plans are to begin site preparation for a 100+ acre willow bioenergy demonstration farm in central New York, and additional clone-site trials, in 1996.

  16. Cs-137 concentration in reindeer and its fodder plants.

    PubMed

    Rissanen, K; Rahola, T

    1989-09-01

    Radionuclides, especially the long-lived 137Cs (physical half-life 30 years), are accumulated efficiently in the northern, subarctic, lichen-reindeer-man foodchain. Until the Chernobyl accident the fallout nuclides studied originated from nuclear weapons tests. After this accident some fresh fallout was deposited in Finnish Lapland. Lichens grow very slowly and collect nutrients very efficiently from air, rain and snow. During winter the basic fodder plants for reindeer are lichens and some winter-green plants, shrubs and dry leaves. During the bare-ground season, the reindeer eat various grasses, herbs and leaves etc. Lichens constitute 30-50 per cent of the entire vegetable mass consumed by the reindeer in a year. The highest 137Cs-concentration 2500 Bq/kg dry weight was found in lichen in the middle of the 1960s. In 1985 the concentration had decreased to about 240 Bq/kg dry weight. After the Chernobyl accident the 137Cs-concentration in lichen varied from 200 to 2000 Bq/kg dry weight in Finnish Lapland. In reindeer fodder plant samples collected in the 1980s before the Chernobyl accident the 137Cs-concentration varied from 5 to 970 Bq/kg dry weight. The highest 137Cs-concentration in reindeer meat, about 2500 Bq/kg fresh weight, was found in 1965 and thereafter decreased to about 300 Bq/kg fresh weight in the winter before the Chernobyl accident. After the accident the mean 137Cs-concentration in reindeer meat from the 1986-87 slaughtering period was 720 Bq/kg fresh weight and in 1987-88, 630 Bq/kg fresh weight. PMID:2814447

  17. Mollusc grazing may constrain the ecological niche of the old forest lichen Pseudocyphellaria crocata.

    PubMed

    Gauslaa, Y

    2008-11-01

    This study reports on mollusc grazing of two epiphytic cyanobacterial lichens (Pseudocyphellaria crocata and Lobaria pulmonaria) transplanted within three Picea abies-dominated boreal rain forest stands (clear-cut, young and old forests) in west central Norway. Grazing was particularly high in transplants located in the old forest and was almost absent in clear-cut transplants. Grazing marks were absent on natural thalli on nearby spruce twigs (required creeping distance for mollusc from the ground >4 m). Transplantation of lichens from twigs to artificial transplantation frames reduced the creeping distance to 1.2 m, and caused a significant increase in grazing damage in P. crocata. Given a paired choice under transplantation, molluscs consistently preferred P. crocata and avoided L. pulmonaria, implying species-specific differences in herbivore defence. Pseudocyphellaria crocata has a much lower content of the medullary depsidones stictic and constictic acid than L. pulmonaria. Heavy grazing occurred in the P. crocata thalli lowest in these two depsidones. The upper part of the medulla hosting the photobiont was the preferred fodder for grazing molluscs. Molluscs avoided the yellow soralia in P. crocata (localised pulvinic acid), suggesting a role for pulvinic acid in preventing grazing of detached soredia and early establishment stages. The preference of P. crocata for thin spruce twigs is probably a result of a lower grazing pressure on twigs compared to e.g. deciduous stems that frequently support the better defended L. pulmonaria. Ongoing climate changes with increased annual rainfall and milder winters have presumably increased mollusc grazing, particularly in SW parts of Norway which have more species of lichen-feeding molluscs than the boreal sites studied. These temperate areas lacking natural spruce populations have recently experienced reported extinctions of the poorly defended P. crocata from rocks and deciduous stems prone to mollusc grazing. Lichen

  18. Grazing management effects on pasture productivity – extent of grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    How does grazing using the “take half – leave half” rule actually affect annual pasture productivity? Is residue height a concern when mature grasses are mob grazed, a management alternative to grazing at a vegetative stage? A range of grazing management systems was implemented at the U.S. Dairy For...

  19. Willow firing in retrofitted Irish peat plant

    SciTech Connect

    Broek, R. van den; Faaij, A.; Kent, T.

    1995-11-01

    Interest in biomass electricity in Ireland is being re-awakened by environmental concerns about CO{sub 2} emissions from power generation and the potential of biomass production to provide an alternative agricultural enterprise. The technical and economical feasibility of wood-fuelled power production using willow from energy farming in existing peat-fired plants in Ireland is being studied within the framework of the EU JOULE II+ programme. These options are compared with new combustion plants and a biomass integrated gasifier with combined cycle (BIG/CC). Background studies supplied data for yields of willow farming, establishment of willow plantations, harvesting methods, logistics and costs and efficiencies for different retrofit options at Irish peat plants. All technologies considered are currently available or are expected to be available in the near future. Neither agricultural subsidies nor possible CO{sub 2} taxes have been included. In the least cost supply scenario storage and chipping of wood is done at the power station. In this case wood is only stored in the form of sticks and wood harvested by a chips harvester is supplied to the plant directly during the harvesting season. Fuel costs at the plant gate were estimated between 3.3 and 11 EGU/GJ{sub LHV}. This wide range resulted in a wide range of kWh costs. For the lowest cost option they ranged between 5.4 and 15 ECUcents/kWh. The cheapest proven retrofit option is the conversion of the existing milled peat Lanesborough unit 3 into a bubbling fluidized bed with kWh costs ranging from 5.6 up to 16 ECUcents/kWh. For this plant, costs per tonne of avoided CO{sub 2} emissions varied between 1 and 70 ECU. It is noteworthy that the kWh costs for all options considered were very close. Especially in the high costs scenario a BIG/CC appeared to have lower kWh cost than all biomass combustion plants. Mainly for the retrofitted plants the fuel costs were by far the largest kWh cost component.

  20. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Canastota`

    DOEpatents

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2007-05-15

    A distinct male cultivar of Salix sachalinensis.times.S. miyabeana named `Canastota`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing greater than 2.7-fold more woody biomass than its female parent (Salix sachalinensis `SX61`), 28% greater woody biomass yield than its male parent (Salix miyabeana `SX64`), and 20% greater woody biomass yield than a standard production cultivar, Salix dasyclados `SV1` when grown in the same field for the same length of time (two growing seasons after coppice) in Tully, N.Y. `Canastota` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested after two to four years of growth. This harvest cycle can be repeated several times. `Canastota` displays a low incidence of rust disease or damage by willow sawfly.

  1. Southwestern Willow Flycatcher Breeding Site and Territory Summary - 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Durst, Scott L.; Sogge, Mark K.; Stump, Shay D.; Williams, Sartor O.; Kus, Barbara E.; Sferra, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is an endangered bird that breeds only in dense riparian habitats in six southwestern states (southern California, extreme southern Nevada, southern Utah, southwestern Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico). Since 1993, hundreds of Southwestern Willow Flycatcher surveys have been conducted each year, and many new flycatcher breeding sites located. This document synthesizes information on all known Southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding sites. This rangewide data synthesis was designed to meet these objectives: * identify all known Southwestern Willow Flycatcher breeding sites, and * assemble data on population size, location, habitat, and other information for all breeding sites, for as many years as possible, from 1993 through 2006. This report provides data summaries in terms of the number of flycatcher sites and the number of territories.

  2. 8. Inverted siphon structure carrying ditch flow under Willow Creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Inverted siphon structure carrying ditch flow under Willow Creek, looking southwest - Natomas Ditch System, Blue Ravine Segment, Juncture of Blue Ravine & Green Valley Roads, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  3. 7. Inverted siphon structure carrying ditch flow under Willow Creek, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Inverted siphon structure carrying ditch flow under Willow Creek, looking east - Natomas Ditch System, Blue Ravine Segment, Juncture of Blue Ravine & Green Valley Roads, Folsom, Sacramento County, CA

  4. 7. VIEW OF OLD ENTRANCE ROAD (NOW WILLOW FLATS ROAD) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF OLD ENTRANCE ROAD (NOW WILLOW FLATS ROAD) FACING EAST INTO PARK. - Arches National Park Main Entrance Road, Beginning at U.S. Highway 191, approximately 6 miles north of Moab, Moab, Grand County, UT

  5. 76 FR 13524 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ...The Audio Division, at the request of Miriam Media, Inc., allots FM Channel 258A at Willow Creek, California. Channel 258A can be allotted at Willow Creek, consistent with the minimum distance separation requirements of the Commission's rules, at coordinates 40- 57-29 NL and 123-42-23 WL, with a site restriction of 6.7 km (4.2 miles) west of the community See SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION...

  6. 75 FR 63431 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ...This document sets forth a proposal to amend the FM Table of Allotments. The Commission requests comment on a petition filed by Miriam Media, Inc., proposing the allotment of FM Channel 258A at Willow Creek, California. Petitioner, the auction winner and permittee of Channel 253A, Willow Creek, has submitted an application to specify operation of the station on Channel 254C1 at Loleta,......

  7. Describing Willow Flycatcher habitats: scale perspectives and gender differences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1992-01-01

    We compared habitat characteristics of nest sites (female-selected sites) and song perch sites (male-selected sites) with those of sites unused by Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) at three different scales of vegetation measurement: (1) microplot (central willow [Salix spp.] bush and four adjacent bushes); (2) mesoplot (0.07 ha); and, (3) macroplot (flycatcher territory size). Willow Flycatchers exhibited vegetation preferences at all three scales. Nest sites were distinguished by high willow density and low variability in willow patch size and bush height. Song perch sites were characterized by large central shrubs, low central shrub vigor, and high variability in shrub size. Unused sites were characterized by greater distances between willows and willow patches, less willow coverage, and a smaller riparian zone width than either nest or song perch sites. At all scales, nest sites were situated farther from unused sites in multivariate habitat space than were song perch sites, suggesting (1) a correspondence among scales in their ability to describe Willow Flycatcher habitat, and (2) females are more discriminating in habitat selection than males. Microhabitat differences between male-selected (song perch) and female-selected (nest) sites were evident at the two smaller scales; at the finest scale, the segregation in habitat space between male-selected and female-selected sites was greater than that between male-selected and unused sites. Differences between song perch and nest sites were not apparent at the scale of flycatcher territory size, possibly due to inclusion of (1) both nest and song perch sites, (2) defended, but unused habitat, and/or (3) habitat outside of the territory, in larger scale analyses. The differences between nest and song perch sites at the finer scales reflect their different functions (e.g., nest concealment and microclimatic requirements vs. advertising and territorial defense, respectively), and suggest that the exclusive use

  8. Grazing preference and utilization of soil fungi by Folsomia candida (Collembola)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedenec, Petr; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Soil fungi are important food resources for soil fauna. Here we ask whether the collembolan Folsomia candida shows selectivity in grazing between four saprophytic fungi (Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Absidia glauca, and Cladosporium herbarum), whether grazing preference corresponds to effects on collembolan reproduction, and whether the effects of fungi on grazing and reproduction depends on the fungal substrate, which included three kinds of litter (Alnus glutinosa, Salix caprea, and Quercus robur) and one kind of agar (yeast extract). On agar, Cladosporium herbarum and Absidia glauca were the most preferred fungi and supported the highest collembolan reproduction. On fungal-colonized litter, grazing preference was more affected by litter type than by fungal species whereas collembolan reproduction was affected by both litter type and fungal species. On fungal-colonized litter, the litter type that was most preferred for grazing did not support the highest reproduction, i.e., there was an inconsistency between food preference and suitability. Alder and willow were preferred over oak for grazing, but alder supported the least reproduction.

  9. Avian responses to late-season grazing in a shrub-willow floodplain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanley, T.R.; Knopf, F.L.

    2002-01-01

    The feeding habits of the Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) were observed intermittently from 1967-1980 in Florida, USA. Approximately 97% of all observed foraging bouts were over marshes having sparse emergent vegetation. The visually-hunting kite was unable to forage over floating mats of exotic water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). Male kites had shorter hunting bouts than females. For still-hunting, the birds' perches ranged from 0.15-4.6 m high and captures occurred an average of 5.8 m from perches. Females were significantly more successful (70%) for course-hunting than males (48%), but I found no difference for still-hunting. Birds tended to forage throughout the day, except for occasional inactive periods by some individuals during midday. On cooler days, foraging commenced slightly later in the morning than on warmer days. Kites probably capture freshwater apple snails (Pomacea paludosa) as deep as 16 cm. Capture rates for adults generally ranged from 1.7-3.4 snails per hour. Kites usually foraged over a common hunting area, and defense of foraging sites was rare. Handling of snails, from the kite's arrival at the feeding perch unit consumption, averaged 2.7 min, with no significant difference between sexes. However, adult females were more efficient at the extraction portion of this process than were adult males. Snails were usually extracted before being brought to the nest, except in the latter part of the nestling period when some snails were extracted at or near the nest and some were brought intact. Adults feed small chicks bill to bill, and both parents generally shared equally in care of the young, except at two nests where the females did 67% or more of the feeding. Mean length of snails taken by kites was 42.8 mm (range 25.2-71.3 n=697) and mean diameter was 45.8 mm (range 27.4-82.4, n=697). The most common size classes tkaen were 30-60 mm in length and diameter. Nutritional and gross energy values were determined for apple snails. Female snails with albumen glands removed (versus males or mixed samples of both sexes of complete tissue or with viscera removed) had the highest caloric value (.hivin.x=4.04 kcal/g, n=10). Kites cast pellets, a behavior documented here for the first time.

  10. Willow cover as a recovery indicator under a conservation grazing plan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Squaw Valley Ranch (SVR) of Elko County, Nevada, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management and Barrick Goldstrike Mines, Inc., is attempting to improve riparian conditions in the portions of the Rock Creek watershed affected by SVR operations. The watershed includes both historical and o...

  11. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India

    PubMed Central

    Kotinagu, Korrapati; Krishnaiah, Nelapati

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to find the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India. Materials and Methods: Fodder and milk samples collected from the six zones of Musi river belt, Hyderabad India were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for OCP residues and pulsated flame photometric detector for the presence of OPP residues. Results: The gas chromatographic analysis of fodder samples of Zone 5 of Musi river showed the residues of dicofol at concentration of 0.07±0.0007 (0.071-0.077). Among organophosphorus compounds, dimetheoate was present in milk samples collected from Zone 6 at a level of 0.13±0.006 (0.111-0.167). The residues of OCPs, OPPs and cyclodies were below the detection limit in the remaining fodder and milk samples collected from Musi river belt in the present study. Conclusion: The results indicate that the pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples were well below the maximum residue level (MRL) values, whereas dicofol in fodder and dimethoate in milk were slightly above the MRL values specified by EU and CODEX. PMID:27047132

  12. Bottom-up factors influencing riparian willow recovery in Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tercek, M.T.; Stottlemyer, R.; Renkin, R.

    2010-01-01

    After the elimination of wolves (Canis lupis L.) in the 1920s, woody riparian plant communities on the northern range of Yellowstone National Park (YNP) declined an estimated 50%. After the reintroduction of wolves in 19951996, riparian willows (Salix spp.) on YNP's northern range showed significant growth for the first time since the 1920s. However, the pace of willow recovery has not been uniform. Some communities have exceeded 400 cm, while others are still at pre-1995 levels of 250 cm max. height) willow sites where willows had escaped elk (Cervus elaphus L.) browsing with "short" willow sites that could still be browsed. Unlike studies that manipulated willow height with fences and artificial dams, we examined sites that had natural growth differences in height since the reintroduction of wolves. Tall willow sites had greater water availability, more-rapid net soil nitrogen mineralization, greater snow depth, lower soil respiration rates, and cooler summer soil temperatures than nearby short willow sites. Most of these differences were measured both in herbaceous areas adjacent to the willow patches and in the willow patches themselves, suggesting that they were not effects of varying willow height recovery but were instead preexisting site differences that may have contributed to increased plant productivity. Our results agree with earlier studies in experimental plots which suggest that the varying pace of willow recovery has been influenced by abiotic limiting factors that interact with top-down reductions in willow browsing by elk. ?? 2010 Western North American Naturalist.

  13. Efficacy and Safety of White Willow Bark (Salix alba) Extracts.

    PubMed

    Shara, Mohd; Stohs, Sidney J

    2015-08-01

    Willow bark extract has been used for thousands of years as an anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic. In spite of its long history of use, relatively few human and animal studies have been published that confirm anecdotal observations. A small number of clinical studies have been conducted that support the use of willow bark extracts in chronic lower back and joint pain and osteoarthritis. Willow bark extracts also are widely used in sports performance and weight loss products presumably because of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities, although no human studies have been published that specifically and directly document beneficial effects. In recent years, various in vitro and animal studies have demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory activity of willow bark extract is associated with down regulation of the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-kappa B. Although willow bark extracts are generally standardized to salicin, other ingredients in the extracts including other salicylates as well as polyphenols, and flavonoids may also play prominent roles in the therapeutic actions. Adverse effects appear to be minimal as compared to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including aspirin. The primary cause for concern may relate to allergic reactions in salicylate-sensitive individuals. PMID:25997859

  14. Competition favors elk over beaver in a riparian willow ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, B.W.; Peinetti, H.R.; Coughenour, M.C.; Johnson, T.L.

    2012-01-01

    Beaver (Castor spp.) conservation requires an understanding of their complex interactions with competing herbivores. Simulation modeling offers a controlled environment to examine long-term dynamics in ecosystems driven by uncontrollable variables. We used a new version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model to investigate beaver (C. Canadensis) and elk (Cervus elapses) competition for willow (Salix spp.). We initialized the model with field data from Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, to simulate a 4-ha riparian ecosystem containing beaver, elk, and willow. We found beaver persisted indefinitely when elk density was or = 30 elk km_2. The loss of tall willow preceded rapid beaver declines, thus willow condition may predict beaver population trajectory in natural environments. Beaver were able to persist with slightly higher elk densities if beaver alternated their use of foraging sites in a rest-rotation pattern rather than maintained continuous use. Thus, we found asymmetrical competition for willow strongly favored elk over beaver in a simulated montane ecosystem. Finally, we discuss application of the SAVANNA model and mechanisms of competition relative to beaver persistence as metapopulations, ecological resistance and alternative state models, and ecosystem regulation.

  15. An international terminology for grazing lands and grazing animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 1991, Terminology for Grazing Lands and Grazing Animals was published with the objective of ‘developing a consensus of clear definitions of terms used in the grazing of animals.’ During the XVIII International Grassland Congress, held in Canada in 1997, a new Terminology working group was formed ...

  16. Greening of the Arctic: Partitioning Warming Versus Reindeer Herbivory for Willow Populations on Yamal Peninsula, Northwest Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, B. C.; Macias-Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.; Kumpula, T.

    2012-12-01

    Arctic warming has been linked to observed increases in tundra shrub cover and growth in recent decades on the basis of significant relationships between deciduous shrub growth/biomass and temperature. These vegetation trends have been linked to Arctic sea-ice decline and thus to the sea-ice/albedo feedback known as Arctic amplification. However, the interactions between climate, sea ice, tundra vegetation and herbivores remain poorly understood. Recently we revealed a 50-year growth response over a >100,000 km2 area to a rise in summer temperature for willow (Salix lanata), one the most abundant shrub genera at and north of the continental treeline and an important source of reindeer forage in spring, summer and autumn. We demonstrated that whereas plant productivity is related to sea ice in late spring, the growing season peak responds to persistent synoptic-scale air masses over West Siberia associated with Fennoscandian weather systems through the Rossby wave train. Substrate was important for biomass accumulation, yet a strong correlation between growth and temperature encompasses all observed soil types. Vegetation was especially responsive to temperature in early summer. However, the role of herbivory was not addressed. The present data set explores the relationship between long-term herbivory and growth trends of shrubs experiencing warming in recent decades. Semi-domestic reindeer managed by indigenous Nenets nomads occur at high densities in summer on exposed ridge tops and graze heavily on prostrate and low erect willows. A few meters away in moderately sloped landslides tall willows remain virtually ungrazed as their canopies have grown above the browse line of ca. 180 cm. Here we detail the responses of neighboring shrub populations with and without intensive herbivory yet subject to the same decadal warming trend.

  17. 75 FR 56520 - Information on Surplus Land at a Military Installation Designated for Disposal: NASJRB Willow...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... Willow Grove, PA AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice provides information on the surplus property at Naval Air Station Joint Reserve Base (NASJRB) Willow Grove located in... INFORMATION: In 2005, NASJRB Willow Grove, PA was designated for closure under the authority of the...

  18. Diet Selection and Grazing Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This fact sheet summarizes some of the current knowledge regarding grazing behavior. A grazing ruminant is presented with a smorgasbord of choices when turned out onto a pasture. However, little is understood on how selection decisions are made by the animal. Grazing behavior research is attempting...

  19. Rangelands and Grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands are a type of land cover dominated by grasses, grass-like plants, forbs, and shrubs, where the land is managed as a natural ecosystem for multiple uses including wildlife habitat, biodiversity, recreation, and grazing by livestock. The area cover by rangelands is 48.2% of the land surfac...

  20. Cheatgrass and Grazing Rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Charles Elliot Fleming was one of the first scientists to work on the western range. In 1946 he published a series of questions concerning grazing of the exotic annual cheatgrass (Bromus tectorm), which had invaded millions of acres of the western rangelands. The introduction and subsequent invasi...

  1. Grazing: the whole picture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental concerns for our farms include nutrient leaching to ground water, runoff in surface water, gaseous emissions, and the carbon footprint of our production systems. Recent reports have labeled grazing-based dairies as less environmentally sustainable compared to year around confinement sy...

  2. Tall Fescue Grazing Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue is a cool-season perennial grass that is well adapted in the upper transition zone between the temperate northeast and subtropical southeast. Its adaptation in the “fescue belt” is primarily due to a fungal endophyte that imparts tolerance to drought, heat, and grazing stresses. Unfort...

  3. Discontinuous dynamics with grazing points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmet, M. U.; Kıvılcım, A.

    2016-09-01

    Discontinuous dynamical systems with grazing solutions are discussed. The group property, continuation of solutions, continuity and smoothness of solutions are thoroughly analyzed. A variational system around a grazing solution which depends on near solutions is constructed. Orbital stability of grazing cycles is examined by linearization. Small parameter method is extended for analysis of grazing orbits, and bifurcation of cycles is observed in an example. Linearization around an equilibrium grazing point is discussed. The results can be extended on functional differential equations, partial differential equations and others. Appropriate illustrations are depicted to support the theoretical results.

  4. Determination of amino acids in fodders and raw materials using capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Komarova, N V; Kamentsev, J S; Solomonova, A P; Anufrieva, R M

    2004-02-01

    Two schemes were offered for analysis of amino acid contents in fodders and raw materials for mixed fodders by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). The first variant provides express analysis of four technologically important amino acids (lysine, methionine, threonine, cystine) in borate buffer on characteristic absorption of aminogroup (190 nm), with limits of quantitation being on average 0.2%. The second scheme includes pre-capillary derivatization of amino acids using phenylisothiocyanate (PITC) and separation of phenylthiocarbamyl (PTC)-derivatives obtained by CZE with a detection on 254 nm, which allows to widen a list of detectable components up to 19 (without tryptophan) and significantly improve detection limits down to 0.01%. Acid hydrolysis was used for a sample preparation. The results of analysis of fodders were compared using such methods, as CZE, ion exchange chromatography (amino acid analyzer) and reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC (with gradient technique of elution). PMID:14698247

  5. Impact of phosphate on glyphosate uptake and toxicity in willow.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Le Manac'h, Sarah Gingras; Moingt, Matthieu; Smedbol, Elise; Paquet, Serge; Labrecque, Michel; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Phosphate (PO4(3-)) has been shown to increase glyphosate uptake by willow, a plant species known for its phytoremediation potential. However, it remains unclear if this stimulation of glyphosate uptake can result in an elevated glyphosate toxicity to plants (which could prevent the use of willows in glyphosate-remediation programs). Consequently, we studied the effects of PO4(3-) on glyphosate uptake and toxicity in a fast growing willow cultivar (Salix miyabeana SX64). Plants were grown in hydroponic solution with a combination of glyphosate (0, 0.001, 0.065 and 1 mg l(-1)) and PO4(3-) (0, 200 and 400 mg l(-1)). We demonstrated that PO4(3-) fertilization greatly increased glyphosate uptake by roots and its translocation to leaves, which resulted in increased shikimate concentration in leaves. In addition to its deleterious effects in photosynthesis, glyphosate induced oxidative stress through hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Although it has increased glyphosate accumulation, PO4(3-) fertilization attenuated the herbicide's deleterious effects by increasing the activity of antioxidant systems and alleviating glyphosate-induced oxidative stress. Our results indicate that in addition to the glyphosate uptake, PO4(3-) is involved in glyphosate toxicity in willow by preventing glyphosate induced oxidative stress. PMID:26561751

  6. WILLOW CREEK IDAHO, WATER QUALITY STATUS REPORT, 1980

    EPA Science Inventory

    Willow Creek, Idaho (17040201) was identified in the Idaho Agricultural Abatement Plant (1979) as having severe pollution due to dryland farming erosion. A water quality survey began in April 1980 to provide some baseline information on the watershed. Nearly 45 tons of sediment...

  7. Root growth studies of willow cuttings using Rhizoboxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omarova, Dinara; Lammeranner, Walter; Florineth, Florin

    2014-05-01

    Riparian forests (Tugay forests) in Central Asia (Kazakhstan) play a significant in soil protection. However, unadapted forest use leads to damage and loss of these fragile ecosystems. Willows have a crucial function in the ecosystem of these riparian forests. Willows facilitate the colonization with other important tree species and furthermore they protect the soil from wind and water erosion. To propagate willows and to estimate the beneficial effects of these plants it is important to know the root growth development. The research design is planned as model experiment with rhizoboxes. Rhizoboxes are non-invasive investigation methods which offer the possibility to survey the root system growth dynamics in time and space. A total of 33 rhizoboxes in size of 50cm x 75 cm x 5 cm will be constructed. The rhizoboxes will be tilted by 45 degrees using the gravitropism of the roots. The willow cuttings (Salix purpurea) will be planted in three different soil types. Each test series (growth period) will take three months. Investigated parameters will be root architecture, dynamic of root growth and above and below ground biomass allocation. Data will be drawn from photographic surveys which will be performed once a week. The contribution will present the methodology of these rhizobox investigations.

  8. Riparian willow restoration at Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Auble, G.T.; Roelle, J. E.; TImberman, A.

    2006-01-01

    Riparian willow communities along the Illinois River at Arapaho National Wildlife Refuge in North Park near Walden, Colorado, provide important habitat for a number of wildlife species, including neotropical migratory birds. Existing stands in the northern (downstream) portion of the refuge are sparse and discontinuous (Photo 1) compared to upstream portions of the Illinois River and the parallel Michigan River.

  9. Wind in the Willows--Theatre Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    Part of the New York City Board of Education's Early Stages program, and intended for elementary and secondary school teachers who wish to include a unit on theater in their classes, this guide offers suggestions for lessons and activities to accompany viewing a performance of "Wind in the Willows" at the Nederlander Theater. Part one of the guide…

  10. "The Wind in the Willows" and the Style of Romance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The style of Kenneth Grahame's "The Wind in the Willows" arises from an alternative vision and choice of values characteristic of romance. Romance seeks fulfillment beyond the consequences of everyday relationships and the constrictions of ordinary life. Causal relationships give way to lists of independent items, unmotivated outcomes, and…

  11. Phylogenetic Relationships of American Willows (Salix L., Salicaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lauron-Moreau, Aurélien; Pitre, Frédéric E.; Argus, George W.; Labrecque, Michel; Brouillet, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Salix L. is the largest genus in the family Salicaceae (450 species). Several classifications have been published, but taxonomic subdivision has been under continuous revision. Our goal is to establish the phylogenetic structure of the genus using molecular data on all American willows, using three DNA markers. This complete phylogeny of American willows allows us to propose a biogeographic framework for the evolution of the genus. Material was obtained for the 122 native and introduced willow species of America. Sequences were obtained from the ITS (ribosomal nuclear DNA) and two plastid regions, matK and rbcL. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference) were performed on the data. Geographic distribution was mapped onto the tree. The species tree provides strong support for a division of the genus into two subgenera, Salix and Vetrix. Subgenus Salix comprises temperate species from the Americas and Asia, and their disjunction may result from Tertiary events. Subgenus Vetrix is composed of boreo-arctic species of the Northern Hemisphere and their radiation may coincide with the Quaternary glaciations. Sixteen species have ambiguous positions; genetic diversity is lower in subg. Vetrix. A molecular phylogeny of all species of American willows has been inferred. It needs to be tested and further resolved using other molecular data. Nonetheless, the genus clearly has two clades that have distinct biogeographic patterns. PMID:25880993

  12. Phytotoxicity of landfill leachate on willow--Salix amygdalina L.

    PubMed

    Bialowiec, Andrzej; Randerson, Peter F

    2010-01-01

    Because of low investment and operational costs, interest is increasing in the use of willow plants in landfill leachate disposal. Toxic effects of leachate on the plants should be avoided in the initial period of growth and phytotoxicological testing may be helpful to select appropriate leachate dose rates. The aim of this study was to determine the phytotoxicity of landfill leachate on young willow (Salix amygdalina L.) cuttings, as a criterion for dose rate selection in the early phase of growth. Over a test period of 6 weeks plants were exposed to six concentrations of landfill leachate solutions (0%; 6.25%; 12.5%; 25%; 50% and 100%), under two different regimes. In regime A willow plants were cultivated in leachate solution from the beginning, whereas in regime B they were grown initially in clean water for 4 weeks, after which the water was exchanged for leachate solutions. The lowest effective concentration causing toxic effects (LOEC) was calculated (p<0.05). In regime A LOEC was between 5.44% and 6.50% of leachate concentration, but slightly higher in regime B (5.32-6.59%). Willow plants were able to survive in landfill leachate solutions with electrical conductivity (EC) values up to 5.0 mS/cm in regime A, whereas in regime B plants were killed when EC exceeded 3.0 mS/cm. This indicates an ability of willow plants to tolerate higher strengths of landfill leachate if they are cultivated in such concentrations from the beginning. PMID:20307964

  13. Functional traits as indicators of fodder provision over a short time scale in species-rich grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Ansquer, Pauline; Duru, Michel; Theau, Jean Pierre; Cruz, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Fodder provision in species-rich grasslands, i.e. herbage growth, proportion of leaf, and leaf and stem digestibility, is difficult to predict for short periods of time, such as between two defoliations or less. The value of two methods based on plant traits for evaluating these agronomic properties was examined. Methods One method is based on plant trait measurements on the plant community (leaf dry matter content, plant height, flowering date); the other is on vegetation composition expressed as plant functional types (acquisitive versus conservative PFTs) established by measuring leaf dry matter content on pure grass stands. The experiment consisted of 18 fields with three different defoliation regimes (combinations of cutting and grazing) and two levels of fertilization. To establish a growth curve over the first growth cycle, herbage was sampled about 10 times in spring. Key Results Coefficients of correlation between agronomic properties of the vegetation and its functional composition were higher when the latter was assessed through PFT and an indicator of the plant nutrient status (Ni) instead of measured plant traits. The date at which the ceiling yield occurred for the standing herbage mass or only the leaf component, which varied by up to 500 degree-days between treatments, and the leaf proportion, depended entirely on the PFT, and largely so for the leaf digestibility. The standing herbage mass at the time of ceiling yield depended only on Ni, or mainly so in the case of the daily herbage growth rate. Similar plant digestibility between plant communities was found at flowering time, although there were big differences in PFT composition. The shape of the growth curve was flatter when there was great functional diversity in the plant community. Conclusions The PFT composition and the Ni were more reliable than the plant functional traits measured in the field for evaluating herbage growth pattern and digestibility in spring. PMID

  14. Organic vs. conventional fodder crops in the USA: A challenge for breeders?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fodder crops are becoming an increasingly important component of organic agriculture systems in the USA. However, due to wide array of production environments in the USA, the large number of species targeted by breeding programs, and the large demand for new and improved products for traditional ag...

  15. [Yeast irrigation enhances the nutritional content in hydroponic green maize fodder].

    PubMed

    Bedolla-Torres, Martha H; Palacios Espinosa, Alejandro; Palacios, Oskar A; Choix, Francisco J; Ascencio Valle, Felipe de Jesús; López Aguilar, David R; Espinoza Villavicencio, José Luis; de Luna de la Peña, Rafael; Guillen Trujillo, Ariel; Avila Serrano, Narciso Y; Ortega Pérez, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irrigation with yeasts (Debaryomyces hansenii var. Fabry, Yarowia lipolytica YIBCS002, Yarowia lipolytica var. BCS and Candida pseudointermedia) on the final nutritional content of hydroponic green maize fodder (Zea Zea mays L.), applied at different fodder growth stages (1. seed-seedling stage, 2. seedling-plant 20cm, 3. during all the culture). Irrespective of the fodder growth stages at which they were applied, all yeasts tested enhanced the content of raw protein, lipids, ash, moisture and energy. The percentage of electrolytes (Na, K, Cl, sulphates, Ca and Mg) showed different responses depending on the kind of yeast applied; D. hansenii exhibited the highest increment in all electrolytes, except for phosphorous. We conclude that the addition of yeasts belonging to the genera Debaryomyces, Candida and Yarowia to the irrigation solution of hydroponic systems enhances the nutrient content of green fodder. This kind of irrigation can be applied to generate high commercial value cultures in limited spaces. PMID:26364185

  16. Effects of inoculum size on solid-phase fermentation of fodder beets for fuel ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.

    1986-10-01

    This fuel ethanol study examined the effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculum size on solid-phase fermentation of fodder beet pulp. A 5% inoculum (wt/wt) resulted in rapid yeast and ethanol (9.1% (vol/vol)) production. Higher inocula showed no advantages. Lower inocula resulted in lowered final yeast populations and increased fermentation times.

  17. Grazing management effects on pasture productivity – timing of grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    What is the potential impact of more frequent grazing during particular times of the year? A range of grazing management systems was implemented at the U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center at Prairie du Sac, Wisconsin, on 1.0 acre paddocks of meadow fescue, orchardgrass, quackgrass, and reed canarygras...

  18. Grazing management options in meeting objectives of grazing experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decisions on which grazing management option to use in grazing experiments can be critical in meeting research objectives and generating information for the scientific community or technologies that meets the needs of forage-based enterprises. It is necessary to have an understanding of animal per...

  19. Improved fodder tree management in the agroforestry systems of central and western Nepal

    SciTech Connect

    Karki, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    Ten, three year old, fodder tree species were evaluated at four on-station and three on-farm sites in Nepal. Ficus semicordata (Buchattam. ex Sm.) growth was found to be significantly higher than the rest in diameter and dry foliage weight values. Species were significantly different in height, diameter, and foliage and wood growth. Sites were significantly different in total height growth only. On-farm species evaluation indicated that A. lakoocha and F. semicordata had significantly higher growth. Allometric regression equations were developed to predict foliage, total wood, and total biomass yield of F. semicordata, and B. variegata. Individual-tree models were developed. For B. variegata, diameter at 50 cm. and for F. semicordata, crown diameter and height gave the best fitted equations. Regression equations for three sites did not differ significantly. Therefore, data were pooled and a common model was estimated for each species. In on-farm regression models, height and crown diameter were the best predictors for F. semicordata and dbh gave the best fit for B. variegata. The models for the two species were used to construct regional fodder and fuelwood biomass tables. An improved crop-livestock-fodder agroforestry system was designed for a village in Nepal. Linear programming was used to demonstrate the use of a tool to optimize land allocation maximizing net returns while satisfying the supply of minimum needs of food, fodder, and fuelwood. The optimal solution indicated that, by improving the returns to labor and by applying more compost, the village should be able to increase the annual net farm returns from NRs. 2.94 million to NRs. 3.85 million. The food, fodder and fuelwood production levels were shown to increase by 17%, 130%, and 537% respectively. The labor and compost requirements were up by 138% and 59% respectively, over the five year period. The soil loss through run-off was estimated to decrease by about 15% over the same period.

  20. Simulating rotational grazing management.

    PubMed

    Cros, M J; Duru, M; Garcia, F; Martin-Clouaire, R

    2001-09-01

    Dairy systems predominantly based on rotational grazing are notoriously hard to manage. In order to ensure profitability, this type of production requires quite good organisation, planning, and operating capability on the part of the farmer. A simulation-based decision support system, called SEPATOU, has been developed for this purpose. At the core of the decision support approach lies an explicit and rigorous modelling of the management strategy that underlies a dairy farmer's decision-making behaviour (real or hypothetical). The SEPATOU system is a discrete-event simulator that reproduces the day-to-day dynamics of the farmer's decision process and the response of the controlled biophysical system for which models of grass growth, animal consumption, and milk production are used. SEPATOU provides the means to evaluate and compare tentative strategies by simulating their application throughout the production season under different hypothetical weather conditions. The relative worth of a strategy can be assessed by analysing the effects on the biophysical system and their variability across the representative range of possible conditions that is considered. The activities to be managed concern the type and amount of conserved feed, where to fertilise and how much, the choice of fields to harvest, and most importantly, which field to graze next. Typically, SEPATOU is designed to be used by extension services and farming system scientists. It is implemented in C++ and is currently undergoing a validation process with the intended users. PMID:11697661

  1. Mob grazing for dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proponents of mob grazing emphasize increased forage use efficiency and soil improvement by grazing mature forage with stocking densities up to 560,425 lb/ac of beef cattle on small paddocks with rest periods up to 125 days. However, it is unclear if this management technique is appropriate for dair...

  2. Diet Selection and Grazing Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing behavior and diet selection of grazing ruminants can be influenced by a lot of factors. Firstly, they learn from their dams. Secondly, they learn from peers. Thirdly, they learn by trial and error. Work at our USDA-ARS lab showed that ‘ruminal fill’, or how ‘hungry’ the cow is, can affect gr...

  3. Commercialization of willow bioenergy - a dedicated feedstock supply system

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Robison, D.J.

    1995-11-01

    Willow hybrids grown as a Dedicated Feedstock Supply System (DFSS) have been analyzed and found to be a feasibile means of augmenting current coal and natural gas resources for power generation. This study focused on the technology and infrastructure required to grow willow DFSS and integrate it with four existing pulverized coal electric generation facilities in central and western New York. The study found that both utilities and growers can forge a long-term business relationship that offers fuel diversity, fuel cost competitiveness and environmental benefits for the utility partners while reinvigorating central and western New York business in the agricultural sector. Growers can bring idle land and land being farmed at a loss back into profitable production while reducing environmental impacts associated with more traditional row crops. The Consortium is gearing up to put in place the growers contracts and the acreage necessary to take the first steps to prove and develop a major new business opportunity for rural New York.

  4. Soils organic C sequestration under poplar and willow agroforestry systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunina, Anna; Tariq, Azeem; Lamersdorf, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    Short rotation coppices (SRC) as monocultures or as agroforestry (AF) applications (e.g. alley cropping) are two techniques to implement forest into agricultural practices. Despite afforestation promotes soil carbon (C) accumulation, age and type of the tree stand can affect the C accumulation in different degrees. Here, we studied the impact of afforestation on C accumulation for: i) pure SCR of willow (Salix viminalis x Salix schwerinii) and poplar (Populus nigra x Populus maximowiczii) and ii) AF cropping system with willow. Forest systems have been established within the BEST agroforestry project in Germany. Adjacent agricultural field have been used as a control. Soil samples were collected in 2014, three years after plantation establishment, from three soil depths: 0-3, 3-20, and 20-30 cm. Total organic C, labile C (incubation of 20 g soil during 100 days with measuring of CO2) and aggregate structure were analysed. Additionally, density fractionation of the samples from 0-3 cm was applied to separate particulate organic matter (POM) and mineral fractions. Aggregates and density fractions were analyzed for C content. High input of plant litter as well as root exudates have led to increases of organic C in AF and SRC plots compare to cropland, mainly in the top 0-3 cm. The highest C content was found for willow SRC (18.2 g kg-1 soil), followed by willow-AF (15.6 g kg-1 soil), and poplar SRC (13.7 g kg-1 soil). Carbon content of cropland was 12.5 g kg-1 soil. Absence of ploughing caused increase portion of macroaggregates (>2000 μm) under SRC and AF in all soil layers as well as the highest percentage of C in that aggregate size class (70-80%). In contrast, C in cropland soil was mainly accumulated in small macroaggregates (250-2000 μm). Intensive mineralisation of fresh litter and old POM, taking place during first years of trees development, resulted to similar portions of free POM for willow AF, willow SRC and cropland (8%), and even lower ones for poplar

  5. Hydrologic, geomorphic and climatic processes controlling willow establishment in a montane ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, David J.; Dickens, Joyce; Thompson Hobbs, N.; Christensen, Lindsey; Landrum, Laura

    2006-05-01

    Willow communities dominate mid-elevation riparian areas throughout the Rocky Mountains of North America. However, many willow stands are rapidly declining in aerial cover and individual plants in stature. A poor understanding of the processes that control willow establishment hinders identifying the causes of this decline. We analysed the processes that have facilitated or limited willow establishment over the last half of the 20th century on two large floodplains in Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado by addressing two questions: (1) How does hydrologic regime control willow establishment on different fluvial landforms? (2) How might climate-driven variations in hydrologic regime affect future willow establishment? We precisely aged willows on the three most common fluvial landforms, stream point bars, drained beaver ponds, and abandoned channels, and statistically related establishment dates to patterns of annual stream peak flow. The role of peak flow on willow establishment varied significantly by landform. Willow recruitment had occurred nearly every year on point bars. In former beaver complexes, most willows had established following dam breaches, whereas willows had established on abandoned channels for several years following channel avulsion. Establishment on point bars and abandoned channels was driven by peak flows of 2- to 5-year return intervals, whereas in abandoned beaver ponds most establishment was associated with flow events of >5-year return interval. Models of climate change suggest that temperatures will increase and precipitation seasonality will shift over the coming decades in the Rocky Mountains, leading to earlier spring runoff, lower summer and fall flows, decreased snowpack and decreased soil moisture. Such changes are likely to diminish opportunities for willow establishment.

  6. Simulation of continuous and batch hydrolysis of willow

    SciTech Connect

    Zacchi, G.; Dahlbom, J.; Scott, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The influence of product and enzyme concentrations on the kinetics of the enzymic hydrolysis of alkali-pretreated willow is studied. The hydrolysis was performed in a UF-membrane reactor in which the product concentration was kept constant. An empirical 4-parameter rate equation that gives a good correlation to both continuous and batch hydrolysis data is presented. The model comprises the effects of enzyme concentration and product inhibition. (Refs. 11).

  7. Willow Flycatcher nonbreeding territory defense behavior in Costa Rica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sogge, M.K.; Koronkiewicz, T.J.; van Riper, Charles, III; Durst, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the intraspecific territorial defense behavior of wintering Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) in Costa Rica using a randomized playback experiment that exposed male and female birds to recordings of Willow Flycatcher songs and calls, Lesser Ground Cuckoo (Morococcyx erythropygius) vocalizations, and random noise. Flycatchers of both sexes responded most strongly to simulated conspecific territory intrusion, and the agonistic behaviors that we observed were similar to those seen during natural intraspecific encounters in winter. Both males and females engaged in song and aggressive behaviors in defense of territories, and there was no significant difference between the sexes in scored agonistic responses. The similarity between the sexes in intraspecific territorial defense behaviors and aggressiveness may account for both sexes of flycatchers using the same habitats at our study sites in Costa Rica, and wintering females defending territories against males. The Willow Flycatcher, a sexually monomorphic species, differs in this way from a number of sexually dimorphic passerines, in which behaviorally dominant males occur in more optimal winter habitats. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2007.

  8. Grazing incidence beam expander

    SciTech Connect

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  9. Herbivores Influence the Growth, Reproduction, and Morphology of a Widespread Arctic Willow

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Katie S.; Ruess, Roger W.; Lindberg, Mark S.; Mulder, Christa P.

    2014-01-01

    Shrubs have expanded in Arctic ecosystems over the past century, resulting in significant changes to albedo, ecosystem function, and plant community composition. Willow and rock ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus, L. muta) and moose (Alces alces) extensively browse Arctic shrubs, and may influence their architecture, growth, and reproduction. Furthermore, these herbivores may alter forage plants in such a way as to increase the quantity and accessibility of their own food source. We estimated the effect of winter browsing by ptarmigan and moose on an abundant, early-successional willow (Salix alaxensis) in northern Alaska by comparing browsed to unbrowsed branches. Ptarmigan browsed 82–89% of willows and removed 30–39% of buds, depending on study area and year. Moose browsed 17–44% of willows and browsed 39–55% of shoots. Browsing inhibited apical dominance and activated axillary and adventitious buds to produce new vegetative shoots. Ptarmigan- and moose-browsed willow branches produced twice the volume of shoot growth but significantly fewer catkins the following summer compared with unbrowsed willow branches. Shoots on browsed willows were larger and produced 40–60% more buds compared to unbrowsed shoots. This process of shoot production at basal parts of the branch is the mechanism by which willows develop a highly complex “broomed” architecture after several years of browsing. Broomed willows were shorter and more likely to be re-browsed by ptarmigan, but not moose. Ptarmigan likely benefit from the greater quantity and accessibility of buds on previously browsed willows and may increase the carrying capacity of their own habitat. Despite the observed tolerance of willows to browsing, their vertical growth and reproduction were strongly inhibited by moose and ptarmigan. Browsing by these herbivores therefore needs to be considered in future models of shrub expansion in the Arctic. PMID:25047582

  10. 25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.8 Grazing... permits in their own right. (c) No person can hold a grazing permit in more than one district on...

  11. 25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.8 Grazing... permits in their own right. (c) No person can hold a grazing permit in more than one district on...

  12. 25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167.8 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER NAVAJO GRAZING REGULATIONS § 167.8 Grazing... permits in their own right. (c) No person can hold a grazing permit in more than one district on...

  13. 25 CFR 167.8 - Grazing rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing rights. 167.8 Section 167.8 Indians BUREAU OF... rights. (a) The Superintendent shall determine grazing rights of bona fide live-stock owners based on recommendations of District Grazing Committees. Grazing rights shall be recognized for those permittees...

  14. 75 FR 49527 - General Motors Company Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation, Willow Run Transmission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... General Motors Company, formerly known as General Motors Corporation, Willow Run Transmission Plant, Ypsilanti, Michigan. The notice was published in the Federal Register on July 26, 2010. (75 FR 43558). At..., Willow Run Transmission Plant Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek; Ypsilanti, MI;...

  15. The 2007 Willower Family Lecture Reconstructing Leadership: Embracing a Spiritual Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dantley, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    In September 1999, Donald J. and Catherine Willower established the Willower Family Lecture Series as a way to add to the intellectual climate of the University at Buffalo-State University of New York (UB), while enhancing the reputation of its Graduate School of Education (GSE). This lecture series resides in UB's Department of Educational…

  16. PROGRESS REPORT: COFIRING PROJECTS FOR WILLOW ISLAND AND ALBRIGHT GENERATING STATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    K. Payette; D. Tillman

    2001-07-01

    During the period April 1, 2001--June 30, 2001, Allegheny Energy Supply Co., LLC (Allegheny) accelerated construction of the Willow Island cofiring project, completed the installation of foundations for the fuel storage facility, the fuel receiving facility, and the processing building. Allegheny received all processing equipment to be installed at Willow Island. Allegheny completed the combustion modeling for the Willow Island project. During this time period construction of the Albright Generating Station cofiring facility was completed, with few items left for final action. The facility was dedicated at a ceremony on June 29. Initial testing of cofiring at the facility commenced. This report summarizes the activities associated with the Designer Opportunity Fuel program, and demonstrations at Willow Island and Albright Generating Stations. It details the construction activities at both sites along with the combustion modeling at the Willow Island site.

  17. Elucidating spatially explicit behavioral landscapes in the Willow Flycatcher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakian, Amanda V.; Sullivan, Kimberly A.; Paxton, Eben H.

    2012-01-01

    Animal resource selection is a complex, hierarchical decision-making process, yet resource selection studies often focus on the presence and absence of an animal rather than the animal's behavior at resource use locations. In this study, we investigate foraging and vocalization resource selection in a population of Willow Flycatchers, Empidonax traillii adastus, using Bayesian spatial generalized linear models. These models produce “behavioral landscapes” in which space use and resource selection is linked through behavior. Radio telemetry locations were collected from 35 adult Willow Flycatchers (n = 14 males, n = 13 females, and n = 8 unknown sex) over the 2003 and 2004 breeding seasons at Fish Creek, Utah. Results from the 2-stage modeling approach showed that habitat type, perch position, and distance from the arithmetic mean of the home range (in males) or nest site (in females) were important factors influencing foraging and vocalization resource selection. Parameter estimates from the individual-level models indicated high intraspecific variation in the use of the various habitat types and perch heights for foraging and vocalization. On the population level, Willow Flycatchers selected riparian habitat over other habitat types for vocalizing but used multiple habitat types for foraging including mountain shrub, young riparian, and upland forest. Mapping of observed and predicted foraging and vocalization resource selection indicated that the behavior often occurred in disparate areas of the home range. This suggests that multiple core areas may exist in the home ranges of individual flycatchers, and demonstrates that the behavioral landscape modeling approach can be applied to identify spatially and behaviorally distinct core areas. The behavioral landscape approach is applicable to a wide range of animal taxa and can be used to improve our understanding of the spatial context of behavior and resource selection.

  18. Nestling sex ratio in the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, E.H.; Sogge, M.K.; McCarthey, T.D.; Keim, P.

    2002-01-01

    Using molecular-genetic techniques, we determined the gender of 202 Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) nestlings from 95 nests sampled over a five-year period. Overall nestling sex ratio did not vary significantly from 50:50 among years, by clutch order, or by mating strategy (monogamous vs. polygamous pairings). However, we did observe significant differences among the four sites sampled, with sex ratios biased either toward males or females at the different sites. Given the small population sizes and geographic isolation of many of the endangered subspecies' breeding populations, sex-ratio differences may have localized negative impacts. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2002.

  19. Nestling sex ratios in the southwestern willow flycatcher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paxton, E.H.; Sogge, M.K.; McCarthey, Tracy; Keim, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Using molecular-genetic techniques, we determined the gender of 202 Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) nestlings from 95 nests sampled over a five-year period. Overall nestling sex ratio did not vary significantly from 50:50 among years, by clutch order, or by mating strategy (monogamous vs. polygamous pairings). However, we did observe significant differences among the four sites sampled, with sex ratios biased either toward males or females at the different sites. Given the small population sizes and geographic isolation of many of the endangered subspecies' breeding populations, sex-ratio differences may have localized negative impacts.

  20. (Workshop on Willow Breeding and Biotechnology Development Activities)

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, P.A.

    1988-10-12

    P.A. Layton attended a workshop on Willow Breeding and Biotechnology Development Activities,'' which was organized by the International Energy Agency/Bioenergy Agreement (IEA/BA) Task II. The traveler spent 1 d prior to the meeting to visit scientists and administrators of Shell Research Limited. Physiology and Biological Chemistry Division to discus their interest in biomass production research as well as their other research interests in tissue culture, biotechnology, and management of forests and agricultural crops that are pertinent to the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Biomass Production program.

  1. AmeriFlux US-WCr Willow Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-WCr Willow Creek. Site Description - Upland decduous broadleaf forest. Mainly sugar maple, also basswood. Uniform stand atop a very modest hill. Clearcut approximately 80 years ago. Chosen to be representative of the upland deciduous broadleaf forests within the WLEF tall tower flux footprint. It appears to be more heavily forested and more productive than most of the upland deciduous broadleaf forests in the WLEF flux footprint (see publications for more details). It is also important that SE winds are screened from the flux data (see Cook et al, 2004 for details). Propane generator power.

  2. Seasonal Variation in the Hormone Content of Willow

    PubMed Central

    Alvim, Ronald; Hewett, Errol W.; Saunders, Peter F.

    1976-01-01

    Changes in levels of abscisic acid (ABA) and cytokinin activity in the xylem sap of willow (Salix viminalis, L.) were followed throughout two growth cycles. Growth in spring was preceded by decreasing levels of ABA and an increase in cytokinin activity. The onset of dormancy was associated with low levels of cytokinins and high contents of ABA. A second peak of ABA was found in July which was not related to the dry weight of the sap. The main cytokinin activity in the sap was due to a zeatin riboside-like compound. PMID:16659508

  3. Temporal and spatial variation of hematozoans in Scandinavian willow warblers.

    PubMed

    Bensch, Staffan; Akesson, Susanne

    2003-04-01

    We examined temporal and geographical distribution of Haemoproteus sp. and Plasmodium sp. parasites in Swedish willow warblers, Phylloscopus trochilus. Parasite lineages were detected with molecular methods in 556 birds from 41 sites distributed at distances up to 1,500 km. Two mitochondrial lineages of Haemoproteus sp. were detected, WW1 in 56 birds and WW2 in 75 birds, that differed by 5.2% sequence divergence. We discuss the reasons behind the observed pattern of variation and identify 3 possible causes: (1) variation in the geographic distribution of the vector species, (2) the degree of parasite sharing with other bird species coexisting with the willow warbler, and (3) timing of transmission. Our results support a fundamental and rarely tested assumption of the now classical Hamilton-Zuk hypothesis of sexual selection, namely, that these parasites vary in both time and space. Such fluctuations of parasites and the selection pressure they supposedly impose on the host population are likely to maintain variation in immune system genes in the host population. PMID:12760661

  4. Genetic variation in the endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Busch, Joseph; Miller, Mark P.; Paxton, E.H.; Sogge, M.K.; Keim, Paul

    2000-01-01

    The Southwestern Willow Flycatcher(Empidonax trailii extimus) is an endangered Neotropical migrant that breeds in isolated remnants of dense riparian habitat in the southwestern United States. We estimated genetic variation at 20 breedings sites of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher(290 individuals) using 38 amplified fragment length polymorphisms(AFLPs). Our results suggest that considerable genetic diversity exists within the subspecies and within local breeding sites. Statistical analyses of genetic variation revealed only slight, although significant, differentiation among breeding sites( Mantel's r = 0.0705, P < 0.0005; 0 = 0.0816, 95% CI = 0.0608 to 0.1034; a??sr = 0.0458, P < 0.001). UPGMA cluster analysis of the AFLP markers indicates that extensive gene flow has occurred among breeding sites. No one site stood out as being genetically unique or isolated. Therefore the small level of genetic structure that we detected may not be biologically significant. Ongoing field studies are consistent with this conclusion. Of the banded birds that were resighted or recaptured in Arizona during the 1996 to 1998 breeding seasons, one-third moved between breeding sites and two-thirds were philopatric. Low differentiation maybe the result of historically high rangewide diversity followed by recent geographic isolation of breeding sites, although observational data indicate that gene flow is a current phenomenon. Our data suggest that breeding groups of E. t. extimus act as a metapopulation.

  5. Injury due to leg bands in willow flycatchers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, J.A.; Klus, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    We report an apparently unusually high incidence of leg injury in Willow Flycatchers (Empidonax traillii) as a result of banding and color banding. Color bands and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) bands applied to Willow Flycatchers from 1988-1995 resulted in an overall leg injury rate of 9.6% to birds returning to our study areas in subsequent years. Most injuries occurred on legs with only color band(s) (58.3%) or on legs with both a USFWS band and a color band (35%); only 6.7% of injuries (4/60) were due to USFWS bands alone, yielding an overall USFWS band injury rate of only 0.6%. Injuries ranged from severe (swollen, bleeding legs; a missing foot) to relatively minor (irritations on the tarsus). Amputation of the foot occurred in 33.9% of the cases. Return rates of adult injured birds in the year(s) following injury were significantly lower than for the population at large.

  6. Sequence and gene expression evolution of paralogous genes in willows.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Srilakshmy L; Pucholt, Pascal; Berlin, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Whole genome duplications (WGD) have had strong impacts on species diversification by triggering evolutionary novelties, however, relatively little is known about the balance between gene loss and forces involved in the retention of duplicated genes originating from a WGD. We analyzed putative Salicoid duplicates in willows, originating from the Salicoid WGD, which took place more than 45 Mya. Contigs were constructed by de novo assembly of RNA-seq data derived from leaves and roots from two genotypes. Among the 48,508 contigs, 3,778 pairs were, based on fourfold synonymous third-codon transversion rates and syntenic positions, predicted to be Salicoid duplicates. Both copies were in most cases expressed in both tissues and 74% were significantly differentially expressed. Mean Ka/Ks was 0.23, suggesting that the Salicoid duplicates are evolving by purifying selection. Gene Ontology enrichment analyses showed that functions related to DNA- and nucleic acid binding were over-represented among the non-differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates, while functions related to biosynthesis and metabolism were over-represented among the differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates. We propose that the differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates are regulatory neo- and/or subfunctionalized, while the non-differentially expressed are dose sensitive, hence, functionally conserved. Multiple evolutionary processes, thus drive the retention of Salicoid duplicates in willows. PMID:26689951

  7. Sequence and gene expression evolution of paralogous genes in willows

    PubMed Central

    Harikrishnan, Srilakshmy L.; Pucholt, Pascal; Berlin, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Whole genome duplications (WGD) have had strong impacts on species diversification by triggering evolutionary novelties, however, relatively little is known about the balance between gene loss and forces involved in the retention of duplicated genes originating from a WGD. We analyzed putative Salicoid duplicates in willows, originating from the Salicoid WGD, which took place more than 45 Mya. Contigs were constructed by de novo assembly of RNA-seq data derived from leaves and roots from two genotypes. Among the 48,508 contigs, 3,778 pairs were, based on fourfold synonymous third-codon transversion rates and syntenic positions, predicted to be Salicoid duplicates. Both copies were in most cases expressed in both tissues and 74% were significantly differentially expressed. Mean Ka/Ks was 0.23, suggesting that the Salicoid duplicates are evolving by purifying selection. Gene Ontology enrichment analyses showed that functions related to DNA- and nucleic acid binding were over-represented among the non-differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates, while functions related to biosynthesis and metabolism were over-represented among the differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates. We propose that the differentially expressed Salicoid duplicates are regulatory neo- and/or subfunctionalized, while the non-differentially expressed are dose sensitive, hence, functionally conserved. Multiple evolutionary processes, thus drive the retention of Salicoid duplicates in willows. PMID:26689951

  8. Simulation of rain floods on Willow Creek, Valley County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles

    1986-01-01

    The Hydrologic Engineering Center-1 rainfall-runoff simulation model was used to assess the effects of a system of reservoirs and waterspreaders in the 550-sq mi Willow Creek Basin in northeastern Montana. For simulation purposes, the basin was subdivided into 100 subbasins containing 84 reservoirs and 14 waterspreaders. Precipitation input to the model was a 24-hr duration, 100-yr frequency synthetic rainstorm developed from National Weather Service data. Infiltration and detention losses were computed using the U.S. Soil Conservation Service Curve Number concept, and the dimensionless unit hydrograph developed by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service was used to compute runoff. Channel and reservoir flow routing was based on the modified Puls storage routing procedure. Waterspreaders were simulated by assuming that each dike in a spreader system functions as a reservoir, with only an emergency spillway discharging directly into the next dike. Waterspreader and reservoir volumes were calculated from surface areas measured on maps. The first simulation run was made with no structures in place, and resulted in a 100-yr frequency peak at the mouth of Willow Creek of 22,700 cu ft/sec. With all structures in place, the 100-yr frequency peak was decreased by 74% to 5,870 cu ft/sec. (USGS)

  9. Impact of Willow Invasion on Vegetation Water and Carbon Exchange in the Florida Everglades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budny, M. L.; Benscoter, B.

    2014-12-01

    Southern coastal willow (Salix caroliniana) is native to the Florida Everglades, commonly found on drier landforms like levees and tree islands. Shortened periods of inundation due to water management have led to the encroachment and expansion of these shrubs in sawgrass (Cladium jamaicense) marsh communities. The broadleaf willow is morphologically and physiologically different from the graminoid sedge sawgrass, with possible consequence for microhabitat conditions and ecosystem function. Willow is often assumed to have greater rates of transpiration, thereby affecting wetland water management, and may have concurrent differences in photosynthesis and carbon exchange. However, the ecophysiological impact of the willow invasion has not been quantified. We assessed differences in plant water and carbon exchange between willow and sawgrass at Blue Cypress Conservation Area, an impounded sawgrass peatland within the St. John's River Water Management District (SJRWMD). Plant transpiration and net CO2 exchange (photosynthesis and autotrophic respiration) were measured on fully expanded, non-damaged leaves of sawgrass and willow using a portable infrared gas analyzer (LI-6400XT, LI-COR, Lincoln, NE, U.S.A.). The results obtained from this study will provide a better understanding of ecophysiological changes that occur within marsh communities with shrub expansion, which will have cascading impacts on soil accretion and turnover, microclimate, and water quality Understanding the implications of willow expansion will improve landscape models of wetland water and carbon exchange as well as inform water management decisions.

  10. Utilization of waste products of dehydrated onion industry for production of fodder yeast by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ghonaim, S A; Abou-Zeid, A A; Abd El-Fattah, A F; Farid, M A

    1980-01-01

    One strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was selected from different yeasts, isolated from black strap molasses. This microorganism was cultivated on seven fermentation media for the production of protein. Medium I exhibited the highest potentiality for formation of protein. Therefore strain 1 of S. cerevisiae and medium I were used for further studies in the formation of protein. Factors controlling production of protein were explored. The required incubation period for the fermentation process was 72 hrs, while the initial pH value of the medium was 6.0. Sucrose supported the microorganism for higher production of protein (40.96%), while the best concentration of sucrose was shown to be 10.0 g/l. The best inorganic and organic nitrogen sources for protein formation were (NH4)2HPO4, (NH4)3PO4 and yeast extract, respectively. The best concentrations of (NH4)2HPO4 and yeast extract, supporting protein formation, were 5.0 g/l and 10.0 g/l, respectively. Addition of MgSO4, ZnSO4, ferrous ammonium sulphate, copper sulphate, biotin, Ca-pantothenate, thiamine, pyridoxine, and inositol to the synthetic medium did not markedly influence high level of protein formation. Glutamic acid was the best amino acid, supporting protein formation by S. cerevisiae. Onion juice was found to be a good medium, after deletion of inhibitory volatile sulphur organic compounds, for the production of protein by S. cerevisiae. Addition of (NH4)2HPO4 to the best concentration of onion juice assisted the onion medium in production of fodder yeast, containing high level of protein. Addition of MgSO4 to onion juice and (NH4)2HPO4 did not increase the total nitrogen of the biomass. Fodder yeast, produced by onion juice medium, contained more valuable ingredients than fodder yeast, produced by synthetic medium. PMID:6990654

  11. Sand and sandbar willow: a feedback loop amplifies environmental sensitivity at the riparian interface.

    PubMed

    Rood, Stewart B; Goater, Lori A; Gill, Karen M; Braatne, Jeffrey H

    2011-01-01

    Riparian or streamside zones support dynamic ecosystems with three interacting components: flowing water, alluvia (river-transported sediments), and vegetation. River damming influences all three, and subsequent responses can provide insight into underlying processes. We investigated these components along the 315-km Hells Canyon corridor of the Snake River that included reaches upstream, along, and downstream from three large dams and reservoirs, and along the Salmon River, a free-flowing tributary. Sandbar willow was generally the woody plant at the lowest bank position and was abundant along upstream reaches (53, 45, 67% of transects), sparse along reservoirs (11, 12, 0%), and sparse along the Snake River downstream (11%). It was prolific along the undammed Salmon River (83%) and intermediate along the Snake River below the Salmon inflow (27%), indicating partial recovery with the contribution of water and sediments. Along these rivers, it commonly occurred on sandy substrates, especially on shallow-sloped surfaces, and emerged from interstitial sands between cobbles on steeper surfaces. However, along the Snake River below the dams, sandbars have eroded and willows were sparse on remnant, degrading sand surfaces. We conclude that a feedback loop exists between sands and sandbar willow. Sand favors willow colonization and clonal expansion, and reciprocally the extensively branched willows create slack-water zones that protect and trap sands. This feedback may sustain surface sands and sandbar willows along free-flowing river systems and it amplifies their mutual vulnerability to river damming. Following damming, sediment-depleted water is released downstream, eroding surface sands and reducing willow colonization and expansion. With willow decline, sands are further exposed and eroded, compounding these impacts. From this feedback, we predict the coordinated depletion of surface sands and riparian willows along dammed rivers throughout the Northern Hemisphere

  12. Transplanting Soil Microbiomes Leads to Lasting Effects on Willow Growth, but not on the Rhizosphere Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Yergeau, Etienne; Bell, Terrence H.; Champagne, Julie; Maynard, Christine; Tardif, Stacie; Tremblay, Julien; Greer, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Plants interact closely with microbes, which are partly responsible for plant growth, health, and adaptation to stressful environments. Engineering the plant-associated microbiome could improve plant survival and performance in stressful environments such as contaminated soils. Here, willow cuttings were planted into highly petroleum-contaminated soils that had been gamma-irradiated and subjected to one of four treatments: inoculation with rhizosphere soil from a willow that grew well (LA) or sub-optimally (SM) in highly contaminated soils or with bulk soil in which the planted willow had died (DE) or no inoculation (CO). Samples were taken from the starting inoculum, at the beginning of the experiment (T0) and after 100 days of growth (TF). Short hypervariable regions of archaeal/bacterial 16S rRNA genes and the fungal ITS region were amplified from soil DNA extracts and sequenced on the Illumina MiSeq. Willow growth was monitored throughout the experiment, and plant biomass was measured at TF. CO willows were significantly smaller throughout the experiment, while DE willows were the largest at TF. Microbiomes of different treatments were divergent at T0, but for most samples, had converged on highly similar communities by TF. Willow biomass was more strongly linked to overall microbial community structure at T0 than to microbial community structure at TF, and the relative abundance of many genera at T0 was significantly correlated to final willow root and shoot biomass. Although microbial communities had mostly converged at TF, lasting differences in willow growth were observed, probably linked to differences in T0 microbial communities. PMID:26733977

  13. Rotational grazing systems and grazing management research: Mapping the future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recent publication reviewed a substantial amount of evidence generated from a geographically diverse effort by university and agency scientists over the past 6 decades to investigate the impacts of rotational grazing on fundamental rangeland ecological processes. Their findings, and others as well...

  14. Temperate grass response to timing of grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing management has a significant impact on pasture growth. We determined how timing of grazing influences grass productivity, yield distribution, and persistence. Meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.], orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), quackgrass [Elymus repens (L.) Gould...

  15. Effects of grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression on steers grazing tall fescue pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first year of a 2 yr grazing study was conducted to evaluate use of Chaparral™ to suppress reproductive growth in tall fescue grazed with low and moderate grazing intensities. Chaparral applications (0 and 2.0 oz/acre) and grazing intensities were arranged as RCBD with three replications. Variab...

  16. Effects of sodium meta bisulfite on diffusion fermentation of fodder beets for fuel ethanol production. [Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    The authors designed and tested a new process for converting fodder beets to ethanol: continuous diffusion-fermentation. This process utilizes the simultaneous diffusion-fermentation concept of the EX-FERM design; however, it overcomes the material handling problems inherent in that system by utilizing a counterflow tubular auger system. This process also eliminates the need for roller mills or presses and dryers which are required for alcohol recovery from solid phase fermentation. The latter is the only other currently feasible procedure for producing distillably worthwhile amounts of ethanol from fodder beets, sweet sorghum, and other similar feedstocks. Results on the use of sodium meta bisulfite (SMB) for contamination control with fermenting fodder beet cubes are reported.

  17. 25 CFR 700.722 - Grazing associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing associations. 700.722 Section 700.722 Indians THE... Grazing § 700.722 Grazing associations. (a) The Commissioner may recognize, cooperate with, and assist range unit livestock associations in the management of livestock and range resources. (b)...

  18. 25 CFR 700.722 - Grazing associations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grazing associations. 700.722 Section 700.722 Indians THE... Grazing § 700.722 Grazing associations. (a) The Commissioner may recognize, cooperate with, and assist range unit livestock associations in the management of livestock and range resources. (b)...

  19. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF... WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such permits, such stock as may be required in connection with the...

  20. 25 CFR 173.6 - Stock grazing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stock grazing. 173.6 Section 173.6 Indians BUREAU OF... WITHDRAWN OR ACQUIRED IN CONNECTION WITH INDIAN IRRIGATION PROJECTS § 173.6 Stock grazing. Permittees may graze upon lands covered by such permits, such stock as may be required in connection with the...

  1. 25 CFR 700.709 - Grazing privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Grazing § 700.709 Grazing privileges. (a) A list of permittees eligible to receive grazing permits is kept at the Office of Navajo and Hopi Indian Relocation in Flagstaff, Arizona. This list is composed of.... Individuals on this list will receive a commitment that a permit will be issued to them. (b) If such...

  2. Characterisation of the willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene family reveals expression differences compared with poplar

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Femke; Hanley, Steven J.; Beale, Michael H.; Karp, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Willow is an important biomass crop for the bioenergy industry, and therefore optimal growth with minimal effects of biotic and abiotic stress is essential. The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of not only lignin but also of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids and phenolic glycosides which all have a role in protecting the plant against biotic and abiotic stress. All products of the phenylpropanoid pathway are important for the healthy growth of short rotation cropping species such as willow. However, the phenylpropanoid pathway in willow remains largely uncharacterised. In the current study we identified and characterised five willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) genes, which encode enzymes that catalyse the deamination of l-phenylalanine to form trans-cinnamic acid, the entry point into the phenylpropanoid pathway. Willow PAL1, PAL2, PAL3 and PAL4 genes were orthologous to the poplar genes. However no orthologue of PAL5 appears to be present in willow. Moreover, two tandemly repeated PAL2 orthologues were identified in a single contig. Willow PALs show similar sub-cellular localisation to the poplar genes. However, the enzyme kinetics and gene expression of the willow PAL genes differed slightly, with willow PAL2 being more widely expressed than its poplar orthologues implying a wider role for PALs in the production of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids, and phenolic glycosides, in willow. PMID:26070140

  3. Characterisation of the willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene family reveals expression differences compared with poplar.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Femke; Hanley, Steven J; Beale, Michael H; Karp, Angela

    2015-09-01

    Willow is an important biomass crop for the bioenergy industry, and therefore optimal growth with minimal effects of biotic and abiotic stress is essential. The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of not only lignin but also of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids and phenolic glycosides which all have a role in protecting the plant against biotic and abiotic stress. All products of the phenylpropanoid pathway are important for the healthy growth of short rotation cropping species such as willow. However, the phenylpropanoid pathway in willow remains largely uncharacterised. In the current study we identified and characterised five willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) genes, which encode enzymes that catalyse the deamination of l-phenylalanine to form trans-cinnamic acid, the entry point into the phenylpropanoid pathway. Willow PAL1, PAL2, PAL3 and PAL4 genes were orthologous to the poplar genes. However no orthologue of PAL5 appears to be present in willow. Moreover, two tandemly repeated PAL2 orthologues were identified in a single contig. Willow PALs show similar sub-cellular localisation to the poplar genes. However, the enzyme kinetics and gene expression of the willow PAL genes differed slightly, with willow PAL2 being more widely expressed than its poplar orthologues implying a wider role for PALs in the production of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids, and phenolic glycosides, in willow. PMID:26070140

  4. Adaptive management of grazing lands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rangelands, the mainland type used as grazing lands, occupy ~54% of the world’s ice-free land surface, and grasslands dominate ~ 16% of all rangelands. China is the third largest country for rangeland resources in the world and has approximately 400 million ha rangeland, about 40% of China’s land s...

  5. Can we graze 300+ days?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The grazing season can be extended by using a system of forages that will require an intensification of the overall management of both the cattle and pastures. Fertilization and weed control should be done when needed, and pasture composition should be monitored and inventoried to determine if weed...

  6. Landfill leachate treatment with willows and poplars--efficiency and plant response.

    PubMed

    Dimitriou, I; Aronsson, P

    2010-11-01

    Irrigation of willow and poplar short-rotation coppice with landfill leachate is an increasingly interesting treatment option. Minimal leaching to groundwater and disturbance to plant growth must be ensured, but in such systems, where various site-specific factors interact, a case-specific approach is needed to determine potential hazards. This paper compares the effect of leachate irrigation on willow grown in clay lysimeters and poplar grown in sand lysimeters. Leachate irrigation increased willow biomass production, but not that of poplar. Near-zero nitrate-N concentrations were found in drainage water for both species after 2 years of irrigation. Ability to retain total N and P, and TOC was relatively high for willow, taking into account the large amounts supplied, and better than for poplar. To reduce environmental risks the irrigation load should be reduced, but if leachate concentrations are reduced, the irrigation load can be as high as 6mm/day. PMID:20650625

  7. Functional screening of willow alleles in Arabidopsis combined with QTL mapping in willow (Salix) identifies SxMAX4 as a coppicing response gene

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Jemma; Ward, Sally P; Hanley, Steven J; Leyser, Ottoline; Karp, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) are important biomass crops due to their ability to grow rapidly with low fertilizer inputs and ease of cultivation in short-rotation coppice cycles. They are relatively undomesticated and highly diverse, but functional testing to identify useful allelic variation is time-consuming in trees and transformation is not yet possible in willow. Arabidopsis is heralded as a model plant from which knowledge can be transferred to advance the improvement of less tractable species. Here, knowledge and methodologies from Arabidopsis were successfully used to identify a gene influencing stem number in coppiced willows, a complex trait of key biological and industrial relevance. The strigolactone-related More AXillary growth (MAX) genes were considered candidates due to their role in shoot branching. We previously demonstrated that willow and Arabidopsis show similar response to strigolactone and that transformation rescue of Arabidopsis max mutants with willow genes could be used to detect allelic differences. Here, this approach was used to screen 45 SxMAX1, SxMAX2, SxMAX3 and SxMAX4 alleles cloned from 15 parents of 11 mapping populations varying in shoot-branching traits. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies were locus dependent, ranging from 29.2 to 74.3 polymorphic sites per kb. SxMAX alleles were 98%–99% conserved at the amino acid level, but different protein products varying in their ability to rescue Arabidopsis max mutants were identified. One poor rescuing allele, SxMAX4D, segregated in a willow mapping population where its presence was associated with increased shoot resprouting after coppicing and colocated with a QTL for this trait. PMID:24393130

  8. Salt intrusion in tidal wetlands: European willow species tolerate oligohaline conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markus-Michalczyk, Heike; Hanelt, Dieter; Ludewig, Kristin; Müller, David; Schröter, Brigitte; Jensen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Tidal wetlands experience salt intrusion due to the effects of climate change. This study clarifies that the European flood plain willows species Salix alba and Salix viminalis tolerate oligohaline conditions. Salix alba L. and Salix viminalis L. are distributed on flood plains up to transitional waters of the oligohaline to the mesohaline estuarine stretch in temperate climates. They experience spatial and temporal variations in flooding and salinity. In the past, willows dominated the vegetation above the mean high water line, attenuated waves and contributed to sedimentation. In recent centuries, human utilization reduced willow stands. Today, the Elbe estuary - a model system for an estuary in temperate zones - exhibits increasing flooding and salinity due to man-induced effects and climatic changes. Willows were described as having no salinity tolerance. In contrast, our soil water salinity measurements at willows in tidal wetlands prove that mature Salix individuals tolerate oligohaline conditions. To assess immature plant salinity tolerance, we conducted a hydroponic greenhouse experiment. Vegetative propagules originating from a freshwater and an oligohaline site were treated in four salinities. Related to growth rates and biomass production, we found interspecific similarities and a salinity tolerance up to salinity 2. Vitality and chlorophyll fluorescence indicated an acclimation of Salix viminalis to oligohaline conditions. We conclude, that the survival of S. alba and S. viminalis and the restoration of willow stands in estuarine flood plains - with regard to wave attenuation and sedimentation - might be possible, despite increasing salinity in times of climate change.

  9. Aberrations for Grazing Incidence Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Timo T.

    2008-01-01

    Large number of grazing incidence telescope configurations have been designed and studied. Wolte1 telescopes are commonly used in astronomical applications. Wolter telescopes consist of a paraboloidal primary mirror and a hyperboloidal or an ellipsoidal secondary mirror. There are 8 possible combinations of Wolter telescopes. Out of these possible designs only type 1 and type 2 telescopes are widely used. Type 1 telescope is typically used for x-ray applications and type 2 telescopes are used for EUV applications. Wolter-Schwarzshild (WS) telescopes offer improved image quality over a small field of view. The WS designs are stigmatic and free of third order coma and, therefore, the PSF is significantly better over a small field of view. Typically the image is more symmetric about its centroid. As for the Wolter telescopes there are 8 possible combinations of WS telescopes. These designs have not been widely used because the surface equations are complex parametric equations complicating the analysis and typically the resolution requirements are too low to take full advantage of the WS designs. There are several other design options. Most notable are wide field x-ray telescope designs. Polynomial designs were originally suggested by Burrows4 and hyperboloid-hyperboloid designs for solar physics applications were designed by Harvey5. No general aberration theory exists for grazing incidence telescopes that would cover all the design options. Several authors have studied the aberrations of grazing incidence telescopes. A comprehensive theory of Wolter type 1 and 2 telescopes has been developed. Later this theory was expanded to include all possible combinations of grazing incidence and also normal incidence paraboloid-hyperboloid and paraboloid-ellipsoid telescopes. In this article the aberration theory of Wolter type telescopes is briefly reviewed.

  10. Near anastigmatic grazing incidence telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsch, D.

    1984-01-01

    A performance capability assessment is presently conducted for short versus long grazing incidence telescope designs, in view of the observation that the field curvature and astigmatism that are the primary residual aberrations of a Wolter-type incidence telescope can be substantially reduced through mirror length reduction. A major advantage of the short element telescope is that, if sufficiently short, both the paraboloid and hyperboloid surfaces may be fabricated as a single piece; this significantly facilitates the task of alignment.

  11. [Detection and kinetic characterization of Candida tropicalis contamination during fodder yeast production].

    PubMed

    García Gutiérrez, Roxana; Otero Rambla, Miguel Angel; Fundora Toucet, Norka; Martínez Sánchez, Aidín; Saura Lauria, Gustavo; Casalot, Laurence

    2006-06-01

    Candida tropicalis was identified as the etiologic agent of a severe contamination detected on an industrial fodder yeast production at the Cuban eastern region. After a detailed diagnostic task on raw material carried out on different factory sections, protocols to identify the contamination source and to isolate the microorganism were proposed. The identification was by comparison of the internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS4 from 5.8S ribosomal DNA nucleotide sequences. In parallel, propagation of production strain, Candida utilis NRRL Y-660, at lab scale (2.5 l) was performed. Similar results to those observed in the factory concerning to its kinetic behavior in aerobic propagation with contaminated molasses, were detected at this level. The identification and primary kinetic characterization led to the implementation of sanitary and technological measures to bring production at its normal operational conditions as well as the application of prophylactic surveillance methodologies to avoid future contaminations. PMID:16854184

  12. A survey protocol for the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tibbitts, Timothy J.; Sogge, Mark K.; Sferra, Susan J.

    1994-01-01

    The southwestern willow flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) is a riparian obligate neotropical migrant, nesting in cottonwood-willow associations and structurally similar riparian vegetation associations. The southwestern willow flycatcher has declined through the twentieth century, primarily due to a number of factors, including loss and fragmentation of riparian habitat, brood parasitism by brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater), invasion of riparian habitat by the exotic tamarisk (Tamarix sp.), and predation (Hunter et al. 1987), Unitt 1987, Hunter et al. 1988, Whitfield 1990, Harris 1991, Rosenberg et al. 1991). In 1991 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) designated the southwestern willow flycatcher as a candidate category 1 species (USFWS 1991), indicating that the USFWS had sufficient information to support listing under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), but that a proposal to list was precluded by other listing actions of higher priority. In July 1993, the USFWS proposed to list E. t. extimus as an endangered species and to designate critical habitat under the Act (USFWS 1993). The states of Arizona, New Mexico, and California comprise most of the southwestern willow flycatcher's historic and current range. Each of these states lists the species as endangered [Arizona Game and Fish Department (AGFD) 1988, New Mexico Department of Game and Fish (NMDGF) 1988, California Department of Game and Fish 1991]. Because of the precarious status of the southwestern willow flycatcher (Unitt 1987, USFWS 1993), there is a need to identify as many remaining breeding locations as possible. This survey protocol was developed to facilitate and standardize breeding surveys, and is based primarily on extensive 1992 and 1993 field surveys. It was developed at the request of the Arizona Partners in flight, and organization of Federal and State agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and individuals. This protocol is intended to be useful

  13. Methane uptake and emissions in a typical steppe grazing system during the grazing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoya; Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Li, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiaoqing

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of livestock grazing on CH4 emissions by testing six grazing conditions at Guyuan State Key Monitoring and Research Station of Grassland Ecosystem (China) in 2011 and 2012. Under all grazing systems, steppe soils were measured to be CH4 sinks. The uptake of CH4 by grassland was primarily determined by topsoil (7 cm) temperature and soil (0-7 cm) moisture in grassland at short-term grazing and non-grazing. The cumulative uptake of CH4 during the grazing period for all conditions was 0.88-3.23 kg hm-2 CH4, and the highest level was observed in the continuously moderate grazing condition. Reducing grazing stocking in the short-term did not significantly change the uptake of CH4 when compared with continuously heavy grazing condition. Enteric CH4 emissions were not significantly affected by the grazing period or conditions. The uptake of CH4 by grassland soil offset 3.1-8.6% of the CH4 emissions from the grazing sheep and was most effective at the continuously moderate grazing condition. These findings imply that continuously moderate grazing is the best approach considered here for optimizing the soil as a sink for atmospheric CH4.

  14. Willow Creek Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    Today`s notice announces BPA`s proposal to fund land acquisition or acquisition of a conservation easement and a wildlife management plan to protect and enhance wildlife habitat at the Willow Creek Natural Area in Eugene, Oregon. This action would provide partial mitigation for wildlife and wildlife habitat lost by the development of Federal hydroelectric projects in the Willamette River Basin. The project is consistent with BPA`s obligations under provisions of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 as outlined by the Northwest Power Planning Council`s 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. BPA has prepared an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1023) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  15. Aboveground and belowground competition between willow Salix caprea its understory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Hermová, Markéta; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The effects of aboveground and belowground competition with the willow S. caprea on its understory plant community were studied in unreclaimed post-mining sites. Belowground competition was evaluated by comparing (i) frames inserted into the soil that excluded woody roots (frame treatment), (ii) frames that initially excluded woody root growth but then allowed regrowth of the roots (open-frame treatment), and (iii) undisturbed soil (no-frame treatment). These treatments were combined with S. caprea thinning to assess the effect of aboveground competition. Three years after the start of the experiment, aboveground competition from S. caprea (as modified by thinning of the S. caprea canopy) had not affected understory biomass or species number but had affected species composition. In contrast, belowground competition significantly affected both the aboveground and belowground biomass of the understory. The aboveground biomass of the understory was greater in the frame treatment (which excluded woody roots) than in the other two treatments. The belowground biomass of the understory was greater in the frame than in the open-frame treatment. Unlike aboveground competition (light availability), belowground competition did not affect understory species composition. Our results suggest that S. caprea is an important component during plant succession on post-mining sites because it considerably modifies its understory plant community. Belowground competition is a major reason for the low cover and biomass of the herbaceous understory in S. caprea stands on post-mining sites.

  16. Simulation modeling to understand how selective foraging by beaver can drive the structure and function of a willow community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peinetti, H.R.; Baker, B.W.; Coughenour, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Beaver-willow (Castor-Salix) communities are a unique and vital component of healthy wetlands throughout the Holarctic region. Beaver selectively forage willow to provide fresh food, stored winter food, and construction material. The effects of this complex foraging behavior on the structure and function of willow communities is poorly understood. Simulation modeling may help ecologists understand these complex interactions. In this study, a modified version of the SAVANNA ecosystem model was developed to better understand how beaver foraging affects the structure and function of a willow community in a simulated riparian ecosystem in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado (RMNP). The model represents willow in terms of plant and stem dynamics and beaver foraging in terms of the quantity and quality of stems cut to meet the energetic and life history requirements of beaver. Given a site where all stems were equally available, the model suggested a simulated beaver family of 2 adults, 2 yearlings, and 2 kits required a minimum of 4 ha of willow (containing about10 stems m-2) to persist in a steady-state condition. Beaver created a willow community where the annual net primary productivity (ANPP) was 2 times higher and plant architecture was more diverse than the willow community without beaver. Beaver foraging created a plant architecture dominated by medium size willow plants, which likely explains how beaver can increase ANPP. Long-term simulations suggested that woody biomass stabilized at similar values even though availability differed greatly at initial condition. Simulations also suggested that willow ANPP increased across a range of beaver densities until beaver became food limited. Thus, selective foraging by beaver increased productivity, decreased biomass, and increased structural heterogeneity in a simulated willow community.

  17. 187Re-187Os Isotopic and Highly Siderophile Element Systematics of Group IVB Irons, and Ungrouped Irons Chinga, Tishomingo and Willow Grove

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honesto, J.; McDonough, W. F.; Walker, R. J.; Corrigan, C. M.; McCoy, T. J.; Chabot, N. L.; Ash, R. D.

    2006-03-01

    IVB irons and the ungrouped irons Chinga, Tishomingo and Willow Grove were analyzed for HSE abundances and 187Re-187Os systematics. Chinga and Willow Grove cannot be related to the IVBs by igneous fractionation. Tishomingo is more ambiguous.

  18. 25 CFR 167.11 - Tenure of grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Tenure of grazing permits. (a) All active regular grazing permits shall be for one year and shall be... § 167.8 may become a livestock operator by obtaining an active grazing permit through negotiability or... handle each matter of unused grazing permit or portions of grazing permits on individual merits....

  19. 43 CFR 4130.5 - Free-use grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Free-use grazing permits. 4130.5 Section... Authorizing Grazing Use § 4130.5 Free-use grazing permits. (a) A free-use grazing permit shall be issued to... directly and exclusively by the applicant and his family. The issuance of free-use grazing permits...

  20. 43 CFR 4130.5 - Free-use grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Free-use grazing permits. 4130.5 Section... Authorizing Grazing Use § 4130.5 Free-use grazing permits. (a) A free-use grazing permit shall be issued to... directly and exclusively by the applicant and his family. The issuance of free-use grazing permits...

  1. 43 CFR 4130.5 - Free-use grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Free-use grazing permits. 4130.5 Section... Authorizing Grazing Use § 4130.5 Free-use grazing permits. (a) A free-use grazing permit shall be issued to... directly and exclusively by the applicant and his family. The issuance of free-use grazing permits...

  2. 43 CFR 4130.5 - Free-use grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Free-use grazing permits. 4130.5 Section... Authorizing Grazing Use § 4130.5 Free-use grazing permits. (a) A free-use grazing permit shall be issued to... directly and exclusively by the applicant and his family. The issuance of free-use grazing permits...

  3. Interactions between willows and insect herbivores under enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Veteli, T O; Tegelberg, R; Pusenius, J; Sipura, M; Julkunen-Tiitto, R; Aphalo, P J; Tahvanainen, J

    2003-10-01

    We studied the effects of elevated ultraviolet-B radiation on interactions between insect herbivores and their host plants by exposing two species of phytochemically different willows, Salix myrsinifolia and S. phylicifolia, to a modulated increase in ultraviolet radiation in an outdoor experiment and monitoring the colonisation of insect herbivores on these willows. We examined the effect of increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on (1) the quality of willow leaves, (2) the distribution and abundance of insect herbivores feeding on these willows, (3) the resulting amount of damage, and (4) the performance of insect larvae feeding on the exposed plant tissue. Six clones of each of the two willow species were grown in eight blocks for 12 weeks in the UV-B irradiation field. The clones were exposed to a constant 50% increase in UV-B radiation (simulating 20-25% ozone depletion), to a small increase in UV-A radiation or to ambient solar irradiation. We allowed colonisation on the willows by naturally occurring insects, but also introduced adults of a leaf beetle, Phratora vitellinae, a specialist herbivore on S. myrsinifolia. Increased UV-B radiation did not affect any of the measured indices of plant quality. However, numbers of P. vitellinae on S. myrsinifolia were higher in plants with UV-B treatment compared with UV-A and shade controls. In laboratory tests, growth of the second-instar larva of P. vitellinae was not affected by UV-B treatment of S. myrsinifolia, but was retarded on UV-B treated leaves of S. phylicifolia. In addition, naturally occurring insect herbivores were more abundant on willows exposed to elevated UV-B radiation compared to those grown under control treatments. In spite of the increased abundance of insect herbivores, willows treated with elevated UV-B did not suffer more herbivore damage than willows exposed to ambient solar radiation (shade control). The observed effects of UV-B on herbivore abundance, feeding and growth varied

  4. Salix transect of Europe: latitudinal patterns in willow diversity from Greece to arctic Norway

    PubMed Central

    Ruzzier, Enrico; Belyaeva, Irina; Percy, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Willows (Salix spp.) are ecosystem "foundation species" that are hosts to large numbers of associated insects. Determining their patterns of distribution across Europe is therefore of interest for understanding the spatial distribution of associated fauna. The aim of this study was to record species composition at multiple sites on a long latitudinal gradient (megatransect) across Europe as a baseline for the future detailed analysis of insect fauna at these sites. In this way we used willow stands as comparable mesocosms in which to study floristic and faunistic changes with latitude across Europe. New information To determine spatial patterning of  an ecologically important group on a latitudinal gradient across Europe, we sampled willows at the stand level in 42 sites, approximately 100 km apart, from the Aegean (38.8°N) to the Arctic Ocean (70.6°N), but at a similar longitude (21.2 to 26.1°E). The sites were predominantly lowland (elevations 1 to 556 metres amsl, median = 95 m) and wet (associated with rivers, lakes, drainage ditches or wet meadows). The median number of willow taxa (species and hybrids) per stand was four, and varied from one to nine. There is a progressive increase in willow diversity from south to north with the median number of taxa per stand in southern Europe being three, and in northern Europe six. A total of 20 willow species were recorded, along with 12 hybrids. The most widespread willow in the transect was Salix alba L. (occurring in 20 sites out of 42) followed by S. triandra L. (15 sites), S. caprea L., S. phylicifolia L. (14 sites) and S. myrsinifolia Salisb., Salix ×fragilis L. (13 sites). Voucher specimens from this study are deposited in the herbaria of the Natural History Museum (BM) and the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew (K). These samples provide a "snapshot" of willow diversity along a latitudinal gradient and an indication of the geographically changing taxonomic diversity that is

  5. Willow Leaves' Extracts Contain Anti-Tumor Agents Effective against Three Cell Types

    PubMed Central

    El-Shemy, Hany A.; Aboul-Enein, Ahmed M.; Aboul-Enein, Khalid Mostafa; Fujita, Kounosuke

    2007-01-01

    Many higher plants contain novel metabolites with antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral properties. However, in the developed world almost all clinically used chemotherapeutics have been produced by in vitro chemical synthesis. Exceptions, like taxol and vincristine, were structurally complex metabolites that were difficult to synthesize in vitro. Many non-natural, synthetic drugs cause severe side effects that were not acceptable except as treatments of last resort for terminal diseases such as cancer. The metabolites discovered in medicinal plants may avoid the side effect of synthetic drugs, because they must accumulate within living cells. The aim here was to test an aqueous extract from the young developing leaves of willow (Salix safsaf, Salicaceae) trees for activity against human carcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro. In vivo Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Cells (EACC) were injected into the intraperitoneal cavity of mice. The willow extract was fed via stomach tube. The (EACC) derived tumor growth was reduced by the willow extract and death was delayed (for 35 days). In vitro the willow extract could kill the majority (75%–80%) of abnormal cells among primary cells harvested from seven patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 13 with AML (acute myeloid leukemia). DNA fragmentation patterns within treated cells inferred targeted cell death by apoptosis had occurred. The metabolites within the willow extract may act as tumor inhibitors that promote apoptosis, cause DNA damage, and affect cell membranes and/or denature proteins. PMID:17264881

  6. Major Chromosomal Rearrangements Distinguish Willow and Poplar After the Ancestral “Salicoid” Genome Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jing; Ye, Ning; Dong, Zhongyuan; Lu, Mengzhu; Li, Laigeng; Yin, Tongming

    2016-01-01

    Populus (poplar) and Salix (willow) are sister genera in the Salicaceae family. In both lineages extant species are predominantly diploid. Genome analysis previously revealed that the two lineages originated from a common tetraploid ancestor. In this study, we conducted a syntenic comparison of the corresponding 19 chromosome members of the poplar and willow genomes. Our observations revealed that almost every chromosomal segment had a parallel paralogous segment elsewhere in the genomes, and the two lineages shared a similar syntenic pinwheel pattern for most of the chromosomes, which indicated that the two lineages diverged after the genome reorganization in the common progenitor. The pinwheel patterns showed distinct differences for two chromosome pairs in each lineage. Further analysis detected two major interchromosomal rearrangements that distinguished the karyotypes of willow and poplar. Chromosome I of willow was a conjunction of poplar chromosome XVI and the lower portion of poplar chromosome I, whereas willow chromosome XVI corresponded to the upper portion of poplar chromosome I. Scientists have suggested that Populus is evolutionarily more primitive than Salix. Therefore, we propose that, after the “salicoid” duplication event, fission and fusion of the ancestral chromosomes first give rise to the diploid progenitor of extant Populus species. During the evolutionary process, fission and fusion of poplar chromosomes I and XVI subsequently give rise to the progenitor of extant Salix species. This study contributes to an improved understanding of genome divergence after ancient genome duplication in closely related lineages of higher plants. PMID:27352946

  7. Major Chromosomal Rearrangements Distinguish Willow and Poplar After the Ancestral "Salicoid" Genome Duplication.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jing; Ye, Ning; Dong, Zhongyuan; Lu, Mengzhu; Li, Laigeng; Yin, Tongming

    2016-01-01

    Populus (poplar) and Salix (willow) are sister genera in the Salicaceae family. In both lineages extant species are predominantly diploid. Genome analysis previously revealed that the two lineages originated from a common tetraploid ancestor. In this study, we conducted a syntenic comparison of the corresponding 19 chromosome members of the poplar and willow genomes. Our observations revealed that almost every chromosomal segment had a parallel paralogous segment elsewhere in the genomes, and the two lineages shared a similar syntenic pinwheel pattern for most of the chromosomes, which indicated that the two lineages diverged after the genome reorganization in the common progenitor. The pinwheel patterns showed distinct differences for two chromosome pairs in each lineage. Further analysis detected two major interchromosomal rearrangements that distinguished the karyotypes of willow and poplar. Chromosome I of willow was a conjunction of poplar chromosome XVI and the lower portion of poplar chromosome I, whereas willow chromosome XVI corresponded to the upper portion of poplar chromosome I. Scientists have suggested that Populus is evolutionarily more primitive than Salix. Therefore, we propose that, after the "salicoid" duplication event, fission and fusion of the ancestral chromosomes first give rise to the diploid progenitor of extant Populus species. During the evolutionary process, fission and fusion of poplar chromosomes I and XVI subsequently give rise to the progenitor of extant Salix species. This study contributes to an improved understanding of genome divergence after ancient genome duplication in closely related lineages of higher plants. PMID:27352946

  8. Available data support protection of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher under the Endangered Species Act

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theimer, Tad C.; Smith, Aaron D.; Mahoney, Sean M.; Ironside, Kirsten E.

    2016-01-01

    Zink (2015) argued there was no evidence for genetic, morphological, or ecological differentiation between the federally endangered Southwestern Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax traillii extimus) and other Willow Flycatcher subspecies. Using the same data, we show there is a step-cline in both the frequency of a mtDNA haplotype and in plumage variation roughly concordant with the currently recognized boundary between E. t. extimus and E. t adastus, the subspecies with which it shares the longest common boundary. The geographical pattern of plumage variation is also concordant with previous song analyses differentiating those 2 subspecies and identified birds in one low-latitude, high-elevation site in Arizona as the northern subspecies. We also demonstrate that the ecological niche modeling approach used by Zink yields the same result whether applied to the 2 flycatcher subspecies or to 2 unrelated species, E. t. extimus and Yellow Warbler (Setophaga petechia). As a result, any interpretation of those results as evidence for lack of ecological niche differentiation among Willow Flycatcher subspecies would also indicate no differentiation among recognized species and would therefore be an inappropriate standard for delineating subspecies. We agree that many analytical techniques now available to examine genetic, morphological, and ecological differentiation would improve our understanding of the distinctness (or lack thereof) of Willow Flycatcher subspecies, but we argue that currently available evidence supports protection of the Southwestern Willow Flycatcher under the Endangered Species Act.

  9. Comparison of management intensive grazing and continuous grazing in beef cattle pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management intensive grazing (MIG) offers the potential to increase the financial profitability and productivity of grazing beef and dairy farms in Appalachian Ohio, with minimum environmental impacts. The objective of the project was to compare MIG with conventional continuous grazing (CG) and rela...

  10. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: the effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle.

    PubMed

    Rubaire-Akiiki, C; Okello-Onen, J; Nasinyama, G W; Vaarst, M; Kabagambe, E K; Mwayi, W; Musunga, D; Wandukwa, W

    2004-01-01

    Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60%) was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50%) were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified. PMID:15861224

  11. Variation in copper and zinc tolerance and accumulation in 12 willow clones: implications for phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-dong; Wang, Yu-yan; Zhao, Feng-liang; Ding, Zhe-li; Zhang, Xin-cheng; Zhu, Zhi-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2014-09-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) have shown high potential for the phytoextraction of heavy metals. This study compares variations in copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) tolerance and accumulation potential among 12 willow clones grown in a nutrient solution treated with 50 μmol/L of Cu or Zn, respectively. The results showed differences in the tolerance and accumulation of Cu and Zn with respect to different species/clones. The biomass variation among clones in response to Cu or Zn exposure ranged from the stimulation of growth to inhibition, and all of the clones tested showed higher tolerance to Cu than to Zn. The clones exhibited less variation in Cu accumulation but larger variation in Zn accumulation. Based on translocation factors, it was found that most of the Cu was retained in the roots and that Zn was more mobile than Cu for all clones. It is concluded that most willow clones are good accumulators of Zn and Cu. PMID:25183033

  12. Bioenergy from willow: 1995 annual report, November 1987--December 1995. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.; Kopp, R.F.; Robinson, D.J.

    1997-07-01

    Experiments were established at Tully, New York, by the State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, in cooperation with the University of Toronto and the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, to assess the potential of willows for wood biomass production. Specific objectives included determining the effects of clone type, fertilization, spacing, cutting cycle, and irrigation on biomass production. Production was high, with willow clone SV1 yielding nearly 32 oven dry tons per acre with three-year harvest cycle, irrigation, and fertilization. Clone type, fertilization, spacing, cutting cycle, and irrigation all significantly affected biomass production. Willow clone-site trials planted at Massena, and Tully, NY in 1993 grew well during 1994 and 1995, but some clones in the Massena trial were severely damaged by deer browse.

  13. Use of wetlands for production of woody plants for fuels and petrochemical substitutes. [Alders, willows, poplars

    SciTech Connect

    Farnham, R.S.; Read, P.

    1981-03-01

    Work performed on this project in the past year has included the evaluations of natural stands productivity for wetland biomass species; propagation studies with alder, willow and poplar species; nursery establishment for production of cultivars and evaluation of wetland soils suitable for production of woody biomass species. Also a biomass research facility has been established in N. Minnesota suitable for long-term research and demonstration. Propagation research has included both micro and macro propagation techniques with native willows, selected willow clones from Sweden, alder seed selection from Finland and hybrid poplar clones from US Forest Service, Rhinelander, Wisconsin. Approximately 100,000 rooted plants will be available for field research by June 1, 1981.

  14. Flood of May 6, 2007, Willow Creek, west-central Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Edward E.; Eash, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Major flooding occurred May 6, 2007, in the Willow Creek drainage basin in Harrison County following severe thunderstorm activity over west-central Iowa. More than 7 inches of rain were recorded for the 72-hour period ending 7 a.m., May 6, at the Logan, Iowa weather station. The peak discharge in Willow Creek at Medford Avenue near Missouri Valley, Iowa, was 17,000 cubic feet per second. The recurrence interval of the flood is 160 years, which was estimated using regional regression equations. Information about the basin, the storms, the flooding, and a profile of high-water marks measured at 10 locations along Willow Creek between the mouth at the Boyer River and State Highway 37 in Monona County, a distance of almost 33 river miles, are presented in this report.

  15. Variation in copper and zinc tolerance and accumulation in 12 willow clones: implications for phytoextraction*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei-dong; Wang, Yu-yan; Zhao, Feng-liang; Ding, Zhe-li; Zhang, Xin-cheng; Zhu, Zhi-qiang; Yang, Xiao-e

    2014-01-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) have shown high potential for the phytoextraction of heavy metals. This study compares variations in copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) tolerance and accumulation potential among 12 willow clones grown in a nutrient solution treated with 50 μmol/L of Cu or Zn, respectively. The results showed differences in the tolerance and accumulation of Cu and Zn with respect to different species/clones. The biomass variation among clones in response to Cu or Zn exposure ranged from the stimulation of growth to inhibition, and all of the clones tested showed higher tolerance to Cu than to Zn. The clones exhibited less variation in Cu accumulation but larger variation in Zn accumulation. Based on translocation factors, it was found that most of the Cu was retained in the roots and that Zn was more mobile than Cu for all clones. It is concluded that most willow clones are good accumulators of Zn and Cu. PMID:25183033

  16. The environmental and economic sustainability of potential bioethanol from willow in the UK.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, A L; Dupree, P; Scott, S A; Dennis, J S

    2010-12-01

    Life cycle assessment has been used to investigate the environmental and economic sustainability of a potential operation in the UK in which bioethanol is produced from the hydrolysis and subsequent fermentation of coppice willow. If the willow were grown on idle arable land in the UK, or, indeed, in Eastern Europe and imported as wood chips into the UK, it was found that savings of greenhouse gas emissions of 70-90%, when compared to fossil-derived gasoline on an energy basis, would be possible. The process would be energetically self-sufficient, as the co-products, e.g. lignin and unfermented sugars, could be used to produce the process heat and electricity, with surplus electricity being exported to the National Grid. Despite the environmental benefits, the economic viability is doubtful at present. However, the cost of production could be reduced significantly if the willow were altered by breeding to improve its suitability for hydrolysis and fermentation. PMID:20727740

  17. A high incidence of brown-headed cowbird parasitism of willow flycatchers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, James A.; Knopf, Fritz L.

    1988-01-01

    Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) parasitize both Willow (Empidonax traillii) and Alder (E. alnorum) flycatchers (Friedmann et al. 1977, Friedmann and Kiff 1985). These two flycatchers were considered a single species until 1973 (AOU 1973), which has masked information about the frequency with which each is parasitized. Whereas several studies of the superspecies (Traill's Flycatcher) have focused on or included details of cowbird parasitism, most were of eastern populations, and most reported frequencies of parasitism ≤21% (Hicks 1934, Berger 1951, Berger and Parmalee 1952, Walkinshaw 1966, Holcomb 1972). Friedmann et al. (1977:13) suggested that western populations (Willow Flycatchers) are parasitized only about half as much (ca. 10%) as eastern populations (Traill's Flycatcher superspecies). This note described a high rate of cowbird parasitism within a population of Willow Flycatchers in northcentral Colorado. We include details of responses to parasitism and host vs. cowbird fledgling success.

  18. Remote sensing of canopy dynamics and biochemical variables estimation of fodder crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, Suchit K.; Das, S. K.; Rai, A. K.

    2010-04-01

    Non-destructive monitoring and diagnosis of plant nitrogen (N) concentration status is necessary for precision in N management. Leaf -N and chlorophyll (Chl) concentration of fodder crops are important indicators of plant N status. Studies were conducted to determine the relationship between canopy hyperspectral reflectance (325 to 1075 nm) and Chl or N concentration in field grown fodder crops [bajra (Pennisetum typhoides, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) in Kharif season and oat (Avena sativa) in Rabi season] without and with recommended dose of nitrogen of different crops. Nitrogen fertilizer application mainly affected leaf reflectance at 575 and 623 nm in sorghum, 565 and 657 nm in bajra and 563 and 716 nm in oat. The reflectance ratio at R581/R397 (R2=0.46**) and R619/R462 nm (R2=0.79***) had the highest correlation with sorghum and bajra leaf N concentration respectively with greatest R2 values. However in oat single reflectance at R542 (R2=0.53**) had the highest correlation with leaf N concentration. Similarly, sorghum, bajra and oat leaf Chl concentration were highly correlated with R677/R527 (R2=0.63**), R688/R409 (R2=0.71***) and R695 (R2=0.56** ), respectively. A linear relationship was found between sorghum leaf N and a simple ratio at R581/R397 (Intercept=8.85, slope=-2.64, R2=0.44). Bajra leaf N concentration was associated closely with ratio of R619/ R462, (R2= 0.78***). Oat leaf N concentration could be best estimate through single reflectance at R695 (Slope=-0.48, Intercept=0.15; R2=0.56). Similarly sorghum, bajra and oat leaf Chl could be best-estimated using reflectance ratio of R677/R527, R615/R411 and R695, respectively. Thus our results suggest that spectral reflectance measurements hold promise for the assessment of some physiological parameter at the leaf level real time monitoring of sorghum and bajra N status and N fertilizer management.

  19. A multiscaled model of southwestern willow flycatcher breeding habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, J.R.; Paradzick, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    The southwestern willow flycatcher (SWFL; Empidonax traillii extimus) is an endangered songbird whose habitat has declined dramatically over the last century. Understanding habitat selection patterns and the ability to identify potential breeding areas for the SWFL is crucial to the management and conservation of this species. We developed a multiscaled model of SWTL breeding habitat with a Geographic Information System (GIS), survey data, GIS variables, and multiple logistic regressions. We obtained presence and absence survey data from a riverine ecosystem and a reservoir delta in south-central Arizona, USA, in 1999. We extracted the GIS variables from satellite imagery and digital elevation models to characterize vegetation and floodplain within the project area. We used multiple logistic regressions within a cell-based (30 X 30 m) modeling environment to (1) determine associations between GIS variables and breeding-site occurrence at different spatial scales (0.09-72 ha), and (2) construct a predictive model. Our best model explained 54% of the variability in breeding-site occurrence with the following variables: vegetation density at the site (0.09 ha), proportion of dense vegetation and variability in vegetation density within a 4.5-ha neighborhood, and amount of floodplain or flat terrain within a 41-ha neighborhood. The density of breeding sites was highest in areas that the model predicted to be most suitable within the project area and at an external test site 200 km away. Conservation efforts must focus on protecting not only occupied patches, but also surrounding riparian forests and floodplain to ensure long-term viability of SWTL. We will use the multiscaled model to map SWTL breeding habitat in Arizona, prioritize future survey effort, and examine changes in habitat abundance and quality over time.

  20. Model tests of living brush mattresses made of shrub and tree willows as bank protection at navigable waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokopp, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The embankment stability at navigable waters suffers from hydraulic loads, like strong ship induced waves, resulting hydropeaking and strong water-level fluctuations. Willow brush mattresses can reduce erosion at the embankments of rivers and increase bank stability. Due to experiences gained in the project "Alternative Technical-Biological Bank Protection on Inland Water-ways" the Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute commissioned a more detailed investigation of protective functions of willow brush mattresses respectively the differences between brush mattresses made of pure shrub (Salix viminalis) or tree willows (Salix alba) at water ways with high ship-induced hydraulic loads. This paper shows the upcoming research methods of the years 2014 to 2016. The protective functions of two different willow brush mattresses and the congruence between soil, hydraulics and willow sprouts movement will be investigated in a wave basin by measuring flow velocity with ADVs (Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters) installed near the soil surface and in different embankment areas, the pore water pressure with probes in different soil layers, the wave height with ultrasound probes and the willow movements with permanently installed cameras while flooding the basin as well as measuring the erosion afterwards. These flooding test series will be conducted two times during the vegetation period. The shear strength of the tree willow rooted soil will be examined in different soil layers with a shear load frame. The results will be compared with the data of shear strength tests of same aged brush mattresses made of shrub willows, which have already been carried out by the Federal Waterways Engineering and Research Institute. The filtering capability of the soil covering branches and the near surface willow roots will be investigated by growing willow brush mattresses in sample boxes. Those can be repeatedly moved up and down into a diving pool while measuring pore water pressure

  1. Determination of sulfur and chlorine in fodder by X-ray fluorescence spectral analysis and comparison with other analytical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nečemer, Marijan; Kump, Peter; Rajčevič, Marija; Jačimović, Radojko; Budič, Bojan; Ponikvar, Maja

    2003-07-01

    Sulfur and chlorine are essential elements in the metabolic processes of ruminants, and correct planning strategy of ruminant nutrition should provide a sufficient content of S and Cl in the animal's body. S and Cl can be found in various types of animal fodder in the form of organic compounds and minerals. In this work, the Cl and S content in forage was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and its performance was then compared in parallel analyses by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and potentiometric methods. The results were compared and critically evaluated in order to assess the performance and capability of the XRF technique in analysis of animal fodder.

  2. Evaluation of Factors Contributing to Excessive Nitrate Accumulation in Fodder Crops Leading to Ill-Health in Dairy Animals

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, P. K.; Bedi, G. K.; Meenakshi; Mahajan, V.; Sharma, S.; Sandhu, K. S.; Gupta, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to estimate nitrate content in commonly used fodder crops, viz., berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum), bajra (Pennisetum glaucum), maize (Zea mays), oats (Avena sativa), sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) and toriya (Brassica napus), collected from the fields of different villages of Punjab and farms of the university, and to evaluate the factors associated with nitrate accumulation in these crops. The nitrate level was highest in sorghum on dry matter basis, followed by oats and toriya, berseem, maize and bajra. The nitrate content was also determined in fodder samples harvested from young and mature stages and in different parts of plants. The stem part of forages had higher content than leaves; however, concentrations were low in mature crops as compared to immature ones. The environmental and soil factors associated with it are discussed and correlated with the experimental findings. PMID:21430916

  3. 36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grazing activities. 292.48 Section 292.48 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.48 Grazing activities....

  4. 36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grazing activities. 292.48 Section 292.48 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.48 Grazing activities....

  5. 36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grazing activities. 292.48 Section 292.48 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.48 Grazing activities....

  6. 36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grazing activities. 292.48 Section 292.48 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.48 Grazing activities....

  7. 36 CFR 292.48 - Grazing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grazing activities. 292.48 Section 292.48 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL RECREATION AREAS Hells Canyon National Recreation Area-Federal Lands § 292.48 Grazing activities....

  8. Cattle grazing on the shortgrass steppe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The focus of this book chapter is research pertaining to three management practices important to cattle ranching on shortgrass steppe: stocking rates, grazing systems, and extending the grazing season via complementary pastures and use of Atriplex canescens [Pursh] Nutt (fourwing saltbush) -dominate...

  9. Acoustic grazing flow impedance using waveguide principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, D. L.

    1971-01-01

    A grazing flow apparatus was designed to measure the impedance of acoustic materials when installed in environments that subject the material to grazing airflow. The design of the apparatus and the data analysis technique is based on the solution of the convected wave equation in an infinite length waveguide.

  10. 25 CFR 168.5 - Grazing capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grazing capacity. 168.5 Section 168.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING REGULATIONS FOR THE HOPI PARTITIONED... of the land recovery program required by the Settlement Act. (b) The Area Director shall review...

  11. MEASURING INVERTEBRATE GRAZING ON SEAGRASSES AND EPIPHYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chapter describes methods to assess grazing rates, grazer preferences, and grazer impacts, by mobile organisms living in the canopy or in the rhizome layer in any seagrass system. One set of methods quantifies grazing activity in small to medium sized, mobile organisms livin...

  12. Offshore marine observation of Willow Ptarmigan, including water landings, Kuskokwim Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, C.E.; Hillgruber, N.; Burril, S.E.; St., Peters, M. A.; Wetzel, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    We report an observation of Willow Ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus) encountered 8 to 17 km from the nearest shoreline on Kuskokwim Bay, Alaska, on 30 August 2003. The ptarmigan were observed flying, landing on our research vessel, and landing and taking off from the water surface. We also report on one other observation of ptarmigan sitting on the water surface and other marine observations of ptarmigan from the North Pacific Pelagic Seabird Database. These observations provide evidence that Willow Ptarmigan are capable of dispersing across large bodies of water and landing and taking off from the water surface.

  13. Performance of shrub willows (Salix spp.) as an evapotranspiration cover on Solvay wastebeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirck, Jaconette

    2009-12-01

    Soda ash (Na2CO3) production in the Syracuse New York area created 607 ha of wastebeds over the course of about 100 years. Today the primary concern of the Solvay wastebeds is high chloride concentrations in the leachate and storm water that may end up in the groundwater and nearby Onondaga Lake. The potential of shrub willow evapotranspiration (ET) covers to minimize leaching and to manage storm water was assessed in two studies. A sap flow sensor field study to estimate transpiration rates of four shrub willow varieties over an entire growing season. A greenhouse study focused on recycling saline Solvay storm water onto shrub willows. Annual sap flow and crop coefficients (Kc) were similar among four shrub willows, but differences were present over the course of the growing season. Peak K c values did not coincide with peak leaf area index (LAI), as might be expected if LAI were the main driver of transpiration. Rather than solely being driven by LAI, coupling with the atmosphere was an important factor in stand level sap flow. Estimates of ET were measured during both experiments, the ET/sap flow rankings of the shrub willow varieties were similar; Salix miyabeana (SX64)< S. purpurea (9882-34)< S. miyabeana x S. sachalinensis (9870-23 or 9870-40). In the greenhouse study, Solvay storm water that contained 1,625 mg Cl - L-1 (close to the average storm water concentration) did not significantly decrease ET values or growth for any of the willow varieties. Mass balances of sodium and chloride were carried out to assess the potentials of recycling saline Solvay storm water back onto a shrub willow ET cover during the growing season. During a ten-week study the combination of a shallow depth soil (33 cm) and a high irrigation regime (170% of average precipitation in the Syracuse NY area) resulted in the accumulation of at least 62% of both sodium and chloride in the plant/soil system for all five Solvay storm water treatments. Both studies indicated that shrub

  14. The role of EDTA in phytoextraction of hexavalent and trivalent chromium by two willow trees.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-Zhang; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2008-04-01

    Effects of the synthetic chelator ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) on uptake and internal translocation of hexavalent and trivalent chromium by plants were investigated. Two different concentrations of EDTA were studied for enhancing the uptake and translocation of Cr from the hydroponic solution spiked with K(2)CrO(4) or CrCl(3) maintained at 24.0 +/- 1 degrees C. Faster removal of Cr(3+) than Cr(6+) by hybrid willows (Salix matsudana Koidz x Salix alba L.) from the plant growth media was observed. Negligible effect of EDTA on the uptake of Cr(6+) was found, but significant decrease of the Cr concentration in roots was measured. Although the translocation of Cr(6+) within plant materials was detected in response to EDTA concentration, the amount of Cr(6+) translocated to the lower stems was considerably small. EDTA in the nutrient media showed a negative effect on the uptake of Cr(3+ )by hybrid willows; the removal rates of Cr(3+ )were significantly decreased. Translocation of Cr(3+) into the stems and leaves was undetectable, but roots were the exclusive sink for Cr(3+) accumulation. Weeping willows (Salix babylonica L.) showed lower removal rates for both chemical forms of Cr than hybrid willows. Although EDTA had a minor effect on Cr(6+ )uptake by weeping willows, positive effect on Cr(6+ )translocation within plant materials was observed. It was also determined that EDTA in plant growth media significantly decreased the amount of Cr(3+) taken up by plants, but significantly increased Cr(3+) mobilization from roots to stems. Results indicated that EDTA was unable to increase the uptake of Cr(6+) by both plant species, but translocation of Cr(6+)-EDTA within plant materials was possible. Addition of EDTA in the nutrient media showed a strong influence on the uptake and translocation of Cr(3+) in both willows. Cr(3+)-EDTA in tissues of weeping willows was more mobile than that in hybrid willows. The information has important implications for the use of metal

  15. Continuous, farm-scale, solid-phase fermentation process for fuel ethanol and protein feed production from fodder beets

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, W.R.; Westby, C.A.; Dobbs, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel ethanol (95%) was produced from fodder beets in two farm-scale processes. In the first process, involving conventional submerged fermentation of the fodder beets in a mash, ethanol and a feed (PF) rich in protein, fat, and fiber were produced. Ethanol yields of 70 L/metric ton (17 gal/ton) were obtained; however, resulting beers had low ethanol concentrations )3-5% (v/v)). The high viscosity of medium and low sugar, beet mashes caused mixing problems which prevented any further increase of beet sugar in the mash. This severely limited the maximum attainable ethanol concentration during fermentation, thereby making the beer costly to distill into fuel ethanol and the process energy inefficient. In order to achieve distillably worthwhile ethanol concentrations of 8-10% (v/v), a solid phase fermentation process (continuous) was developed and tested. In preliminary trials, this system produced fermented pulp with over 8% (v/v) ethanol corresponding to an ethanol yield of 87 L/metric ton (21 gal/ton). Production costs with this novel process are $0.47/L ($1.77/gal) and the energy balance is 2.11. These preliminary cost estimates indicate that fodder beets are potentially competitive with corn as an ethanol feedstock. Additional research, however, is warranted to more precisely refine individual costs, energy balances and the actual value of the PF.

  16. Grazing Ion-Surface Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravielle, M. S.

    Electron emission after grazing ion-surface collisions is studied for high impact velocities. We have focused on glancing angles of electron emission where the dominant mechanism is the ionization from atomic bound states. To describe this process, we introduce a quantum model called field distorted-wave (FDW) approximation, which takes into account the effect of the surface interaction on the electronic transition. The FDW model is applied to analyze electron distributions produced by impact of protons on Al and LiF surfaces, which are metal and insulator materials respectively. In the case of metals, we also evaluate the contibution coming from the valence band by employing the binary collisional formalism. Calculated electron emission yields are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. We find that the maximum of the convoy electron distribution is accelerated for Al and decelerated for LiF, with respect to its position in ion-atom collisions, in quantitative accordance with experiments.

  17. Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with phenanthrene and cadmium by growing willow (Salix × aureo-pendula CL 'j1011').

    PubMed

    Sun, Y Y; Xu, H X; Li, J H; Shi, X Q; Wu, J C; Ji, R; Guo, H Y

    2016-01-01

    To assess the phytoremediation potential of an autochthonous willow (Salix × aureo-pendula CL 'J1011') for phenanthrene (PHE)-contaminated soils and PHE-cadmium (PHE-Cd) co-contaminated soils, we conducted field experiments in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, China. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ethyl lactate were tested for individual and combined effects on the phytoremediation efficiency. For PHE-contaminated soils, willow plus ethyl lactate resulted in significant removal of PHE from soils after 45 days, and the PHE concentration in the shoots was significantly higher with than without ethyl lactate. For PHE-Cd co-contaminated soils, both willow plus EDTA and willow plus EDTA and ethyl lactate led to a significant decrease in the concentrations of PHE and Cd in the soils after 45 days, whereas willow alone did not. The PHE and Cd concentrations in the willow shoots were significantly enhanced in the presence of EDTA alone and with ethyl lactate, except for the PHE concentration in stems with EDTA alone. Under the same treatment, the presence of Cd had no significant influence on the PHE removal from soils. The results indicate the feasibility of using this willow together with both EDTA and ethyl lactate for the simultaneous removal of PHE and Cd from soils. PMID:26247604

  18. Confirmation of Single-Locus Sex Determination and Female Heterogamety in Willow Based on Linkage Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lecheng; Li, Xiaoping; Yin, Tongming

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we constructed high-density genetic maps of Salix suchowensis and mapped the gender locus with an F1 pedigree. Genetic maps were separately constructed for the maternal and paternal parents by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and the pseudo-testcross strategy. The maternal map consisted of 20 linkage groups that spanned a genetic distance of 2333.3 cM; whereas the paternal map contained 21 linkage groups that covered 2260 cM. Based on the established genetic maps, it was found that the gender of willow was determined by a single locus on linkage group LG_03, and the female was the heterogametic gender. Aligned with mapped SSR markers, linkage group LG_03 was found to be associated with chromosome XV in willow. It is noteworthy that marker density in the vicinity of the gender locus was significantly higher than that expected by chance alone, which indicates severe recombination suppression around the gender locus. In conclusion, this study confirmed the findings on the single-locus sex determination and female heterogamety in willow. It also provided additional evidence that validated the previous studies, which found that different autosomes evolved into sex chromosomes between the sister genera of Salix (willow) and Populus (poplar). PMID:26828940

  19. Cellulase production based on hemicellulose hydrolysate from steam-pretreated willow

    SciTech Connect

    Szengyel, Z.; Zacchi, G.; Reczey, K.

    1997-12-31

    The production cost of cellulolytic enzymes is a major contributor to the high cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosics using enzymatic hydrolysis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cellulolytic enzyme production of Trichoderma reesei Rut C 30, which is known as a good cellulose secreting micro-organism, using willow as the carbon source. The willow, which is a fast-growing energy crop in Sweden, was impregnated with 1-4% SO{sub 2} and steam-pretreated for 5 min at 206{degrees}C. The pretreated willow was washed and the wash water, which contains several soluble sugars from the hemicellulose, was supplemented with fibrous pretreated willow and used for enzyme production. In addition to sugars, the liquid contains degradation products such as acetic acid, furfural, and 5-hydroxy-methylfurfural, which are inhibitory for microorganisms. The results showed that 50% of the cellulose can be replaced with sugars from the wash water. The highest enzyme activity, 1.79 FPU/mL and yield, 133 FPU/g carbohydrate, was obtained at pH 6.0 using 20 g/L carbon source concentration. At lower pHs, a total lack of growth and enzyme production was observed, which probably could be explained by furfural inhibition. 15 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. The Caring Business: Lynch Community Homes, Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdan, Robert

    This paper, one of a series of reports describing innovative practices in integrating people with disabilities into community life, describes the Lynch Community Homes in Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Lynch Homes is a for-profit organization that provides homes and supportive services for approximately 75 people with severe and profound…

  1. Confirmation of Single-Locus Sex Determination and Female Heterogamety in Willow Based on Linkage Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingnan; Wang, Tiantian; Fang, Lecheng; Li, Xiaoping; Yin, Tongming

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we constructed high-density genetic maps of Salix suchowensis and mapped the gender locus with an F1 pedigree. Genetic maps were separately constructed for the maternal and paternal parents by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and the pseudo-testcross strategy. The maternal map consisted of 20 linkage groups that spanned a genetic distance of 2333.3 cM; whereas the paternal map contained 21 linkage groups that covered 2260 cM. Based on the established genetic maps, it was found that the gender of willow was determined by a single locus on linkage group LG_03, and the female was the heterogametic gender. Aligned with mapped SSR markers, linkage group LG_03 was found to be associated with chromosome XV in willow. It is noteworthy that marker density in the vicinity of the gender locus was significantly higher than that expected by chance alone, which indicates severe recombination suppression around the gender locus. In conclusion, this study confirmed the findings on the single-locus sex determination and female heterogamety in willow. It also provided additional evidence that validated the previous studies, which found that different autosomes evolved into sex chromosomes between the sister genera of Salix (willow) and Populus (poplar). PMID:26828940

  2. Predictive analyses of ground-water discharges in the Willow Creek Watershed, northeast Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dugan, Jack T.; Lappala, E.G.

    1978-01-01

    Ground-water discharge to Willow Creek in northeast Nebraska was predicted with a digital model of the ground-water/surface-water system. Recharge and irrigation requirements were determined with a model of the soil zone. The regional aquifer is Pliocene and Pleistocene sands and gravels. Water in the regional aquifer is unconfined in the western part of the watershed and confined in the eastern part. The confining layer is Pleistocene eolian silts with very fine sand interbeds overlying a basal clay. Where the regional aquifer is unconfined, perennial flow of Willow Creek is sustained by ground-water discharge. Where it is confined, the low hydraulic conductivity of the confining beds isolates the regional aquifer from Willow Creek. Adequate agreement between simulated and observed streamflows and water levels during 1975 and 1976 was obtained by modifying initial estimates of hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. The future perennial flow of Willow Creek was simulated by superimposing six patterns of ground-water withdrawals upon variations in recharge for a monthly climatic sequence identical with the period 1931-34. These analyses showed that the perennial monthly flows would be less than 12 cubic feet per second at least 50 percent of the time. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. 75 FR 76038 - General Motors Company Formerly Known as General Motors Corporation Willow Run Transmission Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Register on July 26, 2010 (75 FR 43558). The notice was amended on July 30, 2010 to include on-site leased workers from Aerotek. The notice was published in the Federal Register on August 13, 2010 (75 FR 49527... Willow Run Transmission Plant Including On-Site Leased Workers From Aerotek, Securitas, Knight...

  4. RESPONSES OF BLACK WILLOW (SALIX NIGRA) CUTTINGS TO FLOODING AND HERBIVORY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbivory and flooding are common occurrences that influence species composition and diversity in wetland ecosystems. Black willow (Salix nigra) naturally occurs in floodplains and riparian zones of the southeastern United States. Cuttings (posts) from this species are used as a bioengineering tool ...

  5. 76 FR 44258 - Removal of Class D and E Airspace; Willow Grove, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Removal of Class D and E Airspace; Willow Grove, PA...

  6. The potential of biomonitoring of air quality using leaf characteristics of white willow (Salix alba L.).

    PubMed

    Wuytack, Tatiana; Verheyen, Kris; Wuyts, Karen; Kardel, Fatemeh; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Samson, Roeland

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we assess the potential of white willow (Salix alba L.) as bioindicator for monitoring of air quality. Therefore, shoot biomass, specific leaf area, stomatal density, stomatal pore surface, and stomatal resistance were assessed from leaves of stem cuttings. The stem cuttings were introduced in two regions in Belgium with a relatively high and a relatively low level of air pollution, i.e., Antwerp city and Zoersel, respectively. In each of these regions, nine sampling points were selected. At each sampling point, three stem cuttings of white willow were planted in potting soil. Shoot biomass and specific leaf area were not significantly different between Antwerp city and Zoersel. Microclimatic differences between the sampling points may have been more important to plant growth than differences in air quality. However, stomatal pore surface and stomatal resistance of white willow were significantly different between Zoersel and Antwerp city. Stomatal pore surface was 20% lower in Antwerp city due to a significant reduction in both stomatal length (-11%) and stomatal width (-14%). Stomatal resistance at the adaxial leaf surface was 17% higher in Antwerp city because of the reduction in stomatal pore surface. Based on these results, we conclude that stomatal characteristics of white willow are potentially useful indicators for air quality. PMID:20033771

  7. Differential effects of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) on photosynthesis and chlorophyll metabolism in willow plants.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Le Manac'h, Sarah Gingras; Maccario, Sophie; Labrecque, Michel; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    We used a willow species (Salix miyabeana cultivar SX64) to examine the differential secondary-effects of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), the principal glyphosate by-product, on chlorophyll metabolism and photosynthesis. Willow plants were treated with different concentrations of glyphosate (equivalent to 0, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8kgha(-1)) and AMPA (equivalent to 0, 0.28, 1.4 and 2.8kgha(-1)) and evaluations of pigment contents, chlorophyll fluorescence, and oxidative stress markers (hydrogen peroxide content and antioxidant enzyme activities) in leaves were performed after 12h of exposure. We observed that AMPA and glyphosate trigger different mechanisms leading to decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthesis rates in willow plants. Both chemicals induced ROS accumulation in willow leaves although only glyphosate-induced oxidative damage through lipid peroxidation. By disturbing chlorophyll biosynthesis, AMPA induced decreases in chlorophyll contents, with consequent effects on photosynthesis. With glyphosate, ROS increases were higher than the ROS-sensitive threshold, provoking chlorophyll degradation (as seen by pheophytin accumulation) and invariable decreases in photosynthesis. Peroxide accumulation in both AMPA and glyphosate-treated plants was due to the inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities. The different effects of glyphosate on chlorophyll contents and photosynthesis as described in the literature may be due to various glyphosate:AMPA ratios in those plants. PMID:27155486

  8. Ecophysiology of riparian cottonwood and willow before, during, and after two years of soil water removal.

    PubMed

    Hultine, K R; Bush, S E; Ehleringer, J R

    2010-03-01

    Riparian cottonwood/willow forest assemblages are highly valued in the southwestern United States for their wildlife habitat, biodiversity, and watershed protection. Yet these forests are under considerable threat from climate change impacts on water resources and land-use activities to support human enterprise. Stream diversions, groundwater pumping, and extended drought have resulted in the decline of cottonwood/willow forests along many riparian corridors in the Southwest and, in many cases, the replacement of these forests with less desirable invasive shrubs and trees. Nevertheless, ecophysiological responses of cottonwood and willow, along with associated ecohydrological feedbacks of soil water depletion, are not well understood. Ecophysiological processes of mature Fremont cottonwood and coyote willow stands were examined over four consecutive growing seasons (2004-2007) near Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. The tree stands occurred near the inlet of a reservoir that was drained in the spring of 2005 and remained empty until mid-summer of 2006, effectively removing the primary water source for most of two growing seasons. Stem sap flux density (Js) in cottonwood was highly correlated with volumetric soil moisture (theta) in the upper 60 cm and decreased sevenfold as soil moisture dropped from 12% to 7% after the reservoir was drained. Conversely, Js in willow was marginally correlated with 0 and decreased by only 25% during the same period. Opposite patterns emerged during the following growing season: willow had a lower whole-plant conductance (kt) in June and higher leaf carbon isotope ratios (delta13C) than cottonwood in August, whereas k(t) and delta13C were otherwise similar between species. Water relations in both species recovered quickly from soil water depletion, with the exception that sapwood area to stem area (As:Ast) was significantly lower in both species after the 2007 growing season compared to 2004. Results suggest that cottonwood has a greater

  9. Ultrathin willow-like CuO nanoflakes as an efficient catalyst for electro-oxidation of hydrazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuanyuan; Li, Hao; Wang, Rongfang; Wang, Hui; Lv, Weizhong; Ji, Shan

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, preparation of ultrathin willow-like CuO nanoflakes via a one-step process was reported. X-ray diffraction pattern showed the formation of monoclinic CuO crystal, which was also confirmed by result of high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy showed that ultrathin willow-like CuO nanoflakes were formed. Catalytic testing indicated that the ultrathin willow-like CuO nanoflakes exhibited high electrocatalytic activity and durability toward the electro-oxidation of hydrazine in alkaline medium. The results suggested that the as-prepared CuO nanoflakes were potential electrode materials for hydrazine fuel cell.

  10. 43 CFR 4110.3 - Changes in grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Changes in grazing preference. 4110.3... Qualifications and Preference § 4110.3 Changes in grazing preference. (a) The authorized officer will periodically review the grazing preference specified in a grazing permit or lease and make changes in...

  11. 43 CFR 4110.3 - Changes in grazing preference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Changes in grazing preference. 4110.3... Qualifications and Preference § 4110.3 Changes in grazing preference. (a) The authorized officer will periodically review the grazing preference specified in a grazing permit or lease and make changes in...

  12. Reaction wood – a key cause of variation in cell wall recalcitrance in willow

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic cell wall biomass to deconstruction varies greatly in angiosperms, yet the source of this variation remains unclear. Here, in eight genotypes of short rotation coppice willow (Salix sp.) variability of the reaction wood (RW) response and the impact of this variation on cell wall recalcitrance to enzymatic saccharification was considered. Results A pot trial was designed to test if the ‘RW response’ varies between willow genotypes and contributes to the differences observed in cell wall recalcitrance to enzymatic saccharification in field-grown trees. Biomass composition was measured via wet chemistry and used with glucose release yields from enzymatic saccharification to determine cell wall recalcitrance. The levels of glucose release found for pot-grown control trees showed no significant correlation with glucose release from mature field-grown trees. However, when a RW phenotype was induced in pot-grown trees, glucose release was strongly correlated with that for mature field-grown trees. Field studies revealed a 5-fold increase in glucose release from a genotype grown at a site exposed to high wind speeds (a potentially high RW inducing environment) when compared with the same genotype grown at a more sheltered site. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence for a new concept concerning variation in the recalcitrance to enzymatic hydrolysis of the stem biomass of different, field-grown willow genotypes (and potentially other angiosperms). Specifically, that genotypic differences in the ability to produce a response to RW inducing conditions (a ‘RW response’) indicate that this RW response is a primary determinant of the variation observed in cell wall glucan accessibility. The identification of the importance of this RW response trait in willows, is likely to be valuable in selective breeding strategies in willow (and other angiosperm) biofuel crops and, with further work to dissect the nature of RW

  13. Reduced Population Control of an Insect Pest in Managed Willow Monocultures

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Peter; Kindvall, Oskar; Björkman, Christer

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a general belief that insect outbreak risk is higher in plant monocultures than in natural and more diverse habitats, although empirical studies investigating this relationship are lacking. In this study, using density data collected over seven years at 40 study sites, we compare the temporal population variability of the leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima between willow plantations and natural willow habitats. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was conducted in 1999–2005. The density of adult P. vulgatissima was estimated in the spring every year by a knock-down sampling technique. We used two measures of population variability, CV and PV, to compare temporal variations in leaf beetle density between plantation and natural habitat. Relationships between density and variability were also analyzed to discern potential underlying processes behind stability in the two systems. The results showed that the leaf beetle P. vulgatissima had a greater temporal population variability and outbreak risk in willow plantations than in natural willow habitats. We hypothesize that the greater population stability observed in the natural habitat was due to two separate processes operating at different levels of beetle density. First, stable low population equilibrium can be achieved by the relatively high density of generalist predators observed in natural stands. Second, stable equilibrium can also be imposed at higher beetle density due to competition, which occurs through depletion of resources (plant foliage) in the natural habitat. In willow plantations, competition is reduced mainly because plants grow close enough for beetle larvae to move to another plant when foliage is consumed. Conclusion/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first empirical study confirming that insect pest outbreak risk is higher in monocultures. The study suggests that comparative studies of insect population dynamics in different habitats may improve our ability to

  14. G-fibre cell wall development in willow stems during tension wood induction

    PubMed Central

    Gritsch, Cristina; Wan, Yongfang; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.; Hanley, Steven J.; Karp, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) are important as a potential feedstock for bioenergy and biofuels. Previous work suggested that reaction wood (RW) formation could be a desirable trait for biofuel production in willows as it is associated with increased glucose yields, but willow RW has not been characterized for cell wall components. Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan (FLA) proteins are highly up-regulated in RW of poplars and are considered to be involved in cell adhesion and cellulose biosynthesis. COBRA genes are involved in anisotropic cell expansion by modulating the orientation of cellulose microfibril deposition. This study determined the temporal and spatial deposition of non-cellulosic polysaccharides in cell walls of the tension wood (TW) component of willow RW and compared it with opposite wood (OW) and normal wood (NW) using specific antibodies and confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, the expression patterns of an FLA gene (SxFLA12) and a COBRA-like gene (SxCOBL4) were compared using RNA in situ hybridization. Deposition of the non-cellulosic polysaccharides (1–4)-β-D-galactan, mannan and de-esterified homogalacturonan was found to be highly associated with TW, often with the G-layer itself. Of particular interest was that the G-layer itself can be highly enriched in (1–4)-β-D-galactan, especially in G-fibres where the G-layer is still thickening, which contrasts with previous studies in poplar. Only xylan showed a similar distribution in TW, OW, and NW, being restricted to the secondary cell wall layers. SxFLA12 and SxCOBL4 transcripts were specifically expressed in developing TW, confirming their importance. A model of polysaccharides distribution in developing willow G-fibre cells is presented. PMID:26220085

  15. Physiological and morphological responses of pine and willow saplings to post-fire salvage logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millions, E. L.; Letts, M. G.; Harvey, T.; Rood, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    With global warming, forest fires may be increasing in frequency, and post-fire salvage logging may become more common. The ecophysiological impacts of this practice on tree saplings remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined the physiological and morphological impacts of increased light intensity, due to post-fire salvage logging, on the conifer Pinus contorta (pine) and deciduous broadleaf Salix lucida (willow) tree and shrub species in the Crowsnest Pass region of southern Alberta. Photosynthetic gas-exchange and plant morphological measurements were taken throughout the summer of 2013 on approximately ten year-old saplings of both species. Neither species exhibited photoinhibition, but different strategies were observed to acclimate to increased light availability. Willow saplings were able to slightly elevate their light-saturated rate of net photosynthesis (Amax) when exposed to higher photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), thus increasing their growth rate. Willow also exhibited increased leaf inclination angles and leaf mass per unit area (LMA), to decrease light interception in the salvage-logged plot. By contrast, pine, which exhibited lower Amax and transpiration (E), but higher water-use efficiency (WUE = Amax/E) than willow, increased the rate at which electrons were moved through and away from the photosynthetic apparatus in order to avoid photoinhibition. Acclimation indices were higher in willow saplings, consistent with the hypothesis that species with short-lived foliage exhibit greater acclimation. LMA was higher in pine saplings growing in the logged plot, but whole-plant and branch-level morphological acclimation was limited and more consistent with a response to decreased competition in the logged plot, which had much lower stand density.

  16. Uptake of ferrocyanide in willow and poplar trees in a long term greenhouse experiment.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Tsvetelina; Repmann, Frank; Raab, Thomas; Freese, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Phytoremediation of sites contaminated with iron cyanides can be performed using poplar and willow trees. Poplar and willow trees were grown in potting substrate spiked with ferrocyanide concentrations of up to 2,000 mg kg(-1) for 4 and 8 weeks respectively. Soil solution and leaf tissue of different age were sampled for total cyanide analysis every week. Chlorophyll content in the leaves was determined to quantify cyanide toxicity. Results showed that cyanide in the soil solution of spiked soils differed between treatments and on weekly basis and ranged from 0.5 to 1,200 mg l(-1). The maximum cyanide content in willow and poplar leaves was 518 mg kg(-1) fresh weight (FW) and 148 mg kg(-1) FW respectively. Cyanide accumulated in the leaves increased linearly with increasing cyanide concentration in the soil solution. On the long term, significantly more cyanide was accumulated in old leaf tissue than in young tissue. Chlorophyll content in poplar decreased linearly with increasing cyanide in the soil solution and in leaf tissue, and over time. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) value for poplars after 4 weeks of exposure was 173 mg l(-1) and for willow after 8 weeks of exposure-768 mg l(-1). Results show that willows tolerate much more cyanide and over a longer period than poplars, making them very appropriate for remediating sites highly contaminated with iron cyanides. PMID:25477029

  17. Effect of Fodder Tree Species with Condensed Tannin Contents on In vitro Methane Production.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Ernestina Gutiérrez; Medina, Leonardo Hernández; Benavides, Liliana Márquez; Caratachea, Aureliano Juárez; Razo, Guillermo Salas; Burgos, Armin Javier Ayala; Rodríguez, Ruy Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of fodder tree species (FTS) with condensed tannin contents: Cordia elaeagnoides, Platymiscium lasiocarpum, Vitex mollis, and Haematoxylon brasiletto, on in vitro methane (CH4) production at 24 h post incubation. The analysis was performed using the in vitro gas production technique, with three levels of inclusion/species: 600, 800, and 1,000 mg and with 4 replicates/species/level of inclusion. The substrate was incubated at 39°C, and the gas and CH4 production were recorded at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h post incubation. The data collected was analyzed through Pearson correlation, polinomial regression and fixed effects models. There were negative correlations between FTS-total gas volume (r = -0.40; p<0.001); FTS-volume of CH4 produced (r = -0.40; p<0.001) and between the inclusion level-volume of CH4 produced (r = -0.20; p<0.001). As well as a positive correlation between hours post incubation-total gas volume (r = 0.42; p<0.001) and between hours post incubation-volume of CH4 produced (r = 0.48; p<0.001). The FTS: C. elaeagnoides, V. mollis, and H. brasiletto have potential, in the three inclusion levels analyzed, to reduce CH4 emission on in vitro trials (>32.7%), taking into account the total CH4 production at 24 h of the forage used as reference (Avena sativa). It's suggested that C. elaeagnoides-according to its crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and condensed tannins content- is the best alternative within the FTS analyzed, for feeding ruminants and for the control of CH4 emissions during the dry season. PMID:26732330

  18. Effect of Fodder Tree Species with Condensed Tannin Contents on In vitro Methane Production

    PubMed Central

    Vázquez, Ernestina Gutiérrez; Medina, Leonardo Hernández; Benavides, Liliana Márquez; Caratachea, Aureliano Juárez; Razo, Guillermo Salas; Burgos, Armin Javier Ayala; Rodríguez, Ruy Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of fodder tree species (FTS) with condensed tannin contents: Cordia elaeagnoides, Platymiscium lasiocarpum, Vitex mollis, and Haematoxylon brasiletto, on in vitro methane (CH4) production at 24 h post incubation. The analysis was performed using the in vitro gas production technique, with three levels of inclusion/species: 600, 800, and 1,000 mg and with 4 replicates/species/level of inclusion. The substrate was incubated at 39°C, and the gas and CH4 production were recorded at 4, 8, 12, and 24 h post incubation. The data collected was analyzed through Pearson correlation, polinomial regression and fixed effects models. There were negative correlations between FTS-total gas volume (r = −0.40; p<0.001); FTS-volume of CH4 produced (r = −0.40; p<0.001) and between the inclusion level-volume of CH4 produced (r = −0.20; p<0.001). As well as a positive correlation between hours post incubation-total gas volume (r = 0.42; p<0.001) and between hours post incubation-volume of CH4 produced (r = 0.48; p<0.001). The FTS: C. elaeagnoides, V. mollis, and H. brasiletto have potential, in the three inclusion levels analyzed, to reduce CH4 emission on in vitro trials (>32.7%), taking into account the total CH4 production at 24 h of the forage used as reference (Avena sativa). It’s suggested that C. elaeagnoides-according to its crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and condensed tannins content- is the best alternative within the FTS analyzed, for feeding ruminants and for the control of CH4 emissions during the dry season. PMID:26732330

  19. Grazing-Based Dairy Production in Wisconsin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confinement and grazing-based dairy producers face many challenges, including rising cost of inputs (labor, fertilizer, energy, machinery), economic disadvantages relative to commodity feeds, potential negative environmental impacts, legislation restricting operations, and variable climatic conditio...

  20. Metabolic profile in Chilota lambs grazing Calafatal.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, María Asunción; Noro, Mirela; De la Barra, Rodrigo; Pulido, Rubén

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the productive and metabolic response in Chilota lambs grazing Calafatal or naturalized pasture. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station Butalcura (INIA, Chiloé) during October, November, and December 2011. Eight Chilota and six Suffolk Down 2-month-old lambs, uncastrated males, no twin, were located to graze a typical secondary succession of the Chiloé Archipelago, as a Calafatal (a secondary succession which derivates from human intervention on native forest in Chiloé Archipelago). Simultaneously, eight male 2-month-old Chilota lambs were located to graze a naturalized pasture, another secondary succession derived from human intervention on native forest in Chiloé Archipelago. Animals had free access to water sources. Measurements were performed one time a month, for three consecutive months for productive indicators: live weight, average daily gain and body condition score, and blood indicators of protein and energetic metabolism. Productive and metabolic response was similar between both types of pastures (P > 0.05). However, Chilota and Suffolk Down lambs grazing Calafatal showed higher plasma concentrations of βOH-butyrate, but lower non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) than Chilota lambs grazing naturalized pasture (P < 0.05). Chilota lambs grazing naturalized pasture showed the highest plasma concentrations of NEFA and urea (P < 0.05). It was concluded that, under the conditions of the study, Chilota lambs grazing naturalized pasture, which had higher contents of crude protein and metabolizable energy, showed better metabolic balance, but not performance, than Chilota and Suffolk Down lambs grazing Calafatal. PMID:24420763

  1. Differential Impacts of Willow and Mineral Fertilizer on Bacterial Communities and Biodegradation in Diesel Fuel Oil-Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Fraraccio, Serena; McFarlin, Kelly; Kottara, Anastasia; Glover, Catherine; Macek, Tomas; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of research there is limited understanding of how vegetation impacts the ability of microbial communities to process organic contaminants in soil. Using a combination of traditional and molecular assays, we examined how phytoremediation with willow and/or fertilization affected the microbial community present and active in the transformation of diesel contaminants. In a pot study, willow had a significant role in structuring the total bacterial community and resulted in significant decreases in diesel range organics (DRO). However, stable isotope probing (SIP) indicated that fertilizer drove the differences seen in community structure and function. Finally, analysis of the total variance in both pot and SIP experiments indicated an interactive effect between willow and fertilizer on the bacterial communities. This study clearly demonstrates that a willow native to Alaska accelerates DRO degradation, and together with fertilizer, increases aromatic degradation by shifting microbial community structure and the identity of active naphthalene degraders. PMID:27313574

  2. Differential Impacts of Willow and Mineral Fertilizer on Bacterial Communities and Biodegradation in Diesel Fuel Oil-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Leewis, Mary-Cathrine; Uhlik, Ondrej; Fraraccio, Serena; McFarlin, Kelly; Kottara, Anastasia; Glover, Catherine; Macek, Tomas; Leigh, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of research there is limited understanding of how vegetation impacts the ability of microbial communities to process organic contaminants in soil. Using a combination of traditional and molecular assays, we examined how phytoremediation with willow and/or fertilization affected the microbial community present and active in the transformation of diesel contaminants. In a pot study, willow had a significant role in structuring the total bacterial community and resulted in significant decreases in diesel range organics (DRO). However, stable isotope probing (SIP) indicated that fertilizer drove the differences seen in community structure and function. Finally, analysis of the total variance in both pot and SIP experiments indicated an interactive effect between willow and fertilizer on the bacterial communities. This study clearly demonstrates that a willow native to Alaska accelerates DRO degradation, and together with fertilizer, increases aromatic degradation by shifting microbial community structure and the identity of active naphthalene degraders. PMID:27313574

  3. Soil moisture and chemistry influence diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities associating with willow along an hydrologic gradient.

    PubMed

    Erlandson, Sonya R; Savage, Jessica A; Cavender-Bares, Jeannine M; Peay, Kabir G

    2016-01-01

    Influences of soil environment and willow host species on ectomycorrhizal fungi communities was studied across an hydrologic gradient in temperate North America. Soil moisture, organic matter and pH strongly predicted changes in fungal community composition. In contrast, increased fungal richness strongly correlated with higher plant-available phosphorus. The 93 willow trees sampled for ectomycorrhizal fungi included seven willow species. Host identity did not influence fungal richness or community composition, nor was there strong evidence of willow host preference for fungal species. Network analysis suggests that these mutualist interaction networks are not significantly nested or modular. Across a strong environmental gradient, fungal abiotic niche determined the fungal species available to associate with host plants within a habitat. PMID:26622067

  4. Short- and longer-term effects of the willow root system on metal extractability in contaminated dredged sediment.

    PubMed

    Vervaeke, P; Tack, F M G; Lust, N; Verloo, M

    2004-01-01

    Willow (Salix spp.) stands are often proposed as vegetation covers for the restoration and stabilization of contaminated and derelict land. Planting willows on dredged sediment disposal sites for biomass production can be an alternative to traditional capping techniques. However, with the introduction of willow stands on dredged sediment disposal sites, the possibility of increased contaminant availability in the root zone must be acknowledged as it can increase the risk of leaching. Two trials investigated the availability of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb in the root zones of willows grown on contaminated sediment. To assess the effects of willow root growth on metal extractability and mobility, bulk and rhizosphere sediment samples were extracted with deionized water, ammonium acetate at pH 7, and ammonium acetate-EDTA at pH 4.65. A rhizobox experiment was used to investigate the short-term effect of willow roots on metal availability in oxic and anoxic sediment. Longer-term effects were assessed in a field trial. The rhizobox trial showed that Cd, Zn, and Cu extractability in the rhizosphere increased while the opposite was observed for Pb. This was attributed to the increased willow-induced oxidation rate in the root zone as a result of aeration and evapotranspiration, which masked the direct chemical and biological influences of the willow roots. The field trial showed that Cu and Pb, but not Cd, were more available in the root zone after water and ammonium acetate (pH 7) extraction compared with the bulk sediment. Sediment in the root zone was better structured and aggregated and thus more permeable for downward water flows, causing leaching of a fraction of the metals and significantly lower total contents of Cd, Cu, and Pb. These findings indicate that a vegetation cover strategy to stabilize sediments can increase metal availability in the root zone and that potential metal losses to the environment should be considered. PMID:15224934

  5. Irrigation water quality influences heavy metal uptake by willows in biosolids.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, W Scott; Baker, Alan J M; Gregory, David; Arndt, Stefan K

    2015-05-15

    Phytoextraction is an effective method to remediate heavy metal contaminated landscapes but is often applied for single metal contaminants. Plants used for phytoextraction may not always be able to grow in drier environments without irrigation. This study investigated if willows (Salix x reichardtii A. Kerner) can be used for phytoextraction of multiple metals in biosolids, an end-product of the wastewater treatment process, and if irrigation with reclaimed and freshwater influences the extraction process. A plantation of willows was established directly onto a tilled stockpile of metal-contaminated biosolids and irrigated with slightly saline reclaimed water (EC ∼2 dS/cm) at a wastewater processing plant in Victoria, Australia. Biomass was harvested annually and analysed for heavy metal content. Phytoextraction of cadmium, copper, nickel and zinc was benchmarked against freshwater irrigated willows. The minimum irrigation rate of 700 mm per growing season was sufficient for willows to grow and extract metals. Increasing irrigation rates produced no differences in total biomass and also no differences in the extraction of heavy metals. The reclaimed water reduced both the salinity and the acidity of the biosolids significantly within the first 12 months after irrigation commenced and after three seasons the salinity of the biosolids had dropped to <15% of initial values. A flushing treatment to remove excess salts was therefore not necessary. Irrigation had an impact on biosolids attributes such as salinity and pH, and that this had an influence on metal extraction. Reclaimed water irrigation reduced the biosolid pH and this was associated with reductions of the extraction of Ni and Zn, it did not influence the extraction of Cu and enhanced the phytoextraction of Cd, which was probably related to the high chloride content of the reclaimed water. Our results demonstrate that flood-irrigation with reclaimed water was a successful treatment to grow willows in a

  6. Nutritional evaluation of organically grown fodders in lactating Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Singh, Sultan; Nag, Subir Kumar; Maity, Subhendu Bikash; Kushwaha, Badri Prasad

    2013-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate the nutritional response of organically grown diets in buffaloes on nutrients utilization and nutrient efficiency for milk production. For this, ten milch Murrah buffaloes of average body weight (490.72 ± 6.65 kg), milk yield (8.13 ± 0.33 kg), and lactation stage (85 ± 5.28 days) were distributed in inorganic (InDg()) and organic dietary groups (OrDg) with five animals in each. Buffaloes of InDg and OgDg were fed sorghum hay-berseem fodder-concentrate mixture-based diets grown inorganically and organically, respectively. After 60 days of feeding, a digestion cum metabolism trial was conducted to assess feed intake, nutrient utilization, and N balance, while milk yield and composition were recorded fortnightly. DM, CP, digestible crude protein (DCP), and metabolizable energy (ME) intake (g/Kg w(0.75)) were similar in animals of InDg and OrDg. NDF, ADF, and hemicellulose digestibility were (P < 0.05) higher in animals on OrDg (59.20, 51.55, and 62.67) than InDg diet (54.57, 43.72, and 56.61 %), respectively. Urinary n loss (g/day) was (P < 0.05) lower in OrDg (67.23) than in InDg (83.55); however, milk N was comparable in animals of both dietary groups (47.36 vs 45.82 g/day). Nitrogen balance was higher in animals of OrDg (39.72) than in InDg (28.08). DCP, TDN, and ME values of both diets were similar. No effect of diet was observed on milk yield and its composition; however, increased lactation length decreased milk yield. Buffaloes on both diets had similar efficiency and conversion ratio of nutrients for milk production. Results revealed that diets (organically vs. inorganically grown) have no effect on milk yield and its composition; however, buffaloes on organic diet have higher fiber digestibility and low urinary N loss which did not affect the dietary nutrients efficiency and conversion ratio for milk production. PMID:22733348

  7. Effect of prior grazing experiences on grazing behavior and performance of lactating cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of grazing experiences early in life on grazing behavior and performance of lactating dairy heifers was evaluated in a 3-year study. Sixty-four Holstein and Holstein x Jersey calves were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments (n = 16) in 2008. Treatments were combinations of managing he...

  8. Management intensive grazing and continuous grazing of hill pasture by beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management Intensive Grazing (MIG) is an increasingly used practice that can offer producers many benefits including higher profit. The main objective of this study was to compare MIG and Continuous Grazing (CG)practices on pastures in Appalachian Ohio. The study was conducted at the North Appalac...

  9. Grazing activity and ruminal bacterial population associated with frothy bloat in steers grazing winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two grazing experiments were designed to elucidate the shifts in rumen bacterial populations (Exp. 1) and grazing activities (Exp. 2) in wheat forage diets between bloated and non-bloated steers. In Exp. 1, the bacterial DNA density was greatest for Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Streptococcus bovis, a...

  10. Water quality and the grazing animal.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, R K; Newton, G L; Hill, G M

    2004-01-01

    Grazing animals and pasture production can affect water quality both positively and negatively. Good management practices for forage production protect the soil surface from erosion compared with conventionally produced crops. Grazing animals and pasture production can negatively affect water quality through erosion and sediment transport into surface waters, through nutrients from urine and feces dropped by the animals and fertility practices associated with production of high-quality pasture, and through pathogens from the wastes. Erosion and sediment transport is primarily associated with high-density stocking and/or poor forage stands. The two nutrients of primary concern relating to animal production are N and P. Nitrogen is of concern because high concentrations in drinking water in the NO(3) form cause methemoglobinemia (blue baby disease), whereas other forms of N (primarily nitrite, NO(2)) are considered to be potentially carcinogenic. Phosphorus in the PO(4) form is of concern because it causes eutrophication of surface water bodies. The effect of grazing animals on soil and water quality must be evaluated at both the field and watershed scales. Such evaluation must account for both direct input of animal wastes from the grazing animal and also applications of inorganic fertilizers to produce quality pastures. Watershed-scale studies have primarily used the approach of nutrient loadings per land area and nutrient removals as livestock harvests. A number of studies have measured nutrient loads in surface runoff from grazed land and compared loads with other land uses, including row crop agriculture and forestry. Concentrations in discharge have been regressed against standard grazing animal units per land area. Watersheds with concentrated livestock populations have been shown to discharge as much as 5 to 10 times more nutrients than watersheds in cropland or forestry. The other major water quality concern with grazing animals is pathogens, which may move

  11. Contamination of soil, medicinal, and fodder plants with lead and cadmium present in mine-affected areas, Northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Qamar, Zahir; Din, Islamud; Mahmood, Qaisar; Gul, Nayab; Huang, Qing

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in the soil and plants (medicinal and fodder) grown in chromite mining-affected areas, Northern Pakistan. Soil and plant samples were collected and analyzed for Pb and Cd concentrations using atomic absorption spectrometer. Soil pollution load indices (PLIs) were greater than 2 for both Cd and Pb, indicating high level of contamination in the study area. Furthermore, Cd concentrations in the soil surrounding the mining sites exceeded the maximum allowable limit (MAL) (0.6 mg kg(-1)), while the concentrations of Pb were lower than the MAL (350 mg kg(-1)) set by State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) for agriculture soil. The concentrations of Cd and Pb were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the soil of the mining-contaminated sites as compared to the reference site, which can be attributed to the dispersion of toxic heavy metals, present in the bed rocks and waste of the mines. The concentrations of Pb and Cd in majority of medicinal and fodder plant species grown in surrounding areas of mines were higher than their MALs set by World Health Organization/Food Agriculture Organization (WHO/FAO) for herbal (10 and 0.3 mg kg(-1), respectively) and edible (0.3 and 0.2 mg kg(-1), respectively) plants. The high concentrations of Cd and Pb may cause contamination of the food chain and health risk. PMID:26324064

  12. Wood biomass: The potential of willow. Progress report, November 1987--December 1990

    SciTech Connect

    White, E.H.; Abrahamson, L.P.

    1991-10-01

    Experiments were established in central New York State in spring, 1987, to evaluate the potential of Salix for wood biomass production using ultrashort-rotation intensive-culture techniques. Five selected willow clones and one hybrid poplar clone planted at 1 {times} 1 foot spacing were tested for biomass production with annual coppicing. This report presents results of this research as of December 31, 1990. (VC)

  13. Small scale gasification of short rotation coppice willow for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, W.M.; Forbes, G.; McCracken, A.R.

    1996-12-31

    Conversion technologies for wood chip produced from short rotation coppice willow have concentrated on small dispersed systems suitable for the farm structure found in Northern Ireland. The development of a 100 kW downdraft gasification, combined heat and power system identified a number of problems including fuel characteristics and gas clean up. Modifications to fuel feed systems, hearth design and particulate and tar removal methods have resulted consistent production of high quality gas for the diesel engine used for electricity generation.

  14. Measured and modelled carbon and water fluxes in hybrid willows grown for biofuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wertin, T. M.; LeBauer, D.; Volk, T.; Long, S.; Leakey, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Biofuels have the potential to meet future energy needs. Worldwide, up to 75% of biofuels produced are derived from woody sources. Coppiced hybrid willow is among the most promising woody biofuel sources due to its ability to rapidly regenerate after cutting, high biomass yields, low nutrient requirements and ability to be grown on marginal land, abandoned land and land easily erodible under annual cultivation. However, models used to assess the potential viability and sustainability of commercial biomass production by willow in the northeastern, northern and northwestern USA remain unsophisticated and lack key parameterization data. Most significantly, models do not explicitly represent the coppiced growth form. This study tests the ability of a canopy model to predict carbon and water fluxes in two highly productive, but structurally distinct hybrid willows (Salix miyabeana and Salix purpurea) grown in central NY. S. miyaneana has only a few, large diameter stems per stool prior to harvest, while S. purpurea maintains numerous, small diameter stems until harvest. Canopy structure also varies substantially within a growing season. For example, in S. miyabeana stem number decreased by 40% while total basal area increased by 50% within year 2 of the third coppice cycle. Model predictions of water use are compared with stand transpiration measured by sap flow. Model predictions of biomass production are compared to destructive harvest data. Sensitivity of predicted fluxes to variation between genotypes in key physiological parameters is also tested.

  15. Establishment, sex structure and breeding system of an exotic riparian willow, Salix X rubens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Scott, Michael L.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Laven, Richard D.

    1994-01-01

    Several Eurasian tree willows (Salix spp.) have become naturalized in riparian areas outside of their native range. Salix x rubens is a Eurasian willow that is conspicuous along streams in the high plains of Colorado. We examined establishment of seedlings and cuttings, the sex structure and the breeding system of S. x rubens. An experiment was conducted on establishment and growth of seedlings and cuttings under a range of hydrologic conditions. Seedlings became established under all conditions except when flooded, although many fewer seedlings became established where soil surface conditions were relatively dry. Cuttings became established under all experimental conditions, but most frequently where soil moisture was highest. The sex structure of S. x rubens was determined along several streams in the Colorado high plains. Of 2175 trees surveyed, >99% (2172) were female. Salix x rubens produce viable seed apparently as a result of hybridization with another Eurasian willow, S. alba var. vitellina. Salix x rubens often reproduces vegetatively, which, combined with low hybrid seedling survival in the field, may explain the unusual sex structure. Salix x rubens will likely continue to spread vegetatively in high plains riparian areas, and the potential for spread through hybridization could increase if males of compatible Salix spp. are planted near extant S. x rubens.

  16. Spatial distribution of galls caused by Aculus tetanothrix (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on arctic willows.

    PubMed

    Kuczyński, Lechosław; Skoracka, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of galls caused by Aculus tetanothrix (Acari: Eriophyoidea) on three Salix species was studied. The factors influencing this distribution were analysed, i.e. willow species, study area and shoot length. Spatial pattern of gall distribution within the shoot was also examined. The study was conducted in Russia, Kola Peninsula. Densities of galls caused by A. tetanothrix differed significantly among willow species. Considerably higher gall density was recorded in the White Sea coast than in the Khibiny Mountains. This may be explained by the influence of a milder maritime climate that favors mite occurrence compared to a harsh and variable mountain climate that limits mite abundance. There was no relationship between the gall density and the shoot length. The highest density of galls was recorded on the inner offshoots; within the offshoot, there was a maximum density on the fifth leaf. This pattern was repeatable for all shoots studied, independent of the study area, willow species and length of shoots, suggesting the optimal conditions for A. tetanothrix exist on leaves in the middle part of a shoot. This distribution pattern may be an effect of the trade-off between the costs and benefits resulting from leaf quality and mite movement along the shoot. This hypothesis, however, needs to be tested experimentally. PMID:16132741

  17. Breakdown of low-level total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in contaminated soil using grasses and willows.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Patrick; Kuzovkina, Yulia A; Schulthess, Cristian P; Guillard, Karl

    2016-07-01

    A phytoremediation study targeting low-level total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was conducted using cool- and warm-season grasses and willows (Salix species) grown in pots filled with contaminated sandy soil from the New Haven Rail Yard, CT. Efficiencies of the TPH degradation were assessed in a 90-day experiment using 20-8.7-16.6 N-P-K water-soluble fertilizer and fertilizer with molasses amendments to enhance phytoremediation. Plant biomass, TPH concentrations, and indigenous microbes quantified with colony-forming units (CFU), were assessed at the end of the study. Switchgrass grown with soil amendments produced the highest aboveground biomass. Bacterial CFU's were in orders of magnitude significantly higher in willows with soil amendments compared to vegetated treatments with no amendments. The greatest reduction in TPH occurred in all vegetated treatments with fertilizer (66-75%) and fertilizer/molasses (65-74%), followed sequentially by vegetated treatments without amendments, unvegetated treatments with amendments, and unvegetated treatments with no amendment. Phytoremediation of low-level TPH contamination was most efficient where fertilization was in combination with plant species. The same level of remediation was achievable through the addition of grasses and/or willow combinations without amendment, or by fertilization of sandy soil. PMID:26553847

  18. Environmental assessment of energy production based on long term commercial willow plantations in Sweden.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Mola-Yudego, Blas; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Aronsson, Pär; Murphy, Richard

    2012-04-01

    The present paper analyzed the environmental assessment of short rotation willow plantations in Sweden based on the standard framework of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) from the International Standards Organisation. The analysis is focused on two alternative management regimes for willow plantations dedicated to biomass production for energy purposes. The data used included the averages of a large sample of commercial plantations. One of the scenarios is carried out under nitrogen based fertilized conditions and the other under non-fertilized management with total biomass yields (dry weight) of 140t/ha and 86t/ha over a 21 and 22-year life time respectively. The environmental profile was analyzed in terms of the potentials for abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, global warming, ozone layer depletion, photochemical oxidant formation, human toxicity, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. In addition, an energy analysis was performed using the cumulative energy demand method (CED). The application of nitrogen based fertilizers allows an increase in the biomass yield per ha of up to 40% although the contributions to almost all impact categories, particularly the eutrophication potential and toxicity potential impact categories are also considerably higher. Conversely, due to the higher biomass yields achieved with fertilization of these willow plantations, that regime presents a better overall environmental profile in terms of energy yield and global warming potential. PMID:22369863

  19. Russian Arctic warming and ‘greening’ are closely tracked by tundra shrub willows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, B. C.; Macias Fauria, M.; Zetterberg, P.

    2009-12-01

    Growth in arctic vegetation is generally expected to increase under a warming climate, particularly among deciduous shrubs. We analyzed annual ring growth for an abundant and nearly circumpolar erect willow (Salix lanata L.) from the coastal zone of the northwest Russian Arctic (Nenets Autonomous Okrug). The resulting chronology is strongly related to summer temperature for the period 1942-2005. Remarkably high correlations occur at long distances (>1600 km) across the tundra and taiga zones of West Siberia and Eastern Europe. We also found a clear relationship with photosynthetic activity for upland vegetation at a regional scale for the period 1981-2005, confirming a parallel ‘greening’ trend reported for similarly warming North American portions of the tundra biome. The standardized growth curve suggests a significant increase in shrub willow growth over the last six decades. These findings are in line with field and remote sensing studies that have assigned a strong shrub component to the reported greening signal since the early 1980s. Furthermore, the growth trend agrees with qualitative observations by nomadic Nenets reindeer herders of recent increases in willow size in the region. The quality of the chronology as a climate proxy is exceptional. Given its wide geographic distribution and the ready preservation of wood in permafrost, S. lanata L. has great potential for extended temperature reconstructions in remote areas across the Arctic.

  20. The Study of Interactions between Active Compounds of Coffee and Willow (Salix sp.) Bark Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    Durak, Agata; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Coffee and willow are known as valuable sources of biologically active phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and salicin. The aim of the study was to determine the interactions between the active compounds contained in water extracts from coffee and bark of willow (Salix purpurea and Salix myrsinifolia). Raw materials and their mixtures were characterized by multidirectional antioxidant activities; however, bioactive constituents interacted with each other. Synergism was observed for ability of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power, whereas compounds able to scavenge ABTS radical cation acted antagonistically. Additionally, phytochemicals from willow bark possessed hydrophilic character and thermostability which justifies their potential use as an ingredient in coffee beverages. Proposed mixtures may be used in the prophylaxis or treatment of some civilization diseases linked with oxidative stress. Most importantly, strong synergism observed for phytochemicals able to prevent lipids against oxidation may suggest protective effect for cell membrane phospholipids. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes as an ingredient in coffee beverages can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this issue requires further study. PMID:25013777

  1. High yielding biomass genotypes of willow (Salix spp.) show differences in below ground biomass allocation

    PubMed Central

    Cunniff, Jennifer; Purdy, Sarah J.; Barraclough, Tim J.P.; Castle, March; Maddison, Anne L.; Jones, Laurence E.; Shield, Ian F.; Gregory, Andrew S.; Karp, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) grown as short rotation coppice (SRC) are viewed as a sustainable source of biomass with a positive greenhouse gas (GHG) balance due to their potential to fix and accumulate carbon (C) below ground. However, exploiting this potential has been limited by the paucity of data available on below ground biomass allocation and the extent to which it varies between genotypes. Furthermore, it is likely that allocation can be altered considerably by environment. To investigate the role of genotype and environment on allocation, four willow genotypes were grown at two replicated field sites in southeast England and west Wales, UK. Above and below ground biomass was intensively measured over two two-year rotations. Significant genotypic differences in biomass allocation were identified, with below ground allocation differing by up to 10% between genotypes. Importantly, the genotype with the highest below ground biomass also had the highest above ground yield. Furthermore, leaf area was found to be a good predictor of below ground biomass. Growth environment significantly impacted allocation; the willow genotypes grown in west Wales had up to 94% more biomass below ground by the end of the second rotation. A single investigation into fine roots showed the same pattern with double the volume of fine roots present. This greater below ground allocation may be attributed primarily to higher wind speeds, plus differences in humidity and soil characteristics. These results demonstrate that the capacity exists to breed plants with both high yields and high potential for C accumulation. PMID:26339128

  2. The study of interactions between active compounds of coffee and willow (Salix sp.) bark water extract.

    PubMed

    Durak, Agata; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Coffee and willow are known as valuable sources of biologically active phytochemicals such as chlorogenic acid, caffeine, and salicin. The aim of the study was to determine the interactions between the active compounds contained in water extracts from coffee and bark of willow (Salix purpurea and Salix myrsinifolia). Raw materials and their mixtures were characterized by multidirectional antioxidant activities; however, bioactive constituents interacted with each other. Synergism was observed for ability of inhibition of lipid peroxidation and reducing power, whereas compounds able to scavenge ABTS radical cation acted antagonistically. Additionally, phytochemicals from willow bark possessed hydrophilic character and thermostability which justifies their potential use as an ingredient in coffee beverages. Proposed mixtures may be used in the prophylaxis or treatment of some civilization diseases linked with oxidative stress. Most importantly, strong synergism observed for phytochemicals able to prevent lipids against oxidation may suggest protective effect for cell membrane phospholipids. Obtained results indicate that extracts from bark tested Salix genotypes as an ingredient in coffee beverages can provide health promoting benefits to the consumers; however, this issue requires further study. PMID:25013777

  3. 76 FR 31977 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Domestic Sheep Grazing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... sheep grazing permits on 12 allotments and 1 cattle grazing allotment in the southern San Luis Valley.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Term permits on 12 sheep grazing and 1 cattle grazing allotments located in...

  4. Effects of butter from mountain-pasture grazing cows on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome compared with conventional Danish butter: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is considerable interest in dairy products from low-input systems, such as mountain-pasture grazing cows, because these products are believed to be healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. This may be due to a higher content of bioactive components, such as phytanic acid, a PPAR-agonist derived from chlorophyll. However, the effects of such products on human health have been poorly investigated. Objective To compare the effect of milk-fat from mountain-pasture grazing cows (G) and conventionally fed cows (C) on risk markers of the metabolic syndrome. Design In a double-blind, randomized, 12-week, parallel intervention study, 38 healthy subjects replaced part of their habitual dietary fat intake with 39 g fat from test butter made from milk from mountain-pasture grazing cows or from cows fed conventional winter fodder. Glucose-tolerance and circulating risk markers were analysed before and after the intervention. Results No differences in blood lipids, lipoproteins, hsCRP, insulin, glucose or glucose-tolerance were observed. Interestingly, strong correlations between phytanic acid at baseline and total (P<0.0001) and LDL cholesterol (P=0.0001) were observed. Conclusions Lack of effects on blood lipids and inflammation indicates that dairy products from mountain-pasture grazing cows are not healthier than products from high-input conventional systems. Considering the strong correlation between LDL cholesterol and phytanic acid at baseline, it may be suggested that phytanic acid increases total and LDL cholesterol. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01343589 PMID:23842081

  5. An Apparent Trade-Off between Direct and Signal-Based Induced Indirect Defence against Herbivores in Willow Trees

    PubMed Central

    Yoneya, Kinuyo; Uefune, Masayoshi; Takabayashi, Junji

    2012-01-01

    Signal-based induced indirect defence refers to herbivore-induced production of plant volatiles that attract carnivorous natural enemies of herbivores. Relationships between direct and indirect defence strategies were studied using tritrophic systems consisting of six sympatric willow species, willow leaf beetles (Plagiodera versicolora), and their natural predators, ladybeetles (Aiolocaria hexaspilota). Relative preferences of ladybeetles for prey-infested willow plant volatiles, indicating levels of signal-based induced indirect defence, were positively correlated with the vulnerability of willow species to leaf beetles, assigned as relative levels of direct defence. This correlation suggested a possible trade-off among the species, in terms of resource limitation between direct defence and signal-based induced indirect defence. However, analyses of volatiles from infested and uninfested plants showed that the specificity of infested volatile blends (an important factor determining the costs of signal-based induced indirect defence) did not affect the attractiveness of infested plant volatiles. Thus, the suggested trade-off in resource limitation was unlikely. Rather, principal coordinates analysis showed that this ‘apparent trade-off’ between direct and signal-based induced indirect defence was partially explained by differential preferences of ladybeetles to infested plant volatiles of the six willow species. We also showed that relative preferences of ladybeetles for prey-infested willow plant volatiles were positively correlated with oviposition preferences of leaf beetles and with the distributions of leaf beetles in the field. These correlations suggest that ladybeetles use the specificity of infested willow plant volatiles to find suitable prey patches. PMID:23251559

  6. Modeling the grazing effect on dry grassland carbon cycling with modified Biome-BGC grazing model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Geping; Han, Qifei; Li, Chaofan; Yang, Liao

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the factors that determine the carbon source/sink strength of ecosystems is important for reducing uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. Arid grassland ecosystems are a widely distributed biome type in Xinjiang, Northwest China, covering approximately one-fourth the country's land surface. These grasslands are the habitat for many endemic and rare plant and animal species and are also used as pastoral land for livestock. Using the modified Biome-BGC grazing model, we modeled carbon dynamics in Xinjiang for grasslands that varied in grazing intensity. In general, this regional simulation estimated that the grassland ecosystems in Xinjiang acted as a net carbon source, with a value of 0.38 Pg C over the period 1979-2007. There were significant effects of grazing on carbon dynamics. An over-compensatory effect in net primary productivity (NPP) and vegetation carbon (C) stock was observed when grazing intensity was lower than 0.40 head/ha. Grazing resulted in a net carbon source of 23.45 g C m-2 yr-1, which equaled 0.37 Pg in Xinjiang in the last 29 years. In general, grazing decreased vegetation C stock, while an increasing trend was observed with low grazing intensity. The soil C increased significantly (17%) with long-term grazing, while the soil C stock exhibited a steady trend without grazing. These findings have implications for grassland ecosystem management as it relates to carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation, e.g., removal of grazing should be considered in strategies that aim to increase terrestrial carbon sequestrations at local and regional scales. One of the greatest limitations in quantifying the effects of herbivores on carbon cycling is identifying the grazing systems and intensities within a given region. We hope our study emphasizes the need for large-scale assessments of how grazing impacts carbon cycling. Most terrestrial ecosystems in Xinjiang have been affected by disturbances to a greater or lesser extent in the past

  7. INFLUENCE OF PROTOZOAN GRAZING ON CONTAMINANT BIODEGRADATION. (R825418)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of protozoan grazing on biodegradation rates in samples from contaminated aquifer sediment was evaluated under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Predator¯prey biomass ratios suggested that protozoan grazing might be influencing bacterial populations....

  8. Rotational grazing on rangelands: Reconciliation of perception and experimental evidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experimental evaluation of grazing systems represents a highly visible and lengthy chapter in the history of the rangeland profession. Although experimentation has largely concluded, contrasting interpretations still remain regarding the potential benefits of rotational grazing systems on rangel...

  9. DO GRAZING CATTLE SEEK NUTRITIONALLY SUPERIOR PORTIONS OF PASTURES?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that grazing cattle will most often frequent nutritionally superior portions of large pastures. Forage quantity/quality characteristics were mapped among three pastures and cattle grazing patterns subsequently tracked with GPS collars. Cattle preferred locations...

  10. Efficacy of prescribed grazing depends on timing intensity and frequency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Exotic weeds and woody plants are degrading the World’s grasslands, and ecologists are attempting to reverse the degradation with prescribed grazing. Prescribed grazing entails introducing livestock (e.g. sheep, goats) that eat unwanted plants. Prescribed grazing has shown modest potential in ...

  11. 25 CFR 166.305 - When is grazing capacity determined?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When is grazing capacity determined? 166.305 Section 166.305 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GRAZING PERMITS Land and Operations Management § 166.305 When is grazing capacity determined? Before we grant, modify,...

  12. Rotational grazing on rangelands: Reconciliation of perception and experimental evidence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of overwhelming experimental evidence to the contrary, rotational grazing continues to be promoted and implemented as the only viable grazing strategy. The goals of this synthesis are to 1) reevaluate the complexity, underlying assumptions, and ecological processes of grazed ecosystems, 2) ...

  13. 36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Changes in grazing permits. 222.4 Section 222.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing permits. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, is...

  14. 36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Changes in grazing permits. 222.4 Section 222.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing permits. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, is...

  15. 36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Changes in grazing permits. 222.4 Section 222.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing permits. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, is...

  16. 7 CFR 760.305 - Eligible grazing losses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligible grazing losses. 760.305 Section 760.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Livestock Forage Disaster Program § 760.305 Eligible grazing losses. (a) A grazing loss due...

  17. 36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Changes in grazing permits. 222.4 Section 222.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing permits. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, is...

  18. 36 CFR 222.11 - Grazing advisory boards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.11 Grazing advisory boards. (a) Establishment. Persons holding term permits to graze livestock on National Forest System lands with headquarters... established under this authority shall consist of members who are National Forest System term permittees......

  19. 36 CFR 222.4 - Changes in grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Changes in grazing permits. 222.4 Section 222.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RANGE MANAGEMENT Grazing and Livestock Use on the National Forest System § 222.4 Changes in grazing permits. (a) The Chief, Forest Service, is...

  20. How Does “Hunger” Level Impact Grazing Behavior?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing behavior can be influenced through feeding and grazing management decisions. Research at our USDA-ARS lab showed that ruminal fill, or how ‘hungry’ the cow is, can affect grazing behavior. Cows that had less ruminal fill took a bigger bite that was shallow and wide, compared to a ‘full’ cow ...

  1. Dietary selection by domestic grazing ruminants: Current state of knowledge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ruminants grazing biodiverse pasture face many choices, including when and where to graze and how much herbage to consume. Scientific research has led to considerable knowledge about some of these choices (e.g. herbage DMI), but other aspects of the complex decision-making process of a grazing rumin...

  2. 25 CFR 166.400 - Who establishes grazing rental rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Who establishes grazing rental rates? 166.400 Section 166... Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental Rate Determination and Adjustment § 166.400 Who establishes grazing rental rates? (a) For tribal lands, a tribe may establish a...

  3. 25 CFR 166.400 - Who establishes grazing rental rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Who establishes grazing rental rates? 166.400 Section 166... Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental Rate Determination and Adjustment § 166.400 Who establishes grazing rental rates? (a) For tribal lands, a tribe may establish a...

  4. 25 CFR 166.400 - Who establishes grazing rental rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who establishes grazing rental rates? 166.400 Section 166... Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental Rate Determination and Adjustment § 166.400 Who establishes grazing rental rates? (a) For tribal lands, a tribe may establish a...

  5. 25 CFR 166.400 - Who establishes grazing rental rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who establishes grazing rental rates? 166.400 Section 166... Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental Rate Determination and Adjustment § 166.400 Who establishes grazing rental rates? (a) For tribal lands, a tribe may establish a...

  6. 25 CFR 166.400 - Who establishes grazing rental rates?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Who establishes grazing rental rates? 166.400 Section 166... Grazing Rental Rates, Payments, and Late Payment Collections Rental Rate Determination and Adjustment § 166.400 Who establishes grazing rental rates? (a) For tribal lands, a tribe may establish a...

  7. 75 FR 29572 - Information Collection; Grazing Management

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... published a 60-day notice (75 FR 3914) requesting comments on the proposed information collection. The... Bureau of Land Management Information Collection; Grazing Management AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: 30-day Notice and Request for Comments. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM)...

  8. 25 CFR 167.9 - Grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... permittee who has five or more horses on his current permit will be required to apply any acquired sheep... shall be authorized to graze more than ten head of horses or to accumulate a total of over 350 sheep... permitted holdings of any individual permittee shall not exceed 350 sheep units or the equivalent...

  9. 25 CFR 700.711 - Grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... year may be issued to permittees: (i) To use extra forage made available under rotation grazing management as regulated by a range unit management plan, (ii) To use forage created by unusually favorable... cooperative range unit range management plan, and (iii) Forage is available on the range to sustain...

  10. 25 CFR 700.711 - Grazing permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... year may be issued to permittees: (i) To use extra forage made available under rotation grazing management as regulated by a range unit management plan, (ii) To use forage created by unusually favorable... cooperative range unit range management plan, and (iii) Forage is available on the range to sustain...