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Sample records for great egg harbor

  1. 33 CFR 117.722 - Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.722 Section 117.722 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw...

  2. 33 CFR 117.722 - Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.722 Section 117.722 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw...

  3. 33 CFR 117.722 - Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.722 Section 117.722 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw...

  4. 33 CFR 117.722 - Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.722 Section 117.722 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw...

  5. 33 CFR 117.722 - Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.722 Section 117.722 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.722 Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw...

  6. 33 CFR 117.753 - Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.753 Section 117.753 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw of the S52 (Ship Channel) bridge, mile 0.5 between Somers Point and...

  7. 33 CFR 117.753 - Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.753 Section 117.753 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw of the S52 (Ship Channel) bridge, mile 0.5 between Somers Point and...

  8. 33 CFR 117.753 - Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.753 Section 117.753 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw of the S52 (Ship Channel) bridge, mile 0.5 between Somers Point and...

  9. 33 CFR 117.753 - Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ship Channel, Great Egg Harbor Bay. 117.753 Section 117.753 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Great Egg Harbor Bay. The draw of the S52 (Ship Channel) bridge, mile 0.5 between Somers Point and...

  10. 75 FR 3856 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Great Egg Harbor Bay, Between Beesleys Point and Somers Point, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ..., between Beesleys Point and Somers Point, NJ, in the Federal Register (74 FR 30031). We received two... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Great Egg Harbor Bay... Bridge over Great Egg Harbor Bay, at mile 3.5, between Beesleys Point and Somers Point, NJ. This...

  11. Total Mercury and Methylmercury in the Great Egg Harbor River Watershed, New Jersey, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barringer, J. L.; Riskin, M. L.; Szabo, Z.; Fischer, J. M.; Reilly, P. A.; Rosman, R.; Bonin, J. L.; Heckathorn, H. A.

    2007-12-01

    Hydrologic and biogeochemical conditions are important factors in the transport and distribution of mercury (Hg) in New Jersey Coastal Plain watersheds that contain extensive freshwater wetlands and where Hg bioaccumulation is of concern. U.S. Geological Survey studies found Hg concentrations in top predator fish from the Great Egg Harbor River mainstem that ranged from 2.9 to 4.5 mg/kg (dry wt.) and exceeded 10 ng/L in the watershed's acidic streams. An ongoing study with the N.J. Department of Environmental Protection indicates that atmospheric deposition of Hg to the wetlands and streams may be augmented by substantial contributions of Hg from ground water. Although background levels of Hg in water from the underlying aquifer typically are less than 10 ng/L, concentrations in water from more than 600 domestic wells in southern New Jersey have been shown to exceed the drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 2,000 ng/L. Therefore, to determine ground-water inputs to the streams, samples of ground water discharging to the tributaries and mainstem as well as streamwater samples collected during various flow conditions were analyzed for total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg). Total Hg concentrations in ground water discharging to the tributaries and mainstem were low to moderate (0.29-22 ng/L) in relatively undeveloped areas (including wetlands), but higher (36 and 177 ng/L) in two urban/suburban areas where much of the Hg was in particulate form. In recent and ongoing studies, total Hg concentrations in unfiltered samples of surface water, except those for one suburban tributary, have ranged from 2.13 to 37.7 ng/L. Concentrations in the suburban tributary have ranged from 50 ng/L during a dry period to 250 ng/L during a wet period. Hg concentrations in samples from a wetlands-embedded reach of the mainstem varied markedly with flow. In addition to increases in concentrations of total Hg, UV absorbance and concentrations of dissolved organic carbon also increased with

  12. Contaminant levels in Herring (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs from colonies in the New York harbor complex between 2012 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Elbin, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Birds living in coastal areas are exposed to severe storms and tidal flooding during the nesting season, but also to contaminants that move up the food chain from the water column and sediment to their prey items. We examine metals in Herring Gull (Larus argentatus) and Great Black-backed Gull (Larus marinus) eggs collected from the New York/New Jersey harbor estuary in 2012 and in 2013 to determine if there were significant yearly differences in metal levels. We test the null hypothesis that there were no significant yearly differences in metal levels. We investigate whether there were consistent differences in metals from 2012 to 2013 that might suggest a storm-related effect because Superstorm Sandy landed in New Jersey in October 2012 with high winds and extensive flooding, and view this research as exploratory. Except for arsenic, there were significant inter-year variations in the mean levels for all colonies combined for Herring Gull, and for lead, mercury and selenium for Great Black-backed Gulls. All metal levels in 2013 were less than in 2012, except for lead. These differences were present for individual colonies as well. Metal levels varied significantly among islands for Herring Gulls in both years (except for cadmium in 2013). No one colony had the highest levels of all metals for Herring Gulls. A long term data set on mercury levels in Herring Gulls indicated that the differences between 2012 and 2013 were greater than usual. Several different factors could account for these differences, and these are discussed. PMID:25471353

  13. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 88-262-2209, Egg Harbor Yacht, Inc. , Egg Harbor City, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Reh, C.M.; Petsonk, E.L.

    1992-04-01

    In response to a request from a group of employees at Egg Harbor Yacht, Inc. (SIC-3732), Egg Harbor, New Jersey, an investigation was made of respiratory complaints. The company manufactured fiberglass reinforced plastic boats, specializing in fishing and sporting yachts. There were approximately 200 hourly workers employed at the site. The hull, deck and some smaller boat parts were fabricated from polyester base resin, gel coat, and split strand glass fiber using hand or spray lay up techniques. The workers complained generally of respiratory symptoms. Over 78% of the measurements taken from the fiberglass molding area showed styrene (100425) concentrations above the NIOSH action level of 25 parts per million (ppm), with the average concentration being 46.8ppm. Of four breathing zone samples for total wood dust taken in the woodworking section, three were above the ACGIH threshold limit value of 1mg/cu m. The authors conclude that a health hazard existed from exposures to styrene and wood dust and recommend exposure monitoring, engineering and administrative controls, personal protection, and medical monitoring as aids to correcting this situation.

  14. Simulated effects of alternative withdrawal strategies on groundwater flow in the unconfined Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, the Rio Grande water-bearing zone, and the Atlantic City 800-foot sand in the Great Egg Harbor and Mullica River Basins, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Daryll A.; Carleton, Glen B.; Buxton, Debra E.; Walker, Richard L.; Shourds, Jennifer L.; Reilly, Pamela A.

    2012-01-01

    using water-level data from 148 wells and base-flow data from 22 gaging or low-flow partial record stations. The Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system within the Great Egg Harbor River and the Mullica River Basins was simulated on a monthly basis from 1998 through 2006. An existing regional model of the New Jersey Coastal Plain was revised to provide boundary conditions for the Great Egg Harbor and Mullica River Basin model (referred to as the Great Egg-Mullica model). In the Great Egg-Mullica model, monthly groundwater recharge rates used in the model ranged from 10-15 inches per year in 2001 to 20-25 inches per year in 2005. The mean-absolute error for 10 of the 14 long-term hydrographs used in model calibration was less than 5 ft. Groundwater flow budgets for the Great Egg-Mullica model calibration periods, May 2005 and September 2006, and for the entire model calibration period 1998 to 2006, showed that nearly 70 percent of the water entering the Atlantic City 800-foot sand came from the horizontal connection with the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system in updip areas. The groundwater flow model was used to simulate scenarios under three possible conditions: average 1998 to 2006 withdrawals (Average scenario), full-allocation withdrawals (Full Allocation scenario), and projected 2050-demand withdrawals (2050 Demand scenario). Withdrawals in the Full Allocation scenario are nearly twice the withdrawals from the Average scenario, primarily because of the potential for large agricultural withdrawals if all allocations are used. Withdrawals for the 2050 Demand scenario are about 50 percent greater than those for the Average scenario, primarily due to expected increases in withdrawals for public supply. Monthly base-flow depletion criteria were determined using the Low-Flow Margin method, currently under consideration by NJDEP, to estimate available water on an annual basis at the Hydrologic Unit Code 11 (HUC11) level and to determine whether a water-supply deficit exists

  15. Host intra-clutch variation, cuckoo egg matching and egg rejection by great reed warblers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherry, Michael I.; Bennett, Andrew T. D.; Moskát, Csaba

    2007-06-01

    Prevailing theory predicts that lower levels of intra-clutch variation in host eggs facilitate the detection of brood parasitism. We assessed egg matching using both human vision and UV-VIS spectrophotometry and then followed the nest fate of great reed warblers naturally parasitised by European cuckoos. Rejection was predicted by the following three variables: matching between cuckoo and host eggs on the main chromatic variable defined by principal components analysis of the egg spectra (which has a strong loading in the UV); the number of host eggs in the nest; and human estimates of intra-clutch variation. The first variable is not correlated to human estimates of matching, which do not predict rejection. In line with another recent study, rejection rates were predicted by higher levels of intra-clutch variation in the host eggs, suggesting that higher rather than lower levels of intra-clutch variation can facilitate the discrimination of cuckoo eggs by hosts. We suggest that the importance of intra-clutch variation is context dependent, with intra-clutch variation being important when there is good matching between the host and the cuckoo eggs. Our results also suggest that both spectrometric and human visual assessments of egg matching and intra-clutch variation are prudent: the former provide the best method of estimating reflectance variation, whereas the latter include some assessment of patterns of maculation.

  16. METAL LEVELS IN EGGS OF WATERBIRDS IN THE NEW YORK HARBOR (USA): TROPHIC RELATIONSHIPS AND POSSIBLE RISK TO HUMAN CONSUMERS

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Elbin, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Health professionals are interested in evaluating the risks that heavy metals pose to eco-receptors and humans. The objective of this study was to examine levels of mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and other contaminants in waterbirds nesting in the New York harbor in 2012 to determine (1) whether there were species and locational differences, and (2) whether consumption of eggs posed a health risk to predators or humans. For arsenic (As), Pb, Hg, and selenium (Se), species contributed more to variations in levels than location; for Cd and chromium (Cr), location was more significant. Mean metal levels differed among species for all metals, except Cd. Highest levels were As (great black-backed gulls, Larus marinus), Cr (great egret, Ardea alba), Pb (Canada goose, Branta canadensis), and Hg and Se (black-crowned night heron, Nycticorax nycticorax). There were significant locational differences only for herring gulls (Larus argentatus); significant differences were found for all metals. Levels of Hg and Pb may be sufficiently high in eggs of some species to produce adverse effects in predators that eat them. The proportion of samples above 0.3 ppm Hg (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] freshwater criteria for freshwater fish), the contaminant of health concern, ranged from 0% (Canada goose, great egret), to 14 and 27% in gulls, to 50% (black-crowned night heron). Some herring gull, great black-backed gull, and black-crowned night heron eggs had 0.5 ppm or higher Hg. Thus, human consumption of eggs may pose a risk to fetuses and young children. PMID:25424617

  17. History of the George J. Mitchell Elementary School Library Media Center, Little Egg Harbor Township, New Jersey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lescure, Susan D.

    The purpose of this case study was to identify the factors that led to the formation of the George J. Mitchell Elementary School Library Media Center (Little Egg Harbor Township, New Jersey), and to give local historical reference to the community about the library services offered. Data were collected through literature, face-to-face interviews,…

  18. The Great Easter Egg Hunt: The Void's Incredible Richness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-04-01

    An image made of about 300 million pixels is being released by ESO, based on more than 64 hours of observations with the Wide-Field Camera on the 2.2m telescope at La Silla (Chile). The image covers an 'empty' region of the sky five times the size of the full moon, opening an exceptionally clear view towards the most distant part of our universe. It reveals objects that are 100 million times fainter than what the unaided eye can see. Easter is in many countries a time of great excitement for children who are on the big hunt for chocolate eggs, hidden all about the places. Astronomers, however, do not need to wait this special day to get such an excitement: it is indeed daily that they look for faraway objects concealed in deep images of the sky. And as with chocolate eggs, deep sky objects, such as galaxies, quasars or gravitational lenses, come in the wildest variety of colours and shapes. ESO PR Photo 11/06 ESO PR Photo 14a/06 The Deep 3 'Empty' Field The image presented here is one of such very deep image of the sky. It is the combination of 714 frames for a total exposure time of 64.5 hours obtained through four different filters (B, V, R, and I)! It consists of four adjacent Wide-Field Camera pointings (each 33x34 arcmin), covering a total area larger than one square degree. Yet, if you were to look at this large portion of the firmament with the unaided eye, you would just see... nothing. The area, named Deep 3, was indeed chosen to be a random but empty, high galactic latitude field, positioned in such a way that it can be observed from the La Silla observatory all over the year. Together with two other regions, Deep 1 and Deep 2, Deep 3 is part of the Deep Public Survey (DPS), based on ideas submitted by the ESO community and covering a total sky area of 3 square degrees. Deep 1 and Deep 2 were selected because they overlapped with regions of other scientific interest. For instance, Deep 1 was chosen to complement the deep ATESP radio survey carried out

  19. Contributions of nitrogen to the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor Estuary: Updated loading estimates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieben, Christine M.; Baker, Ronald J.

    2009-01-01

    Based on the most recent and most accurate data available through 2008, the total load of nitrogen to the Barnegat Bay‐Little Egg Harbor (BB‐LEH) estuary from the most substantial sources (surface water, including surface‐water discharge and direct storm runoff; ground‐water discharge; and atmospheric deposition) is estimated to be 650,000 kilograms of nitrogen per year (kg N/yr). Surface water contributes 66 percent (431,000 kg N/yr), direct ground‐ water discharge accounts for 12 percent (78,000 kg N/yr), and atmospheric deposition accounts for 22 percent (141,000 kg N/yr). This new loading estimate was compared to a previously published estimate produced by using similar methodology but less current data through 1997. Findings of the present study include a substantially lower estimate of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen to the estuary compared to the previous estimate. The study results also offer further support of the relation between land use and nitrogen levels, and indicate that the Toms and Metedeconk River basins account for more than 60 percent of the nitrogen load to the estuary from surface‐water discharge. Differences between the two estimates can be attributed to both the use of more accurate and more recent data in the revised estimate, and actual changes in the magnitude of nitrogen loads from various sources. Gaps in available water‐quality and hydrologic data are documented, and additional analysis and monitoring that may improve the reliability of future nitrogen loading estimates are presented.

  20. Thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs from the upper Great Lakes are related to maternal diet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, S.C.; Rinchard, J.; Ebener, M.P.; Tillitt, D.E.; Munkittrick, K.R.; Parrott, J.L.; Allen, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency is responsible for reproductive impairment in several species of salmonines in the Great lakes, and is thought to be caused by the consumption of prey containing thiaminase, a thiamine-degrading enzyme. Because thiaminase levels are extremely high in dreissenid mussels, fish that prey on them may be susceptible to thiamine deficiency. We determined thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis eggs from the upper Laurentian Great Lakes to assess the potential for thiamine deficiency and to determine if thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were related to maternal diet. Mean thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were highest in Lake Huron, intermediate in Lake Superior, and lowest in Lake Michigan. Some fish had thiamine concentrations below putative thresholds for lethal and sublethal effects in salmonines, suggesting that some larval lake whitefish may currently be at risk of at least sublethal effects of low thiamine concentrations, although thiamine thresholds are unknown for lake whitefish. Egg thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were statistically significantly related to isotopic carbon signatures, suggesting that egg thiamine levels were related to maternal diet, but low egg thiamine concentrations did not appear to be associated with a diet of dreissenids. Egg thiamine concentrations were not statistically significantly related to multifunction oxidase induction, suggesting that lower egg thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish were not related to contaminant exposure.

  1. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  2. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  3. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  4. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  5. 33 CFR 110.6 - Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). 110.6 Section 110.6 Navigation and Navigable... Areas § 110.6 Portland Harbor, Portland, Maine (between Little Diamond Island and Great Diamond Island). Beginning at the southeasterly corner of the wharf, at the most southerly point of Great Diamond Island...

  6. Use of egg traps to investigate lake trout spawning in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiner, Donald R.; Bronte, Charles R.; Payne, N. Robert; Fitzsimons, John D.; Casselman, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Disk-shaped traps were used to examine egg deposition by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) at 29 sites in the Great Lakes. The main objectives were to; first, evaluate the disk trap as a device for sampling lake trout eggs in the Great Lakes, and second, summarize what has been learned about lake trout spawning through the use of disk traps. Of the 5,085 traps set, 60% were classified as functional when retrieved. Evidence of lake trout egg deposition was documented in each of the lakes studied at 14 of 29 sites. A total of 1,147 eggs were trapped. The percentage of traps functioning and catch per effort were compared among sites based on depth, timing of egg deposition, distance from shore, size of reef, and type of reef (artificial or natural). Most eggs were caught on small, shallow, protected reefs that were close to shore. Use of disk traps on large, shallow, unprotected offshore reefs or along unprotected shorelines was generally unsuccessful due to the effects of heavy wind and wave action. Making multiple lifts at short intervals, and retrieval before and re-deployment after storms are recommended for use in exposed areas. On large reefs, preliminary surveys to identify preferred lake trout spawning habitat may be required to deploy disk traps most effectively. Egg deposition by hatchery-reared fish was widespread throughout the Great Lakes, and the use of artificial structures by these fish was extensive.

  7. Egg speckling patterns do not advertise offspring quality or influence male provisioning in great tits.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Fayet, Annette L; Kilner, Rebecca M; Hinde, Camilla A

    2012-01-01

    Many passerine birds lay white eggs with reddish brown speckles produced by protoporphyrin pigment. However, the function of these spots is contested. Recently, the sexually selected eggshell coloration (SSEC) hypothesis proposed that eggshell color is a sexually selected signal through which a female advertises her quality (and hence the potential quality of her future young) to her male partner, thereby encouraging him to contribute more to breeding attempts. We performed a test of the SSEC hypothesis in a common passerine, the great tit Parus major. We used a double cross-fostering design to determine whether males change their provisioning behavior based on eggshell patterns they observe at the nest. We also tested the assumption that egg patterning reflects female and/or offspring quality. Because birds differ from humans in their color and pattern perception, we used digital photography and models of bird vision to quantify egg patterns objectively. Neither male provisioning nor chick growth was related to the pattern of eggs males observed during incubation. Although heavy females laid paler, less speckled eggs, these eggs did not produce chicks that grew faster. Therefore, we conclude that the SSEC hypothesis is an unlikely explanation for the evolution of egg speckling in great tits. PMID:22815730

  8. Eavesdropping cuckoos: further insights on great spotted cuckoo preference by magpie nests and egg colour.

    PubMed

    Soler, Juan J; Avilés, Jesús M; Martín-Gálvez, David; de Neve, Liesbeth; Soler, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    Reproductive success of brood parasites largely depends on appropriate host selection and, although the use of inadvertent social information emitted by hosts may be of selective advantage for cuckoos, this possibility has rarely been experimentally tested. Here, we manipulated nest size and clutch colouration of magpies (Pica pica), the main host of great spotted cuckoos (Clamator glandarius). These phenotypic traits may potentially reveal information about magpie territory and/or parental quality and could hence influence the cuckoo's choice of host nests. Experimentally reduced magpie nests suffered higher predation rate, and prevalence of cuckoo parasitism was higher in magpie nests with the densest roofs, which suggests a direct advantage for great spotted cuckoos choosing this type of magpie nest. Colouration of magpie clutches was manipulated by adding one artificial egg (blue or cream colouration) at the beginning of the egg-laying period. We found that host nests holding an experimental cream egg experienced a higher prevalence of cuckoo parasitism than those holding a blue-coloured egg. Results from these two experiments suggest that great spotted cuckoos cue on magpie nest characteristics and the appearance of eggs to decide parasitism, and confirm, for the first time, the ability of cuckoos to distinguish between eggs of different colours within the nest of their hosts. Several hypothetical scenarios explaining these results are discussed. PMID:24556949

  9. Determination of hatching date for eggs of black-crowned night-herons, snowy egrets and great egrets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Pendleton, G.W.; Roach, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Floatation of eggs in water and specific gravity of eggs of Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax ), Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula ) and Great Egrets (Casmerodius albus ) were evaluated as methods to determine date of hatching. Although specific gravity was a better predictor of hatching date than egg flotation, both techniques were imprecise. The regression between specific gravity and the number of days before hatching differed among clutches, but not among eggs within clutches. Specific gravity of eggs predicted hatching date only to within 3.8 d for Snowy Egrets, and 4.7 d for Black-crowned Night-Herons and Great Egrets. The mean incubation period was 27.3 d for Great Egrets, 23.7 d for Snowy Egrets and 22.8 d for Black-crowned Night- Herons. For all three species, the A egg (first egg laid) had a longer incubation period than the B or C egg.

  10. Within- and among-clutch variation of organohalogenated contaminants in eggs of great tits (Parus major).

    PubMed

    Van den Steen, E; Dauwe, T; Covaci, A; Jaspers, V L B; Pinxten, R; Eens, M

    2006-11-01

    In this study we investigated the variation of organohalogenated compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), within and among clutches of a small insectivorous songbird, the great tit (Parus major), and determined whether egg laying order affects the concentrations of these compounds. PCBs were the major organohalogenated contaminants in the eggs of great tits (mean 4778 ng/g lipid weight), while PBDEs (mean 204 ng/g lipid weight) and DDTs (mean 601 ng/g lipid weight) were found at much lower concentrations. Within-clutch variability of PCBs, PBDEs, and DDTs residues in the egg samples was small (7%, 3%, and 22%, respectively) compared to among-clutch variability (93%, 97%, and 78%, respectively). The small within-clutch variability may be in part related to the small home range of great tits and low spatial heterogeneity of the contaminants. We found no laying order effects on the concentrations of PCBs, PBDEs, and DDTs. Our results show that random egg samples of great tits are suitable as a biomonitoring tool for contamination with persistent organohalogenated pollutants in terrestrial environments. PMID:16530307

  11. Mercury levels in Great Lakes herring gull eggs, 1972--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Weseloh, D.V.; Koster, M.D.; Ryckman, D.P.; Struger, J.

    1995-12-31

    Since 1971, the herring gull (Larus argentatus) has been used as a sentinel species for monitoring the levels of persistent contaminants in the Great Lakes ecosystem. In this study, 21 herring gull colonies in the Great Lakes and connecting channels were sampled for years 1972--1976, 1981--1983, 1985 and 1992. For each year, 10 eggs (usually) were collected from each colony site and analyzed for total mercury (ppm, wet weight). Results indicated that eggs from Lake Ontario displayed the highest mercury levels, mean = 0.28 (s.d. = 0.08) to 0.73 (0.23). Lake Erie typically displayed the lowest egg mercury levels, 0.18 (0.08) to 0.24 (0.11). Overall, mercury levels ranged from 0.12 (0.02) in 1985 to 0.88 (0.23) in 1982 for Channel-Shelter Island (Lake Huron) and Pigeon Island (Lake Ontario), respectively. Generally, all colony sites showed peak mercury levels in 1982. A significant decline in egg mercury levels was observed in six colony sites between 1972 and 1992 and in three colony sites between 1981 and 1992. The mean herring gull egg mercury levels observed in the early and mid 1970s and in 1982 for some colony sites were within the range found which potentially reduces hatchability in other fish-eating bird species.

  12. Contamination of stream fishes with chlorinated hydrocarbons from eggs of Great Lakes salmon

    SciTech Connect

    Merna, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. have been stocked in the Great Lakes where they accumulate body burdens of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The transport of these contaminants to resident communities in spawning streams was studied in two tributaries of Lake Michigan accessible to anadromous spawners and one control tributary blocked to them. No polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, or dieldrin were detected in the sediments or biota of the control stream, or in sediments of the test streams. However, trout Salmo spp. and, to a lesser extent, sculpins Cottus spp. accumulated PCBs and DDT as a result of eating contaminated salmon eggs. Eggs constituted as much as 87% (by weight) of the total stomach contents of trout collected during the salmon spawning season early October to early January. Salmon eggs contained 0.46-9.50 mg PCBs/kg,. and 0.14-1.80 mg DDT/kg. Consumption of eggs varied greatly among individual trout, and there was a strong correlation between numbers of eggs in the stomachs and PCB and DDT concentrations in the fillets.

  13. Egg size and laying order of snowy egrets, great egrets, and black-crowned night-herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Frederick, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    The authors' objective was to describe egg size in relation to laying order for Great Egrets (Casmerodius albus ), Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula ), and Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax ) in a southern Texas colony and Great Egrets in a southern Florida colony. Based on egg-size patterns in other colonial waterbirds and the occurrence of brood reduction in egrets and herons, they predicted that the final egg laid in a clutch would be smaller than those laid earlier.

  14. Determination of hatching date for eggs of black-crowned night-herons, snowy egrets and great egrets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Pendleton, G.W.; Roach, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Flotation of eggs in water and specific gravity of eggs of Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), Snowy Egrets (Egretta thula) and Great Egrets (Casmerodius albus) were evaluated as methods to determine date of hatching. Length of incubation and duration of hatching period were also documented for each species. Although species gravity was a better predictor of hatching date than egg flotation, both techniques were imprecise. The regression between specific gravity and the number of days before hatching differed among clutches, but not among eggs within clutches. Specific gravity of eggs predicted hatching data only to within 3.8 d for Snowy Egrets, adn 4.7 d for Black-crowned Night-Herons and Great Egrets. The mean incubation period was 27.3 d for Great Egrets, 23.7 d for Snowy Egrets and 22.8 d for Black-crowned Night-Herons. For all three species, the A egg (first egg laid) had a longer incubation period than the B or C egg. For all three species, the number of days between hatching of A and B eggs was significantly less (median - 1 d) than between hatching of B and C eggs (median = 2 d).

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues and egg mortality in double-crested cormorants from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, D.E.; Ankley, G.T.; Giesy, J.P.; Ludwig, J.P.; Kurita-Matsuba, H.; Weseloh, D.V.; Ross, P.S.; Bishop, C.A.; Sileo, L.; Stromborg, K.L.; Larson, J.; Kubiak, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated the overall potency of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-containing extracts from double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritis) eggs with an in vitro bioassay system, the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Results from the H4IIE bioassay were strongly correlated with the hatching success of eggs in the colonies, whereas conventional methods of PCB analysis correlated poorly with hatching success of eggs from the same colonies. These observations suggest that even though concentrations of total PCB residues have declined in almost all compartments of the environment, their effects are still being observed. The significance of this observation is that the adverse symptoms presently observed in certain Great Lakes fish-eating waterbird populations do not appear to be caused by some as yet unidentified industrial chemical or chemicals and seem not to be the result of pesticides, but rather to the dioxin-like activity of PCBs. Evidence is presented to suggest that the relative enrichment of the potency of PCBs in the environment may play a role in the persistence of the observed adverse symptoms.

  16. Trapping and dispersion of coral eggs around Bowden Reef, Great Barrier Reef, following mass coral spawning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolanski, Eric; Burrage, Derek; King, Brian

    1989-05-01

    Bowden Reef is a 5 km long kidney-shaped coral reef with a lagoon, located on the mid-shelf of the central region of the Great Barrier Reef. Field studies were carried out, in November 1986, at the time of mass coral spawning, of the water circulation around Bowden Reef and in the surrounding inter-reefal waters. The near-reef water circulation was strongly three-dimensional although the stratification was weak. In calm weather, coral eggs were aggregated in slicks along topographically controlled fronts. In the absence of a longshore current, water and coral eggs were trapped in the lagoon and in a boundary layer around Bowden Reef, by tidally driven recirculating motions. In the presence of a longshore current, some trapping occurred in the lagoon, but the bulk of the coral eggs was advected away from Bowden Reef and reached downstream reefs in a few days. This implies a likelihood of both self-seeding of reefs, and connectivity between reefs.

  17. Effects of breeding habitat (woodland versus urban) and metal pollution on the egg characteristics of great tits (Parus major).

    PubMed

    Hargitai, Rita; Nagy, Gergely; Nyiri, Zoltán; Bervoets, Lieven; Eke, Zsuzsanna; Eens, Marcel; Török, János

    2016-02-15

    In an urban environment, birds are exposed to metals, which may accumulate in their tissues and cause oxidative stress. Female birds may eliminate these pollutants through depositing them into eggs, thus eggs become suitable bioindicators of pollution. In this study, we aimed to analyse whether eggshell spotting pattern, egg volume, eggshell thickness and egg yolk antioxidant (lutein, tocopherol, retinol and selenium) levels were related to the breeding area (woodland versus urban) and the metal levels in the eggshell of a small passerine species, the great tit (Parus major). In the urban habitat, soil and eggshells contained higher concentrations of metals, and soil calcium level was also higher than that in the woodland. Eggshell spotting intensity and egg volume did not differ between eggs laid in the woodland and the urban park, and these traits were not related to the metal levels of the eggshell, suggesting that these egg characteristics are not sensitive indicators of metal pollution. A more aggregated eggshell spotting distribution indicated a higher Cu concentration of the eggshell. We found that eggshells were thinner in the less polluted woodland habitat, which is likely due to the limited Ca availability of the woodland area. Great tit eggs laid in the urban environment had lower yolk lutein, retinol and selenium concentrations, however, as a possible compensation for these lower antioxidant levels, urban females deposited more tocopherol into the egg yolk. It appears that females from different breeding habitats may provide similar antioxidant protection for their offspring against oxidative damage by depositing different specific dietary antioxidants. Egg yolk lutein and retinol levels showed a negative relationship with lead concentration of the eggshell, which may suggest that lead had a negative impact on the amount of antioxidants available for embryos during development in great tits. PMID:26657247

  18. Perfluorinated compound concentrations in great blue heron eggs near St. Paul, Minnesota, USA, in 1993 and 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Custer, Thomas W; Dummer, Paul M; Custer, Christine M; Wu, Qian; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Trowbridge, Annette

    2013-04-01

    A great blue heron (Ardea herodias) colony on Pig's Eye Island on the Mississippi River near St. Paul, Minnesota, USA, is located near several potential perfluorinated compound (PFC) sources. The PFC concentrations in great blue heron eggs reported from a 1993 collection from the Pig's Eye colony were among the highest measured in bird eggs worldwide. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether PFC concentrations in great blue heron eggs at the Pig's Eye colony have changed since 1993. Total PFC concentrations in great blue heron eggs collected at the Pig's Eye colony in 2010 and 2011 (geometric mean=340 and 492 ng/g wet wt) were 60% lower than the 1993 collection (1,015 ng/g wet wt). Among PFCs, perfluoroalkyl sulfonate concentrations were lower and perfluoroalkyl carboxylate concentrations were higher in the 2010 and 2011 collections. Two of 20 (10%) of the eggs analyzed from Pig's Eye in 2010 and 2011 were >1,000 ng PFCs/g wet weight and the maximum PFC value (2,506 ng PFCs/g wet wt) measured in 2010 and 2011 was among the highest PFC concentration reported in bird eggs. These high concentrations are at levels associated with physiological and neurological effects in birds. PMID:23378367

  19. PCBs and DDE in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings from an estuarine PCB superfund site, New Bedford Harbor, MA, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayaraman, Saro; Nacci, Diane E.; Champlin, Denise M.; Pruell, Richard J.; Rocha, Kenneth J.; Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Cantwell, Mark

    2009-01-01

    While breeding tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) have been used as biomonitors for freshwater sites, we report the first use of this species to assess contaminant bioaccumulation from estuarine breeding grounds into these aerial insectivores. Eggs and nestlings were collected from nest boxes in a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated estuary, the New Bedford Harbor Superfund site (NBH, Massachusetts, USA), and a reference salt marsh, Fox Hill (FH, Jamestown, Rhode Island, USA). Sediments, eggs, and nestlings were compared on a ng g−1 wet weight basis for total PCBs and DDE (1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene), metabolite of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane). NBH samples contained high concentrations of PCBs compared to FH for sediment (36,500 and 0.2), eggs (11,200 and 323), and nestlings (16,800 and 26). PCB homologue patterns linked tree swallow contamination to NBH sediment. NBH samples were also contaminated with DDE compared to FH for sediment (207 and 0.9) and nestlings (235 and 30) but not for eggs (526 and 488), suggesting both NBH and nonbreeding ground sources for DDE. The relationships between sediment and tree swallow egg and nestling PCBs were similar to those reported for freshwater sites. Like some highly contaminated freshwater sites, NBH PCB bioaccumulation had little apparent effect on reproductive success.

  20. PCBs and DDE in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings from an estuarine PCB superfund site, New Bedford Harbor, MA, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Saro; Nacci, Diane E; Champlin, Denise M; Pruell, Richard J; Rocha, Kenneth J; Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Cantwell, Mark

    2009-11-01

    While breeding tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) have been used as biomonitors for freshwater sites, we report the first use of this species to assess contaminant bioaccumulation from estuarine breeding grounds into these aerial insectivores. Eggs and nestlings were collected from nest boxes in a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contaminated estuary, the New Bedford Harbor Superfund site (NBH, Massachusetts, USA), and a reference salt marsh, Fox Hill (FH, Jamestown, Rhode Island, USA). Sediments, eggs, and nestlings were compared on a ng g(-1) wet weight basis for total PCBs and DDE (1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene), metabolite of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl)ethane). NBH samples contained high concentrations of PCBs compared to FH for sediment (36,500 and 0.2), eggs (11,200 and 323), and nestlings (16,800 and 26). PCB homologue patterns linked tree swallow contamination to NBH sediment. NBH samples were also contaminated with DDE compared to FH for sediment (207 and 0.9) and nestlings (235 and 30) but not for eggs (526 and 488), suggesting both NBH and nonbreeding ground sources for DDE. The relationships between sediment and tree swallow egg and nestling PCBs were similar to those reported for freshwater sites. Like some highly contaminated freshwater sites, NBH PCB bioaccumulation had little apparent effect on reproductive success. PMID:19924974

  1. Sources and Quantities of Nitrogen Contributing to Eutrophication of Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor Estuary, New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieben, C. M.; Baker, R. J.; Nicholson, R.

    2010-12-01

    Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor (BB-LEH) estuary is among the most valuable recreational and economic natural resources in New Jersey. Historically, it has been important as a fishery and fish spawning area. However, negative effects of excessive nutrients have led the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration to classify this large, shallow water body as highly eutrophic. Although most nitrogen point sources have been eliminated from the watershed, environmental conditions in the estuary continue to deteriorate, and reduction of nonpoint sources is essential to the ecological health of the estuary. A thorough understanding of the relative contributions of nitrogen sources is needed to develop effective management strategies for the estuary and its watershed. This paper presents the results of recent investigations designed to identify sources and loading of nitrogen to BB-LEH estuary. Quantification of nitrogen loads from the most substantial delivery pathways was completed by using available water-quality, hydrologic, and atmospheric-deposition data. Total annual loading from surface water, groundwater discharge, and atmospheric deposition is estimated to be 650,000 kilograms of nitrogen per year (kg N/yr). Surface water contributes 66 percent (431,000 kg N/yr), direct ground-water discharge accounts for 12 percent (78,000 kg N/yr), and atmospheric deposition accounts for 22 percent (141,000 kg N/yr). Results of the studies demonstrate a relation between urban land use and nitrogen inputs and indicate that the most developed areas draining to the estuary--watersheds of the Toms and Metedeconk River Basins-- account for more than 60 percent of the nitrogen load to the BB-LEH estuary from surface-water discharge. In a previous study, loads of nitrogen in stormwater runoff to tributaries of the Toms River were shown to be strongly correlated with percentage of urban land development. In order to fill data gaps and refine the loading estimates, stormwater and

  2. Early Detection Monitoring Approaches for Exotic Aquatic Species in Great Lakes Harbors and Embayments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic invasive species pose a significant ecological and economic threat in the Great Lakes basin. Early detection of invaders is desirable so as to allow for a timely management response, raising the question of how to accomplish this detection in a consistent, cost-effective...

  3. Accumulation of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in the eggs and nestlings of great tits, Parus major.

    PubMed

    Dauwe, Tom; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Covaci, Adrian; Eens, Marcel

    2006-09-01

    Insectivorous birds may be very useful sentinels for local point-source contamination with persistent pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Eggs have been used extensively to monitor lipophilic contaminants, as females can pass contaminants stored in their body tissues into their eggs. Concentrations and profiles in eggs therefore relate to contamination in the female. Because nestlings are raised on food items collected locally, it is expected that the body burden in nestlings would reflect their diet and local pollution levels better than eggs. In this study we compared the accumulation and the profile of PCBs, PBDEs, and OCPs in great tit (Parus major) eggs, nestlings (5-, 10-, and 15-days old), and their food in two study sites. Our results showed that concentrations in great tit eggs were 4 to 6 times higher than those in nestlings. Concentrations in nestling great tits corresponded with concentrations predicted by a bioenergetics-based model. Most of the persistent organic pollutants in 15-day old nestlings were still from maternal origin. The profile of these persistent pollutants in eggs and nestlings also gradually changed during development. With increasing age, the proportion of the most persistent compounds decreased. This study shows that most of the persistent pollutants in fully grown nestlings may still be from maternal origin. For nestlings to be suitable as indicators of local contamination, most of the POPs they accumulate should originate from dietary sources rather than from maternal transfer via the egg. Nestling birds may therefore not be good sentinels for local contamination with persistent pollutants. PMID:16999102

  4. Organochlorine contamination in the Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus): effects on eggshell thickness and egg steroid levels.

    PubMed

    Cortinovis, Serena; Galassi, Silvana; Melone, Giulio; Saino, Nicola; Porte, Cinta; Bettinetti, Roberta

    2008-09-01

    Eggs of the Great Crested Grebe (Podiceps cristatus) were collected from a breeding area on Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy) from 2001 to 2005 in the vicinity of a p,p'-DDT manufacturer, whose production was stopped in 1996. DDT homologue and PCB congener levels were determined and compared to levels in eggs collected from other breeding areas on Lake Maggiore and in a presumably less contaminated area on Lake Garda. Although Lake Garda eggs on average possessed a lower level of p,p'-DDE than Lake Maggiore eggs, they had significantly higher levels of PCBs and could not be used as a reference population for the measurement of eggshell thickness. Nevertheless, a negative linear relationship was found between p,p'-DDE concentration and eggshell thickness for eggs collected from both lakes, indicating a possible causal relationship. Testosterone and 17beta-estradiol concentrations were also determined for eggs collected from both lakes in 2004. Average concentrations of both hormones were the lowest in eggs from Lake Maggiore; however, the very high variability within broods did not result in any significant difference between the lakes. PMID:18644614

  5. Thiamine status of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) eggs in the Great Lakes, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Ketola, H. George; Zehfus, Micheal H.; Crosswait, Jonathan R.; Rinchard, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    During spring 2006–2009, eggs were collected for analysis of total thiamine from gravid rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) captured in each of the Great Lakes and two other waters as references for comparison. Mean standard length (mm ± standard error) of gravid females significantly differed between sample waters, with the Atlantic Ocean population being the longest (189 ± 12.3 mm) and Lake Michigan population the shortest (122 ± 0.3 mm). Mean thiamine concentrations (nmol/g ± standard error) for single-year samples for Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, and Little Clear Pond (New York) were 9.9 ± 0.8, 3.9 ± 0.7, and 8.1 ± 2.3 nmol/g, respectively. Thiamine concentrations for multiple-year samples ranged from 1.1 to 15.6 for Lake Ontario, from 2.6 to 3.3 for Lake Erie, from 5.0 to 9.9 for Lake Superior, and from 10.9 to 13.3 for the Atlantic Ocean (Fore River). Although highly variable within populations and across years, thiamine concentrations in most spawning adults appeared to be adequate in all the waters for the years sampled except for 2006 and 2009 in Lake Ontario and 2009 in Lake Erie.

  6. Perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in great blue heron eggs from Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Kannan, K.; Tao, L.; Saxena, A.R.; Route, B.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007 archived great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs collected from Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, IN, (Indiana Dunes) in 1993 were analyzed for 11 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and 7 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate, the major contributor to total PFC concentrations, were below the toxicity thresholds estimated for bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), but within the toxicity threshold estimated for white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus). The ranking of PBDE congener concentrations by percent concentration (PBDE-47 > -99 > -100 > -153 > -154 > -28 > -183) was consistent with the Penta-PBDE formulation. Total PBDE concentrations in great blue heron eggs from Indiana Dunes were elevated and probably reflect local contamination from highly urbanized and industrialized inputs into Lake Michigan. Polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations were within levels associated with altered reproductive behavior in other avian species and based on trends in other Great Lakes birds are probably higher today.

  7. Temporal and Spatial Variation in the Phytoplankton Community and Relationships with Environmental Conditions in Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor, New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, L.; Belton, T.; Enache, M. D.; Hazen, B.; Charles, D. F.; Buchanan, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor Estuary (BB-LEH) is a shallow, poorly flushed system bordered by a highly developed watershed. It is therefore very susceptible to nutrient enrichment. The Estuary is classified as a highly eutrophic system with episodic recurrences of brown tides and other microalgal blooms, loss of submerged aquatic vegetation, and decline of hard clam stock and harvest. A recent USGS report showed that TN and TP loading from surface runoff increased nearly 90% from 1995 to 2010 in BB-LEH, with the northern most developed embayment accounting for more than 60% of annual load. Understanding the relationships between the ongoing nutrient input and phytoplankton community change is essential for water quality assessment and management in the BB-LEH Estuary. We investigated the phytoplankton community in BB-LEH from September 2011 to August 2013. Monthly and biweekly samples were collected by the NJDEP Water Quality Monitoring program from 9 sites in the first year, and 6 of those same sites in the second year. Analysis of phytoplankton included species identification and enumeration, and calculation of cell density and biovolume. Notable seasonal and spatial variation in species composition and succession were observed in both years. Picoplankton was dominant during summer in both years and appeared more persistent in northern Barnegat Bay (June to October) compared to southern sites (June-August). Brown tide alga, Aureococcus anophagefferens, was detected from southern Barnegat Bay and Little Egg Harbor at cell densities of 105 to 106 L-1, relatively low compared to other picoplankton. Species similarity analysis using 2011-2012 data identified three segments from north to south: northern Barnegat Bay, southern Barnegat Bay and Little Egg Harbor. Noticeable year-to-year differences in phytoplankton assemblages and species succession were observed in all segments. The particular year to year change in phytoplankton in this study may have been

  8. Plasma to egg conversion factor for evaluating polychlorinated biphenyl and DDT exposures in great horned owls and bald eagles.

    PubMed

    Strause, Karl D; Zwiernik, Matthew J; Im, Sook Hyeon; Newsted, John L; Kay, Denise P; Bradley, Patrick W; Blankenship, Alan L; Williams, Lisa L; Giesy, John P

    2007-07-01

    The benefits of nondestructive sampling techniques, such as plasma sampling, to directly measure contaminant exposure levels in at-risk or protected raptor populations are many. However, such assays are generally inconsistent with the most certain source of toxicity reference values, which are based on feeding studies and quantified as dietary or "in ovo" (egg-based) concentrations. An accurate conversion factor to translate nondestructive plasma-based contaminant concentrations to comparable egg-based concentrations will prove valuable to risk assessors investigating the potential effects of chemical exposures to raptors. We used databases describing the concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in great horned owls (GHO; Bubo virginianus) and total PCBs and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Great Lakes region (Michigan, Wisconsin, USA) to develop a relationship to predict concentrations of PCBs and DDE in eggs. To develop a robust predictive relationship, all of the source data included concentrations of both total PCBs and/or DDE for nestling blood plasma and egg samples collected from within discrete active nesting territories and, in most instances, the same nest. The key characteristics (slope and elevation) of each relationship were tested for differences related to species and geographic region. Predicted variability of relationships were examined and compared to variability associated with natural systems. The results of statistical testing indicate that applying the conversion factors between species (GHO to bald eagle) and among geographic regions yields predicted egg concentrations that are not statistically dissimilar and are within the natural variability observed for residue concentrations among eggs of raptors within species and region. PMID:17665679

  9. An Analysis of the New Jersey Public School District School Bond Referendum Process: A Historical Case Study of the Egg Harbor Township School District Bond Referendum of 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents a historical case study of the Egg Harbor Township School District bond referendum that passed with an exceptionally high 92 percent of votes in January 2005. The methodology used in this study resulted in both an examination of the components of the New Jersey Public School District bond referendum process as well as an…

  10. Newly discovered methoxylated polybrominated diphenoxybenzenes have been contaminants in the Great Lakes herring gull eggs for thirty years.

    PubMed

    Chen, Da; Letcher, Robert J; Gauthier, Lewis T; Chu, Shaogang; McCrindle, Robert

    2012-09-01

    We recently reported the discovery and identification of novel methoxylated polybrominated diphenoxybenzenes (MeO-PBDPBs) in herring gulls eggs from the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. We presently investigated the temporal changes (1982-2010) in MeO-PBDPB concentrations and congener patterns, as well as chemical tracers of diet (ratios of carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes), in egg pool homogenates from five selected colony sites across the Great Lakes. Egg pool homogenates from the Channel-Shelter (C-S) Island (Lake Huron) contained ∑MeO-PBDPB concentrations orders of magnitude greater than those from other colonies, suggesting potential point contamination sources nearby. In the C-S Island egg pools, concentrations increased from the initial study year (31 ng/g wet weight) and peaked around the late 1990s, followed by a general decline until 2010. Over the period, concentrations generally increased in eggs from Fighting Island (Lake Erie), Toronto Harbour (Lake Ontario) and Big Sister Island (Lake Michigan) colonies, whereas the levels in Agawa Rock (Lake Superior) declined. Although other factors likely exist, changes over time in the carbon and nitrogen isotope tracers reflected a shift of the gull diet from aquatic to more terrestrial origins, and suggested this diet shift partially accounted for the temporal changes of ∑MeO-PBDPB levels in eggs from most colonies. The ratio of Br(6)- to Br(5)-MeO-PBDPB congeners generally decreased over time in the colonies at Channel-Shelter Island, Fighting Island and Agawa Rock. This suggested that Br(5)- versus Br(6)-MeO-PBDPB congeners and/or possibly their nonmethoxylated and higher brominated precursors may have been more abundant in diets of terrestrial origin. Notably, these MeO-PBDPB congeners are not "emerging" brominated substances, but rather "recently discovered" contaminants since, as of 2011, ∑MeO-PBDPB concentrations have been constantly in the range of 30-100 ng/g ww for at least the last 30

  11. Application of the FluEgg model to predict transport of Asian carp eggs in the Saint Joseph River (Great Lakes tributary)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Tatiana; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, P. Ryan; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2015-01-01

    The Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator (FluEgg) is a three-dimensional Lagrangian model that simulates the movement and development of Asian carp eggs until hatching based on the physical characteristics of the flow field and the physical and biological characteristics of the eggs. This tool provides information concerning egg development and spawning habitat suitability including: egg plume location, egg vertical and travel time distribution, and egg-hatching risk. A case study of the simulation of Asian carp eggs in the Lower Saint Joseph River, a tributary of Lake Michigan, is presented. The river hydrodynamic input for FluEgg was generated in two ways — using hydroacoustic data and using HEC-RAS model data. The HEC-RAS model hydrodynamic input data were used to simulate 52 scenarios covering a broad range of flows and water temperatures with the eggs at risk of hatching ranging from 0 to 93% depending on river conditions. FluEgg simulations depict the highest percentage of eggs at risk of hatching occurs at the lowest discharge and at peak water temperatures. Analysis of these scenarios illustrates how the interactive relation among river length, hydrodynamics, and water temperature influence egg transport and hatching risk. An improved version of FluEgg, which more realistically simulates dispersion and egg development, is presented. Also presented is a graphical user interface that facilitates the use of FluEgg and provides a set of post-processing analysis tools to support management decision-making regarding the prevention and control of Asian carp reproduction in rivers with or without Asian carp populations.

  12. Brominated flame retardants and organochlorines in the European environment using great tit eggs as a biomonitoring tool.

    PubMed

    Van den Steen, Evi; Pinxten, Rianne; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Covaci, Adrian; Barba, Emilio; Carere, Claudio; Cichoń, Mariusz; Dubiec, Anna; Eeva, Tapio; Heeb, Philipp; Kempenaers, Bart; Lifjeld, Jan T; Lubjuhn, Thomas; Mänd, Raivo; Massa, Bruno; Nilsson, Jan-Ake; Norte, Ana Cláudia; Orell, Markku; Podzemny, Petr; Sanz, Juan José; Senar, Juan Carlos; Soler, Juan José; Sorace, Alberto; Török, János; Visser, Marcel E; Winkel, Wolfgang; Eens, Marcel

    2009-02-01

    Large-scale studies are essential to assess the emission patterns and spatial distribution of organohalogenated pollutants (OHPs) in the environment. Bird eggs have several advantages compared to other environmental media which have previously been used to map the distribution of OHPs. In this study, large-scale geographical variation in the occurrence of OHPs, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), was investigated throughout Europe using eggs of a terrestrial residential passerine species, the great tit (Parus major). Great tit eggs from 22 sampling sites, involving urban, rural and remote areas, in 14 European countries were collected and analysed (5-8 eggs per sampling site). The environmentally most important congeners/compounds of the analysed pollutants were detectable in all sampling locations. For PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs, no clear geographical contamination pattern was found. Sum PCB levels ranged from 143 ng/g lipid weight (lw) to 3660 ng/g lw. As expected, PCB concentrations were significantly higher in the sampled urban compared to the remote locations. However, the urban locations did not show significantly higher concentrations compared to the rural locations. Sum PBDEs ranged from 4.0 ng/g lw to 136 ng/g lw. PBDEs were significantly higher in the urbanized sampling locations compared to the other locations. The significant, positive correlation between PCB and PBDE concentrations suggests similar spatial exposure and/or mechanisms of accumulation. Significantly higher levels of OCPs (sum OCPs ranging from 191 ng/g lw to 7830 ng/g lw) were detected in rural sampling locations. Contamination profiles of PCBs, PBDEs and OCPs differed also among the sampling locations, which may be due to local usage and contamination sources. The higher variance among sampling locations for the PCBs and OCPs, suggests that local contamination sources are more important for the PCBs and OCPs

  13. Mercury and selenium contamination in waterbird eggs and risk to avian reproduction at Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Josh T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Isanhart, John P.; Herring, Garth; Vaughn, Sharon; Cavitt, John F.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Browers, Howard; Cline, Chris; Vest, Josh

    2015-01-01

    The wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem are recognized regionally, nationally, and hemispherically for their importance as breeding, wintering, and migratory habitat for diverse groups of waterbirds. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge is the largest freshwater component of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem and provides critical breeding habitat for more than 60 bird species. However, the Great Salt Lake ecosystem also has a history of both mercury and selenium contamination, and this pollution could reduce the health and reproductive success of waterbirds. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of mercury and selenium contamination to birds breeding within Great Salt Lake, especially at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, and to identify the waterbird species and areas at greatest risk to contamination. We sampled eggs from 33 species of birds breeding within wetlands of Great Salt Lake during 2010 ̶ 2012 and focused on American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) for additional studies of the effects of contaminants on reproduction.

  14. PLANAR CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS (PCHS) IN COLONIAL FISH-EATING WATERBIRD EGGS FROM THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reproductive impairment of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritis) and Caspian terns Hydroprogne caspia) has recently been observed in the Great Lakes of North America. lanarchlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs), which include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated...

  15. Contaminant concentrations and biomarker response in great blue heron eggs from 10 colonies on the upper Mississippi River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Hines, R.K.; Melancon, M.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Wickliffe, J.K.; Bickham, J.W.; Martin, J.W.; Henshel, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    In 1993, great blue heron (Ardea herodias; GBH) eggs were collected from 10 colonies on the upper Mississippi River (UMR). They were then artificially incubated until pipping and analyzed for mercury, selenium, and organochlorines. Livers of embryos were analyzed for hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) and four measures of oxidative stress. Brains were measured for asymmetry and blood was measured for the coefficient of variation of DNA (DNA VC). Organochlorine concentrations were generally low (geometric mean DDE = 1.3 ug/g wet weight; polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB] = 3.0 ug/g; 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro- -dioxin [TCDD] = 11.5 pg/g). Eggshell thickness was negatively correlated with DDE concentrations. Mercury (geometric mean = 0.8 ug/g dry weight) and selenium (3.1 ug/g dry weight) concentrations in GBH eggs were within background levels. EROD activity was not correlated with total PCBs, TCDD or toxic equivalents (TEQs) based on the relative contribution of individual PCB congeners, dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) to calculated TEQs. Three of the four measures of oxidative stress were correlated with mercury concentrations. Twenty of 43 (47%) embryo brains were asymmetrical and the embryos with asymmetrical brains had higher EROD concentrations in the liver and higher DNA CV in the blood than embryos with symmetrical brains.

  16. Contaminant concentrations and biomarker response in great blue heron eggs from 10 colonies on the upper Mississippi River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Hines, R.K.; Melancon, M.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Wickliffe, J.K.; Bickham, J.W.; Martin, J.W.; Henshel, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    In 1993, great blue heron (Ardea herodias; GBH) eggs were collected from 10 colonies on the upper Mississippi River (UMR). They were then artificially incubated until pipping and analyzed for mercury, selenium, and organochlorines. Livers of embryos were analyzed for hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity and four measures of oxidative stress. Brains were measured for asymmetry and blood was measured for the coefficient of variation of DNA (DNA CV). Organochlorine concentrations were generally low (geometric mean DDE = 1.3 I?g/g wet weight; polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB] = 3.0 I?g/g; 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD] = 11.5 pg/g). Eggshell thickness was negatively correlated with DDE concentrations. Mercury (geometric mean = 0.8 I?g/g dry weight) and selenium (3.1 I?g/g dry weight) concentrations in GBH eggs were within background levels. EROD activity was not correlated with total PCBs, TCDD, or toxic equivalents (TEQs), based on the relative contribution of individual PCB congeners, dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) to total calculated TEQs. Three of the four measures of oxidative stress were correlated with mercury concentrations. Twenty of 43 (47%) embryo brains were asymmetrical and the embryos with asymmetrical brains had higher EROD concentrations in the liver and higher DNA CV in the blood than embryos with symmetrical brains.

  17. Contaminant concentrations and biomarker response in great blue heron eggs from 10 colonies on the upper Mississippi River, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, T.W.; Hines, R.K.; Melancon, M.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Wickliffe, J.K.; Bickham, J.W.; Martin, J.W.; Henshel, D.S.

    1997-02-01

    In 1993, great blue heron (Ardea herodias; GBH) eggs were collected from 10 colonies on the upper Mississippi River (UMR). They were then artificially incubated until pipping and analyzed for mercury, selenium, and organochlorines. Livers of embryos were analyzed for hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROS) activity and four measures of oxidative stress. Brains were measured for asymmetry and blood was measured for the coefficient of variation of DNA (DNA CV). Organochlorine concentrations were generally low (geometric mean DDE = 1.3 {micro}g/g wet weight; polychlorinated biphenyl [PCB] = 3.0 {micro}g/g; 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD] = 11.5 pg/g). Eggshell thickness was negatively correlated with DDE concentrations. Mercury (geometric mean = 0.8 {micro}g/g dry weight) and selenium (3.1 {micro}g/g dry weight) concentrations in GBH eggs were within background levels. EROD activity was not correlated with total PCBs, TCDD, or toxic equivalents (TEQs), based on the relative contribution of individual PCB congeners, dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) to total calculated TEQs. Three of the four measures of oxidative stress were correlated with mercury concentrations. Twenty of 43 (47%) embryo brains were asymmetrical and the embryos with asymmetrical brains had higher EROD concentrations in the liver and higher DNA CV in the blood than embryos with symmetrical brains.

  18. Spatial and temporal comparisons of legacy and emerging flame retardants in herring gull eggs from colonies spanning the Laurentian Great Lakes of Canada and United States.

    PubMed

    Su, Guanyong; Letcher, Robert J; Moore, Jeremy N; Williams, Lisa L; Martin, Pamela A; de Solla, Shane R; Bowerman, William W

    2015-10-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes basin of North America, an increasing number of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) are being investigated, including legacy and replacement flame retardants (FRs). In the present study, 14 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 23 non-PBDEs halogenated FRs (NPHFRs) and 16 organophosphate ester FRs (OPE-FRs) were analyzed in 100 individual eggs collected in 2012 and 2013 and in 15 egg pools of herring gulls collected in 2012 from 20 colonies across the entire Laurentian Great Lakes basin. For CEC-FRs in eggs from all colonies, 14 PBDEs, 12 NPHFRs and 9 OPE-FRs were quantifiable in at least one of the 115 analyzed samples. The mean sum PBDE (Σ14PBDE) concentrations ranged from 244 to 657 ng/g wet weight (ww), and on average were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than the Σ12NPHFR concentrations (13.8-35.6 ng/g ww), and 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than Σ9OPE-FR concentrations (0.31-2.14 ng/g ww). Mean Σ14PBDE and sum of syn- and anti-Dechlorane Plus isomer (Σ2DDC-CO) concentrations in eggs from colonies within Laurentian Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) were in most cases greater than in eggs from nearby colonies outside of AOCs. Comparing CEC-FR concentrations in eggs collected in 2012-2013 to those previously measured in eggs collected approximately 7 years earlier (2006 and 2008) showed that Σ7PBDE (BDE-28, -47, -100, -99, -154,-153 and -183) mean concentrations in eggs from 6 colonies were approximately 30% less than they were in eggs from the same colonies from the earlier time period, whereas 3 current-use FR (BDE-209, HBCDD and Σ2DDC-CO) concentrations were significantly greater (p<0.05) than previously measured. Between 2006 and 2013 there were significant changes in individual PBDE patterns for BDE-71, -138, -153, -203, -206 and -207. Among all of the examined CEC-FRs, concentrations of Σ4PBDE (BDE-47, -99, -100 and -153) and HBCDD in gull eggs from all colonies were greater than or comparable to their lowest

  19. Retrospective analysis of organophosphate flame retardants in herring gull eggs and relation to the aquatic food web in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America.

    PubMed

    Greaves, Alana K; Letcher, Robert J; Chen, Da; McGoldrick, Daryl J; Gauthier, Lewis T; Backus, Sean M

    2016-10-01

    With the phase-out and regulation of some flame retardant chemicals, the production and usage of organophosphate triester flame retardants (OPFRs) has increased in recent years. In the present study, 14 OPFRs (either chlorinated, brominated or non-halogenated) were analyzed in egg pools of 10-13 individual herring gull eggs from five colonial nesting sites for 11 years spanning 1990-2010, (for a total of n=55 egg pools) in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America (Chantry Island, Fighting Island, Agawa Rocks, Toronto Harbour and Gull Island). OPFR profiles varied slightly between colony sites and collection years. For all five sites tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) were detected, while triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) was only quantifiable in eggs from Chantry Island and Gull Island collected in 2008 and 2010. For the 2010 egg pools, the ΣOPFR concentrations were generally low and ranged from 2.02 to 6.69 ng/g wet weight (ww). ΣOPFR concentrations in 2010 were significantly higher (p<0.05) than they were between 1990 and 2004 (4.06 vs. 1.55 ng/g ww, respectively). In a pilot examination of Great Lakes aquatic food webs, 2010-collected alewife and rainbow smelt (major herring gull fish prey) and lake trout from western Lake Erie and Ontario, only contained TBOEP at low to sub ng/g ww concentrations. These results demonstrate that low to sub-ppb concentrations of at least three OPFRs, TCIPP, TCEP and TBOEP, have been persistent in herring gull eggs from the Great Lakes for at least the past 20 years, probably bioaccumulate mainly via the fish diet, and are transferred to the eggs of exposed herring gulls. PMID:27322497

  20. Superstorm Sandy-related Morphologic and Sedimentologic Changes in an Estuarine System: Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor Estuary, New Jersey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miselis, J. L.; Ganju, N. K.; Navoy, A.; Nicholson, R.; Andrews, B.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the well-recognized ecological importance of back-barrier estuaries, the role of storms in their geomorphic evolution is poorly understood. Moreover, the focus of storm impact assessments is often the ocean shorelines of barrier islands rather than the exchange of sediment from barrier to estuary. In order to better understand and ultimately predict short-term morphologic and sedimentologic changes in coastal systems, a comprehensive research approach is required but is often difficult to achieve given the diversity of data required. An opportunity to use such an approach in assessing the storm-response of a barrier-estuary system occurred when Superstorm Sandy made landfall near Atlantic City, New Jersey on 29 October 2012. Since 2011, the US Geological Survey has been investigating water circulation and water-quality degradation in Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor (BBLEH) Estuary, the southern end of which is approximately 25 kilometers north of the landfall location. This effort includes shallow-water geophysical surveys to map the bathymetry and sediment distribution within BBLEH, airborne topo-bathymetric lidar surveys for mapping the shallow shoals that border the estuary, and sediment sampling, all of which have provided a recent picture of the pre-storm estuarine geomorphology. We combined these pre-storm data with similar post-storm data from the estuary and pre- and post-storm topographic data from the ocean shoreline of the barrier island to begin to understand the response of the barrier-estuary system. Breaches in the barrier island resulted in water exchange between the estuary and the ocean, briefly reducing residence times in the northern part of the estuary until the breaches were closed. Few morphologic changes in water depths greater than 1.5 m were noted. However, morphologic changes observed in shallower depths along the eastern shoreline of the estuary are likely related to overwash processes. In general, surficial estuarine sediments

  1. Egg size and laying order of snowy egrets, great egrets, and black-crowned night-herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Frederick, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    The nesting biology of the family Ardeidae (bitterns, herons, and egrets) has been intensively studied (e.g., Owen 1960, Milstein et al. 1970, Werschkul 1979), but egg size in relation to laying order bas not received attention. The last egg laid in gull and tern clutches is generally smaller than preceding eggs (e.g., Parsons 1970, Nisbet 1978). The relative size of the final egg in a clutch decreases with increased body size among bird species and this relationship may be correlated with an increased brood-reduction strategy (Slagsvold et al. 1984). Relative egg size could be an important component to brood reduction, because egg size can affect subsequent survival of young (Parsons 1970, Nisbet 1978, Lundberg and Vaisanen 1979).

  2. Perfluorinated sulfonate and carboxylate compounds and precursors in herring gull eggs from across the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America: Temporal and recent spatial comparisons and exposure implications.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Robert J; Su, Guanyong; Moore, Jeremy N; Williams, Lisa L; Martin, Pamela A; de Solla, Shane R; Bowerman, William W

    2015-12-15

    Chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in the basin of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America include per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) classified as perfluoroalkyl acids. We investigated several PFASs, and specifically 13 C4-C16 perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs), 4 (C4, C6, C8 and C10) perfluorinated sulfonates (PFSAs), perfluoro-4-ethylcyclohexane sulfonate (PFEtCHxS) and selected precursors (e.g. perfluorobutane sulfonamide and perfluorooctane sulfonamide) in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs collected in 2012-2013 from 19 Canadian and U.S. colony sites across the Great Lakes. C6, C8 and C10 PFSAs, PFEtCHxS, and C7-14 and C16 PFCAs were quantifiable at >97% of the 114 egg samples. PFEtCHxS concentrations ranged from n.d. to 3.1ng/g ww (highest in Lake Michigan eggs). Mean Σ4PFSA (92 to 97% perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS)) and Σ9PFCA concentration ranges were 44 to 740 and 4.8 to 118ng/g ww, respectively. Σ4PFSA showed a clear increasing concentration trend from the northwest to the southeast colonies. Also, Σ4PFCA to Σ9PFSA concentration ratios in gull eggs were greater in eggs from Lake Superior relative to colonies in the other lakes. PFOS concentrations in some egg samples were greater than some of the known lowest observed effect concentrations (LOECs) measured and reported in captive bird model studies. This study showed the increasing complexity of PFAS-CECs, and emphasized the importance of continuing monitoring of bioaccumulative PFAS in Great Lakes herring gulls. PMID:26318684

  3. Perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates and precursor compounds in herring gull eggs from colonies spanning the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America.

    PubMed

    Gebbink, Wouter A; Hebert, Craig E; Letcher, Robert J

    2009-10-01

    Environmentally important perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates, as well as per- and polyfluorinated precursor compounds including several sulfonamides, telomer acids, and alcohols were determined in individual herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs collected (in 2007) from 15 colonies located at Canadian and some American sites across the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. The pattern of perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs; C6, C8, C10 chain lengths) was dominated by PFOS (> 90% of sigmaPFSA concentration) regardless of collection location. Concentrations of sigmaPFSA were significantly (p < 0.03) higher in eggs from Middle Island (western Lake Erie; 507 +/- 47 ng/g ww), Toronto Harbour (484 +/- 49 ng/g ww), and Strachan Island (486 +/- 59 ng/g ww) (Lake Ontario) compared to eggs from colonies on Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron. Perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) ranging in chain length from C8 to C15 were detected in the eggs, with PFUnA and PFTrA being the dominant compounds. PFOA and PFNA were more abundant in the sigmaPFCA in eggs from Lake Superior and Michigan colonies, and PFUnA and longer chain PFCAs were more abundant in the sigmaPFCA in eggs from Lake Erie and Ontario colonies. In contrast to sigmaPFSA, the highest concentrations of sigmaPFCA were found in eggs from Double Island, Lake Huron (113 +/- 12 ng/g ww) followed by eggs from colonies on Lakes Erie and Ontario. Among the PFOS or PFCA precursor compounds assessed (6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 fluorotelomer alcohols and acids and PFOSA), none were detectable in eggs from any sampling location. The exception was PFOSA (average concentration < 1 ng/g ww), which suggests that PFOS in the gulls and subsequently in their eggs may be due, in part, to biotransformation of PFOSA to PFOS in the gull and/or in their diet and food web. The accumulation of PFSA and PFCA from mainly aquatic dietary sources was suggested, and were highly lake- and/ or colony-dependent especially showing a northwest and southeast

  4. The Egg Joust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-01-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops, the egg walk, and the great Canadian egg race, as well as the mousetrap cars, have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate students. Students at…

  5. Hydraulic and water-quality data collection for the investigation of Great Lakes tributaries for Asian carp spawning and egg-transport suitability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    While hydraulic data from all four rivers indicated settling of eggs is possible in some locations, all four rivers also exhibited sufficient temperatures, water-quality characteristics, turbulence, and transport times outside of settling zones for successful suspension and development of Asian carp eggs to the hatching stage before the threat of settlement. These observed data indicate that these four Great Lakes tributaries have sufficient hydraulic and water-quality characteristics to support successful spawning and recruitment of Asian carps. The data indicate that with the right temperature and flow conditions, river reaches as short as 25 km may allow Asian carp eggs sufficient time to develop to hatching. Additionally, examining the relation between critical shear velocity and mean velocity, egg settling appears to take place at mean velocities in the range of 15–25 centimeters per second, a much lower value than is generally cited in the literature. A first-order estimate of the minimum transport velocity for Asian carp eggs in a river can be obtained by using mean flow depth and river substrate data, and curves were constructed to show this relation. These findings would expand the number of possible tributaries suitable for Asian carp spawning and contribute to the understanding of how hydraulic and water-quality information can be used to screen additional rivers in the future.

  6. Hydraulic and water-quality data collection for the investigation of Great Lakes tributaries for Asian carp spawning and egg-transport suitability

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Jackson, P. Ryan

    2013-01-01

    If the invasive Asian carps (bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) migrate to the Great Lakes, in spite of the efforts to stop their advancement, these species will require the fast-flowing water of the Great Lakes tributaries for spawning and recruitment in order to establish a growing population. Two Lake Michigan tributaries (the Milwaukee and St. Joseph Rivers) and two Lake Erie tributaries (the Maumee and Sandusky Rivers) were investigated to determine if these tributaries possess the hydraulic and water-quality characteristics to allow successful spawning of Asian carps. To examine this issue, standard U.S. Geological Survey sampling protocols and instrumentation for discharge and water-quality measurements were used, together with differential global positioning system data for georeferencing. Non-standard data-processing techniques, combined with detailed laboratory analysis of Asian carp egg characteristics, allowed an assessment of the transport capabilities of each of these four tributaries. This assessment is based solely on analysis of observed data and did not utilize the collected data for detailed transport modeling. All four tributaries exhibited potential settling zones for Asian carp eggs both within the estuaries and river mouths and within the lower 100 kilometers (km) of the river. Dams played a leading role in defining these settling zones, with the exception of dams on the Sandusky River. The impoundments created by many of the larger dams on these rivers acted to sufficiently decelerate the flows and allowed the shear velocity to drop below the settling velocity for Asian carp eggs, which would allow the eggs to fall out of suspension and settle on the bottom where it is thought the eggs would perish. While three rivers exhibited these settling zones upstream of the larger dams, not all settling zones are likely to have such effects on egg transport. The Milwaukee River exhibited only a short

  7. Predation by ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) on fish eggs in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James

    1998-01-01

    Ruffe (Gymnocephalus cernuus) were introduced to North America in the Duluth, Minnesota--Superior, Wisconsin harbor, which is the westernmost point on the Laurentian Great Lakes. The species proliferated in the harbor and became the subject of research which has gradually revealed certain characteristics of the biology and population growth of the ruffe. In this study, ruffe in Southwestern Lake Superior were found to have eaten benthic organisms and eggs of lake herring (Coregonus artedii). Overwinter predation by ruffe on eggs of lake herring and of other fall spawning Great Lakes fishes might pose a substantial new source of overwinter mortality.

  8. Concentrations, loads, and yields of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor watershed, New Jersey, 1989-2011, at multiple spatial scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Ronald J.; Wieben, Christine M.; Lathrop, Richard G.; Nicholson, Robert S.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations, loads, and yields of nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus) were calculated for the Barnegat Bay-Little Egg Harbor (BB-LEH) watershed for 1989–2011 at annual and seasonal (growing and nongrowing) time scales. Concentrations, loads, and yields were calculated at three spatial scales: for each of the 81 subbasins specified by 14-digit hydrologic unit codes (HUC-14s); for each of the three BB-LEH watershed segments, which coincide with segmentation of the BB-LEH estuary; and for the entire BB-LEH watershed. Base-flow and runoff values were calculated separately and were combined to provide total values. Available surface-water-quality data for all streams in the BB-LEH watershed for 1980–2011 were compiled from existing datasets and quality assured. Precipitation and streamflow data were used to distinguish between water-quality samples that were collected during base-flow conditions and those that were collected during runoff conditions. Base-flow separation of hydrographs of six streams in the BB-LEH watershed indicated that base flow accounts for about 72 to 94 percent of total flow in streams in the watershed. Base-flow mean concentrations (BMCs) of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) for each HUC-14 subbasin were calculated from relations between land use and measured base-flow concentrations. These relations were developed from multiple linear regression models determined from water-quality data collected at sampling stations in the BB-LEH watershed under base-flow conditions and land-use percentages in the contributing drainage basins. The total watershed base-flow volume was estimated for each year and season from continuous streamflow records for 1989–2011 and relations between precipitation and streamflow during base-flow conditions. For each year and season, the base-flow load and yield were then calculated for each HUC-14 subbasin from the BMCs, total base-flow volume, and drainage area. The watershed

  9. Fatty acid profiles of great tit ( Parus major) eggs differ between urban and rural habitats, but not between coniferous and deciduous forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, Alejandra; Andersson, Martin N.; Wang, Hong-Lei; Salmón, Pablo; Watson, Hannah; Burdge, Graham C.; Isaksson, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    Early-life nutrition is an important determinant of both short- and long-term performance and fitness. The avian embryo develops within an enclosed package of nutrients, of which fatty acids (FA) are essential for many aspects of development. The FA composition of yolk depends on maternal nutrition and condition prior to egg formation, which may be affected by the external environment. To test if maternal environment affects yolk FA composition, we investigated whether the FA composition of great tit ( Parus major) egg yolks differed between urban and rural habitats, and between deciduous and coniferous habitats. The results reveal differences in FA composition between eggs laid in urban and rural habitats, but not between eggs from the coniferous and deciduous habitats. To a large extent, this difference likely reflects dietary differences associated with urban habitats rather than dominating vegetation type. Specifically, urban yolks contained lower proportions of both ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA), which are important for chick development. We also found a positive association between the proportion of saturated fatty acids and laying date, and a negative association between the proportion of ω-6 PUFA and clutch size. Given that urbanization is expanding rapidly, future studies should investigate whether factors such as anthropogenic food in the urban environment underlie these differences and whether they impair chick development.

  10. Fatty acid profiles of great tit (Parus major) eggs differ between urban and rural habitats, but not between coniferous and deciduous forests.

    PubMed

    Toledo, Alejandra; Andersson, Martin N; Wang, Hong-Lei; Salmón, Pablo; Watson, Hannah; Burdge, Graham C; Isaksson, Caroline

    2016-08-01

    Early-life nutrition is an important determinant of both short- and long-term performance and fitness. The avian embryo develops within an enclosed package of nutrients, of which fatty acids (FA) are essential for many aspects of development. The FA composition of yolk depends on maternal nutrition and condition prior to egg formation, which may be affected by the external environment. To test if maternal environment affects yolk FA composition, we investigated whether the FA composition of great tit (Parus major) egg yolks differed between urban and rural habitats, and between deciduous and coniferous habitats. The results reveal differences in FA composition between eggs laid in urban and rural habitats, but not between eggs from the coniferous and deciduous habitats. To a large extent, this difference likely reflects dietary differences associated with urban habitats rather than dominating vegetation type. Specifically, urban yolks contained lower proportions of both ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA), which are important for chick development. We also found a positive association between the proportion of saturated fatty acids and laying date, and a negative association between the proportion of ω-6 PUFA and clutch size. Given that urbanization is expanding rapidly, future studies should investigate whether factors such as anthropogenic food in the urban environment underlie these differences and whether they impair chick development. PMID:27300022

  11. PCBs and DDE in Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) Eggs and Nestlings from an Estuarine PCB Superfund Site, New Bedford Harbor, MA, U.S.A.

    EPA Science Inventory

    While breeding tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) have been used as biomonitors for freshwater sites, we report the first use of this species to assess the transfer of breeding ground contaminants from an estuarine system. Eggs and nestlings were collected from nest boxes locat...

  12. Egg allergy.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Andrew S

    2007-12-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most common food allergies in infants and young children. The great majority is not life-threatening and management involves exclusion of egg from the diet and regular review with the expectation that the majority of children will outgrow the allergy by school age. Judgment is required as to when the dietary elimination of egg is no longer required. This decision may be helped by demonstrating loss of sensitivity by skin prick or specific IgE testing and in some cases a supervised food challenge. Particular issues in management arise with more severe, potentially life-threatening reactions, with immunization with vaccines prepared in eggs, with the diagnosis of egg hypersensitivity as a cause of delayed exacerbations of eczema which can be non-IgE mediated, and in deciding whether a child can be allowed to ingest small amounts of cooked egg through egg-containing foods while continuing to avoid raw egg or larger amounts of whole egg. Cases which illustrate these issues are presented. PMID:18078424

  13. A model approach to project the start of egg laying of Great Tit ( Parus major L.) in response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chmielewski, Frank-M.; Blümel, Klaus; Scherbaum-Heberer, Carina; Koppmann-Rumpf, Bettina; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to select a phenological model that is able to calculate the beginning of egg laying of Great Tit ( Parus major) for both current and future climate conditions. Four models (M1-M4) were optimised on long-term phenological observations from the Ecological Research Centre Schlüchtern (Hessen/Germany). Model M1 was a common thermal time model that accumulates growing degree days (GDD) on an optimised starting date t 1. Since egg laying of Great Tit is influenced not only by air temperature but also by photoperiod, model M1 was extended by a daylength term to give M2. The other two models, M3 and M4, correspond to M1 and M2, but t 1 was intentionally set to 1 January, in order to consider already rising temperatures at the beginning of the year. A comparison of the four models led to following results: model M1 had a relatively high root mean square error at verification (RMSEver) of more than 4 days and can be used only to calculate the start of egg laying for current climate conditions because of the relatively late starting date for GDD calculation. The model failed completely if the starting date was set to 1 January (M3). Consideration of a daylength term in models M2 and M4 improved the performance of both models strongly (RMSEver of only 3 days or less), increased the credibility of parameter estimation, and was a precondition to calculate reliable projections in the timing of egg laying in birds for the future. These results confirm that the start of egg laying of Great Tit is influenced not only by air temperature, but also by photoperiod. Although models M2 and M4 both provide comparably good results for current climate conditions, we recommend model M4-with a starting date of temperature accumulation on 1 January-for calculating possible future shifts in the commencement of egg laying. Our regional projections in the start of egg laying, based on five regional climate models (RCMs: REMO-UBA, ECHAM5-CLM, HadCM3-CLM, WETTREG-0

  14. Eggs and Egg Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The total U. S. egg production in 2009 was 78.5 billion table eggs, with 24 billion broken for the production of egg products. Shell eggs have many uses in homes, restaurants, and institutions, either alone or as ingredients in other foods. Egg products are also popular with consumers and are used i...

  15. Establishment Patterns of Non-native Fishes: Lessons from the Duluth-Superior Harbor and Lower St. Louis River, an Invasion-prone Great Lakes Freshwater Estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    The St. Louis River freshwater estuary which drains into western Lake Superior and includes the Duluth-Superior (MN-WI) harbor, has a long history of non-native fish introductions. From 1985 to 2002, seven new fishes were identified in the estuary, an unprecedented rate of non-n...

  16. INTEGRATED APPROACH TO A STUDY OF CONTAMINANTS AND TOXICITY IN MONROE HARBOR (RIVER RAISIN), MICHIGAN, A GREAT LAKES AREA OF CONCERN: SUMMARY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical-specific and toxicity based approaches were used to assess effluent and receiving water quality of Monroe Harbor, Michigan. Toxicity was defined and measured by bioassay techniques using water both from control sites and points of impact. Inhibition of bacterial decompos...

  17. Atlas of contaminants in the eggs of fish-eating colonial birds of the Great Lakes, 1993--1997: Volume 2 -- Accounts by chemical. Technical report series number 322

    SciTech Connect

    Pekarik, C.

    1998-01-01

    During 1993--97, the Canadian Wildlife Service collected 1,252 eggs from 32 fish-eating colonial water bird sites throughout the Great Lakes. The work was part of a monitoring program to understand the temporal and spatial trends of environmental contaminant levels in Great Lakes biota. Eggs of four species (double-crested cormorant, great black-backed gull, herring gull, and ring-billed gull) were sampled and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, chlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dioxins and furans, and lipid and moisture. This volume contains contaminant data for all four species summarized by compound.

  18. Concentrations and spatial patterns of organic contaminants in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs at United States and binational Great Lakes Areas of Concern, 2010–2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    Tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, were sampled across the Great Lakes basin in 2010 through 2015 to provide a system-wide assessment of current exposure to organic contaminants. The results provide information identified as critical by regulators to assess the “bird or animal deformity or reproductive problems” beneficial use impairment. Eggs were collected from 69 sites across all 5 Great Lakes, including 27 Areas of Concern (AOCs), some with multiple sites, and 10 sites not listed as an AOC. Concentrations of organic contaminants in eggs were quantified and compared with background and reproductive effect thresholds. Approximately 30% of AOCs had geometric mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at or below average background exposure (0.34 μg/g wet wt). Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was minimal, and only 3 of 27 AOCs and 1 non-AOC had geometric mean concentrations that exceeded background for tree swallows (96 ng/g wet wt). Concentrations of both PCBs and PBDEs were 10 to 20 times below the lower limit associated with impaired hatching success. In contrast, geometric mean concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and furan (PCDD-F) toxic equivalents (TEQs) at the Saginaw River and Bay AOC and Midland, Michigan, USA (a non-AOC site), exceeded the lower limit for hatching effects (181 pg/g PCDD-F TEQs). The rest of the sites had geometric mean concentrations of PCDD-F TEQs below background levels (87 pg/g PCDD-F TEQs). Other organic contaminants, including p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, mirex, heptachlor, and chlordane, were at or below background or adverse effect concentrations.

  19. Atlas of contaminants in the eggs of fish-eating colonial birds of the Great Lakes, 1993--1997: Volume 1 -- Accounts by location. Technical report series number 321

    SciTech Connect

    Pekarik, C.

    1998-01-01

    During 1993--97, the Canadian Wildlife Service collected 1,252 eggs from 32 fish-eating colonial water bird sites throughout the Great Lakes. The work was part of a monitoring program to understand the temporal and spatial trends of environmental contaminant levels in Great Lakes biota. Eggs of four species (double-crested cormorant, great black-backed gull, herring gull, and ring-billed gull) were sampled and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, chlorinated benzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dioxins and furans, and lipid and moisture. This volume contains contaminant data for all four species summarized by sample size and by location, as well as data on non-coplanar PCB congener patterns in herring gull eggs.

  20. Microbial Populations Associated with Restricted Shell Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Restricted shell eggs are found in all shell egg processing facilities. The manner with which companies handle them can vary greatly. In most cases, restricted eggs are diverted to further processing. Some facilities do not rewash eggs, choosing instead to include dirts in restricted eggs. Eggs ...

  1. Temporal and geographic variation of organochlorine residues in eggs of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) (1981-1991) and comparisons to trends in the herring gull (Larus argentatus) in the Great Lakes basin in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Bishop, C A; Ng, P; Norstrom, R J; Brooks, R J; Pettit, K E

    1996-11-01

    Common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina) eggs from five sites within the Great Lakes basin, and from a reference site in north-central Ontario were collected during 1981-1991 and analyzed for four organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including six non-ortho PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The pattern of geographic variation was consistent over time in eggs with Cootes Paradise/ Hamilton Harbour and Lynde Creek eggs on Lake Ontario containing the highest concentrations and most PCDD and PCDF congeners among all sites. Eggs from Cranberry Marsh on Lake Ontario contained organochlorine concentrations similar to those from Big Creek Marsh and Rondeau Provincial Park on Lake Erie except PCDDs and PCDFs which occurred at higher concentrations and more congeners were detectable in Cranberry Marsh eggs. Concentrations of most contaminants in turtle eggs from Algonquin Park, the reference site, have significantly decreased in the past decade. Dieldrin concentrations, however, increased in Algonquin Park eggs from 1981 to 1989. Significant decreases in concentrations of hexachlorobenzene, mirex and PCBs occurred between turtle eggs collected in 1981/84 and 1989 at Big Creek Marsh and Rondeau Provincial Park, whereas there was no significant change in concentrations of p,p'-DDE and dieldrin. In Lake Ontario eggs, concentrations of PCBs, p,p'-DDE and dieldrin increased significantly between 1984 and 1991. Differences were also found in patterns of temporal variation in contamination between herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and snapping turtles which were attributed to differences in diet. Elevated and continued contamination in turtle eggs from Lake. Ontario is probably due to a combination of local sources of chemicals and consumption of large migratory fish that spawn in wetlands inhabited by these turtles. PMID:8975824

  2. [Pearl Harbor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jennifer, Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of "Loblolly Magazine" was written in observance of the 50th anniversary of the U.S. entrance into World War II. The publication features interviews conducted by East Texas high school students with Clarence Otterman, one of the few survivors of the crew of the USS Arizona, which was bombed during the attack on Pearl Harbor, and with a…

  3. The Egg Joust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosworth, Wade A.; Wilkinson, John

    2008-09-01

    The use of eggs and mousetraps in physics is commonplace in most American high school physics classrooms. The egg drops,1,2 the egg walk,3 and the great Canadian egg race,4 as well as the mousetrap cars,5 have all been well-documented in this journal. These types of collaborative, competitive projects are a great way to motivate6 students. Students at Greendale High School in suburban Milwaukee, WI, participate in an annual egg-jousting competition that combines the energy of a mousetrap with the delicateness of an egg. For this evening event, students gather in costume for a night of medieval intrigue where parents and friends witness the peril of two eggs colliding while atop their trusty steed.

  4. Chance findings about early holocene tidal marshes of Grays Harbor, Washington, in relation to rapidly rising seas and great subduction earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phipps, James B.; Hemphill-Haley, Eileen; Atwater, Brian F.

    2015-01-01

    The puzzles posed by these findings include: (1) How did the marshes manage to endure centuries of relative sea-level rise that likely approached 1 cm/yr on average? (2) Did the marshes also endure subsidence that accompanied great thrust earthquakes on the Cascadia Subduction Zone? (3) Was their eventual drowning triggered by a Cascadia earthquake of unusually large size, or can the drowning be explained by sea-level rise that included a jump from drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz?

  5. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Egg Allergy KidsHealth > For Parents > Egg Allergy Print A ... labels carefully. It's work, but it's important. About Egg Allergy Eggs in themselves aren't bad, but ...

  6. Variation, levels and profiles of organochlorines and brominated flame retardants in great tit (Parus major) eggs from different types of sampling locations in Flanders (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Van den Steen, Evi; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Covaci, Adrian; Dauwe, Tom; Pinxten, Rianne; Neels, Hugo; Eens, Marcel

    2008-02-01

    Small-scale geographical variation in the occurrence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was investigated using the eggs of a terrestrial residential songbird species, the great tit (Parus major). In addition, we investigated the influence of the type of sampling location on the presence of these pollutants. To achieve this, 10 different sampling locations in Flanders (Belgium) were classified into 3 groups based on the extent of urbanisation, industrialisation and agriculture. The higher variance among sampling locations for the levels and profiles of PCBs and OCPs, suggests that local contamination sources are more important for the PCBs and OCPs compared to the PBDEs. Levels of PCBs and PBDEs were significantly higher in the industrialised sampling locations compared to the other locations. Sum PCB and sum PBDE levels reached up to 6050 and 79 ng/g lipid weight, respectively. PCBs and PBDEs were highly positively correlated for all groups, suggesting similar exposure pathways and/or mechanisms of accumulation. Significantly higher levels of OCPs (sum OCPs up to 2683 ng/g lipid weight) were detected in the rural sampling locations situated in a residential area. This suggests that local historical usage of OCPs by inhabitants may be an important source of contamination in Flanders. Contamination profiles differed also among the sampling locations. The rural sampling locations had a higher contribution of lower brominated BDE congeners, whereas the industrialised locations had a higher contribution of higher brominated congeners. The differences in contamination profiles among the sampling locations are probably due to differences in exposure. In conclusion, our results showed that the characteristics of a sampling location influence both the levels and profiles of PCBs, OCPs and PBDEs. PMID:17765970

  7. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Egg Allergy KidsHealth > For Kids > Egg Allergy Print A ... with no problem after that. What Is an Egg Allergy? You probably know that some people are ...

  8. Contaminant residues in snapping turtle (Chelydra s. serpentina) eggs from the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River basin (1999 to 2000).

    PubMed

    Ashpole, S L; Bishop, C A; Brooks, R J

    2004-08-01

    To determine temporal and geographic variations of environmentally persistent pollutants, the concentrations of several contaminants were measured in snapping turtle eggs in 1999 and 2000. Contaminants included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non- ortho PCBs, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and furans, organochlorine pesticides, and total mercury. Egg collection sites within the St. Lawrence Area of Concern (AOC) and the Territory of Akwesasne included Turtle Creek, Snye Marsh, and Raquette River. Additional contaminated sites were Gray's Creek (within the St. Lawrence AOC boundary), Coote's Paradise (Hamilton Harbour AOC), and the Territory of Walpole Island (St. Clair AOC). Reference sites were Lake Sasajewun, Algonquin Provincial Park in central Ontario, and in close proximity to the St. Lawrence Area AOC, Hoasic Creek and Cooper Marsh. Eggs from clutches collected from Akwesasne contained the highest concentrations of contaminants. Mean total PCB concentrations for Akwesasne clutches ranged from 1,900 to 61,000 ng/g wet weight (w.w.), which was 360 to 3,100 times higher than the mean concentrations at the reference sites. The high levels of contaminants in eggs, from sites within Akwesasne, were consistent with trends reported in the past and reflect the influence of the proximity of heavy industry. Current contaminant concentrations in clutches from Coote's Paradise are comparable with those recorded in 1989 and 1990 but are 200 to 800 times lower than concentrations reported in 1984 and 1988. Eggs from Lake Sasajewun contained relatively low contaminant levels, which is consistent with atmospheric deposition. Our results support that snapping turtles are good indicators of temporal and geographic contaminant trends. PMID:15386150

  9. CHARLOTTE HARBOR IR, 2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 2002 Charlotte Harbor Implementation Review (IR) summarizes the progress and challenges ahead for the Charlotte Harbor National Estuary Program (CHNEP). The implementation review report requires seven components: Status of CCMP implementation (programmatic progress); Environm...

  10. Balancing Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Theory predicts that an egg-shaped body should rest in stable equilibrium when on its side, balance vertically in metastable equilibrium on its broad end and be completely unstable on its narrow end. A homogeneous solid egg made from wood, clay or plastic behaves in this way, but a real egg will not stand on either end. It is shown that this…

  11. Dynamic egg color mimicry.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Daniel; Šulc, Michal; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Honza, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the function of eggshell phenotypes, from solar protection through mimicry, have implicitly assumed that eggshell appearance remains static throughout the laying and incubation periods. However, recent research demonstrates that egg coloration changes over relatively short, biologically relevant timescales. Here, we provide the first evidence that such changes impact brood parasite-host eggshell color mimicry during the incubation stage. First, we use long-term data to establish how rapidly the Acrocephalus arundinaceus Linnaeus (great reed warbler) responded to natural parasitic eggs laid by the Cuculus canorus Linnaeus (common cuckoo). Most hosts rejected parasitic eggs just prior to clutch completion, but the host response period extended well into incubation (~10 days after clutch completion). Using reflectance spectrometry and visual modeling, we demonstrate that eggshell coloration in the great reed warbler and its brood parasite, the common cuckoo, changes rapidly, and the extent of eggshell color mimicry shifts dynamically over the host response period. Specifically, 4 days after being laid, the host should notice achromatic color changes to both cuckoo and warbler eggs, while chromatic color changes would be noticeable after 8 days. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the perceived match between host and cuckoo eggshell color worsened over the incubation period. These findings have important implications for parasite-host coevolution dynamics, because host egg discrimination may be aided by disparate temporal color changes in host and parasite eggs. PMID:27516874

  12. Egg Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... out. If it's not treated, anaphylaxis can be life threatening. Egg allergy usually first shows up when kids are very young. Most kids outgrow an egg allergy by the time they're 5 years old, but some people stay allergic. The viruses for the flu vaccine are grown in chicken ...

  13. FEEDING EXPERIMENTS WITH BACTERIUM PULLORUM. THE TOXICITY OF INFECTED EGGS.

    PubMed

    Rettger, L F; Hull, T G; Sturges, W S

    1916-04-01

    The problem of eradicating ovarian infection in the domestic fowl assumes still greater importance than heretofore, in the light of data recently acquired. Not only is it of great significance to eliminate the permanent carriers of Bacterium pullorum from all flocks of fowls from the standpoint of successful poultry breeding, but also because they constitute a possible source of danger to man. Eggs which harbor Bacterium pullorum in the yolk in large numbers may produce abnormal conditions, when fed, not only in young chicks, but in adult fowls, young rabbits, guinea pigs, and kittens. The toxicity for young rabbits is most pronounced, the infection usually resulting in the death of the animals. In kittens the most prominent symptoms are those of severe food-poisoning with members of the paratyphoid group of bacteria. The possibility of infected eggs causing serious disturbances in young children and in the sick and convalescent of all ages must therefore receive serious consideration. Ovarian infection of fowls is very common throughout this country. Hence, a large proportion of the marketed eggs are infected with Bacterium pullorum. When such eggs are allowed to remain in nests under broody hens, or in warm storage places, for comparatively few hours, they contain large numbers of the organism. Soft boiling, coddling, and frying on one side only do not necessarily render the yolks free from viable bacteria; therefore, eggs which have gone through these processes may, like raw eggs, be the cause of serious disturbances in persons who are particularly susceptible to such influences, and especially to infants. That no well authenticated instances of egg-poisoning of this kind are on record does not warrant the assumption that there have been no cases. The etiology of infantile stomach and intestinal disturbances is as yet too little understood; in fact, it may be said that many of these disorders have no known cause, and almost as much may be said regarding gastro

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND DEVELOPMENTAL ABNORMALITIES IN EGGS AND HATCHLINGS OF THE COMMON SNAPPING TURTLE (CHELYDRA SERPENTINA SERPENTINA) FROM THE GREAT LAKES-ST. LAWRENCE RIVER BASIN (1989-91). (R827102)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    During 1989-91, we assessed developmental abnormalities in embryos and hatchlings from eggs of the common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina serpentina). Eggs were collected and artificially incubated from eight sites in Ontario, Canada and Akwesasne/...

  15. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…

  16. In an Egg Shell: Egg to Chick to Egg.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon Electric Company, Chula Vista, CA.

    The goals of this program include enabling students to learn about the anatomy of an avian egg, egg formation, bird embryo development, and the process of egg incubation. This guide is designed to accompany the hands-on experience of incubation and hatching chicken eggs and is organized in three sections. The teaching materials section includes…

  17. Great Lakes: Great Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6) "Watering"; (7) "Soil Erosion by Water"; (8) "Soil…

  18. Port and Harbor Security

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, T; Guthmuller, H; DeWeert, M

    2004-12-15

    Port and Harbor Security is a daunting task to which optics and photonics offers significant solutions. We are pleased to report that the 2005 Defense and Security Symposium (DSS, Orlando, FL) will include reports on active and passive photonic systems operating from both airborne and subsurface platforms. In addition to imaging techniques, there are various photonic applications, such as total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF), which can be used to ''sniff'' for traces of explosives or contaminants in marine. These non-imaging technologies are beyond the scope of this article, but will also be represented at DSS 2005. We encourage colleagues to join our technical group to help us to make our ports and harbors safer and more secure.

  19. GREAT LAKES CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sediments are a significant problem in the Great Lakes basin. Although discharges of toxic substances to the Great Lakes have been reduced in the last 20 years, persistent high concentrations of contaminants in the bottom sediments of rivers and harbors have raised...

  20. Trichuris trichiura egg (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the classical appearance of the Trichuria (whipworm) egg. The eggs are highly infectious. After a person eats contaminated food, the worms hatch from the eggs and live in the intestine, causing vomiting and ...

  1. Six-egg clutches of the Mountain Plover, Charadrius montanus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinsmore, S.J.; Knopf, F.L.

    1999-01-01

    Three six-egg clutches of the Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus) represent the largest clutch size ever reported for this declining Great Plains shorebird. Clutch size in this species is normally three eggs, and six-egg clutches probably represent the laying of a second clutch in the nest by the same female.

  2. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a…

  3. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds

    PubMed Central

    Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U.; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V.; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E.; Shawkey, Matthew D.; Hauber, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin’s brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins’ rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection. PMID:26038720

  4. Using 3D printed eggs to examine the egg-rejection behaviour of wild birds.

    PubMed

    Igic, Branislav; Nunez, Valerie; Voss, Henning U; Croston, Rebecca; Aidala, Zachary; López, Analía V; Van Tatenhove, Aimee; Holford, Mandë E; Shawkey, Matthew D; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-01-01

    The coevolutionary relationships between brood parasites and their hosts are often studied by examining the egg rejection behaviour of host species using artificial eggs. However, the traditional methods for producing artificial eggs out of plasticine, plastic, wood, or plaster-of-Paris are laborious, imprecise, and prone to human error. As an alternative, 3D printing may reduce human error, enable more precise manipulation of egg size and shape, and provide a more accurate and replicable protocol for generating artificial stimuli than traditional methods. However, the usefulness of 3D printing technology for egg rejection research remains to be tested. Here, we applied 3D printing technology to the extensively studied egg rejection behaviour of American robins, Turdus migratorius. Eggs of the robin's brood parasites, brown-headed cowbirds, Molothrus ater, vary greatly in size and shape, but it is unknown whether host egg rejection decisions differ across this gradient of natural variation. We printed artificial eggs that encompass the natural range of shapes and sizes of cowbird eggs, painted them to resemble either robin or cowbird egg colour, and used them to artificially parasitize nests of breeding wild robins. In line with previous studies, we show that robins accept mimetically coloured and reject non-mimetically coloured artificial eggs. Although we found no evidence that subtle differences in parasitic egg size or shape affect robins' rejection decisions, 3D printing will provide an opportunity for more extensive experimentation on the potential biological or evolutionary significance of size and shape variation of foreign eggs in rejection decisions. We provide a detailed protocol for generating 3D printed eggs using either personal 3D printers or commercial printing services, and highlight additional potential future applications for this technology in the study of egg rejection. PMID:26038720

  5. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  6. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  7. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  8. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  9. 7 CFR 1250.306 - Commercial eggs or eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Commercial eggs or eggs. 1250.306 Section 1250.306... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Egg Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1250.306 Commercial eggs or eggs. Commercial eggs or eggs...

  10. Yeast and Egg Contamination of Shell Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poultry and eggs are often contaminated with microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts, and molds. Bacteria such as Salmonella cause illness in human who eat eggs contaminated with them, particularly if the eggs are pooled, improperly refrigerated, and eaten raw or undercooked. Other bacteria such a...

  11. EGGS and SCIENCE in Katmandu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Georgeanne; Lonsdale, Stephen M.

    1986-01-01

    Provides examples of science experiments and demonstrations that are centered on the theme of eggs. Activity explanations include: (1) the floating egg; (2) egg-in-the-bottle; (3) walking on eggs; and (4) egg balancing. (ML)

  12. Organochlorine contaminant exposure and reproductive success of Black-Crowned Night Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) nesting in Baltimore Harbor, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; McGowan, P.C.; Hatfield, J.S.; Hong, C.-S.; Chu, S.G.

    2001-01-01

    The declining size of the Baltimore Harbor black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) colony has been hypothesized to be linked to PCB exposure. In 1998, a 'sample egg' was collected from 65 black-crowned night heron nests (each containing > three eggs) for contaminant analysis, and the remaining eggs in these 65 nests, plus four two-egg nests, were monitored for hatching and fledging success. Eggs were also collected from 12 nests at Holland Island, a reference site in southern Chesapeake Bay. Samples were analyzed for 26 organochlorine pesticides and metabolites, and 145 PCB congeners. Pesticide and metabolite concentrations, including p,p'-DDE, were well below thresholds associated with adverse reproductive effects at both sites. Average concentration of total PCBs, 12 Ah receptor-active PCB congeners, and toxic equivalents in eggs from Baltimore Harbor were greater (up to 35- fold) than that observed in Holland Island samples. Overall nest success at the Baltimore Harbor heronry was estimated by the Mayfield method to be 0.74, and the mean number of young fledged/hen was 2.05, which is within published productivity estimates for maintaining a stable black-crowned night heron population. Using logistic regression, no significant relationships were found between organochlorine contaminant concentrations in sample eggs and hatching, fledging, or overall reproductive success. Processes other than poor reproduction (e.g., low post- fledging survival, emigration, habitat degradation) may be responsible for the declining size of the Baltimore Harbor colony.

  13. Production characteristics of Hy-Line W36 laying hens hatched from white and tinted eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggshell color can greatly influence visual appeal of table eggs and within the U.S., table eggs are normally sorted and marked according to eggshell color to maximize consumer appeal. Table egg producers have noted increased incidence of “off- color” or discolored (DC) eggs derived from breeder he...

  14. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.115 Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the...

  15. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.115 Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the...

  16. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.115 Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the...

  17. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.115 Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the...

  18. 21 CFR 160.115 - Liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquid eggs. 160.115 Section 160.115 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.115 Liquid eggs. (a) Liquid eggs, mixed eggs, liquid whole eggs, mixed whole eggs are eggs of the...

  19. Effects of sediment remediation on reproductive function in English sole from Eagle Harbor, WA

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.L.; Sol, S.Y.; Lomax, D.P.; Myers, M.S.; Collier, T.K.

    1995-12-31

    Eagle Harbor, near Bainbridge Island in Puget Sound, WA is currently designated as an EPA Superfund site because of high levels of creosote-derived PAHs in the sediments. In 1986--88, the authors conducted a series of studies evaluating reproductive function in English sole from Eagle Harbor. These studies showed that only about 60% of adult female sole from the Eagle Harbor site entered vitellogenesis, in comparison to 80--90% of females of comparable age and size from minimally contaminated Puget Sound sites. Eagle Harbor fish also exhibited reduced spawning success and lowered egg viability in comparison to fish from unpolluted sites. Both types of reproductive function were associated with depressed plasma levels of reproductive steroids (e.g. 17-B estradiol) in Eagle Harbor fish. In September of 1993 the EPA began placement of a cap of uncontaminated sediment over the most contaminated portions of Eagle Harbor, as a means of providing clean habitat for benthic organisms and reducing risk from the contaminants contained in the sediments. Since the time of capping, the authors have been monitoring reproductive development in English sole and related benthic flatfish to determine whether this restoration will result in improved reproductive success in the resident flatfish of Eagle Harbor. Preliminary results indicate that the proportion of maturing females has increased to approximately 75%. Other reproductive parameters, including plasma steroid hormone concentration and ovarian atresia, are currently being assessed. Nonetheless, the initial data suggest that sediment remediation is associated with improved reproductive function in Eagle Harbor bottom fish.

  20. Mosquito, egg raft (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Mosquitoes of the Culex species lay their eggs in the form of egg rafts that float in ... feed on micro-organisms before developing into flying mosquitoes. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control ...

  1. Experimental shifts in egg-nest contrasts do not alter egg rejection responses in an avian host-brood parasite system.

    PubMed

    Hauber, Mark E; Aidala, Zachary; Igic, Branislav; Shawkey, Matthew D; Moskát, Csaba

    2015-09-01

    Obligate brood parasitic birds exploit their hosts to provide care for unrelated young in the nest. Potential hosts can reduce the cost of parasitism by rejecting foreign eggs from the nest. Observational, comparative, and experimental studies have concluded that most hosts use the coloration and patterning of eggshells to discriminate between own and foreign eggs in the nest. However, an alternative hypothesis is that birds use the colour contrasts between eggshells and the nest lining to identify parasitic eggs (egg-nest contrast hypothesis). In support of this hypothesis, we found that the avian perceivable chromatic contrasts between dyed eggs and unmanipulated nest linings significantly and negatively covaried with the rejection rates of different dyed eggs of the great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus, a frequently parasitized host of the common cuckoo Cuculus canorus. To experimentally test whether egg-nest contrasts influence rejection, we reciprocally dyed both eggs and the nest lining of this host species with one of two colours: orange and green. Contrary to the egg-nest contrast hypothesis, host rejection patterns in response to dyed eggs were not altered by dyeing nests, relative to unmanipulated control eggs and nests. In turn, experimental egg colour was the only significant predictor of egg rejection rate. Our results demonstrate that egg-nest contrast is a collateral, not a causal factor in egg rejection, and confirm the conclusions of previous studies that hosts can rely on the parasitic egg's appearance itself to recognize the foreign egg in the nest. PMID:26118673

  2. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  3. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  4. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  5. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  6. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  7. 33 CFR 117.720 - Great Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Channel. 117.720 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.720 Great Channel. The draw of the County of Cape May bridge, mile 0.7, between Stone Harbor and Nummy Island, shall open on signal...

  8. 33 CFR 117.720 - Great Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Great Channel. 117.720 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.720 Great Channel. The draw of the County of Cape May bridge, mile 0.7, between Stone Harbor and Nummy Island, shall open on signal...

  9. 33 CFR 117.720 - Great Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Great Channel. 117.720 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.720 Great Channel. The draw of the County of Cape May bridge, mile 0.7, between Stone Harbor and Nummy Island, shall open on signal...

  10. 33 CFR 117.720 - Great Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Channel. 117.720 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.720 Great Channel. The draw of the County of Cape May bridge, mile 0.7, between Stone Harbor and Nummy Island, shall open on signal...

  11. 33 CFR 117.720 - Great Channel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Great Channel. 117.720 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New Jersey § 117.720 Great Channel. The draw of the County of Cape May bridge, mile 0.7, between Stone Harbor and Nummy Island, shall open on signal...

  12. Number of eggs in egg-noodles.

    PubMed

    Bottari, Emilio; De Acutis, Rodolfo; Festa, Maria Rosa

    2002-01-01

    The official method to determine the number of eggs present in egg-noodles is the digitonin method. By applying this method the total content of sterols is determined and expressed as total sterols. The official method is time consuming, not very accurate and its performance is very complicated. Its results are not very reliable either because the composition of the wheat is not considered. In this paper some markers are proposed to verify the correct ratio between eggs and triticum durum (TD) semolina used to prepare egg-noodles. Markers are selected ratios between sterols and FAME. The lipid extract is trans-esterified and injected into a gas chromatograph. The ratio between the areas of the selected components gives the markers. This method is proposed to substitute or alternate the official method because is more accurate and time saving. PMID:11993278

  13. Odd-Boiled Eggs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  14. Spinning eggs and ballerinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction between the egg and the surface on which it spins.

  15. The three eggs experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin Bülbül, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The three eggs experiment concerns 37 pre-service science teachers’ predictions about the impact shapes of three uncooked eggs dropped from different heights. This experiment looks at energy transformation from potential to kinetic energy, where the smaller parts of the egg shell spread far from the center of the impact. This experience encouraged the pre-service science teachers to use their familiar models, such as a fried egg, omelet, puddle, dropping or explosions, to explain their predictions. These models from everyday life presented can be used as a tool to explain unfamiliar phenomena.

  16. Eggs: good or bad?

    PubMed

    Griffin, Bruce A

    2016-08-01

    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes. PMID:27126575

  17. Hen's Egg Allergy.

    PubMed

    Urisu, Atsuo; Kondo, Y; Tsuge, I

    2015-01-01

    Egg allergy is one of the most frequent food allergies in infants and young children. The prevalence of egg allergy is estimated to be between 1.8 and 2% in children younger than 5 years of age. The reactions are mainly mediated by IgE and partially by non-IgE or are a mix of both types. Egg white contains more than 20 different proteins and glycoproteins. Ovomucoid (Gal d 1), ovalbumin (Gal d 2), conalbumin (ovotransferrin) (Gal d 3) and lysozyme (Gal d 4) have been identified as major allergens in hen's egg. Alpha-livetin (Gal d 5) is thought to be a main egg yolk allergen responsible for bird-egg syndrome. The diagnosis of egg allergy is based on history taking, antigen-specific IgE measurements, such as the skin prick test, in vitro antigen-specific blood IgE tests and histamine release tests, and oral food challenges. The measurements of specific IgE to ovomucoid and its linear epitopes are more useful in the diagnosis of heated egg allergy and in the prediction of prognosis. Currently, the management of egg allergy is essentially minimal elimination based on the correct identification of the causative allergen. Although oral immunotherapy is promising as a tolerance induction protocol, several questions and concerns still remain, predominantly regarding safety. PMID:26022872

  18. Real scale environmental monitoring of zoonotic protozoa and helminth eggs in biosolid samples in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Taís Rondello; Franco, Regina Maura Bueno

    2016-09-01

    Biosolid is the product of the activated sludge treatment system and its final disposition is subject of ongoing discussion as this residue can therefore harbor a great number and variety of pathogens. This study was aimed to (1) monitor the presence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in biosolid samples from a treatment plant in Campinas, SP, Brazil, (2) observe Giardia cyst wall morphological integrity in treated samples using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and (3) verify the presence and viability of helminth eggs. Cysts were present in 33.3 % of the samples, whereas oocysts were detected in 8.3 %. Viable Ascaris sp. Toxocara sp. and similar to Trichuris sp. eggs were found through the use of Mexican Official Norm. Results demonstrate the difficulties inherent in working with biosolid as factors such as temperature, ionic strength and pH influenced the recovery of cysts and oocysts. Pores and ruptures were not observed in cyst wall visualized by SEM following 45 days of exposure to sunlight, only minimal morphological changes. These observations emphasize both the importance of adequate treatment of sewage sludge and the need to develop appropriate techniques for the detection of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in this type of sample. This is the first time that a study was done in a real scale for biosolid samples in determining the presence of pathogenic protozoa as Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Brazil, and also observed minimal cyst wall damage after sunlight treatment. PMID:27605758

  19. DIETARY BAKED EGG ACCELERATES RESOLUTION OF EGG ALLERGY IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Stephanie A.; Sampson, Hugh A.; Sicherer, Scott H.; Noone, Sally; Moshier, Erin L.; Godbold, James; Nowak-Wȩgrzyn, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background Baked egg is tolerated by a majority of egg-allergic children. Objective To characterize immunologic changes associated with ingestion of baked egg and evaluate the role that baked egg diets plays in the development of tolerance to regular egg. Methods Egg-allergic subjects who tolerated baked egg challenge incorporated baked egg into their diet. Immunologic parameters were measured at follow-up visits. A comparison group strictly avoiding egg was used to evaluate the natural history of the development of tolerance. Results Of the 79 subjects in the intent-to-treat group followed for a median of 37.8 months, 89% now tolerate baked egg and 53% now tolerate regular egg. Of 23 initial baked egg-reactive subjects, 14 (61%) subsequently tolerated baked egg and 6 (26%) now tolerate regular egg. Within the initially baked egg-reactive group, subjects with persistent reactivity to baked egg had higher median baseline egg white (EW)-specific IgE levels (13.5 kUA/L) than those who subsequently tolerated baked egg (4.4 kUA/L; P=0.04) and regular egg (3.1 kUA/L, P=0.05). In subjects ingesting baked egg, EW-induced SPT wheal diameter and EW-, ovalbumin-, and ovomucoid-specific IgE levels decreased significantly, while ovalbumin- and ovomucoid-specific IgG4 levels increased significantly. Subjects in the per-protocol group were 14.6 times more likely to develop regular egg tolerance than subjects in the comparison group (P < 0.0001), and they developed tolerance earlier (median 50.0 versus 78.7 months; P<0.0001). Conclusion Initiation of a baked egg diet accelerates the development of regular egg tolerance compared to strict avoidance. Higher serum EW-specific IgE level is associated with persistent baked and regular egg reactivity, while initial baked egg reactivity is not. PMID:22846751

  20. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  1. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen...

  2. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen...

  3. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  4. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen...

  5. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  6. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  7. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen...

  8. 21 CFR 160.180 - Egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Egg yolks. 160.180 Section 160.180 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.180 Egg yolks. (a) Egg yolks, liquid egg yolks, yolks, liquid yolks are yolks of eggs of the domestic hen...

  9. 21 CFR 160.110 - Frozen eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen eggs. 160.110 Section 160.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.110 Frozen eggs. (a) Frozen eggs, frozen whole eggs, frozen mixed eggs is the food prepared by...

  10. Mercury in eggs of aquatic birds, Lake St. Clair-1973

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stendell, R.C.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Klaas, E.E.; Elder, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Eggs from four species of aquatic birds inhabiting waterways of the Lake St. Clair region were collected in 1973 and analyzed for mercury. Species analyzed were mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), common terns (Sterna hirundo), black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), and great egrets (Casmerodius albus). Mallard eggs contained relatively low residue levels, less than 0.05-0.26 ppm, and common tern eggs contained the highest residues, ranging up to 1.31 ppm. Mercury levels in the eggs were appreciably lower than those in the same species in 1970. The declines are attributed to the 1970 restrictions placed on industrial discharges of mercury into the St. Clair and Detroit Rivers.

  11. Natural remediation in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Kamrin, Michael A.; Hickey, James P.

    2000-01-01

    Overall, the existence of stricter environmental laws during the last 30 years and a reduction in the manufacturing base in the Great Lakes has resulted in improvement in conditions in harbors, rivers, and nearshore waters. Problems remain, such as the inability to dredge certain harbors and remove sediments because of lack of disposal facilities for contaminated sediments. Because of the wide extent of of contaminated sediments in the Great Lakes, much work remains to be done to document the condition of contaminated areas and the degree to which remediation of these areas is occurring from biotic and abiotic natural processes.

  12. Egg Bungee Jump!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Mike; Brand, Lance

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors present an egg bungee jumping activity. This activity introduces students to ways that engineers might apply calculations of failure to meet a challenge. Students are required to use common, everyday materials such as rubber bands, string, plastic bags, and eggs. They will apply technological problem solving, material…

  13. Spinning Eggs and Ballerinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    Measurements are presented on the rise of a spinning egg. It was found that the spin, the angular momentum and the kinetic energy all decrease as the egg rises, unlike the case of a ballerina who can increase her spin and kinetic energy by reducing her moment of inertia. The observed effects can be explained, in part, in terms of rolling friction…

  14. Food Crystalization and Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food Crystalization and Eggs Deana R. Jones, Ph.D. USDA Agricultural Research Service Egg Safety and Quality Research Unit Athens, Georgia, USA Deana.Jones@ars.usda.gov Sugar, salt, lactose, tartaric acid and ice are examples of constituents than can crystallize in foods. Crystallization in a foo...

  15. Eggs and Foodborne Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Table eggs and eggshells may be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms, although the only significant threat to human health related to eggs in recent history has been from the bacterium Salmonella. Salmonella is currently the leading cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the U.S. with 16 ...

  16. 33 CFR 207.480 - Lake Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation. 207.480 Section 207.480 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation. (a) All boats, barges, and...

  17. 33 CFR 207.480 - Lake Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation. 207.480 Section 207.480 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation. (a) All boats, barges, and...

  18. 33 CFR 207.480 - Lake Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation. 207.480 Section 207.480 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation. (a) All boats, barges, and...

  19. 33 CFR 207.480 - Lake Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation. 207.480 Section 207.480 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation. (a) All boats, barges, and...

  20. 33 CFR 207.480 - Lake Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation. 207.480 Section 207.480 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... Huron, Mich.; Harbor of refuge, Harbor Beach; use and navigation. (a) All boats, barges, and...

  1. Great Apes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  2. Comparisons of egg quality traits, egg weight loss and hatchability between striped and normal duck eggs.

    PubMed

    Yuan, J; Wang, B; Huang, Z; Fan, Y; Huang, C; Hou, Z

    2013-01-01

    1. The egg quality of striped and normal duck eggs was compared to determine why striped eggs show decreased hatchability. A total of 430 eggs, obtained from a Pekin duck breeder flock aged 50-65 wks, were used in three experiments. The eggs were weighed and assigned randomly to measure egg quality traits, egg weight (EW) loss and hatchability during incubation. 2. There were no significant differences between egg types in terms of egg shape index, eggshell strength and thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk colour, weight of the eggshell with or without membranes, calcium, phosphorus, copper and manganese contents in the eggshell (with the inner and outer membranes or without the inner membrane), albumen weight, dry matter of albumen, crude protein (CP) of thick albumen and pH of the thick albumen. 3. The weight of eggshells with membranes, weight of thick albumen and CP of thin albumen in striped eggs were lower than those in normal eggs. 4. The thin albumen in striped eggs was heavier than that in normal eggs. The pH of the thin albumin in striped egg was significantly higher than that in normal eggs. 5. There were no significant differences in EW loss during incubation or duckling weight between striped and normal eggs. However, the hatchability of striped eggs was lower. 6. The lower weight of the eggshell inner membrane and thick albumen, lower CP content and higher pH in the thin albumen of striped eggs might contribute to lower hatchability. PMID:23647192

  3. Production characteristics of Hy-Line W36 laying hens hatched from white and tinted eggs.

    PubMed

    Kim, E J; Purswell, J L; Evans, J D; Branton, S L

    2014-08-01

    Eggshell color can greatly influence visual appeal of table eggs, and within the United States, table eggs are normally sorted and marked according to eggshell color to maximize consumer appeal. Recently, table egg producers have noted increased incidence of "off-color" or tinted (TT) eggs derived from white egg laying breeder hens. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the production characteristics and resultant eggshell color of laying hens hatched from different colored eggs. Hy-Line W36 eggs were obtained from a commercial breeder operation and eggshell color was assessed with a colorimeter to separate eggs into groups of tinted (TT) and nontinted (NT) eggs before incubation. Treatment groups were placed into separate hatching trays. At hatching, chicks from each treatment group were individually wing-banded. Pullets were randomly allocated into cages according to treatment groups at 18 wk. Birds were placed into individual cages, with 5 consecutive cages representing a treatment replicate. Each treatment was replicated 24 times for a total of 120 birds per treatment and fed a nutritionally complete layer diet. Production performance was evaluated from 18 to 34 wk of age. Average weekly egg production was calculated. Feed intake, egg weights, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, and egg color were analyzed every 2 wk. Birds were weighed every 4 wk until completion of the study. Birds hatched from TT eggs had significantly increased BW throughout the experimental period. Hen-day egg production was significantly different when compared with the NT treatment at 19 and 20 wk of age. Eggshell color was also found to be significantly different for the NT and TT groups with TT eggs being significantly further from true white. Selection of progeny based on eggshell color may be a criterion for selecting white egg layers as layers hatched from TT eggs resulted in more off-color eggs, which may affect consumer acceptance for buying white table eggs

  4. Comparison of Four Sampling Gears in Detecting Invasive Invertebrates in the Duluth-Superior Harbor, Oral Presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is important to conduct non-indigenous species assessments in areas at risk, such as ecosystems associated with Great Lakes harbors, both for the detection of new species and to determine the spread of existing ones. In addition to direct impacts on harbor ecosystems, addition...

  5. Egg and time limitation mediate an egg protection strategy.

    PubMed

    Deas, J B; Hunter, M S

    2014-05-01

    The number of mature eggs remaining in the ovaries and the time left for oviposition determine the reproductive decisions of the hyperdiverse guild of insects that require discrete and potentially limiting resources for oviposition (such as seeds, fruits or other insects). A female may run out of eggs before all available oviposition sites are used (egg limitation), or die before using all of her eggs (time limitation). Females are predicted to change clutch size depending on whether eggs or time is the limiting resource. We extend this framework and ask whether the same constraints influence a strategy in which females modify eggs into protective shields. In response to egg parasitism cues, female seed beetles (Mimosestes amicus) lay eggs in vertical groups of 2-4, modifying the top 1-3 eggs into shields in order to protect the bottom egg from attack by parasitoids. We made contrasting predictions of how egg and time limitation would influence egg size and the incidence and level of egg protection. By varying access to seed pods, we manipulated the number of remaining eggs a female had at the time she received a parasitism cue. Although egg size was not affected, our results confirm that egg-limited females protected fewer eggs and time-limited females protected more eggs. Female body size explained the number of eggs in a stack rather than host deprivation or the timing of parasitoid exposure. Our results clearly show that host availability relative to female age influences the incidence of egg protection in M. amicus. Furthermore, our study represents a novel use of life history theory to explain patterns in an unusual but compelling defensive behaviour. PMID:24735410

  6. Great Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, Robert

    2000-05-01

    Spectacular and mysterious objects that come and go in the night sky, comets have dwelt in our popular culture for untold ages. As remnants from the formation of the Solar system, they are objects of key scientific research and space missions. As one of nature's most potent and dramatic dangers, they pose a threat to our safety--and yet they were the origin of our oceans and perhaps even life itself. This beautifully illustrated book tells the story of the biggest and most awe-inspiring of all comets: those that have earned the title "Great." Robert Burnham focuses on the Great comets Hyakutake in 1996 and Hale-Bopp in 1997, which gripped attention worldwide because, for many, they were the first comets ever seen. He places these two recent comets in the context of their predecessors from past ages, among them the famous Comet Halley. Great Comets explains the exciting new discoveries that have come from these magnificent objects and profiles the spaceprobes to comets due for launch in the next few years. The book even takes a peek behind Hollywood's science-fiction fantasies to assess the real risks humanity faces from potential impacts of both comets and asteroids. For everyone interested in astronomy, this exciting book reveals the secrets of the Great Comets and provides essential tools for keeping up to date with comet discoveries in the future. Robert Burnham has been an amateur astronomer since the mid-1950s. He has been a senior editor of Astronomy magazine (1986-88) and is the author of many books and CD-ROMS, including Comet Hale-Bopp: Find and Enjoy the Great Comet and Comet Explorer.

  7. Factors Affecting Egg Processing Microbiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eggs are designed to limit bacterial contamination of egg contents as well as to protect and nourish a developing embryo; these qualities contribute to eggs being wholesome and nutritious for humans. When eggs are involved in human enteritis, there is usually temperature abuse and pooling of raw pr...

  8. Fish as vectors in the dispersal of Bythotrephes cederstroemi: Diapausing eggs survive passage through the gut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarnagin, S.T.; Swan, B.K.; Kerfoot, W.C.

    2000-01-01

    1. Bythotrephes cederstroemi (Crustacea: Onychopoda: Cercopagidae) is an introduced invertebrate predator currently spreading through the Laurentian Great Lakes region of North America. We examined a previously unsuspected way in which B. cederstroemi may be dispersed by fish by their consumption of diapausing eggs. 2. Ninety-four percentage of the mature B. cederstroemi diapausing eggs consumed by fish were egested apparently intact. This proportion is considerably above previous estimates for the ephippial eggs of Daphnia. The hatching success of diapausing eggs was compared among four categories: (a) eggs released naturally by B. cederstroemi (control, 73% hatched (b) eggs released during 'stressful confinement' (46% hatched) (c) eggs dissected from dead females (13% hatched) and (d) eggs recovered from faecal pellets following consumption by fish (viable gut passage experiment, 41% hatched). 3. Samples of small fish and B. cederstroemi were collected simultaneously. Examination of gut contents revealed that fish contained B. cederstroemi diapausing eggs and that B. cederstroemi bearing resting eggs were consumed selectively over those without eggs. Moreover, fish selected B. cederstroemi bearing mature rather than immature diapausing eggs. 4. The fact that diapausing eggs survive gut passage is important for the dispersal of B. cederstroemi. Fish often move between the pelagic and littoral zones of lakes and may thus disperse diapausing eggs widely. Fish may also move between lakes connected by river systems and can be caught and passively dispersed by anglers or piscivorous birds. Our results demonstrate the potential for fish to act as vectors in the spread of B. cederstroemi.

  9. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

  10. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

  11. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT)...

  12. Cracking the egg: An insight into egg hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dhanapala, Pathum; De Silva, Chamika; Doran, Tim; Suphioglu, Cenk

    2015-08-01

    Hypersensitivity to the chicken egg is a widespread disorder mainly affecting 1-2% of children worldwide. It is the second most common food allergy in children, next to cow's milk allergy. Egg allergy is mainly caused by hypersensitivity to four allergens found in the egg white; ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme. However, some research suggests the involvement of allergens exclusively found in the egg yolk such as chicken serum albumin and YGP42, which may play a crucial role in the overall reaction. In egg allergic individuals, these allergens cause conditions such as itching, atopic dermatitis, bronchial asthma, vomiting, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, laryngeal oedema and chronic urticaria, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is no permanent cure for egg allergy. Upon positive diagnosis for egg allergy, strict dietary avoidance of eggs and products containing traces of eggs is the most effective way of avoiding future hypersensitivity reactions. However, it is difficult to fully avoid eggs since they are found in a range of processed food products. An understanding of the mechanisms of allergic reactions, egg allergens and their prevalence, egg allergy diagnosis and current treatment strategies are important for future studies. This review addresses these topics and discusses both egg white and egg yolk allergy as a whole. PMID:25965316

  13. Raccoon roundworm eggs near homes and risk for larva migrans disease, California communities.

    PubMed

    Roussere, Gabriel P; Murray, William J; Raudenbush, Caroline B; Kutilek, Michael J; Levee, Darcy J; Kazacos, Kevin R

    2003-12-01

    The raccoon roundworm, Baylisascaris procyonis, is increasingly recognized as a cause of serious or fatal larva migrans disease in humans and animals. We assessed the potential for infection in three northern California communities by determining the density and distribution of raccoon latrines, where transmission primarily occurs, and the prevalence of eggs at private residences. We collected fecal samples from 215 latrines and found that 44%-53% of the latrines contained B. procyonis eggs and that 16%-32% contained infective eggs. Among the properties surveyed, 28%-49% harbored at least one latrine that was positive for B. procyonis eggs. The latrine densities in these communities were higher than any previously reported. The presence of B. procyonis eggs in raccoon latrines was common, widespread, and closely associated with human habitation. Where raccoon densities are high, education of the public and removal of raccoons may be necessary. PMID:14720389

  14. Development of a Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator to evaluate the transport and dispersion of Asian carp eggs in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, Tatiana; Jackson, P. Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Valocchi, Albert J.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2013-01-01

    Asian carp are migrating towards the Great Lakes and are threatening to invade this ecosystem, hence there is an immediate need to control their population. The transport of Asian carp eggs in potential spawning rivers is an important factor in its life history and recruitment success. An understanding of the transport, development, and fate of Asian carp eggs has the potential to create prevention, management, and control strategies before the eggs hatch and develop the ability to swim. However, there is not a clear understanding of the hydrodynamic conditions at which the eggs are transported and kept in suspension. This knowledge is imperative because of the current assumption that suspension is required for the eggs to survive. Herein, FluEgg (Fluvial Egg Drift Simulator), a three-dimensional Lagrangian model capable of evaluating the influence of flow velocity, shear dispersion and turbulent diffusion on the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs is presented. The model's variables include not only biological behavior (growth rate, density changes) but also the physical characteristics of the flow field, such as mean velocities and eddy diffusivities. The performance of the FluEgg model was evaluated using observed data from published flume experiments conducted in China with water-hardened Asian carp eggs as subjects. FluEgg simulations show a good agreement with the experimental data. The model was also run with observed data from the Sandusky River in Ohio to provide a real-world demonstration case. This research will support the identification of critical hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., flow velocity, depth, and shear velocity) to maintain eggs in suspension, assist in the evaluation of suitable spawning rivers for Asian carp populations and facilitate the development of prevention, control and management strategies for Asian carp species in rivers and water bodies.

  15. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  16. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  17. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  18. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  19. 21 CFR 160.100 - Eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Eggs. 160.100 Section 160.100 Food and Drugs FOOD... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.100 Eggs... identity for the food commonly known as eggs....

  20. 21 CFR 160.105 - Dried eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dried eggs. 160.105 Section 160.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.105 Dried eggs. (a) Dried eggs, dried whole...

  1. Microcracks in eggs.

    PubMed

    Bain, M M; MacLeod, N; Thomson, R; Hancock, J W

    2006-11-01

    An experimental program of mechanical testing has shown that microcracks initiate in hens' eggs at loads less than that necessary to cause total structural failure. In contact loading, computational modeling and numerical analysis show that very high stress levels develop on the inner surface of the eggshell as it conforms to a hard contact surface. This causes a series of microcracks to initiate at the inner surface of the shell and radiate out from the load site. A series of concentric circumferential microcracks also develop beneath the cuticle from the edge of the contact zone. Calculations relating to the eggshells' dynamic response indicate that microcracks have a little effect on the structural stiffness and resonant frequencies of the egg. As a result, microcracks are unlikely to be detected by online crack detection systems, which rely on mechanical excitation. Eggs in retail outlets are likely to contain microcracks as a result of insults experienced during the collection, grading, and packing processes. Because the eggshell forms the first line of defense against potentially pathogenic microorganisms entering the egg contents, microcracks could potentially compromise egg safety. PMID:17032836

  2. Comparative fine structure of eggs of autogenous and anautogenous Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Soliman, Belal A; Tewfick, Maha K; Wassim, Nahla M

    2014-12-01

    Culex (Cx.) pipiens is the potential vector human filariasis in Egypt. However, autogenous Cx. pipiens may be less efficient vector of Wuchereria (W.) bancrofti in endemic areas of Egypt compared to anautogenous counterparts. In this study, an attempt was made to differentiate eggs of autogenous and anautogenous Cx. pipiens using scanning electron micrographs. The results indicated that eggs of both species appear to be similar to great extent in surface morphology. Eggs of both forms are black and elongate-oval. Width is greatest at the anterior end. The posterior end is pointed. The micropylar disc is apparent with distinct edge. Exochorionic bridges are angular. Size of both eggs represented by length and width are comparable. In both eggs, length is greater than width. However, eggs of both forms can be distinguished from each other by the exochorionic bridges being longer and thinner in the autogenous eggs than in the anautogenous eggs. PMID:25643517

  3. No. 2 fuel oil decreases embryonic survival of great black-backed gulls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, N.C.; Albers, P.H.; Szaro, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    Field study of the effects of No. 2 fuel oil applications to the eggs of great black-backed gulls on an island off the coast of Maine. Fuel oil applied in amounts of either 5 or 20 ul. All eggs opened 8 da later. Measured survival and estimated age of embryo at time of egg oiling.

  4. 33 CFR 100.109 - Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Winter Harbor Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. 100.109 Section 100.109 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Lobster Boat Race, Winter Harbor, ME. (a) Regulated area. The regulated area includes all waters of...

  5. 31 CFR 212.10 - Safe harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safe harbor. 212.10 Section 212.10... PAYMENTS § 212.10 Safe harbor. (a) Protection during examination and pending review. A financial... failing to honor a garnishment order, for account activity during: (1) The two business days following...

  6. 31 CFR 212.10 - Safe harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safe harbor. 212.10 Section 212.10... PAYMENTS § 212.10 Safe harbor. (a) Protection during examination and pending review. A financial... failing to honor a garnishment order, for account activity during: (1) The two business days following...

  7. 33 CFR 117.1061 - Tacoma Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tacoma Harbor. 117.1061 Section 117.1061 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1061 Tacoma Harbor. (a) When...

  8. 33 CFR 117.1061 - Tacoma Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tacoma Harbor. 117.1061 Section 117.1061 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1061 Tacoma Harbor. (a) When...

  9. 33 CFR 117.1061 - Tacoma Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tacoma Harbor. 117.1061 Section 117.1061 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1061 Tacoma Harbor. (a) When...

  10. 33 CFR 117.1061 - Tacoma Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tacoma Harbor. 117.1061 Section 117.1061 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1061 Tacoma Harbor. (a) When...

  11. 33 CFR 117.1061 - Tacoma Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tacoma Harbor. 117.1061 Section 117.1061 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Washington § 117.1061 Tacoma Harbor. (a) When...

  12. 33 CFR 117.811 - Tonawanda Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tonawanda Harbor. 117.811 Section 117.811 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.811 Tonawanda Harbor. The draw of...

  13. 33 CFR 117.811 - Tonawanda Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tonawanda Harbor. 117.811 Section 117.811 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements New York § 117.811 Tonawanda Harbor. The draw of...

  14. 33 CFR 117.603 - Manchester Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manchester Harbor. 117.603... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.603 Manchester Harbor. The Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority Bridge at mile 1.0 in Manchester, shall operate as follows: (a)...

  15. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be...

  16. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be...

  17. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  18. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  19. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be...

  20. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be...

  1. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  2. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official... OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Relation to Other Authorities § 590.35 Eggs and egg products outside official plants. Any...

  3. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  4. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official... OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Relation to Other Authorities § 590.35 Eggs and egg products outside official plants. Any...

  5. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official... OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Relation to Other Authorities § 590.35 Eggs and egg products outside official plants. Any...

  6. 9 CFR 590.35 - Eggs and egg products outside official plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eggs and egg products outside official... OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Relation to Other Authorities § 590.35 Eggs and egg products outside official plants. Any...

  7. 9 CFR 590.410 - Shell eggs and egg products required to be labeled.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shell eggs and egg products required..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identifying and Marking Product § 590.410 Shell eggs and egg products required to be...

  8. 9 CFR 590.950 - Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of containers of eggs or egg... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.950 Labeling of containers of eggs or egg products for...

  9. Hatching Eggs in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert W.

    1984-01-01

    This article provides detailed instructions on how to hatch chicken eggs. Sections include: (1) making the incubator; (2) making the brooder; (3) guidelines for hatching eggs; (4) from incubator to brooder; and (5) recommended readings. (JMK)

  10. Egg Processing Plant Sanitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

  11. Egg Donation Brokers

    PubMed Central

    Holwell, Eve; Keehn, Jason; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Sauer, Mark V.; Klitzman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare Websites of agencies that broker the services women who provide human eggs for in vitro fertilization versus clinics that recruit egg providers. STUDY DESIGN We examined 207 websites, of which 128 were egg provider agency (40%) or clinic (60%) websites that recruited providers online. We compared them regarding several variables related to adherence to American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) guidelines. RESULTS According to their respective websites, agencies were more likely than clinics to mention ASRM guidelines, be located in the West/Pacific, indicate compensation, offer a fee range, set their minimum > $5,000, specify preferable traits, cap provider age at ≤ 31,require an education minimum, allow both parties to meet, discuss short-term risks, and not acknowledge a possible cancer risk. Only 25.5% of agencies and 19.5% of clinics mention psychological/emotional risks, and 11.8% and 5.2%, respectively, mention risks, to future fertility. CONCLUSIONS This research, the first to systematically compare several key aspects of egg provider agencies versus clinics, suggests significant differences in adherence to guidelines, raising several concerns and suggesting needs for consideration of improved monitoring and regulation by ASRM or others. PMID:25552124

  12. Egg Bungee Jump

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tretter, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the spirit of the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996), many teachers attempt to have their students experience science in a constructivist, inquiry-oriented manner. The egg bungee jump activity will certainly support that mode of teaching, and has the added benefit of providing a concrete context within which students can explore…

  13. Effects of cryogenic cooling of shell eggs on egg quality.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Tharrington, J B; Curtis, P A; Anderson, K E; Keener, K M; Jones, F T

    2002-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of cryogenic cooling on shell egg quality. Gaseous nitrogen (GN), liquid nitrogen (LN), and gaseous carbon dioxide (GC) were utilized to rapidly cool eggs in a commercial egg processing facility and were compared to traditional cooling (TC). A modified food freezer was attached to existing egg processing equipment in order to expose eggs to the selected cryogen. In Experiment 1, eggs were treated with GN, LN, and TC then stored and tested over 10 wk. Experiment 2 eggs were treated (GC and TC) and evaluated for 12 wk. Quality factors that were measured included Haugh units, vitelline membrane strength and deformation at rupture, and USDA shell egg grades for quality defects. Haugh unit values were greater for cryogenically treated eggs as compared to traditionally cooled eggs (Experiment 1: 73.27, GN; 72.03, LN; and 71.4, TC and Experiment 2: 74.42, GC and 70.18, TC). The percentage of loss eggs in the GN treatment was significantly (P < 0.01) greater than those of the LN and TC treatments. Vitelline membrane strength was greater for the cryogenically cooled eggs versus traditional processing. Vitelline membrane breaking strength decreased over storage time. Vitelline membrane deformation at rupture was significantly (P < 0.05) greater for the cryogenically cooled eggs compared to the traditional eggs in each experiment. Use of the technology could allow for egg quality to be maintained for a longer time, which could increase international markets and potentially lead to extended shelf lives. PMID:12033425

  14. Subsidence at the Fairport Harbor Water Level Gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    SUBSIDENCE AT THE FAIRPORT HARBOR WATER LEVEL GAUGE I will provide information on methods being used to monitor Lake Erie water levels and earth movement at Fairport Harbor, Ohio. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) is responsible for vertical movement throughout the Great Lakes region. Fairport Harbor is also experiencing vertical movement due to salt mining, so the nearby water level gauge operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is affected by both GIA and mining. NOAA's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) defines and maintains the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS). The NSRS includes a network of permanently marked points; a consistent, accurate, and up-to-date national shoreline; a network of Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) which supports three-dimensional positioning activities; and a set of accurate models describing dynamic, geophysical processes that affect spatial measurements. The NSRS provides the spatial reference foundation for transportation, mapping, charting and a multitude of scientific and engineering applications. Fundamental elements of geodetic infrastructure include GPS CORS (3-D), water level and tide gauges (height) and a system of vertical bench marks (height). When two or more of these elements converge they may provide an independent determination of position and vertical stability as is the case here at the Fairport Harbor water level gauge. Analysis of GPS, leveling and water level data reveal that this gauge is subsiding at about 2-3 mm/year, independent of the effects of GIA. Analysis of data from the nearby OHLA GPS CORS shows it subsiding at about 4 mm/yr, four times faster than expected due to GIA alone. A long history of salt mine activity in the area is known to geologists but it came as a surprise to other scientists.

  15. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  16. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  17. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  18. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  19. 9 CFR 590.955 - Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or egg products for importation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... eggs or egg products for importation. 590.955 Section 590.955 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.955 Labeling of shipping containers of eggs or...

  20. Status of Aquatic Non-indigenous Species in the Duluth-Superior Harbor

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a study to develop recommendations for aquatic non-indigenous species (NIS) monitoring in Great Lakes areas at risk of invasion, we conducted comprehensive, multi-gear sampling in the Duluth, MN-Superior, WI harbor and lower St. Louis River in 2005-2007. This effort r...

  1. Early Monitoring Approaches Developed from a Case Study on a Vulnerable Great Lakes Embayment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes harbors/embayments are at high risk of introduction of invasive species. Monitoring is needed to inform on new introductions, and to track success of programs to limit invasion or spread. A field case study was conducted in the Duluth-Superior Harbor/St. Louis River, ...

  2. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor...

  3. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor...

  4. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor...

  5. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor...

  6. 33 CFR 80.1122 - Channel Islands Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Channel Islands Harbor, CA. 80... INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1122 Channel Islands Harbor, CA. (a) A line drawn from Channel Islands Harbor South Jetty Light 2 to Channel Islands Harbor...

  7. 33 CFR 110.30 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boston Harbor, Mass. 110.30... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.30 Boston Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of South Boston... the local Harbor Master, Hull, Mass. (m) Hingham Harbor Area 1. Beginning at position latitude...

  8. 33 CFR 110.30 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boston Harbor, Mass. 110.30... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.30 Boston Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of South Boston... the local Harbor Master, Hull, Mass. (m) Hingham Harbor Area 1. Beginning at position latitude...

  9. 33 CFR 110.30 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boston Harbor, Mass. 110.30... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.30 Boston Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of South Boston... the local Harbor Master, Hull, Mass. (m) Hingham Harbor Area 1. Beginning at position latitude...

  10. 33 CFR 110.30 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boston Harbor, Mass. 110.30... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.30 Boston Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of South Boston... the local Harbor Master, Hull, Mass. (m) Hingham Harbor Area 1. Beginning at position latitude...

  11. 33 CFR 110.30 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boston Harbor, Mass. 110.30... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.30 Boston Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of South Boston... the local Harbor Master, Hull, Mass. (m) Hingham Harbor Area 1. Beginning at position latitude...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1140 - Pillar Point Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pillar Point Harbor, CA. 80.1140... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1140 Pillar Point Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Pillar Point Harbor Light 6 to Pillar Point Harbor Entrance Light....

  13. 33 CFR 80.1140 - Pillar Point Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pillar Point Harbor, CA. 80.1140... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1140 Pillar Point Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Pillar Point Harbor Light 6 to Pillar Point Harbor Entrance Light....

  14. Efficacy and toxicity of iodine disinfection of Atlantic salmon eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, M.A.; Ketola, H.G.; Starliper, C.E.; Gallagher, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest in the restoration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in the Great Lakes has given rise to new culture techniques and management programs designed to reduce pathogen transmission while stabilizing and enhancing wild populations. We examined the toxicity of iodine to Atlantic salmon eggs and its effectiveness as a disinfectant against bacteria on egg surfaces. We spawned and fertilized eight gravid Atlantic salmon from Cayuga Lake, New York, and exposed their eggs to 10 concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, 100, 500, 750, 1,000, 5,000, and 7,500 mg/L) for 30 min during water hardening. An additional subsample of unfertilized eggs was also exposed to some of the same concentrations of iodine (5, 10, 50, 75, and 100 mg/L) to determine the efficiency of disinfection. Viable eggs were only obtained from four females. Survival of eggs to the eyed stage and hatch tended to be reduced at iodine concentrations of 50 and 75 mg/L and was significantly reduced at concentrations of 100 mg/L iodine or more. We calculated the concentrations of iodine that killed 50% of the Atlantic salmon eggs at eye-up and hatch to be 175 and 85 mg/L, respectively. Aeromonas veronii, A. schubertii, A. hydrophila, A. caviae, Plesiomonas shiggeloides, and Citrobacter spp. were the predominant bacteria present on the surface of green eggs and were significantly reduced by an iodine immersion. The use of iodine as a disinfectant on Atlantic salmon eggs was effective at low concentrations (50–75 mg/L), for which toxicity to Atlantic salmon was minimal.

  15. Estimating repeatability of egg size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, P.L.; Rockwell, R.F.; Sedinger, J.S.

    2001-01-01

    Measures of repeatability have long been used to assess patterns of variation in egg size within and among females. We compared different analytical approaches for estimating repeatability of egg size of Black Brant. Separate estimates of repeatability for eggs of each clutch size and laying sequence number varied from 0.49 to 0.64. We suggest that using the averaging egg size within clutches results in underestimation of variation within females and thereby overestimates repeatability. We recommend a nested design that partitions egg-size variation within clutches, among clutches within females, and among females. We demonstrate little variation in estimates of repeatability resulting from a nested model controlling for egg laying sequence and a nested model in which we assumed laying sequence was unknown.

  16. Comparative Study on the Nutritional Value of Pidan and Salted Duck Egg

    PubMed Central

    Kaewmanee, T.; Benjakul, S.

    2014-01-01

    Pidan and salted duck eggs are of nutritional rich alternative duck egg products which are predominantly consumed in China, Thailand, South Korea and other Chinese migrated countries. Both eggs are rich in proteins, lipids, unsaturated fatty acids and minerals. A Pidan whole egg contains 13.1% of protein, 10.7% of fat, 2.25% of carbohydrate and 2.3% of ash, whereas the salted duck egg contains 14% of protein, 16.6% of fat, 4.1% of carbohydrate and 7.5% of ash. The fresh duck egg contains a range of 9.30-11.80% of protein, 11.40-13.52% of fat, 1.50-1.74% of sugar and 1.10-1.17% of ash. Proteins, lipids, and ash contents are found to be greatly enhanced during the pickling and salting process of pidan and salted duck eggs. However, the alkaline induced aggregation of pidan leads to degradation and subsequent generation of free peptides and amino acids. Very few amino acids are found to be lost during the pickling and storage. However, no such losses of amino acids are reported in salted duck eggs during the salting process of 14 d. Phospholipids and cholesterol contents are lower in pidan oil and salted duck egg yolk oil. Thus, the pidan and salted duck eggs are nutritionally rich alternatives of duck egg products which will benefit the human health during consumption. PMID:26760738

  17. Comparative Study on the Nutritional Value of Pidan and Salted Duck Egg.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, P; Kaewmanee, T; Benjakul, S; Baharin, B S

    2014-01-01

    Pidan and salted duck eggs are of nutritional rich alternative duck egg products which are predominantly consumed in China, Thailand, South Korea and other Chinese migrated countries. Both eggs are rich in proteins, lipids, unsaturated fatty acids and minerals. A Pidan whole egg contains 13.1% of protein, 10.7% of fat, 2.25% of carbohydrate and 2.3% of ash, whereas the salted duck egg contains 14% of protein, 16.6% of fat, 4.1% of carbohydrate and 7.5% of ash. The fresh duck egg contains a range of 9.30-11.80% of protein, 11.40-13.52% of fat, 1.50-1.74% of sugar and 1.10-1.17% of ash. Proteins, lipids, and ash contents are found to be greatly enhanced during the pickling and salting process of pidan and salted duck eggs. However, the alkaline induced aggregation of pidan leads to degradation and subsequent generation of free peptides and amino acids. Very few amino acids are found to be lost during the pickling and storage. However, no such losses of amino acids are reported in salted duck eggs during the salting process of 14 d. Phospholipids and cholesterol contents are lower in pidan oil and salted duck egg yolk oil. Thus, the pidan and salted duck eggs are nutritionally rich alternatives of duck egg products which will benefit the human health during consumption. PMID:26760738

  18. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  19. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  20. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  1. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  2. 7 CFR 57.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 57.905 Section 57.905... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) INSPECTION OF EGGS...

  3. Fatty acid composition and egg components of specialty eggs.

    PubMed

    Cherian, G; Holsonbake, T B; Goeger, M P

    2002-01-01

    Egg components, total fat, and fatty acid content of specialty eggs were compared. One dozen eggs were collected and analyzed from each of five different brands from hens fed a diet free of animal fat (SP1), certified organic free-range brown eggs (SP2), uncaged unmedicated brown eggs (SP3), cage-free vegetarian diet brown eggs (SP4), or naturally nested uncaged (SP5). Regular white-shelled eggs were the control. A significant (P < 0.05) difference was observed in the egg components and fatty acid content in different brands. The percentage of yolk was lower (P < 0.05) in SP2 and SP4 with a concomitant increase (P < 0.05) in the percentage of white. The percentage of shell was lower (P < 0.05) in SP4 and SP5. The total edible portion was greater in SP4 and SP5. The yolk:white ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in SP3. The total lipid content was lower in SP4 eggs. The content of palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0), and total saturated fatty acids were lower (P < 0.05) in SP1. No difference was observed in the content of palmitoleic (C16:1), oleic (C18:1), or total monounsaturated fatty acids. The content of n-3 fatty acids in SP2, SP4, and SP5 were similar to control eggs. The ratio of total n-6:n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ranged from 39.2 for SP5 to 11.5 for SP1 (P < 0.05). No difference was observed in the total polyunsaturated fatty acid content of eggs (P > 0.05). PMID:11885896

  4. 78 FR 54392 - Security Zone, Baltimore Harbor, Baltimore's Inner Harbor; Baltimore, MD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary security zone encompassing certain waters of Baltimore Harbor, Baltimore's Inner Harbor, at Baltimore, Maryland. This action is necessary to safeguard persons and property, and prevent terrorist acts or incidents. This rule prohibits vessels and people from entering the security zone and requires vessels and persons in the security zone to depart the......

  5. 33 CFR 165.904 - Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone. 165.904 Section 165.904 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.904 Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor—Safety and Security Zone... waters including Burnham Park Harbor and the southern part of Chicago Harbor, Lake Michigan, bounded...

  6. 33 CFR 165.904 - Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone. 165.904 Section 165.904 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.904 Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor—Safety and Security Zone... waters including Burnham Park Harbor and the southern part of Chicago Harbor, Lake Michigan, bounded...

  7. Concentrations and time trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic bird eggs from San Francisco Bay, CA 2000-2003.

    PubMed

    She, Jianwen; Holden, Arthur; Adelsbach, Terrence L; Tanner, Manon; Schwarzbach, Steven E; Yee, Julie L; Hooper, Kim

    2008-08-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 169 avian eggs. We analyzed randomly collected eggs of two species of piscivorous birds: Caspian tern (Sterna caspia) (n=78) and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) (n=76). We also analyzed fail-to-hatch eggs from two species protected under the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973, that breed in the San Francisco Bay region: the piscivorous California Least tern (Sterna antillarum brownii) (n=11) and the omnivorous California Clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) (n=4). San Francisco Bay eggs were collected annually for four years (2000-2003), and additional 20 eggs were collected and analyzed from Gray's Harbor, Washington in 2001. Geometric mean PBDE concentrations did not significantly differ in the three tern species, but concentrations in eggs from the fail to hatch California Clapper rail eggs were significantly lower than those found in the randomly collected tern eggs. Median concentrations of SigmaPBDEs in Caspian tern eggs for 2000-2003 were 2410, 4730, 3720 and 2880 ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively, in Forster's terns 1820, 4380, 5460 and 3600 ng/g lw, respectively, and in California Least terns for 2001 and 2002 were 5060 and 5170 ng/g lw, respectively. In contrast, median SigmaPBDEs concentration in California Clapper rail eggs for 2001 was 379 ng/g lw. Five PBDEs were the major congeners found and decreased in the order BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, and -154. BDE-32, -28, -71, -66, -85, -183 were less prevalent, minor congeners, as was BDE-209, which was measured in a subset of samples. PBDE concentrations in bird eggs from San Francisco Bay were site related. There was no significant difference in PBDE concentrations in Caspian tern eggs from San Francisco Bay and Gray's Harbor, WA. Average PBDE concentrations in eggs did not significantly increase over the period 2000-2003. PMID:18466953

  8. Concentrations and time trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic bird eggs from San Francisco Bay, CA 2000-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    She, J.; Holden, A.; Adelsbach, T.L.; Tanner, M.; Schwarzbach, S.E.; Yee, J.L.; Hooper, K.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in 169 avian eggs. We analyzed randomly collected eggs of two species of piscivorous birds: Caspian tern (Sterna caspia) (n = 78) and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) (n = 76). We also analyzed fail-to-hatch eggs from two species protected under the Federal Endangered Species Act of 1973, that breed in the San Francisco Bay region: the piscivorous California Least tern (Sterna antillarum brownii) (n = 11) and the omnivorous California Clapper rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) (n = 4). San Francisco Bay eggs were collected annually for four years (2000-2003), and additional 20 eggs were collected and analyzed from Gray's Harbor, Washington in 2001. Geometric mean PBDE concentrations did not significantly differ in the three tern species, but concentrations in eggs from the fail to hatch California Clapper rail eggs were significantly lower than those found in the randomly collected tern eggs. Median concentrations of ???PBDEs in Caspian tern eggs for 2000-2003 were 2410, 4730, 3720 and 2880 ng/g lipid weight (lw), respectively, in Forster's terns 1820, 4380, 5460 and 3600 ng/g lw, respectively, and in California Least terns for 2001 and 2002 were 5060 and 5170 ng/g lw, respectively. In contrast, median ???PBDEs concentration in California Clapper rail eggs for 2001 was 379 ng/g lw. Five PBDEs were the major congeners found and decreased in the order BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, and -154. BDE-32, -28, -71, -66, -85, -183 were less prevalent, minor congeners, as was BDE-209, which was measured in a subset of samples. PBDE concentrations in bird eggs from San Francisco Bay were site related. There was no significant difference in PBDE concentrations in Caspian tern eggs from San Francisco Bay and Gray's Harbor, WA. Average PBDE concentrations in eggs did not significantly increase over the period 2000-2003. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cryopreservation of eggs.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Zsolt Peter; Nel-Themaat, Liesl; Chang, Ching-Chien; Shapiro, Daniel B; Berna, Diana Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Oocyte cryopreservation is playing an increasingly important role in the field of human infertility treatment. The ability to store viable oocytes for later use has given many women the option to delay childbearing in order to pursue other ventures in life, without the concern of losing the opportunity to have a family. Furthermore, oocyte cryopreservation is very valuable for diseased patients who have to undergo treatments that may compromise fertility. Also, infertility patients who produce large numbers of oocytes during a retrieval cycle now have the option of storing some eggs prior to fertilization, thereby reducing the number of embryos that have to be managed. Lastly, oocyte cryopreservation enables egg donation programs that are independent of fresh donations, which makes it possible for numerous recipients to benefit from a single donor.Traditionally, slow freezing was the only method available for oocyte cryopreservation. However, recent years have shown that ultrarapid cooling of oocytes results in higher survival and developmental rates. Thus, vitrification is today's preferred method of oocyte cryopreservation and therefore the only technique described.In this chapter, we present two reliable methods of oocyte vitrification that have been in use for several years and that have been experimentally validated. Since no single vitrification method is clearly superior to the rest, other systems are also briefly described to give the reader options when deciding which methods to utilize in their practice. PMID:24782022

  10. TREATING EGGS WITH HYDROGEN PEROXIDE CAN IMPROVE HATCHING SUCCESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal and bacterial egg infections remain a significant problem for hatcheries, greatly reducing hatching success. Chemical therapeutics such as formalin are often used to control potential infections. Although formalin is an effective therapeutic, concerns of safety exist among users due to its ...

  11. The antibacterial protein lysozyme identified as the termite egg recognition pheromone.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Kenji; Tamura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Norimasa; Yashiro, Toshihisa; Tatsumi, Shingo

    2007-01-01

    Social insects rely heavily on pheromone communication to maintain their sociality. Egg protection is one of the most fundamental social behaviours in social insects. The recent discovery of the termite-egg mimicking fungus 'termite-ball' and subsequent studies on termite egg protection behaviour have shown that termites can be manipulated by using the termite egg recognition pheromone (TERP), which strongly evokes the egg-carrying and -grooming behaviours of workers. Despite the great scientific and economic importance, TERP has not been identified because of practical difficulties. Herein we identified the antibacterial protein lysozyme as the TERP. We isolated the target protein using ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and the MALDI-TOF MS analysis showed a molecular size of 14.5 kDa. We found that the TERP provided antibacterial activity against a gram-positive bacterium. Among the currently known antimicrobial proteins, the molecular size of 14.5 kDa limits the target to lysozyme. Termite lysozymes obtained from eggs and salivary glands, and even hen egg lysozyme, showed a strong termite egg recognition activity. Besides eggs themselves, workers also supply lysozyme to eggs through frequent egg-grooming, by which egg surfaces are coated with saliva containing lysozyme. Reverse transcript PCR analysis showed that mRNA of termite lysozyme was expressed in both salivary glands and eggs. Western blot analysis confirmed that lysozyme production begins in immature eggs in queen ovaries. This is the first identification of proteinaceous pheromone in social insects. Researchers have focused almost exclusively on hydrocarbons when searching for recognition pheromones in social insects. The present finding of a proteinaceous pheromone represents a major step forward in, and result in the broadening of, the search for recognition pheromones. This novel function of lysozyme as a termite pheromone illuminates the profound influence of pathogenic

  12. The Antibacterial Protein Lysozyme Identified as the Termite Egg Recognition Pheromone

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Kenji; Tamura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Norimasa; Yashiro, Toshihisa; Tatsumi, Shingo

    2007-01-01

    Social insects rely heavily on pheromone communication to maintain their sociality. Egg protection is one of the most fundamental social behaviours in social insects. The recent discovery of the termite-egg mimicking fungus ‘termite-ball’ and subsequent studies on termite egg protection behaviour have shown that termites can be manipulated by using the termite egg recognition pheromone (TERP), which strongly evokes the egg-carrying and -grooming behaviours of workers. Despite the great scientific and economic importance, TERP has not been identified because of practical difficulties. Herein we identified the antibacterial protein lysozyme as the TERP. We isolated the target protein using ion-exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography, and the MALDI-TOF MS analysis showed a molecular size of 14.5 kDa. We found that the TERP provided antibacterial activity against a gram-positive bacterium. Among the currently known antimicrobial proteins, the molecular size of 14.5 kDa limits the target to lysozyme. Termite lysozymes obtained from eggs and salivary glands, and even hen egg lysozyme, showed a strong termite egg recognition activity. Besides eggs themselves, workers also supply lysozyme to eggs through frequent egg-grooming, by which egg surfaces are coated with saliva containing lysozyme. Reverse transcript PCR analysis showed that mRNA of termite lysozyme was expressed in both salivary glands and eggs. Western blot analysis confirmed that lysozyme production begins in immature eggs in queen ovaries. This is the first identification of proteinaceous pheromone in social insects. Researchers have focused almost exclusively on hydrocarbons when searching for recognition pheromones in social insects. The present finding of a proteinaceous pheromone represents a major step forward in, and result in the broadening of, the search for recognition pheromones. This novel function of lysozyme as a termite pheromone illuminates the profound influence of pathogenic

  13. Egg White Phantoms for HIFU

    SciTech Connect

    Divkovic, Gabriela; Jenne, Juergen W.

    2005-03-28

    We used fresh egg white and polyacrylamide to create a transparent tissue mimicking phantom. Heating of phantoms by HIFU leads to egg white protein denaturation and creation of visible white lesions. We measured the acoustical and thermal properties and investigated the possibility to use such phantoms to study the lesion formation during the HIFU therapy.

  14. Viability of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs.

    PubMed

    Shafir, Shira C; Sorvillo, Frank J; Sorvillo, Teresa; Eberhard, Mark L

    2011-07-01

    Infection with Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms is rare but often fatal and typically affects children. We attempted to determine parameters of viability and methods of inactivating the eggs of these roundworms. Loss of viability resulted when eggs were heated to 62°C or desiccated for 7 months but not when frozen at -15°C for 6 months. PMID:21762591

  15. Viability of Baylisascaris procyonis Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Sorvillo, Frank J.; Sorvillo, Teresa; Eberhard, Mark L.

    2011-01-01

    Infection with Baylisascaris procyonis roundworms is rare but often fatal and typically affects children. We attempted to determine parameters of viability and methods of inactivating the eggs of these roundworms. Loss of viability resulted when eggs were heated to 62°C or desiccated for 7 months but not when frozen at –15°C for 6 months. PMID:21762591

  16. Host genotype and age have no effect on rejection of parasitic eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procházka, Petr; Konvičková-Patzenhauerová, Hana; Požgayová, Milica; Trnka, Alfréd; Jelínek, Václav; Honza, Marcel

    2014-05-01

    Egg rejection belongs to a widely used host tactic to prevent the costs incurred by avian brood parasitism. However, the genetic basis of this behaviour and the effect of host age on the probability of rejecting the parasitic egg remain largely unknown. Here, we used a set of 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci, including a previously detected candidate locus (Ase64), to link genotypes of female great reed warblers ( Acrocephalus arundinaceus), a known rejecter, with their egg rejection responses in two host populations. We also tested whether host female age, as a measure of the experience with own eggs, plays a role in rejection of common cuckoo ( Cuculus canorus) eggs. We failed to find any consistent association of egg rejection responses with host female genotypes or age. It seems that host decisions on egg rejection show high levels of phenotypic plasticity and are likely to depend on the spatiotemporal variation in the parasitism pressure. Future studies exploring the repeatability of host responses towards parasitic eggs and the role of host individual experience with parasitic eggs would greatly improve our understanding of the variations in host behaviours considering the persistence of brood parasitism in host populations with rejecter phenotypes.

  17. Host genotype and age have no effect on rejection of parasitic eggs.

    PubMed

    Procházka, Petr; Konvičková-Patzenhauerová, Hana; Požgayová, Milica; Trnka, Alfréd; Jelínek, Václav; Honza, Marcel

    2014-05-01

    Egg rejection belongs to a widely used host tactic to prevent the costs incurred by avian brood parasitism. However, the genetic basis of this behaviour and the effect of host age on the probability of rejecting the parasitic egg remain largely unknown. Here, we used a set of 15 polymorphic microsatellite loci, including a previously detected candidate locus (Ase64), to link genotypes of female great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus), a known rejecter, with their egg rejection responses in two host populations. We also tested whether host female age, as a measure of the experience with own eggs, plays a role in rejection of common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) eggs. We failed to find any consistent association of egg rejection responses with host female genotypes or age. It seems that host decisions on egg rejection show high levels of phenotypic plasticity and are likely to depend on the spatiotemporal variation in the parasitism pressure. Future studies exploring the repeatability of host responses towards parasitic eggs and the role of host individual experience with parasitic eggs would greatly improve our understanding of the variations in host behaviours considering the persistence of brood parasitism in host populations with rejecter phenotypes. PMID:24718778

  18. Automatic stage identification of Drosophila egg chamber based on DAPI images.

    PubMed

    Jia, Dongyu; Xu, Qiuping; Xie, Qian; Mio, Washington; Deng, Wu-Min

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila egg chamber, whose development is divided into 14 stages, is a well-established model for developmental biology. However, visual stage determination can be a tedious, subjective and time-consuming task prone to errors. Our study presents an objective, reliable and repeatable automated method for quantifying cell features and classifying egg chamber stages based on DAPI images. The proposed approach is composed of two steps: 1) a feature extraction step and 2) a statistical modeling step. The egg chamber features used are egg chamber size, oocyte size, egg chamber ratio and distribution of follicle cells. Methods for determining the on-site of the polytene stage and centripetal migration are also discussed. The statistical model uses linear and ordinal regression to explore the stage-feature relationships and classify egg chamber stages. Combined with machine learning, our method has great potential to enable discovery of hidden developmental mechanisms. PMID:26732176

  19. Pesticide residues in eggs of wild birds: Adjustment for loss of moisture and lipid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Blus, L.J.

    1973-01-01

    Eggs of wild birds collected for the purpose of measuring concentrations of pesticides or other pollutants vary from nearly fresh to nearly dry so that objective comparisons cannot be made on the basis of weight of the contents at the time of collection. Residue concentrations in the nearly dry eggs can be greatly exaggerated by this artifact. Valid interpretation of residue data depends upon compensation for these losses. A method is presented for making adjustments on the basis of volume of the egg, and formulas are derived for estimating the volume of eggs of eagles, ospreys, and pelicans from egg measurements. The possibility of adjustments on the basis of percentage of moisture, solids, or fat in fresh eggs is discussed also.

  20. Automatic stage identification of Drosophila egg chamber based on DAPI images

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Dongyu; Xu, Qiuping; Xie, Qian; Mio, Washington; Deng, Wu-Min

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila egg chamber, whose development is divided into 14 stages, is a well-established model for developmental biology. However, visual stage determination can be a tedious, subjective and time-consuming task prone to errors. Our study presents an objective, reliable and repeatable automated method for quantifying cell features and classifying egg chamber stages based on DAPI images. The proposed approach is composed of two steps: 1) a feature extraction step and 2) a statistical modeling step. The egg chamber features used are egg chamber size, oocyte size, egg chamber ratio and distribution of follicle cells. Methods for determining the on-site of the polytene stage and centripetal migration are also discussed. The statistical model uses linear and ordinal regression to explore the stage-feature relationships and classify egg chamber stages. Combined with machine learning, our method has great potential to enable discovery of hidden developmental mechanisms. PMID:26732176

  1. A seismic study of potential tsunami sources in Kingston Harbor, Jamaica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbecq, K. L.; Hornbach, M.; Mann, P.; Brown, L. A.

    2009-12-01

    Kingston, Jamaica has a long history of natural disasters, including large earthquakes, landslides, and tsunamis. The great Jamaican earthquakes of 1692 and 1907 both triggered ground liquefaction and massive landslides in and around Kingston. Tsunamis also formed near or within Kingston Harbor during these earthquakes. The tectonic setting of Kingston Harbor is poorly constrained; to date, no known active faults exist within the harbor. As a result, submarine slides triggered by nearby earthquakes are often cited as the most likely tsunami trigger. To constrain the regional geology of Kingston Harbor and assess the frequency and size of slope failures at the site, we collected 24 km of 2D high-resolution chirp lines during four days in April, 2009. From these data, we generated bathymetric and subsurface maps that we used to identify submarine mass movements, including a <1km2 deposit that is the likely source of the 1907 Kingston Harbor tsunami and a slump at Port Royal associated with 1692 earthquake and tsunami. Using the data to constrain slide parameters, we generated tsunami wave propagation models that generally match historical accounts. Besides clear evidence for multiple slide events, our analysis also suggests ongoing tectonic deformation within Kingston Harbor, and we propose that the harbor is part of an active pull-apart basin, with a strike-slip fault cutting east-west through the region. Future plans, which include coring and more detailed seismic imaging at the site, will place better constraints on regional geology and on the timing, frequency, and size of large earthquakes and tsunamis in Kingston, Jamaica, which we will use to assess geohazard risks.

  2. First evidence of egg deposition by walleye (Sander vitreus) in the Detroit River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, B.A.; Kennedy, G.W.; Allen, J.D.; French, J. R. P., III

    2007-01-01

    The importance of fish spawning habitat in channels connecting the Great Lakes to fishery productivity in those lakes is poorly understood and has not been adequately documented. The Detroit River is a reputed spawning and nursery area for many fish, including walleye (Sander vitreus) that migrate between adjacent Lakes Erie and St. Clair. During April–May 2004, near the head of the Detroit River, we collected 136 fish eggs from the bottom of the river on egg mats. We incubated the eggs at the Great Lakes Science Center until they hatched. All eleven larvae that hatched from the eggs were identified as walleye. These eggs and larvae are the first credible scientific evidence that walleye spawn in the Detroit River. Their origin might be a stock of river-spawning walleye. Such a stock of walleye could potentially add resilience to production by walleye stocks that spawn and are harvested in adjacent waters.

  3. Naïve hosts of avian brood parasites accept foreign eggs, whereas older hosts fine-tune foreign egg discrimination during laying

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many potential hosts of social parasites recognize and reject foreign intruders, and reduce or altogether escape the negative impacts of parasitism. The ontogenetic basis of whether and how avian hosts recognize their own and the brood parasitic eggs remains unclear. By repeatedly parasitizing the same hosts with a consistent parasitic egg type, and contrasting the responses of naïve and older breeders, we studied ontogenetic plasticity in the rejection of foreign eggs by the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus), a host species of the common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus). Results In response to experimental parasitism before the onset of laying, first time breeding hosts showed almost no egg ejection, compared to higher rates of ejection in older breeders. Young birds continued to accept foreign eggs when they were subjected to repeated parasitism, whereas older birds showed even higher ejection rates later in the same laying cycle. Conclusions Our results are consistent with the hypotheses that (i) naïve hosts need to see and learn the appearance of their own eggs to discriminate and reject foreign eggs, whereas (ii) experienced breeders possess a recognition template of their own eggs and reject parasitic eggs even without having to see their own eggs. However, we cannot exclude the possibility that other external cues and internal processes, accumulated simply with increasing age, may also modify age-specific patterns in egg rejection (e.g. more sightings of the cuckoo by older breeders). Future research should specifically track the potential role of learning in responses of individual hosts between first and subsequent breeding attempts by testing whether imprinting on a parasitized clutch reduces the rates of rejecting foreign eggs in subsequent parasitized clutches. PMID:25024736

  4. 16 CFR 312.10 - Safe harbors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safe harbors. 312.10 Section 312.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE..., issued by representatives of the marketing or online industries, or by other persons, that, after...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: Floating-Harbor syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Arpin S, Afenjar A, Dubern B, Toutain A, Cabrol S, Héron D. Floating-Harbor Syndrome: report on a case ... G, Whiteford ML, Quaio CR, Gomy I, Bertola DR, Albrecht B, Platzer K, McGillivray G, Zou R, ...

  6. New Bedford Harbor Long Term Monitoring Program

    EPA Science Inventory

    New Bedford Harbor (NBH), located in southeastern Massachusetts, was designated as a Superfund site in 1983 due to unacceptably high levels of sediment contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Based on human health and environmental concerns, the decision was made to d...

  7. Sediment bioaccumulation testing: Manistique Harbor sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Manistique Harbor AOC public meeting and availability session on August 28th in Manistique, MI. This meeting/session is organized by GLNPO; they are EPA's lead on AOC restoration efforts. The goal of the meeting is to engage with the community with all the work that has been d...

  8. HARBOR ISLAND REMEDIAL INVESTIGATION, MARINE SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The data set contains marine sediment data from a remedial investigation of Harbor Island, a National Priority List (NPL) Superfund site in Washington State. Both surface and subsurface marine sediments were collected. A station data set contain sampling station location and desc...

  9. Estimating the age of Calliphora vicina eggs (Diptera: Calliphoridae): determination of embryonic morphological landmarks and preservation of egg samples.

    PubMed

    Martín-Vega, Daniel; Hall, Martin J R

    2016-05-01

    Blow fly eggs may sometimes be the only entomological evidence recovered in a forensic case, especially in cooler weather when hatching might take several days: hence, a method for estimating their age is greatly needed. However, developmental data on blow fly eggs are mainly limited to records of the time to larval hatching. The current paper describes the morphological changes occurring during embryogenesis of the blow fly Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy and their timing in relation to temperature, in order to determine those characters which can be used for simple egg age estimation using light microscopy. At 7.3 and 25 °C, 15 easily visualised morphological landmarks were determined in C. vicina living embryos, allowing for their age estimation with a resolution of 10-20 % of total egg developmental time. The observed age intervals were compared to the embryonic stages described for the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, which are used as reference data in multiple developmental studies. Moreover, current guidelines for preservation of egg samples, which recommend the placement of living eggs directly into 80 % ethanol, were tested against the hot water killing (HWK) method prior to preservation in 80 % ethanol, recommended for larval and pupal specimens. Direct placement of eggs into 80 % ethanol caused marked decomposition of samples, and no morphological landmarks were discernible. On the other hand, HWK fixation prior to preservation in 80 % ethanol enabled visualisation of 11 of the 15 age-specific morphological landmarks that were discernible in living embryos. Therefore, HWK fixation prior to preservation in 80 % ethanol is recommended for egg samples, thus unifying the protocols for collecting entomological evidence. PMID:26753872

  10. The role of egg-nest contrast in the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    PubMed

    Aidala, Zachary; Croston, Rebecca; Schwartz, Jessica; Tong, Lainga; Hauber, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Hosts of avian brood parasites can avoid the reproductive costs of raising genetically unrelated offspring by rejecting parasitic eggs. The perceptual cues and controls mediating parasitic egg discrimination and ejection are well studied: hosts are thought to use differences in egg color, brightness, maculation, size and shape to discriminate between their own and foreign eggs. Most theories of brood parasitism implicitly assume that the primary criteria to which hosts attend when discriminating eggs are differences between the eggs themselves. However, this assumption is confounded by the degree to which chromatic and achromatic characteristics of the nest lining co-vary with egg coloration, so that egg-nest contrast per se might be the recognition cue driving parasitic egg detection. Here, we systematically tested whether and how egg-nest contrast itself contributes to foreign egg discrimination. In an artificial parasitism experiment, we independently manipulated egg color and nest lining color of the egg-ejector American robin (Turdus migratorius), a host of the obligate brood parasitic brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater). We hypothesized that the degree of contrast between foreign eggs and the nest background would affect host egg rejection behavior. We predicted that experimentally decreasing egg-nest chromatic and achromatic contrast (i.e. rendering parasitic eggs more cryptic against the nest lining) would decrease rejection rates, while increasing egg-nest contrast would increase rejection rates. In contrast to our predictions, egg-nest contrast was not a significant predictor of egg ejection patterns. Instead, egg color significantly predicted responses to parasitism. We conclude that egg-egg differences are the primary drivers of egg rejection in this system. Future studies should test for the effects of egg-nest contrast per se in predicting parasitic egg recognition in other host-parasite systems, including those hosts building enclosed nests and

  11. 76 FR 8653 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Gulf Intracoastal Waterway, New Orleans Harbor, Inner Harbor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... Seeber/Claiborne Avenue) vertical lift bridge across the Inner Harbor Navigational Canal, mile 0.9, (Gulf... deviation from the published regulation for the SR 39 (Judge Seeber/Claiborne Avenue) vertical lift...

  12. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  13. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  14. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  15. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  16. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  17. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  18. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  19. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  20. 21 CFR 160.190 - Frozen egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg yolks. 160.190 Section 160.190 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.190 Frozen egg yolks. (a) Frozen egg yolks, frozen yolks is the food prepared by freezing egg yolks...

  1. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  2. Early Detection Monitoring for Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introduction of aquatic invasive species. Monitoring is needed to inform on new introductions, as well as to track success of prevention programs intended to limit spread. We have completed a pilot field case study in the Duluth-...

  3. Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, trace elements and metals in western pond turtle eggs from Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, Charles J.; Beal, K.F.; Bury, R. Bruce; Goggans, R.

    2003-01-01

    With increased concern over the status of reptile populations globally, contaminant studies should be part of species evaluations. We analyzed eggs of western pond turtles from Fern Ridge Reservoir in western Oregon for 20 organochlorine (OC) pesticides or metabolites, 42 congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 16 trace elements or metals. These eggs represent the first of this species analyzed. The OC pesticides and PCB residue concentrations in the western pond turtle eggs were generally low and similar to those found in eggs of snapping turtles from a remote site in Ontario, Canada. Western pond turtle eggs also contained mercury and chromium, which are metals of special concern. Although few reptilian eggs have been analyzed for metals, the 44.9 mug/g dry weight chromium in a western pond turtle egg in this study may be the highest reported in a reptilian egg. We found no significant difference in contaminant concentrations in eggs from nests in Oregon, where all turtle eggs failed to hatch compared to those where some eggs hatched. During this initial project, however, we were unable to assess fully the role of OCs, PCBs and other contaminants in the western pond turtle decline. Factors other than contaminants may be involved. In another study, snapping turtle eggs near the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River basin were much more contaminated with evidence reported of effects on sex differentiation and reproductive endocrine function. Egg hatchability, the only reproductive parameter monitored, may not be the most sensitive endpoint. Other endpoints, including endocrine function, deformity rates, growth rates, and sex determination need study.

  4. Continuous variation rather than specialization in the egg phenotypes of cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) parasitizing two sympatric reed warbler species.

    PubMed

    Drobniak, Szymon M; Dyrcz, Andrzej; Sudyka, Joanna; Cichoń, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of brood parasitism has long attracted considerable attention among behavioural ecologists, especially in the common cuckoo system. Common cuckoos (Cuculus canorus) are obligatory brood parasites, laying eggs in nests of passerines and specializing on specific host species. Specialized races of cuckoos are genetically distinct. Often in a given area, cuckoos encounter multiple hosts showing substantial variation in egg morphology. Exploiting different hosts should lead to egg-phenotype specialization in cuckoos to match egg phenotypes of the hosts. Here we test this assumption using a wild population of two sympatrically occurring host species: the great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) and reed warbler (A. scirpaceus). Using colour spectrophotometry, egg shell dynamometry and egg size measurements, we studied egg morphologies of cuckoos parasitizing these two hosts. In spite of observing clear differences between host egg phenotypes, we found no clear differences in cuckoo egg morphologies. Interestingly, although chromatically cuckoo eggs were more similar to reed warbler eggs, after taking into account achromatic differences, cuckoo eggs seemed to be equally similar to both host species. We hypothesize that such pattern may represent an initial stage of an averaging strategy of cuckoos, that--instead of specializing for specific hosts or exploiting only one host--adapt to multiple hosts. PMID:25180796

  5. 8. NEW YORK HARBOR MODEL. VIEW FACING DOWN EAST RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. NEW YORK HARBOR MODEL. VIEW FACING DOWN EAST RIVER TO NEW YORK HARBOR, WITH LOWER MANHATTAN ISLAND AT RIGHT. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  6. 7. NEW YORK HARBOR MODEL. VIEW FACING DOWN NEW YORK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. NEW YORK HARBOR MODEL. VIEW FACING DOWN NEW YORK HARBOR, WITH LOWER MANHATTAN ISLAND AT LEFT. - Waterways Experiment Station, Hydraulics Laboratory, Halls Ferry Road, 2 miles south of I-20, Vicksburg, Warren County, MS

  7. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition...

  8. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition...

  9. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition...

  10. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition...

  11. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs and egg products... INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition...

  12. Effects of egg oiling on larid productivity and population dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, S.J.; Malecki, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    In this study, oil was applied to naturally incubated great black-backed gull (Larus marinus) and herring gull (L. argentatus) eggs, and its effects on reproductive success were assessed. Embryo survival was inversely proportional to the quantity of petroleum applied to eggshell surfaces. Dose responses, however, were dependent on embryonic age at the time of treatment. Eggs of either species, treated with 10-20 mu l of No. 2 fuel oil 4-8 days after laying, experienced significant reductions in hatching success. Embryos oiled past the midpoint of the 28-day incubation period were insensitive to as much as 100 mu l of petroleum. Fuel oil weathered outdoors for several weeks was as toxic as fresh oil to larid embryos. Only under severe conditions (e.g., large doses of petroleum contaminating young embryos) could egg oiling have a significant impact upon populations of the herring gull and species with similar life-history characteristics.

  13. Diurnal fluctuations in nematode egg excretion in naturally and in experimentally infected chickens.

    PubMed

    Wongrak, Kalyakorn; Gauly, Matthias; Daş, Gürbüz

    2015-03-15

    We investigated whether nematode egg excretion through feces of naturally or experimentally infected chickens follow certain patterns within a day, which may allow determining the most appropriate sampling time for the highest parasite egg concentration. Feces samples (n=864) from chickens (n=36) with naturally occurring mixed nematode infections (trials N1, N2) or with an experimental Ascaridia galli infection (E) were collected quantitatively every 4h for four consecutive days. Number of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) was determined, and accumulative egg output (AEO) at each sampling time as well as total number of eggs excreted within 24h (eggs per day, EPD) were then estimated. At the end of the collection period, the hens were necropsied and their worm burdens determined. Naturally infected hens harbored Heterakis gallinarum (100%), Capillaria spp. (95.7%) and A. galli (91.3%). The experimental A. galli infection produced patent infections in all the birds. In general, both fecal egg concentration (EPG) and the amount of feces increased (P<0.05) sharply from the early morning to early-noon (10:00 a.m.) and remained at a high level until evenings which thereafter decreased to their initial levels during the night both in naturally and experimentally infected birds. This resulted in a more apparent increase or a decrease in AEO at the corresponding time points, respectively, and led to much higher egg excretions during the daytime than the nights. Despite the apparent within day fluctuations in egg excretion, neither EPG (P=0.704) nor AEO (P=0.499) nor EPD (P=0.149) was significantly different among the four collection days. Similarly, there was no significant interaction (P>0.05) between effects of sampling hours and days on EPG and AEO, suggesting the existence of repeatable diurnal fluctuations within each day. Although an association between climatic parameters (e.g., ambient temperature and relative humidity) and the nematode egg excretion was quantified, a

  14. Polarity of the Amphibian Egg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malacinski, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    Amphibian egg polarity and the mechanism which generates the polarity is addressed. Of particular concern is the question of whether the activation rotation which responds to gravity is a prerequisite for normal development.

  15. 33 CFR 110.205 - Chicago Harbor, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chicago Harbor, Ill. 110.205... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.205 Chicago Harbor, Ill. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1...) Anchorage D, Chicago Harbor Lock South. Beginning at a point 35.5 feet South (16 feet South of the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.401(k)-3 - Safe harbor requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fail to be satisfied merely because safe harbor matching contributions are made on both elective... contribution requirement of this paragraph (c) will not fail to be satisfied merely because safe harbor... paragraph (c) will not fail to be satisfied merely because the plan provides that safe harbor...

  17. 49 CFR 578.7 - Criminal safe harbor provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Criminal safe harbor provision. 578.7 Section 578... Criminal safe harbor provision. (a) Scope. This section sets forth the requirements regarding the reasonable time and the manner of correction for a person seeking safe harbor protection from...

  18. 26 CFR 1.401(m)-3 - Safe harbor requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... plan will not fail to satisfy the safe harbor matching contribution requirements of this section merely... rule. A plan that provides for safe harbor matching contributions will not fail to satisfy the... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Safe harbor requirements. 1.401(m)-3 Section...

  19. 49 CFR 578.7 - Criminal safe harbor provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Criminal safe harbor provision. 578.7 Section 578... Criminal safe harbor provision. (a) Scope. This section sets forth the requirements regarding the reasonable time and the manner of correction for a person seeking safe harbor protection from...

  20. 33 CFR 110.95 - Newport Bay Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Beach Harbor Ordinance No. 543 for recreational and small craft of such size and alignment as permitted.... Fore and aft moorings will be allowed in this area conforming to the City of Newport Beach Harbor... moorings will be allowed in this area conforming to the City of Newport Beach Harbor Ordinance No. 543...

  1. 33 CFR 110.95 - Newport Bay Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Beach Harbor Ordinance No. 543 for recreational and small craft of such size and alignment as permitted.... Fore and aft moorings will be allowed in this area conforming to the City of Newport Beach Harbor... moorings will be allowed in this area conforming to the City of Newport Beach Harbor Ordinance No. 543...

  2. 33 CFR 117.272 - Boot Key Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boot Key Harbor. 117.272 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.272 Boot Key Harbor. The draw of the Boot Key Harbor drawbridge, mile 0.13, between Marathon and Boot Key, will open as necessary on...

  3. 33 CFR 117.272 - Boot Key Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boot Key Harbor. 117.272 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.272 Boot Key Harbor. The draw of the Boot Key Harbor drawbridge, mile 0.13, between Marathon and Boot Key, will open as necessary on...

  4. 33 CFR 117.272 - Boot Key Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boot Key Harbor. 117.272 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.272 Boot Key Harbor. The draw of the Boot Key Harbor drawbridge, mile 0.13, between Marathon and Boot Key, will open as necessary on...

  5. 33 CFR 117.272 - Boot Key Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boot Key Harbor. 117.272 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.272 Boot Key Harbor. The draw of the Boot Key Harbor drawbridge, mile 0.13, between Marathon and Boot Key, will open as necessary on...

  6. 33 CFR 117.272 - Boot Key Harbor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boot Key Harbor. 117.272 Section... DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.272 Boot Key Harbor. The draw of the Boot Key Harbor drawbridge, mile 0.13, between Marathon and Boot Key, will open as necessary on...

  7. 7. Photocopy of c 1837 map of Cleveland Harbor with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of c 1837 map of Cleveland Harbor with two plans for additonal harbor. This is the first map to show the Cleveland Breakwater. Original in the Corps' files, Buffalo District. - Cleveland Breakwater at Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  8. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  10. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  11. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  12. 33 CFR 80.1136 - Moss Landing Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moss Landing Harbor, CA. 80.1136... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1136 Moss Landing Harbor, CA. A line drawn from the seaward extremity of the pier located 0.3 mile south of Moss Landing Harbor Entrance to...

  13. Decadal Changes In Benthic Community Measures In New York Harbor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring in New York Harbor, NY, as part of the Regional Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program has spanned a decade, and includes habitat and water quality measures and sediment contaminant levels from four sub-basins (Upper NY Harbor, Lower NY Harbor, Newark Bay, and...

  14. 33 CFR 110.130 - Bar Harbor, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bar Harbor, Maine. 110.130... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.130 Bar Harbor, Maine. (a) Anchorage grounds. (1) Anchorage “A” is that portion of Frenchman Bay, Bar Harbor, ME enclosed by a rhumb line connecting the...

  15. 33 CFR 110.130 - Bar Harbor, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bar Harbor, Maine. 110.130... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.130 Bar Harbor, Maine. (a) Anchorage grounds. (1) Anchorage “A” is that portion of Frenchman Bay, Bar Harbor, ME enclosed by a rhumb line connecting the...

  16. 33 CFR 110.130 - Bar Harbor, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bar Harbor, Maine. 110.130... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.130 Bar Harbor, Maine. (a) Anchorage grounds. (1) Anchorage “A” is that portion of Frenchman Bay, Bar Harbor, ME enclosed by a rhumb line connecting the...

  17. 33 CFR 110.130 - Bar Harbor, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bar Harbor, Maine. 110.130... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.130 Bar Harbor, Maine. (a) Anchorage grounds. (1) Anchorage “A” is that portion of Frenchman Bay, Bar Harbor, ME enclosed by a rhumb line connecting the...

  18. 33 CFR 110.130 - Bar Harbor, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bar Harbor, Maine. 110.130... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.130 Bar Harbor, Maine. (a) Anchorage grounds. (1) Anchorage “A” is that portion of Frenchman Bay, Bar Harbor, ME enclosed by a rhumb line connecting the...

  19. Mechanical Hatching Egg Sanitization: A Fresh Look

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three to four decades ago, hatching egg sanitization was done by immersion of eggs in an egg-gathering basket (plastic-coated metal wire) into a small vat with a heating element and disinfectant solution. This procedure failed miserably for several reasons. First, the eggs were not subjected to the...

  20. MECHANICAL HATCHING EGG SANITIZATION: A FRESH LOOK

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg sanitation has had a dubious history in North America until recent years. Three to four decades ago, hatching egg sanitization was done by immersion of eggs in an egg-gathering basket (plastic coated metal wire) into a small vat with a heating element and disinfectant solution. This procedure ...

  1. Egg embryo development detection with hyperspectral imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the U. S. egg industry, anywhere from 130 million to over one billion infertile eggs are incubated each year. Some of these infertile eggs explode in the hatching cabinet and can potentially spread molds or bacteria to all the eggs in the cabinet. A method to detect the embryo development of in...

  2. Effect of egg shell color on some egg quality in table eggs during storage at refrigerator temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days of storage at 5 °C. A total of 100 fresh eggs (60-65 g) were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in brown shell color eggs significantly (P<0.01) higher than white shell color eggs at 21 days of storage, but no significant differences were observed among groups other storage periods. The brown shell color eggs showed lower levels of specific gravity than white shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21, but there were no significant differences between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs at day 28. The albumen height and Haugh unit of white shell color eggs was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of white shell color eggs during the storage periods. There were no significant differences in yolk index and albumen pH between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs during the storage periods. The yolk pH of white shell color eggs was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that of brown shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21 of storage period. The results indicated that the white shell color eggs showed better quality than brown shell color eggs at 5 °C for the entire storage period.

  3. Evaluation of an extendable pole-net to collect heron eggs in the canopy of tall trees

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hines, R.K.; Custer, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    A pole, extendable from 2 to 8 m, with a nylon-mesh collecting net, was used to retrieve eggs from nests of Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias) in the canopy of floodplain forests. A total of 200 eggs was collected for contaminant analysis from ten colonies along the upper Mississippi River during the spring of 1993. Low egg breakage (1%) and acceptable survival of embryos in an incubator to pipping (55%) indicated that the device was useful.

  4. Beryllium in sediments of Nagoya harbor estuaries

    SciTech Connect

    Itoh, K.

    1986-06-01

    Beryllium occurs naturally in minerals and oils. Other than the natural sources, considerable quantity of beryllium has been discharged from its smelting industry. Soil pollutants caused by beryllium in the circumference of its smelting industry on the banks of Nagoya harbor estuaries have been reported. Several methods for the spectroscopic determination of beryllium can not eliminate the interference caused by fluoride ion which remains in the digestion solution when hydrofluoric acid is used to degradate the silicate lattice. Accordingly, the authors attempted to improve the pretreatment in order to eliminate the effect of fluoride ion, and to make the procedure simpler and faster with high precision. A simple and sensitive method is presented for the determination of beryllium in sediments by atomic absorption spectroscopy using methylisobutylketone extraction with acetylacetone. They have carried out an extensive investigation on the pollution of sea water and sediments of Nagoya harbor estuaries, which is located in one of the most active industrial areas in Japan.

  5. Optokinetic nystagmus in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina).

    PubMed

    Hanke, Frederike D; Hanke, Wolf; Hoffmann, Klaus-Peter; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2008-01-01

    Harbor seals experience motion due to self-motion and to movement in the external world. However, motion vision has not been studied yet in marine mammals moving in the underwater world. To open up this research, optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) as a basic motion sensing and retinal image stabilizing reflex was studied in four harbor seals during stimulation with moving black-and-white stripe patterns. All seals responded with optokinetic eye movements. Detailed measurements obtained with one animal revealed a moderate gain for horizontal binocular OKN. Monocularly stimulated, the seal displayed a symmetrical OKN with slightly stronger responses to leftward moving stimuli, and, surprisingly, a symmetrical OKN was found in the vertical domain. PMID:18160091

  6. Quantifying sources of environmental contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs.

    PubMed

    Morgan, E R; Azam, D; Pegler, K

    2013-04-15

    A rich body of work has reported levels of infection with Toxocara species in definitive hosts, and the frequency of eggs in the environment, in many different regions and situations. These have greatly increased our understanding of the relationship between egg excretion from companion and wild animals and the risk of human infection by inadvertent ingestion of eggs from soil and other environmental reservoirs. Nevertheless, it is difficult to compare studies directly because of vagaries in sampling and laboratory methods, a preponderance of prevalence rather than abundance data, and a lack of studies that systematically sample different sympatric definitive host populations. Such comparisons could be instructive, for example to determine the relative contributions of different definitive host populations and categories to environmental contamination in specified areas, and hence guide priorities for control. In this article we use estimates of host density and infection levels in the city of Bristol, UK, as a case study to evaluate the relative contribution of sympatric cats, dogs and foxes to overall environmental contamination with eggs. Results suggest that dogs, especially those less than 12 weeks of age, dominate total egg output, but that this is modified by degree of access to public areas and removal of faeces, such that foxes could take over as the primary source of eggs. Results and conclusions are likely to differ among specific locations. The general aim is to show how an improved quantitative framework for epidemiological studies of Toxocara spp. egg contamination can help to advance understanding and the effectiveness of control strategies in future. PMID:23333071

  7. Boson shells harboring charged black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Laemmerzahl, Claus; List, Meike

    2010-11-15

    We consider boson shells in scalar electrodynamics coupled to Einstein gravity. The interior of the shells can be empty space, or harbor a black hole or a naked singularity. We analyze the properties of these types of solutions and determine their domains of existence. We investigate the energy conditions and present mass formulae for the composite black hole-boson shell systems. We demonstrate that these types of solutions violate black hole uniqueness.

  8. Light, Compact Pumper for Harbor Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Report describes development of new transportable water-pumping unit for fire-fighting. Compact, self-contained unit provides fire protection at coastal and inland ports and is lighter than standard firetruck pumper of same capacity. Used to fight fires in harbors, cities, forests, refineries, chemical plants, and offshore drilling platforms. Other possible applications include cleaning up oilspills, pumping out ships, and flood control pumping.

  9. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

  10. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

  11. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

  12. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

  13. 9 CFR 590.510 - Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classifications of shell eggs used in the processing of egg products. 590.510 Section 590.510 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG...

  14. Total PCBs, TCDD-EQs in eggs: Reproductive hazards to north Pacific albatrosses

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, J.P.; Auman, H.J.; Summer, C.L.; Giesy, J.P.; Sanderson, J.T.; DeDoes, J.M.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Jones, P.

    1995-12-31

    Freshly laid eggs of Laysan and black-footed Albatrosses (Diomedea immutabilis and D. nigripes) were collected at Midway Atoll 1992 through 1994 and subsequently analyzed for chlorinated contaminants including OC pesticides, PCBs, dioxins and furans. TCDD-EQs in eggs were calculated from congener-specific data. Total PCBs ranged from 1.1 to 3.8 mglkg ww. Calculated TCDD-EQs ranged from 52--124 pg/g. A substantial portion (30--35%) of the TCDD-EQs in eggs were owing to dioxins and furans, and the balance to PCBs. PCBs in albatross eggs were much less potent than PCBs from waterbirds` eggs of the Great Lakes and other continental inland waters. Hazard indices based on calculated TCDD-EQs suggested that Laysan eggs were at the LOAEL for embryonic effects, but black-footed eggs were well above avian LOAELS. Egg death during natural incubation was 2--3% greater in black-footed than Laysan nests, and 5% fewer black-footed albatross chicks were fledged in 1994. A low incidence of deformities in hatchlings was noted in 1994 and 1995. Crossed-bill hatchlings were not reported in these populations until the late 1970s in spite of intensive studies 1957--1972, but occurred at rates of 1 in 14,000 hatchlings, and 1 in 300 dead eggs 1993--1995. Reproductive effects owing to contaminant exposures in these most pelagic seabirds are confirmed.

  15. Old Harbor Scammon Bay Hydro Feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Petrie

    2007-06-27

    The grantee, Alaska Village Electric Cooperative (AVEC), is a non-profit member owned rural electric generation and distribution cooperative. The proposed Project is located near the community of Old Harbor, Alaska. Old Harbor is on the southeastern coast of Kodiak Island, approximately 70 miles southwest of the City of Kodiak and 320 miles southwest of Anchorage. In 1998 sufficient information had been developed to apply for a license to construct the project and the cost was estimated to be $2,445,000 for a 500 KW project on Lagoon Creek. Major features of the project included an eight-foot high diversion dam on Mountain Creek, a desander box, a 9,800-foot long penstock to the powerhouse on Lagoon Creek, and a 5,500-foot long access road. It was also anticipated that the project could provide an additional source of water to Old Harbor. The report details the history and lessons learned in designing and permiting the proposed hydroelectric facility.

  16. Egg mercury levels decline with the laying sequence in charadriiformes

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, P.H. )

    1992-05-01

    Whereas pollutants do not differ in concentration among eggs of one clutch in some bird species, in gulls, terns and grebes several organochlorines show intraclutch variation: Concentrations increase with the laying sequence. Heavy metals, however, are not so intensively studied with respect to intraclutch variation. In contrast to lead and cadmium, mercury is accumulated in great quantities in eggs. Variation in mercury levels between the eggs of one clutch were low compared to interclutch variability in the White-tailed Sea Eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and the Peregrine (Falco peregrinus). In gulls, however, intraclutch variation was significant and characterized by higher mercury levels in the first than in subsequently laid eggs, which is the opposite to the trend in organochlorine levels. In this paper, the author reports on investigations of intraclutch variation in mercury levels in three Charadriiform-species, Herring Gull, Common Tern and Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus). The results confirm those previously reported in gulls and point to the importance of the egg in reducing the females' mercury burden. 23 refs, 2 tabs.

  17. 77 FR 59551 - Safety Zone, Changes to Original Rule; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... Zone; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA'' (77 FR 50916). This new... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking COTP Captain of the... Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ] ACTION:...

  18. 33 CFR 165.904 - Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone. 165.904 Section 165.904 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.904 Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor—Safety and Security Zone. (a) Location. All waters of Lake Michigan within Burnham Park Harbor shoreward of a line across...

  19. 33 CFR 165.904 - Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone. 165.904 Section 165.904 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.904 Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor—Safety and Security Zone. (a) Location. All waters of Lake Michigan within Burnham Park Harbor shoreward of a line across...

  20. 33 CFR 165.904 - Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... & Burnham Park Harbor-Safety and Security Zone. 165.904 Section 165.904 Navigation and Navigable Waters... Guard District § 165.904 Lake Michigan at Chicago Harbor & Burnham Park Harbor—Safety and Security Zone. (a) Location. All waters of Lake Michigan within Burnham Park Harbor shoreward of a line across...

  1. It's what's inside that counts: egg contaminant concentrations are influenced by estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Mark P; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Hartman, C Alex

    2016-05-01

    In egg contaminant studies, it is necessary to calculate egg contaminant concentrations on a fresh wet weight basis and this requires accurate estimates of egg density and egg volume. We show that the inclusion or exclusion of the eggshell can influence egg contaminant concentrations, and we provide estimates of egg density (both with and without the eggshell) and egg-shape coefficients (used to estimate egg volume from egg morphometrics) for American avocet (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus), and Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri). Egg densities (g/cm(3)) estimated for whole eggs (1.056 ± 0.003) were higher than egg densities estimated for egg contents (1.024 ± 0.001), and were 1.059 ± 0.001 and 1.025 ± 0.001 for avocets, 1.056 ± 0.001 and 1.023 ± 0.001 for stilts, and 1.053 ± 0.002 and 1.025 ± 0.002 for terns. The egg-shape coefficients for egg volume (K v ) and egg mass (K w ) also differed depending on whether the eggshell was included (K v  = 0.491 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.518 ± 0.001) or excluded (K v  = 0.493 ± 0.001; K w  = 0.505 ± 0.001), and varied among species. Although egg contaminant concentrations are rarely meant to include the eggshell, we show that the typical inclusion of the eggshell in egg density and egg volume estimates results in egg contaminant concentrations being underestimated by 6-13 %. Our results demonstrate that the inclusion of the eggshell significantly influences estimates of egg density, egg volume, and fresh egg mass, which leads to egg contaminant concentrations that are biased low. We suggest that egg contaminant concentrations be calculated on a fresh wet weight basis using only internal egg-content densities, volumes, and masses appropriate for the species. For the three waterbirds in our study, these corrected coefficients are 1.024 ± 0.001 for egg density, 0.493 ± 0.001 for K v , and 0.505 ± 0.001 for K w . PMID:26932462

  2. Review of "Great Teachers and Great Leaders"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    "Great Teachers and Great Leaders" (GTGL) is one of six research summaries issued by the U.S. Department of Education in support of its Blueprint for Reform. This review examines the presentation of research about improving teacher and administrator quality in GTGL. The review concludes that there are serious flaws in the research summary. The…

  3. Good eggs? Evaluating consent forms for egg donation.

    PubMed

    Cattapan, Alana Rose

    2016-07-01

    Beyond gaps in the provision of information, the informed consent process for egg donation is complicated by conflicts of interest, payment and a lack of longitudinal data about physiological and psychological risks. Recent scholarship has suggested that egg donation programmes could improve the informed consent process by revising consent documents. At a minimum, these documents should include information about eight key criteria: the nature and objectives of treatment; the benefits, risks and inconveniences of egg donation; the privacy of donors and their anonymity (where applicable); disclosure that participation is voluntary (withdrawal); the availability of counselling; financial considerations; the possibility of an unsuccessful cycle and potential uses of the eggs retrieved. This study evaluates the incorporation of these minimum criteria in consent forms for egg donation, obtained through requests to Canadian fertility clinics. Even when clinics were considered to have met criteria simply by mentioning them, among the eight consent forms assessed, none met the minimum standards. Only half of clinics addressed privacy/anonymity concerns, financial issues and the possibility of a future cycle. Improving the quality of consent documentation to meet the minimum standards established by this study may not be an onerous task. For some, this will include re-evaluating how they include one or two elements of disclosure, and for others, this will require a substantial overhaul. Using the criteria provided by this study as the minimum standard for consent could ensure that donors have the basic information they need to make informed decisions. PMID:26951214

  4. Evaluation of sediment contamination in Pearl Harbor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grovhoug, J.G.

    1992-06-01

    Pearl Harbor demonstrates remarkable resilience to natural and human-induced contaminant stresses. A review of more than fifty harbor-specific data sets reveals a complex contamination and recovery history. Siltation is a major contaminant pathway in Pearl Harbor. Dredging operations, which are necessary due to high siltation rates, reduce contaminant loading by periodically removing the upper harbor sediment layers. The response of test organisms during sediment toxicity and bioaccumulation studies showed negligible effects from sediment toxicity. The environmental quality at an offshore dredge disposal site for the harbor is not measurable affected. Urban runoff via storm drains and tributaries is an important nonpoint source of contaminant exposure to the Pearl Harbor ecosystem. Most contaminants experience extensive physical, chemical, and biological, modification after entering the harbor environment. Certain contaminants, including PCBs, petroleum hydrocarbons, and silver, were reported at sufficiently elevated sediment concentrations to warrant environmental concern in some harbor regions and may warrant further evaluation. The overall sediment quality in Pearl Harbor, however, is less degraded than that of many U.S. mainland coastal harbors. Further detailed study of the abundance and distribution of important marine resources in Pearl Harbor is recommended.

  5. Nests and eggs of colonial birds nesting in Malheur Lake, Oregon, with notes on DDE

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cornely, J.E.; Thompson, S.P.; Henny, C.J.; Littlefield, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the nests and eggs of 7 species of colonial birds that nested on Malheur Lake in Malheur National Wildlife Refuge, Oregon, in 1980 and 1981. All nests were constructed over water in stands of hardstem bulrush (Scirpus acutus). We compared nest measurements among species and found significant differences. Nest size was highly correlated with bird body mass. The heavier the bird, the larger the nest and the higher the nest crown was above water. Egg volume was also highly correlated with body mass. We found evidence of shell thinning and DDE residues in great egret eggs and low levels of pesticide residues in eggs of Franklin's Gull. We summarize all available DDE and shell thickness data from colonial bird eggs collected from Malheur Lake.

  6. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  7. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  8. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification...

  9. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification...

  10. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  11. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  12. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  13. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  14. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification...

  15. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  16. 9 CFR 590.925 - Inspection of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inspection of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.925 Inspection of imported egg products. (a) Except as provided in § 590.960, egg products...

  17. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification...

  18. 9 CFR 590.800 - Identification of restricted eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Identification of restricted eggs. 590... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Identification of Restricted Eggs Or Egg Products Not Intended for Human Consumption § 590.800 Identification...

  19. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  20. 9 CFR 590.956 - Relabeling of imported egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relabeling of imported egg products... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.956 Relabeling of imported egg products. (a) Egg products eligible for importation may...

  1. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dried egg yolks. 160.185 Section 160.185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.185 Dried egg yolks. (a) Dried egg...

  2. Bioactive Egg Components and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Catherine J.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a normal acute response of the immune system to pathogens and tissue injury. However, chronic inflammation is known to play a significant role in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cancer. Thus, the impact of dietary factors on inflammation may provide key insight into mitigating chronic disease risk. Eggs are recognized as a functional food that contain a variety of bioactive compounds that can influence pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Interestingly, the effects of egg consumption on inflammation varies across different populations, including those that are classified as healthy, overweight, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetic. The following review will discuss the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties of egg components, with a focus on egg phospholipids, cholesterol, the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin, and bioactive proteins. The effects of egg consumption of inflammation across human populations will additionally be presented. Together, these findings have implications for population-specific dietary recommendations and chronic disease risk. PMID:26389951

  3. Cytoplasmic rearrangements associated with amphibian egg symmetrization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malacinski, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Cytoplasmic rearrangements which follow fertilization were mentioned in normal and inverted eggs. A set of yolk compartments was resolved by cytological analyses of both normally oriented and inverted eggs. Those compartments were characterized by their yolk platelet compositions and movement during egg inversion. It is found that during egg inversion the yolk compartments shift minor cytoplasmic compartments which line the egg cortex. Those yolk mass shifts occurred only after the inverted egg was activated. The direction of shift of the major yolk components, rather than the sperm entrance site, determines the dorsal/ventral polarity of the inverted egg. Among different spawnings the rate of shift varied. Eggs that displayed the fastest rate of shift exhibited the highest frequency of developmental abnormalities during organogenesis. Interpretation of novel observations on cytoplasmic organization provide criticism of some earlier models. A new density compartment model is presented as a coherent way to view the organization of the egg cytoplasm and the development of bilateral symmetry.

  4. Egg laying sequence influences egg mercury concentrations and egg size in three bird species: Implications for contaminant monitoring programs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark P.; Yee, Julie L.; Hartman, C. Alex

    2016-01-01

    Bird eggs are commonly used in contaminant monitoring programs and toxicological risk assessments, but intra-clutch variation and sampling methodology could influence interpretability. We examined the influence of egg laying sequence on egg mercury concentrations and burdens in American avocets, black-necked stilts, and Forster's terns. The average decline in mercury concentrations between the first and last egg laid was 33% for stilts, 22% for terns, and 11% for avocets, and most of this decline occurred between the first and second eggs laid (24% for stilts, 18% for terns, and 9% for avocets). Trends in egg size with egg laying order were inconsistent among species and overall differences in egg volume, mass, length, and width were <3%. We summarized the literature and, among 17 species studied, mercury concentrations generally declined by 16% between the first and second eggs laid. Despite the strong effect of egg laying sequence, most of the variance in egg mercury concentrations still occurred among clutches (75%-91%) rather than within clutches (9%-25%). Using simulations, we determined that to accurately estimate a population's mean egg mercury concentration using only a single random egg from a subset of nests, it would require sampling >60 nests to represent a large population (10% accuracy) or ≥14 nests to represent a small colony that contained <100 nests (20% accuracy).

  5. Who moved my eggs? An experimental test of the egg arrangement hypothesis for the rejection of brood parasitic eggs.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Daniel; Samaš, Peter; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Avian brood parasitism is an exceptional reproductive strategy whereby parasites reduce their own costs associated with parental care and impose them on the host parents. Consequently, host species have evolved multiple defensive mechanisms to combat parasitism. The vast majority of research attention to date has examined host defenses to recognize and reject parasitic eggs. The recently proposed "egg arrangement hypothesis" suggests that hosts may not focus solely on individual eggs' features, but instead the overall arrangement of the clutch may also provide a cue that parasitism has occurred. Correlative data revealed that host females maintaining a consistent egg arrangement across the incubation period were more likely to reject foreign egg models than females that did not keep a consistent egg arrangement. Here, we provide the first experimental test of this hypothesis in the European blackbird (Turdus merula). We experimentally parasitized nests such that the egg arrangement was either disrupted or not disrupted. We found no evidence that altered egg arrangement was used as a cue for egg rejection by host females. Therefore, we suggest that females that keep consistent egg arrangement are more likely to eject foreign eggs for other correlated reasons. Thus, egg arrangement does not serve as an independent cue to trigger egg rejection responses to parasitism in this host species. PMID:25194716

  6. Floating along buoyancy levels: Dispersal and survival of western Baltic fish eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petereit, C.; Hinrichsen, H.-H.; Franke, A.; Köster, F. W.

    2014-03-01

    Vertical distribution is an important feature of pelagic fish eggs and yolk sac larvae impacting their survival and dispersal, especially in heterogeneous and highly variable estuarine environments like the Baltic Sea. Egg densities determining the vertical distribution pattern were experimentally ascertained for cod (Gadus morhua), plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the western Baltic Sea. Plaice eggs floated at lower mean (±standard deviation) density range (1.0136 ± 0.0007 g cm-3) compared to cod (1.0146 ± 0.0009 g cm-3) and flounder eggs (1.0160 ± 0.0015 g cm-3), which floated on the highest density level. In flounder egg diameter was significantly related to egg density and in cod a weak correlation could be found between egg dry weight and density. All other relationships between female size, egg size, egg dry weight and egg density were not significant for any of the species. Available egg density data for Baltic Sea cod, plaice and flounder are summarized considering ICES subdivisions and stock management units. A hydrodynamic drift modeling approach was applied releasing drifters in the Belt Sea continuously from December to May, covering the species’ spawning seasons. The model implemented experimentally derived egg density ranges and included ontogenetic egg density modifications for cod eggs, increasing egg density from a late egg development stage to first hatch. A drifter was removed from the model, i.e. considered dead, when its initially prescribed density value exceeded the density range available at the temporally resolved geographical positions along the drift trajectories. Highest survival occurred during releases in April and May but no cohorts survived if they were drifted east into the central Arkona Basin or the central Baltic Sea, irrespective of whether a major Baltic Inflow (1992/1993) or a stagnation-year (1987/1988) was simulated. The dispersal characteristics of the surviving yolk sac larvae of

  7. Unfolding Kinetics of Egg Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Dipti

    2011-03-01

    This study explores denaturing kinetics of egg white using high resolution calorimetric technique. Fresh egg was scanned fro heating and cooling to see the thermodynamics 10circ; C to 100circ; C at different heating ramp rates varying from 1 to 20circ; C/min. An endothermic peak was found on heating scan showing denaturing of protein which was found absent at the cooling indicating the absence of any residue after heating. The denature peak shifted towards higher temperature as ramp rate increases following Arrhenius behavior and shows an activated denaturing kinetics of the egg protein. This peak was also compared with the water to avoid water effects. Behavior of denaturing peak can be explained in terms of Arrhenius theory.

  8. A model of egg production.

    PubMed

    Charles, D R

    1984-07-01

    A quantitative literature review has been used as the basis of an empirical simulation model of the responses in food intake and egg output of laying hens to temperature, light pattern, light intensity, feeding system type, crude protein, methionine, lysine and metabolisable energy. The financial consequences are considered, by the calculation of gross margin of egg value minus food cost. Response to protein intake in an optimal environment is taken as the first limiting factor. Depressions below the maximum are calculated for sub-optimal environments. The model was tested against a sample of flocks for which detailed records were available, and found to give realistic answers. A FORTRAN program was written which calculates egg output and food intake by 4-week production periods, permitting the user to examine the effects of management changes made during lay. Shortened versions of the model, based on annual values have been written for a programmable calculator. PMID:6478277

  9. Understanding the referral services safe harbor.

    PubMed

    Tomes, J

    1994-02-01

    In today's competitive healthcare environment, healthcare facilities and individual providers must form new relationships to safeguard their market positions and compete efficiently. But while such relationships are necessary and serve legitimate goals, those entering into such arrangements must be concerned that in so doing they do not run afoul of the Medicare and Medicaid fraud and abuse statute. This article examines the potential dangers of remuneration for referrals, and explains how one of the many so-called "safe harbor" provisions of the fraud and abuse statute applies to this practice. PMID:10145951

  10. Fluid dynamics of liquid egg products.

    PubMed

    Kumbár, Vojtěch; Strnková, Jana; Nedomová, Šárka; Buchar, Jaroslav

    2015-06-01

    The rheological behavior of liquid egg products (egg yolk, egg white, and whole liquid egg) was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Eggs of three poultry specimens were used: hen (Isa Brown), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), and goose (Anser anser f. domestica). Rheological behavior was pseudoplastic and flow curves fitted by the power law model (Herschel-Bulkley and Ostwald-De Waele). The meaning of rheological parameters on friction factors and velocity profiles during flow of liquid egg products in tube has been shown. PMID:25761859

  11. Olfactory Attraction of the Larval Parasitoid, Hyposoter horticola, to Plants Infested with Eggs of the Host Butterfly, Melitaea cinxia

    PubMed Central

    Castelo, Marcela K.; van Nouhuys, Saskya; Corley, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Parasitoids locate inconspicuous hosts in a heterogeneous habitat using plant volatiles, some of which are induced by the hosts. Hyposoter horticola Gravenhost (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) is a parasitoid of the Glanville fritillary butterfly Melitaea cinxia L. (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). Melitaea cinxia lays eggs in clusters on leaves of Plantago lanceolata L. (Lamiales: Plantaginaceae) and Veronica spicata L. (Lamiales: Plantaginaceae). The parasitoid oviposits into host larvae that have not yet hatched from the egg. Thus, though H. horticola is a parasitoid of Melitaea cinxia larvae, it must find host eggs on plants that have not been fed on by the larvae. Using a Y-tube olfactometer, the response of H. horticola to odors of Melitaea cinxia and extracts of the attacked plant species were tested. Three week-old eggs (near hatching) were attractive to young H. horticola, but one week-old eggs were attractive only to old or experienced H. horticola. Melitaea cinxia larvae were not attractive. A water extract of P. lanceolata was attractive, but ethanol or hexane extracts were not. None of the extracts of V. spicata were attractive. Leaves of V. spicata were attractive only if harboring eggs, but P. lanceolata leaves with eggs were not. Free flying H. horticola in a large outdoor enclosure were presented with host and plant cues. As in the olfactometer, V. spicata was attractive only when eggs were on it, and P. lanceolata was somewhat attractive with or without eggs. This study shows for the first time that a parasitoid of larvae uses egg volatiles or oviposition-induced plant volatiles, to find host larvae, and that Melitaea cinxia eggs or traces of oviposition induce the production of these volatiles by the plant. Based on the results, and given the natural distribution of the plants and M. cinxia eggs, parasitism of Melitaea cinxia eggs on P. lanceolata would be expected to be low. Instead, under natural conditions, a fraction of the eggs in virtually all egg

  12. Acceptance of brown-shelled eggs in a white-shelled egg market.

    PubMed

    Johnston, N P; Jefferies, L K; Rodriguez, B; Johnston, D E

    2011-05-01

    Brown eggs have gradually entered the traditional white-egg markets as a distinctive mode for packaging specialty eggs. A test was conducted at the Brigham Young University Sensory Laboratory (Provo, UT) to understand how consumers view attributes of the brown egg relative to the white egg. The objectives were to see how the consumer viewed properties of eggs by color and to examine the preference for brown color intensity. The 52 panelists were all women who routinely purchased and consumed eggs. Some women (53.8%) consumed eggs twice weekly, and 40.4% purchased them at least every 2 wk. Purchases included specialty eggs (14.6%) consisting of cage-free (50.0%), organic (28.6%), and n-3 enhanced (21.4%) eggs. The panelists preferred white eggs (90.4%). Though brown-shelled eggs did not exceed white eggs in preference, they were perceived positively (white-shelled %:brown-shelled %) as being more nutritious (65:29), having more flavor (27:14) and n-3 content (62:39), having a farm-flock origin (46:44), and being from organically fed hens (56:31) To test the preference for shade of brown eggs, a set of 6 eggs with varying intensities of brown color was evaluated for accepted appearance using a 9-point hedonic scale. The egg color intensities were measured using a Hunter Colorflex spectrophotometer (Hunter Associates Laboratory, Reston, VA) and the CIE system. The lightness (L*) values ranged from 83.2 for the white egg to 63.6 to 46.5 for the brown eggs. A significant (P < 0.05) preference was found for the 2 lighter shades of brown-shelled eggs (L* 63.6 and 57.5). Using the 9-point scale, panelists then compared brown eggs side by side with white eggs. Again, the 2 most light-tinted brown eggs were found most comparable with the white egg in acceptability and better (P < 0.05) than the darker brown eggs. In conclusion, white eggs were preferred over brown eggs; however, brown eggs gained in acceptance but did not exceed white as likely to be more nutritious or

  13. Effects of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of individual commercial layers.

    PubMed

    Shim, M Y; Song, E; Billard, L; Aggrey, S E; Pesti, G M; Sodsee, P

    2013-10-01

    The effects of a series of balanced dietary protein levels on egg production and egg quality parameters of laying hens from 18 through 74 wk of age were investigated. One hundred forty-four pullets (Bovans) were randomly assigned to individual cages with separate feeders including 3 different protein level series of isocaloric diets. Diets were separated into 4 phases of 18-22, 23-32, 33-44, and 45-74 wk of age. The high protein (H) series contained 21.62, 19.05, 16.32, and 16.05% CP, respectively. Medium protein (M) and low protein (L) series were 2 and 4% lower in balanced dietary protein. The results clearly demonstrated that the balanced dietary protein level was a limiting factor for BW, ADFI, egg weight, hen day egg production (HDEP), and feed per kilogram of eggs. Feeding with the L series resulted in lower ADFI and HDEP (90.33% peak production) and more feed per kilogram of eggs compared with the H or M series (HDEP; 93.23 and 95.68% peak production, monthly basis). Egg weight responded in a linear manner to balanced dietary protein level (58.78, 55.94, and 52.73 g for H, M, and L, respectively). Feed intake of all hens, but especially those in the L series, increased considerably after wk 54 when the temperature of the house decreased due to winter conditions. Thus, hens fed the L series seemed particularly dependent on house temperature to maintain BW, ADFI, and HDEP. For egg quality parameters, percent yolk, Haugh units, and egg specific gravity were similar regardless of diets. Haugh units were found to be greatly affected by the variation of housing temperature (P = 0.025). Maximum performance cannot always be expected to lead to maximum profits. Contrary to the idea of a daily amino acid requirement for maximum performance, these results may be used to determine profit-maximizing levels of balanced dietary protein based on the cost of protein and returns from different possible protein levels that may be fed. PMID:24046416

  14. Reproductive cycles, egg production and recruitment in the Indo-Pacific intertidal gastropod Umbonium vestiarium (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, A. J.

    1987-05-01

    Umbonium vestiarium (L.) was found to dominate intertidal sand with a mean 11 808 m -2 (95·4 g tdw m -2), excluding virtually all other invertebrate fauna. Whilst spawning occurs from mid-March to August, substantial recruitment seems limited to March-May, first on the lowest levels, and then upshore as the young grow to 5-6 mm by June and as the growing young move upshore. The number of ovarian eggs varied in broad accordance with total tissue dry weight: both numbers of ovarian eggs and total dry weight in females and males increased in periods between bouts of spawning but fell during substantial spawning which was mostly close to neap tides. The relationships between planktonic-egg counts, ovarian-egg counts and tissue dry weight, together with direct weighings of ovarian eggs, suggest (a) mature eggs weigh about 2·5 μg each (dry weight), (b) 10-mm females each produced about 8800 eggs (22 mg) in the 79-day observation and probably 17 000-19 000 eggs (44 g) in the total spawning period (March-August), (c) the population as a whole produced about 30 × 10 6 eggs m -2 (75 g m -2) in the 79 days and probably around 60 × 10 6 eggs m -2 (150 g m -2) plus a similar quantity of semen in March-August, giving a total reproductive output of aproximately 300 g m -2 year -1. As Umbonium lives for only about one year with apparently one annual major period of spawning and recruitment, it is proposed that high reproductive output, large eggs and reduced larval dispersal may be adaptively related to the short lifespan on comparatively unstable and isolated habitats. These features are likely to have significant effects upon the genetic heterogeneity of Umbonium populations across its great Indo-West Pacific range.

  15. Diseases of amphibian eggs and embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, D.E.; Converse, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibians generally are prolific egg producers. In tropical and semi-tropical regions, deposition of eggs may occur year-round or may coincide with rainy seasons, while in temperate regions, deposition of eggs usually occurs immediately after emergence from hibernation. Numbers of eggs produced by each species may vary from a few dozen to thousands. Accordingly, some eggs may be infertile and wastage of embryos is to be expected. Fertility, viability and decomposition of eggs and embryos must be considered before it is assumed that diseases are present. An important consideration in the evaluation of egg masses is the fact that some will contain infertile and non-viable eggs. These infertile and nonviable eggs will undergo decomposition and they may appear similar to eggs that are infected by a pathogen. Evaluation of egg masses and embryos for the presence of disease may require repeated observations in a given breeding season as well as continued monitoring of egg masses during their growth and development and over successive breeding seasons. Amphibian eggs rarely are subjected to a comprehensive health (diagnostic) examination; hence, there is scant literature on the diseases of this life stage. Indeed, the eggs of some North American amphibians have yet to be described. Much basic physiology and normal biomedical baseline data on amphibian eggs is lacking. For example, it is known that the aquatic eggs of some species of shrimp quickly are coated by a protective and commensal bacterium that effectively impedes invasion of the eggs by other environmental organisms and potential pathogens. In the absence of this bacterium, shrimp eggs are rapidly killed by other bacteria and fungi (Green, 2001). The possibility that amphibian eggs also have important symbiotic or commensal bacteria needs to be investigated. Furthermore, the quantity and types of chemicals in the normal gelatinous capsules of amphibian eggs have scarcely been examined. Abnormalities of the

  16. Methylmercury content of eggs in yellow perch related to maternal exposure in four Wisconsin lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerschmidt, C.R.; Frazier, B.E.; Rada, R.G.; Wiener, J.G.

    1999-04-01

    The authors examined the influence of maternal mercury and selected lacustrine variables on the mercury content of eggs from yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Total mercury, methylmercury, and inorganic mercury were determined in eggs and carcasses (less eggs) from three seepage lakes with a pH range of 6.1--7.0 and a fourth lake in which pH was experimentally increased from 5.5 to 6.8 by addition of alkaline groundwater. The concentration of total mercury in eggs was strongly correlated with that in the material carcass. Concentrations and burdens of mercury in eggs and carcasses were inversely correlated with lake water pH, acid-neutralizing capacity, calcium, and dissolved organic carbon. In eggs containing more than 30 ng/g dry weight of total mercury, methylmercury averaged 91% of total mercury and ranged from 85% to 96%. Mean burdens of total mercury in individual eggs varied greatly among lakes and the egg mass averaged 1.9% of the whole-body burden. The authors conclude that exposure of the developing yellow perch embryo to methylmercury is strongly affected by maternal bioaccumulation, which can vary substantially among and within lakes; however, the toxicological significance of the observed exposure of embryos to methylmercury is unclear.

  17. Methylmercury content of eggs in yellow perch related to maternal exposure in four Wisconsin lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hammerschmidt, Chad R.; Wiener, James G.; Frazier, Brdaley E.; Rada, Ronald G.

    1999-01-01

    We examined the influence of maternal mercury and selected lacustrine variables on the mercury content of eggs from yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Total mercury, methylmercury, and inorganic mercury were determined in eggs and carcasses (less eggs) from three seepage lakes with a pH range of 6.1a??7.0 and a fourth lake in which pH was experimentally increased from 5.5 to 6.8 by addition of alkaline groundwater. The concentration of total mercury in eggs was strongly correlated with that in the maternal carcass. Concentrations and burdens of mercury in eggs and carcasses were inversely correlated with lake water pH, acid-neutralizing capacity, calcium, and dissolved organic carbon. In eggs containing more than 30 ng/g dry weight (4.5 ng/g wet weight) of total mercury, methylmercury averaged 91% of total mercury and ranged from 85% to 96%. Mean burdens of total mercury in individual eggs varied greatly among lakes (range, 2.3a??63 pg), and the egg mass averaged 1.9% of the whole-body burden. We conclude that exposure of the developing yellow perch embryo to methylmercury is strongly affected by maternal bioaccumulation, which can vary substantially among and within lakes; however, the toxicological significance of the observed exposure of embryos to methylmercury is unclear.

  18. 77 FR 50916 - Safety Zone; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project, Boston Inner Harbor, Boston, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Boston Harbor's Rock Removal Project... Engineers rock removal project. Entering into, transiting through, mooring or anchoring within this...

  19. 77 FR 39411 - Safety Zone; Village of Sackets Harbor, Lake Ontario, Sackets Harbor, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Sector Buffalo; telephone 716- 843-9343, email SectorBuffaloMarineSafety@uscg.mil . If you have questions... be held on Lake Ontario in Sackets Harbor, NY. The Captain of the Port Buffalo has determined that... Buffalo has determined that this temporary safety zone is necessary to ensure the safety of spectators...

  20. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905 Section 590.905 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 9 CFR 590.905 - Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of restricted eggs or eggs containing more restricted eggs than permitted in the official standards for U.S. Consumer Grade B. 590.905 Section 590.905 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. Rotten Egg Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Violent gas collisions that produced supersonic shock fronts in a dying star are seen in a new, detailed image from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope.

    The picture, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, is online at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    Stars like our Sun will eventually die and expel most of their material outward into shells of gas and dust. These shells eventually form some of the most beautiful objects in the universe, called planetary nebulae.

    'This new image gives us a rare view of the early death throes of stars like our Sun. For the first time, we can see phenomena leading to the formation of planetary nebulae. Until now, this had only been predicted by theory, but had never been seen directly,' said Dr. Raghvendra Sahai, research scientist and member of the science team at JPL for the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2.

    The object is sometimes called the Rotten Egg Nebula, because it contains a lot of sulphur, which would produce an awful odor if one could smell in space. The object is also known as the Calabash Nebula or by the technical name OH231.8+4.2.

    The densest parts of the nebula are composed of material ejected recently by the central star and accelerated in opposite directions. This material, shown as yellow in the image, is zooming away at speeds up to one and a half million kilometers per hour (one million miles per hour). Most of the star's original mass is now contained in these bipolar gas structures.

    A team of Spanish and American astronomers used NASA's Hubble Space Telescope to study how the gas stream rams into the surrounding material, shown in blue. They believe that such interactions dominate the formation process in planetary nebulae. Due to the high speed of the gas, shock-fronts are formed on impact and heat the surrounding gas. Although computer calculations have predicted the existence and

  3. The Eagle's EGGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    VLT ISAAC Looks for Young Stars in the Famous "Pillars of Creation" Summary Through imaging at infrared wavelengths, evidence has been found for recent star formation in the so-called "Pillars of Creation" in the Eagle Nebula (also known as Messier 16 ), made famous when the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) obtained spectacular visible-wavelength images of this object in 1995. Those huge pillars of gas and dust are being sculpted and illuminated by bright and powerful high-mass stars in the nearby NGC 6611 young stellar cluster . The Hubble astronomers suggested that perhaps even younger stars were forming inside. Using the ISAAC instrument on the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory , European astronomers have now made a wide-field infrared image of the Messier 16 region with excellent spatial resolution, enabling them to penetrate the obscuring dust and search for light from newly born stars . Two of the three pillars are seen to have very young, relatively massive stars in their tips. Another dozen or so lower-mass stars seem to be associated with the small "evaporating gaseous globules (EGGs)" that the Hubble astronomers had discovered scattered over the surface of the pillars. These findings bring new evidence to several key questions about how stars are born . Was the formation of these new stars triggered as the intense ultraviolet radiation from the NGC 6611 stars swept over the pillars, or were they already there? Will the new stars be prematurely cut off from surrounding gas cloud, thus stunting their growth? If the new stars have disks of gas and dust around them, will they be destroyed before they have time to form planetary systems? PR Photo 37a/01 : Full wide-field ISAAC image of the Eagle Nebula. PR Photo 37b/01 : Close-up view of the ISAAC image , showing the famous "Pillars of Creation". PR Photo 37c/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 1 . PR Photo 37d/01 : Enlargement of the head of Column 2 . PR Photo 37e/01

  4. Scabies mite, eggs, and stool photomicrograph (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... photomicrograph of a skin scraping that contains a scabies mite, eggs, and feces. This animal burrows into the skin, depositing both eggs and feces. A scabies infestation causes intense itching (pruritus) which leads to ...

  5. Put Your Eggs in This Basket.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyner, Jeane; Leiva, Miriam

    1988-01-01

    Plastic Easter eggs are useful devices for teaching basic mathematics skills, from counting activities to graphing. Eggs are used to reinforce addition, subtraction, and multiplication skills; column addition, estimation, statistics, and other topics are introduced. Sample activities are described. (JL)

  6. Great Lakes: Chemical Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)

  7. Tide- and wind-driven flushing of Boston Harbor, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Signell, Richard

    1992-01-01

    The flushing of Boston Harbor, a shallow, tidally dominated embayment with little fresh water input, is investigated using a depth-averaged model. The modeled tidal currents exhibit strong spatial variability and ebb/flood asymmetry due to complex topography and coastline geometry and were verified by shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler measurements. At the inlets to the harbor, the asymmetry between flood and ebb gives rise to a net exchange of water, which acts over successive tidal cycles to flush the harbor. The flushing is examined by tracking water that starts out in Boston Harbor for 40 M2 tidal cycles. The tidal flushing is very efficient at mixing water in the vicinity of the inlets over several tidal cycles, but efficiency decreases with time as ``tidal mixing regions'' form on either side of the harbor inlets. When wind forcing is included, the wind-driven currents act to flush the tidal mixing regions, giving rise to more efficient flushing. The exception is when the wind is from the southwest, which confines the jet-like ebb flow from the harbor and therefore reduces the flushing efficiency. In general, flushing is shown to be a two-step process: (1) rapid exchange due to tides over a large region in the vicinity of the harbor inlets and (2) flushing of this region by wind-driven flow. The model also demonstrates that flushing is not uniform over the entire harbor but occurs rapidly in the deep tidal channels and slowly in the regions of weak tidal currents around the harbor periphery. Although the depth-averaged approach to flushing is appropriate over most of the harbor due to the harbor's shallow depth and broad depth distribution, the lack of bathymetric variability and the presence of locally important density driven currents in the Boston Inner Harbor indicates that flushing of this localized area must be approached with a three-dimensional model.

  8. ANSWERING CONSUMER QUESTIONS ABOUT EGGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Answering consumer questions is an important aspect of egg marketing. Consumers expect those they contact to be able to address their situation and help find answers. Topics of general consumer concerns include: proper storage, safe handling, food safety, and food quality. With the vast array of ...

  9. The Chicken and Egg Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkon, Ivette

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a project on chickens and eggs undertaken by 5-year-old children in a bilingual school in Mexico City. It describes the three phases of the project and includes photographs and other documentation of the children's work.

  10. An evaluation of the toxicity of contaminated sediments from Waukegan Harbor, Illinois, following remediation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kemble, N.E.; Hardesty, D.G.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Johnson, B.T.; Dwyer, F.J.; MacDonald, D.D.

    2000-01-01

    Waukegan Harbor in Illinois was designated as a Great Lakes Area of Concern due to high concentrations of sediment-associated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of 20 sediment samples collected after remediation (primarily dredging) of Waukegan Harbor for PCBs. A 42-day whole sediment toxicity test with the amphipod Hyalella azteca (28-day sediment exposure followed by a 14-day reproductive phase) and sediment toxicity tests with Microtox?? were conducted to evaluate sediments from Waukegan Harbor. Endpoints measured were survival, growth, and reproduction (amphipods) and luminescent light emission (bacteria). Survival of amphipods was significantly reduced in 6 of the 20 sediment samples relative to the control. Growth of amphipods (either length or weight) was significantly reduced relative to the control in all samples. However, reproduction of amphipods identified only two samples as toxic relative to the control. The Microtox basic test, conducted with organic extracts of sediments identified only one site as toxic. In contrast, the Microtox solid-phase test identified about 50% of the samples as toxic. A significant negative correlation was observed between reproduction and the concentration of three polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) normalized to total organic carbon. Sediment chemistry and toxicity data were evaluated using sediment quality guidelines (consensus-based probable effect concentrations, PECs). Results of these analyses indicate that sediment samples from Waukegan Harbor were toxic to H. azteca contaminated at similar Contaminant concentrations as sediment samples that were toxic to H. azteca from other areas of the United States. The relationship between PECs and the observed toxicity was not as strong for the Microtox test. The results of this study indicate that the first phase of sediment remediation in Waukegan Harbor successfully lowered concentrations of PCBs at the site

  11. Effect of storage temperature on egg quality traits in table eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of storage temperature on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days. A total of 100 fresh eggs were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (5 °C and 22 °C; 10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 5 and 22 °C. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in eggs stored at 5 °C significantly (P<0.01) lower than the eggs stored at 22 °C group for the entire storage period. The eggs stored at 5 °C showed higher levels of specific gravity than eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage (P<0.01; P<0.05). The albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk index of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of eggs stored at 22 °C during the storage periods. The albumen pH of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that of eggs stored at 22 °C during storage period. The results indicated that the eggs stored at 5 °C are better off in terms of protecting quality compared to the eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage.

  12. 76 FR 55642 - Regulations for the Inspection of Eggs (Shell Egg Surveillance), Request for Extension and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service Regulations for the Inspection of Eggs (Shell Egg... approved information collection in support of the shell egg surveillance portion of the Regulation for the Inspection of Eggs--7 CFR part 57. DATES: Comments received by November 7, 2011 will be considered....

  13. Spatial occurrence and hatch of field eggs of the tadpole shrimp Triops newberryi (Notostraca: Triopsidae), a potential biological control agent of immature mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Su, Tianyun; Mulla, Mir S

    2002-06-01

    The tadpole shrimp (TPS), Triops newberryi (Packard) (Notostraca: Triopsidae) is a potential biological control agent for immature mosquitoes breeding in ephemeral habitats. The occurrence of TPS eggs in soil and their hatch were investigated in 11 flood-irrigated date gardens in the Coachella Valley of southern California in 1999. Each garden was sampled several times after the rows were recently irrigated. All these date gardens harbored from very few to a large number of eggs in the soil. Overall, the average density of total eggs on ranches with clay loam soil was significantly higher than that on ranches with silt loam soil. The average densities of total eggs were significantly lower on the ranches that were disked compared to those on the ranches that were undisked before sampling. Two types of eggs were found and designated as "fresh" (yellowish to brownish) and "old" (blackish) eggs. This is the first time that these dimorphic eggs have been reported. The density of fresh eggs was lower than that of old eggs in most soil samples. The date gardens with high egg densities were sampled for determination of vertical occurrence, where soil was sampled up to 38.5 cm deep. Fresh eggs were recovered from soil in depths up to 25.6 cm, but the densities progressively declined with depth. The old eggs, however, were recovered from all soil depths studied, and there was no obvious relationship between soil depth and their density. This pattern of vertical occurrence of TPS eggs is the result of frequent disking for weed control and fruit harvest. Hatch of TPS eggs in surface soil samples ranged from 0 to 7.2 per 100 g dried soil. Hatch of viable eggs had an inverse relationship with soil depth. No TPS hatched out from the soil samples taken deeper than 15.4 cm. Fresh and old eggs distinguished by color were subjected to hatching tests. Fresh eggs exhibited high hatch, with hatching rates of 35.5-45.0% and 40.2-60.3% for the 1st and 1st plus the 2nd hydrations

  14. Cryptic cuckoo eggs hide from competing cuckoos

    PubMed Central

    Gloag, Ros; Keller, Laurie-Anne; Langmore, Naomi E.

    2014-01-01

    Interspecific arms races between cuckoos and their hosts have produced remarkable examples of mimicry, with parasite eggs evolving to match host egg appearance and so evade removal by hosts. Certain bronze-cuckoo species, however, lay eggs that are cryptic rather than mimetic. These eggs are coated in a low luminance pigment that camouflages them within the dark interiors of hosts' nests. We investigated whether cuckoo egg crypsis is likely to have arisen from the same coevolutionary processes known to favour egg mimicry. We added high and low luminance-painted eggs to the nests of large-billed gerygones (Gerygone magnirostris), a host of the little bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites minutillus). Gerygones rarely rejected either egg type, and did not reject natural cuckoo eggs. Cuckoos, by contrast, regularly removed an egg from clutches before laying their own and were five times more likely to remove a high luminance model than its low luminance counterpart. Given that we found one-third of all parasitized nests were exploited by multiple cuckoos, our results suggest that competition between cuckoos has been the key selective agent for egg crypsis. In such intraspecific arms races, crypsis may be favoured over mimicry because it can reduce the risk of egg removal to levels below chance. PMID:25122227

  15. "Egg Races" and Other Practical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    This article presents ideas behind science and technology challenges and shares experiences of "egg races." Different challenges were set, but there was always the need to transport an egg across some obstacle course without breaking it. It was so popular in the 1980s that the term "egg race" came to mean any kind of simple…

  16. Cryptic cuckoo eggs hide from competing cuckoos.

    PubMed

    Gloag, Ros; Keller, Laurie-Anne; Langmore, Naomi E

    2014-10-01

    Interspecific arms races between cuckoos and their hosts have produced remarkable examples of mimicry, with parasite eggs evolving to match host egg appearance and so evade removal by hosts. Certain bronze-cuckoo species, however, lay eggs that are cryptic rather than mimetic. These eggs are coated in a low luminance pigment that camouflages them within the dark interiors of hosts' nests. We investigated whether cuckoo egg crypsis is likely to have arisen from the same coevolutionary processes known to favour egg mimicry. We added high and low luminance-painted eggs to the nests of large-billed gerygones (Gerygone magnirostris), a host of the little bronze-cuckoo (Chalcites minutillus). Gerygones rarely rejected either egg type, and did not reject natural cuckoo eggs. Cuckoos, by contrast, regularly removed an egg from clutches before laying their own and were five times more likely to remove a high luminance model than its low luminance counterpart. Given that we found one-third of all parasitized nests were exploited by multiple cuckoos, our results suggest that competition between cuckoos has been the key selective agent for egg crypsis. In such intraspecific arms races, crypsis may be favoured over mimicry because it can reduce the risk of egg removal to levels below chance. PMID:25122227

  17. Atlas of Great Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyan, Ronald; Dunlop, Storm

    2015-01-01

    Foreword; Using this book; Part I. Introduction: Cometary beliefs and fears; Comets in art; Comets in literature and poetry; Comets in science; Cometary science today; Great comets in antiquity; Great comets of the Middle Ages; Part II. The 30 Greatest Comets of Modern Times: The Great Comet of 1471; Comet Halley 1531; The Great Comet of 1556; The Great Comet of 1577; Comet Halley, 1607; The Great Comet of 1618; The Great Comet of 1664; Comet Kirch, 1680; Comet Halley, 1682; The Great Comet of 1744; Comet Halley, 1759; Comet Messier, 1769; Comet Flaugergues, 1811; Comet Halley, 1835; The Great March Comet of 1843; Comet Donati, 1858; Comet Tebbutt, 1861; The Great September Comet of 1882; The Great January Comet of 1910; Comet Halley, 1910; Comet Arend-Roland, 1956; Comet Ikeya-Seki, 1965; Comet Bennett, 1970; Comet Kohoutek, 1973-4; Comet West, 1976; Comet Halley, 1986; Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, 1994; Comet Hyakutake, 1996; Comet Hale-Bopp, 1997; Comet McNaught, 2007; Part III. Appendices; Table of comet data; Glossary; References; Photo credits; Index.

  18. Beach-spawning fishes, terrestrial eggs, and air breathing.

    PubMed

    Martin, K L M; Van Winkle, R C; Drais, J E; Lakisic, H

    2004-01-01

    Many fishes have independently evolved beach spawning with oviposition at the water's edge. These include intertidal, subtidal, and estuarine, as well as a few freshwater, species. Their spectacular reproductive behavior at the boundary of water and land has focused attention on adults, but they emerge either briefly or not at all. The need for air breathing is more apparent in the eggs, and the reasons for emergence are more applicable to eggs than to the adults of most beach-spawning fishes. There is little evidence of air breathing in the adults, unless they are regularly emerged at other times as well. Conversely, eggs metabolize in air and show substantial emergence tolerance. We consider beach spawning a form of parental care in fishes. The adults place eggs so they will be emerged into air during part or all of incubation, providing increased temperatures, oxygen availability, and protection. Beach spawning provides habitat segregation at different points in the life history, with air emergence early in the life cycle and a return to water at hatching. The parents take great risks to spawn at the water's edge to give their offspring the most advantageous beginning in life. PMID:15547793

  19. Cadmium- and mercury-resistant Bacillus strains from a salt marsh and from Boston Harbor

    SciTech Connect

    Mahler, I.; Levinson, H.S.; Wang, Y.; Halvorson, H.O.

    1986-12-01

    Bacteria resistant to cadmium or mercury or both were isolated from the Great Sippewissett Marsh (Cape Cod, Mass.) and from Boston Harbor. Many of these metal-resistant isolates were gram-positive aerobic sporeformers, although not necessarily isolated as spores. Although several of the isolated strains bore plasmids, cadmium and mercury resistances appeared to be, for the most part, chromosomally encoded. DNA sequence homology of the gram-positive cadmium- and mercury-resistant isolates was not demonstrable with metal resistance genes from plasmids of either gram-positive (pI258) or gram-negative (pDB7) origin. Cadmium resistance of all the marsh isolates tested resulted from reduced Cd/sup 2 +/ transport. On the other hand, three cadmium-resistant harbor isolates displayed considerable influx but no efflux of Cd/sup 2 +/. Hg-resistant strains detoxified mercury by transforming Hg/sup 2 +/ to volatile Hg0 via mercuric reductase.

  20. Application of Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures for the characterization and management of dredged harbor sediments.

    PubMed

    Montero, N; Belzunce-Segarra, M J; Gonzalez, J-L; Menchaca, I; Garmendia, J M; Etxebarria, N; Nieto, O; Franco, J

    2013-06-15

    This study refers to the performance of Phase I Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) procedures to identify the contaminants (i.e. organic compounds, metals and ammonia) exerting toxicity in marine sediments from the Pasaia harbor (Oiartzun estuary, northern Spain). The effectiveness of the manipulations to reduce toxicity was proved with the marine amphipod survival test (whole-sediment) and the sea urchin embryo-larval assay (elutriates). By means of TIEs it was concluded that organic compounds were the major contaminants exerting toxicity, although toxic effects by metals was also demonstrated. Additionally, the combination of Phase I treatments allowed to investigate the toxicity changes associated to the mobility of contaminants during dredging activities. Therefore, the performance of TIE procedures as another line of evidence in the decision-making process is recommended. They show a great potential to be implemented at different steps of the characterization and management of dredged harbor sediments. PMID:23465571

  1. Occurrence of Cyathocephalus truncatus (Cestoda) in fishes of the Great Lakes with emphasis on its occurrence in round gobies (Neogobius melanostomus) from Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P., III; Muzzall, Patrick M.; Adams, Jean V.; Johnson, Kendra L.; Flores, Angela E.; Winkel, Andrea M.

    2005-01-01

    Cyathocephalus truncatus is a pathogenic cestode that is common in many Laurentian Great Lakes fish species, but the depth distribution of this cestode has not been studied. Cyathocephalus truncatus has been reported from 21 fish species and one hybrid representing seven orders and nine families in Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, and Ontario. We examined the intestinal contents of six species of fish collected in Michigan waters of Lake Huron, from DeTour to Harbor Beach, in 2001 to 2003 for the presence of this cestode species. Cyathocephalus truncatus was found in five native fish species and the exotic round goby. Prevalence (52%) and mean intensity (4.6 cestodes per infected fish) were highest in bloaters. This is the first reported occurrence of this cestode in round gobies from the Great Lakes. None of the gobies trawled from Lake Huron at depths of 27 to 46 m were infected, but prevalence and intensity of infection in round gobies increased significantly with depth from 55 to 73 m. Our diet study of round gobies indicated that they preyed heavily on amphipods (Diporeia hoyi) at depths of 55 to 73 m. Cyathocephalus truncatus was found in eight of 605 D. hoyi obtained by Ponar grab sampling. This suggests that C. truncatus eggs may be released from infected gobies and sink to deep basins with silt bottoms where D. hoyi occur.

  2. Egg wash wastewater: Estrogenic risk or environmental asset?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial production of eggs and egg products requires the washing of eggs to remove urinary / fecal material and broken egg residue. In the case of one Ohio farming facility, 1.6 million birds produce 1.4 million eggs per day, using ~50mL of wash water / egg or ~ 70,000 liters per day. The aqueo...

  3. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  4. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization...

  5. 9 CFR 590.515 - Egg cleaning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg cleaning operations. 590.515... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.515 Egg cleaning operations. (a) The following requirements...

  6. 9 CFR 590.515 - Egg cleaning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg cleaning operations. 590.515... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.515 Egg cleaning operations. (a) The following requirements...

  7. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization...

  8. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization...

  9. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  10. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization...

  11. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  12. 9 CFR 590.515 - Egg cleaning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Egg cleaning operations. 590.515... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.515 Egg cleaning operations. (a) The following requirements...

  13. 9 CFR 590.570 - Pasteurization of liquid eggs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurization of liquid eggs. 590.570... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.570 Pasteurization of liquid eggs. (a) Pasteurization...

  14. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  15. 9 CFR 590.515 - Egg cleaning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Egg cleaning operations. 590.515... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.515 Egg cleaning operations. (a) The following requirements...

  16. 9 CFR 590.515 - Egg cleaning operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Egg cleaning operations. 590.515... EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.515 Egg cleaning operations. (a) The following requirements...

  17. 9 CFR 590.402 - Egg products inspection certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Egg products inspection certificates... AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Certificates § 590.402 Egg products inspection certificates. (a) Upon request of the applicant or the...

  18. Effect of selenium-enriched probiotics on laying performance, egg quality, egg selenium content, and egg glutathione peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Cuiling; Zhao, Yuxin; Liao, Shengfa F; Chen, Fu; Qin, Shunyi; Wu, Xianshi; Zhou, Hong; Huang, Kehe

    2011-11-01

    A 35-day experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of selenium-enriched probiotics (SP) on laying performance, egg quality, egg selenium (Se) content, and egg glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity. Five hundred 58-week-old Rohman laying hens were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments of 100 each. Each treatment had 5 replicates, and each replicate had 5 cages with 4 hens per cage. The SP was supplemented to a corn-soybean-meal basal diet at 3 different levels that supplied total Se at 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg. The basal diet served as a blank control, while the basal diet with supplemental probiotics served as a probiotics control. The results showed that dietary SP supplementation not only increased (p < 0.05) the rate of egg laying, day egg weight, mean egg weight, egg Se content, and egg GPX activity but also decreased (p < 0.05) the feed:egg ratio and egg cholesterol content. The egg Se content was gradually increased (p < 0.05) along with the increasing level of dietary Se. The SP supplementation also slowed down (p < 0.05) the drop of Haugh units (HU) of eggs stored at room temperature. The egg GPX activity had a positive correlation (p < 0.01) with egg Se content and a negative correlation (p < 0.01) with egg HU drop. These results suggested that Se contents, GPX activity, and HU of eggs were affected by the dietary Se level, whereas the egg-laying performance and egg cholesterol content were affected by the dietary probiotics. It was concluded that this SP is an effective feed additive that combines the organic Se benefit for hen and human health with the probiotics benefit for laying hen production performance. It was also suggested that the eggs from hens fed this SP can serve as a nutraceutical food with high Se and low cholesterol contents for both healthy people and patients with hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, or cardiovascular disease. PMID:21942342

  19. Food Handling Behaviors Observed in Consumers When Cooking Poultry and Eggs.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Curtis; Chambers Iv, Edgar; Godwin, Sandria; Chambers, Delores; Cates, Sheryl; Koppel, Kadri

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that many consumers do not follow recommended food safety practices for cooking poultry and eggs, which can lead to exposure to Salmonella and Campylobacter. Past research has been done primarily through surveys and interviews, rather than observations. The objective of this project was to determine through observations whether consumers follow food safety guidelines. Consumers (n = 101) divided among three locations (Manhattan, KS; Kansas City, MO area; and Nashville, TN) were observed as they prepared a baked whole chicken breast, a pan-fried ground turkey patty, a fried egg, and scrambled eggs. The end point temperature for the cooked products was taken (outside the view of consumers) within 30 s after the consumers indicated they were finished cooking. Thermometer use while cooking was low, although marginally higher than that of some previous studies: only 37% of consumers used a thermometer for chicken breasts and only 22% for turkey patties. No one used a thermometer for fried or scrambled eggs. Only 77% of the chicken and 69% of the turkey was cooked to a safe temperature (165°F [74°C]), and 77% of scrambled and 49% of fried eggs reached a safe temperature (160°F [71°C]). Safe hand washing was noted in only 40% of respondents after handling the chicken breast and 44% after handling the ground turkey patty. This value decreased to 15% after handling raw eggs for fried eggs and to 17% for scrambled eggs. These results show that there is a high prevalence of unsafe behaviors (undercooking and poor hand washing technique) when cooking poultry and eggs and a great need for improvement in consumer behavior with poultry and eggs. PMID:27296601

  20. Egg size and reproductive adaptations among Arctic deep-sea copepods (Calanoida, Paraeuchaeta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auel, Holger

    2004-10-01

    Reproductive strategies of the four congeneric and sympatric calanoid copepods Paraeuchaeta glacialis, P. norvegica, P. barbata, and P. polaris were studied in the Arctic Greenland Sea. Females of all species produce egg sacs and carry their brood attached to the genital opening until the offspring hatch. However, egg size and lipid content as well as clutch size and the fraction of females carrying egg masses show characteristic differences among the four species. P. glacialis and P. norvegica produce large numbers (37 to more than 50) of relatively small eggs, whereas P. barbata and P. polaris rely on small numbers (10 to 19 and 4 to 6, respectively) of large eggs with a high energy content. There is no correlation between female body size and egg size or clutch size, respectively. Females of the smallest species, P. polaris, produce relatively large eggs and show the highest energetic investment per egg. In contrast, energetic investment per clutch is highest in P. glacialis. Reproductive adaptations appear to be strongly related to the depth range inhabited by the respective species. In the central Greenland Sea P. glacialis and P. norvegica occur in the epipelagial and upper mesopelagial, whereas the other two species inhabit lower mesopelagic to bathypelagic depths. Thus, egg size increases with depth of occurrence, whereas clutch size is inversely correlated with depth. This observation leads to the hypothesis that the evolution of large eggs in deep-sea copepods may enable hatchlings to rely on a lecithotrophic development and thus represents a successful adaptation to cope with the limited food supply at great depths, whereas high offspring numbers in epipelagic species compensate for higher predation risks in the euphotic zone.

  1. Invasive lionfish harbor a different external bacterial community than native Bahamian fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, J. L.; Olson, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    The introduction and subsequent spread of lionfish into the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea has become a worldwide conservation issue. These highly successful invaders may also be capable of introducing non-native microorganisms to the invaded regions. This study compared the bacterial communities associated with lionfish external tissue to those of native Bahamian fishes and ambient water. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses demonstrated that lionfish bacterial communities were significantly different than those associated with three native Bahamian fishes. Additionally, all fishes harbored distinct bacterial communities from the ambient bacterioplankton. Analysis of bacterial clone libraries from invasive lionfish and native squirrelfish indicated that lionfish communities were more diverse than those associated with squirrelfish, yet did not contain known fish pathogens. Using microscopy and molecular genetic approaches, lionfish eggs were examined for the presence of bacteria to evaluate the capacity for vertical transmission. Eggs removed from the ovaries of gravid females were free of bacteria, suggesting that lionfish likely acquire bacteria from the environment. This study was the first examination of bacterial communities associated with the invasive lionfish and indicated that they support different communities of environmentally derived bacteria than Caribbean reef fishes.

  2. Environmental contaminants and productivity in an extinct heronry at Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, U.S.A., 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Geitner, J.G.H.

    1996-01-01

    Our objectives were to collect information on contaminant levels and productivity of wading birds at the Drum Island heronry in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, before diversion of the Cooper River took place in 1985. The diversion was expected to reduce water flow by ~80% into the Harbor, thereby concentrating industrial effluents near the heronry with potentially harmful effects. Hatching success of white ibises (Eudocimus albus) in 1984 averaged 66% and 1.0 chick per nest survived to three weeks post-hatch. Fresh eggs collected from a sample of nests contained only background levels of DDT, DDE, and dieldrin; no PCBs, diphenyl ethers, or styrenes were detected. Pesticide residues in eggs were not correlated (P >0.05) with productivity in corresponding nests. Heavy metals and selenium in tissues of wading bird chicks were also representative of background levels. Follow-up studies after the diversion of the Cooper River were not feasible because the heronry was abandoned beginning in 1985. However, our baseline results will be useful in determining potential contaminant effects due to diversion of the Cooper River should wading birds return to Drum Island in the future.

  3. Xenopus egg cytoplasm with intact actin.

    PubMed

    Field, Christine M; Nguyen, Phuong A; Ishihara, Keisuke; Groen, Aaron C; Mitchison, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    We report optimized methods for preparing Xenopus egg extracts without cytochalasin D, that we term "actin-intact egg extract." These are undiluted egg cytoplasm that contains abundant organelles, and glycogen which supplies energy, and represents the least perturbed cell-free cytoplasm preparation we know of. We used this system to probe cell cycle regulation of actin and myosin-II dynamics (Field et al., 2011), and to reconstitute the large, interphase asters that organize early Xenopus embryos (Mitchison et al., 2012; Wühr, Tan, Parker, Detrich, & Mitchison, 2010). Actin-intact Xenopus egg extracts are useful for analysis of actin dynamics, and interaction of actin with other cytoplasmic systems, in a cell-free system that closely mimics egg physiology, and more generally for probing the biochemistry and biophysics of the egg, zygote, and early embryo. Detailed protocols are provided along with assays used to check cell cycle state and tips for handling and storing undiluted egg extracts. PMID:24630119

  4. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  5. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  6. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  7. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  8. 9 CFR 590.920 - Importer to make application for inspection of imported eggs and egg products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inspection of imported eggs and egg products. 590.920 Section 590.920 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Imports § 590.920 Importer to make application for inspection...

  9. 33 CFR 80.1152 - Crescent City Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Crescent City Harbor, CA. 80.1152... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1152 Crescent City Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Crescent City Entrance Light to the southeasternmost extremity of Whaler Island....

  10. 33 CFR 80.1152 - Crescent City Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Crescent City Harbor, CA. 80.1152... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1152 Crescent City Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Crescent City Entrance Light to the southeasternmost extremity of Whaler Island....

  11. 33 CFR 80.1152 - Crescent City Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Crescent City Harbor, CA. 80.1152... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1152 Crescent City Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Crescent City Entrance Light to the southeasternmost extremity of Whaler Island....

  12. 33 CFR 80.1152 - Crescent City Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Crescent City Harbor, CA. 80.1152... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1152 Crescent City Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Crescent City Entrance Light to the southeasternmost extremity of Whaler Island....

  13. 33 CFR 110.134 - Portland Harbor, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Portland Harbor, Maine. 110.134 Section 110.134 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.134 Portland Harbor, Maine. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Anchorage A (general). Beginning...

  14. 78 FR 9730 - Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... National Park Service Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: National Park Service... Islands Advisory Council. The agenda includes a presentation by Sally Snowman, 70th keeper of Boston Light... Jacobson, DFO, Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area, 408 Atlantic Avenue, Suite 228, Boston,...

  15. 78 FR 52783 - Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... National Park Service Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: National Park Service... Islands Advisory Council. The agenda includes discussion of 2016 celebration planning for the 300th Anniversary of Boston Light, 20th Anniversary of Boston Harbor Islands National Recreation Area (NRA),...

  16. 33 CFR 165.1309 - Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. 165.1309 Section 165.1309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. (a) Regulated area. A regulated navigation area is established...

  17. 78 FR 28619 - Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Boston Harbor Islands Advisory Council. The agenda includes a presentation by author John Galluzzo, ``Peddocks Island, As Seen from Pemberton...

  18. 33 CFR 165.1309 - Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. 165.1309 Section 165.1309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. (a) Regulated area. A regulated navigation area is established...

  19. 33 CFR 165.1309 - Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. 165.1309 Section 165.1309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. (a) Regulated area. A regulated navigation area is established...

  20. 33 CFR 165.1309 - Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. 165.1309 Section 165.1309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. (a) Regulated area. A regulated navigation area is established...

  1. 33 CFR 165.1309 - Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. 165.1309 Section 165.1309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Eagle Harbor, Bainbridge Island, WA. (a) Regulated area. A regulated navigation area is established...

  2. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  3. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  4. 33 CFR 110.147 - New London Harbor, Conn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New London Harbor, Conn. 110.147... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.147 New London Harbor, Conn. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1... Thames River southward of New London, bounded by lines connecting points which are the following...

  5. 18 CFR 1304.404 - Commercial marina harbor limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial marina... ALTERATIONS Miscellaneous § 1304.404 Commercial marina harbor limits. The landward limits of commercial marina... of harbors at commercial marinas will be designated by TVA on the basis of the size and extent...

  6. 33 CFR 110.142 - Nantucket Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Nantucket Harbor, Mass. 110.142 Section 110.142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.142 Nantucket Harbor, Mass. (a) The anchorage grounds. In...

  7. 33 CFR 110.38 - Edgartown Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Edgartown Harbor, Mass. 110.38 Section 110.38 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.38 Edgartown Harbor, Mass. An area in the inner...

  8. 33 CFR 110.26 - Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass. 110.26 Section 110.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Mass. The area comprises that portion of the harbor lying between the extreme low water line...

  9. 33 CFR 110.32 - Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass. 110.32 Section 110.32 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.32 Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass. (a) Area...

  10. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. 110.29 Section 110.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.29 Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of...

  11. 33 CFR 110.37 - Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. 110.37 Section 110.37 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.37 Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. All the...

  12. 33 CFR 110.38 - Edgartown Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Edgartown Harbor, Mass. 110.38 Section 110.38 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.38 Edgartown Harbor, Mass. An area in the inner...

  13. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. 110.29 Section 110.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.29 Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of...

  14. 33 CFR 110.142 - Nantucket Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Nantucket Harbor, Mass. 110.142 Section 110.142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.142 Nantucket Harbor, Mass. (a) The anchorage grounds. In...

  15. 33 CFR 110.38 - Edgartown Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Edgartown Harbor, Mass. 110.38 Section 110.38 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.38 Edgartown Harbor, Mass. An area in the inner...

  16. 33 CFR 110.26 - Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass. 110.26 Section 110.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Mass. The area comprises that portion of the harbor lying between the extreme low water line...

  17. 33 CFR 110.32 - Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass. 110.32 Section 110.32 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.32 Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass. (a) Area...

  18. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. 110.29 Section 110.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.29 Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of...

  19. 33 CFR 110.37 - Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. 110.37 Section 110.37 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.37 Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. All the...

  20. 33 CFR 110.32 - Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass. 110.32 Section 110.32 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.32 Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass. (a) Area...

  1. 33 CFR 110.37 - Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. 110.37 Section 110.37 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.37 Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. All the...

  2. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. 110.29 Section 110.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.29 Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of...

  3. 33 CFR 110.37 - Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. 110.37 Section 110.37 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.37 Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. All the...

  4. 33 CFR 110.32 - Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass. 110.32 Section 110.32 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.32 Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass. (a) Area...

  5. 33 CFR 110.38 - Edgartown Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Edgartown Harbor, Mass. 110.38 Section 110.38 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.38 Edgartown Harbor, Mass. An area in the inner...

  6. 33 CFR 110.142 - Nantucket Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Nantucket Harbor, Mass. 110.142 Section 110.142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.142 Nantucket Harbor, Mass. (a) The anchorage grounds. In...

  7. 33 CFR 110.26 - Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass. 110.26 Section 110.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Mass. The area comprises that portion of the harbor lying between the extreme low water line...

  8. 33 CFR 110.26 - Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass. 110.26 Section 110.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Mass. The area comprises that portion of the harbor lying between the extreme low water line...

  9. 33 CFR 110.142 - Nantucket Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nantucket Harbor, Mass. 110.142 Section 110.142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.142 Nantucket Harbor, Mass. (a) The anchorage grounds. In...

  10. 77 FR 73889 - National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty-seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-30056 Filed 12-10... December 11, 2012 Part V The President Proclamation 8914--National Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2012... Pearl Harbor Remembrance Day, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation...

  11. 33 CFR 110.83 - Chicago Harbor, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., 1940, along the West side of the harbor, said harbor line runs parallel to the overall alignment of... the Grant Park bulkhead's overall alignment between its North and South ends, said bulkhead runs... to the overall alignment of the Grant Park bulkhead between its North and South ends,...

  12. 33 CFR 110.83 - Chicago Harbor, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., 1940, along the West side of the harbor, said harbor line runs parallel to the overall alignment of... the Grant Park bulkhead's overall alignment between its North and South ends, said bulkhead runs... to the overall alignment of the Grant Park bulkhead between its North and South ends,...

  13. 33 CFR 110.83 - Chicago Harbor, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., 1940, along the West side of the harbor, said harbor line runs parallel to the overall alignment of... the Grant Park bulkhead's overall alignment between its North and South ends, said bulkhead runs... to the overall alignment of the Grant Park bulkhead between its North and South ends,...

  14. 33 CFR 110.83 - Chicago Harbor, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., 1940, along the West side of the harbor, said harbor line runs parallel to the overall alignment of... the Grant Park bulkhead's overall alignment between its North and South ends, said bulkhead runs... to the overall alignment of the Grant Park bulkhead between its North and South ends,...

  15. 33 CFR 110.83 - Chicago Harbor, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., 1940, along the West side of the harbor, said harbor line runs parallel to the overall alignment of... the Grant Park bulkhead's overall alignment between its North and South ends, said bulkhead runs... to the overall alignment of the Grant Park bulkhead between its North and South ends,...

  16. 33 CFR 80.1152 - Crescent City Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crescent City Harbor, CA. 80.1152... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1152 Crescent City Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Crescent City Entrance Light to the southeasternmost extremity of Whaler Island....

  17. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) Explosives Anchorage A. Inside the south...

  18. 33 CFR 110.208 - Buffalo Harbor, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. 110.208 Section 110.208 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.208 Buffalo Harbor, N.Y. (a) The anchorage...

  19. 33 CFR 80.1110 - Dana Point Harbor, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dana Point Harbor, CA. 80.1110... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Pacific Coast § 80.1110 Dana Point Harbor, CA. A line drawn from Dana Point Jetty Light 6 to Dana Point Breakwater Light 5....

  20. 33 CFR 110.207 - Cleveland Harbor, Ohio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cleveland Harbor, Ohio. 110.207 Section 110.207 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.207 Cleveland Harbor, Ohio. (a) The anchorage grounds—(1) West anchorage. The northwesterly...

  1. 33 CFR 162.120 - Harbors on Lake Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., White Lake, Pentwater, Ludington, Manistee, Portage Lake (Manistee County), Frankfort, Charlevois, and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harbors on Lake Michigan. 162.120...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.120 Harbors on Lake...

  2. 33 CFR 162.120 - Harbors on Lake Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., White Lake, Pentwater, Ludington, Manistee, Portage Lake (Manistee County), Frankfort, Charlevoix, and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Harbors on Lake Michigan. 162.120...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.120 Harbors on Lake...

  3. 33 CFR 162.120 - Harbors on Lake Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., White Lake, Pentwater, Ludington, Manistee, Portage Lake (Manistee County), Frankfort, Charlevois, and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Harbors on Lake Michigan. 162.120...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.120 Harbors on Lake...

  4. 33 CFR 162.120 - Harbors on Lake Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., White Lake, Pentwater, Ludington, Manistee, Portage Lake (Manistee County), Frankfort, Charlevoix, and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Harbors on Lake Michigan. 162.120...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.120 Harbors on Lake...

  5. 33 CFR 162.120 - Harbors on Lake Michigan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., White Lake, Pentwater, Ludington, Manistee, Portage Lake (Manistee County), Frankfort, Charlevoix, and... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Harbors on Lake Michigan. 162.120...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS § 162.120 Harbors on Lake...

  6. 76 FR 26311 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Harbor Maintenance Fee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Harbor Maintenance... concerning the Harbor Maintenance Fee (CBP Forms 349 and 350). This request for comment is being made... keepers from the collection of information (a total capital/startup costs and operations and...

  7. 78 FR 21597 - Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal Habitats

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... measures to protect glacially-associated harbor seal habitats in Alaska (78 FR 15669; March 12, 2013.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: On March 12, 2013, NMFS published an ANPR in the Federal Register (78 FR 15669) to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-BB71 Marine Mammals: Alaska Harbor Seal...

  8. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. 110.29 Section 110.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.29 Boston Inner Harbor, Mass. (a) Vicinity of...

  9. 33 CFR 110.32 - Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass. 110.32 Section 110.32 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.32 Hingham Harbor, Hingham, Mass. (a) Area...

  10. 33 CFR 110.38 - Edgartown Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Edgartown Harbor, Mass. 110.38 Section 110.38 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.38 Edgartown Harbor, Mass. An area in the inner...

  11. 33 CFR 110.142 - Nantucket Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nantucket Harbor, Mass. 110.142 Section 110.142 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.142 Nantucket Harbor, Mass. (a) The anchorage grounds. In...

  12. 33 CFR 110.37 - Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. 110.37 Section 110.37 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.37 Sesuit Harbor, Dennis, Mass. All the...

  13. 33 CFR 110.26 - Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Marblehead Harbor, Marblehead, Mass. 110.26 Section 110.26 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., Mass. The area comprises that portion of the harbor lying between the extreme low water line...

  14. 6. FOUNDATION PLAN OF HARBOR MASTER'S BUILDING ON PIER #4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FOUNDATION PLAN OF HARBOR MASTER'S BUILDING ON PIER #4, DWG. NO. 185, 3/8" = 1'0", MADE BY J.L.R. - Baltimore Inner Harbor, Pier 4, South side of Pratt Street between Frederick Street & Market Place, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  15. 49 CFR 578.7 - Criminal safe harbor provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Criminal safe harbor provision. 578.7 Section 578... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CIVIL AND CRIMINAL PENALTIES § 578.7 Criminal safe harbor provision. (a) Scope. This section sets forth the requirements regarding...

  16. 33 CFR 80.130 - Boston Harbor entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Boston Harbor entrance. 80.130... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.130 Boston Harbor entrance. A line drawn from....6′ W., to Boston Lighted Horn Buoy “B”; thence to the esternmost radio tower at Hull, charted...

  17. 33 CFR 80.130 - Boston Harbor entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boston Harbor entrance. 80.130... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.130 Boston Harbor entrance. A line drawn from....6′ W., to Boston Lighted Horn Buoy “B”; thence to the esternmost radio tower at Hull, charted...

  18. 33 CFR 80.130 - Boston Harbor entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Boston Harbor entrance. 80.130... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.130 Boston Harbor entrance. A line drawn from....6′ W., to Boston Lighted Horn Buoy “B”; thence to the esternmost radio tower at Hull, charted...

  19. 33 CFR 80.130 - Boston Harbor entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Boston Harbor entrance. 80.130... NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.130 Boston Harbor entrance. A line drawn from....6′ W., to Boston Lighted Horn Buoy “B”; thence to the esternmost radio tower at Hull, charted...

  20. 49 CFR 578.7 - Criminal safe harbor provision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Criminal safe harbor provision. 578.7 Section 578... SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CIVIL AND CRIMINAL PENALTIES § 578.7 Criminal safe harbor provision. (a) Scope. This section sets forth the requirements regarding...