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  1. BIOLOGICAL INDICATOR DEVELOPMENT AND CLASSIFICATION FOR GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands are a valued aquatic resource that provide important ecological functions for the Great Lakes including serving as fish habitat, aquatic food web support, and nutrient and sediment retention from watersheds. Great Lakes resource managers need assessme...

  2. Hydrogeomorphic classification for Great Lakes coastal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albert, Dennis A.; Wilcox, Douglas A.; Ingram, Joel W.; Thompson, Todd A.

    2005-01-01

    A hydrogeomorphic classification scheme for Great Lakes coastal wetlands is presented. The classification is hierarchical and first divides the wetlands into three broad hydrogeomorphic systems, lacustrine, riverine, and barrier-protected, each with unique hydrologic flow characteristics and residence time. These systems are further subdivided into finer geomorphic types based on physical features and shoreline processes. Each hydrogeomorphic wetland type has associated plant and animal communities and specific physical attributes related to sediment type, wave energy, water quality, and hydrology.

  3. A MANAGEMENT SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes National Program Office in conjunction with the Great Lakes Commission and other researchers is leading a large scale collaborative effort that will yield, in unprecedented detail, a management support system for Great Lakes coastal wetlands. This entails the dev...

  4. ALGAL RESPONSES TO NUTRIENT LOADING IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are evaluating the influence of nutrient loading on phytoplankton and periphyton in coastal wetlands of the Great Lakes as part of an EPA study associated with the Great Lakes Environmental Indicator (GLEI) project. A primary goal is to assess the role of wetland morphology an...

  5. Hydrogeomorphic and Anthropogenic Influences on Water Quality, Habitat, and Fish of Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands represent a dynamic interface between coastal watersheds and the open lake. Compared to the adjacent lakes, these wetlands have generally warmer water, reduced wave energy, shallow bathymetry, higher productivity, and structurally complex vegetated h...

  6. DIEL OXYGEN-INDUCED MOVEMENT OF FISH ASSEMBLAGES IN A GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the importance of dissolved oxygen conditions in influencing daily ovement patterns of fishes in Great Lakes coastal wetlands, we sampled migrating fish assemblages from habitats with varying diurnal dissolved oxygen patterns in a Lake Superior coastal wetland during...

  7. Across Hydrological Interfaces from Coastal Watersheds to the Open Lake: Finding Landscape Signals in the Great Lakes Coastal Zone

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade, our group has been working to bring coastal ecosystems into integrated basin-lakewide monitoring and assessment strategies for the Great Lakes. We have conducted a wide range of research on coastal tributaries, coastal wetlands, semi-enclosed embayments an...

  8. Progress in understanding the importance of coastal wetland nursery habitat to Great Lakes fisheries support

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands provide important habitat for Great Lakes fishes of all life stages. A literature review of ichthyoplankton surveys conducted in Great Lakes coastal wetlands found at least 82 species reported to be captured during the larval stage. Twenty of those sp...

  9. Factors affecting the evolution of coastal wetlands of the Laurential Great Lakes: an overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mayer, T.; Edsall, T.; Munawar, M.

    2004-01-01

    Coastal wetlands play a pivotal role in the Great Lakes ecosystem. As buffer zones between the land and open waters of the Great Lakes, they perform a variety of essential functions providing both direct and indirect anthropogenic benefits. Geology, morphology and climate are the dominant variables that influence Laurentian Great Lakes wetland development. However, anthropogenic factors are the major contributors to alteration of natural wetland processes. This paper provides an overview of natural and anthropogenic factors important in Great Lakes coastal wetland development and provides statistical information describing the Great Lakes Basin. A brief description of wetlands classification and research issues is also presented.

  10. Hydrologic Factors Determining Linkages of Great Lake Coastal Wetlands to Watershed and Lake

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water can enter Great Lakes coastal wetlands (CWs) from both watershed and offshore sources. Identifying the relative contribution of these potential sources, and the spatial scale at which sources are influenced by human activities, are critical steps in wetland protection. We d...

  11. Watershed and Lake Influences on the Energetic Base of Coastal Wetland Food Webs across the Great Lakes Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript examines the responses of Great Lakes coastal wetland food webs to nutrient enrichment and identifies three classes of systems whose food webs respond differently. Or is that differentially? Anyway, coastal wetlands with relatively long hydraulic residence times ...

  12. Coastal processes influencing water quality at Great Lakes beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    In a series of studies along the Great Lakes, U.S. Geological Survey scientists are examining the physical processes that influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria and related pathogens at recreational beaches. These studies aim to estimate human health risk, improve management strategies, and understand the fate and transport of microbes in the nearshore area. It was determined that embayed beaches act as traps, accumulating Escherichia coli (E. coli) and other bacteria in the basin and even in beach sand. Further, shear stress and wave run-up could resuspend accumulated bacteria, leading to water-contamination events. These findings are being used to target beach design and circulation projects. In previous research, it was determined that E. coli followed a diurnal pattern, with concentrations decreasing throughout the day, largely owing to solar inactivation, but rebounding overnight. Studies at a Chicago beach identified the impact of wave-induced mass transport on this phenomenon, a finding that will extend our understanding of bacterial fate in the natural environment. In another series of studies, scientists examined the impact of river outfalls on bacteria concentrations, using mechanistic and empirical modeling. Through these studies, the models can indicate range and extent of impact, given E. coli concentration in the source water. These findings have been extended to extended lengths of coastlines and have been applied in beach management using empirical predictive modeling. Together, these studies are helping scientists identify and eliminate threats to human and coastal health.

  13. Status of the amphipod Diporeia ssp. in coastal waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diporeia has historically been the dominant benthic macroinvertebrate in deeper waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and its abundance has been proposed as an indicator of ecological condition. In 2010, the USEPA incorporated the Great Lakes into the National Coastal Condition A...

  14. WETLAND MORPHOLOGIC AND BIOGEOGRAPHIC INFLUENCES ON ALGAL RESPONSES TO NUTRIENT LOADING IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are testing the influence of wetland morphology (protected vs. riverine) and biogeography (upper vs. lower Great Lakes) on algal responses to nutrients in Great Lakes Coastal wetlands. Principal components analysis using nutrient-specific GIS data was used to select sites wit...

  15. Patterns in Habitat and Fish Assemblages within Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands and Implications for Sampling Design

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discerning fish - habitat associations at a variety of spatial scales is relevant to evaluating stressor responses and assessment protocols in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. NMDS ordination of electrofishing catch-per-effort data identified an overriding influence of geography an...

  16. Analysis of fish movements between Great Lakes coastal wetlands and near shore habitat via otolith microchemistry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal wetlands are unique habitats with physical connections with near shore environments. This facilitates the exchange of energy between habitats in a principle known as habitat coupling. Coupling can be facilitated by movements of consumers; however, wetland us...

  17. Environmental Indicators for the Coastal Region of North American Great Lakes: Introduction and Prospectus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental indicators are benchmarks for the current conditions of the Great Lakes coastal region and provide measurable endpoints to assess the success of future management, conservation, protection, and restoration of this important resource.

  18. Coastal groundwater/surface-water interactions: a Great Lakes case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, Brian P.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Lundstrom, Scott C.

    2006-01-01

    Key similarities exist between marine and Great Lakes coastal environments. Water and nutrient fluxes across lakebeds in the Great Lakes are influenced by seiche and wind set-up and set-down, analogous to tidal influence in marine settings. Groundwater/surface-water interactions also commonly involve a saline-fresh water interface, although in the Great-Lakes cases, it is groundwater that is commonly saline and surface water that is fresh. Evapotranspiration also affects nearshore hydrology in both settings. Interactions between groundwater and surface water have recently been identified as an important component of ecological processes in the Great Lakes. Water withdrawals and the reversal of the groundwater/surface water seepage gradient are also common to many coastal areas around the Great Lakes. As compared to surface water, regional groundwater that discharges to western Lake Erie from Michigan is highly mineralized. Studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at Erie State Game Area in southeastern Michigan, describe groundwater flow dynamics and chemistry, shallow lake-water chemistry, and fish and invertebrate communities. Results presented here provide an overview of recent progress of ongoing interdisciplinary studies of Great Lakes nearshore systems and describe a conceptual model that identifies relations among geologic, hydrologic, chemical, and biological processes in the coastal habitats of Lake Erie. This conceptual model is based on analysis of hydraulic head in piezometers at the study site and chemical analysis of deep and shallow coastal groundwater.

  19. Early Detection Monitoring for Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introduction of aquatic invasive species. Monitoring is needed to inform on new introductions, as well as to track success of prevention programs intended to limit spread. We have completed a pilot field case study in the Duluth-...

  20. Assessment of suitable habitat for Phragmites australis (common reed) in the Great Lakes coastal zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Galbraith, David

    2014-01-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes, the invasive form of Phragmites australis (common reed) poses a threat to highly productive coastal wetlands and shorelines by forming impenetrable stands that outcompete native plants. Large, dominant stands can derail efforts to restore wetland ecosystems degraded by other stressors. To be proactive, landscape-level management of Phragmites requires information on the current spatial distribution of the species and a characterization of areas suitable for future colonization. Using a recent basin-scale map of this invasive plant’s distribution in the U.S. coastal zone of the Great Lakes, environmental data (e.g., soils, nutrients, disturbance, climate, topography), and climate predictions, we performed analyses of current and predicted suitable coastal habitat using boosted regression trees, a type of species distribution modeling. We also investigated differential influences of environmental variables in the upper lakes (Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron) and lower lakes (Lakes St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario). Basin-wide results showed that the coastal areas most vulnerable to Phragmites expansion were in close proximity to developed lands and had minimal topographic relief, poorly drained soils, and dense road networks. Elevated nutrients and proximity to agriculture also influenced the distribution of Phragmites. Climate predictions indicated an increase in suitable habitat in coastal Lakes Huron and Michigan in particular. The results of this study, combined with a publicly available online decision support tool, will enable resource managers and restoration practitioners to target and prioritize Phragmites control efforts in the Great Lakes coastal zone.

  1. Fringe benefit: Value of restoring coastal wetlands for Great Lakes fisheries

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fishery support is recognized as a valuable ecosystem service provided by Great Lakes coastal wetlands, but it is challenging to quantify because multiple species and habitats are involved. Recent studies indicate that coastal wetland area is proportional to fishery harvest among...

  2. A GIS APPROACH TO IDENTIFY AND CLASSIFY HYDROGEOMORPHIC TYPES OF COASTAL WETLANDS OF THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a need by Great Lakes managers to have a comprehensive inventory of the coastal wetland resources for monitoring and assessment. An electronic database and geographic information system (GIS) point coverage of coastal wetland locations along the U.S. shoreline have been ...

  3. LANDSCAPE-SCALE MONITORING OF AN OPPORTUNIST: PHRAGMITES AUSTRALIS (CAV) STEUDEL IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes (LGL) are among the most fragmented ecosystems in the world, with a long history of human-induced disturbances, primarily as a result of agricultural conversions and hydrologic changes. A substantial number of remnant LGL coastal wet...

  4. A Review of Selected Ecosystem Services Supplied by Coastal Wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant ecosystem services derive from the coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes even though they have undergone substantial declines since European settlement. Basin-wide, two-thirds of the original coastal wetlands have been lost, and the remaining 126,000 ha of US...

  5. LANDSCAPE-SCALE ECOLOGICAL FACTORS AND THEIR ROLE IN PLANT OPPORTUNISM OF GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes (USA and Canada) are among the most biologically diverse ecosystems of the world. However, since the 1970s the presence of opportunistic plant species such as common reed (Phragmites australis [Cav.] Steudel) have increased in Great ...

  6. Functional values of Great Lakes coastal wetlands: What we know and what we can be working towards

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water quality improvement, shoreline protection, carbon sequestration, and lake productivity subsidy are among the functional values commonly attributed to Great Lakes coastal wetlands (GLCWs). There is much less information concerning these than there is concerning habitat and f...

  7. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…

  8. Phase 2 development of Great Lakes algorithms for Nimbus-7 coastal zone color scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, Fred J.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted in the Great Lakes designed to evaluate the application of the NIMBUS-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). Atmospheric and water optical models were used to relate surface and subsurface measurements to satellite measured radiances. Absorption and scattering measurements were reduced to obtain a preliminary optical model for the Great Lakes. Algorithms were developed for geometric correction, correction for Rayleigh and aerosol path radiance, and prediction of chlorophyll-a pigment and suspended mineral concentrations. The atmospheric algorithm developed compared favorably with existing algorithms and was the only algorithm found to adequately predict the radiance variations in the 670 nm band. The atmospheric correction algorithm developed was designed to extract needed algorithm parameters from the CZCS radiance values. The Gordon/NOAA ocean algorithms could not be demonstrated to work for Great Lakes waters. Predicted values of chlorophyll-a concentration compared favorably with expected and measured data for several areas of the Great Lakes.

  9. Coastal wetland support of Great Lakes fisheries: progress from concept to quantification.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fishery support is recognized as a valuable ecosystem service provided by aquatic systems but is harder to quantify than to describe conceptually. In this paper, we intersect data on fish inhabiting Great Lakes coastal wetlands with information on commercial and recreational har...

  10. Watershed Influences on Nearshore Waters Across the Entire US Great Lakes Coastal Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have combined three elements of observation to enable a comprehensive characterization of the Great Lakes nearshore that links nearshore conditions with their adjacent coastal watersheds. The three elements are: 1) a shore-parallel, high-resolution survey of the nearshore usin...

  11. Geographic, Anthropogenic and Habitat Influences on Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages

    EPA Science Inventory

    We analyzed data from coastal wetlands across all five Laurentian Great Lakes to identify patterns in fish assemblages and relationships to local habitat, watershed condition, and regional setting. NMDS ordination of electrofishing catch-per-effort data revealed an overriding ge...

  12. NUTRIENT AND HABITAT INDICATORS FOR CRITERIA DEVELOPMENT IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Mid-Continent Ecology Division is testing indicators and establishing stressor - response relationships to support development of nutrient and habitat criteria for Great Lakes coastal wetlands. Our focus is on water quality changes, food web shifts, and vegetation loss as ...

  13. Hydrogeomorphic factors and ecosystem responses in coastal wetlands of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keough, Janet R.; Thompson, Todd A.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    1999-01-01

    Gauging the impact of manipulative activities, such as rehabilitation or management, on wetlands requires having a notion of the unmanipulated condition as a reference. And understanding of the reference condition requires knowledge of dominant factors influencing ecosystem processes and biological communities. In this paper, we focus on natural physical factors (conditions and processes) that drive coastal wetland ecosystems of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Great Lakes coastal wetlands develop under conditions of large-lake hydrology and disturbance imposed at a hiearchy of spatial and temporal scales and contain biotic communities adapted to unstable and unpredictable conditions. Coastal wetlands are configured along a continuum of hydrogeomorphic types: open coastal wetlands, drowned river mouth and flooded delta wetlands, and protected wetlands, each developing distinct ecosystem propertics and biotic communities. Hydrogeomorphic factors associated with the lake and watershed operate at a hierarchy of scales: a) local and short-term (seiches and ice action), b) watershed / lakewide / annual (seasonal water-level change), and c) larger or year-to-year and longer (regional and/or greater than one-year). Other physical factors include the unique water quality features of each lake. The aim of this paper is to provide scientists and managers with a framework for considering regional and site-specific geomorphometry and a hierarchy of physical processes in planning management and conservation projects.

  14. Systematically variable planktonic carbon metabolism along a land-to-lake gradient in a Great Lakes coastal zone

    PubMed Central

    Weinke, Anthony D.; Kendall, Scott T.; Kroll, Daniel J.; Strickler, Eric A.; Weinert, Maggie E.; Holcomb, Thomas M.; Defore, Angela A.; Dila, Deborah K.; Snider, Michael J.; Gereaux, Leon C.; Biddanda, Bopaiah A.

    2014-01-01

    During the summers of 2002–2013, we measured rates of carbon metabolism in surface waters of six sites across a land-to-lake gradient from the upstream end of drowned river-mouth Muskegon Lake (ML) (freshwater estuary) to 19 km offshore in Lake Michigan (LM) (a Great Lake). Despite considerable inter-year variability, the average rates of gross production (GP), respiration (R) and net production (NP) across ML (604 ± 58, 222 ± 22 and 381 ± 52 µg C L−1 day−1, respectively) decreased steeply in the furthest offshore LM site (22 ± 3, 55 ± 17 and −33 ± 15 µg C L−1day−1, respectively). Along this land-to-lake gradient, GP decreased by 96 ± 1%, whereas R only decreased by 75 ± 9%, variably influencing the carbon balance along this coastal zone. All ML sites were consistently net autotrophic (mean GP:R = 2.7), while the furthest offshore LM site was net heterotrophic (mean GP:R = 0.4). Our study suggests that pelagic waters of this Great Lakes coastal estuary are net carbon sinks that transition into net carbon sources offshore. Reactive and dynamic estuarine coastal zones everywhere may contribute similarly to regional and global carbon cycles. PMID:25954055

  15. Development of Great Lakes algorithms for the Nimbus-G coastal zone color scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanis, F. J.; Lyzenga, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    A series of experiments in the Great Lakes designed to evaluate the application of the Nimbus G satellite Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) were conducted. Absorption and scattering measurement data were reduced to obtain a preliminary optical model for the Great Lakes. Available optical models were used in turn to calculate subsurface reflectances for expected concentrations of chlorophyll-a pigment and suspended minerals. Multiple nonlinear regression techniques were used to derive CZCS water quality prediction equations from Great Lakes simulation data. An existing atmospheric model was combined with a water model to provide the necessary simulation data for evaluation of the preliminary CZCS algorithms. A CZCS scanner model was developed which accounts for image distorting scanner and satellite motions. This model was used in turn to generate mapping polynomials that define the transformation from the original image to one configured in a polyconic projection. Four computer programs (FORTRAN IV) for image transformation are presented.

  16. Great Lakes: Great Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6) "Watering"; (7) "Soil Erosion by Water"; (8) "Soil…

  17. Are Predators Limiting Zebra Mussel Colonization of Unionid Mussels in Great Lake Coastal Wetlands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Szalay, F. A.; Bowers, R.

    2005-05-01

    Although many native mollusc populations have been eliminated in the Laurentian Great Lakes by the exotic zebra mussel, recent surveys have found abundant unionid (Bivalvia: Unionidae) populations in some coastal wetlands. Unionid burrowing in soft sediments and predation by fish have been shown to reduce numbers of attached zebra mussels, and we tested these factors in a Lake Erie coastal wetland. In 2002, we held live unionids (Leptodea fragilis, Quadrula quadrula) and Pyganodon grandis shells in exclosures with wire mesh bottoms that were buried to sediment depths of either 5, 10, or 20 cm. After 2 months, numbers of attached dreissenids on unionids were significantly higher inside all exclosure treatments than outside exclosures. This indicated that either unionid burrowing was prevented in all sediment depth treatments or molluscivores were excluded by exclosures. In 2004, we measured dreissenid colonization on Q. quadrula and PVC plates in bottomless exclosures with different mesh sizes. After 6 months, dreissenid numbers on PVC plates and on Q. quadrula in 2.5 cm X 2.5 cm and 5 cm X 10 cm mesh exclosures were significantly higher than in open exclosures. These data suggest that molluscivores are important in limiting dreissenids in Great Lake coastal wetlands.

  18. Stimulating a Great Lakes coastal wetland seed bank using portable cofferdams: implications for habitat rehabilitation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowalski, K.P.; Wilcox, D.A.; Wiley, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Coastal wetland seed banks exposed by low lake levels or through management actions fuel the reestablishment of emergent plant assemblages (i.e., wetland habitat) critical to Great Lakes aquatic biota. This project explored the effectiveness of using portable, water-filled cofferdams as a management tool to promote the natural growth of emergent vegetation from the seed bank in a Lake Erie coastal wetland. A series of dams stretching approximately 450??m was installed temporarily to isolate hydrologically a 10-ha corner of the Crane Creek wetland complex from Lake Erie. The test area was dewatered in 2004 to mimic a low-water year, and vegetation sampling characterized the wetland seed bank response at low, middle, and high elevations in areas open to and protected from bird and mammal herbivory. The nearly two-month drawdown stimulated a rapid seed-bank-driven response by 45 plant taxa. Herbivory had little effect on plant species richness, regardless of the location along an elevation gradient. Inundation contributed to the replacement of immature emergent plant species with submersed aquatic species after the dams failed and were removed prematurely. This study revealed a number of important issues that must be considered for effective long-term implementation of portable cofferdam technology to stimulate wetland seed banks, including duration of dewatering, product size, source of clean water, replacement of damaged dams, and regular maintenance. This technology is a potentially important tool in the arsenal used by resource managers seeking to rehabilitate the functions and values of Great Lakes coastal wetland habitats.

  19. Detecting and Mapping Invasive Phragmites australis in the coastal Great Lakes with ALOS PALSAR imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeau-chavez, L. L.; Scarbrough, K.; Jenkins, L. K.; Riordan, K.; Powell, R. B.; Brooks, C.; Kowalski, K.; Carlson Mazur, M.; Huberty, B.

    2011-12-01

    Phragmites australis is a non-native invasive plant that can form dense monocultures, causing negative impacts on coastal Great Lakes wetlands by reducing ecosystem services including habitat and therefore, biological diversity. Through Great Lakes Restoration Initiative funding, ALOS PALSAR imagery is being used to map the invasive plant as it occurs in monoculture stands of the U.S. coastal Great Lakes wetlands. These invasive Phragmites maps are being used as part of a USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC) and US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) program to identify major environmental drivers of invasive Phragmites distribution, to assess areas vulnerable to new invasion, and to provide this information to regional stakeholders through a decision support tool. The invasive Phragmites map is the first U.S. basin-wide map to be produced on the distribution of this species. Methods include maximum likelihood classification of multi-season ALOS PALSAR HH and HV polarization data. PALSAR is an L-band (23 cm wavelength) imaging radar sensor which is sensitive to differences in plant biomass and inundation patterns, allowing for the extraction of these tall (up to 15 m), high-density, high-biomass Phragmites wetland stands. To improve discrimination of Phragmites australis, the three date (spring, summer, fall) dataset is being used, which takes advantage of phenological changes in vegetation and inundation patterns over the seasons. Field collections of training and randomly selected validation data were conducted in spring summer and fall of 2010-11 to aid in the mapping and for accuracy assessment. The minimum mapping unit is 1/2 acre and thus all field sites were sampled at 1/2 acre units. All map products and field validation data will be complete by December 2011. Maps are being completed on a Lake basin basis. The first final map product was delivered for Lake Erie coastal wetlands to 10 km inland, with an overall map accuracy

  20. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a…

  1. Attenuation of landscape signals through the coastal zone: A basin-wide analysis for the US Great Lakes shoreline, circa 2002-2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compare statistical models developed to describe a) the relationship between watershed properties and Great Lakes coastal wetlands with b) the relationship developed between watershed properties and the Great Lakes nearshore. Using landscape metrics from the GLEI project (Dan...

  2. Using Stable Isotope Mixing in a Great Lakes Coastal Tributary to Determine Food Web Linkages in Young Fishes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objectives were to determine whether we can detect a stable isotope gradient along the river-Great Lake hydrologic continuum in a coastal river and use it to identify changes across this gradient in the food web supporting young-of-year (YOY) and juvenile fish production. We ...

  3. Can a rapid underwater video approach enhance the benthic assessment capability of the National Coastal Condition Assessmentin the Great Lakes?

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the U.S. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) field survey in summer 2010, over 400 sites in the nearshore zone of the U.S. Great Lakes were sampled. As a supplement to core NCCA benthic taxonomy and sediment chemistry, underwater video images of the bottom condition ...

  4. HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING, GPS, AND GIS APPLICATIONS IN OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES MONITORING OF GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes (LGL) are among the most fragmented and disturbed ecosystems of the world, with a long history of human-induced disturbance. LGL wetlands have undergone losses in the biological diversity that coincides with an increase in the presen...

  5. COASTAL WETLAND AND LAKE TROPHIC LINKAGES ALONG A GREAT LAKES PRODUCTIVITY GRADIENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To examine effects of eutrophication on contributions of primary producers to higher trophic levels and linkages between food webs in adjacent habitats, we analyzed stable isotope signatures of organisms from wetland and adjacent offshore food webs in Green Bay, Lake Michigan. Nu...

  6. SHIFTS BETWEEN PERIPHYTON-AND PHYTOPLANKTON-BASED FOOD WEBS IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous studies have revealed the importance of algae as an energetic base for wetland food webs. Earlier carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses in a Lake Superior coastal wetland (Allouez Bay, WI) indicated that, despite the large amount of vascular plant biobass present, ...

  7. Fish assemblages, connectivity, and habitat rehabilitation in a diked Great Lakes coastal wetland complex

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kowalski, Kurt P.; Wiley, Michael J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2014-01-01

    Fish and plant assemblages in the highly modified Crane Creek coastal wetland complex of Lake Erie were sampled to characterize their spatial and seasonal patterns and to examine the implications of the hydrologic connection of diked wetland units to Lake Erie. Fyke netting captured 52 species and an abundance of fish in the Lake Erie–connected wetlands, but fewer than half of those species and much lower numbers and total masses of fish were captured in diked wetland units. Although all wetland units were immediately adjacent to Lake Erie, there were also pronounced differences in water quality and wetland vegetation between the hydrologically isolated and lake-connected wetlands. Large seasonal variations in fish assemblage composition and biomass were observed in connected wetland units but not in disconnected units. Reestablishment of hydrologic connectivity in diked wetland units would allow coastal Lake Erie fish to use these vegetated habitats seasonally, although connectivity does appear to pose some risks, such as the expansion of invasive plants and localized reductions in water quality. Periodic isolation and drawdown of the diked units could still be used to mimic intermediate levels of disturbance and manage invasive wetland vegetation.

  8. Early Detection Monitoring Approaches for Non-indigenous Species in Vulnerable Great Lakes Coastal Ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes harbors/embayments are vulnerable to introductions of non-indigenous species (NIS). Early detection of new NIS is desirable to allow for a timely management response, raising the question of how to accomplish this in a consistent, cost-effective manner. To that end, ...

  9. RESEARCH ON WATER QUALITY AND BIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS OF GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation is to 4th - 10th grade teachers participating in a NSF-funded, Sea-Grant led program for enhancing science curricula in schools by educating teachers about research and issues in some focal area (Great Lakes in this case). Background information provided on ecology ...

  10. Great Lakes: Chemical Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)

  11. AN ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF INVASIVE AND AGRESSIVE PLANT SPECIES IN COASTAL WETLANDS OF THE LAURENTIAN GREAT LAKES: A COMBINED FIELD BASED AND REMOTE SENSING APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aquatic plant communities within coastal wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes are among the most biologically diverse and productive systems of the world. Coastal wetlands have been especially impacted by landscape conversion and have undergone a marked decline in plant com...

  12. National Assessment of Historical Shoreline Change: A Pilot Study of Historical Coastal Bluff Retreat in the Great Lakes, Erie, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Malone, Shamus; Kratzmann, Meredith

    2009-01-01

    Coastal bluff retreat is a chronic problem along many high-relief coastlines in the United States. As coastal populations continue to grow and community infrastructures are threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regard-ing trends and rates of bluff retreat. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To address these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards Project, conducted a pilot study of bluff retreat along the Lake Erie, Pa., coastline to assess the feasibility of undertaking a larger, multi-state analysis in the Great Lakes region. This report provides an overview of the pilot-study location and bluff geomorphology, the data sources and methodology, results of the analysis, and a discussion of the feasibility of undertaking a similar analysis along eroding bluffs in other Great Lakes states. This pilot study is part of an ongoing effort by the USGS to provide a comprehensive analysis of historical shoreline change and cliff and bluff retreat along open-ocean coastlines of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of the work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing coastal change so that systematic and consistent periodic updates of coastal erosion can be made nationally. Bluff-retreat evaluations are conducted by comparing the location of a historical bluff edge digitized from aerial photographs with those of recent bluff edges interpreted from both aerial photographs and lidar topographic surveys. The historical bluff edge is from 1938, whereas the more recent bluff edges are from 1998 and 2006 lidar data. Long-term (68-year) rates of retreat are calculated using the available bluff-edge data. The rates of retreat presented in this report represent conditions from the 1930s to 1998/2006, and are not intended for

  13. Mapping invasive Phragmites australis in the coastal Great Lakes with ALOS PALSAR satellite imagery for decision support

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bourgeau-Chavez, Laura L.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Carlson Mazur, Martha L.; Scarbrough, Kirk A.; Powell, Richard B.; Brooks, Colin N.; Huberty, Brian; Jenkins, Liza K.; Banda, Elizabeth C.; Galbraith, David M.; Laubach, Zachary M.; Riordan, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The invasive variety of Phragmites australis (common reed) forms dense stands that can cause negative impacts on coastal Great Lakes wetlands including habitat degradation and reduced biological diversity. Early treatment is key to controlling Phragmites, therefore a map of the current distribution is needed. ALOS PALSAR imagery was used to produce the first basin-wide distribution map showing the extent of large, dense invasive Phragmites-dominated habitats in wetlands and other coastal ecosystems along the U.S. shore of the Great Lakes. PALSAR is a satellite imaging radar sensor that is sensitive to differences in plant biomass and inundation patterns, allowing for the detection and delineation of these tall (up to 5 m), high density, high biomass invasive Phragmites stands. Classification was based on multi-season ALOS PALSAR L-band (23 cm wavelength) HH and HV polarization data. Seasonal (spring, summer, and fall) datasets were used to improve discrimination of Phragmites by taking advantage of phenological changes in vegetation and inundation patterns over the seasons. Extensive field collections of training and randomly selected validation data were conducted in 2010–2011 to aid in mapping and for accuracy assessments. Overall basin-wide map accuracy was 87%, with 86% producer's accuracy and 43% user's accuracy for invasive Phragmites. The invasive Phragmites maps are being used to identify major environmental drivers of this invader's distribution, to assess areas vulnerable to new invasion, and to provide information to regional stakeholders through a decision support tool.

  14. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  15. AN ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF OPPORTUNISTIC PLANT SPECIES IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS USING AIRBORNE HYPERSPECTRAL DATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airbome hyperspectral data were used to detect dense patches of Phragmites australis, a native opportunist plant species, at the Pointe Mouillee coastal wetland complex (Wayne and Monroe Counties, Michigan). This study provides initial results from one of thirteen coastal wetland...

  16. GREAT LAKES LIMNOLOGY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has primary responsibility within the U.S. for conducting surveillance monitoring of the offshore waters of the Great Lakes. This monitoring is intended to fulfill provis...

  17. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  18. An Inventory and Classification of Coastal Wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    This inventory and classification of DRM/riverine coastal wetlands is needed for doing a probability based selection for assessments of this valued aquatic resource across large areas, e.g., by states for 305B reports of coastal wetland condition.

  19. ALL THAT "PHRAG": BRINGING ENGINEERING, WETLAND ECOLOGY, ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE, AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY TO BEAR ON THE QUESTION OF COMMON REED IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands are among the most fragmented and disturbed ecosystems and the Great Lakes are no exception. One possible result is the observed increase in the presence and dominance of invasive and other opportunistic plant species, such as the common reed (Phragmites australi...

  20. EXOTIC AND INVASIVE AQUATIC PLANTS IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS: DISTRIBUTION AND RELATION TO WATERSHED LAND USE AND PLANT RICHNESS AND COVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript provides previously unavailable information to researchers and managers concerning exotic plants in the Great Lakes...This work arises out of our broader efforts to describe biota - habitat relationships in coastal wetlands, and as such falls under Aquatic Stresso...

  1. Determining Sources of Water and Nutrients to Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands: A Classification Approach.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water and associated nutrients can enter freshwater and marine coastal wetlands from both watershed and offshore sources. Identifying the relative contribution of these potential sources, and the spatial scale at which sources are influenced by anthropogenic activities, are crit...

  2. The Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  3. Developing Remote Sensing Products for Monitoring and Modeling Great Lakes Coastal Wetland Vulnerability to Climate Change and Land Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.; Miller, M. E.; Battaglia, M.; Banda, E.; Endres, S.; Currie, W. S.; Elgersma, K. J.; French, N. H. F.; Goldberg, D. E.; Hyndman, D. W.

    2014-12-01

    Spread of invasive plant species in the coastal wetlands of the Great Lakes is degrading wetland habitat, decreasing biodiversity, and decreasing ecosystem services. An understanding of the mechanisms of invasion is crucial to gaining control of this growing threat. To better understand the effects of land use and climatic drivers on the vulnerability of coastal zones to invasion, as well as to develop an understanding of the mechanisms of invasion, research is being conducted that integrates field studies, process-based ecosystem and hydrological models, and remote sensing. Spatial data from remote sensing is needed to parameterize the hydrological model and to test the outputs of the linked models. We will present several new remote sensing products that are providing important physiological, biochemical, and landscape information to parameterize and verify models. This includes a novel hybrid radar-optical technique to delineate stands of invasives, as well as natural wetland cover types; using radar to map seasonally inundated areas not hydrologically connected; and developing new algorithms to estimate leaf area index (LAI) using Landsat. A coastal map delineating wetland types including monocultures of the invaders (Typha spp. and Phragmites austrailis) was created using satellite radar (ALOS PALSAR, 20 m resolution) and optical data (Landsat 5, 30 m resolution) fusion from multiple dates in a Random Forests classifier. These maps provide verification of the integrated model showing areas at high risk of invasion. For parameterizing the hydrological model, maps of seasonal wetness are being developed using spring (wet) imagery and differencing that with summer (dry) imagery to detect the seasonally wet areas. Finally, development of LAI remote sensing high resolution algorithms for uplands and wetlands is underway. LAI algorithms for wetlands have not been previously developed due to the difficulty of a water background. These products are being used to

  4. USEPA RESEARCH ON FISH - HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL MARSHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite numerous studies documenting fish use of particular habitat elements, the role of habitat mosaics in supporting wetland fishes is poorly understood. USEPA's Mid-Continent Ecology Division has initiated research to identify relationships of fish and habitat in coastal mars...

  5. Promoting species establishment in a phragmites-dominated great lakes coastal wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, M.L.; Kowalski, K.P.; Wilcox, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined efforts to promote species establishment and maintain diversity in a Phragmites-dominated wetland where primary control measures were underway. A treatment experiment was performed at Crane Creek, a drowned-river-mouth wetland in Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge along the shore of western Lake Erie. Following initial aerial spraying of Phragmites with glyphosate, this study tested combinations of cutting, raking, and additional hand spraying of Phragmites with glyphosate as methods to promote growth of other wetland species and increase plant diversity. Percent-cover vegetation data were collected in permanent plots before and after treatments, and follow-up sampling was performed the following year. Increased species richness, species emergence, and relative dominance of non-Phragmites taxa were used as measures of treatment success. We also examined treatment effects on Phragmites cover. Dimensionality of seedbank and soil properties was reduced using principal component analysis. With the exception of nitrogen, soil nutrients affected species establishment, non-Phragmites taxa dominance, and Phragmites cover. A more viable seedbank led to greater species emergence. Treatments had differential effects on diversity depending on elevation and resulting degree of hydrologic inundation. Whereas raking to remove dead Phragmites biomass was central to promoting species establishment in dry areas, spraying had a greater impact in continually inundated areas. For treatment success across elevations into the year following treatments, spraying in combination with cutting and raking had the greatest effect. The results of this study suggest that secondary treatments can produce a short-term benefit to the plant community in areas treated for Phragmites.

  6. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, "September of My Years;" "Early Bird," the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  7. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, “September of My Years” “Early Bird,” the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  8. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J. Iwan

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  9. Anthropogenic Influences on Water Quality and Biota of Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands, with an Eye towards Criteria Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twin Ports Freshwater Folk is a group of folks in Duluth in the field of aquatics sciences and management that meets roughly monthly to network and hear about ongoing science projects. My talk to them will focus on how we might use the data collected from our Great Lakes wide we...

  10. USING GRADIENTS IN LANDSCAPECHARACTER TO IDENTIFY RESPONSES TO NUTRIENTS AND OTHER STRESSORS IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using GIS and coarse-scale, publicly-available data, the GLEI project has defined the landscape character of areas draining to 76d2 shoreline segments - the entire US portion of the Great Lakes basin. Using principal components and clustering analyses to discriminate among the se...

  11. HYDROGEOMORPHIC PATTERNS IN COASTAL WETLANDS OF LAKE SUPERIOR: RELATIVE ROLE OF LAKE AND TRIBUTARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite the documented importance of hydrodynamics in influencing the structure and fundtion of Great Lakes coastal wetlands, systematic assessments of the hydrology of coastal wetlands are lacking. This paper addresses this gap by describing patterns in lake and tributary inputs...

  12. Monitoring and Modelling Lakes and Coastal Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odada, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The monitoring and modeling of lakes and coastal environments is becoming ever more important, particularly because these environments bear heavy loads in terms of human population, and their resources are critical to the livelihoods and well-being of coastal inhabitants and ecosystems. Monitoring and Modelling Lakes and Coastal Environments is a collection of 18 papers arising from the Lake 2004 International Conference on Conservation, Restoration and Management of Lakes and Coastal Wetlands, held in Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India, 9-13 December 2004. Consequently, 15 of the papers are concerned with studies on the Indian subcontinent, and many of the papers focus on India's Lake Chilika, the site of a special session during the conference. Two papers concern Japan, and one focuses on North America's Great Lakes region. Although the book has a regional bias, the replication of best practices that can be drawn from these studies may be useful for an international audience.

  13. Diel variation in near-shore great lakes fish assemblages and implications for assessment sampling and coastal management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, J.E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    I compared fish assemblages captured in three different microhabitats (shoreline, pelagic near-shore, and benthic near-shore) during day and night fishing in different protection (inside bay or tributary vs. outside in Lake Ontario proper) and turbidity regimes of four near-shore areas of Lake Ontario. The effects of diel movement and availability to gear were clearly evident. Fish assemblages were consistently and significantly more diverse at night than during the day, with nighttime assemblages often being supersets of daytime assemblages. Evidence for a turbidity effect was much weaker than the effects of nocturnal movements and changes in availability to the gear associated with darkness. Nighttime sampling is more likely to capture the full array of species in near-shore areas of the Great Lakes than daytime sampling.

  14. Europa's Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, B. E.; Blankenship, D. D.; Patterson, G. W.; Schenk, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    Unique to the surface of Europa, chaos terrain is diagnostic of the properties and dynamics of its icy shell. While models have suggested that partial melt within a thick shell or melt-through of a thin shell may form chaos, neither model has been able to definitively explain all observations of chaos terrain. However, we present a new model that suggests large melt lenses form within the shell and that water-ice interactions above and within these lenses drive the production of chaos. Our analysis of the geomorphology of Conamara Chaos and Thera Macula, was used to infer and test a four-stage lens-collapse chaos formation model: 1) Thermal plumes of warm, pure ice ascend through the shell melting the impure brittle ice above, producing a lake of briny water and surface down draw due to volume reduction. 2) Surface deflection and driving force from the plume below hydraulically seals the water in place. 3) Extension of the brittle ice lid generates fractures from below, allowing brines to enter and fluidize the ice matrix. 4) As the lens and now brash matrix refreeze, thermal expansion creates domes and raises the chaos feature above the background terrain. This new "lense-collapse" model indicates that chaos features form in the presence of a great deal of liquid water, and that large liquid water bodies exist within 3km of Europa's surface comparable in volume to the North American Great Lakes. The detection of shallow subsurface "lakes" implies that the ice shell is recycling rapidly and that Europa may be currently active. In this presentation, we will explore environments on Europa and their analogs on Earth, from collapsing Antarctic ice shelves to to subglacial volcanos in Iceland. I will present these new analyses, and describe how this new perspective informs the debate about Europa's habitability and future exploration.

  15. Michigan: The Great Lakes State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Sandra Lee; La Luzerne-Oi, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Although Michigan is often called the "Wolverine State," its more common nickname is the "Great Lakes State." This name comes from the fact that Michigan is the only state in the United States that borders four of the five Great Lakes. Also referred to as the "Water Wonderland," Michigan has 11,000 additional lakes, 36,000 miles of streams, and…

  16. Georeferencing the Large-Scale Aerial Photographs of a Great Lakes Coastal Wetland: A Modified Photogrammetric Method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, Marilyn K.; Kowalski, Kurt P.; Grapentine, Joel L.

    2010-01-01

    The geocontrol template method was developed to georeference multiple, overlapping analog aerial photographs without reliance upon conventionally obtained horizontal ground control. The method was tested as part of a long-term wetland habitat restoration project at a Lake Erie coastal wetland complex in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge. As in most coastal wetlands, annually identifiable ground-control features required to georeference photo-interpreted data are difficult to find. The geocontrol template method relies on the following four components: (a) an uncontrolled aerial photo mosaic of the study area, (b) global positioning system (GPS) derived horizontal coordinates of each photo’s principal point, (c) a geocontrol template created by the transfer of fiducial markings and calculated principal points to clear acetate from individual photographs arranged in a mosaic, and (d) the root-mean-square-error testing of the system to ensure an acceptable level of planimetric accuracy. Once created for a study area, the geocontrol template can be registered in geographic information system (GIS) software to facilitate interpretation of multiple images without individual image registration. The geocontrol template enables precise georeferencing of single images within larger blocks of photographs using a repeatable and consistent method.

  17. Linking a Large-Watershed Hydrogeochemical Model to a Wetland Community-Ecosystem Model to Estimate Plant Invasion Risk in the Coastal Great Lakes Region, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, W. S.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.; Elgersma, K. J.; French, N. H. F.; Goldberg, D. E.; Hart, S.; Hyndman, D. W.; Kendall, A. D.; Martin, S. L.; Martina, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes region of the Upper Midwest, USA, agricultural and urban land uses together with high N deposition are contributing to elevated flows of N in rivers and groundwater to coastal wetlands. The functioning of coastal wetlands, which provide a vital link between land and water, are imperative to maintaining the health of the entire Great Lakes Basin. Elevated N inflows are believed to facilitate the spread of large-stature invasive plants (cattails and Phragmites) that reduce biodiversity and have complex effects on other ecosystem services including wetland N retention and C accretion. We enhanced the ILHM (Integrated Landscape Hydrology Model) to simulate the effects of land use on N flows in streams, rivers, and groundwater throughout the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. We used the hydroperiods and N loading rates simulated by ILHM as inputs to the Mondrian model of wetland community-ecosystem processes to estimate invasion risk and other ecosystem services in coastal wetlands around the Michigan coast. Our linked models produced threshold behavior in the success of invasive plants in response to N loading, with the threshold ranging from ca. 8 to 12 g N/m2 y, depending on hydroperiod. Plant invasions increased wetland productivity 3-fold over historically oligotrophic native communities, decreased biodiversity but slightly increased wetland N retention. Regardless of invasion, elevated N loading resulted in significantly enhanced rates of C accretion, providing an important region-wide mechanism of C storage. The linked models predicted a general pattern of greater invasion risk in the southern basins of lakes Michigan and Huron relative to northern areas. The basic mechanisms of invasion have been partially validated in our field mesocosms constructed for this project. The general regional patterns of increased invasion risk have been validated through our field campaigns and remote sensing conducted for this project.

  18. The Great Lakes Food Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Marjane L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a play for students in grades four to nine that incorporates the scientific names, physical characteristics, feeding habits, interactions, and interdependence of the plants and animals that make up the Great Lakes food web to facilitate the learning of this complex system. Includes a Great Lakes food web chart. (AIM)

  19. GREAT LAKES CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sediments are a significant problem in the Great Lakes basin. Although discharges of toxic substances to the Great Lakes have been reduced in the last 20 years, persistent high concentrations of contaminants in the bottom sediments of rivers and harbors have raised...

  20. GREAT LAKES PLANKTON PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton, which have short carbon turnover rates, are sensitive to water quality conditions and grazing by zooplankton, and thus respond rapidly to perturbations of the lake ecosystem. The determination of phytoplankton abundance and species composition is one method to tra...

  1. Integrating Climate Change into Great Lakes Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedman, S.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change is now recognized as one of the greatest threats to the Great Lakes. Projected climate change impacts to the Great Lakes include increases in surface water and air temperature; decreases in ice cover; shorter winters, early spring, and longer summers; increased frequency of intense storms; more precipitation falling as rain in the winter; less snowfall; and variations in water levels, among other effects. Changing climate conditions may compromise efforts to protect and restore the Great Lakes ecosystem and may lead to irrevocable impacts on the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the Great Lakes. Examples of such potential impacts include the transformation of coastal wetlands into terrestrial ecosystems; reduced fisheries; increased beach erosion; change in forest species composition as species migrate northward; potential increase in toxic substance concentrations; potential increases in the frequency and extent of algal blooms; degraded water quality; and a potential increase in invasive species. The Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, signed into law by President Obama in 2010, represents the commitment of the federal government to protect, restore, and maintain the Great Lakes ecosystem. The GLRI Action Plan, issued in February 2010, identifies five focus areas: - Toxic Substances and Areas of Concern - Invasive Species - Nearshore Health and Nonpoint Source Pollution - Habitat and Wildlife Protection and Restoration - Accountability, Education, Monitoring, Evaluation, Communication, and Partnerships The Action Plan recognizes that the projected impacts of climate change on the Great Lakes have implications across all focus areas and encourages incorporation of climate change considerations into GLRI projects and programs as appropriate. Under the GLRI, EPA has funded climate change-related work by states, tribes, federal agencies, academics and NGOs through competitive grants, state and tribal capacity grants, and Interagency

  2. Lake Buchannan, Great Dividing Range, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Buchannan, a small but blue and prominent in the center of the view, lies in the Great Dividing of Queensland, Australia (22.0S, 146.0E). The mountain range in this case is a low plateau of no more than 2,000 to 3,000 ft altitude. The interior is dry, mostly in pasture but the coastal zone in contrast, is wet tropical country where bananas and sugarcane are grown.

  3. The first US National Coastal Condition Assessment survey in the Great Lakes: Development of the GIS frame and exploration of spatial variation in nearshore water quality results

    EPA Science Inventory

    A comprehensive approach to assess conditions in the Great Lakes nearshore zone has been lacking for decades. We had the opportunity to conduct a pilot survey in Lake Erie (45 sites) in summer 2009 and to develop a full survey across the 5 lakes (~400 sites) as part of the US N...

  4. An Integrated Set of Observations to Link Conditions of Great Lakes Nearshore Waters to their Coastal Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    We combine three elements for a comprehensive characterization that links nearshore conditions with coastal watershed disturbance metrics. The three elements are: 1) a shore-parallel, high-resolution nearshore survey using continuous in situ towed sensors; 2) a spatially-balanc...

  5. Physical constraints and the comparative ecology of coastal ecosystems across the US Great Lakes, with a coda, presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of my favorite papers by Scott Nixon (1988) was the story he build around the observation that marine fisheries yields were higher per unit area or per unit primary production than temperate lakes. The story, and the putative agent for the freshwater/marine difference, involv...

  6. Physical constraints and the comparative ecology of coastal ecosystems across the US Great Lakes, with a coda

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of my favorite papers by Scott Nixon (1988) was the story he build around the observation that marine fisheries yields were higher than temperate lakes. The putative agent for the freshwater/marine difference, involved a higher energy of mixing due to tides in marine environm...

  7. 33 CFR 125.08 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Great Lakes. 125.08 Section 125... VESSELS § 125.08 Great Lakes. The term Great Lakes as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters....

  8. 33 CFR 125.08 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Great Lakes. 125.08 Section 125... VESSELS § 125.08 Great Lakes. The term Great Lakes as used in the regulations in this subchapter shall include the Great Lakes and their connecting and tributary waters....

  9. Great Lakes Steel -- PCI facility

    SciTech Connect

    Eichinger, F.T.; Dake, S.H.; Wagner, E.D.; Brown, G.S.

    1997-12-31

    This paper discusses the planning, design, and start-up of the 90 tph PCI facility for National Steel`s Great Lakes Steel Division in River Rouge, MI. This project is owned and operated by Edison Energy Services, and was implemented on a fast-track basis by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Babcock Material Handling, and Babcock and Wilcox. This paper presents important process issues, basic design criteria, an the challenges of engineering and building a state-of-the-art PCI facility in two existing plants. Pulverized coal is prepared at the River Rouge Power Plant of Detroit Edison, is pneumatically conveyed 6,000 feet to a storage silo at Great Lakes Steel, and is injected into three blast furnaces.

  10. Monitoring Change in Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naftz, David; Angeroth, Cory; Freeman, Michael; Rowland, Ryan; Carling, Gregory

    2013-08-01

    Great Salt Lake is the largest hypersaline lake in the Western Hemisphere and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (Figure 1). The open water and adjacent wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem support millions of migratory waterfowl and shorebirds from throughout the Western Hemisphere [Aldrich and Paul, 2002]. In addition, the area is of important economic value: Brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) residing in Great Salt Lake support an aquaculture shrimp cyst industry with annual revenues as high as $60 million.

  11. EPA Research Strengthens Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    EPA Science Inventory

    As the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth, the Great Lakes (Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, Ontario and Superior) are a source of economic prosperity, recreation and raw materials. Human activity, however, has resulted in pollution and other stressors. The Great Lakes curren...

  12. The Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Noriyuki

    For the last couple of decades, the Great Lakes have undergone rapid surface warming. In particular, the magnitude of the summer surface-warming trends of the Great Lakes have been much greater than those of surrounding land (Austin and Colman, 2007). Among the Great Lakes, the deepest Lake Superior exhibited the strongest warming trend in its annual, as well as summer surface water temperature. We find that many aspects of this behavior can be explained in terms of the tendency of deep lakes to exhibit multiple regimes characterized, under the same seasonally varying forcing, by the warmer and colder seasonal cycles exhibiting different amounts of wintertime lake-ice cover and corresponding changes in the summertime lake-surface temperatures. In this thesis, we address the problem of the Great Lakes' warming using one-dimensional lake modeling to interpret diverse observations of the recent lake behavior. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  13. Early eutrophication in the lower great lakes:.

    PubMed

    Schelske, C L; Stoermer, E F; Conley, D J; Robbins, J A; Glover, R M

    1983-10-21

    New Evidence from Biogenic Silica in Sediments New evidence from studies of biogenic silica and diatoms in sediment cores indicates that eutrophication in the lower Great Lakes resulted from nutrient enrichment associated with early settlement and forest clearance. Diatom production peaked from 1820 to 1850 in Lake Ontario, at about 1880 in Lake Erie, but not until 1970 in Lake Michigan. This is the first reported sediment record of the silica-depletion sequence for the Great Lakes. PMID:17734831

  14. Exploiting Habitat and Gear Patterns for Efficient Detection of Rare and Non-native Benthos and Fish in Great Lakes Coastal ecosystems

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is at present no comprehensive early-detection monitoring for exotic species in the Great Lakes, despite their continued arrival and impacts and recognition that early detection is key to effective management. We evaluated strategies for efficient early-detection monitorin...

  15. ZOOBENTHOS ASSEMBLAGES AS INDICATORS OF LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLAND CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little is known about the diversity or structure of zoobenthos assemblages in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. As part of a comparative study in western Lake Superior we wanted to investigate whether these assemblages might be useful as indicators of wetland condition. We also wante...

  16. TOXAPHENE IN THE GREAT LAKES. (R825246)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the most current data for toxaphene in the water, sediments, and biota of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Concentrations in water range from 1.1 ng/L in Lake Superior to 0.17 ng/L in Lake Ontario. Lake Superior has the highest water concentrati...

  17. Great Lakes Education Booklet, 1990-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    This booklet integrates science, history, and environmental education to help students acquire a basic understanding of the importance of the Great Lakes located in the United States. The packet also contains a Great Lakes Basin resource map and a sand dune poster. These materials introduce students to a brief history of the lakes, the diversity…

  18. Monitoring change in Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, David L.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Freeman, Michael L.; Rowland, Ryan C.; Carling, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economic importance of Great Salt Lake, only limited water quality monitoring has occurred historically. To change this, new monitoring stations and networks—gauges of lake level height and rate of inflow, moored buoys, and multiple lake-bottom sensors—will provide important information that can be used to make informed decisions regarding future management of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem.

  19. Area contingency plan: Eastern Great Lakes. (COTP Buffalo)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Great Lakes Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Buffalo Coastal Zone.

  20. Near shore-wetland fish movements in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linkages of Great Lakes coastal wetlands and near shore habitats are under-explored, yet 90 species of fish are known to utilize wetlands for spawning and/or nursery habitat. The duration and frequency of wetland use for pelagic species with mobile adult stages is also poorly un...

  1. Great Lakes nearshore-offshore: Distinct water quality regions

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared water quality of nearshore regions in the Laurentian Great Lakes to water quality in offshore regions. Sample sites for the nearshore region were from the US EPA National Coastal Condition Assessment and based on a criteria or sample-frame of within the 30-m depth co...

  2. A Great Salt Lake waterspout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joanne; Mccumber, M.; Roff, G.; Morton, B. R.; Labas, K.; Dietachmayer, G.; Penc, R.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of observations of a waterspout funnel and spray ring performed under a cumulus line over the Great Salt Lake for about 5 min shortly after sunrise on June 26, 1985. These observations were used as the basis for a study of the initiation and evolution of waterspouts through a series of numerical experiments at two scales, that of a cloud and a waterspout. The cloud scale was simulated using an improved Goddard-Schlesinger model with nearby Salt Lake City soundings. Results showed that for each mode of cloud initiation, the vortex that started at the anticyclonic center grew faster than those started at other centers. This result strongly suggests that the cloud vorticity was important in its initiation. The greatest azimuthal speed for the bubble-initiated cloud was 11 m/s, when the vortex model was started at 28-min cloud time with time-varying boundary conditions, whereas it was 21 m/s when started at 12 min in the line-initiated cloud. The results support the hypothesis that, at least in some circumstances, cloud processes alone can produce waterspouts in the absence of external vorticity sources such as surface convergence lines or other shear features.

  3. HABITAT FINGERPRINTS FOR LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLANDS DERIVED FROM ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF YELLOW PERCH OTOLITHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the ecological importance of coastal habitats to Great Lakes ecosystems requires an understanding of the ecological linkages between coastal and offshore waters. . . . Our results suggest that otolith elemental fingerprints may be useful for quantifying the relative con...

  4. Availability of lake trout reproductive habitat in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    A decades-long program to reestablish self-sustaining stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the four lower Great Lakes produced excellent fisheries supported by stocked fish. These fish spawned widely and small numbers of their offspring were collected intermittently from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario, but no self-sustaining stocks were established. Irt this paper we address habitat sufficiency as a factor in the failure of stocked lake trout to established self-sustaining populations in the four lower Great Lakes. We present the previously unpublished results of lake trout spawning habitat surveys conducted at seven sites in the Great Lakes since 1987 and we compare them with the published results of similar surveys conducted at 24 other sites in the four lower lakes since 1981. Our evaluation indicates all but two of these sites can support the production of viable fry from spawnings by the shallow-water strains of lake trout that are stocked in the Great Lakes. However, some of the best spawning, egg, and fry habitat in the lower Great Lakes seems to be at deeper offshore sites that may be unattractive to these shallow-water strains. Thus, we suggest also stocking the lower four lakes with strains from Lake Superior that might more fully exploit the best spawning habitat at these deeper, offshore sites.

  5. Eutrophication of the St. Lawrence Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeton, Alfred M.

    1965-01-01

    Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior are classified as oligotrophic lakes on the basis of their biological, chemical, and physical characteristics. Lake Ontario, although rich in nutrients, is morphometrically oligotrophic or mesotrophic because of its large area of deep water. Lake Erie, the most productive of the lakes and the shallowest, is eutrophic. Several changes commonly associated with eutrophication in small lakes have been observed in the Great Lakes. These changes apparently reflect accelerated eutrophication in the Great Lakes due to man's activity. Chemical data compiled from a number of sources, dating as early as 1854, indicate a progressive increase in the concentrations of various major ions and total dissolved solids in all of the lakes except Lake Superior. The plankton has changed somewhat in Lake Michigan and the plankton, benthos, and fish populations of Lake Erie are greatly different today from those of the past. An extensive area of hypolimnetic water of Lake Erie has developed low dissolved oxygen concentrations in late summer within recent years.

  6. Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Claramunt, Randall M.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Clapp, David

    2012-01-01

    Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) are a valuable resource, both within their native range in the North Pacific rim and in the Great Lakes basin. Understanding their value from a biological and economic perspective in the Great Lakes, however, requires an understanding of changes in the ecosystem and of management actions that have been taken to promote system stability, integrity, and sustainable fisheries. Pacific salmonine introductions to the Great Lakes are comprised mainly of Chinook salmon, coho salmon, and steelhead and have accounted for 421, 177, and 247 million fish, respectively, stocked during 1966-2007. Stocking of Pacific salmonines has been effective in substantially reducing exotic prey fish abundances in several of the Great Lakes (e.g., lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario). The goal of our evaluation was to highlight differences in management strategies and perspectives across the basin, and to evaluate policies for Pacific salmonine management in the Great Lakes. Currently, a potential conflict exists between Pacific salmonine management and native fish rehabilitation goals because of the desire to sustain recreational fisheries and to develop self-sustaining populations of stocked Pacific salmonines in the Great Lakes. We provide evidence that suggests Pacific salmonines have not only become naturalized to the food webs of the Great Lakes, but that their populations (specifically Chinook salmon) may be fluctuating in concert with specific prey (i.e., alewives) whose populations are changing relative to environmental conditions and ecosystem disturbances. Remaining questions, however, are whether or not “natural” fluctuations in predator and prey provide enough “stability” in the Great Lakes food webs, and even more importantly, would a choice by managers to attempt to reduce the severity of predator-prey oscillations be antagonistic to native fish restoration efforts. We argue that, on each of the Great Lakes, managers are pursuing

  7. CONNECTING WATERSHED CHARACTERISTICS TO NUTRIENT REGIME FROM HEADWATERS TO RECEIVING WATERS IN THE LAURENTIAL GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are evaluating the influence of position along the tributary-coastal wetland-lake continuum on the expression of watershed characteristics in the water quality of Great Lakes (GL) coastal ecosystems as part of an EPA study focused on determining stressor-response relationships...

  8. δD and δ18O evidence for inputs to groundwater at a wetland coastal boundary in the southern Great Lakes region of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huddart, P. A.; Longstaffe, F. J.; Crowe, A. S.

    1999-01-01

    The stable isotope compositions ( δ18O and δD) of water have been used to determine the relative contributions of different water sources to the groundwater in a barrier sand-bar that separates a coastal freshwater marsh from Lake Erie, Canada. An extensive groundwater study was initiated by Environment Canada at Point Pelee National Park after elevated nutrient concentrations were measured in the park's marsh, located on a spit of land that extends 15 km south into Lake Erie. As part of this larger study, which includes groundwater and nutrient modelling, the stable isotope compositions ( δ18O and δD) of water have been used to independently determine the nature and extent of groundwater flow within sand deposits that separate the marsh from Lake Erie. One of the two study sites chosen for this investigation is located near a large septic-system tile-bed that receives human waste from a public toilet facility within the park, and could potentially release nutrients to the marsh via the groundwater. Both transects studied are well suited to isotopic investigation because they are located between two potentially recharging surface water bodies with temporally variable isotopic compositions, and because the transects are subject to recharge by local precipitation, which exhibits large seasonal isotopic variations. These differing isotopic compositions, when considered spatially and temporally, make it possible to establish the source and movement of groundwater within the transects. The oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions of surface waters from the Point Pelee marsh and Lake Erie lie on an evaporation line with a slope of 5.7. The isotopic composition of Lake Erie remained relatively stable for over 21 months ( δ18O=-7.5‰ to -6.7‰) whereas the marsh exhibited considerable spatial and temporal variability ( δ18O=-8.4‰ to -0.1‰). The δD and δ18O values of precipitation samples vary seasonally with local surface temperatures, and constitute a local

  9. Directory of Great Lakes Education Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Joint Commission, Windsor (Ontario). Great Lakes Regional Office.

    The Great Lakes Science Advisory Board of the International Joint Commission surveyed several hundred educators and producers of educational programs. One of the results of the survey was the development of this directory, which is limited to materials and producers of materials dealing with the Great Lakes Basin ecosystem, environmental studies,…

  10. Great Lakes rivermouth ecosystems: scientific synthesis and management implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, James H.; Trebitz, Anett S.; Steinman, Alan D.; Wiley, Michael J.; Carlson Mazur, Martha; Pebbles, Victoria; Braun, Heather A.; Seelbach, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    At the interface of the Great Lakes and their tributary rivers lies the rivermouths, a class of aquatic ecosystem where lake and lotic processes mix and distinct features emerge. Many rivermouths are the focal point of both human interaction with the Great Lakes and human impacts to the lakes; many cities, ports, and beaches are located in rivermouth ecosystems, and these human pressures often degrade key ecological functions that rivermouths provide. Despite their ecological uniqueness and apparent economic importance, there has been relatively little research on these ecosystems as a class relative to studies on upstream rivers or the open-lake waters. Here we present a synthesis of current knowledge about ecosystem structure and function in Great Lakes rivermouths based on studies in both Laurentian rivermouths, coastal wetlands, and marine estuarine systems. A conceptual model is presented that establishes a common semantic framework for discussing the characteristic spatial features of rivermouths. This model then is used to conceptually link ecosystem structure and function to ecological services provided by rivermouths. This synthesis helps identify the critical gaps in understanding rivermouth ecology. Specifically, additional information is needed on how rivermouths collectively influence the Great Lakes ecosystem, how human alterations influence rivermouth functions, and how ecosystem services provided by rivermouths can be managed to benefit the surrounding socioeconomic networks.

  11. Winter Lake Breezes near the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2016-05-01

    Case studies of lake breezes during wintertime cold air pools in Utah's Salt Lake Valley are examined. While summer breezes originating from the Great Salt Lake are typically deeper, of longer duration, and have higher wind speeds than winter breezes, the rate of inland penetration and cross-frontal temperature differences can be higher during the winter. The characteristics of winter breezes and the forcing mechanisms controlling them (e.g., snow cover, background flow, vertical stability profile, clouds, lake temperature, lake sheltering, and drainage pooling) are more complex and variable than those evident in summer. During the afternoon in the Salt Lake Valley, these lake breezes can lead to elevated pollution levels due to the transport of fine particle pollutants from over the Great Salt Lake, decreased vertical mixing depth, and increased vertical stability.

  12. Genetic diversity of Diporeia in the Great Lakes: comparison of Lake Superior to the other Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abundances of Diporeia have dropped drastically in the Great Lakes, except in Lake Superior, where data suggest that population counts actually have risen. Various ecological, environmental, or geographic hypotheses have been proposed to explain the greater abundance of Lake Supe...

  13. Great Lakes rivermouths: a primer for managers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pebbles, Victoria; Larson, James; Seelbach, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Between the North American Great Lakes and their tributaries are the places where the confluence of river and lake waters creates a distinct ecosystem: the rivermouth ecosystem. Human development has often centered around these rivermouths, in part, because they provide a rich array of ecosystem services. Not surprisingly, centuries of intense human activity have led to substantial pressures on, and alterations to, these ecosystems, often diminishing or degrading their ecological functions and associated ecological services. Many Great Lakes rivermouths are the focus of intense restoration efforts. For example, 36 of the active Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are rivermouths or areas that include one or more rivermouths. Historically, research of rivermouth ecosystems has been piecemeal, focused on the Great Lakes proper or on the upper reaches of tributaries, with little direct study of the rivermouth itself. Researchers have been divided among disciplines, agencies and institutions; and they often work independently and use disparate venues to communicate their work. Management has also been fragmented with a focus on smaller, localized, sub-habitat units and socio-political or economic elements, rather than system-level consideration. This Primer presents the case for a more holistic approach to rivermouth science and management that can enable restoration of ecosystem services with multiple benefits to humans and the Great Lakes ecosystem. A conceptual model is presented with supporting text that describes the structures and processes common to all rivermouths, substantiating the case for treating these ecosystems as an identifiable class.1 Ecological services provided by rivermouths and changes in how humans value those services over time are illustrated through case studies of two Great Lakes rivermouths—the St. Louis River and the Maumee River. Specific ecosystem services are identified in italics throughout this Primer and follow definitions described

  14. Remediation, restoration, revitalization (R2R2R): How Great Lakes communities benefit from AOC delisting

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the Great Lakes, remediation and restoration activities in areas of concern (AOC) are providing economic and social benefits (“revitalization”) to coastal communities. However, there is a general lack of documentation and evaluation of benefits that have co...

  15. How the Great Lakes Were Evaluated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonzogni, William C.

    1975-01-01

    The Great Lakes Basin Commission exhaustively studied the world's largest fresh water ecosystem. The reconnaissance-type investigation provided a broad-scale analysis of resource needs and problems in the United States portion of the Basin. (BT)

  16. Animation: 'Great Lake' on Jupiter's Moon Europa

    NASA Video Gallery

    Data from a NASA planetary mission have provided scientists evidence of what appears to be a body of liquid water, equal in volume to the North American Great Lakes, beneath the icy surface of Jupi...

  17. ERTS-1 views the Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, W. A.; Pease, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    The meteorological content of ERTS images, particularly mesoscale effects of the Great Lakes and air pollution dispersion is summarized. Summertime lake breeze frontal clouds and various winter lake-effect convection patterns and snow squalls are revealed in great detail. A clear-cut spiral vortex over southern Lake Michigan is related to a record early snow storm in the Chicago area. Marked cloud changes induced by orographic and frictional effects on Lake Michigan's lee shore snow squalls are seen. The most important finding, however, is a clear-cut example of alterations in cumulus convection by anthropogenic condensation and/or ice nuclei from northern Indiana steel mills during a snow squall situation. Jet aircraft condensation trails are also found with surprising frequency.

  18. ARE COASTAL WETLAND-LAKE LINKAGES IMPORTANT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because coastal werlands typically comprise only a small percentage of the overall surface area in large lakes, an assumption has often been made that functional links between wetlands and the lake proper are of little significance. Recent investigations of functional linkages be...

  19. THE USE OF MACROINVERTEBRATE ASSEMBLAGES TO DIAGNOSE CAUSES OF IMPAIRMENT IN LAKE MICHIGAN COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our understanding of the causes of biological impairment in Great Lakes coastal wetland ecosystems lags behind our understanding of causes of these impairments in streams. In 2000 and 2001 a regional EMAP study of Lake Michigan coastal riverine wetlands was undertaken with the go...

  20. Energy and water in the Great Lakes.

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2011-11-01

    The nexus between thermoelectric power production and water use is not uniform across the U.S., but rather differs according to regional physiography, demography, power plant fleet composition, and the transmission network. That is, in some regions water demand for thermoelectric production is relatively small while in other regions it represents the dominate use. The later is the case for the Great Lakes region, which has important implications for the water resources and aquatic ecology of the Great Lakes watershed. This is today, but what about the future? Projected demographic trends, shifting lifestyles, and economic growth coupled with the threat of global climate change and mounting pressure for greater U.S. energy security could have profound effects on the region's energy future. Planning for such an uncertain future is further complicated by the fact that energy and environmental planning and regulatory decisionmaking is largely bifurcated in the region, with environmental and water resource concerns generally taken into account after new energy facilities and technologies have been proposed, or practices are already in place. Based on these confounding needs, the objective of this effort is to develop Great Lakes-specific methods and tools to integrate energy and water resource planning and thereby support the dual goals of smarter energy planning and development, and protection of Great Lakes water resources. Guiding policies for this planning are the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact and the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The desired outcome of integrated energy-water-aquatic resource planning is a more sustainable regional energy mix for the Great Lakes basin ecosystem.

  1. Early Holocene Great Salt Lake, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Madsen, David B.; Miller, David M.; Thompson, Robert S.; McGeehin, John P.

    2015-07-01

    Shorelines and surficial deposits (including buried forest-floor mats and organic-rich wetland sediments) show that Great Salt Lake did not rise higher than modern lake levels during the earliest Holocene (11.5-10.2 cal ka BP; 10-9 14C ka BP). During that period, finely laminated, organic-rich muds (sapropel) containing brine-shrimp cysts and pellets and interbedded sodium-sulfate salts were deposited on the lake floor. Sapropel deposition was probably caused by stratification of the water column - a freshwater cap possibly was formed by groundwater, which had been stored in upland aquifers during the immediately preceding late-Pleistocene deep-lake cycle (Lake Bonneville), and was actively discharging on the basin floor. A climate characterized by low precipitation and runoff, combined with local areas of groundwater discharge in piedmont settings, could explain the apparent conflict between evidence for a shallow lake (a dry climate) and previously published interpretations for a moist climate in the Great Salt Lake basin of the eastern Great Basin.

  2. Great Lakes Environmental Issues. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The subject of this book is environmental issues in the Great Lakes. Students learn about the…

  3. Life in the Great Lakes. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The theme of this book is life in the Great Lakes. Students learn about shorebird adaptations,…

  4. Great Lakes Sinkholes: A Microbiogeochemical Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddanda, Bopaiah A.; Nold, Stephen C.; Ruberg, Steven A.; Kendall, Scott T.; Sanders, T. Garrison; Gray, Jefferson J.

    2009-02-01

    Recent underwater explorations have revealed unique hot spots of biogeochemical activity at several submerged groundwater vents in Lake Huron, the third largest of the Laurentian Great Lakes. Fueled by venting groundwater containing high sulfate and low dissolved oxygen, these underwater ecosystems are characterized by sharp physical and chemical gradients and spectacularly colorful benthic mats that overlie carbon-rich sediments. Here, typical lake inhabitants such as fish and phytoplankton are replaced by communities dominated by microorganisms: bacteria and archaea that perform unique ecosystem functions. Shallow, sunlit sinkholes are dominated by photosynthetic microorganisms and processes, while food webs in deep aphotic sinkholes are supported primarily by chemosynthesis.

  5. Projecting Future Water Levels of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, V.; Notaro, M.; Holman, K.

    2013-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes are the largest freshwater system on Earth, containing 84% of North America's freshwater. The lakes are a valuable economic and recreational resource, valued at over 62 billion in annual wages and supporting a 7 billion fishery. Shipping, recreation, and coastal property values are significantly impacted by water level variability, with large economic consequences. Great Lakes water levels fluctuate both seasonally and long-term, responding to natural and anthropogenic climate changes. Due to the integrated nature of water levels, a prolonged small change in any one of the net basin supply components: over-lake precipitation, watershed runoff, or evaporation from the lake surface, may result in important trends in water levels. We utilize the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics's Regional Climate Model Version 4.5.6 to dynamically downscale three global global climate models that represent a spread of potential future climate change for the region to determine whether the climate models suggest a robust response of the Laurentian Great Lakes to anthropogenic climate change. The Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate Version 5 (MIROC5), the National Centre for Meteorological Research Earth system model (CNRM-CM5), and the Community Climate System Model Version 4 (CCSM4) project different regional temperature increases and precipitation change over the next century and are used as lateral boundary conditions. We simulate the historical (1980-2000) and late-century periods (2080-2100). Upon model evaluation we will present dynamically downscaled projections of net basin supply changes for each of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  6. 46 CFR 42.05-40 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes. 42.05-40 Section 42.05-40 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-40 Great Lakes. (a) This term means the Great Lakes of North America. (b) As used in this part, the term solely navigating the Great Lakes includes any...

  7. 46 CFR 42.05-40 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Great Lakes. 42.05-40 Section 42.05-40 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 42.05-40 Great Lakes. (a) This term means the Great Lakes of North America. (b) As used in this part, the term solely navigating the Great Lakes includes any...

  8. Natural remediation in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Kamrin, Michael A.; Hickey, James P.

    2000-01-01

    Overall, the existence of stricter environmental laws during the last 30 years and a reduction in the manufacturing base in the Great Lakes has resulted in improvement in conditions in harbors, rivers, and nearshore waters. Problems remain, such as the inability to dredge certain harbors and remove sediments because of lack of disposal facilities for contaminated sediments. Because of the wide extent of of contaminated sediments in the Great Lakes, much work remains to be done to document the condition of contaminated areas and the degree to which remediation of these areas is occurring from biotic and abiotic natural processes.

  9. Contaminant trends in Great Lakes fish

    SciTech Connect

    De Vault, D.S.; Anderson, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    Dramatic declines have been observed in the concentrations of PCB, DDT, dieldrin, and other organochlorine contaminants since fish were first monitored in the mid 1970s. These declines have, however, slowed or ceased entirely in recent years. PCB and DDT concentrations have not changed significantly in walleye from Lake Erie since 1982 and lake trout from the upper Great Lakes since 1986. In coho salmon from Lakes Michigan and Erie, PCB concentrations have increased significantly since the mid 1980s. The lack of recent declines and increases in contaminant concentrations appear to be the result of several factors including internal cycling of contaminants, continued loadings from the atmosphere, and changes in the food web brought about by the introduction of exotic species. Contaminant trends and probable causes will be discussed, as will the relationship between contaminant trends in the water column, top predator fish species and loading history.

  10. Coregonid fishes of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koelz, Walter N.

    1929-01-01

    Wherever they occur, the coregonids, like the salmonids, are important food fishes; but probably nowhere do they attain so much importance in the fisheries as in the region of the Great Lakes. This investigation has as its object the determination of the forms of coregonid fishes that occur in these lakes and the collection of data on their natural history. In addition to its economic significance, the problem is one of scientific interest. It concerns not merely the ecology of the Great Lakes species but it involves also the ultimate consideration of their origin and evolution and of their relationships with one another and with the coregonids of Asia and Europe, as well as with those of other parts of America.

  11. Great Lakes Environmental Education. Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Joint Commission, Windsor (Ontario). Great Lakes Regional Office.

    The International Joint Commission report builds on a previous report to the Governments of the United States and Canada that recommended the Great Lakes (GL) States and Provinces incorporate the GL ecosystem as a priority topic in existing school curricula. This report begins by building an argument showing the need for environmental education…

  12. Global Change in the Great Lakes: Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, Barbara K., Ed.; Rosser, Arrye R., Ed.

    The Ohio Sea Grant Education Program has produced this series of publications designed to help people understand how global change may affect the Great Lakes region. The possible implications of global change for this region of the world are explained in the hope that policymakers and individuals will be more inclined to make responsible decisions…

  13. Temperature Over Time at the Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Rick; Fortner, Rosanne W.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity in which water temperature is investigated in relation to water depth, weather patterns, land use, time of year, and other factors students choose to investigate with data collected from the Internet. Uses the Great Lakes as the setting for this investigation and examines how and why the temperature of a body of water changes…

  14. The Future of Great Lakes Rivermouth Research

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes Rivermouth Collaboratory, a group of scientists and stakeholders representing academics, federal and state agencies, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are developing a conceptual model that draws upon existing data sources to synthesize the "state of the s...

  15. Seasonal and spatial patterns in coupled nitrification-denitrification rates in a large Great Lakes coastal system: The St. Louis River Estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic inputs of excess nitrogen (N) to aquatic systems are detrimental, but aquatic plants and sediments have the potential to mitigate N-loading. Sediment processes are driven by microbially mediated N-cycling. Coastal embayments purportedly play a significant role in N-...

  16. Microseisms from the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, K. J.; Koper, K. D.; Burlacu, V.

    2014-12-01

    Dept. of Geology and Geophysics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA We performed frequency-dependent polarization and power analysis on continuous ambient seismic energy recorded by broadband seismic stations that were part of the Utah Regional Seismic Network (UU) for the years of 2001-2013. The number of broadband seismometers increased from 10 to 28 in this time period. As expected, at all 28 stations the single and double frequency peaks caused by microseisms were observed in the range of 3-20 s. At four of the stations located around the Great Salt Lake (BGU, HVU, NOQ, and SPU) an additional noise peak was intermittently observed in the period range of 0.8-1.2 s. This noise peak was strongest at SPU, a station located on the tip of a peninsula jutting into the lake from the north, and weakest at NOQ, a station located a few kilometers south of the lake in the Oquirrh Mountains. The noise peaks occur in both daytime and nighttime, and have durations lasting from a couple of hours to multiple days. They occur more frequently in the spring, summer, and fall, and less commonly in the winter. The occurrences of noise peaks in the summer show a day night pattern and seem to reach a peak during the night. The time dependence of this 1-s seismic noise was compared to records of wind speed measured at 1-hr intervals from nearby meteorological stations run by the NWS, and to lake level gage height measurements made by the USGS. Correlations with wind speed and lake level were done for every month of the year in 2013. Results showed that the correlations with wind varied throughout the year from a high of 0.49 in November to a low of 0.20 in the month of January. The correlation with lake level also varied throughout the year and the strongest correlation was found in the month of December with a correlation of 0.43. While these correlation values are statistically significant, neither wind nor lake level can completely explain the seismic observations

  17. Group calls for protecting Great Lakes water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Neither Canadian nor United States governments should allow any surface or groundwater removals from the Great Lakes Basin that endanger the region and its ecosystem, an intergovernmental body recommended on August 18.In addition, the governments should lower substantially the trigger point for proposed new or increased water use that require notice, consultation, and the seeking of consent and concurrence, said the International Joint Commission (IJC).

  18. Beach science in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith B.; Byappanahalli, Murulee N.; Edge, Thomas A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring beach waters for human health has led to an increase and evolution of science in the Great Lakes, which includes microbiology, limnology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and metagenomics, among others. In recent years, concerns over the accuracy of water quality standards at protecting human health have led to a significant interest in understanding the risk associated with water contact in both freshwater and marine environments. Historically, surface waters have been monitored for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci), but shortcomings of the analytical test (lengthy assay) have resulted in a re-focusing of scientific efforts to improve public health protection. Research has led to the discovery of widespread populations of fecal indicator bacteria present in natural habitats such as soils, beach sand, and stranded algae. Microbial source tracking has been used to identify the source of these bacteria and subsequently assess their impact on human health. As a result of many findings, attempts have been made to improve monitoring efficiency and efficacy with the use of empirical predictive models and molecular rapid tests. All along, beach managers have actively incorporated new findings into their monitoring programs. With the abundance of research conducted and information gained over the last 25 years, “Beach Science” has emerged, and the Great Lakes have been a focal point for much of the ground-breaking work. Here, we review the accumulated research on microbiological water quality of Great Lakes beaches and provide a historic context to the collaborative efforts that have advanced this emerging science.

  19. 46 CFR 46.05-20 - Great Lakes voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes voyage. 46.05-20 Section 46.05-20 Shipping... VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-20 Great Lakes voyage. A Great Lakes voyage is any voyage from a United States port or place on the Great Lakes to another United States port or place on...

  20. 46 CFR 46.05-20 - Great Lakes voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Great Lakes voyage. 46.05-20 Section 46.05-20 Shipping... VESSELS Definitions Used in This Part § 46.05-20 Great Lakes voyage. A Great Lakes voyage is any voyage from a United States port or place on the Great Lakes to another United States port or place on...

  1. CHECKLIST OF DIATOMS FROM THE LAURENTIAN GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An updated diatom (Bacillariophyta) checklist for the Great Lakes has been completed (J. Great Lakes Res. 1999) and supplants the preliminary checklist (J. Great Lakes Res. 1978). The present list is effectively a 20-year update. The updated list is based upon: 1) the 1978 checkl...

  2. The Great Lakes. An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botts, Lee; Krushelnicki, Bruce

    This atlas was developed jointly by the Canadian and American governments, and is intended to provide an ecosystem approach to the understanding of the Great Lakes Basin. Chapter one provides an introduction to both the natural and cultural aspects of the Great Lakes. Chapter two, "Natural Processes in the Great Lakes," describes such factors as…

  3. 46 CFR 90.10-13 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes. 90.10-13 Section 90.10-13 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-13 Great Lakes. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the Great Lakes....

  4. 46 CFR 151.03-29 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes. 151.03-29 Section 151.03-29 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-29 Great Lakes. A designation for all vessels in Great Lakes service....

  5. 46 CFR 188.10-31 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes. 188.10-31 Section 188.10-31 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-31 Great Lakes. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the Great Lakes....

  6. 46 CFR 188.10-31 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Great Lakes. 188.10-31 Section 188.10-31 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-31 Great Lakes. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the Great Lakes....

  7. 46 CFR 90.10-13 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Great Lakes. 90.10-13 Section 90.10-13 Shipping COAST... Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 90.10-13 Great Lakes. Under this designation shall be included all vessels navigating the Great Lakes....

  8. 46 CFR 151.03-29 - Great Lakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Great Lakes. 151.03-29 Section 151.03-29 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-29 Great Lakes. A designation for all vessels in Great Lakes service....

  9. 77 FR 33228 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Request for applicants. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard seeks applications for membership on the Great Lakes... of Homeland Security and the Coast Guard on matters relating to Great Lakes pilotage,...

  10. 78 FR 49544 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee; Vacancies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee; Vacancies AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Request for applications. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard seeks applications for membership on the Great Lakes... of Homeland Security and the Coast Guard on matters relating to Great Lakes pilotage,...

  11. 76 FR 62085 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee... the Federal Register of October 4, 2011, a notice announcing a Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee... authority of the Great Lakes Pilotage program. If you have been adversely affected by the one-day delay...

  12. COASTAL WETLAND INSECT COMMUNITIES ALONG A TROPHIC GRADIENT IN GREEN BAY, LAKE MICHIGAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Insects of Great Lakes coastal wetlands have received little attention in spite of their importance in food webs and sensitivity to anthropogenic stressors. We characterized insect communities from four coastal wetlands that spanned the length of a trophic gradient in Green Bay d...

  13. HABITAT ASSOCIATIONS OF LARVAL FISH IN A LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat associations of larval fishes in Great Lakes coastal wetlands (GLCW) are not well documented. To determine the distribution of larval fish in coastal wetlands with regard to location and vegetation characteristics, we used a larval tow-sled to sample four macrohabitat typ...

  14. Lake-level variability and water availability in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Douglas A.; Thompson, Todd A.; Booth, Robert K.; Nicholas, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we present recorded and reconstructed (pre-historical) changes in water levels in the Great Lakes, relate them to climate changes of the past, and highlight major water-availability implications for storage, coastal ecosystems, and human activities. 'Water availability,' as conceptualized herein, includes a recognition that water must be available for human and natural uses, but the balancing of how much should be set aside for which use is not discussed. The Great Lakes Basin covers a large area of North America. The lakes capture and store great volumes of water that are critical in maintaining human activities and natural ecosystems. Water enters the lakes mostly in the form of precipitation and streamflow. Although flow through the connecting channels is a primary output from the lakes, evaporation is also a major output. Water levels in the lakes vary naturally on timescales that range from hours to millennia; storage of water in the lakes changes at the seasonal to millennial scales in response to lake-level changes. Short-term changes result from storm surges and seiches and do not affect storage. Seasonal changes are driven by differences in net basin supply during the year related to snowmelt, precipitation, and evaporation. Annual to millennial changes are driven by subtle to major climatic changes affecting both precipitation (and resulting streamflow) and evaporation. Rebounding of the Earth's surface in response to loss of the weight of melted glaciers has differentially affected water levels. Rebound rates have not been uniform across the basin, causing the hydrologic outlet of each lake to rise in elevation more rapidly than some parts of the coastlines. The result is a long-term change in lake level with respect to shoreline features that differs from site to site. The reconstructed water-level history of Lake Michigan-Huron over the past 4,700 years shows three major high phases from 2,300 to 3,300, 1,100 to 2,000, and 0 to 800

  15. Mid Holocene lake level and shoreline behavior during the Nipissing phase of the upper Great Lakes at Alpena, Michigan, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, T.A.; Lepper, K.; Endres, A.L.; Johnston, J.W.; Baedke, S.J.; Argyilan, E.P.; Booth, R.K.; Wilcox, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    The Nipissing phase was the last pre-modern high-water stage of the upper Great Lakes. Represented as either a one- or two-peak highstand, the Nipissing occurred following a long-term lake-level rise. This transgression was primarily an erosional event with only the final stage of the transgression preserved as barriers, spits, and strandplains of beach ridges. South of Alpena, Michigan, mid to late Holocene coastal deposits occur as a strandplain between Devils Lake and Lake Huron. The landward part of this strandplain is a higher elevation platform that formed during the final stage of lake-level rise to the Nipissing peak. The pre-Nipissing shoreline transgressed over Devils Lake lagoonal deposits from 6.4 to 6.1. ka. The first beach ridge formed ~ 6. ka, and then the shoreline advanced toward Lake Huron, producing beach ridges about every 70. years. This depositional regression produced a slightly thickening wedge of sediment during a lake-level rise that formed 20 beach ridges. The rise ended at 4.5. ka at the Nipissing peak. This peak was short-lived, as lake level fell > 4. m during the following 500. years. During this lake-level rise and subsequent fall, the shoreline underwent several forms of shoreline behavior, including erosional transgression, aggradation, depositional transgression, depositional regression, and forced regression. Other upper Great Lakes Nipissing platforms indicate that the lake-level change observed at Alpena of a rapid pre-Nipissing lake-level rise followed by a slower rise to the Nipissing peak, and a post-Nipissing rapid lake-level fall is representative of mid Holocene lake level in the upper Great Lakes. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  16. ROV dives under Great Lakes ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolsenga, S.J.; Gannon, John E.; Kennedy, Gregory; Norton, D.C.; Herdendorf, Charles E.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of the underside of ice have a wide variety of applications. Severe under-ice roughness can affect ice movements, rough under-ice surfaces can scour the bottom disturbing biota and man-made structures such as pipelines, and the flow rate of rivers is often affected by under-ice roughness. A few reported observations of the underside of an ice cover have been made, usually by cutting a large block of ice and overturning it, by extensive boring, or by remote sensing. Such operations are extremely labor-intensive and, in some cases, prone to inaccuracies. Remotely operated vehicles (ROV) can partially solve these problems. In this note, we describe the use, performance in a hostile environment, and results of a study in which a ROV was deployed under the ice in Lake Erie (North American Great Lakes).

  17. Forecasting Lake-Effect Snow in the Great Lakes Using NASA Satllite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipullo, Michelle; Molthan, Andrew; Shafer, Jackie; Case, Jonathan; Jedlovec, Gary

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the forecast of the lake effect snow in the Great Lakes region using models and infrared estimates of Great Lake Surface Temperatures (GLSTs) from the MModerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on Terra and Aqua satellites, and other satellite data. This study analyzes Lake Erie and Lake Ontario which produce storm total snowfall ranged from 8-18 inches off of Lake Ontario and 10-12 inches off of Lake Erie for the areas downwind.

  18. Characterization of Lake Michigan coastal lakes using zooplankton assemblages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith B.; Goodrich, Maria L.; Murphy, Paul C.; Davis, Bruce M.

    2004-01-01

    Zooplankton assemblages and water quality were examined bi-weekly from 17 April to 19 October 1998 in 11 northeastern Lake Michigan coastal lakes of similar origin but varied in trophic status and limnological condition. All lakes were within or adjacent to Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Michigan. Zooplankton (principally microcrustaceans and rotifers) from triplicate Wisconsin net (80 I?m) vertical tows taken at each lake's deepest location were analyzed. Oxygen-temperature-pH-specific conductivity profiles and surface water quality were concurrently measured. Bray-Curtis similarity analysis showed small variations among sample replicates but large temporal differences. The potential use of zooplankton communities for environmental lake comparisons was evaluated by means of BIOENV (Primer 5.1) and principal component analyses. Zooplankton analyzed at the lowest identified taxonomic level yielded greatest sensitivity to limnological variation. Taxonomic and ecological aggregations of zooplankton data performed comparably, but less well than the finest taxonomic analysis. Secchi depth, chlorophyll a, and sulfate concentrations combined to give the best correlation with patterns of variation in the zooplankton data set. Principal component analysis of these variables revealed trophic status as the most influential major limnological gradient among the study lakes. Overall, zooplankton abundance was an excellent indicator of variation in trophic status.

  19. Drainage water phosphorus losses in the great lakes basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The great lakes are one of the most important fresh water resources on the planet. While forestry is a primary land use throughout much of the great lakes basin, there are portions of the basin, such as much of the land that drains directly to Lake Erie, that are primarily agricultural. The primary ...

  20. 75 FR 6354 - NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration Program Project Grants under the Great Lakes Restoration...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ... of Grant Funds for Fiscal Year 2010, published in the Federal Register (75 FR 3101). That... contained in the Federal Register notice of February 11, 2008 (73 FR 7696), are applicable to this... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-ZC10 NOAA Great Lakes Habitat Restoration...

  1. Aquatic invasive species early detection in the Great Lakes: Lessons concerning strategy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

  2. EXTRACELLULAR ENZYME ACTIIVTY AS A SURROGATE FOR NUTRIENTS AND NUTRIENT HISTORY IN GREAT LAKES WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes ecosystems are generally thought to be P-limited, but N-limitation may be more common than previously suspected. N-limitation should be most obvious in freshwater coastal wetlands, where the anaerobic oxidation of organic carbon may be limited by nitrate availability...

  3. 2010 NCCA oligochaete trophic index results to inform benthic index development for the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over 400 sites were sampled in the nearshore of the U.S. Great Lakes during the National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) field survey in summer 2010. To assess benthic ecological condition, 393 PONARs were attempted, and collected macroinvertebrates were identified and enume...

  4. Progress towards design elements for a Great Lakes-wide aquatic invasive species early detection network

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes coastal systems are vulnerable to introduction of a wide variety of non-indigenous species (NIS), and the desire to effectively respond to future invaders is prompting efforts towards establishing a broad early-detection network. Such a network requires statistically...

  5. THE GREAT LAKES BASIN LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY METRIC DATA BROWSER (BETA V1.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The principal focus of this project is the mapping and interpretation of landscape scale (i.e., broad scale) ecological metrics among hydrologic units and within 1 km, 5 km, and 10 km regions of coastal land in the Great Lakes Basin (GLB). Much is still unknown about the ecologic...

  6. Base flow in the Great Lakes Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, B.P.; Day, S.M.; Piggott, A.R.; Fuller, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrograph separations were performed using the PART, HYSEP 1, 2, and 3, BFLOW and UKIH methods on 104,293 years of daily streamflow records from 3,936 streamflow-gaging stations in Ontario, Canada and the eight Great Lakes States of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin to estimate base-flow index (BFI) and base flow. BFI ranged an average of 0.24 BFI depending on which hydrograph-separation method was used. BFI data from 959 selected streamflow-gaging stations with a combined 28,784 years of daily streamflow data were used to relate BFI to surficial geology and the proportion of surface water within the gaged watersheds. This relation was then used to derive estimates of BFI throughout the Great Lakes, Ottawa River, and upper St. Lawrence River Basins at a scale of 8-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC) watersheds for the U.S. and tertiary watersheds in Canada. This process was repeated for each of the six hydrograph-separation methods used. When applied to gaged watersheds, model results predicted observed base flow within 0.2 BFI up to 94 percent of the time. Estimates of long-term (length of streamflow record) average annual streamflow in each HUC and tertiary watershed were calculated and used to determine average annual base flow from BFI estimates. Possibilities for future study based on results from this study include long-term trend analysis of base flow and improving the scale at which base-flow estimates can be made.

  7. Perchlorate in the Great Lakes: isotopic composition and origin.

    PubMed

    Poghosyan, Armen; Sturchio, Neil C; Morrison, Candice G; Beloso, Abelardo D; Guan, Yunbin; Eiler, John M; Jackson, W Andrew; Hatzinger, Paul B

    2014-10-01

    Perchlorate is a persistent and mobile contaminant in the environment with both natural and anthropogenic sources. Stable isotope ratios of oxygen (δ(18)O, Δ(17)O) and chlorine (δ(37)Cl) along with the abundance of the radioactive isotope (36)Cl were used to trace perchlorate sources and behavior in the Laurentian Great Lakes. These lakes were selected for study as a likely repository of recent atmospheric perchlorate deposition. Perchlorate concentrations in the Great Lakes range from 0.05 to 0.13 μg per liter. δ(37)Cl values of perchlorate from the Great Lakes range from +3.0‰ (Lake Ontario) to +4.0‰ (Lake Superior), whereas δ(18)O values range from -4.1‰ (Lake Superior) to +4.0‰ (Lake Erie). Great Lakes perchlorate has mass-independent oxygen isotopic variations with positive Δ(17)O values (+1.6‰ to +2.7‰) divided into two distinct groups: Lake Superior (+2.7‰) and the other four lakes (∼+1.7‰). The stable isotopic results indicate that perchlorate in the Great Lakes is dominantly of natural origin, having isotopic composition resembling that measured for indigenous perchlorate from preindustrial groundwaters of the western USA. The (36)Cl/Cl ratio of perchlorate varies widely from 7.4 × 10(-12) (Lake Ontario) to 6.7 × 10(-11) (Lake Superior). These (36)ClO4(-) abundances are consistent with an atmospheric origin of perchlorate in the Great Lakes. The relatively high (36)ClO4(-) abundances in the larger lakes (Lakes Superior and Michigan) could be explained by the presence of (36)Cl-enriched perchlorate deposited during the period of elevated atmospheric (36)Cl activity following thermonuclear bomb tests in the Pacific Ocean. PMID:25171443

  8. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed Central

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-01-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  9. Radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed

    Ahier, B A; Tracy, B L

    1995-12-01

    The Great Lakes basin is of radiologic interest due to the large population within its boundaries that may be exposed to various sources of ionizing radiation. Specific radionuclides of interest in the basin arising from natural and artificial sources include 3H, 14C, 90Sr, 129I, 131I, 137Cs, 222Rn, 226Ra, 235U, 238U, 239Pu, and 241Am. The greatest contribution to total radiation exposure is the natural background radiation that provides an average dose of about 2.6 mSv/year to all basin residents. Global fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted before 1963 has resulted in the largest input of anthropogenic radioactivity into the lakes. Of increasing importance is the radionuclide input from the various components of the nuclear fuel cycle. Although the dose from these activities is currently very low, it is expected to increase if there is continued growth of the nuclear industry. In spite of strict regulations on design and operation of nuclear power facilities, the potential exists for a serious accident as a result of the large inventories of radionuclides contained in the reactor cores; however, these risks are several orders of magnitude less than the risks from other natural and man-made hazards. An area of major priority over the next few decades will be the management of the substantial amounts of radioactive waste generated by nuclear fuel cycle activities. Based on derived risk coefficients, the theoretical incidence of fatal and weighted nonfatal cancers and hereditary defects in the basin's population, attributable to 50 years of exposure to natural background radiation, is conservatively estimated to be of the order of 3.4 x 10(5) cases. The total number of attributable health effects to the year 2050 from fallout radionuclides in the Great Lakes basin is of the order of 5.0 x 10(3). In contrast, estimates of attributable health effects from 50 years of exposure to current nuclear fuel cycle effluent in the basin are of the order of 2

  10. Lake trout in the Great Lakes: Basin-wide stock collapse and binational restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    The lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) was important to the human settlement of each of the Great Lakes, and underwent catastrophic collapses in each lake in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. The timing of lake trout stock collapses were different in each lake, as were the causes of the collapses, and have been the subject of much scientific inquiry and debate. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize and review pertinent information relating historical changes in Great Lakes lake trout stocks, binational efforts to restore those stocks, and progress toward stock restoration. This presentation attempts to generalize patterns across the Great Lakes, rather than to focus within each lake. Lake specific analyses have been used to understand lake specific causes and effects, but there is continuing debate about some of these causes and effects. A basinwide review may suggest mechanisms for observed changes that are not evident by lake specific analysis.

  11. Genetic evaluation of a Great Lakes lake trout hatchery program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, K.S.; Scribner, K.T.; Bast, D.; Holey, M.E.; Burnham-Curtis, M. K.

    2005-01-01

    Efforts over several decades to restore lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in U.S. waters of the upper Great Lakes have emphasized the stocking of juveniles from each of six hatchery broodstocks. Retention of genetic diversity across all offspring life history stages throughout the hatchery system has been an important component of the restoration hatchery and stocking program. Different stages of the lake trout hatchery program were examined to determine how effective hatchery practices have been in minimizing the loss of genetic diversity in broodstock adults and in progeny stocked. Microsatellite loci were used to estimate allele frequencies, measures of genetic diversity, and relatedness for wild source populations, hatchery broodstocks, and juveniles. We also estimated the effective number of breeders for each broodstock. Hatchery records were used to track destinations of fertilized eggs from all spawning dates to determine whether adult contributions to stocking programs were proportional to reproductive effort. Overall, management goals of maintaining genetic diversity were met across all stages of the hatchery program; however, we identified key areas where changes in mating regimes and in the distribution of fertilized gametes and juveniles could be improved. Estimates of effective breeding population size (Nb) were 9-41% of the total number of adults spawned. Low estimates of Nb were primarily attributed to spawning practices, including the pooling of gametes from multiple males and females and the reuse of males. Nonrandom selection and distribution of fertilized eggs before stocking accentuated declines in effective breeding population size and increased levels of relatedness of juveniles distributed to different rearing facilities and stocking locales. Adoption of guidelines that decrease adult reproductive variance and promote more equitable reproductive contributions of broodstock adults to juveniles would further enhance management goals of

  12. History of salmon in the Great Lakes, 1850-1970

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, John W.

    1973-01-01

    This history of the salmon in the Great Lakes describes the decline and extinction of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Lake Ontario in the 1800's; the failure to establish, by salmon culture, permanent or sizable populations of Atlantic or Pacific salmon in any of the Great Lakes in 1867-1965; and the success of the plantings of coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytsha) in the Great Lakes, in 1966-70 -- particularly in Lake Michigan. Despite plantings of 5 million fry and fingerlings from Lake Ontario stocks in 1866-84, the native Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario became extinct in the late 1800's primarily because tributaries in which they spawned were blocked by mill dams. Plantings of 13 million chinook salmon and landlocked and anadromous forms of Atlantic salmon in Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes in 1873-1947 failed completely. The first species to develop a self-sustaining population was the pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), which was planted in Lake Superior in 1956; however, it has not become abundant. A salmon fishery finally was established when 15 million coho salmon and 6 million chinook salmon were planted as smolt in the Great Lakes in 1966-70. In 1970, for example, 576,000 coho salmon (12% of those planted in 1969) were caught by anglers in Lake Michigan. Most weighed 5 to 10 pounds (2.3-4.5 kg). Sport fishing for salmon was fair in Lakes Superior and Huron, and poor in Lakes Erie and Ontario. By 1970, natural reproduction of coho, chinook, pink, and kokanee (O. nerka) salmon had occurred in some tributaries of one or more of the upper three Great Lakes. It is expected, however, that the sport fishery will continue to be supported almost entirely by planted fish.

  13. Potential Impacts of Climate Change in the Great Lakes Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is projected to have substantial impacts in the Great Lakes region of the United States. One intent of this presentation is to introduce the Great Lakes Integrated Sciences and Assessments Center (GLISA), a recently-funded NOAA RISA center. The goals and unique organizational structure of GLISA will be described along with core activities that support impact and assessment studies in the region. Additionally, observed trends in temperature, precipitation including lake effect snowfall, and lake temperatures and ice cover will be summarized for the Great Lakes region, and vulnerabilities to, and potential impacts of, climate change will be surveyed for critical natural and human systems. These include forest ecosystems, water resources, traditional and specialized agriculture, and tourism/recreation. Impacts and vulnerabilities unique to the Great Lakes region are emphasized.

  14. Snow From Great Lakes Covers Buffalo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On November 20, 2000, Buffalo, New York was blanketed by a late-autumn storm that left 25 inches of snow on the ground in a 24-hour period, most of it during the afternoon rush hour. Buffalo officials declared a state of emergency and New York National Guardsmen were called in to assist with clearing snow from roads. With the exception of essential vehicles or people retrieving stranded children, all driving was banned in the city. This SeaWiFS pass over the central United States and Canada depicts a source for all of the snow in Buffalo. Cold, dry Canadian air blowing toward the southeast picked up a lot of moisture from the relatively warm Great Lakes -- forming the clouds that lightened their loads over Buffalo. This image was acquired November 21, 2000, by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite. Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  15. Lake whitefish diet, condition, and energy density in Lake Champlain and the lower four Great Lakes following dreissenid invasions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herbst, Seth J.; Marsden, J. Ellen; Lantry, Brian F.

    2013-01-01

    Lake Whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis support some of the most valuable commercial freshwater fisheries in North America. Recent growth and condition decreases in Lake Whitefish populations in the Great Lakes have been attributed to the invasion of the dreissenid mussels, zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha and quagga mussels D. bugensis, and the subsequent collapse of the amphipod, Diporeia, a once-abundant high energy prey source. Since 1993, Lake Champlain has also experienced the invasion and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast to the Great Lakes, Diporeia were not historically abundant. We compared the diet, condition, and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain after the dreissenid mussel invasion to values for those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Lake Whitefish were collected using gill nets and bottom trawls, and their diets were quantified seasonally. Condition was estimated using Fulton's condition factor (K) and by determining energy density. In contrast to Lake Whitefish from some of the Great Lakes, those from Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish did not show a dietary shift towards dreissenid mussels, but instead fed primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis diluviana in summer, and gastropods and sphaeriids in fall and winter. Along with these dietary differences, the condition and energy density of Lake Whitefish from Lake Champlain were high compared with those of Lake Whitefish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario after the dreissenid invasion, and were similar to Lake Whitefish from Lake Erie; fish from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario consumed dreissenids, whereas fish from Lake Erie did not. Our comparisons of Lake Whitefish populations in Lake Champlain to those in the Great Lakes indicate that diet and condition of Lake Champlain Lake Whitefish were not negatively affected by the dreissenid mussel invasion.

  16. The southern Lake Michigan coastal erosion study

    SciTech Connect

    Folger, D.W. )

    1993-03-01

    As a result of damage inflicted on the Chicago shoreline by exceptionally high waters in 1985-87, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a cooperative 5-year (1988--1992) study to evaluate the geologic framework of the area, the frequency of lake level fluctuations, and the processes responsible for the intense coastal erosion. The study involved 19 scientists from the USGS, Illinois State Geological Survey, Indiana Geological Survey, Indiana University, Purdue University, Northeastern Illinois University, Oregon State University, and the University of Washington. Some important results of the study follow: (1) the failure of revetments protecting the Chicago lakeshore is mainly structural and not erosional. (2) Prehistoric lake level fluctuations exceeded historic fluctuations by as much as a factor of two. For example, in the 17th century, lake level changed over a range of [approximately]3 m, whereas between the 1964 low and the 1986 high it changed only [approximately]1.6 m. (3) Bluff retreat between Wilmette and Waukegan varies from 10--75 cm/yr and averages 20--25 cm/yr; erosion rates north of Waukegan have been as high as 3 m/yr. (4) Eroding bluffs provide most of the sand to the nearshore zone; however, possibly due to construction of shore protection, the nearshore sand wedge has shown a dramatic decrease in volume during the last two decades. (5) Ice ridges as high as 7 m form along the lakeshore but do not effectively protect the beach from winter erosion as previously thought. (6) The Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore apparently was a major sink for sand moving southward along both sides of the lake; sediment input now appears to come mostly from the eastern shore.

  17. GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING USING LIMNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS: MODEL SPECIFICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the deliberate decision making process used by the Great Lakes Basin Commission in concluding that rational modeling methodologies could be used to evaluate the effect of different planning alternatives on the Great Lakes and that planning for specific proble...

  18. GREAT LAKES ENVIRONMENTAL PLANNING USING LIMNOLOGICAL SYSTEMS ANALYSIS: SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents the deliberate decision making process used by the Great Lakes Basin Commission in concluding that rational modeling methodologies could be used to evaluate the effect of different planning alternatives on the Great Lakes and that planning for specific proble...

  19. 75 FR 8728 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... (``Great Lakes Pilotage Ratemaking Methodology,'' 74 FR 35838), in accordance with requirements of 46 U.S.C... August 26, 2009 (74 FR 43148) and will be accepted until the position is filled. Procedural The meeting... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...

  20. 78 FR 5474 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage...

  1. 77 FR 24729 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: For... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of Federal Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage...

  2. 78 FR 54264 - Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ..., issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Docket: For access to the docket to read documents or... SECURITY Coast Guard Great Lakes Pilotage Advisory Committee AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Committee management; notice of Federal Advisory Committee meeting. SUMMARY: The Great Lakes Pilotage...

  3. Relative cancer risks of chemical contaminants in the great lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bro, Kenneth M.; Sonzogni, William C.; Hanson, Mark E.

    1987-08-01

    Anyone who drinks water or eats fish from the Great Lakes consumes potentially carcinogenic chemicals. In choosing how to respond to such pollution, it is important to put the risks these contaminants pose in perspective. Based on recent measurements of carcinogens in Great Lakes fish and water, calculations of lifetime risks of cancer indicate that consumers of sport fish face cancer risks from Great Lakes contaminants that are several orders of magnitude higher than the risks posed by drinking Great Lakes water. But drinking urban groundwater and breathing urban air may be as hazardous as frequent consumption of sport fish from the Great Lakes. Making such comparisons is difficult because of variation in types and quality of information available and in the methods for estimating risk. Much uncertainty pervades the risk assessment process in such areas as estimating carcinogenic potency and human exposure to contaminants. If risk assessment is to be made more useful, it is important to quantify this uncertainty.

  4. Hierarchical multi-scale classification of nearshore aquatic habitats of the Great Lakes: Western Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenna, J.E.; Castiglione, C.

    2010-01-01

    Classification is a valuable conservation tool for examining natural resource status and problems and is being developed for coastal aquatic habitats. We present an objective, multi-scale hydrospatial framework for nearshore areas of the Great Lakes. The hydrospatial framework consists of spatial units at eight hierarchical scales from the North American Continent to the individual 270-m spatial cell. Characterization of spatial units based on fish abundance and diversity provides a fish-guided classification of aquatic areas at each spatial scale and demonstrates how classifications may be generated from that framework. Those classification units then provide information about habitat, as well as biotic conditions, which can be compared, contrasted, and hierarchically related spatially. Examples within several representative coastal or open water zones of the Western Lake Erie pilot area highlight potential application of this classification system to management problems. This classification system can assist natural resource managers with planning and establishing priorities for aquatic habitat protection, developing rehabilitation strategies, or identifying special management actions.

  5. Land & Water Interactions in the Great Lakes. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The subject of this book is land and water interactions. Students examine how the Great Lakes were…

  6. GREAT LAKES REGIONAL ASSESSMENT: REPORT OF A WORKSHOP ON CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE UPPER GREAT LAKES REGION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Upper Great Lakes workshop, sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), was held at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan from 4-7 May 1998 to discuss some of the potential consequences of climate change in the Upper Great Lakes region (e.g., Mi...

  7. Great Lakes Climate and Water Movement. Earth Systems - Education Activities for Great Lakes Schools (ES-EAGLS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Heidi, Ed.; Sheaffer, Amy L., Ed.

    This activity book is part of a series designed to take a concept or idea from the existing school curriculum and develop it in the context of the Great Lakes using teaching approaches and materials appropriate for students in middle and high school. The theme of this book is Great Lakes climate and water movement. Students learn about land-sea…

  8. Temporal evolution of (36)Cl abundances in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Poghosyan, Armen; Sturchio, Neil C

    2015-06-01

    The observed (36)Cl isotopic abundance in Great Lakes water decreases from west to east, with the highest (36)Cl/Cl ratio of 1332 × 10(-15) in Lake Superior and the lowest (36)Cl/Cl ratio of 151 × 10(-15) in Lake Erie, whereas the (36)Cl concentration ((36)Cl atoms/L) is lowest in Lake Superior and higher in the other Great Lakes. The (36)Cl concentration in Lake Superior is much higher than expected from normal atmospheric deposition over the basin, consistent with deposition of nuclear bomb-produced (36)Cl during 1952-1964. A conservative mass-balance model constrained by hydrological parameters and available (36)Cl fluence measurements predicts the (36)Cl abundances in the Great Lakes from 1945 to 2015, in excellent agreement with available data for Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron, but the model underestimates (36)Cl abundances for Lakes Erie and Ontario. However, assuming that (36)Cl demonstrates non-conservative behavior and is significantly retained in the drainage basins, a model incorporating a delayed input parameter successfully predicts observed (36)Cl concentrations in all of the Great Lakes. PMID:25817926

  9. A spatial classification and database for management, research, and policy making: The Great Lakes aquatic habitat framework

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Lizhu; Riseng, Catherine M.; Mason, Lacey; Werhrly, Kevin; Rutherford, Edward; McKenna Jr, James E.; Castiglione, Chris; Johnson, Lucinda B.; Infante, Dana M.; Sowa, Scott P.; Robertson, Mike; Schaeffer, Jeff; Khoury, Mary; Gaiot, John; Hollenhurst, Tom; Brooks, Colin N.; Coscarelli, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Managing the world's largest and most complex freshwater ecosystem, the Laurentian Great Lakes, requires a spatially hierarchical basin-wide database of ecological and socioeconomic information that is comparable across the region. To meet such a need, we developed a spatial classification framework and database — Great Lakes Aquatic Habitat Framework (GLAHF). GLAHF consists of catchments, coastal terrestrial, coastal margin, nearshore, and offshore zones that encompass the entire Great Lakes Basin. The catchments captured in the database as river pour points or coastline segments are attributed with data known to influence physicochemical and biological characteristics of the lakes from the catchments. The coastal terrestrial zone consists of 30-m grid cells attributed with data from the terrestrial region that has direct connection with the lakes. The coastal margin and nearshore zones consist of 30-m grid cells attributed with data describing the coastline conditions, coastal human disturbances, and moderately to highly variable physicochemical and biological characteristics. The offshore zone consists of 1.8-km grid cells attributed with data that are spatially less variable compared with the other aquatic zones. These spatial classification zones and their associated data are nested within lake sub-basins and political boundaries and allow the synthesis of information from grid cells to classification zones, within and among political boundaries, lake sub-basins, Great Lakes, or within the entire Great Lakes Basin. This spatially structured database could help the development of basin-wide management plans, prioritize locations for funding and specific management actions, track protection and restoration progress, and conduct research for science-based decision making.

  10. Restoring the Great Lakes: DOI stories of success and partnership in implementing the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Department of the Interior; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service; National Park Service; U.S. Geological Survey; Bureau of Indian Affairs

    2013-01-01

    The Great Lakes are a monumentally unique national treasure containing nearly ninety-five percent of the United States' fresh surface water. Formed by receding glaciers, the Great Lakes support a thriving, resilient ecosystem rich with fish, wildlife, and abundant natural resources. The Great Lakes also support an array of commercial uses, including shipping, and provide a source of recreation, drinking water, and other critical services that drive the economy of the region and the Nation. Regrettably, activities such as clear cutting of mature forests, over-harvesting of fish populations, industrial pollution, invasive species, and agricultural runoffs have degraded these treasured lakes over the decades creating long-term impacts to the surrounding watershed. Fortunately, the people who live, work, and recreate in the region recognize the critical importance of a healthy Great Lakes ecosystem, and have come together to support comprehensive restoration. To stimulate and promote the goal of a healthy Great Lakes region, President Obama and Congress created the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) in 2009. This program provides the seed money to clean up legacy pollution, restore habitats, protect wildlife, combat invasive species, and address agricultural runoff in the Great Lakes watershed. At the same time GLRI promotes public outreach, education, accountability, and partnerships.

  11. NUTRITIONAL ECOLOGY OF GREAT LAKES 'CLADOPHORA GLOMERATA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Various bioassays, primarily plant analysis, were utilized to evaluate relative nutrient supplies and primary growth limiting nutrients for Cladophora glomerata growth in parts of Green Bay, Lake Michigan, known to differ markedly in degree of pollution. Preliminary studies indic...

  12. FISH ASSEMBLAGES AS INDICATORS OF LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLAND CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish assemblages associated with coastal wetlands in Lake Superior are poorly described. Understanding the environmental factors structuring the biota in these habitats is essential to developing robust indicators of their condition. To identify key environmental influences struc...

  13. EAARL coastal topography--North Shore, Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Fredericks, Xan; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.; Vivekanandan, Saisudha; Barras, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    This DVD contains lidar-derived coastal topography GIS datasets of a portion of the north shore of Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana. These datasets were acquired on February 28, March 1, and March 5, 2010.

  14. Dreissenid mussels from the Great Lakes contain elevated thiaminase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, D.E.; Riley, S.C.; Evans, A.N.; Nichols, S.J.; Zajicek, J.L.; Rinchard, J.; Richter, C.A.; Krueger, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at different depths and seasons, and from various locations in Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron. Here we present evidence that two dreissenid mussel species (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) contain thiaminase activity that is 5-100 fold greater than observed in Great Lakes fishes. Thiaminase activity in zebra mussels ranged from 10,600 to 47,900??pmol g- 1??min- 1 and activities in quagga mussels ranged from 19,500 to 223,800??pmol g- 1??min- 1. Activity in the mussels was greatest in spring, less in summer, and least in fall. Additionally, we observed greater thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at shallow depths compared to mussels collected at deeper depths. Dreissenids constitute a significant and previously unknown pool of thiaminase in the Great Lakes food web compared to other known sources of this thiamine (vitamin B1)-degrading enzyme. Thiaminase in forage fish of the Great Lakes has been causally linked to thiamine deficiency in salmonines. We currently do not know whether linkages exist between thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids and the thiaminase activities in higher trophic levels of the Great Lakes food web. However, the extreme thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids from the Great Lakes may represent a serious unanticipated negative effect of these exotic species on Great Lakes ecosystems.

  15. HYDROGEOMORPHIC INFLUENCES ON MACROPHYTES AS HABITAT IN GREAT LAKES WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used rapid survey techniques to map saubmergerd, floating and emergent vegetation in 10 coastal wetlands of Lake Superior. Density and structure of plant beds in "bay," "main channel," and "side channel" areas was evaluated from cover indices and presence/dominance by growth f...

  16. REVIEW OF HISTORICAL AND RECENT MERCURY CONCENTRATIONS IN GREAT LAKES SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediments of the Great Lakes have been impacted by inputs of mercury to the lakes. The first measurements of mercury concentrations in Great Lakes sediments were for samples collected in 1968 for Lake Ontario, 1969 for Lake Huron, 1969-70 for Lake Michigan, 1970 for Lake St. Cl...

  17. Nutrients in the Great Lakes. Teacher's Guide and Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brothers, Chris; And Others

    This teacher guide and student workbook set presents two learning activities, designed for fifth through ninth grade students, that concentrate on nutrients in the Great Lakes. In activity A, students simulate aquatic habitats using lake water and goldfish in glass jars and observe the effects of nutrient loading and nutrient limitation on aquatic…

  18. Fisheries Education: From the Great Lakes to the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne; Mayer, Victor J.

    1980-01-01

    Described are investigations related to fisheries education developed by the Ohio Sea Grant Education Office as a part of a series of Oceanic Education Activities for Great Lake Schools. The investigations discussed are "Yellow Perch in Lake Erie," which concerns fisheries management, and "It's Everyone's Sea: Or Is It," which focuses on fishing…

  19. Cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepods of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Reid, Janet W.; Lesko, Lynn T.; Selgeby, James H.

    1998-01-01

    Historical collections of cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepod crustaceans in the Great Lakes have mainly been based on samples taken with plankton nets in deeper waters (>5 m). Of the non-calanoid copepod species known from the Great Lakes, 58 or 64 live primarily on or in the sediments and rarely are collected in plankton samples. Because of their small size, they are rarely retained in the coarse sieves used to concentrate samples of benthic invertebrates. Thus, the abundance and distribution of most species of these two groups of copepods have never been adequately documented in the Great Lakes. We examined the stomach contents of small, bottom-feeding fishes such as slimy sculpin which feed on benthic copepods that live in deep, inaccessible rocky areas of the Great Lakes to collect some of the material. We also collected in shallow nearshore habitats, including wetlands. We present an annotated checklist of cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepods based on published records and our recent collections in the Great Lakes. We have added 14 species of cyclopoid copepods to the Great Lakes record, increasing the total to 30. Because we probably have accounted for most of the cyclopoid species, we provide a key to the identification of this group. We have added 19 species of harpacticoid copepods to the 15 previously known to the Great Lakes, and suspect that additional species remain to be discovered. In individual lakes, there were approximately as many species of cyclopoids as harpacticoids; the total number of species per lake ranged from 35 to 57. The most speciose genera were Bryocamptus (7), Canthocamptus (5), and Moraria (5) in the Harpacticoida, and Diacyclops (6) and Acanthocyclops (5) in the Cyclopoida. The origin of introduced species, our ability to classify copepod habitat, and the ecological significance of copepods are discussed.

  20. Great Lakes Environmentalists Push for Zero Chemical Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heylin, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Described are the efforts of a coalition of several environmental organizations to influence federal legislation regarding water pollution in the Great Lakes region. Statements from regional legislators are included. (CW)

  1. Draft Mercury Aquatic Wildlife Benchmarks for Great Salt Lake Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes the EPA Region 8's rationale for selecting aquatic wildlife dietary and tissue mercury benchmarks for use in interpreting available data collected from the Great Salt Lake and surrounding wetlands.

  2. Extent of Pleistocene lakes in the western Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, Marith C.

    1999-01-01

    During the Pliocene to middle Pleistocene, pluvial lakes in the western Great Basin repeatedly rose to levels much higher than those of the well-documented late Pleistocene pluvial lakes, and some presently isolated basins were connected. Sedimentologic, geomorphic, and chronologic evidence at sites shown on the map indicates that Lakes Lahontan and Columbus-Rennie were as much as 70 m higher in the early-middle Pleistocene than during their late Pleistocene high stands. Lake Lahontan at its 1400-m shoreline level would submerge present-day Reno, Carson City, and Battle Mountain, and would flood other now-dry basins. To the east, Lakes Jonathan (new name), Diamond, Newark, and Hubbs also reached high stands during the early-middle(?) Pleistocene that were 25-40 m above their late Pleistocene shorelines; at these very high levels, the lakes became temporarily or permanently tributary to the Humboldt River and hence to Lake Lahontan. Such a temporary connection could have permitted fish to migrate from the Humboldt River southward into the presently isolated Newark Valley and from Lake Lahontan into Fairview Valley. The timing of drainage integration also provides suggested maximum ages for fish to populate the basins of Lake Diamond and Lake Jonathan. Reconstructing and dating these lake levels also has important implications for paleoclimate, tectonics, and drainage evolution in the western Great Basin. For example, shorelines in several basins form a stair-step sequence downward with time from the highest levels, thought to have formed at about 650 ka, to the lowest, formed during the late Pleistocene. This descending sequence indicates progressive drying of pluvial periods, possibly caused by uplift of the Sierra Nevada and other western ranges relative to the western Great Basin. However, these effects cannot account for the extremely high lake levels during the early middle Pleistocene; rather, these high levels were probably due to a combination of increased

  3. Great Salt Lake and Bonneville Salt Flats, UT, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This is a view of the Great Salt Lake and nearby Bonneville Salt Flats, UT, (41.0N, 112.5W). A railroad causeway divides the lake with a stark straight line changing the water level and chemistry of the lake as a result. Fresh water runoff enters from the south adding to the depth and reducing the salinity. The north half receives little frsh water and is more saline and shallow. The Bonnieville Salt Flats is the lakebed of a onetime larger lake.

  4. Species succession and fishery exploitation in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1968-01-01

    The species composition of fish in the Great Lakes has undergone continual change since the earliest records. Some changes were caused by enrichment of the environment, but others primarily by an intensive and selective fishery for certain species. Major changes related to the fishery were less frequent before the late 1930's than in recent years and involved few species. Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) were overexploited knowingly during the late 1800's because they interfered with fishing for preferred species; sturgeon were greatly reduced in all lakes by the early 1900's. Heavy exploitation accompanied sharp declines of lake herring (Leucichthys artedi) in Lake Erie during the 1920's and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) in Lake Huron during the 1930's. A rapid succession of fish species in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior that started about 1940 has been caused by selective predation by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) on native predatory species, and the resultant shifting emphasis of the fishery and species interaction as various species declined. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and burbot (Lota lota), the deepwater predators, were depleted first; this favored their prey, the chubs (Leucichthys spp.). The seven species of chubs were influenced differently according to differences in size. Fishing emphasis and predation by sea lampreys were selective for the largest species of chubs as lake trout and burbot declined. A single slow-growing chub, the bloater, was favored and increased, but as the large chubs declined the bloater was exploited by a new trawl fishery. The growth rate and size of the bloater increased, making it more vulnerable to conventional gillnet fishery and lamprey predation. This situation in Lakes Michigan and Huron favored the small alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) which had recently become established in the upper Great Lakes, and the alewife increased rapidly and dominated the fish stocks of the lakes. The successive

  5. Assessment of differences in physical watershed characteristics between gaged and ungaged portions of the Great Lakes basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, T. S.; Fry, L. M.; Gronewold, A. D.; Kult, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Prediction of hydrologic response in ungaged basins often relies on regression relationships between physical watershed characteristics in gaged basins and either calibrated rainfall-runoff model parameters or model-independent hydrologic response indices (e.g. runoff, runoff ratio, baseflow index, etc.). Predictive skill using these types of modeling approaches may be compromised when watershed characteristics in the ungaged areas are substantially different from those in the gaged areas used to establish the regression relationships. In the case of the Great Lakes basin, regionalization may be complicated by characteristics unique to coastal regions. For example, coastal regions of the Great Lakes contain eight large urbanized metro areas (Milwaukee, Chicago, Detroit, Toledo, Cleveland, Windsor, Toronto, and Buffalo), unique coastal wetland areas, and distinctive meteorological conditions (e.g. lake effect snow). This research investigates the extent to which a set of physical watershed characteristics may vary between gaged (inland) and ungaged (coastal) portions of the Great Lakes basin and therefore complicate regionalization schemes. The work is conducted alongside development of a new regionalization scheme for simulating discharge to the Great Lakes.

  6. ASSESSING THE CONDITION OF FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS: THE GREAT LAKES AND GREAT RIVERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The principal research objective is develop assessment methodology that can be used to report on the condition of the Great Rivers and Great Lakes that can be used for state's reporting conditions under Section 303(b) of the CWA. One component of Great River research will determ...

  7. An investigation of historical lake-atmosphere interactions in the Great Lakes Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holman, Kathleen Danielle

    The Laurentian Great Lakes are a tremendous freshwater resource, holding approximately 20% of the world's unfrozen freshwater. With a combined surface area of 244,000 km2, the Great Lakes are constantly interacting with the overlying atmosphere through fluxes of heat, moisture, and momentum. In the current study, we explore interactions between the Great Lakes and overlying atmosphere using a combination of observational and modeling tools. Results based on historical observations indicate that over-lake precipitation from the Lake Superior watershed is associated with transient Rossby waves during each month of the year. Further analysis indicates the origin and path of these waves change with the background flow. During summer and early fall, the Pacific jet is relatively sharp and acts as a waveguide, such that Rossby wave trains traversing the Great Lakes region do not follow a great-circle path. While the atmosphere primarily dictates hydrology in the Great Lakes basin, each of the Great Lakes feeds back on the overlying atmosphere, ultimately influencing the local and regional climate. Historical observational and modeling studies support this claim; however, a consistent, long-term analysis of the impacts of the Great Lakes on climate has yet to be executed. In the current analysis, the influence of the Great Lakes on climate is assessed by comparing two decade-long regional climate simulations, with the lakes present or replaced by woodland. Model results indicate the Great Lakes dampen seasonal and daily surface air temperature ranges, alter the strength and track of synoptic systems, and modify atmospheric stability. Additional analysis based on output from the regional climate model indicates that seasonal fluctuations in atmospheric stability over Lake Superior influence the ratio of over-lake to over-land precipitation. Since the current operational technique used to estimate over-lake precipitation does not account for variations in atmospheric

  8. Influence of the Laurentian Great Lakes on Regional Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, M.; Holman, K.; Zarrin, A.; Fluck, E.; Vavrus, S. J.; Bennington, V.

    2012-12-01

    The influence of the Laurentian Great Lakes on climate is assessed by comparing two decade-long simulations, with the lakes either included or excluded, using the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model Version 4. The Great Lakes dampen the variability in near-surface air temperature across the surrounding region, while reducing the amplitude of the diurnal cycle and annual cycle of air temperature. The impacts of the Great Lakes on the regional surface energy budget include an increase (decrease) in turbulent fluxes during the cold (warm) season and an increase in surface downward shortwave radiation flux during summer due to diminished atmospheric moisture and convective cloud amount. Changes in the hydrologic budget due to the presence of the Great Lakes include increases in evaporation and precipitation during October-March and decreases during May-August, along with springtime reductions in snowmelt-related runoff. Circulation responses consist of a regionwide decrease in sea-level pressure in autumn-winter and an increase in summer, with enhanced ascent and descent in the two seasons, respectively. The most pronounced simulated impact of the Great Lakes on synoptic systems traversing the basin is a weakening of cold-season anticyclones.

  9. Federal Great Lakes fishery research objectives, priorities, and projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tait, Howard D.

    1973-01-01

    Fishery productivity of the Great Lakes has declined drastically since settlement of the area. Premium quality fishes of the Great Lakes such as whitefish, lake trout, and walleyes have been replaced by less desired species. This change is attributed to selective overfishing, pollution, and the extreme instability of fish populations. Sea lamprey predation is still a vexing problem but progress is being made in controlling this parasite. The federal fishery research program with headquarters in Ann Arbor, Michigan, has the objective of providing baseline information, needed in resource use decisions, about the fishes of the Great Lakes. Studies of the habitat requirements of fish are high priority. The program includes fish population assessments, studies of the effects of mercury and other contaminants on fish, thermal effects studies, and general investigation of the impact of engineering projects on Great Lakes fisheries. The work is closely coordinated with state and Canadian agencies through the Great Lakes Fishery Commission. Four small research vessels and four field stations are utilized with a staff of 90 and an annual budget of about $1.5 million.

  10. Functional convergence among pelagic sculpins of Lake Baikal and deepwater ciscoes of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshenroder, Randy L.; Sideleva, Valentina G.; Todd, Thomas N.

    1999-01-01

    The vast, well-oxygenated hypolimnia of Lake Baikal and the Great Lakes were both dominated by endemic planktivorous fishes. These dominants, two species of sculpins (Comephorus, Comephoridae) in Lake Baikal and six species of deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus, Salmonidae) in the Great Lakes, although distant taxonomically, have morphologies suggesting a surprising degree of functional convergence. Here it is proposed that the same two buoyancy-regulation strategies observed in Baikal sculpins also arose in the deepwater ciscoes of the Great Lakes. One strategy favors hydrostatic lift (generated by low specific gravity) and is characterized by fatter, larger-bodied fish with smaller paired fins; the second strategy favors hydrodynamic lift (generated by swimming) and is characterized by leaner, smaller-bodied fish with larger paired fins. Both types likely evolved to feed on a single species of ecologically analogous, vertically migrating macrozooplankter: Macrohectopus branickii in Lake Baikal and Mysis relicta in the Great Lakes. It is suggested that Coregonus did not diversify and proliferate in Lake Baikal as they did in the Great Lakes because by the time Coregonus colonized Lake Baikal, pelagic sculpins were already dominant.

  11. Implications of hydrologic variability on the succession of plants in Great Lakes wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Primary succession of plant communities directed toward a climax is not a typical occurrence in wetlands because these ecological systems are inherently dependent on hydrology, and temporal hydrologic variability often causes reversals or setbacks in succession. Wetlands of the Great Lakes provide good examples for demonstrating the implications of hydrology in driving successional processes and for illustrating potential misinterpretations of apparent successional sequences. Most Great Lakes coastal wetlands follow cyclic patterns in which emergent communities are reduced in area or eliminated by high lake levels and then regenerated from the seed bank during low lake levels. Thus, succession never proceeds for long. Wetlands also develop in ridge and swale terrains in many large embayments of the Great Lakes. These formations contain sequences of wetlands of similar origin but different age that can be several thousand years old, with older wetlands always further from the lake. Analyses of plant communities across a sequence of wetlands at the south end of Lake Michigan showed an apparent successional pattern from submersed to floating to emergent plants as water depth decreased with wetland age. However, paleoecological analyses showed that the observed vegetation changes were driven largely by disturbances associated with increased human settlement in the area. Climate-induced hydrologic changes were also shown to have greater effects on plant-community change than autogenic processes. Other terms, such as zonation, maturation, fluctuations, continuum concept, functional guilds, centrifugal organization, pulse stability, and hump-back models provide additional means of describing organization and changes in vegetation; some of them overlap with succession in describing vegetation processes in Great Lakes wetlands, but each must be used in the proper context with regard to short- and long-term hydrologic variability.

  12. Risks and Benefits of Consumption of Great Lakes Fish

    PubMed Central

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P.; Bowerman, William; Boysen, Eric; Clark, Milton; Diamond, Miriam; Mergler, Donna; Pantazopoulos, Peter; Schantz, Susan; Carpenter, David O.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Beneficial effects of fish consumption on early cognitive development and cardiovascular health have been attributed to the omega-3 fatty acids in fish and fish oils, but toxic chemicals in fish may adversely affect these health outcomes. Risk–benefit assessments of fish consumption have frequently focused on methylmercury and omega-3 fatty acids, not persistent pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, and none have evaluated Great Lakes fish consumption. Objectives: The risks and benefits of fish consumption have been established primarily for marine fish. Here, we examine whether sufficient data are available to evaluate the risks and benefits of eating freshwater fish from the Great Lakes. Methods: We used a scoping review to integrate information from multiple state, provincial, and federal agency sources regarding the contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and fish consumers, consumption rates and fish consumption advisories, and health effects of contaminants and omega-3 fatty acids. Data synthesis: Great Lakes fish contain persistent contaminants—many of which have documented adverse health effects —that accumulate in humans consuming them. In contrast, data are sparse on omega-3 fatty acids in the fish and their consumers. Moreover, few studies have documented the social and cultural benefits of Great Lakes fish consumption, particularly for subsistence fishers and native communities. At this time, federal and state/provincial governments provide fish consumption advisories based solely on risk. Conclusions: Our knowledge of Great Lakes fish has critical gaps, particularly regarding the benefits of consumption. A risk–benefit analysis requires more information than is currently available on the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in Great Lakes fish and their absorption by fish eaters in addition to more information on the social, cultural, and health consequences of changes in the amount of fish consumed. PMID

  13. Fog Plumes over the Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A southerly flow of unseasonably warm, moist air (temperatures of +20o to +26o C, dew points of +14o to +16o C) over the relatively cool (generally +2o to +5o C ) water of Lake Michigan and Lake Huron contributed to the development of large advection fog plumes (caused by the horizontal motion of air) during the day on April 16, 2002. These fog plumes moved northward during the day, eventually interacting with various land features to produce patterns of wave diffraction and packets of reflected waves (resembling 'shock waves') as the fog plumes impinged upon the rugged coastline of Wisconsin, the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and Ontario. These waves remained trapped within the strong marine layer temperature inversion which was sustained by the continued flow of warm air across the cool water surface. The above image was acquired by the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Red = .645um (red), green = 1.627um, (shortwave infrared), blue = 2.13um (shortwave infrared). Image courtesy Space Science and Engineering Center, University of Wisconsin

  14. CO2-Induced Acidification of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinley, G. A.; Phillips, J.; Bennington, V.; Bootsma, H. A.; Pilcher, D.; Sterner, R.; Urban, N. R.

    2013-12-01

    A number of studies indicate that air-water equilibration is the dominant control on pCO2 in several Great Lakes at annual timescales or longer. Assuming this is the case across all lakes at present and into the future, we show that pH will decline by 0.3-0.4 units through 2100 under a business-as-usual CO2 emission scenario. In a survey of the Great Lakes scientific community, 87% of respondents indicate that CO2-driven acidification is likely. The available pH data do not support these predicted trends, but limited sampling in an environment characterized by significant spatio-temporal variability, as well as significant measurement uncertainty, cast doubt on the ability of the historical pH record to resolve the predicted trends. Evaluation of the current sampling strategy using eddy-resolving numerical models of Lake Superior and Lake Michigan are key evidence that the current monitoring strategy is inadequate. In order to track long-term pH change and assess whether atmospheric CO2 will affect the Great Lakes like the oceans, a new approach to Great Lakes pH monitoring is required. Ecological impacts of CO2 acidification have not been studied for the Great Lakes, but potential effects can be gleaned from the literature. In addition, our qualitative and quantitative survey results suggest that processes such as fish recruitment, dreissenid mussel growth, and nutrient cycling may be sensitive to pH, but there is lack of consensus about the magnitude and overall significance of these effects.

  15. The Dynamics of Laurentian Great Lakes Surface Energy Budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, C.; Blanken, P.; Lenters, J. D.; Gronewold, A.; Kerkez, B.; Xue, P.; Froelich, N.

    2015-12-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes constitute the largest freshwater surface in the world and are a valuable North American natural and socio-economic resource. In response to calls for improved monitoring and research on the energy and water budgets of the lakes, there has been a growing ensemble of in situ measurements - including offshore eddy flux towers, buoy-based sensors, and vessel-based platforms -deployed through an ongoing, bi-national collaboration known as the Great Lakes Evaporation Network (GLEN). The objective of GLEN is to reduce uncertainty in Great Lakes seasonal and 6-month water level forecasts, as well as climate change projections of the surface energy balance and water level fluctuations. Although It remains challenging to quantify and scale energy budgets and fluxes over such large water bodies, this presentation will report on recent successes in three areas: First, in estimating evaporation rates over each of the Great Lakes; Second, defining evaporation variability among the lakes, especially in winter and; Third, explaining the interaction between ice cover, water temperature, and evaporation across a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Research gaps remain, particularly those related to spatial variability and scaling of turbulent fluxes, so the presentation will also describe how this will be addressed with enhanced instrument and platform arrays.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF NUTRIENT EXPOSURE AND BIOLOGICAL RESPONSE INDICATORS FOR LAKE MICHIGAN COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examines how landscape-scale gradient affect sedimentation rates, nutrient exposure, and biological responses in Lake Michigan coastal wetlands, and assess indicators for these trends. Twenty riverine coastal wetlands in Lake Michigan (Herdendorf 1981) were selected t...

  17. Portion of the Great Lakes area as seen from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    An oblique view of a portion of the Great Lakes (43.0N, 70.0W) area as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. lake Erie is in the foreground; and Lake Ontario is in the background. The Niagara Falls area is in the center of the photograph. Portions of Pennsylvania, New York, and Ontario, Canada are visible, but under nearly complete snow cover. Major structural features, drainage patterns, road systems and the cities of Buffalo and Toronto are easily distinguished and actually enhanced by the snow. At the time this picture was taken, these two Great Lakes had no observable ice, although cloud formations partially mask the southern shores of the two bodies of water.

  18. Thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs from the upper Great Lakes are related to maternal diet

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, S.C.; Rinchard, J.; Ebener, M.P.; Tillitt, D.E.; Munkittrick, K.R.; Parrott, J.L.; Allen, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency is responsible for reproductive impairment in several species of salmonines in the Great lakes, and is thought to be caused by the consumption of prey containing thiaminase, a thiamine-degrading enzyme. Because thiaminase levels are extremely high in dreissenid mussels, fish that prey on them may be susceptible to thiamine deficiency. We determined thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis eggs from the upper Laurentian Great Lakes to assess the potential for thiamine deficiency and to determine if thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were related to maternal diet. Mean thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were highest in Lake Huron, intermediate in Lake Superior, and lowest in Lake Michigan. Some fish had thiamine concentrations below putative thresholds for lethal and sublethal effects in salmonines, suggesting that some larval lake whitefish may currently be at risk of at least sublethal effects of low thiamine concentrations, although thiamine thresholds are unknown for lake whitefish. Egg thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish eggs were statistically significantly related to isotopic carbon signatures, suggesting that egg thiamine levels were related to maternal diet, but low egg thiamine concentrations did not appear to be associated with a diet of dreissenids. Egg thiamine concentrations were not statistically significantly related to multifunction oxidase induction, suggesting that lower egg thiamine concentrations in lake whitefish were not related to contaminant exposure.

  19. A Dynamical Downscaling study over the Great Lakes Region Using WRF-Lake: Historical Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, C.; Lofgren, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    As the largest group of fresh water bodies on Earth, the Laurentian Great Lakes have significant influence on local and regional weather and climate through their unique physical features compared with the surrounding land. Due to the limited spatial resolution and computational efficiency of general circulation models (GCMs), the Great Lakes are geometrically ignored or idealized into several grid cells in GCMs. Thus, the nested regional climate modeling (RCM) technique, known as dynamical downscaling, serves as a feasible solution to fill the gap. The latest Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) is employed to dynamically downscale the historical simulation produced by the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory-Coupled Model (GFDL-CM3) from 1970-2005. An updated lake scheme originated from the Community Land Model is implemented in the latest WRF version 3.6. It is a one-dimensional mass and energy balance scheme with 20-25 model layers, including up to 5 snow layers on the lake ice, 10 water layers, and 10 soil layers on the lake bottom. The lake scheme is used with actual lake points and lake depth. The preliminary results show that WRF-Lake model, with a fine horizontal resolution and realistic lake representation, provides significantly improved hydroclimates, in terms of lake surface temperature, annual cycle of precipitation, ice content, and lake-effect snowfall. Those improvements suggest that better resolution of the lakes and the mesoscale process of lake-atmosphere interaction are crucial to understanding the climate and climate change in the Great Lakes region.

  20. Development of an Integrated Assessment of Great Lakes Using Towed in situ Sensor Technologies: Linking Nearshore Conditions with Adjacent Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal and nearshore regions of the US/Canadian Great Lakes have not been included in monitoring efforts in any regular, consistent, or comprehensive fashion. To address this need, we have been developing a survey strategy using towed in situ sensors to provide spatially-compreh...

  1. Historical land cover changes in the Great Lakes Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, K.L.; Davis, M.B.; Stearns, F.; Guntenspergen, G.; Walker, K.

    1999-01-01

    Two different methods of reconstructing historical vegetation change, drawing on General Land Office (GLO) surveys and fossil pollen deposits, are demonstrated by using data from the Great Lakes region. Both types of data are incorporated into landscape-scale analyses and presented through geographic information systems. Results from the two methods reinforce each other and allow reconstructions of past landscapes at different time scales. Changes to forests of the Great Lakes region during the last 150 years were far greater than the changes recorded over the preceding 1,000 years. Over the last 150 years, the total amount of forested land in the Great Lakes region declined by over 40%, and much of the remaining forest was converted to early successional forest types as a result of extensive logging. These results demonstrate the utility of using GLO survey data in conjunction with other data sources to reconstruct a generalized 'presettlement' condition and assess changes in landcover.

  2. Reaching Regional and Local Learners via a Great Lakes MOOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, M. E.; Ackerman, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Cooperative Institute of Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) took a regional approach to climate change education in a 4-week MOOC (Massive Open On-line Course) on the Changing Weather and Climate in the Great Lakes Region launched in February 2015. Featuring a different season each week, this Great Lakes MOOC includes lectures about seasonal weather conditions, observed changes, and societal impacts of regional climate change, as well as actions with co-benefits to slow future climate change. To better connect with learners, CIMSS facilitated 21 discussion groups at public libraries around Wisconsin each week. Participants discussed climate change impacts in their communities as well as strategies to mitigate climate change. Not surprisingly, initial survey results show library participants were more committed, engaged, climate literate, and community minded. This session will share lessons learned and survey results from the Great Lakes MOOC which remains open and accessible on Coursera through February 2016 at https://www.coursera.org/course/greatlakesclimate.

  3. Predicting Great Lakes fish yields: tools and constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, C.A.; Schupp, D.H.; Taylor, W.W.; Collins, J.J.; Hatch, Richard W.

    1987-01-01

    Prediction of yield is a critical component of fisheries management. The development of sound yield prediction methodology and the application of the results of yield prediction are central to the evolution of strategies to achieve stated goals for Great Lakes fisheries and to the measurement of progress toward those goals. Despite general availability of species yield models, yield prediction for many Great Lakes fisheries has been poor due to the instability of the fish communities and the inadequacy of available data. A host of biological, institutional, and societal factors constrain both the development of sound predictions and their application to management. Improved predictive capability requires increased stability of Great Lakes fisheries through rehabilitation of well-integrated communities, improvement of data collection, data standardization and information-sharing mechanisms, and further development of the methodology for yield prediction. Most important is the creation of a better-informed public that will in turn establish the political will to do what is required.

  4. An operational all-weather Great Lakes ice information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gedney, R. T.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the NASA developed all-weather ice information system for the Great Lakes winter navigation program. The system utilizes an X-band side looking airborne radar (SLAR) for determining type, location, and areal distribution of the ice cover in the Great Lakes and an airborne, S band, down looking short pulse radar for obtaining ice thickness. Digitized SLAR data are relayed in real time via the NOAA-GOES satellite in geosynchronous orbit. The SLAR images along with hand drawn interpretative ice charts for various Great Lakes winter shipping areas are broadcast to facsimile recorders aboard vessles is the area via the MARAD marine VHF-FM radio network. These data assist such vessels in navigating both through and around the ice.

  5. Great Lakes fish consumption and reproductive outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Dar, E.

    1989-01-01

    This epidemiological investigation determined prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), through contaminated fish consumption, and ascertained reproductive outcomes. Green Bay, Wisconsin was chosen as the study site because it was known for its environmental contamination of PCBs. These chemicals are environmentally stable and persistent, and tend to bioaccumulate up the food chain, with highest levels found in predatory sport fish from Lake Michigan. The Green Bay area provided a population with potential PCB exposure from sport fish consumption. Accidental poisoning incidents showed detrimental reproductive effects of high dose PCB exposures. A Michigan study found significant effects on birth weight and gestational age when mothers consumed two sport fish meals per month. This study population was drawn from women during their first prenatal visit at two Green Bay clinics during a one year period. 1,112 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire. Maternal and cord blood samples were obtained for selected PCB serum analyses. Reproductive outcome measures were abstracted from hospital labor reports. Study results indicated that maternal consumption was correlated to maternal PCB serum levels. Regression techniques estimated significant exposure coefficients for subsets of two birth size parameters. Birth length was positively associated with PCB exposure in shorter mothers. Significant associations of PCB exposure and birth weight percentiles were estimated for two income groups in the urban residence/weight gain less than 34 pounds subset.

  6. 46 CFR 380.11 - Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. 380.11... Application for Designation of Vessels as American Great Lakes Vessels § 380.11 Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. The Secretary shall designate a vessel as an American Great Lakes vessel if— (a)...

  7. 46 CFR 380.11 - Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. 380.11... Application for Designation of Vessels as American Great Lakes Vessels § 380.11 Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. The Secretary shall designate a vessel as an American Great Lakes vessel if— (a)...

  8. 46 CFR 380.11 - Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. 380.11... Application for Designation of Vessels as American Great Lakes Vessels § 380.11 Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. The Secretary shall designate a vessel as an American Great Lakes vessel if— (a)...

  9. 46 CFR 380.11 - Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. 380.11... Application for Designation of Vessels as American Great Lakes Vessels § 380.11 Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. The Secretary shall designate a vessel as an American Great Lakes vessel if— (a)...

  10. 46 CFR 380.11 - Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. 380.11... Application for Designation of Vessels as American Great Lakes Vessels § 380.11 Designation of American Great Lakes Vessels. The Secretary shall designate a vessel as an American Great Lakes vessel if— (a)...

  11. Contaminant trends in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of the upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeVault, David S.; Willford, Wayne A.; Hesselberg, Robert J.

    1985-01-01

    Contaminant body burdens in lake trout from the Upper Great Lakes have been monitored since 1970 on Lake Michigan and since 1977 and 1978 on Lakes Superior and Huron by USEPA, Great Lakes National Program Office and USFWS, Great Lakes Fishery Laboratory. Analysis of the Lake Michigan data shows that mean PCB concentrations declined from a maximum of 22.91 mg/kg in 1974 to 5.63 in 1982. Mean total DDT concentrations declined from 19.19 mg/kg in 1970 to 2.74 mg/kg in 1982. The decline in both contaminants closely followed first order loss kinetics. If the current decline continues, PCB concentrations will decline to the USFDA tolerance of 2.0 mg/kg in 1988. Mean total DDT concentrations will fall to the IJC objective of 1.0 mg/kg by 1991. Mean dieldrin concentrations increased significantly from 0.20 mg/kg in 1971 to 0.58 mg/kg in 1979 before declining to 0.21 mg/kg in 1982. The decline from 1979-1982 followed first order loss kinetics. As this decline is not reflected in other species (bloater chubs, smelt) it will require additional years of monitoring to determine if the decline in dieldrin concentrations between 1979 and 1982 truly represents a declining trend. Contaminants in lake trout from Lake Superior and Lake Huron generally declined over the study period. The only statistically significant trend other than in Lake Michigan was for total DDT which declined significantly in Lake Superior lake trout. Large data variance and the short time frame covered (1977-1982) interfered with detection of trends on Lakes Superior and Huron.

  12. Total organochlorine content of fish from the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, W.H.; Andrews, P.; Conacher, H.B.; Rao, R.R.; Chatt, A. )

    1993-07-01

    Residues of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides were determined in several species of commercial fish from the Great Lakes and compared to the total organic chlorine determined by neutron activation analysis. The mean organochlorine contents ranged from 44 to 138 ppm (lipid basis) and were 5 to 72 times higher than the contents of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides. Marine fish also contained a large proportion of unidentified organic chlorine. The unknown material in the Great Lakes fish was found to chromatograph with the high molecular weight lipid fraction by gel permeation chromatography.

  13. Quantitative interpretation of Great Lakes remote sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shook, D. F.; Salzman, J.; Svehla, R. A.; Gedney, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses the quantitative interpretation of Great Lakes remote sensing water quality data. Remote sensing using color information must take into account (1) the existence of many different organic and inorganic species throughout the Great Lakes, (2) the occurrence of a mixture of species in most locations, and (3) spatial variations in types and concentration of species. The radiative transfer model provides a potential method for an orderly analysis of remote sensing data and a physical basis for developing quantitative algorithms. Predictions and field measurements of volume reflectances are presented which show the advantage of using a radiative transfer model. Spectral absorptance and backscattering coefficients for two inorganic sediments are reported.

  14. Implications of thiamine deficiency in Great Lakes salmonines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, S.B.; Fitzsimons, J.D.; Honeyfield, D.C.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Our recent experimental work and ecoepizootiological assessments provide mechanistic data supporting a plausible hypothesis for an association between a prey base comprised of a large biomass of nonnative alewives Alosa pseudoharengus and the recruitment difficulties currently experienced by Great Lakes salmonines. We hypothesize that the thiamine deficiency induced by alewives, a species harboring high thiaminase activity, represents an ongoing cause of fry and adult mortality in salmonines. Overall ramifications of the thiamine deficiency on recruitment have not been firmly established but may represent a substantial bottleneck for natural recruitment in feral salmonine populations in the Great Lakes. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2005.

  15. Reservoir Computing approach to Great Lakes water level forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulibaly, Paulin

    2010-02-01

    SummaryThe use of echo state network (ESN) for dynamical system modeling is known as Reservoir Computing and has been shown to be effective for a number of applications, including signal processing, learning grammatical structure, time series prediction and motor/system control. However, the performance of Reservoir Computing approach on hydrological time series remains largely unexplored. This study investigates the potential of ESN or Reservoir Computing for long-term prediction of lake water levels. Great Lakes water levels from 1918 to 2005 are used to develop and evaluate the ESN models. The forecast performance of the ESN-based models is compared with the results obtained from two benchmark models, the conventional recurrent neural network (RNN) and the Bayesian neural network (BNN). The test results indicate a strong ability of ESN models to provide improved lake level forecasts up to 10-month ahead - suggesting that the inherent structure and innovative learning approach of the ESN is suitable for hydrological time series modeling. Another particular advantage of ESN learning approach is that it simplifies the network training complexity and avoids the limitations inherent to the gradient descent optimization method. Overall, it is shown that the ESN can be a good alternative method for improved lake level forecasting, performing better than both the RNN and the BNN on the four selected Great Lakes time series, namely, the Lakes Erie, Huron-Michigan, Ontario, and Superior.

  16. Status of coregonine fishes in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleischer, Guy W.

    1992-01-01

    The post-glacial coregonine assemblage in the Great Lakes included several species of the genera Prosopium and Coregonus. Overfishing, habitat degradation, and competition with various exotic fish species severely reduced coregonine abundance and altered their distribution by the mid to latter part of the 20th century. Most of the original Coregonus species, some which were endemic to the Great Lakes, are now extinct or are extremely rare. The prevailing coregonines are mostly benthic and deep-water species, contrasted to the original assemblage dominated by pelagic, nearshore species. Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) populations have recovered and now support record fisheries in Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron. Bloaters (C. hoyi) have recovered to dominate the planktivorous fish community in Lake Michigan and are rapidly increasing in Lake Huron. The recent resurgence in some coregonine populations are linked to declines in exotic fish populations and favorable climatic changes. The reduced diversity of the coregonines may explain the dominance of the remaining species. The stability of this simplified coregonine community is uncertain but the existing coregonines have demonstrated resiliency.

  17. Reconstructing paleo lake levels from relict shorelines along the Upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baedke, Steve J.; Thompson, Todd A.; Johnston, John W.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2004-01-01

    Shorelines of the upper Great Lakes include many embayments that contain strandplains of beach ridges. These former shoreline positions of the lakes can be used to determine changes in the elevation of the lakes through time, and they also provide information on the warping of the ground surface that is occurring in the Great Lakes after the weight of glacial ice was removed. Relative lake-level hydrographs can be created by coring the beach ridges to determine the elevation of basal foreshore (swash zone) deposits in each ridge and by obtaining radiocarbon dates of basal wetland sediments between ridges to generate an age model for the ridges. Because the relative-level hydrographs are the combination of lake-level change and vertical ground movement (isostatic rebound), the rebound must be removed to produce a graph that shows only the physical limits and timing of past lake-level fluctuations referenced to a common outlet. More than 500 vibracores of beach-ridge sediments were collected at five sites along Lake Michigan and four sites along Lake Superior. The cores showed a sequence of dune deposits overlying foreshore deposits that, in turn, overlie upper shoreface deposits. The base of the foreshore deposits is coarser and more poorly sorted than an overlying and underlying sediment and represents the plunge-point sediments at the base of the swash zone. The plunge-point deposits are a close approximation of the elevation of the lake when the beach ridge formed. More than 150 radiocarbon ages of basal wetland sediments were collected to produce age models for the sites. Currently, age models exist for all Lake Michigan sites and one Lake Superior site. By combining the elevation data with the age models, six relative lake-level hydrographs were created for the upper Great Lakes. An iterative approach was used to remove rebound from the five Lake Michigan relative hydrographs and merge the graphs into a single hydrograph. The resultant hydrograph shows long

  18. Use of egg traps to investigate lake trout spawning in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreiner, Donald R.; Bronte, Charles R.; Payne, N. Robert; Fitzsimons, John D.; Casselman, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Disk-shaped traps were used to examine egg deposition by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) at 29 sites in the Great Lakes. The main objectives were to; first, evaluate the disk trap as a device for sampling lake trout eggs in the Great Lakes, and second, summarize what has been learned about lake trout spawning through the use of disk traps. Of the 5,085 traps set, 60% were classified as functional when retrieved. Evidence of lake trout egg deposition was documented in each of the lakes studied at 14 of 29 sites. A total of 1,147 eggs were trapped. The percentage of traps functioning and catch per effort were compared among sites based on depth, timing of egg deposition, distance from shore, size of reef, and type of reef (artificial or natural). Most eggs were caught on small, shallow, protected reefs that were close to shore. Use of disk traps on large, shallow, unprotected offshore reefs or along unprotected shorelines was generally unsuccessful due to the effects of heavy wind and wave action. Making multiple lifts at short intervals, and retrieval before and re-deployment after storms are recommended for use in exposed areas. On large reefs, preliminary surveys to identify preferred lake trout spawning habitat may be required to deploy disk traps most effectively. Egg deposition by hatchery-reared fish was widespread throughout the Great Lakes, and the use of artificial structures by these fish was extensive.

  19. Nourishment of perched sand dunes and the issue of erosion control in the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, William M.

    1990-09-01

    Although limited in coverage, perched sand dunes situated on high coastal bluffs are considered the most prized of Great Lakes dunes. Grand Sable Dunes on Lake Superior and Sleeping Bear Dunes on Lake Michigan are featured attractions of national lakeshores under National Park Service management. The source of sand for perched dunes is the high bluff along their lakeward edge. As onshore wind crosses the bluff, flow is accelerated upslope, resulting in greatly elevated levels of wind stress over the slope brow. On barren, sandy bluffs, wind erosion is concentrated in the brow zone, and for the Grand Sable Bluff, it averaged 1 m3/yr per linear meter along the highest sections for the period 1973 1983. This mechanism accounts for about 6,500 m3 of sand nourishment to the dunefield annually and clearly has been the predominant mechanism for the long-term development of the dunefield. However, wind erosion and dune nourishment are possible only where the bluff is denuded of plant cover by mass movements and related processes induced by wave erosion. In the Great Lakes, wave erosion and bluff retreat vary with lake levels; the nourishment of perched dunes is favored by high levels. Lake levels have been relatively high for the past 50 years, and shore erosion has become a major environmental issue leading property owners and politicians to support lake-level regulation. Trimming high water levels could reduce geomorphic activity on high bluffs and affect dune nourishment rates. Locally, nourishment also may be influenced by sediment accumulation associated with harbor protection facilities and by planting programs aimed at stabilizing dunes.

  20. Evidence for early hunters beneath the Great Lakes

    PubMed Central

    O'Shea, John M.; Meadows, Guy A.

    2009-01-01

    Scholars have hypothesized that the poorly understood and rarely encountered archaeological sites from the terminal Paleoindian and Archaic periods associated with the Lake Stanley low water stage (10,000–7,500 BP) are lost beneath the modern Great Lakes. Acoustic and video survey on the Alpena-Amberley ridge, a feature that would have been a dry land corridor crossing the Lake Huron basin during this time period, reveals the presence of a series of stone features that match, in form and location, structures used for caribou hunting in both prehistoric and ethnographic times. These results present evidence for early hunters on the Alpena-Amberley corridor, and raise the possibility that intact settlements and ancient landscapes are preserved beneath Lake Huron. PMID:19506245

  1. Forecasting Lake-Effect Precipitation in the Great Lakes Region Using NASA Enhanced-Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipullo, Michelle; Molthan, Andrew; Shafer, Jackie; Case, Jonathan; Jedlovec, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Lake-effect precipitation is common in the Great Lakes region, particularly during the late fall and winter. The synoptic processes of lake-effect precipitation are well understood by operational forecasters, but individual forecast events still present a challenge. Locally run, high resolution models can assist the forecaster in identifying the onset and duration of precipitation, but model results are sensitive to initial conditions, particularly the assumed surface temperature of the Great Lakes. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has created a Great Lakes Surface Temperature (GLST) composite, which uses infrared estimates of water temperatures obtained from the MODIS instrument aboard the Aqua and Terra satellites, other coarser resolution infrared data when MODIS is not available, and ice cover maps produced by the NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab (GLERL). This product has been implemented into the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model Environmental Modeling System (WRF-EMS), used within forecast offices to run local, high resolution forecasts. The sensitivity of the model forecast to the GLST product was analyzed with a case study of the Lake Effect Storm Echinacea, which produced 10 to 12 inches of snowfall downwind of Lake Erie, and 8 to 18 inches downwind of Lake Ontario from 27-29 January 2010. This research compares a forecast using the default Great Lakes surface temperatures from the Real Time Global sea surface temperature (RTG SST), in the WRF-EMS model to the enhanced NASA SPoRT GLST product to study forecast impacts. Results from this case study show that the SPoRT GLST contained less ice cover over Lake Erie and generally cooler water temperatures over Lakes Erie and Ontario. Latent and sensible heat fluxes over Lake Ontario were decreased in the GLST product. The GLST product decreased the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF), which can be correlated to the decrease in temperatures and heat

  2. First record of Daphnia lumholtzi Sars in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muzinic, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    Adults of the cladoceran Daphnia lumholtzi, native to Australia, Africa, and parts of Asia, were first collected in August 1999 in Lake Erie. Individuals were collected near East Harbor State Park, Lakeside, Ohio from vertical plankton net tows. The average number of D. lumholtzi that were found (0.03/L) indicate that D. lumholtzi is beginning to establish itself in Lake Erie. The morphology of this Daphnia differs greatly from native species because of its elongated head and tail spine. This sighting is important because it acknowledges yet another exotic invader into the Great Lakes basin and it also shows that this, normally, warm water species continues to expand its range northward.

  3. Conceptual Model for Selenium Cycling in the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, W. P.; Conover, M. R.; Wurtsbaugh, W. A.; Adams, J.

    2006-12-01

    The conceptual model for Selenium cycling in the Great Salt Lake was developed to guide investigations in support of determining an open water selenium standard for the Great Salt Lake. The motivation to determine this particular selenium standard derives from public concern for a plan to allow disposal of reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate in the GSL, which would contain elevated concentrations of major and trace elements, including selenium. The development of an open water standard for selenium requires a working knowledge of the biological significance of existing selenium concentrations in the Great Salt Lake, as well as a working understanding of the likely changes of these concentrations over time given existing and proposed loads to the system. This working knowledge" is being represented in a conceptual model that accounts for selenium in various stocks" in the system (e.g. water, sediment, biota) and the flow" of selenium between stocks (e.g., precipitation and settling, volatilization, bioconcentration). It illustrates the critical pathway of selenium in the Great Salt Lake from water, to microorganisms, to brine shrimp and brine flies, to birds, and to their eggs. It also addresses the complexity of the GSL system: a) Spatially diverse, being comprised by four distinct bays and two layers, with major differences in salinity among their waters. b) Temporally dynamic, due to seasonal and inter-annual variations in runoff. The conceptual model is presently descriptive, but will serve as the basis for a semi-quantitative model that will be fed by data accumulated during subsequent investigations.

  4. Allocating Great Lakes forage bases in response to multiple demand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Edward H., Jr.; Busiahn, Thomas R.; Jones, Michael L.; Argyle, Ray L.

    1999-01-01

    Forage base allocation, which has become an important issue because of major changes in the fish communities and fisheries of the Great Lakes since the 1950s is examined and documented in this chapter. Management initiatives that were used to address the issue, and supporting research and development that provided new or improved methods of field sampling and analysis are also highlighted.

  5. Cross-Sector Collaboration: The Great Lakes Environmental Finance Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austrian, Ziona; Iannone, Donald

    1997-01-01

    The Great Lakes Environmental Finance Center is one of six university-based environmental finance centers established by the federal government. Its primary mission is to help state and local government and private-sector organizations devise effective financing strategies for environmental improvement projects. Cross-sector collaboration and…

  6. Great Lakes rivermouth ecosystems: scientific synthesis and management implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rivermouth ecosystems contribute to both the ecological dynamics and the human social networks that surround and depend on the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, understanding and management of these systems would be enhanced by viewing them with a new, holistic focus. Here, focu...

  7. A LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY ANALYSIS OF THE GREAT LAKES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Natural Resources Canada: Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) are conducting a cooperative research landscape ecological study of the Great Lakes Basin. The analyses will include the areas located along the border of the Unit...

  8. A REGIONAL ECOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF THE GREAT LAKES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Natural Resources Canada: Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS) are conducting a cooperative research landscape ecological study of the Great Lakes Basin. The analyses will include the areas located along the border of the Unit...

  9. Repeated Measures of Students' Marine and Great Lakes Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne; Mayer, Victor J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a longitudinal statewide study of Ohio fifth and ninth graders' knowledge about and attitude toward the oceans and Great Lakes. Results indicate a knowledge score increase except for humanities items. Among science items, earth science topics showed the greatest deficiencies, and oceanic attitudes declined over the period. (15…

  10. The railroads focus on Great Lakes coal movement

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The potential for rail loadings of coal on the Great Lakes has been presented in a report to the American Associations of Railroads. Included is information on each port,its loading capacity, 1980 loadings, capacity utilization, number of berths, storage, channel depths, and prospects for expansion. (JMT)

  11. SAMPLING STRATEGIES FOR WATER QUALITY IN THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The major goal of this project was to investigate the potential applications of Kalman filtering and modern optimization techniques to the design of sampling strategies for water quality in the Great Lakes. Two representative problems of general limnological interest with conside...

  12. Volatile Selenium Flux in the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, X.; Johnson, W. P.

    2006-12-01

    Volatilization of selenium has been proven to be the major source of selenium vapor from oceans and estuaries and it may be the major mechanism of permanent selenium removal from the Great Salt Lake (other than brine shrimp harvest). However, the volatilization flux of selenium from the Great Salt Lake has not been previously measured due to challenges of analysis in this hyper-saline environment. This work presents results from recent field studies examining the spatial distribution of volatile selenium (geographical and with depth) in the South Arm (main body) of the Great Salt Lake. The analyses involved collection of volatile selenium in a cryo-focusing trap system via sparging with helium. The cryo-trapped volatile selenium was digested with nitric acid and analyzed by ICP-MS. The results show concentrations of volatile selenium that are much greater than values reported for marine estuaries and oceans. Volatile selenium flux to the atmosphere was determined using mass transport equations corrected to simulate the highly saline environment of the South Arm of the Great Salt Lake.

  13. GREAT LAKES BASIN LAND-COVER DATA: ISSUES AND OPPORTUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a consistent land-cover (LC) data set for the entire 480,000 km2 Great Lakes Basin (GLB). The acquisition of consistent LC data has proven difficult both within the US and across GLB political boundaries due to disparate...

  14. ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY MEASUREMENTS: RECENT OBSERVATION IN THE GREAT LAKES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to characterize ambient levels of vapor phase and particle mercury at source and receptor locations in the Great Lakes Basin, and to diagnose source regions of atmospheric mercury, samples were collected at three locations: llinois Institute of Technology (IIT) in Chicag...

  15. BIOCONCENTRATION OF A HEXACHLOROBIPHENYL IN GREAT LAKES PLANKTONIC ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioconcentration of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (HCB) was examined in the Great Lakes algae Fragilaria crotonensis, Ankistrodesmus falcatus, and Microcystis sp. The bioconcentration factors varied from species to species, whether they were expressed in terms of cell num...

  16. Harmonizing human health studies in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Hicks, H E; Spengler, R F

    1996-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of exposed human populations can provide valuable evidence of human health effects. Information has been sparse on human health effects associated with consumption of contaminated Great Lakes fish. As part of its Great Lakes Human Health Effects Research Program, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) has funded ten projects. Of these studies, eight are epidemiologic investigations of human exposure and potential health effects from consumption of contaminated fish. To strengthen and to enhance the findings and comparability across the health studies, ATSDR has initiated several activities. These activities include harmonizing questionnaires, analytical protocols, human health end points, and contaminants tested. Also included is the establishment of a quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) program and tissue bank. These activities will allow ATSDR to enhance exposure assessment in the Great Lakes basin. In addition, these research activities allow ATSDR to evaluate and to interpret data across all the projects, including a basin-wide health risk analysis on exposure, levels of contaminants or body burden, and the potential for human health effects from exposure to Great Lakes contaminants. PMID:8843563

  17. Area contingency plan western lake Superior Coastal zone. (COTP Duluth)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-15

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Western Lake Superior Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Duluth Coastal Zone.

  18. A thermal scanning study of coastal upwelling in Lake Superior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Green, T., III; Madding, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    The use of a thermal scanner to monitor the time evolution of the thermal structure of the coastal waters in Lake Superior during an upwelling event is described. Mosaics of thermal imagery from ten different times are described. Qualitative descriptions of the imagery give insight into the upwelling event. Recommendations for future use of a thermal scanner to monitor an upwelling event are discussed.

  19. Out of the tropics: the Pacific, Great Basin lakes, and late Pleistocene water cycle in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyle, Mitchell; Heusser, Linda; Ravelo, Christina; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Barron, John; Diffenbaugh, Noah S.; Herbert, Timothy; Andreasen, Dyke

    2012-01-01

    The water cycle in the western U.S. changed dramatically over glacial cycles. In the last 20,000 years, higher precipitation caused desert lakes to form which have since dried out. Higher glacial precipitation is hypothesized to result from a southward shift of Pacific winter storm tracks. We compared Pacific Ocean data to lake levels from the interior west and found that Great Basin lake high stands are older than coastal wet periods at the same latitude. Westerly storms were not the source of high precipitation. Instead, air masses from the tropical Pacific were transported northward, bringing more precipitation into the Great Basin when coastal California was still dry. The changing climate during the deglaciation altered precipitation source regions and strongly affected the regional water cycle.

  20. 33 CFR 334.820 - Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.820 Section 334.820 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.820 Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill....

  1. 33 CFR 334.820 - Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.820 Section 334.820 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.820 Lake Michigan; naval restricted area, U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill....

  2. Modeling 1993-2008 climatology of seasonal general circulation and thermal structure in the Great Lakes using FVCOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xuezhi; Wang, Jia; Schwab, David J.; Yang, Yi; Luo, Lin; Leshkevich, George A.; Liu, Songzhi

    2013-05-01

    An unstructured Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model was applied to all five Great Lakes simultaneously to simulate circulation and thermal structure from 1993 to 2008. Model results are compared to available observations of currents and temperature and previous modeling work. Maps of climatological circulation for all five Great lakes are presented. Winter currents show a two-gyre type circulation in Lakes Ontario and Erie and one large-scale cyclonic circulation in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Superior. During the summer, a cyclonic circulation remains in Lakes Superior; a primarily cyclonic circulation dominates upper and central Lake Huron; Lake Ontario has a single cyclonic circulation, while circulation in the central basin of Lake Erie remains two-gyre type; Lake Michigan has a cyclonic gyre in the north and an anti-cyclonic one in the south. The temperature profile during the summer is well simulated when a surface wind-wave mixing scheme is included in the model. Main features of the seasonal evolution of water temperature, such as inverse temperature stratification during the winter, the spring and autumn overturn, the thermal bar, and the stratification during summer are well reproduced. The lakes exhibit significant annual and interannual variations in current speed and temperature.

  3. Changes in depth occupied by Great Lakes lake whitefish populations and the influence of survey design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rennie, Michael D.; Weidel, Brian C.; Claramunt, Randy; Dunlob, Erin S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding fish habitat use is important in determining conditions that ultimately affect fish energetics, growth and reproduction. Great Lakes lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) have demonstrated dramatic changes in growth and life history traits since the appearance of dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes, but the role of habitat occupancy in driving these changes is poorly understood. To better understand temporal changes in lake whitefish depth of capture (Dw), we compiled a database of fishery-independent surveys representing multiple populations across all five Laurentian Great Lakes. By demonstrating the importance of survey design in estimating Dw, we describe a novel method for detecting survey-based bias in Dw and removing potentially biased data. Using unbiased Dw estimates, we show clear differences in the pattern and timing of changes in lake whitefish Dw between our reference sites (Lake Superior) and those that have experienced significant benthic food web changes (lakes Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario). Lake whitefish Dw in Lake Superior tended to gradually shift to shallower waters, but changed rapidly in other locations coincident with dreissenid establishment and declines in Diporeia densities. Almost all lake whitefish populations that were exposed to dreissenids demonstrated deeper Dw following benthic food web change, though a subset of these populations subsequently shifted to more shallow depths. In some cases in lakes Huron and Ontario, shifts towards more shallow Dw are occurring well after documented Diporeia collapse, suggesting the role of other drivers such as habitat availability or reliance on alternative prey sources.

  4. Developing a Great Lakes air toxic emission inventory for Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.; Wong, S.; Bobet, E.; Wong, S.; Doan, C.

    1997-12-31

    In meeting the increasing needs for an emission inventory of toxic air pollutants around the Ontario portion of the Great Lakes Region, this pilot study was the first phase of the development of a comprehensive toxic air pollutant emission inventory system which will meet the demand from the Ontario domestic and international environmental management programs. In the ongoing development of a toxic air pollutant emission inventory for Ontario, source-release information gaps and emission estimation methodology deficiencies have been identified for future improvement. The state-of-the-art Regional Air Pollutant Inventory Development System (RAPIDS), being developed by the eight Great Lakes states and under the project management of the Great Lakes Commission, was used in this study to compile the emission inventories of selected toxic air pollutants from point, area and mobile sources for 1990. Other emission inventory related models/tools used in this study included the MOBILE 5C (modified version of US MOBILE 5a by Environment Canada), PART5 and other Environment Canada or Ontario specific emission profiles. An emission inventory of toxic air pollutants from the Great Lakes Commission`s 49 targeted compounds and the Canada-Ontario Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem (COA) was developed in this study. This study identified major point source and area source categories that contributed significant emissions of the specified toxic air pollutants. This study demonstrated that RAPIDS can be used as a framework for the development of an Ontario toxic air pollutant emission inventory. However, further refinement of the RAPIDS system, the emission factors, and source specific toxic air speciation profiles would be required.

  5. Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Mercury Accumulation in Lacustrine Sediments Across the Laurentian Great Lakes Region

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from 103 sediment cores from the Great Lakes and inland lakes of the Great Lakes airshed were compiled to examine and provide a synthesis of patterns of historical and recent changes in mercury (Hg) deposition. Limited data from the lower Laurentian Great Lakes shows a lega...

  6. Long-Term Variability of Satellite Lake Surface Water Temperatures in the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierach, M. M.; Matsumoto, K.; Holt, B.; McKinney, P. J.; Tokos, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Lakes are the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth that approximately 37 million people depend upon for fresh drinking water, food, flood and drought mitigation, and natural resources that support industry, jobs, shipping and tourism. Recent reports have stated (e.g., the National Climate Assessment) that climate change can impact and exacerbate a range of risks to the Great Lakes, including changes in the range and distribution of certain fish species, increased invasive species and harmful algal blooms, declining beach health, and lengthened commercial navigation season. In this study, we will examine the impact of climate change on the Laurentian Great Lakes through investigation of long-term lake surface water temperatures (LSWT). We will use the ATSR Reprocessing for Climate: Lake Surface Water Temperature & Ice Cover (ARC-Lake) product over the period 1995-2012 to investigate individual and interlake variability. Specifically, we will quantify the seasonal amplitude of LSWTs, the first and last appearances of the 4°C isotherm (i.e., an important identifier of the seasonal evolution of the lakes denoting winter and summer stratification), and interpret these quantities in the context of global interannual climate variability such as ENSO.

  7. Perchlorate in The Great Lakes: Distribution, Isotopic Composition and Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, A.; Sturchio, N. C.; Jackson, W. A.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.; Hatzinger, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Concentrations, stable chlorine and oxygen isotopic compositions, and 36Cl abundances of perchlorate were investigated in the five Laurentian Great Lakes. Samples were collected during monitoring cruises in 2007 and 2008 of the U.S. EPA's RV Lake Guardian and in 2010 at the water supply intake of Marquette, MI on the southern shore of Lake Superior. Concentrations of perchlorate were measured by IC/MS/MS at 24 locations, including one or two depth profiles in each lake. Mean concentrations (μg/L) are: Superior, 0.06 × 0.01; Michigan, 0.10 × 0.01; Huron, 0.11 × 0.01; Erie, 0.08 × 0.01, and Ontario, 0.09 × 0.01. Concentration vs. depth is nearly constant in each lake, indicating well-mixed conditions. Perchlorate was extracted from near-surface water by passing 15,000 to 80,000 L of water through 1-L cartridges containing Purolite A530E bifunctional anion-exchange resin. In the laboratory, perchlorate was eluted from the resin, purified, and precipitated as a >99% pure crystalline phase. Milligram amounts were recovered from each lake. Chlorine and oxygen isotopic analyses were performed at Caltech using the Cameca 7f-GEO SIMS instrument, following validation of the SIMS method with analyses of USGS-37 and USGS-38 isotopic reference materials. Results indicate a relatively narrow range in δ37Cl values (+2.9 to +3.9 ‰) and a wider range in δ18O values (-4.0 to +4.1 ‰), with a general geographic trend of increasing δ18O from west to east. Oxygen-17 was measured at UIC using dual-inlet IRMS of O2 produced by decomposition of KClO4. Great Lakes perchlorate has mass-independent oxygen isotopic variations with positive Δ17O values (+1.6 ‰ to +2.7 ‰) divided into two distinct groups: Lake Superior (+2.7 ‰) and the other four lakes (~ +1.7 ‰). The isotopic data indicate that perchlorate is dominantly of natural origin, having stable isotopic compositions resembling those of perchlorate from pre-industrial groundwaters in the western USA. The 36Cl

  8. The Great Lakes fisheries: A review of the report of the International Board of Inquiry for the Great Lakes Fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Oosten, John

    1942-01-01

    In August, 1942, the International Board of Inquiry for the Great Lakes Fisheries submitted its report to the governments of the United States and States and Canada. The report, which culminated a two-year investigation, recommended a common or joint agency of control for the fisheries through an international treaty.

  9. Genetic variability among lake whitefish from Isle Royale and the Upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stott, Wendylee; Todd, Thomas N.; Kallemeyn, Larry

    2004-01-01

    The coregonine fishes from Isle Royale National Park represent a unique group that has escaped the successional changes observed elsewhere in North America. Analysis of microsatellite DNA loci revealed significant genetic differences among samples of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) from Isle Royale, Lake Superior, and Lake Huron. The amount of genetic variation observed is consistent with that seen in other studies of whitefishes from North America. The lake whitefish from Isle Royale had previously been assigned sub-species status, but no evidence was found to support this. The effects of common ancestry and demographics both play a role in determining the relatedness of the populations. As with other fish species from Isle Royale and the upper Great Lakes, the lake whitefish have their origins in the Mississippi refugium.

  10. Genetic assessment of strain-specific sources of lake trout recruitment in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, Kevin S.; Scribner, Kim T.; Bennett, Kristine R.; Garzel, Laura M.; Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.

    2003-01-01

    Populations of wild lake trout Salvelinus namaycush have been extirpated from nearly all their historical habitats across the Great Lakes. Efforts to restore self-sustaining lake trout populations in U.S. waters have emphasized the stocking of coded-wire-tagged juveniles from six hatchery strains (Seneca Lake, Lewis Lake, Green Lake, Apostle Islands, Isle Royale, and Marquette) into vacant habitats. Strain-specific stocking success has historically been based on estimates of the survival and catch rates of coded-wire-tagged adults returning to spawning sites. However, traditional marking methods and estimates of relative strain abundance provide no means of assessing strain fitness (i.e., the realized contributions to natural recruitment) except by assuming that young-of-the-year production is proportional to adult spawner abundance. We used microsatellite genetic data collected from six hatchery strains with likelihood-based individual assignment tests (IA) and mixed-stock analysis (MSA) to identify the strain composition of young of the year recruited each year. We show that strain classifications based on IA and MSA were concordant and that the accuracy of both methods varied based on strain composition. Analyses of young-of-the-year lake trout samples from Little Traverse Bay (Lake Michigan) and Six Fathom Bank (Lake Huron) revealed that strain contributions differed significantly from estimates of the strain composition of adults returning to spawning reefs. The Seneca Lake strain contributed the majority of juveniles produced on Six Fathom Bank and more young of the year than expected within Little Traverse Bay. Microsatellite markers provided a method for accurately classifying the lake trout hatchery strains used for restoration efforts in the Great Lakes and for assessment of strain-specific reproductive success.

  11. Dynamic Heights in the Great Lakes using OPUS Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roman, D. R.; Li, X.

    2015-12-01

    The U.S. will be implementing new geometric and vertical reference frames in 2022 to replace the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 83) and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88), respectively. Less emphasized is the fact that a new dynamic height datum will also be defined about the same time to replace the International Great Lakes Datum of 1985 (IGLD 85). IGLD 85 was defined concurrent with NAVD 88 and used the same geopotential values. This paper focuses on the use of an existing tool for determining geometric coordinates and a developing geopotential model as a means of determining dynamic heights. The Online Positioning User Service (OPUS) Projects (OP) is an online tool available from the National Geodetic Survey (NGS) for use in developing geometric coordinates from simultaneous observations at multiple sites during multiple occupations. With observations performed at the water level gauges throughout the Great Lakes, the geometric coordinates of the mean water level surface can be determined. NGS has also developed the xGEOID15B model from satellite, airborne and surface gravity data. Using the input geometric coordinates determined through OP, the geopotential values for the water surface at the water level stations around the Great Lakes were determined using the xGEOID15B model. Comparisons were made between water level sites for each Lake as well as to existing IGLD 85 heights. A principal advantage to this approach is the ability to generate new water level control stations using OP, while maintaining the consistency between orthometric and dynamic heights by using the same gravity field model. Such a process may provide a means for determining dynamic heights for a future Great Lakes Datum.

  12. Changes in the dreissenid community in the lower Great Lakes with emphasis on southern Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Edward L.; Chrisman, Jana R.; Baldwin, Brad; Owens, Randall W.; O'Gorman, Robert; Howell, Todd; Roseman, Edward F.; Raths, Melinda K.

    1999-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the lower Great Lakes to assess changes in spatial distribution and population structure of dreissenid mussel populations. More specifically, the westward range expansion of quagga mussel into western Lake Erie and toward Lake Huron was investigated and the shell size, density, and biomass of zebra and quagga mussel with depth in southern Lake Ontario in 1992 and 1995 were compared. In Lake Erie, quagga mussel dominated the dreissenid community in the eastern basin and zebra mussel dominated in the western basin. In southern Lake Ontario, an east to west gradient was observed with the quagga mussel dominant at western sites and zebra mussel dominant at eastern locations. Mean shell size of quagga mussel was generally larger than that of zebra mussel except in western Lake Erie and one site in eastern Lake Erie. Although mean shell size and our index of numbers and biomass of both dreissenid species increased sharply in southern Lake Ontario between 1992 and 1995, the increase in density and biomass was much greater for quagga mussels over the 3-year period. In 1995, zebra mussels were most abundant at 15 to 25 m whereas the highest numbers and biomass of quagga mussel were at 35 to 45 m. The quagga mussel is now the most abundant dreissenid in areas of southern Lake Ontario where the zebra mussel was once the most abundant dreissenid; this trend parallels that observed for dreissenid populations in the Dneiper River basin in the Ukraine.

  13. Characterization and comparison of phytoplankton in selected lakes of five Great Lakes area national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nevers, Meredith Becker; Whitman, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Phytoplankton species have been widely used as indicators of lake conditions, and they may be useful for detecting changes in overall lake condition. In an attempt to inventory and monitor its natural resources, the National Park Service wants to establish a monitoring program for aquatic resources in the Great Lakes Cluster National Parks. This study sought to establish baseline information on the phytoplankton and water chemistry of selected lakes in five national parks in a preliminary effort toward establishing a long-term monitoring program. Phytoplankton and water chemistry samples were collected from ten lakes in five national parks over a two-year period. A total of 176 taxa were identified during the study. Northern lakes generally had higher Shannon-Wiener diversity and clustered together in similarity. Lakes exhibited a south to north gradient of many water chemistry variables, with northern lakes having lower hardness, sulfate, turbidity, and temperature and higher dissolved oxygen. Chloride and sulfate concentrations were the variables that best explained variation among phytoplankton in the ten lakes. A monitoring plan will have to incorporate the differences among lakes, but by coordinating the effort, comparisons within and among parks and other regions will prove useful for determining environmental change.

  14. HISTORICAL SNOW AMOUNTS IN THE LAKE EFFECT REGION OF LAKE SUPERIOR: EVIDENCE OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies (Levitus et al., .2000) suggest a warming of the world ocean over the past 50 years. This could be occurring in the Great Lakes also but thermal measurements are lacking. Historical trends in natural phenomena, such as the duration of ice cover on lakes, provide in...

  15. Simulation of Heavy Lake-Effect Snowstorms across the Great Lakes Basin by RegCM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Notaro, M.; Zarrin, A.; Vavrus, S. J.; Bennington, V.

    2013-12-01

    A historical simulation (1976-2002) of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model Version 4 (ICTP RegCM4), coupled to a one-dimensional lake model, is validated against observed lake ice cover and snowfall across the Great Lakes Basin. The model reproduces the broad temporal and spatial features of both variables in terms of spatial distribution, seasonal cycle, and interannual variability, including climatological characteristics of lake-effect snowfall, although the simulated ice cover is overly extensive largely due to the absence of lake circulations. A definition is introduced for identifying heavy lake-effect snowstorms in regional climate model output for all grid cells in the Great Lakes Basin, using criteria based on location, wind direction, lake ice cover, and snowfall. Simulated heavy lake-effect snowstorms occur most frequently downwind of the Great Lakes, particularly to the east of Lake Ontario and to the east and south of Lake Superior, and are most frequent in December-January. The mechanism for these events is attributed to an anticyclone over the central United States and related cold air outbreak for areas downwind of Lakes Ontario and Erie, in contrast to a nearby cyclone over the Great Lakes Basin and associated cold front for areas downwind of Lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan. Projections of mid- and late-21st century lake-effect snowstorms in the Great Lakes Basin will be summarized, based on dynamically downscaled CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase Five) simulations.

  16. The Younger Dryas phase of Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oviatt, Charles G.; Miller, D.M.; McGeehin, J.P.; Zachary, C.; Mahan, S.

    2005-01-01

    Field investigations at the Public Shooting Grounds (a wildlife-management area on the northeastern shore of Great Salt Lake) and radiocarbon dating show that the Great Salt Lake rose to the Gilbert shoreline sometime between 12.9 and 11.2 cal ka. We interpret a ripple-laminated sand unit exposed at the Public Shooting Grounds, and dated to this time interval, as the nearshore sediments of Great Salt Lake deposited during the formation of the Gilbert shoreline. The ripple-laminated sand is overlain by channel-fill deposits that overlap in age (11.9-11.2 cal ka) with the sand, and by wetland deposits (11.1 to 10.5 cal ka). Consistent accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon ages were obtained from samples of plant fragments, including those of emergent aquatic plants, but mollusk shells from spring and marsh deposits yielded anomalously old ages, probably because of a variable radiocarbon reservoir effect. The Bonneville basin was effectively wet during at least part of the Younger Dryas global-cooling interval, however, conflicting results from some Great Basin locations and proxy records indicate that the regional effects of Younger Dryas cooling are still not well understood. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Great Lakes Runoff Intercomparison Project (GRIP): Phase II, Lake Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronewold, A.; Tolson, B.; Gaborit, E.; Fortin, V.; Fry, L. M.; Hunter, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Great Lakes runoff intercomparison project (GRIP) was established to assess a suite of models used primarily for simulating and forecasting flows from all of the major tributaries within the Great Lakes basin. These models are somewhat unique, in part because they were developed to overcome challenges of assimilating data across an international border, and in part because they are often an integral component of regional water budget models that also include simulations of over-lake precipitation and over-lake evaporation (both of which are, on annual time scales, of the same magnitude as runoff). Here, we present the next step in the evolution of GRIP (following GRIP-M, the first phase of the project that focused on Lake Michigan) with a comparison between different hydrological models (including GR4J and the NOAA large basin runoff model) and different regional precipitation data sources across the Lake Ontario basin. Results of our analysis provide insights that underscore the importance of the spatial and temporal resolution of a model domain and its forcings, along with their connections to model skill and selected objective criteria. Perhaps more importantly, our results are expected to assist in the advancement of regional hydrological models not only for improved forecasts of the Great Lakes water cycle, but in other large international freshwater basins as well.

  18. A "GLIMPCE" of the deep crust beneath the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Alan G.; Cannon, W. F.; Milkereit, B.; Hutchinson, D. R.; Davidson, A.; Behrendt, J. C.; Spencer, C.; Lee, M. W.; Morel-á-l'Huissier, P.; Agena, W. F.

    Approximately 1350 km of multichannel seismic reflection data and an equivalent amount of seismic refraction data have been collected across the North American Great Lakes. The seismic surveys, sponsored by the Great Lakes International Multidisciplinary Program on Crustal Evolution (GLIMPCE), were designed to resolve the deep crustal structure of the 1.89-1.82 Ga Penokean orogen, the 1.3-1.0 Ga Grenville orogen and the 1.11-1.09 Ga Mid-continent rift system. In north-central Lake Huron a band of gently east-dipping reflections at about 18-20 km depth separates a complex and highly reflective lower crustal layer from a markedly less reflective upper crustal layer. The lower layer is interpreted as attenuated crust of the Superior cratonic margin and the upper layer is assumed to be composed of continental margin deposits of the Huron supergroup, an exotic mass that collided with the cratonic margin during the Penokean orogeny, and younger granites and rhyolites. The intervening band of gently east-dipping reflections may delineate a master decollement zone, active during the Penokean orogeny. All structures in north-central Lake Huron are truncated abruptly at the western end of Georgian Bay by the Grenville Front, represented by the westernmost event of a spectacular series of moderately east-dipping reflections. These reflections, which extend from the surface to about 55 km depth, are interpreted as discontinuities between gneissic and migmatitic rocks of varying lithology. Where exposed in the Grenville front tectonic zone, the different rock units are commonly juxtaposed along mylonite zones with a northwest thrust sense. Moho may deepen by 5-10 km along a narrow region just southeast of the Grenville front. Seismic reflection data from Lake Superior reveal an extraordinary thickness of Keweenawan mafic lavas and sedimentary rocks deposited in a number of discrete grabens/half-grabens of the Midcontinent (Keweenawan) rift system. Total vertical thickness of

  19. Concentrations of trace elements in Great Lakes fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lucas, Henry F., Jr.; Edgington, David N.; Colby, Peter J.

    1970-01-01

    The concentration of 15 trace elements was determined by activation analysis of samples of whole fish and fish livers from three of the Great Lakes: Michigan, Superior, and Erie. The average concentrations of 7 elements in 19 whole fish from 3 species were as follows: uranium, 3 ppb (parts per billion); thorium, 6 ppb; cobalt, 28 ppb; cadmium, 94 ppb; arsenic, 16 ppb; chromium, 1 ppm; and copper, 1.3 ppm. The average concentrations of 8 elements in 40 liver samples from 10 species of fish were as follows: uranium, ~ 2 ppb; thorium, a?? 2 ppb; cobalt, 40 ppb; copper, 9 ppm; zinc, 30 ppm; bromine, 0.4 ppm; arsenic, 30 ppb; and cadmium, 0.4 ppm. Other elements observed in most of the samples were: antimony, 5-100 ppb; gold, 2-5 ppb; lanthanum, 1-20 ppb; rhenium, 0.5-5 ppb; rubidium, 0.06-4 ppm; and selenium, 0.1-2 ppb. Trace element concentrations varied with species and lake. Uranium and thorium varied with species, but not for the same species from different lakes. The levels of copper, cobalt, zinc, and bromine varied little between species and lakes. The concentration of cadmium, arsenic, and chromium varied between species and with species between lakes.

  20. A conceptual framework for Lake Michigan coastal/nearshore ecosystems, with application to Lake Michigan Lakewide Management Plan (LaMP) objectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seelbach, Paul W.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Bunnell, David Bo; Haack, Sheridan K.; Rogers, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    The Lakewide Management Plans (LaMPs) within the Great Lakes region are examples of broad-scale, collaborative resource-management efforts that require a sound ecosystems approach. Yet, the LaMP process is lacking a holistic framework that allows these individual actions to be planned and understood within the broader context of the Great Lakes ecosystem. In this paper we (1) introduce a conceptual framework that unifies ideas and language among Great Lakes managers and scientists, whose focus areas range from tributary watersheds to open-lake waters, and (2) illustrate how the framework can be used to outline the geomorphic, hydrologic biological, and societal processes that underlie several goals of the Lake Michigan LaMP, thus providing a holistic and fairly comprehensive roadmap for tackling these challenges. For each selected goal, we developed a matrix that identifies the key ecosystem processes within the cell for each lake zone and each discipline; we then provide one example where a process is poorly understood and a second where a process is understood, but its impact or importance is unclear. Implicit in these objectives was our intention to highlight the importance of the Great Lakes coastal/nearshore zone. Although the coastal/nearshore zone is the important linkage zone between the watershed and open-lake zones—and is the zone where most LaMP issues are focused--scientists and managers have a relatively poor understanding of how the coastal/nearshore zone functions. We envision follow-up steps including (1) collaborative development of a more detailed and more complete conceptual model of how (and where) identified processes are thought to function, and (2) a subsequent gap analysis of science and monitoring priorities.

  1. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 3. Great Lakes Region

    SciTech Connect

    Paton, D.L.; Bass, A.; Smith, D.G.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-02-01

    The Great Lakes Region atlas assimilates six collections of wind resource data, one for the region and one for each of the five states that compose the Great Lakes region: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Wisconsin. At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than in the regional discussion and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations over several time scales in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and of hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  2. Growth and potential yield of perch (Perca spp.) in selected areas of Lake Baikal and the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Bronte, Charles R.; Hatcher, Charles O.; Pronin, Nikolai M.; Sokolnikov, Yury

    1998-01-01

    We compared growth, mortality, and potential yield of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) from Chivirkui Bay in Lake Baikal with that of yellow perch (P. flavescens) from three areas of the Laurentian Great Lakes --Chequamegon Bay in Lake Superior, northeastern Lake Ontario, and southwestern Lake Erie. Graded mesh gill nets were fished in August to sample perch in lakes Baikal (1993), Ontario (1985-93), and Erie (1994). Bottom trawls were fished in July-August to sample perch in Lake Superior (1973-93). Adult yellow perch from the Laurentian Great Lakes were heavier at most lengths than adult Eurasian perch from Lake Baikal. The increase in body weight per unit increase in length was greatest in Lake Erie. Total annual mortality of perch was low in Lake Baikal (0.31), intermediate in lakes Superior (0.41) and Ontario (0.54), and high in Lake Erie (0.66). Annual fishing mortality (u) for perch in Lake Baikal was 60%-70% lower than that for perch in the Great Lakes. At ages 1-3, perch in Lake Erie were longer than those in lakes Baikal, Superior, and Ontario but at ages 4-9 perch in Lake Baikal were longer than those in the other lakes. Although Eurasian perch in Lake Baikal were longer at age 4 and older, growth in length, as measured by the Brody growth coefficient, K, was lower there than in the other lakes and was similar to that in Lake Superior; yellow perch in Lake Erie grew the fastest. Yield-per-recruit was lowest in Lake Erie and highest in Lake Superior. Potential yield was influenced by growth rates and fishing mortality.

  3. Great Lakes all-weather ice information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schertler, R. J.; Mueller, R. A.; Jirberg, R. J.; Cooper, D. W.; Heighway, J. E.; Holmes, A. D.; Gedney, R. T.; Mark, H.

    1975-01-01

    A system is described which utilizes an X-band Side-Looking-Airborne-Radar (SLAR) for determining type, location, and aerial distribution of the ice cover in the Great Lakes and an airborne, S-band, short pulse radar for obtaining ice thickness. The SLAR system is currently mounted aboard a U.S. Coast Guard C-130B aircraft. Digitized SLAR data are relayed in real-time via the NOAA-GOES-1 satellite in geosynchronous orbit to the U.S. Coast Guard Ice Center in Cleveland, Ohio. SLAR images along with hand-drawn interpretative ice charts for various winter shipping areas in the Great Lakes are broadcast to facsimile recorders aboard Great Lakes vessels. The operational aspects of this ice information system are being demonstrated by NASA, U.S. Coast Guard, and NOAA/National Weather Service. Results from the 1974-75 winter season demonstrated the ability of this system to provide all-weather ice information to shippers in a timely manner.

  4. Dermal exposure to environmental contaminants in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Moody, R P; Chu, I

    1995-12-01

    This paper reviews the literature to determine the importance of the dermal route of exposure for swimmers and bathers using Great Lakes waters and summarizes the chemical water contaminants of concern in the Great Lakes along with relevant dermal absorption data. We detail in vivo and in vitro methods of quantifying the degree of dermal absorption and discuss a preference for infinite dose data as opposed to finite dose data. The basic mechanisms of the dermal absorption process, routes of chemical entry, and the environmental and physiological factors affecting this process are also reviewed, and we discuss the concepts of surface slick exposure to lipophilic compounds and the adsorption of contaminants to water sediment. After presenting mathematical constructs for calculating the degree of exposure, we present in vitro data concerning skin absorption of polyaromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to Great Lakes water sediment to show that in a worst-case scenario exposure via the dermal route can be equally important to the oral route. We have concluded that prolonged exposure of the skin, especially under conditions that may enhance dermal absorption (e.g., sunburn) may result in toxicologically significant amounts of certain water contaminants being absorbed. It is recommended that swimming should be confined to public beaches, people should refrain from swimming if they are sunburned, and skin should be washed with soap as soon as possible following exposure. Future studies should be conducted to investigate the importance of the dermal exposure route to swimmers and bathers. PMID:8635434

  5. Dermal exposure to environmental contaminants in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed Central

    Moody, R P; Chu, I

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature to determine the importance of the dermal route of exposure for swimmers and bathers using Great Lakes waters and summarizes the chemical water contaminants of concern in the Great Lakes along with relevant dermal absorption data. We detail in vivo and in vitro methods of quantifying the degree of dermal absorption and discuss a preference for infinite dose data as opposed to finite dose data. The basic mechanisms of the dermal absorption process, routes of chemical entry, and the environmental and physiological factors affecting this process are also reviewed, and we discuss the concepts of surface slick exposure to lipophilic compounds and the adsorption of contaminants to water sediment. After presenting mathematical constructs for calculating the degree of exposure, we present in vitro data concerning skin absorption of polyaromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to Great Lakes water sediment to show that in a worst-case scenario exposure via the dermal route can be equally important to the oral route. We have concluded that prolonged exposure of the skin, especially under conditions that may enhance dermal absorption (e.g., sunburn) may result in toxicologically significant amounts of certain water contaminants being absorbed. It is recommended that swimming should be confined to public beaches, people should refrain from swimming if they are sunburned, and skin should be washed with soap as soon as possible following exposure. Future studies should be conducted to investigate the importance of the dermal exposure route to swimmers and bathers. PMID:8635434

  6. Meeting future information needs for Great Lakes fisheries management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christie, W.J.; Collins, John J.; Eck, Gary W.; Goddard, Chris I.; Hoenig, John M.; Holey, Mark; Jacobson, Lawrence D.; MacCallum, Wayne; Nepszy, Stephen J.; O'Gorman, Robert; Selgeby, James

    1987-01-01

    Description of information needs for management of Great Lakes fisheries is complicated by recent changes in biology and management of the Great Lakes, development of new analytical methodologies, and a transition in management from a traditional unispecies approach to a multispecies/community approach. A number of general problems with the collection and management of data and information for fisheries management need to be addressed (i.e. spatial resolution, reliability, computerization and accessibility of data, design of sampling programs, standardization and coordination among agencies, and the need for periodic review of procedures). Problems with existing data collection programs include size selectivity and temporal trends in the efficiency of fishing gear, inadequate creel survey programs, bias in age estimation, lack of detailed sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) wounding data, and data requirements for analytical techniques that are underutilized by managers of Great Lakes fisheries. The transition to multispecies and community approaches to fisheries management will require policy decisions by the management agencies, adequate funding, and a commitment to develop programs for collection of appropriate data on a long-term basis.

  7. Profiles of Great Lakes critical pollutants: a sentinel analysis of human blood and urine. The Great Lakes Consortium.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, H A; Falk, C; Hanrahan, L; Olson, J; Burse, V W; Needham, L; Paschal, D; Patterson, D; Hill, R H

    1998-01-01

    To determine the contaminants that should be studied further in the subsequent population-based study, a profile of Great Lakes (GL) sport fish contaminant residues were studied in human blood and urine specimens from 32 sport fish consumers from three Great Lakes: Lake Michigan (n = 10), Lake Huron (n = 11), and Lake Erie (n = 11). Serum was analyzed for 8 polychlorinated dioxin congeners, 10 polychlorinated furan congeners, 4 coplanar and 32 other polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, and 11 persistent chlorinated pesticides. Whole blood was analyzed for mercury and lead. Urine samples were analyzed for 10 nonpersistent pesticides (or their metabolites) and 5 metals. One individual was excluded from statistical analysis because of an unusual exposure to selected analytes. Overall, the sample (n = 31) consumed, on average, 49 GL sport fish meals per year for a mean of 33 years. On average, the general population in the GL basin consume 6 meals of GL sport fish per year. The mean tissue levels of most persistent, bioaccumulative compounds also found in GL sport fish ranged from less than a twofold increase to that of PCB 126, which was eight times the selected background levels found in the general population. The overall mean total toxic equivalent for dioxins, furans, and coplanar PCBs were greater than selected background levels in the general population (dioxins, 1.8 times; furans, 2.4 times; and coplanar PCBs, 9.6 times). The nonpersistent pesticides and most metals were not identified in unusual concentrations. A contaminant pattern among lake subgroups was evident. Lake Erie sport fish consumers had consistently lower contaminant concentrations than consumers of sport fish from Lake Michigan and Huron. These interlake differences are consistent with contaminant patterns seen in sport fish tissue from the respective lakes; GL sport fish consumption was the most likely explanation for observed contaminant levels among this sample. Frequent consumers of

  8. Early observations on an emerging Great Lakes invader Hemimysis anomala in Lake Ontario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walsh, Maureen G.; Lantry, Brian F.; Boscarino, Brent; Bowen, Kelly; Gerlofsma, Jocelyn; Schaner, Ted; Back, Richard; Questel, Jennifer; Smythe, A. Garry; Cap, Roberta; Goehle, Michael; Young, Bryan; Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Johnson, James H.; McKenna, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Hemimysis anomala, a Ponto-Caspian littoral mysid, is an emerging Great Lakes invader that was discovered in Lakes Michigan and Ontario in 2006. Similar to the native mysid Mysis diluviana, Hemimysis exhibits a diel vertical migration pattern but generally inhabits shallower and warmer waters than M. diluviana. Because basic information on the distribution, habitat use, and biology of Hemimysis in the Great Lakes is scarce, the potential for food web disruption by Hemimysis cannot easily be predicted. Preliminary observations indicate widespread invasion of Hemimysis in Lake Ontario. In this study, we confirm the presence of Hemimysis at sites spanning the northern and southern shores of Lake Ontario and the presence of the individuals during winter months. In one horizontal tow in November 2007, over 26,000 individuals were collected with a length range of 4.4 to 9.0. mm and an average caloric density of 611. cal/g wet weight. The most effective methods for sampling Hemimysis were horizontal tows with either a zooplankton net in the water column or a benthic sled near the lake bottom. Although more quantitative data on the life history and distribution of this species is necessary, our preliminary observations support the prediction that the potential for Hemimysis to impact the nearshore food web in Lake Ontario appears high.

  9. Derivation of proposed human health and wildlife bioaccumulation factors for the Great Lakes initiative. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Stephan, C.E.

    1993-03-01

    The publication is divided into two sections: Comparison of Proposed Human Health and Bioaccumulation Factors (HHBAFs) for the Great Lakes Initiative (GLI) and Derivation of Proposed Human Health and Wildlife Bioaccumulation Factors for the Great Lakes Initiative.

  10. REDUCING EXPOSURE UNCERTAINTY FOR ASSESSMENT OF DIOXIN TOXICITY RISKS TO LAKE TROUT POPULATIONS IN THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the 20th century, declines of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) populations to virtual extinction in all the Great Lakes except Lake Superior were followed by failure of stocked lake trout to achieve recruitment through natural reproduction. Stresses such as excessive harv...

  11. Contaminant trends in lake trout and walleye from the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeVault, David S.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Rodgers, Paul W.; Feist, Timothy J.

    1996-01-01

    Trends in PCBs, DDT, and other contaminants have been monitored in Great Lakes lake trout and walleye since the 1970s using composite samples of whole fish. Dramatic declines have been observed in concentrations of PCB, ΣDDT, dieldrin, and oxychlordane, with declines initially following first order loss kinetics. Mean PCB concentrations in Lake Michigan lake trout increased from 13 μg/g in 1972 to 23 μg/g in 1974, then declined to 2.6 μg/g by 1986. Between 1986 and 1992 there was little change in concentration, with 3.5 μg/g observed in 1992. ΣDDT in Lake Michigan trout followed a similar trend, decreasing from 19.2 μg/g in 1970 to 1.1 μg/g in 1986, and 1.2 μg/g in 1992. Similar trends were observed for PCBs and ΣDDT in lake trout from Lakes Superior, Huron and Ontario. Concentrations of both PCB and ΣDDT in Lake Erie walleye declined between 1977 and 1982, after which concentrations were relatively constant through 1990. When originally implemented it was assumed that trends in the mean contaminant concentrations in open-lake fish would serve as cost effective surrogates to trends in the water column. While water column data are still extremely limited it appears that for PCBs in lakes Michigan and Superior, trends in lake trout do reasonably mimic those in the water column over the long term. Hypotheses to explain the trends in contaminant concentrations are briefly reviewed. The original first order loss kinetics used to describe the initial decline do not explain the more recent leveling off of contaminant concentrations. Recent theories have examined the possibilities of multiple contaminant pools. We suggest another hypothesis, that changes in the food web may have resulted in increased bioaccumulation. However, a preliminary exploration of this hypothesis using a change point analysis was inconclusive.

  12. Physicochemical Characterization of Lake Spray Aerosol Generated from Great Lakes Water Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, A. P.; Axson, J. L.; May, N.; Pratt, K.

    2014-12-01

    Wave breaking across bodies of water releases particles into the air which can impact climate and human health. Similar to sea spray aerosols formed through marine wave breaking, freshwater lakes generate lake spray aerosol (LSA). LSA can impact climate directly through scattering/absorption and indirectly through cloud nucleation. In addition, these LSA are suggested to impact human health through inhalation of these particles during algal bloom periods characterized by toxic cyanobacteria. Few studies have been conducted to assess the physical and chemical properties of freshwater LSA. Herein, we discuss constructing a LSA generation system and preliminary physical and chemical characterization of aerosol generated from water samples collected at various sites across Lake Erie, Lake Huron, Lake Superior, and Lake Michigan. Information on aerosol size distributions, number concentrations, and chemical composition will be discussed as a function of lake water blue-green algae concentration, dissolved organic carbon concentration, temperature, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen concentration. These studies represent a first step towards evaluating the potential for LSA to impact climate and health in the Great Lakes region.

  13. 46 CFR 42.03-15 - The Great Lakes of North America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Great Lakes of North America. 42.03-15 Section 42.03... VOYAGES BY SEA Application § 42.03-15 The Great Lakes of North America. (a) The term “Great Lakes of North... application to voyages on the Great Lakes or portions thereof unless specifically provided otherwise in...

  14. Taking Teachers from the River to the Coast: a COSEE Great Lakes and Lake Superior NERR Collaboration

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes Shipboard and Shoreline Science Workshop provides 15 formal and informal educators of G5-10 an opportunity to spend a week aboard the US EPA’s 180’ R/V Lake Guardian working side-by-side with Great Lakes scien...

  15. Thematic Mapper laser profile resolution of Holocene Lake limit, Great Salt Lake Desert, Utah

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merola, John A.; Currey, Donald R.; Ridd, Merrill K.

    1989-01-01

    The limit of Great Salt Lake's maximum expansion onto the floor of the Great Salt Lake Desert during Holocene time is marked by a break in slope which is clearly depicted in terrain models which merge Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral scanner data and Aerial Profiling of Terrain System (APTS) laser profile data. Mean elevations of APTS-coincident TM pixels are strongly correlated with reflectance in TM Bands 5 and 7 when and where sufficient moisture contrasts among terrain components are high. TM-APTS models and field surveys place the highest Holocene standing water at an elavation of 4221 ft (1286.7 m).

  16. 46 CFR 96.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 96.07-5 Section 96.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  17. 46 CFR 77.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 77.07-5... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers § 77.07-5 Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall be fitted...

  18. 46 CFR 195.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 195.07-5 Section 195.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service...

  19. 46 CFR 195.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 195.07-5 Section 195.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service...

  20. 46 CFR 195.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 195.07-5 Section 195.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service...

  1. 46 CFR 96.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 96.07-5 Section 96.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  2. 46 CFR 96.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 96.07-5 Section 96.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  3. 46 CFR 195.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 195.07-5 Section 195.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service...

  4. 46 CFR 96.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 96.07-5 Section 96.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  5. 46 CFR 77.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 77.07-5... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers § 77.07-5 Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall be fitted...

  6. 46 CFR 195.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 195.07-5 Section 195.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service...

  7. 46 CFR 96.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 96.07-5 Section 96.07-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS... Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes...

  8. 46 CFR 77.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 77.07-5... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers § 77.07-5 Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall be fitted...

  9. 46 CFR 77.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 77.07-5... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers § 77.07-5 Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall be fitted...

  10. 46 CFR 77.07-5 - Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. 77.07-5... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Anchors, Chains, and Hawsers § 77.07-5 Ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service. (a) Vessels in ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes service shall be fitted...

  11. 46 CFR 46.10-40 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load line (Great Lakes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load line (Great Lakes). 46.10-40 Section 46.10-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... (Great Lakes). (a) Passenger vessels on the Great Lakes of 150 gross tons or over shall not submerge...

  12. 46 CFR 117.206 - Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes...—vessels operating on Great Lakes routes. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, each vessel certificated to operate on a Great Lakes route must be provided with the survival craft...

  13. 46 CFR 46.10-40 - Nonsubmergence subdivision load line (Great Lakes).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Nonsubmergence subdivision load line (Great Lakes). 46.10-40 Section 46.10-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LOAD LINES... (Great Lakes). (a) Passenger vessels on the Great Lakes of 150 gross tons or over shall not submerge...

  14. 46 CFR 180.206 - Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes... Craft § 180.206 Survival craft—vessels operating on Great Lakes routes. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, each vessel certificated to operate on a Great Lakes route must be...

  15. 46 CFR 117.206 - Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Survival craft-vessels operating on Great Lakes routes...—vessels operating on Great Lakes routes. (a) Except as allowed by paragraph (b) of this section, each vessel certificated to operate on a Great Lakes route must be provided with the survival craft...

  16. Selenium mass balance in the Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diaz, X.; Johnson, W.P.; Naftz, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    A mass balance for Se in the south arm of the Great Salt Lake was developed for September 2006 to August 2007 of monitoring for Se loads and removal flows. The combined removal flows (sedimentation and volatilization) totaled to a geometric mean value of 2079??kg Se/yr, with the estimated low value being 1255??kg Se/yr, and an estimated high value of 3143??kg Se/yr at the 68% confidence level. The total (particulates + dissolved) loads (via runoff) were about 1560??kg Se/yr, for which the error is expected to be ?? 15% for the measured loads. Comparison of volatilization to sedimentation flux demonstrates that volatilization rather than sedimentation is likely the major mechanism of selenium removal from the Great Salt Lake. The measured loss flows balance (within the range of uncertainties), and possibly surpass, the measured annual loads. Concentration histories were modeled using a simple mass balance, which indicated that no significant change in Se concentration was expected during the period of study. Surprisingly, the measured total Se concentration increased during the period of the study, indicating that the removal processes operate at their low estimated rates, and/or there are unmeasured selenium loads entering the lake. The selenium concentration trajectories were compared to those of other trace metals to assess the significance of selenium concentration trends. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  17. A review of differentiation in Great Lakes ciscoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Thomas N.; Smith, Gerald R.

    1992-01-01

    Seven species of ciscoes (Coregonus, subgenus Leucichthys) were found in the Great Lakes as recently as the early 1950's. Variation within and among species of Great Lakes ciscoes indicates that much of the divergence occurred within lakes. Following postglacial colonization by perhaps two or three species, population differentiation began with homing and reproduction at different localities and times. Physiological interaction between temperature (depth) and maturation time, as well as behavioral tendencies to home to spawning grounds and mate with related individuals, are the basis of premating reproductive separation. Phenotypic differences between populations indicate that ecological character displacement has been an important mechanism in the divergence. Introgression has obscured morphological species boundaries at the same time as intralacustrine speciation has created local subgroups, providing an unresolvable conflict between species definitions based on morphological and other characters and definitions dominated by inferred reproductive isolation. Species should be considered as the smallest diagnosable units within a phylogenetic framework, in which diagnoses are strictly by derived characters. Ecological and seasonal species could be recognized by application of a trinomial, equivalent to the subspecies trinomial.

  18. A Great Lakes atmospheric mercury monitoring network: evaluation and design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Risch, Martin R.; Kenski, Donna M.; Gay; David, A.

    2014-01-01

    As many as 51 mercury (Hg) wet-deposition-monitoring sites from 4 networks were operated in 8 USA states and Ontario, Canada in the North American Great Lakes Region from 1996 to 2010. By 2013, 20 of those sites were no longer in operation and approximately half the geographic area of the Region was represented by a single Hg-monitoring site. In response, a Great Lakes Atmospheric Mercury Monitoring (GLAMM) network is needed as a framework for regional collaboration in Hg-deposition monitoring. The purpose of the GLAMM network is to detect changes in regional atmospheric Hg deposition related to changes in Hg emissions. An optimized design for the network was determined to be a minimum of 21 sites in a representative and approximately uniform geographic distribution. A majority of the active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region are part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) in North America and the GLAMM network is planned to be part of the MDN. To determine an optimized network design, active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region were evaluated with a rating system of 21 factors that included characteristics of the monitoring locations and interpretations of Hg data. Monitoring sites were rated according to the number of Hg emissions sources and annual Hg emissions in a geographic polygon centered on each site. Hg-monitoring data from the sites were analyzed for long-term averages in weekly Hg concentrations in precipitation and weekly Hg-wet deposition, and on significant temporal trends in Hg concentrations and Hg deposition. A cluster analysis method was used to group sites with similar variability in their Hg data in order to identify sites that were unique for explaining Hg data variability in the Region. The network design included locations in protected natural areas, urban areas, Great Lakes watersheds, and in proximity to areas with a high density of annual Hg

  19. A Great Lakes Atmospheric Mercury Monitoring network: Evaluation and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risch, Martin R.; Kenski, Donna M.; Gay, David A.

    2014-03-01

    As many as 51 mercury (Hg) wet-deposition-monitoring sites from 4 networks were operated in 8 USA states and Ontario, Canada in the North American Great Lakes Region from 1996 to 2010. By 2013, 20 of those sites were no longer in operation and approximately half the geographic area of the Region was represented by a single Hg-monitoring site. In response, a Great Lakes Atmospheric Mercury Monitoring (GLAMM) network is needed as a framework for regional collaboration in Hg-deposition monitoring. The purpose of the GLAMM network is to detect changes in regional atmospheric Hg deposition related to changes in Hg emissions. An optimized design for the network was determined to be a minimum of 21 sites in a representative and approximately uniform geographic distribution. A majority of the active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region are part of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) Mercury Deposition Network (MDN) in North America and the GLAMM network is planned to be part of the MDN. To determine an optimized network design, active and historic Hg-monitoring sites in the Great Lakes Region were evaluated with a rating system of 21 factors that included characteristics of the monitoring locations and interpretations of Hg data. Monitoring sites were rated according to the number of Hg emissions sources and annual Hg emissions in a geographic polygon centered on each site. Hg-monitoring data from the sites were analyzed for long-term averages in weekly Hg concentrations in precipitation and weekly Hg-wet deposition, and on significant temporal trends in Hg concentrations and Hg deposition. A cluster analysis method was used to group sites with similar variability in their Hg data in order to identify sites that were unique for explaining Hg data variability in the Region. The network design included locations in protected natural areas, urban areas, Great Lakes watersheds, and in proximity to areas with a high density of annual Hg

  20. The Effect of Lake Temperatures and Emissions on Ozone Exposure in the Western Great Lakes Region

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, Jerome D. ); Heilman, Warren E.

    2003-09-01

    A meteorological-chemical model with a 12-km horizontal grid spacing was used to simulate the evolution of ozone over the western Great Lakes region during a 30-day period in the summer of 1999. High ozone production rates were produced over the surface of the lakes as a result of stable atmospheric conditions that trapped ozone precursors within a shallow layer during the day. Simulations with lake temperatures derived from either satellite measurements or climatological values produced ozone mixing ratios over the lakes and around the lake shores that differed by as much as 50 ppb while differences over land were usually 10 ppb or less. Through another series of sensitivity studies that varied ozone precursor emissions, it was shown that a reduction of 50% NOx or VOC would lower the 60 ppb ozone exposure by up to 50 h per month in the remote forest regions over the northern Great Lakes. The implications of these results on future climate change and air quality in the region is discussed.

  1. DYNAMICS OF NUTRIENTS AND HYDROLOGY IN A LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands are hydrologically complex ecosystems situated at the interface of upland catchments and oligotrophic Lake Superior. Little is known about nutrient dynamics within coastal wetlands or their role in modifying or contributing to nutrient fluxes from watersheds to ...

  2. Early responses to zebra mussels in the Great Lakes: a journey from information vacuum to policy and regulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Schloesser, Don W.; Kovalak, William P.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species such as zebra mussels pose a threat to the economies and environments of coastal and fresh-water habitats around the world. Consequently, it is important that government policies and programs be adequate to protect these waters from invaders. This chapter documents key events that took place in the early years (1988-1991) of zebra mussel colonization of the Laurentian Great Lakes and evaluates government responses (policies and programs) to this disruptive, invasive, freshwater species.

  3. Interacting Watershed Size and Landcover Influences on Habitat and Biota of Lake Superior Coastal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands are important contributors to the productivity and biodiversity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake - watershed connection. This study explores how strength of connection to the watershed (represented by watershed size and wetland morphological ty...

  4. Early Eutrophication in the Lower Great Lakes: New Evidence from Biogenic Silica in Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schelske, Claire L.; Stoermer, Eugene F.; Conley, Daniel J.; Robbins, John A.; Glover, Rebecca M.

    1983-10-01

    New evidence from studies of biogenic silica and diatoms in sediment cores indicates that eutrophication in the lower Great Lakes resulted from nutrient enrichment associated with early settlement and forest clearance. Diatom production peaked from 1820 to 1850 in Lake Ontario, at about 1880 in Lake Erie, but not until 1970 in Lake Michigan. This is the first reported sediment record of the silica-depletion sequence for the Great Lakes.

  5. Biomarkers for Great Lakes priority contaminants: halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed Central

    Feeley, M M

    1995-01-01

    One of the major goals of the Great Lakes Action Plan is to actively accumulate and assess toxicological information on persistent toxic substances found in the Great Lakes basin. As part of Health Canada's commitment to this plan, a review of biomarkers for the environmental contaminants polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs) was conducted. In general, while food consumption was identified as the major source of human exposure to both contaminant groups, certain commodities, such as fish, milk and dairy products, and meat, were found to predominate. Due to the ubiquitous nature of these environmental contaminants and their propensity to bioaccumulate, all humans will have detectable body burdens, which in certain cases can be positively associated with the consumption of particular foods (i.e., PCBs and freshwater fish from the Great Lakes). When dealing with environmental exposure only, relating specific effect biomarkers to contaminant exposure or tissue levels was difficult, due in part to the complex nature of the exposure and the nonspecific nature of the effect. For PCBs, the most likely biomarkers of effect included some form of alteration in lipid metabolism (serum triglyceride/cholesterol levels) and elevation of hepatic-related enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). Cross-species extrapolation also indicates the potential for neurotoxicologic effects to occur in humans. For PCDDs/PCDFs, dermatologic lesions (chloracne) and indications of hepatic enzyme induction have been documented, but primarily due to occupational or high acute accidental exposures. Recent evidence suggests that neonates may represent a potential at-risk population due to relatively high exposure to PCDDs/PCDFs, as with PCBs, during breast feeding as compared to standard adult dietary intake. Future areas of potential benefit for biomarker development include immunologic and endocrine

  6. The Life of the Lakes: The Great Lakes Fishery. [Multimedia Package].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Sea Grant Extension, East Lansing.

    This multimedia package includes a 55-minute videocassettes, a guide, and six posters and was designed to provide teaching outlines/plans for a two-week thematic unit on Great Lakes fisheries for middle school or high school youth. The guide can be used in both formal school settings and nonformal school settings such as youth organizations and…

  7. THE GREAT LAKES: AN EXAMPLE OF INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION TO CONTROL LAKE POLLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The history of international cooperation efforts between the United States of America and Canada to control and abate pollution of the North American Great Lakes began in the early 1900's. The more than seventy years of joint efforts fall into three phases: (1) an early concern w...

  8. The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement with an emphasis on annex 4 nutrients -and Lake Erie

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presented will be an overview of the Great Lakes Water Quality Act of 2012 including a general description of the Annexes and the new Binational Governance. The talk will focus on the Annex 4 Nutrients Subcommittee and the Objectives and Targets Task Team efforts that have been ...

  9. Satellite microwave observations of the Utah Great Salt Lake Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Dellwig, L. F.; Schmugge, T.

    1975-01-01

    Microwave data acquired over the Great Salt Lake Desert area by sensors aboard Skylab and Nimbus 5 indicate that the microwave emission and backscatter were strongly influenced by contributions from subsurface layers of sediment saturated with brine. This phenomenon was observed by Skylab's S-194 radiometer operating at 1.4 GHz, S-193 RADSCAT (Radiometer-Scatterometer) operating at 13.9 GHz, and the Nimbus 5 ESMR (Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer) operating at 19.35 GHz. The availability of ESMR data over an 18-month period allowed an investigation of temporal variations.

  10. Coastal change-potential assessment of Sleeping Bear Dunes, Indiana Dunes, and Apostle Islands National Lakeshores to lake-level changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Thieler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2007-01-01

    A change-potential index (CPI) was used to map the susceptibility of the shoreline to future lake-level change within Apostle Islands, Indiana Dunes, and Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshores (NL) along Lake Superior and Lake Michigan. The CPI in the Great Lakes setting ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to lake-level related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate and direction (i.e., rise and fall) of relative lake-level change, historical shoreline change rates, annual ice cover and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each input variable were combined, and an index value calculated for 1-minute bins covering the parks. The CPI highlights those regions where the physical effects of lake-level and coastal change might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's potential for change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the parks' natural susceptibility to the effects of lake-level variation. The CPI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. The CPI is applied to the National Lakeshores of Apostle Islands, Indiana Dunes, and Sleeping Bear Dunes to test this methodology in lake settings. The National Lakeshores in this study consist of sand and gravel beaches, rock outcrops, and dune and glacial bluffs. The areas within these Great Lakes parks that are likely to experience the most lake-level-related coastal change are areas of unconsolidated sediment where regional coastal slope is low and wave energy is high.

  11. The microbial ecology of the Great Salt Lake.

    PubMed

    Post, F J

    1977-06-01

    The Great Salt Lake is actually two lakes. A highly saline (330-gml(-1)) northern arm and a moderately saline (120-gml(-1)) southern arm separated by a semipermeable rock causeway. The lake, particularly the northern arm, has a massive accumulation of organic matter resulting from more than 100,000 years of productivity, cycling from a freshwater to a saline lake, plus the influence of human industry and agriculture in more recent times. The north arm planktonic and attached community consists principally of, in order of biomass: bacteria of at least two genera,Halobacterium andHalococcus; two algae,Dunaliella salina andD. viridis; the brine shrimp,Anemia salina; and, two species of brine fly,Ephydra gracilis andE. hians and possibly one more species. The algae and the bacteria appear to depend on each other for nutrients. The bacteria use organic matter produced by the algae and the algae use ammonia produced by the bacteria and possibly the brine shrimp. The production of ammonia appears to be the rate-limiting step although there is no shortage of other forms of nitrogen in the north arm. Based on aquarium studies, the potential for biomass production of algae and bacteria is much higher than actually observed in the north arm, leading to the postulation of two additional factors controlling population; the grazing of the algae by invertebrates with the excretion of compounds rich in nitrogen, and the effect of a low habitat temperature and winter cold on the bacteria, reducing their metabolic activities to nearly zero. Some aspects of the various organisms and their metabolism are discussed. A comparison is made with recent work on the Dead Sea. PMID:24233467

  12. Great Salt Lake Microbial Communities: The Foundation of a Terminal Lake Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxter, B. K.; Acord, M.; Riddle, M. R.; Avery, B.

    2006-12-01

    Great Salt Lake (GSL) is a natural hypersaline ecosystem and a terminal lake of substantial size. The dramatic fluctuation in water levels and salinity creates an ecological backdrop selective for organisms with a high degree of adaptability. At the macro level, the biodiversity of the GSL ecosystem is simple, due to the limitations of an extreme saline environment: Birds eat the two invertebrates of the lake, and the invertebrates eat phytoplankton. However, analysis of the microbial level reveals an enormous diversity of species interacting with one another and the ecosystem as a whole. Our cultivation, biochemical tests, microscopy and DNA sequencing yielded data on dozens of isolates. These data demonstrate novel species, and possibly genera, living in the lake. In addition, we have discovered viruses (bacteriophage) that prey on the microorganisms. Preliminary data on bacteria dwelling in the gut of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, link these prokaryotic organisms to the food chain for the first time. All of these results taken together open the door for the discussion of the significance of the microbial level of terminal lake ecosystem, particularly in light of lake water contamination and bioremediation possibilities.

  13. Lake trout restoration in the Great Lakes: stock-size criteria for natural reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.; Bronte, Charles R.; Brown, Edward H.; Hansen, Michael J.; Holey, Mark E.; VanAmberg, Jan P.; Muth, Kenneth M.; Makauskas, Daniel B.; Mckee, Patrick; Anderson, David M.; Ferreri, C. Paola; Schram, Stephen T.

    1995-01-01

    We examined the question of whether the lake trout restoration program in the Great Lakes has developed brood stocks of adequate size to sustain natural reproduction. Stock size criteria were developed from areas of the Great Lakes where natural reproduction has been successful (defined as detection of age-1 or older recruits by assessment fishing). We contrasted them with stocks in areas with no natural reproduction. Based on the relative abundance of spawners measured in the fall and the presence or absence of natural reproduction in 24 areas of the Great Lakes, we found three distinct sets of lake trout populations. In seven areas of successful natural reproduction, the catch-per-unit-effort (CPE) of spawners ranged from 17 to 135 fish/305 m of gillnet. Stock sizes in these areas were used as a gauge against which stocks in other areas were contrasted. We conclude that stock densities of 17-135 fish/305 m of gill net are adequate for natural reproduction, provided that all other requirements are met. No natural reproduction has been detected in seven other areas, where CPEs of spawners ranged from only 3 to 5 fish/305 m. We conclude that spawning stocks of only 3-5 fish/305 m of net are inadequate to develop measurable natural reproduction. Natural reproduction has also not been detected in ten areas where CPEs of spawners ranged from 43 to 195 fish/305 m of net. We conclude that spawning stocks in these ten areas were adequate to sustain natural reproduction, but that some factor other than parental stock size prevented recruitment of wild lake trout.

  14. Are PCBs the major neurotoxicant in Great Lakes salmon?

    SciTech Connect

    Seegal, R.F. |

    1999-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between consumption, by women, of contaminated Great Lakes salmon and deficits in cognitive performance in the children of these women. Although significant statistical associations between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burdens and these negative outcomes suggest that PCBs may be responsible, the fetus and neonate are also exposed to other fish-borne neurotoxicants. In this manuscript the authors present data from two developmental studies that support the hypothesis that PCBs may serve either as a marker for other contaminants that are responsible for the observed effects, or that other contaminants present in the fish interact synergistically with the PCBs to produce the observed neurotoxicity. In the first study the authors demonstrated that exposure of rates to diets containing lyophilized Great Lakes salmon, resulting in exposure to as little as 13.9 {micro}g/(kg {center_dot} day) of total PCBs, induced significant reductions in regional brain dopamine (DA) concentrations. In the second study, they demonstrated that exposure of rats to the ortho-substituted PCB congener (2,4,2{prime},4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl) at 1, 10 or 20 mg/(kg {center_dot} day) also induced significant reductions in DA concentrations in the same brain regions although only at the two highest doses--levels at least 100-fold higher than seen in the first study.

  15. Great Lakes Biomass State and Regional Partnership (GLBSRP)

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzel, Frederic

    2009-09-01

    The Council of Great Lakes Governors administered the Great Lakes Biomass State and Regional Partnership (GLBSRP) under contract with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). This Partnership grew out of the existing Regional Biomass Energy Program which the Council had administered since 1983. The GLBSRP includes the States of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio and Wisconsin. The GLBSRP's overall goal is to facilitate the increased production and use of bioenergy and biobased products throughout the region. The GLBSRP has traditionally addressed its goals and objectives through a three-pronged approach: providing grants to the States; undertaking region-wide education, outreach and technology transfer projects; and, providing in-house management, support and information dissemination. At the direction of US Department of Energy, the primary emphasis of the GLBSRP in recent years has been education and outreach. Therefore, most activities have centered on developing educational materials, hosting workshops and conferences, and providing technical assistance. This report summarizes a selection of activities that were accomplished under this cooperative agreement.

  16. Immunotoxicity of heavy metals in relation to Great Lakes.

    PubMed Central

    Bernier, J; Brousseau, P; Krzystyniak, K; Tryphonas, H; Fournier, M

    1995-01-01

    Heavy metals including mercury, lead, and cadmium are present throughout the ecosystem and are detectable in small amounts in the Great Lakes water and fish. The main route of exposure of humans to these metals is via the ingestion of contaminated food, especially fish. Extensive experimental investigations indicated that heavy metals alter a number of parameters of the host's immune system and lead to increased susceptibility to infections, autoimmune diseases, and allergic manifestations. The existing limited epidemiologic data and data derived from in vitro systems in which human peripheral blood leukocytes were used suggested that the human immune system may also be at increased risk following exposure to these metals. The magnitude of the risk that the presence of such metals in the Great Lakes may pose to the human immune system, and consequently to their health, is not known. In this review, the available data with respect to potential adverse effects of heavy metals on the immune system of humans and experimental animals are discussed, and additional data requirements are suggested. PMID:8635436

  17. Ecotoxicology of organochlorine chemicals in birds of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Giesy, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Silent Spring was fulfilled in the United States with passage of environmental legislation such as the Clean Water Act, the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, and the Toxic Substance Control Act in the 1970s. Carson's writings, television interviews, and testimony before Congress alerted a nation and the world to the unintended effects of persistent, bioaccumulative chemicals on populations of fish, wildlife, and possibly humans. Her writings in the popular press brought attention to scientific findings that declines in populations of a variety of birds were directly linked to the widespread use of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in agriculture, public health, and horticulture. By the 1970s, DDT and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were being banned or phased out, and the intent of these regulatory acts became apparent in a number of locations across the United States, including the Great Lakes. Concentrations of DDT and its major product of transformation, dichlorodiphenylchloroethane (DDE), were decreasing in top predators, such as bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), colonial waterbirds, and other fish-eating wildlife. Eggshell thinning and the associated mortality of bird embryos caused by DDE had decreased in the Great Lakes and elsewhere by the early 1980s.

  18. Developing Multi-Lake Regulation Plans for the Great Lakes through Multi-Scenario Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, S.; Tolson, B.; Asadzadeh, M.

    2011-12-01

    Water levels in the Great Lakes- St. Lawrence freshwater system (Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario as well as the St. Lawrence River) impact a variety of stakeholder groups such as hydropower producers, the shipping industry, shoreline property owners and recreational boaters. Although the system is currently managed by control structures at two locations (Lake Superior and Lake Ontario outflows are controlled), there is concern that future extreme climates will generate water supply sequences to the system that will substantially increase the frequency and persistence of extreme water levels imposing millions of dollars of losses to Canadian and American economies. This work partially summarizes a study under The International Upper Great Lakes Study (International Joint Commission) to provide an exploratory conceptual analysis of how and to what extent new control structures in the system could be used to minimize the risks posed by extreme water levels outside of the historic range. In this study, two new hypothetical control structures were investigated to regulate Lake Michigan-Huron and Lake Erie outflows. Multiple regulation plans were developed to operate the hypothetical structures in the St. Clair and/or Niagara rivers in combination with the two existing control structures in the St. Marys and St. Lawrence Rivers. The regulation plans were defined by multi-lake rule curves whose parameters were determined through a simulation-optimization procedure. As there is a high level of uncertainty in future climate, multiple water supply sequences, each 70 years long, representing different future climate scenarios were considered. A multi-scenario based optimization formulation was developed aiming to keep the water levels within the historical range and to minimize and evenly distribute extreme water levels across the system. The dynamically dimensioned search (DDS) algorithm was applied to optimize the multi-scenario based formulation. As the

  19. Neuropsychological assessment of an aging population of Great Lakes fisheaters.

    PubMed

    Schantz, S L; Sweeney, A M; Gardiner, J C; Humphrey, H E; McCaffrey, R J; Gasior, D M; Srikanth, K R; Budd, M L

    1996-01-01

    Because of the decline in central nervous system function that occurs with age, older people may be at greater risk of neurological dysfunction following exposure to neurotoxic contaminants in the environment. This study was designed to assess the neuropsychological functioning of a group of 50-90-year-old fisheaters exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through Great Lakes fish consumption, and a group of age- and sex-matched nonfisheaters selected from the Michigan Department of Public Health's established cohort of fisheaters and nonfisheaters. A neuropsychological assessment battery, demographic interview, and fish consumption questionnaire were developed and piloted on similarly aged men and women in the Lansing and Detroit, Michigan, areas. The assessment battery included tests of motor function, memory and learning, executive functions, and visual-spatial functions, and took approximately two hours to administer. Most of the tests included in the battery have been shown to be sensitive to subtle, age-related declines in cognitive and motor function. The demographic questionnaire included questions on a number of important control variables that could influence the neuropsychological end points that were assessed in the study. These included demographic background, alcohol consumption, tobacco use, prescription and nonprescription drug use, medical history (including psychiatric illnesses), employment history, and activity level. The fish consumption questionnaire asked about historical and current consumption of specific fish species from each of the Great Lakes and its tributaries and was based on the fish consumption advisories published in the 1992 Michigan Fishing Guide. The questionnaire also asked about consumption of wild game, fish preparation and cooking methods, serving size, and changes in fish consumption patterns over time. After each subject completed the neuropsychological assessment, demographic interview, and fish consumption

  20. Introduction to the Proceedings of the 1994 International Conference on Restoration of Lake Trout in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.

    1995-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) restoration in the Great Lakes began in the 1950s when stocking of artificially propagated lake trout was coupled with the first attempts at sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control. A major milestone in the restoration process was recorded when a selective sea lamprey larvicide was identified in 1958 (Applegate et al. 1958) and then applied broad scale in Lake Superior in 1958-60 (Applegate et al. 1961). Other milestones include the expansion of the sea lamprey control programs into Lakes Michigan and Huron in 1960 (sustained usage in Lake Huron began in 1966, Smith and Tibbles 1980), Lake Ontario in 1971-72 (Elrod et al. 1995), and Lake Erie in 1986 (Cornelius et al. 1995). Following the collapse of lake trout in the Great Lakes and the implementation of massive stocking of hatchery-reared fish and effective sea lamprey control, the first documented evidence of nearshore natural reproduction of lake trout was in Lake Superior in 1965 (Dryer and King 1968), in Lake Michigan in 1980 (Jude et al. 1981), in Lake Huron in 1981-82 (Nester and Poe 1984), and in Lake Ontario in 1986 (Marsden et al. 1988).

  1. Appreciating Your Great Lakes. A Guide for Developing Educational Projects. 4-H Marine Education Series - 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennisi, Christine; Goettel, Robin, Ed.

    The Great Lakes are the largest series of fresh water bodies in the world. They are used for a wide variety of purposes by the 37 million citizens of the United States and Canada who live near the lakes and share this resource. This guide is intended to guide youth in acquiring training and field experience related to the Great Lakes in areas such…

  2. PROFILES OF GREAT LAKES CRITICAL POLLUTANTS: A SENTINEL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN BLOOD AND URINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine the contaminants that should be studied further in the subsequent population-based study, a profile of Great Lakes (GL) sport fish contaminant residues were studied in human blood and urine specimens from 32 sport fish consumers from three Great Lakes: Lake Michigan ...

  3. Dreissenid mussels are not a "dead end" in Great Lakes food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenijan, Charles P.; Pothoven, Steven A.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Ebener, Mark P.; Mohr, Lloyd C.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Bence, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Dreissenid mussels have been regarded as a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs because the degree of predation on dreissenid mussels, on a lakewide basis, is believed to be low. Waterfowl predation on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes has primarily been confined to bays, and therefore its effects on the dreissenid mussel population have been localized rather than operating on a lakewide level. Based on results from a previous study, annual consumption of dreissenid mussels by the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) population in central Lake Erie averaged only 6 kilotonnes (kt; 1 kt = one thousand metric tons) during 1995–2002. In contrast, our coupling of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) population models with a lake whitefish bioenergetics model revealed that lake whitefish populations in Lakes Michigan and Huron consumed 109 and 820 kt, respectively, of dreissenid mussels each year. Our results indicated that lake whitefish can be an important predator on dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes, and that dreissenid mussels do not represent a “dead end” in Great Lakes food webs. The Lake Michigan dreissenid mussel population has been estimated to be growing more than three times faster than the Lake Huron dreissenid mussel population during the 2000s. One plausible explanation for the higher population growth rate in Lake Michigan would be the substantially higher predation rate by lake whitefish on dreissenid mussels in Lake Huron.

  4. Impacts of Tributaries on Optical Properties and Singlet Oxygen Concentrations in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes have over 100 tributaries that contribute natural organic matter and othernatural photosensitizers to nearshore sites on the lakes. Absorption of sunlight by thesesensitizers results in indirect (sensitized) photoreactions of the widespread chemical andbiological ...

  5. Bathythermal habitat use by strains of Great Lakes- and Finger Lakes-origin lake trout in Lake Huron after a change in prey fish abundance and composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Argyle, Ray L.; Krueger, Charles C.; Taylor, William W.

    2012-01-01

    A study conducted in Lake Huron during October 1998–June 2001 found that strains of Great Lakes-origin (GLO) lake trout Salvelinus namaycush occupied significantly higher temperatures than did Finger Lakes-origin (FLO; New York) lake trout based on data from archival (or data storage) telemetry tags that recorded only temperature. During 2002 and 2003, we implanted archival tags that recorded depth as well as temperature in GLO and FLO lake trout in Lake Huron. Data subsequently recorded by those tags spanned 2002–2005. Based on those data, we examined whether temperatures and depths occupied by GLO and FLO lake trout differed during 2002–2005. Temperatures occupied during those years were also compared with occupied temperatures reported for 1998–2001, before a substantial decline in prey fish biomass. Temperatures occupied by GLO lake trout were again significantly higher than those occupied by FLO lake trout. This result supports the conclusion of the previous study. The GLO lake trout also occupied significantly shallower depths than FLO lake trout. In 2002–2005, both GLO and FLO lake trout occupied significantly lower temperatures than they did in 1998–2001. Aside from the sharp decline in prey fish biomass between study periods, the formerly abundant pelagic alewife Alosa pseudoharengus virtually disappeared and the demersal round goby Neogobius melanostomus invaded the lake and became locally abundant. The lower temperatures occupied by lake trout in Lake Huron during 2002–2005 may be attributable to changes in the composition of the prey fish community, food scarcity (i.e., a retreat to cooler water could increase conversion efficiency), or both.

  6. Limitations to lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) rehabilitation in the Great Lakes imposed by biotic interactions occurring at early life stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Michael L.; Eck, Gary W.; Evans, David O.; Fabrizio, Mary C.; Hoff, Michael H.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Janssen, John; Jude, David; O'Gorman, Robert; Savino, Jacqueline F.

    1995-01-01

    We examine evidence that biotic factors, particularly predation, may be limiting early survival of wild lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) juveniles in many areas of the Great Lakes. The Great Lakes contain numerous potential predators of lake trout eggs and fry, some of which are recent invaders, and most of which were probably absent when lake trout most recently re-invaded the Great Lakes after the last ice age. Simple quantitative models of predation suggest that plausible assumptions about prey densities, predator feeding rates, and duration of exposure of predator to prey can lead to very high estimates of predation mortality, in some instances approaching 100%. Indirect evidence from inter-Great Lake comparisons and inland lake examples also suggest that biotic factors may impede successful lake trout colonization. Our synthesis of the evidence leads to recommendations for research to better define field feeding rates of lake trout egg and fry predators and comparative studies of densities of potential egg and fry predators on lake trout spawning reefs. Management options should be designed to provide useful information as well as achieve short-term goals. From a management standpoint we recommend that: newly constructed lake trout reefs should be placed well away from concentrations of potential predators; offshore spawning reefs should be stocked; salmonine stocking, nutrient abatement, and commercial harvest of alewives should all be considered as options to enhance survival of young lake trout; hatchery lake trout should not be stocked at sites where wild lake trout are showing signs of recovery; and exotic species expansions or introductions must be curtailed to maintain or improve on our recent successes in lake trout rehabilitation.

  7. Evaluation of the performance of the WRF 1-Dimensional Lake model over the East Africa Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudoshava, M.; Semazzi, F. H. M.

    2015-12-01

    This study seeks to investigate the performance of the 1-Dimensional lake model coupled to WRF over East Africa. The Africa Great lakes exert a great influence on the climate of the region and a number of studies have shown how the lake influences the circulation and the total precipitation over the region. The lakes have highly variable depths, with Lake Victoria having an average depth of 40m and Lake Tanganyika a depth of 450m. The Lake model for WRF was tested and calibrated for the Great lakes, however it was not tested for tropical lakes. We hypothesize that the inclusion of a 1-dimensional lake will reduce the precipitation bias as compared to the WRF model without the lake model. In addition initializing the lake temperature using a vertical temperature profile that closes resembles the one over these lakes will greatly reduce the spin up time. The simulations utilized three nested domains at 36, 12 and 4km. The 4km domain is centered over Lake Victoria Basin, while the 12 km domain includes all the lakes in East Africa. The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) datasets are used in evaluating the precipitation, and the following statistics were calculated: root mean square error, standard deviation of the model and observations and mean bias. The results show that the use of the 1-dimensional lake model improves the precipitation over the region considerably compared to an uncoupled model. The asymmetrical rainfall pattern is evident in the simulations. However using the default vertical temperature profile with a three-month spin up is not adequate to transfer heat to the bottom of the lake. Hence the temperatures are still very cold at the bottom. A nine-month spin up improves the lake surface temperatures and lake temperatures at the bottom. A two year spin up greatly improves the lake surface temperatures and hence the total precipitation over the lake. Thus longer spin up time allows for adequate heat transfer in the lake. Initializing the

  8. Conservation and management of fisheries and aquatic communities in Great Lakes connecting channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, Edward F.; Thompson, Patricia A.; Farrell, John M.; Mandrak, Nicholas E.; Stepien, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    The North American Laurentian Great Lakes are linked by a unique series of riverine and lacustrine waters known as the Great Lakes connecting channels that are as integral to the basin's ecology and economies as the lakes themselves. The St. Marys River (SMR) is the northernmost channel and flows from Lake Superior to Lake Huron. Waters from the upper Great Lakes (Lakes Superior, Michigan, and Huron) empty from Lake Huron via the St. Clair–Detroit River system (SCDRS, also known as the Huron–Erie Corridor) into Lake Erie. The SCDRS is composed of the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, and the Detroit River. The Niagara River (NR) serves as the outflow from Lake Erie into Lake Ontario. The NR above Niagara Falls is bisected by Grand Island and contains several other islands and man-made embayments whereas the NR below the falls is more linear. The outflow from Lake Ontario, representing the natural outlet of all the Great Lakes, is the St. Lawrence River (SLR) which empties into the Gulf of St. Lawrence in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

  9. Glial cell biology in the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Douglas L; Skoff, Robert P

    2016-01-01

    We report on the tenth bi-annual Great Lakes Glial meeting, held in Traverse City, Michigan, USA, September 27-29 2015. The GLG meeting is a small conference that focuses on current research in glial cell biology. The array of functions that glial cells (astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells) play in health and disease is constantly increasing. Despite this diversity, GLG meetings bring together scientists with common interests, leading to a better understanding of these cells. This year's meeting included two keynote speakers who presented talks on the regulation of CNS myelination and the consequences of stress on Schwann cell biology. Twenty-two other talks were presented along with two poster sessions. Sessions covered recent findings in the areas of microglial and astrocyte activation; age-dependent changes to glial cells, Schwann cell development and pathology, and the role of stem cells in glioma and neural regeneration. PMID:27029404

  10. Satellite microwave observations of the Utah Great Salt Lake Desert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Dellwig, L. F.; Schmugge, T. J.

    1975-01-01

    Microwave data acquired over the Great Salt Lake Desert by sensors aboard Skylab and Nimbus 5 indicate that microwave emission and backscatter were strongly influenced by contributions from subsurface layers of sediment saturated with brine. This phenomenon was observed by Skylab's S-194 radiometer operating at 1.4 GHz, S-193 RADSCAT (Radiometer-Scatterometer) operating at 13.9 GHz and the Nimbus 5 ESMR (Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer) operating at 19.35 GHz. The availability of ESMR data over an 18 month period allowed an investigation of temporal variations. Aircraft 1.4 GHz radiometer data acquired two days after one of the Skylab passes confirm the satellites observations. Data from the ESMR revealed similar responses over the Bolivian deserts, which have geologic features similar to those of the Utah desert.

  11. The dry deposition of mercury into the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisonbee, Joel R.

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) in the western United States has been identified as the most mercury laden body of water in the United States with a median water mercury concentration of 42 nanograms per liter. When Hg enters an aquatic ecosystem, it can be converted to the toxic organic mercury compound, methylmercury. Methylmercury bioaccumulates up the food chain and has been the cause of consumption advisories for game fish in many lakes and rivers in the historically pristine Intermountain West. In 2005, the Utah Department of Health and the Fish and Wildlife Service placed a similar consumption advisory on waterfowl on the GSL. The primary goal of this study is to identify the pathway of greatest influx of Hg pollution to the GSL to give insight toward the source and an eventual solution to the Hg pollution problem. Speciated atmospheric mercury measurements were collected at a field site on the eastern shore of the GSL for a 1-year period beginning on July 1, 2009. These atmospheric mercury concentrations, along with turbulence measurements, were used as input to a resistance-in-series dry deposition model (based on Wesley and Hicks 1977). The dry deposition flux of mercury was determined from the modeled dry deposition velocity and the measured concentrations. This dry deposition flux was compared to the wet deposition flux measured by the National Deposition Network and the riverine influx measured by the USGS. It was found that in the 1 year from July 1, 2009 through June 30, 2010, 10.7 nanograms per square meter of Hg was deposited into the GSL by dry deposition from the atmosphere. Dry deposition makes up 60% of the total Hg influx from all measured pathways. The flux from the dry deposition of the global background pool of Hg (1.5 +/- 0.2 nanograms per square meter) dominated the dry deposition flux, making up 82.5+/-8.5% of the dry deposition flux and 50% of the total Hg influx to the GSL. Lake sediment cores from the GSL suggest a much larger annual flux

  12. GREAT LAKES BEACH CLOSURES: USING SATELLITE IMAGES TO IDENTIFY AREAS AT RISK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Are people getting sick from swimming at Great Lakes beaches? Some are. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, swimmers are experiencing an increase in bacterial borne illnesses from swimming at many popular Great Lakes beaches. The beaches in the Great Lak...

  13. 46 CFR 30.10-33 - Great Lakes-TB/L.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Great Lakes-TB/L. 30.10-33 Section 30.10-33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-33 Great Lakes—TB/L. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels navigating the Great Lakes....

  14. 46 CFR 30.10-33 - Great Lakes-TB/L.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Great Lakes-TB/L. 30.10-33 Section 30.10-33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-33 Great Lakes—TB/L. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels navigating the Great Lakes....

  15. 46 CFR 30.10-33 - Great Lakes-TB/L.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Great Lakes-TB/L. 30.10-33 Section 30.10-33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-33 Great Lakes—TB/L. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels navigating the Great Lakes....

  16. 46 CFR 30.10-33 - Great Lakes-TB/L.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Great Lakes-TB/L. 30.10-33 Section 30.10-33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-33 Great Lakes—TB/L. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels navigating the Great Lakes....

  17. 46 CFR 30.10-33 - Great Lakes-TB/L.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Great Lakes-TB/L. 30.10-33 Section 30.10-33 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definitions § 30.10-33 Great Lakes—TB/L. Under this designation shall be included all tank vessels navigating the Great Lakes....

  18. 40 CFR 132.6 - Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Application of part 132 requirements in Great Lakes States and Tribes. 132.6 Section 132.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS WATER QUALITY GUIDANCE FOR THE GREAT LAKES SYSTEM § 132.6 Application of part 132 requirements in Great...

  19. Short-Term Bluff Recession Behavior Along Pennsylvania's Great Lakes Coastline, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foyle, A. M.; Naber, M. D.; Pluta, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Coastal bluff retreat is a common problem along the world's unconsolidated coastlines. On the Great Lakes coast of Pennsylvania, Quaternary clay-rich glacial till, paleo-lake plain, and sandy strandplain sequences overlie Devonian bedrock. These Quaternary strata are subject to subaerial and lacustrine erosional processes that cause permanent coastal land loss at spatially variable rates, with the former (runoff, slumping, groundwater focusing, etc) dominating over the latter (wave and current scour, abrasion, etc). Land loss is of concern to environmental agencies because land-use planning should account for spatial and temporal variability in land-loss rates, and because bluff erosion contributes to a temporary degradation in coastal water quality. The goal of this study is to evaluate spatial variability in bluff retreat rates along a 20 km sector of Pennsylvania's short Great Lakes coast. High resolution LiDAR data covering a one-decade time frame (1998-2007) permit bluff-crest mapping on two comparable data sets that captures change within a timeframe similar to CZM planning intervals. Short-term recession data can be more useful, cost-effective, and accurate than long-term analyses that use lower-resolution field measurements, T-sheets, and historical aerial photography. Bluffs along the 20 km coastal study site consist of up to 26 m of unlithified Quaternary sediments overlying a 1-4 m ledge of sub-horizontal Devonian shale and sandstone. Bluff slopes range from 20-90 degrees, beaches are narrow (<8 m wide) or absent, and the bluffs are seasonally shielded by ground-freeze and lake ice. DEMs, hillshades, and slope and contour maps were generated from bare-earth 1998 and 2007 LiDAR data, and checked against 2005 aerial ortho-photography. Maps were analyzed at a scale of 1:120 in ArcGIS and the bluff crest was identified primarily by the visual-break-in-slope method. Rates of bluff retreat derived using DSAS vary from unresolvable to as much as 2.2 m

  20. Toxicity to Daphnia pulex and QSAR predictions for polycyclic hydrocarbons representative of Great Lakes contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino-Reader, D.R.; Hickey, J.P.; Ogilvie, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the toxicity of several types of polycyclic hydrocarbons characteristic of Great Lakes samples to Daphnia pulex, a Great Lakes zooplankter, (2) to investigate the influence of different structural characteristics on toxicity, and (3) to determine the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) parameters and model that describe these compounds. These results will be related to comparative toxicity of other Great Lakes environmental compounds and to their application in site specific risk assessment.

  1. 46 CFR 42.03-15 - The Great Lakes of North America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Great Lakes of North America. 42.03-15 Section 42.03... VOYAGES BY SEA Application § 42.03-15 The Great Lakes of North America. (a) The term “Great Lakes of North America” means those waters of North America which are defined in § 42.05-40, and in the exception...

  2. 46 CFR 42.03-15 - The Great Lakes of North America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Great Lakes of North America. 42.03-15 Section 42.03... VOYAGES BY SEA Application § 42.03-15 The Great Lakes of North America. (a) The term “Great Lakes of North America” means those waters of North America which are defined in § 42.05-40, and in the exception...

  3. 46 CFR 42.03-15 - The Great Lakes of North America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The Great Lakes of North America. 42.03-15 Section 42.03... VOYAGES BY SEA Application § 42.03-15 The Great Lakes of North America. (a) The term “Great Lakes of North America” means those waters of North America which are defined in § 42.05-40, and in the exception...

  4. 46 CFR 42.03-15 - The Great Lakes of North America.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Great Lakes of North America. 42.03-15 Section 42.03... VOYAGES BY SEA Application § 42.03-15 The Great Lakes of North America. (a) The term “Great Lakes of North America” means those waters of North America which are defined in § 42.05-40, and in the exception...

  5. A field guide to valuable underwater aquatic plants of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schloesser, Donald W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this field guide is to aid in the identification of common underwater plants in the Great Lakes. These plants are found mostly in shallow, nearshore waters along sheltered bays, peninsulas, and the four connecting rivers of the Great Lakes, including the St. Lawrence River (Figure 1). Connecting rivers are especially favorable for aquatic plants because they are shallow, have a consistent flow of water, and are protected from heavy wave action typical of other Great Lakes shorelines.

  6. Energy density of bloaters in the upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pothoven, Steven A.; Bunnell, David B.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Gorman, Owen T.; Roseman, Edward F.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the energy density of bloaters Coregonus hoyi as a function of fish size across Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Superior in 2008–2009 and assessed how differences in energy density are related to factors such as biomass density of bloaters and availability of prey. Additional objectives were to compare energy density between sexes and to compare energy densities of bloaters in Lake Michigan between two time periods (1998–2001 and 2008–2009). For the cross-lake comparisons in 2008, energy density increased with fish total length (TL) only in Lake Michigan. Mean energy density adjusted for fish size was 8% higher in bloaters from Lake Superior than in bloaters from Lake Huron. Relative to fish in these two lakes, small (175 mm TL) bloaters had higher energy density. In 2009, energy density increased with bloater size, and mean energy density adjusted for fish size was about 9% higher in Lake Michigan than in Lake Huron (Lake Superior was not sampled during 2009). Energy density of bloaters in Lake Huron was generally the lowest among lakes, reflecting the relatively low densities of opossum shrimp Mysis diluviana and the relatively high biomass of bloaters reported for that lake. Other factors, such as energy content of prey, growing season, or ontogenetic differences in energy use strategies, may also influence cross-lake variation in energy density. Mean energy density adjusted for length was 7% higher for female bloaters than for male bloaters in Lakes Michigan and Huron. In Lake Superior, energy density did not differ between males and females. Finally, energy density of bloaters in Lake Michigan was similar between the periods 2008–2009 and 1998–2001, possibly due to a low population abundance of bloaters, which could offset food availability changes linked to the loss of prey such as the amphipods Diporeia spp.

  7. Alimini Lakes Project (PAL). Human-environment interaction during the Holocene in Mediterranean coastal wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbo, Andrea; Primavera, Milena; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Simone, Oronzo; Caldara, Massimo; Quarta, Gianluca; Calcagnile, Lucio

    2010-05-01

    A diachronical understanding of the co-evolution of people and Mediterranean wetlands requires the combined study of archaeological and palaeoenvironmental records. By focusing on an extended chronology, and relying on the update of known and new archaeological and palaeonvironmental sequences, PAL investigates how the Alimini Lakes disctrict (Apulia, S Italy) has changed over the past 10ka (the Holocene), a period witnessing great climatic environmental and social change. Holocene climate change is amplified in coastal wetlands, greatly affecting hydrology vegetation and people. Likewise, socio-economical changes (e.g. the introduction of agriculture) play a fundamental role in the shaping of wet landscapes. Under the combined action of environmental and human factors, coastal wetlands are prone to rapid and drastic ecological shifts and constitute ideal locations for developing a geoarchaeological approach. The results of the first year of research are presented here and include (1) the visit, description and GPS positioning of previously and newly discovered archaeological areas (cave and open air sites), (2) sampling of two Holocene sedimentary sequences from the Alimini Lakes disctict, (3) the results of the preliminary analyses (including AMS radiocarbon dating) carried out on the samples. The relocation of new and previously found archaeological sites was necessary to overcome some confusions caused by the contrasting published information. Relocated archaeological sites were normalized in a GIS environment. Two main Pleistocene/Holocene palaeoenvironmental sequences were sampled within the Alimini Lakes district: (1) the Frassanito dune reference sequence, obtained from a portion of the coastal dune (up to 10 m high) bordering the trait of the Adriatic coast situated in front of the Alimini lakes, (2) the ALI G 1 core (9m long) sampled on the W shore of Alimini Grande Lake. The multiproxy study of these sedimentary sequences provides a record of Holocene

  8. Spatiotemporal Trends in Lake Effect and Continental Snowfall in the Laurentian Great Lakes, 1951-1980.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, D. C.; Bolsenga, S. J.

    1993-10-01

    A new raster-based monthly snowfall climatology was derived from 1951-1980 snowfall station data for the Laurentian Great Lakes. An automated methodology was used to obtain higher spatial resolution than previously obtained. The increase in resolution was attained by using all available monthly snowfall data from over 1230 stations per year combined with a monthly lime step to produce high-resolution grids. These monthly grids were combined to produce snow-year grids. Multiyear average grids were created and compared. This technique minimizes traditional problems associated with missing data and variable length station records.The three 10-year average distribution maps presented here indicate a period of increasing snowfall. Windowing of the 30 seasonal grids revealed that increasing snowfall was attributable to an increase in lake effect snowfall and not to continental snowfall. The Great Lakes drainage basin was evaluated for trends within and between monthly and seasonal average snowfall through windowing of all 240 monthly grids. The graphical and statistical evaluation of these trends indicates a strong natural variation in the region's snowfall and reveals an increasing trend during the study period.

  9. Discrepancies between ages determined from scales and otoliths for alewives from the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Gorman, Robert; Barwick, D. Hugh; Bowen, Charles A.

    1987-01-01

    Discrepancies between ages determined from otoliths and those determined from scales were common and, sometimes, quite large in alewives Alosa pseudoharengus collected in fall 1983 from Lakes Ontario, Huron, and Michigan. Among fish with 'otolith ages' of 4 or more, the percentages having identical 'scale ages' were 1% in Lake Ontario, 35% in Lake Huron, and 56% in Lake Michigan. Among alewives with different otolith and scale ages, the percentages with discrepancies of 3 years or more were 51% in Lake Ontario, 23% in Lake Huron, and 6% in Lake Michigan. Among the three populations, variation in the magnitude of age disagreements were perhaps due to the different mortality rates in each lake, whereas variation in the frequency of disagreements appeared to be due to different ratios of food to fish in each lake. Previously reported age compositions and rates of mortality and production for Great Lakes alewives derived from scales have probably been inaccurate to various degrees.

  10. Biological Effects–Based Tools for Monitoring Impacted Surface Waters in the Great Lakes: A Multiagency Program in Support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is increasing demand for the implementation of effects-based monitoring and surveillance (EBMS) approaches in the Great Lakes Basin to complement traditional chemical monitoring. Herein, we describe an ongoing multiagency effort to develop and implement EBMS tools, particul...

  11. FIELD TESTS OF GEOGRAPHICALLY-DEPENDENT VS. THRESHOLD-BASED WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION SCHEMED IN THE GREAT LAKES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared classification schemes based on watershed storage (wetland + lake area/watershed area) and forest fragmentation with a geographically-based classification scheme for two case studies involving 1)Lake Superior tributaries and 2) watersheds of riverine coastal wetlands ...

  12. FIELD TESTS OF GEOGRAPHICALLY-DEPENDENT VS. THRESHOLD-BASED WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES IN THE GREAT LAKES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared classification schemes based on watershed storage (wetland + lake area/watershed area) and forest fragmentation with a geographically-based classification scheme for two case studies involving 1) Lake Superior tributaries and 2) watersheds of riverine coastal wetlands...

  13. 77 FR 58204 - International Joint Commission Invites Public Comment on Upper Great Lakes Report via...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... impacts of climate change, a management strategy to better anticipate and respond to future extreme water..., Lake Superior Regulation: Addressing Uncertainty in Upper Great Lakes Water Levels. The teleconference... considering proposed changes to its Orders of Approval for the outflows of Lake Superior at the St....

  14. Assessment of mercury emissions inventories for the Great Lakes states.

    PubMed

    Murray, Michael; Holmes, S A Stacie A

    2004-07-01

    Anthropogenic mercury (Hg) air emissions for the eight Great Lakes states in 1999-2000 were evaluated by analyzing three inventories. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emissions Inventory (NEI) had the most complete coverage for all states, and total Hg emissions ranged from 4226 lb in Minnesota to 15,828 lb in Pennsylvania. Coal-fired electric utilities accounted for 52.7% of the region's Hg emissions, varying from 20.2% of the total in New York to 67.5% in Ohio. Other important contributors to regional emissions included municipal waste combustion (5.6%), mercury-cell chlor-alkali plants and hazardous-waste incinerators (4% each), stationary internal combustion engines (ICEs) (3.5%), industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boilers (3.3%), and lime manufacturing (3.0%). Although medical waste incineration accounted for just over 1% of regional emissions using the original classifications, the inclusion of health care facilities that may have been inappropriately identified with other sectors would increase the sector to 4.5% of regional emissions (and decrease the stationary ICE sector to 1.4% of the regional total). There were substantial differences for some sectors between the NEI and the Great Lakes Regional Air Toxics Emissions Inventory (GLEI), as well as unexplained differences within inventories between states (particularly for the cement, lime, and asphalt industries, and for lamp breakage). Toxics Release Inventory data for 2000 mainly covered electric utilities, and differences from the NEI were significant for several states. An independent assessment indicates the possibility of underestimated Hg emissions by about twofold for ICI boilers, although data for the sector (in particular concerning fuel oil emissions) are highly uncertain. Limited data indicate the likelihood of significant underestimates of electric arc furnace mercury emissions in the NEI and GLEI inventories. Several measures are here identified for improving

  15. Halogenated flame retardants in the Great Lakes environment.

    PubMed

    Venier, Marta; Salamova, Amina; Hites, Ronald A

    2015-07-21

    Flame retardants are widely used industrial chemicals that are added to polymers, such as polyurethane foam, to prevent them from rapidly burning if exposed to a small flame or a smoldering cigarette. Flame retardants, especially brominated flame retardants, are added to many polymeric products at percent levels and are present in most upholstered furniture and mattresses. Most of these chemicals are so-called "additive" flame retardants and are not chemically bound to the polymer; thus, they migrate from the polymeric materials into the environment and into people. As a result, some of these chemicals have become widespread pollutants, which is a concern given their possible adverse health effects. Perhaps because of their environmental ubiquity, the most heavily used group of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), was withdrawn from production and use during the 2004-2013 period. This led to an increasing demand for other flame retardants, including other brominated aromatics and organophosphate esters. Although little is known about the use or production volumes of these newer flame retardants, it is evident that some of these chemicals are also becoming pervasive in the environment and in humans. In this Account, we describe our research on the occurrence of halogenated and organophosphate flame retardants in the environment, with a specific focus on the Great Lakes region. This Account starts with a short introduction to the first generation of brominated flame retardants, the polybrominated biphenyls, and then presents our measurements of their replacement, the PBDEs. We summarize our data on PBDE levels in babies, bald eagles, and in air. Once these compounds came off the market, we began to measure several of the newer flame retardants in air collected on the shores of the Great Lakes once every 12 days. These new measurements focus on a tetrabrominated benzoate, a tetrabrominated phthalate, a hexabrominated diphenoxyethane

  16. Isotopic Fractionation of Mercury in Great Lakes Precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, L. E.; Keeler, G. J.; Blum, J. D.; Sherman, L. S.

    2009-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a hazardous bioaccumulative neurotoxin, and atmospheric deposition is a primary way in which mercury enters terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. However, the chemical processes and transport regimes that mercury undergoes from emission to deposition are not well understood. Thus the use of mercury isotopes to characterize the biogeochemical cycling of mercury is a rapidly growing area of study. Precipitation samples were collected in Chicago, IL, Holland, MI, and Dexter, MI from April 2007 - October 2007 to begin examining the isotopic fractionation of atmospheric mercury in the Great Lakes region. Results show that mass-dependent fractionation relative to NIST-3133 (MDF - δ202Hg) ranged from -0.8‰ to 0.2‰ (±0.2‰) in precipitation samples, while mass-independent fractionation (MIF - Δ199Hg) varied from 0.1‰ to 0.6‰ (±0.1‰). Although clear urban-rural differences were not observed, this may be due to the weekly collection of precipitation samples rather than collection of individual events, making it difficult to truly characterize the meteorology and source influences associated with each sample and suggesting that event-based collection is necessary during future sampling campaigns. Additionally, total vapor phase mercury samples were collected in Dexter, MI in 2009 to examine isotopic fractionation of mercury in ambient air. In ambient samples δ202Hg ranged from 0.3‰ to 0.5‰ (±0.1‰), however Δ199Hg was not significant. Because mercury in precipitation is predominantly Hg2+, while ambient vapor phase mercury is primarily Hg0, these results may suggest the occurrence of MIF during the oxidation of Hg0 to Hg2+ prior to deposition. Furthermore, although it has not been previously reported or predicted, MIF of 200Hg was also detected. Δ200Hg ranged from 0.0‰ to 0.2‰ in precipitation and from -0.1‰ to 0.0‰ in ambient samples. This work resulted in methodological developments in the collection and processing of

  17. Using Scenario Development to Encourage Tourism Business Resilience in the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, N.; Day, J.; Sydnor, S.; Cherkauer, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Tourism is an economic sector anticipated to be greatly affected by climate change, but the potential impacts of climate change on tourism have rarely been examined in detail in existing research. Past research has shown, however, that the small and medium businesses that dominate the tourism sector could be greatly impacted by climate change. We have presented global climate and hydrologic model research results to pre-selected coastal tourism business owners in the Great Lakes region to determine the best methods for delivering user-friendly future climate scenarios, given that existing research suggests that climate change adaptive behaviors and resilience increase with information (message) clarity. Model output analyses completed for this work have focused on temperature, precipitation, and extreme weather events due to their economic impact on tourism activities. We have also experimented with the development and use of infographics because of their ability to present information quickly and clearly. Initial findings of this work will be presented as well as lessons learned from stakeholder interactions. Two main results include that (1) extreme weather events may have more meaning to tourism business owners than general trends in climate and (2) long-term planning for climate is extremely difficult for tourism business owners because they operate on a much shorter planning timeline than those generally used for climate change analyses.

  18. Caddisflies (Insecta: Trichoptera) of fringing wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armitage, Brian J.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    Fringing wetlands of the Laurentian Great Lakes are subject to natural processes, such as water-level fluctuation and wave-induced erosion, and to human alterations. In order to evaluate the quality of these wetlands over space and time, biological communities are often examined. This paper reports on the use of adult caddisflies to evaluate fringing wetlands of Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, and Lake Superior.

  19. Compsopogon cf. coeruleus, a benthic red alga (Rhodophyta) new to the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Wujek, Daniel E.

    1991-01-01

    We found Compsopogon cf. coeruleus for the first time in the Laurentian Great Lakes, growing on limestone rocks at a depth of 21 m on Six Fathom Bank in central Lake Huron. It is the first freshwater red alga to be found in the Great Lakes and the only red alga ever found on an offshore reef in the Great Lakes. However, because this alga usually inhabits water 10–28 °C and has not survived freezing winter temperatures elsewhere, it may not be a permanent member of the flora.

  20. Geographic setting influences Great Lakes beach microbiological water quality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Stelzer, Erin A.; Fuller, Lori M.; Brennan, Angela K.; Isaacs, Natasha M.; Johnson, Heather E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of factors that influence Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) concentrations, pathogen occurrence, and microbial sources at Great Lakes beaches comes largely from individual beach studies. Using 12 representative beaches, we tested enrichment cultures from 273 beach water and 22 tributary samples for EC, ENT, and genes indicating the bacterial pathogens Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella spp., Salmonella spp, Campylobacter jejuni/coli, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and 108–145 samples for Bacteroides human, ruminant, and gull source-marker genes. EC/ENT temporal patterns, general Bacteroides concentration, and pathogen types and occurrence were regionally consistent (up to 40 km), but beach catchment variables (drains/creeks, impervious surface, urban land cover) influenced exceedances of EC/ENT standards and detections of Salmonella and STEC. Pathogen detections were more numerous when the EC/ENT Beach Action Value (but not when the Geometric Mean and Statistical Threshold Value) was exceeded. EC, ENT, and pathogens were not necessarily influenced by the same variables. Multiple Bacteroides sources, varying by date, occurred at every beach. Study of multiple beaches in different geographic settings provided new insights on the contrasting influences of regional and local variables, and a broader-scale perspective, on significance of EC/ENT exceedances, bacterial sources, and pathogen occurrence.

  1. Predicting Future Introductions of Nonindigenous Species to the Great Lakes (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has released a final report entitled, Predicting Future Introductions of Nonindigenous Species to the Great Lakes. This report predicts the spread of aquatic nonindigenous species into the Great Lakes to help resource managers focus monitoring activities on particular...

  2. The Great Lakes Triangle. Student Guide and Teacher Guide. OEAGLS Investigation 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne; Jax, Daniel W.

    The disappearance of planes and ships in the Great Lakes area is the focus of the three activities in this unit. Activity A involves studying the locations of missing craft and personnel. Activity B, which treats the loss of the freighter Edmund Fitzgerald as an example of a Great Lakes tragedy, consists of plotting bathymetric contours,…

  3. The Great Lake Erie: A Reference Text for Educators and Communicators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortner, Rosanne W., Ed.; Mayer, Victor J., Ed.

    This volume of 16 chapters by 15 contributing authors was conceived as a means of drawing together a body of basic information about the Great Lakes that is up to date, based on sound research, and interpreted by experts in the scientific, historical, environmental and political value of the Great Lakes to North America and the world. Chapters…

  4. Our Great Lakes Connection. A Curriculum Guide for Grades Kindergarten through Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Entine, Lynn; Fisher, Ellen, Ed.

    Presented are 24 activities which focus on various topics related to the Great Lakes. These activities, suitable for students in kindergarten through grade 8, are designed to fit into existing geography, science, language arts, drama, history, social studies, and economics curricula. In addition to providing information about the Great Lakes, the…

  5. 46 CFR 11.430 - Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... line as defined in 33 CFR part 80, the applicant must complete an examination on the COLREGS or the... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. 11... Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. Any license or MMC endorsement issued for service on...

  6. The Impact of Television on Public Environmental Knowledge Concerning the Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brothers, Christine C.

    The purpose of this study was to collect baseline information about public knowledge of and opinions toward the Great Lakes and to measure the impact of a television news program in educating adults about the Great Lakes. Survey questionnaires containing multiple-choice knowledge items and Likert scale opinion statements were completed by 570…

  7. 76 FR 79167 - Notice for the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study (GLMRIS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Department of the Army Corps of Engineers Notice for the Great Lakes and Mississippi River Interbasin Study... of GLMRIS. In a December 8, 2010 notice of intent, Federal Register Notice (75 FR 76447), USACE... ANS transfer between the Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins through aquatic pathways. USACE...

  8. LONG-TERM WATER QUALITY MONITORING PROGRAM ON THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has primary responsibility within the U.S. for conducting surveillance monitoring of the offshore waters of the Great Lakes. This monitoring is intended to fulfill provis...

  9. Mapping ecosystem services in a Great Lakes estuary supports local decision-making

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estuaries of the Laurentian Great Lakes provide a concentrated supply of ecosystem goods and services from which humans benefit. As long-term centers of human activity, most estuaries of the Great Lakes and have a legacy of chemical contamination, degraded habitats, and non-point...

  10. 46 CFR 11.430 - Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... line as defined in 33 CFR part 80, the applicant must complete an examination on the COLREGS or the... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. 11... Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. Any license or MMC endorsement issued for service on...

  11. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  12. 47 CFR 80.161 - Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator Requirements Ship Station Operator Requirements § 80.161 Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. Each ship subject to the...

  13. 47 CFR 80.161 - Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator Requirements Ship Station Operator Requirements § 80.161 Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. Each ship subject to the...

  14. 47 CFR 80.161 - Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator Requirements Ship Station Operator Requirements § 80.161 Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. Each ship subject to the...

  15. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  16. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  17. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  18. 47 CFR 80.161 - Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator Requirements Ship Station Operator Requirements § 80.161 Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. Each ship subject to the...

  19. 47 CFR 80.161 - Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operator Requirements Ship Station Operator Requirements § 80.161 Operator requirements of the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. Each ship subject to the...

  20. 47 CFR 80.308 - Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Ship Station Safety Watches § 80.308 Watch required by the Great Lakes Radio Agreement. (a) Each ship of...

  1. Citizens' Guide to Biomonitoring in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Great Lakes United, Buffalo, NY.

    The purpose of this report is to present the issues surrounding biomonitoring of wastewaters discharged into the Great Lakes Basin. Biomonitoring is the process of using organisms to monitor the toxicity of a substance. The report reflects an interest in seeing zero discharge of toxic pollutants in the Great Lakes region. The report is organized…

  2. 76 FR 50713 - 2012 Rates for Pilotage on the Great Lakes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ....Haviland@uscg.mil , or fax 202-372-1909. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Correction In proposed rule FR Doc... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 401 RIN 1625-AB70 2012 Rates for Pilotage on the Great Lakes AGENCY: Coast... pilotage on the Great Lakes. This correction provides four rows that were missing from Table 36 in...

  3. Eighteen Years of the Great Lakes Regional Counseling Psychology Conference: Revisiting the Need for Regional Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Bowman, Sharon L.; Gerstein, Lawrence H.

    2006-01-01

    The Great Lakes Regional Conference on Counseling Psychology is the only conference to continuously fulfill the 1987 mandate issued by Division 17 for regional counseling conferences. The rationale for regional conferences is reviewed, and the 18-year history of the Great Lakes Regional Conference is examined. The authors conclude by noting the…

  4. The use of ERTS-1 imagery in air pollution and mesometeorological studies around the Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, W. A.; Northouse, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    ERTS-1 images continue to be highly useful in studies of: (1) long range transport of air pollutants over the Great Lakes; (2) the mesoscale atmospheric dynamics associated with episodic levels of photochemical smog along the western shore of Lake Michigan; and (3) inadvertant weather modification by large industrial complexes. Also unusual wave patterns in fogs and low stratus over the Great Lakes are being detected for the first time due to the satellites high resolution.

  5. Genetic diversity of wild and hatchery lake trout populations: Relevance for management and restoration in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, K.S.; Scribner, K.T.; Burnham-Curtis, M.

    2004-01-01

    The biological diversity of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in the upper Great Lakes was historically high, consisting of many recognizable morphological types and discrete spawning populations. During the 1950s and 1960s, lake trout populations were extirpated from much of the Great Lakes primarily as a result of overfishing and predation by the parasitic sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus. Investigations of how genetic diversity is partitioned among remnant wild lake trout populations and hatchery broodstocks have been advocated to guide lake trout management and conservation planning. Using microsatellite genetic markers, we estimated measures of genetic diversity and the apportionment of genetic variance among 6 hatchery broodstocks and 10 wild populations representing three morphotypes (lean, humper, and siscowet). Analyses revealed that different hatchery broodstocks and wild populations contributed disproportionally to the total levels of genetic diversity. The genetic affinities of hatchery lake trout reflected the lake basins of origin of the wild source populations. The variance in allele frequency over all sampled extant wild populations was apportioned primarily on the basis of morphotype (??MT = 0.029) and secondarily among geographically dispersed populations within each morphotype (??ST = 0.024). The findings suggest that the genetic divergence reflected in recognized morphotypes and the associated ecological and physiological specialization occurred prior to the partitioning of large proglacial lakes into the Great Lakes or as a consequence of higher contemporary levels of gene flow within than among morphotypes. Information on the relative contributions of different broodstocks to total gene diversity within the regional hatchery program can be used to prioritize the broodstocks to be retained and to guide future stocking strategies. The findings highlight the importance of ecological and phenotypic diversity in Great Lakes fish communities and

  6. Nearshore coastal mapping. [in Lake Michigan and Puerto Rico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polcyn, F. C.; Lyzenga, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Two test sites of different water quality and bottom topography were used to test for maximum water depth penetration using the Skylab S-192 MSS for measurement of nearshore coastal bathymetry. Sites under investigation lie along the Lake Michigan coastline where littoral transport acts to erode sand bluffs and endangers developments along 1,200 miles of shore, and on the west coast of Puerto Rico where unreliable shoal location and depth information constitutes a safety hazard to navigation. The S-192 and S-190A and B provide data on underwater features because of water transparency in the blue/green portion of the spectrum. Depth of 20 meters were measured with the S-192 in the Puerto Rico test site. The S-190B photography with its improved spatial resolution clearly delineates the triple sand bar topography in the Lake Michigan test site. Several processing techniques were employed to test for maximum depth measurement with least error. The results are useful for helping to determine an optimum spectral bandwidth for future space sensors that will increase depth measurements for different water attenuation conditions where a bottom reflection is detectable.

  7. HYDROMORPHIC DETERMINANTS OF AQUATIC HABITAT VARIABILITY IN LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript evaluates patterns in water quality, water movement, substrate, and vegetation in 10 Lake Superior coastal wetlands in light of wetland hydrology and morphology. Water quality, substrate, and vegetation structure are important aspects of habitat for fishes that u...

  8. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  9. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  10. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  11. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  12. 33 CFR 334.830 - Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes, Ill. 334.830 Section 334.830 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.830 Lake Michigan; small-arms range adjacent to U.S. Naval Training Center, Great Lakes,...

  13. The Oligochaeta (Annelida, Clitellata) of the St. Lawrence Great Lakes region: An update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, Douglas R.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    2003-01-01

    An updated oligochaete species list for the Great Lakes region is provided. The list was developed through the reexamination of the taxa reported in a previous report in 1980, addition of new taxa or records collected from the region since 1980, and an update of taxonomy commensurate with systematic and nomenclatural changes over the intervening years since the last review. The authors found 74 papers mentioning Great Lakes oligochaete species. The majority of these papers were published in the 1980s. The literature review and additional collections resulted in 15 species being added to the previous list. Nine taxa were removed from the previous list due to misidentification, synonymies, level of identification, or inability to confirm the identity. Based on this review, 101 species of Oligochaeta are now known from the St. Lawrence Great Lakes watershed. Of these, 95 species are known from the St. Lawrence Great Lakes proper, with an additional 6 species recorded from the inland waters of the watershed. The greatest diversity of oligochaete species was found in the inland waters of the region (81) followed by Lake Huron (72), Lake Ontario (65), Lake Erie (64), Lake Superior (63), Lake Michigan (62), St. Marys River (60), Niagara River (49), Saginaw Bay (44), St. Clair River (37), Lake St. Clair (36), St. Lawrence River (27), and the Detroit River (21). Three species are suspected of being introduced, Branchiura sowerbyi, Gianius aquaedulcisand Ripistes parasita, and two are believed to be endemic, Thalassodrilus hallae andTeneridrilus flexus.

  14. Genetic variation over space and time: Analyses of extinct and remnant lake trout populations in the Upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guinand, B.; Scribner, K.T.; Page, K.S.; Burnham-Curtis, M. K.

    2003-01-01

    Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the upper Laurentian Great Lakes of North America experienced striking reductions in abundance and distribution during the mid–twentieth century. Complete collapse of populations was documented for Lake Michigan, and a few remnant populations remained only in lakes Huron and Superior. Using DNA obtained from historical scale collections, we analysed patterns of genetic diversity at five microsatellite loci from archived historical samples representing 15 populations (range 1940–1959) and from three contemporary remnant populations across lakes Huron and Superior (total n = 893). Demographic declines in abundance and the extirpation of native lake trout populations during the past 40 years have resulted in the loss of genetic diversity between lakes owing to extirpation of Lake Michigan populations and a temporal trend for reduction in allelic richness in the populations of lakes Superior and Huron. Naturally reproducing populations in Lake Superior, which had been considered to be remnants of historical populations, and which were believed to be responsible for the resurgence of lake trout numbers and distribution, have probably been affected by hatchery supplementation.

  15. Recent desiccation of Western Great Basin Saline Lakes: Lessons from Lake Abert, Oregon, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Moore, Johnnie N

    2016-06-01

    Although extremely important to migrating waterfowl and shorebirds, and highly threatened globally, most saline lakes are poorly monitored. Lake Abert in the western Great Basin, USA, is an example of this neglect. Designated a critical habitat under the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network, the lake is at near record historic low levels and ultra-high salinities that have resulted in ecosystem collapse. Determination of the direct human effects and broader climate controls on Lake Abert illustrates the broader problem of saline lake desiccation and suggests future solutions for restoration of key habitat values. A 65-year time series of lake area was constructed from Landsat images and transformed to lake volume and salinity. "Natural" (without upstream withdrawals) conditions were calculated from climate and stream flow data, and compared to measured volume and salinity. Under natural conditions the lake would have higher volume and lower salinities because annual water withdrawals account for one-third of mean lake volume. Without withdrawals, the lake would have maintained annual mean salinities mostly within the optimal range of brine shrimp and alkali fly growth. Even during the last two years of major drought, the lake would have maintained salinities well below measured values. Change in climate alone would not produce the recent low lake volumes and high salinities that have destroyed the brine shrimp and alkali fly populations and depleted shorebird use at Lake Abert. Large scale withdrawal of water for direct human use has drastically increased the imbalance between natural runoff and evaporation during periods of drought in saline lakes worldwide but could be offset by establishing an "environmental water budget" to lay a foundation for the conservation of saline lake habitats under continued threats from development and climate change. PMID:26950628

  16. The Relationship between Great Lakes Water Levels, Wave Energies, and Shoreline Damage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, G. A.; Meadows, L. A.; Wood, W. L.; Hubertz, J. M.; Perlin, M.

    1997-04-01

    The latter half of the twentieth century can be characterized as a period of rising water levels on the Great Lakes, with record high levels in 1974 and 1986. Concurrent with these periods of high water level are reported periods of high shoreline damage and property loss. Water levels of the Great Lakes are determined by precipitation, evaporation, river outflow, and groundwater inflow, while wave energy is primarily a function of wind speed, duration, and fetch. A comparison between a recently completed long-term (1956-87) wave climate hindcast and historical lake levels for the Great Lakes shows a strong correlation between periods of high wave energy and high lake levels. Statistical comparison of these two time series indicates an approximately constant correlation from +24 months to -6 months, around a zero lag/lead. The causational link between increasing lake levels and more intense wind-generated waves appears to be related to significant changes in the climatology of Great Lake's basin cyclones. Support for this conclusion is provided by an apparent interdecadal climate change reflected by a marked shift in track lines of extratropical cyclones passing over the Great Lakes and by a parallel decrease in lake levels and wave energies in the time period from 1976 to 1978. Finally and perhaps most importantly, it is shown that periods of reported high shoreline damage and property loss correlate more directly to periods of high wave energy than to periods of peak water level.

  17. The sedimentary record of the 1960 tsunami in two coastal lakes on Isla de Chiloé, south central Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, P.; Moernaut, J.; Van Daele, M.; Vermassen, F.; Vandoorne, W.; Pino, M.; Urrutía, R.; Schmidt, S.; Garrett, E.; De Batist, M.

    2015-10-01

    This study describes sediments deposited by the tsunami following the 1960 Great Chilean Earthquake (MW 9.5) in two coastal lakes, Lakes Cucao and Huelde, on the west coast of Isla de Chiloé, south central Chile (42.6°S). Sub-bottom profiles and side scan sonar mosaics illustrate the sedimentary context of transects of gravity cores. The stratigraphy of both lakes features gyttja sedimentation, interrupted by the abrupt emplacement of a sandy layer with mud rip-up clasts and a mud cap. This sandy layer reflects a sudden change in sedimentary environment, most probably caused by a high-energy inundation. Radionuclide analyses (137Cs and 210Pb) date the inundation deposit to shortly before the mid 1960s. The only known event that matches the sedimentological and chronological criteria is the AD 1960 tsunami. Using grain size analysis and comparisons with samples from modern environments, we demonstrate that the proximal (seaward) part of the deposit consists of a mixture of sand derived from subaerial sources and reworked gyttja lake sediment. In the distal (landward) part of Lake Cucao, the sand component is lost and the deposit consists entirely of remobilised lake sediments. The repetition of tsunami deposit sequences in Lake Huelde suggests a minimum of three inundating waves. Sub-bottom profiles and side scan sonar mosaics reveal tsunami inundation over the barrier and more prominently through the outlet river channel. The dominant role of the river channel as a pathway for sediment transport is also described in core samples by tsunami deposits that fine away from the channel mouth. The identification and description of the deposit left by a known tsunami provide important insights into tsunami sedimentation in coastal lakes and have the potential to help in the search for paleotsunami evidence.

  18. Diagnosing the Drivers of the Recent Rapid Warming of the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vavrus, S. J.; Zhong, Y.; Notaro, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Great Lakes have been warming rapidly over recent decades, even more than surrounding land regions. This accelerated warming trend is most pronounced during summer, where the lakes are deepest. Analyses of in-situ observations, remote sensing, reanalysis data, and a regional climate model suggest that a combination of antecedent, internal lake processes (e.g. earlier stratification) and synchronous, large-scale meteorological forcing (e.g. increased insolation) is responsible for the amplified lacustrine warming trend during summer. This long-term trend (1979-2010) is characterized by an approximate step-change in lake temperature between 1997 and 1998, particularly for the deep Lake Superior. We present an attribution study involving the International Centre for Theoretical Physics Regional Climate Model Version Four (RegCM4) that aims to identify the key physical processes driving the accelerated lake warming and to assess the relative roles of antecedent lake processes during winter-spring and synchronous, large-scale meteorological forcing in summer. The model performs credibly in simulating the step-change in lake temperature between 1997 and 1998, including the enhancement of warming within the Great Lakes compared with air temperature increases over adjacent land. We find that earlier seasonal stratification explains much of the amplified lake warming, particularly at deep lakes points, whereas antecedent ice coverage exerts only a secondary influence. At shallow lake points, large-scale meteorological forcing during summer, especially reductions in cloudiness, appears to play a dominant role in the warming trend.

  19. Human versus lightning ignition of presettlement surface fires in costal pine forests of the upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loope, Walter L.; Anderton, John B.

    1998-01-01

    To recover direct evidence of surface fires before European settlement, we sectioned fire-scarred logging-era stumps and trees in 39 small, physically isolated sand patches along the Great Lakes coast of northern Michigan and northern Wisconsin. While much information was lost to postharvest fire and stump deterioration, 147 fire-free intervals revealed in cross-sections from 29 coastal sand patches document numerous close interval surface fires before 1910; only one post-1910 fire was documented. Cross-sections from the 10 sections with records spanning >150 yr suggest local fire occurrence rates before 1910 ca. 10 times the present rate of lightning-caused fire. Since fire spread between or into coastal sand patches is rare, and seasonal use of the patches by Native people before 1910 is well documented, both historically and ethnographically, ignition by humans probably accounts for more than half of the pre-1910 fires recorded in cross-sections.

  20. Factors of ecologic succession in oligotrophic fish communities of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Stanford H.

    1972-01-01

    Oligotrophic fish communities of the Great Lakes have undergone successive disruptions since the mid-1800s. Major contributing factors have been intensive selective fisheries, extreme modification of the drainage, invasion of marine species, and progressive physical–chemical changes of the lake environments. Lake Ontario was the first to be affected as its basin was settled and industrialized earliest, and it was the first to be connected by canals to the mid-Atlantic where the alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) which ultimately became established in the Great Lakes were abundant. Oligotrophic fish communities were successively disrupted in Lakes Erie, Huron, Michigan, and Superior as the affects of population growth, industrialization, and marine invaders spread upward in the Laurentian drainage.The degree and sequence of response of families offish and species within families differed for each factor, but the sequence of change among families and species has been the same in response to each factor as it affected various lakes at different times. The ultimate result of the disruption of fish communities has been a reduction of productivity of oligotrophic species that ranges from extreme in Lake Ontario to moderate in Lake Superior, and which has reached a state of instability and rapid change in the upper three Great Lakes by the rnid-1900s similar to the situation in Lake Ontario in the mid-1800s. Since oligotrophic species (primarily salmonines, coregonines, and deepwater cottids) are the only kinds of fish that fully occupied the entire volume of the deepwater Great Lakes (Ontario, Huron, Michigan, and Superior), the fish biomass of these lakes has been reduced as various species declined or disappeared. In Lake Erie, which is shallow, and in the shallow bays of the deep lakes, oligotrophic species were replaced by mesotrophic species, primarily percids, which have successively increased and declined. All oligotrophic

  1. Do toxic substances pose a threat to rehabilitation of lake trout in the Great Lakes? A review of the literature

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zint, Michaela T.; Taylor, William W.; Carl, Leon; Edsall, Carol C.; Heinrich, John; Sippel, Al; Lavis, Dennis; Schaner, Ted

    1995-01-01

    Toxic substances have been suspected of being one of the causes of Great Lakes lake trout reproductive failure. Because toxic substances are present in the Great Lakes basin, managers should be aware of the role of contaminants in preventing lake trout rehabilitation. This paper summarizes studies which have sought to establish a relation between toxic substances and lake trout mortality or morbidity, and offers recommendations for future research and management. The review suggests that exposure to toxic substances has the possibility of affecting the species' rehabilitation. A variety of toxic substances, specifically organochlorine compounds, concentrated in lake trout eggs, fry, and the environment, have affected the hatching success of lake trout in the laboratory, but the strength of the relation between toxic substances and lake trout mortality and morbidity in the field remains unclear. In order to clarify this relation, more information is needed on lake trout physiology, biochemistry, behavior, and genetics. An interdisciplinary workshop should be convened to evaluate existing evidence by epidemiological methods, to set priorities for further research, and to develop management strategies.

  2. Nitrogen deposition to lakes in national parks of the western Great Lakes region: Isotopic signatures, watershed retention, and algal shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, William O.; Lafrancois, Brenda Moraska; Stottlemyer, Robert; Toczydlowski, David; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Edlund, Mark B.; Almendinger, James E.; Strock, Kristin E.; VanderMeulen, David; Elias, Joan E.; Saros, Jasmine E.

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric deposition is a primary source of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to undisturbed watersheds of the Great Lakes region of the U.S., raising concerns over whether enhanced delivery over recent decades has affected lake ecosystems. The National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) has been measuring Nr deposition in this region for over 35 years. Here we explore the relationships among NADP-measured Nr deposition, nitrogen stable isotopes (δ15N) in lake sediments, and the response of algal communities in 28 lakes situated in national parks of the western Great Lakes region of the U.S. We find that 36% of the lakes preserve a sediment δ15N record that is statistically correlated with some form of Nr deposition (total dissolved inorganic N, nitrate, or ammonium). Furthermore, measured long-term (since 1982) nitrogen biogeochemistry and inferred critical nitrogen loads suggest that watershed nitrogen retention and climate strongly affect whether sediment δ15N is related to Nr deposition in lake sediment records. Measurements of algal change over the last ~ 150 years suggest that Nr deposition, in-lake nutrient cycling, and watershed inputs are important factors affecting diatom community composition, in addition to direct climatic effects on lake physical limnology. The findings suggest that bulk sediment δ15N does reflect Nr deposition in some instances. In addition, this study highlights the interactive effects of Nr deposition and climate variability.

  3. Mechanisms driving recruitment variability in fish: comparisons between the Laurentian Great Lakes and marine systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritt, Jeremy J.; Roseman, Edward F.; O'Brien, Timothy P.

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal work, Hjort (in Fluctuations in the great fisheries of Northern Europe. Conseil Parmanent International Pour L'Exploration De La Mar. Rapports et Proces-Verbaux, 20: 1–228, 1914) observed that fish population levels fluctuated widely, year-class strength was set early in life, and egg production by adults could not alone explain variability in year-class strength. These observations laid the foundation for hypotheses on mechanisms driving recruitment variability in marine systems. More recently, researchers have sought to explain year-class strength of important fish in the Laurentian Great Lakes and some of the hypotheses developed for marine fisheries have been transferred to Great Lakes fish. We conducted a literature review to determine the applicability of marine recruitment hypotheses to Great Lakes fish. We found that temperature, interspecific interactions, and spawner effects (abundance, age, and condition of adults) were the most important factors in explaining recruitment variability in Great Lakes fish, whereas relatively fewer studies identified bottom-up trophodynamic factors or hydrodynamic factors as important. Next, we compared recruitment between Great Lakes and Baltic Sea fish populations and found no statistical difference in factors driving recruitment between the two systems, indicating that recruitment hypotheses may often be transferable between Great Lakes and marine systems. Many recruitment hypotheses developed for marine fish have yet to be applied to Great Lakes fish. We suggest that future research on recruitment in the Great Lakes should focus on forecasting the effects of climate change and invasive species. Further, because the Great Lakes are smaller and more enclosed than marine systems, and have abundant fishery-independent data, they are excellent candidates for future hypothesis testing on recruitment in fish.

  4. Distribution of native mussel (unionidae) assemblages in coastal areas of Lake Erie, Lake St. Clair, and connecting channels, twenty-five years after a dreissenid invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zanatta, David T.; Bossenbroek, Jonathan M.; Burlakova, Lyubov E.; Crail, Todd D.; Szalay, Ferenc de; Griffith, Traci A.; Kapusinski, Douglas; Karatayev, Alexander Y.; Krebs, Robert A.; Meyer, Elizabeth S.; Paterson, Wendy L.; Prescott, Trevor J.; Rowe, Matthew T.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Walsh, Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 25 years, unionid mussels in the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America have been adversely impacted by invasive dreissenid mussels, which directly (e.g., by attachment to unionid shells) and indirectly (e.g., by competing for food) cause mortality. Despite the invasion, unionids have survived in several areas in the presence of dreissenid mussels. We investigated current spatial patterns in these native mussel refuges based on surveys for unionid mussels across 48 sampling locations (141 sites) in 2011 and 2012, and documented species abundance and diversity in coastal areas of lakes St. Clair and Erie. The highest-quality assemblages of native mussels (densities, richness, and diversity) appear to be concentrated in the St. Clair delta, where abundance continues to decline, as well as in in Thompson Bay of Presque Isle in Lake Erie and in just a few coastal wetlands and drowned river-mouths in the western basin of Lake Erie. The discovery of several new refuge areas suggests that unionids have a broader distribution within the region than previously thought.

  5. Association between winter precipitation and water level fluctuations in the Great Lakes and atmospheric circulation patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Rodionov, S.N.

    1994-11-01

    Atmospheric precipitation in the Great Lakes basin, as a major mediating variable between atmospheric circulation and lake levels, is analyzed relative to both. The effect of cumulative winter precipitation on lake levels varies from lake to lake and depends on both the state of the lake level itself and air temperature. For periods with a quasi-stable temperature regime, the correlation coefficient between winter precipitation and changes in lake levels from November to spring months reaches 0.8. An analysis of composite maps of mean winter 700-mb heights and sea level pressure for the years with well-above and well-below normal precipitation in the lower Great Lakes basin (Lakes Michigan-Huron, St. Clair, Erie, and Ontario) has shown that changes in precipitation are associated with the wave train structure in the lower and midtroposphere that is similar to the Pacific/North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern. During the positive phase of the PNA-like pattern, when the upper-atmospheric ridge/trough system is amplified, cyclones passing over the Great Lakes basin are frequently of Alberta (Canada) origin and carry relatively small amounts of precipitation. As a result, lake levels tend to decline. On the contrary, during the negative phase of the pattern when the atmospheric circulation is more zonal, the main storm track is oriented from the southwest to the northeast and cyclones bring enough precipitation to induce a rise in lake levels. The effect of the position of the upper-atmospheric trough over the east coast of North America on the precipitation regime in the Great Lakes basin is also demonstrated. 42 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Concentration and distribution of contaminants in lake trout and walleye from the Laurentian Great Lakes (2008-2012).

    PubMed

    McGoldrick, Daryl J; Murphy, Elizabeth W

    2016-10-01

    Biomonitoring programs for persistent, bioaccumulative, and/or toxic chemicals of concern in fish tissues have been operated by the governments of Canada and the United States in the Great Lakes since the 1970's. The objectives of these programs are to assess concentrations of harmful chemicals in whole body top predator fish as an indicator of ecosystem health and to infer potential harm to fish and fish consuming wildlife in the Great Lakes Basin. Chemicals of interest are selected based upon national and binational commitments, risk assessment, and regulation, and include a wide range of compounds. This review summarizes all available data generated by Environment Canada and the United States Environmental Protection Agency for chemicals measured in whole body homogenates of Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and Walleye (Sander vitreus) for the time period spanning 2008 to 2012 from each of the five Great Lakes. The summary shows that concentrations of legacy compounds, such as, POPs listed in the Stockholm Convention and mercury continue to dominate the chemical burden of Great Lakes fish. This assessment, and others like it, can guide the creation of environmental quality targets where they are lacking, optimize chemical lists for monitoring, and prioritize chemicals of concern under agreements such as the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement and the Stockholm Convention. PMID:26740246

  7. Biomagnification of persistent organic contaminants in Great Slave Lake food webs

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, M.S.; Muir, D.; Lockhart, L.

    1994-12-31

    Great Slave Lake is a large, subarctic lake which receives the majority of its water from the Slave, Peace, and Athabasca Rivers watershed. Increased development in the southern region of the watershed may provide a significant source of organic contaminants to the lake in addition to contaminants entering the lake via direct atmospheric deposition. Here the authors report the results of a study comparing organic contaminant concentrations in lake trout, burbot, and whitefish collected near the Slave River outflow and in a region of Great Slave Lake which is believed to be minimally affected by the Slave River. They also use stable isotope analyses to infer spatial differences in fish feeding habits between the two regions of the lake and to investigate how food habits may affect organic contaminant biomagnification. Finally, the authors compare their Great Slave Lake data with studies conducted from other regions of the Arctic and subarctic. This allows them to infer how the Slave River inflow may affect organic contaminant concentrations and biomagnification in the Great Slave Lake ecosystem.

  8. A SUSTAINABLE APPROACH TO PRESERVE THE CHOCTAWHATCHEE COASTAL DUNE LAKES OF FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scattered along a 30 mile coastline just east of Destin, Florida, lies a series of 18 named coastal dune lakes distributed between Walton and Bay County. The lakes are irregularly shaped, typically shallow (2-6 m deep), located within a mile inland from the coast. The water is...

  9. Winter 1994 Weather and Ice Conditions for the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assel, Raymond A.; Janowiak, John E.; Young, Sharolyn; Boyce, Daron

    1996-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes developed their most extensive ice cover in over a decade during winter 1994 [December-February 1993/94 (DJF 94)]. Extensive midlake ice formation started the second half of January, about 2 weeks earlier than normal. Seasonal maximal ice extent occurred in early February, again about 2 weeks earlier than normal. Winter 1994 maximum (normal) ice coverages on the Great Lakes are Lake Superior 96% (75%), Lake Michigan 78% (45%), Lake Huron 95% (68%), Lake Erie 97% (90%), and Lake Ontario 67% (24%). Relative to the prior 31 winters (1963-93), the extent of seasonal maximal ice cover for winter 1994 for the Great Lakes taken as a unit is exceeded by only one other winter (1979); however, other winters for individual Great Lakes had similar maximal ice covers.Anomalously strong anticyclonic circulation over the central North Pacific (extending to the North Pole) and an abnormally strong polar vortex centered over northern Hudson Bay combined to produce a circulation pattern that brought frequent air masses of Arctic and polar origin to the eastern third of North America. New records were set for minimum temperatures on 19 January 1994 at many locations in the Great Lakes region. A winter severity index consisting of the average November-February air temperatures averaged over four sites on the perimeter of the Great Lakes (Duluth, Minnesota; Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan; Detroit, Michigan; and Buffalo, New York) indicates that winter 1994 was the 21st coldest since 1779. The unseasonably cold air temperatures produced much-above-normal ice cover over the Great Lakes and created problems for lake shipping. Numerous fatalities and injuries were attributed to the winter weather, which included several ice and snow storms. The much-below-normal air temperatures resulted in enhanced lake-effect snowfall along downwind lake shores, particularly during early to midwinter, prior to extensive ice formation in deeper lake areas. The low air temperatures

  10. Classification of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) attack marks on Great Lakes lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Everett Louis, Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Criteria for the classification of marks inflicted by sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) into nine categories were developed from laboratory studies in an attempt to refine the classification system used in field assessment work. These criteria were based on characteristics of the attachment site that could be identified under field conditions by unaided visual means and by touching the attachment site. Healing of these marks was somewhat variable and was influenced by the size of lamprey, duration of attachment, severity of the wound at lamprey detachment, season and water temperature, and by other less obvious factors. Even under laboratory conditions staging of some wounds was difficult, especially at low water temperatures. If these criteria are to be used effectively and with precision in the field, close examination of individual fish may be required. If the feeding and density of specific year-classes of sea lampreys are to be accurately assessed on an annual basis, close attention to the wound size (as it reflects the size of the lamprey's oral disc) and character of wounds on fish will be required as well as consideration of the season of the year in which they are observed.Key words: sea lamprey, attack marks, lake trout, Great Lakes

  11. Program and abstracts of the 28th conference on Great Lakes research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Abstracts of papers presented at the 28th Conference on Great Lakes Research and the annual meeting of the International Association for Great Lakes Research covered two symposia. The first was a comparison of Great Lakes and Baltic ecosystems, which provided an opportunity for international exchanges of information and insights. The second featured pollution problems in the Green Bay estuary environment that is of particular value to Wisconsin and Michigan. There are 41 separate abstracts selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB). Four of those were also selected for Energy Research Abstracts (ERA), six for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA), and two for INS.

  12. Ecological monitoring for assessing the state of the nearshore and open waters of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neilson, Melanie A.; Painter, D. Scott; Warren, Glenn; Hites, Ronald A.; Basu, Ilora; Weseloh, D.V. Chip; Whittle, D. Michael; Christie, Gavin; Barbiero, Richard; Tuchman, Marc; Johannsson, Ora E.; Nalepa, Thomas F.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Fleischer, Guy; Bronte, Charles; Smith, Stephen B.; Baumann, Paul C.

    2003-01-01

    The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement stipulates that the Governments of Canada and the United States are responsible for restoring and maintaining the chemical, physical and biological integrity of the waters of the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem. Due to varying mandates and areas of expertise, monitoring to assess progress towards this objective is conducted by a multitude of Canadian and U.S. federal and provincial/state agencies, in cooperation with academia and regional authorities. This paper highlights selected long-term monitoring programs and discusses a number of documented ecological changes that indicate the present state of the open and nearshore waters of the Great Lakes.

  13. Measures of flow variability for great lakes tributaries.

    PubMed

    Richards, R P

    1989-11-01

    Design of monitoring programs for load estimation is often hampered by the lack of existing chemical data from which to determine patterns of flux variance, which determine the sampling program requirements when loads are to be calculated using flux-dependent models like the Beale Ratio Estimator. In contrast, detailed flow data are generally available for the important tributaries. For pollutants from non-point sources there is often a correlation between flow and pollutant flux. Thus, measures of flow variability might be calibrated to flux variability for well-known watersheds, after which flow variability could be used as a proxy for flux variability to estimate sampling needs for tributaries for which adequate chemical observations are lacking.Three types of measures of flow variability were explored: ratio measures, which are of the form q x/qy, where q xis the flow corresponding to the percentile x, and y=100-x; spread measures, of the form (q x-qy)/qm, where q mis the median flow; and the coefficient of variation of the logs of flows. In the latter, flows are log transformed because flow distributions are often approximately log-normal. Three ratio measures were evaluated, based on the percentiles (10,90), (20,80), and (25,75). The analogous spread measures were also evaluated; the spread measure based on percentiles (25,75) is derived from the commonly used fourth spread of non-parametric statistics. The ratio measures and the spread measures are scale independent, and thus are measures only of the shape of the distribution. The coefficient of variation is also scale independent, but in log space.Values of these measures of flow variability for 120 Great Lakes tributaries are highly intercorrelated, although the relationship is often non-linear. The coefficient of variation of the log of the flows is also well correlated with the coefficient of variation of fluxes of suspended solids, total phosphorus, and chloride, for a smaller set of rivers where the

  14. Compilation of watershed models for tributaries to the Great Lakes, United States, as of 2010, and identification of watersheds for future modeling for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coon, William F.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Soong, David T.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) during 2009–10, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) compiled a list of existing watershed models that had been created for tributaries within the United States that drain to the Great Lakes. Established Federal programs that are overseen by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) are responsible for most of the existing watershed models for specific tributaries. The NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) uses the Large Basin Runoff Model to provide data for the management of water levels in the Great Lakes by estimating United States and Canadian inflows to the Great Lakes from 121 large watersheds. GLERL also simulates streamflows in 34 U.S. watersheds by a grid-based model, the Distributed Large Basin Runoff Model. The NOAA National Weather Service uses the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting model to predict flows at river forecast sites. The USACE created or funded the creation of models for at least 30 tributaries to the Great Lakes to better understand sediment erosion, transport, and aggradation processes that affect Federal navigation channels and harbors. Many of the USACE hydrologic models have been coupled with hydrodynamic and sediment-transport models that simulate the processes in the stream and harbor near the mouth of the modeled tributary. Some models either have been applied or have the capability of being applied across the entire Great Lakes Basin; they are (1) the SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) model, which was developed by the USGS; (2) the High Impact Targeting (HIT) and Digital Watershed models, which were developed by the Institute of Water Research at Michigan State University; (3) the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment (L–THIA) model, which was developed by researchers at Purdue University; and (4) the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model, which was

  15. Climate change projections for lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) recruitment in the 1836 Treaty Waters of the Upper Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lynch, Abigail J.; Taylor, William W.; Beard, T. Douglas, Jr.; Lofgren, Brent M.

    2015-01-01

    Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) is an ecologically, culturally, and economically important species in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Lake whitefish have been a staple food source for thousands of years and, since 1980, have supported the most economically valuable (annual catch value ≈ US$16.6 million) and productive (annual harvest ≈ 7 million kg) commercial fishery in the upper Great Lakes (Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior). Climate changes, specifically changes in temperature, wind, and ice cover, are expected to impact the ecology, production dynamics, and value of this fishery, because the success of recruitment to the fishery has been linked with these climatic factors. We used linear regression to determine the relationship between fall and spring air temperature indices, fall wind speed, winter ice cover, and lake whitefish recruitment in 13 management units located in the 1836 Treaty Waters of the Upper Great Lakes ceded by the Ottawa and Chippewa nations, a culturally and commercially important region for the lake whitefish fishery. In eight of 13 management units evaluated, models with climate variables explained significantly more variation in recruitment than models with only the stock-recruitment relationship, using corrected Akaike’s Information Criterion comparisons (ΔAICc > 3). Isolating the climate-recruitment relationship and projecting recruitment with the Coupled Hydrosphere-Atmosphere Research Model (CHARM) indicated the potential for increased lake whitefish recruitment in the majority of the 1836 Treaty Waters management units, given projected changes in climate. These results can inform adaptive management strategies by providing anticipated implications of climate on lake whitefish recruitment.

  16. Microhabitat Use by Trichoptera in a Lake Erie Coastal Wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, C. M.; Keiper, J.

    2005-05-01

    We examined the differences in microhabitat use by caddisfly (Trichoptera) adults at a Lake Erie coastal wetlands complex in northwestern Ohio. Light traps were employed in three vegetative zones; a Pontedaria stand, a submerged willow/cottonwood forest, and an adjacent open water area. We used concealed UV lights inside of replicate traps (n = 4 per habitat), attracting only caddisflies near the habitat, that were run May, June, and September 2004. Analysis of the data revealed differences in adult abundance between habitats and months for some taxa. Principal components analyses run at the level of genera and species showed that sites cluster by habitat type and by month, suggesting differences occur temporally and spatially but not exclusively of each other. ANOVA reveals statistical differences between habitats and months for the most common taxa. Hydroptilidae, including Agraylea multipunctata, Orthotrichia aegerfasciella, and Oxyethira pallida, were the most abundant taxa contributing approximately 90% of samples depending on vegetative zone. Information on the microscale preferences of adult caddisflies indicates potential habitat specificity. This may aid managers who decide which habitats within wetlands to conserve based on productivity and unique potential contribution of insect taxa.

  17. Particle delivery to the benthos of coastal Lake Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waples, James T.

    2015-12-01

    A 2-D non-steady state model was applied to measured profiles of 234Th/238U and 90Y/90Sr disequilibria in a shallow (22 m) water column of coastal Lake Michigan. Downward fluxes of 234Th and 90Y were primarily driven by onshore horizontal advection. Concordance between 234Th and 90Y-derived mass flux estimates from the water column could only be realistically achieved under a nuclide scavenging scenario dominated by direct sorption on bottom or near-bottom sediment and vertical convection in the water column—not sinking particles. An estimated vertical 234Th/90Y flux ratio of ˜0.31 in the water column agreed with measured 234Th/90Y activity ratios on collected ejecta from bottom dwelling dreissenid mussels (0.26 ± 0.05) and not with water column particles (3.3 ± 1.3). A similar 238U/90Sr parent nuclide activity ratio of 0.30 ± 0.02 suggests that both 234Th and 90Y are scavenged in toto below the maximum sampling depth (17 m) and near the sediment/water interface. Determining the mechanism by which particles are transported to the bottom is important for understanding not only how benthos are supplied with water column material, but also how particle fluxes should be measured and calculated.

  18. Determination of inherent optical properties of Lake Ontario coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Bukata, R P; Jerome, J H; Bruton, J E; Jain, S C

    1979-12-01

    Two optical models (one based upon Monte Carlo simulations of the solutions of the radiative transfer equations and one based upon exponential/quasi-single scattering simulations) relating the apparent and inherent optical properties of natural water masses are utilized in conjunction with directly measured values of the irradiance attenuation coefficient K(0), the diffuse reflectance R(0), and the total attenuation coefficient c to determine the inherent optical properties of Lake Ontario coastal waters. Tables are presented displaying the calculated values of scattering albedo omega(0), forwardscattering probability F, backscattering probability B, absorption coefficient a, and scattering coefficient b as a function of wavelength. From the tables of calculated values, it is shown that both F and b display a spectral invariance, while omega(0) displays distinct spectral variations, the spectral variations apparent in the measured values of c may be attributable to spectral variations in a, and B displays a spectral change that varies inversely with the spectral change in a and c. The volume scattering phase function beta(theta) appears to be altered by the absorption characteristics of the water mass, contrary to the generally accepted premise that absorption and particulate backscattering are independent processes. PMID:20216727

  19. Binational ecological risk assessment of bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys spp.) for the Great Lakes Basin.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cudmore, B.; Mandrak, N.E.; Dettmers, J.; Chapman, D.C.; Kolar, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Bigheaded carps (Bighead and Silver carps) are considered a potential threat to the Great Lakes basin. A binational ecological risk assessment was conducted to provide scientifically defensible advice for managers and decision-makers in Canada and the United States. This risk assessment looked at the likelihood of arrival, survival, establishment, and spread of bigheaded carps to obtain an overall probability of introduction. Arrival routes assessed were physical connections and human-mediated releases. The risk assessment ranked physical connections (specifically the Chicago Area Waterway System) as the most likely route for arrival into the Great Lakes basin. Results of the risk assessment show that there is enough food and habitat for bigheaded carp survival in the Great Lakes, especially in Lake Erie and productive embayments in the other lakes. Analyses of tributaries around the Canadian Great Lakes and the American waters of Lake Erie indicate that there are many suitable tributaries for bigheaded carp spawning. Should bigheaded carps establish in the Great Lakes, their spread would not likely be limited and several ecological consequences can be expected to occur. These consequences include competition for planktonic food leading to reduced growth rates, recruitment and abundance of planktivores. Subsequently this would lead to reduced stocks of piscivores and abundance of fishes with pelagic, early life stages. Overall risk is highest for lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, followed by Lake Ontario then Lake Superior. To avoid the trajectory of the invasion process and prevent or minimize anticipated consequences, it is important to continue to focus efforts on reducing the probability of introduction of these species at either the arrival, survival, establishment, or spread stage (depending on location).

  20. Biology and status of the shortnose cisco Coregonus reighardi Koelz in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Shane A.; Todd, Thomas N.

    1995-01-01

    The shortnose cisco, Coregonus reighardi, a member of the endemic species assemblage of Coregoninae in the Laurentian Great Lakes, was commercially important until overfishing and competition pressures from induced planktivores extirpated the species in Lakes Michigan and Ontario. Spawning shortnose ciscoes have been collected from Lake Huron and Georgian Bay of Lake Huron since 1956, however, no individuals have been collected from these habitats since 1985. Shortnose ciscoes were not collected during surveys of the cisco fishery of Georgian Bay during the summer of 1992 and spring of 1993. The lack of captures in the last eight years coupled with captures of only lone individuals in the last 16 years suggests the species may be extinct in all of the Laurentian system. The life history traits examined for Lake Huron shortnose ciscoes were similar to the conditions recorded for Lake Michigan and Ontario shortnose ciscoes, although Lake Huron fish were smaller.

  1. 46 CFR 11.437 - Requirements for mate of Great Lakes and inland self-propelled vessels of unlimited tonnage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for mate of Great Lakes and inland self... Requirements for National Deck Officer Endorsements § 11.437 Requirements for mate of Great Lakes and inland... for an endorsement as mate of Great Lakes and inland self-propelled vessels of unlimited tonnage...

  2. Caged Fish Studies to Detect and Monitor Contaminants of Emerging Concern in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects-based monitoring studies were conducted in the St. Louis Harbor, Lake Superior, in support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI). The overall goal of the research was to develop and validate methods using caged fish exposures to detect and monitor contaminants...

  3. EARLY EUTROPHICATION IN THE LOWER GREAT LAKES: NEW EVIDENCE FROM BIOGENIC SILICA IN SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    New evidence from studies of biogenic silica and diatoms in sediment cores indicates that eutrophication in the lower Great Lakes resulted from nutrient enrichment associated with early settlement and forest clearance. Diatom production peaked from 1820 to 1850 in Lake Ontario, a...

  4. Temporal trends and spatial distributions of brominated flame retardants in archived fishes from the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ling Yan; Hites, Ronald A

    2004-05-15

    To explore the geographical distribution and temporal trends of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Great Lakes, lake trout from Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, and Ontario and walleye from Lake Erie, collected during the period of 1980-2000, were analyzed. The concentrations of fifteen PBDE congeners and one polybrominated biphenyl (PBB-153) were determined in each fish sample. Lake trout from Lakes Michigan and Ontario had the highest sigmaPBDE concentrations during the years investigated. The sigmaPBDE concentrations in fishes from the five lakes increased exponentially with time, doubling every 3-4 years. The relative proportion of BDEs-47, -99, and -100 compared to BDEs-153 and -154 increased significantly as a function of time. Over the period 1980-2000, the concentrations of PBB-153, which was a component of a flame retardant banned in the 1970s, generally remained the same in these Great Lakes fishes, except for lake trout from Lake Huron, where the PBB-153 concentrations decreased significantly, but slowly. PMID:15212250

  5. Predicting submerged aquatic vegetation occurence (SAV) in a Great Lakes estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAV provides the biophysical basis for several ecosystem services in Great Lakes estuaries including rearing and adult habitat for commercially and recreationally important fishes, foraging habit for waterfowl, and nutrient retention. Understanding sources of variation in SAV in ...

  6. Monitoring Agricultural Cropping Patterns in the Great Lakes Basin Using MODIS-NDVI Time Series Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research examined changes in agricultural cropping patterns across the Great Lakes Basin (GLB) using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data. Specific research objectives were to characterize the distribut...

  7. USING REMORE SENSING AND LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY TO ASSESS THE CONDITION OF GREAT LAKES WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geospatial modeling approaches are being used to locate and assess the condition of natural resources (particularly wetland ecosystems) in the Great Lakes Basin. These assessments involve measuring landscape characteristics at multiple scales, primarily focusing

    on surface...

  8. 77 FR 32089 - Establishment of the Great Lakes Advisory Board (GLAB)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ..., agricultural groups, citizen groups, environmental justice groups, foundations, academia and state, local and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Establishment of the Great Lakes Advisory Board (GLAB) AGENCY: Environmental Protection...

  9. PLANAR CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS (PCHS) IN COLONIAL FISH-EATING WATERBIRD EGGS FROM THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reproductive impairment of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritis) and Caspian terns Hydroprogne caspia) has recently been observed in the Great Lakes of North America. lanarchlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs), which include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated...

  10. Land-use proxies for aquatic species invasions in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aquatic invasive species adversely impact ecosystems, human health, and the economy of the Laurentian Great Lakes region. Targeted preventative and eradication efforts in response to early detection of invasive species can be both cost advantageous and effective. But where should...

  11. AN ALTERNATIVE FUTURES ANALYSIS OF FARMINGTON BAY WETLANDS IN THE GREAT SALT LAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Alternative Futures Analysis (AFA) was conducted to evaluate tradeoffs between landscape design scenarios and ecological services for Farmington Bay, Great Salt Lake (GSL), wetlands. Model scenarios included plan trend and conservation "futures" scenarios projected to 2030. ...

  12. Alternative Futures Analysis Of Farmington Bay Wetlands In The Great Salt Lake Ecosystem

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Alternative Futures Analysis (AFA) was conducted to evaluate tradeoffs between landscape design scenarios and ecological services for Farmington Bay, Great Salt Lake (GSL), wetlands. Model scenarios included both plan trend and conservation "futures" projected to 2030. Scena...

  13. Linkages between benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages and landscape stressors in the US Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used multiple linear regression analysis to investigate relationships between benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in the nearshore region of the Laurentian Great Lakes and landscape characteristics in adjacent watersheds. Benthic invertebrate data were obtained from the 201...

  14. Systems approach to detect and evaluate contaminants of emerging concern in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The release of chemicals of emerging concern threatens near shore health in the Great Lakes, particularly in regions already suffering from degradation of water and environmental quality due to past and present anthropogenic activities. Critical issues remain in delisting Areas ...

  15. Pathway-based monitoring of biological effects at Great Lakes sites (Presntation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes region suffers from degradation of water and environmental quality due to release of chemicals of emerging concern. Critical issues remain in delisting Areas of Concern (AOC) including determining sources of chemicals causing fish health impacts, relating health ...

  16. PERSPECTIVES ON U.S. GREAT LAKES CHEMICAL TOXIC SUBSTANCES RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because of their magnitude, their geographic and demographic characteristics, and their unique limnological properties, the Great Lakes appear to be especially susceptible to chemical contamination. The scientific basis for dealing with this contamination is very limited compared...

  17. Environmental monitoring in the 21st century: a story of WWTPs, CECs, and Great Lakes AOCs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout much of the 20th century, environmental monitoring of contaminants in fresh water ecosystems, like the Great Lakes, focused on measuring concentrations of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemicals whose biological hazards were well established. However, in recen...

  18. Organic contaminants in Great Lakes tributaries: Identification of watersheds and chemicals of greatest concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace organic contaminant concentrations in some Great Lakes tributaries indicate potential for adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Chemicals used in agriculture, industry, and households enter surface waters via variety of sources, including urban and agricultural runoff, sewa...

  19. Classification and Accuracy Assessment for Coarse Resolution Mapping within the Great Lakes Basin, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study applied a phenology-based land-cover classification approach across the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin (GLB) using time-series data consisting of 23 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composite images (250 ...

  20. EVALUATING PERTUBATIONS AND DEVELOPING RESTORATION STRATEGIES FOR INLAND WETLANDS IN THE GREAT LAKES BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetland coverage and type distributions vary systematically by ecoregion across the Great Lakes Basin. Land use and subsequent changes in wetland type distributions also vary among ecoregions. Incidence of wetland disturbance varies significantly within ecoregions but tends to i...

  1. Decadal oscillation of lakes and aquifers in the upper Great Lakes region of North America: Hydroclimatic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watras, C. J.; Read, J. S.; Holman, K. D.; Liu, Z.; Song, Y.-Y.; Watras, A. J.; Morgan, S.; Stanley, E. H.

    2014-01-01

    We report a unique hydrologic time series which indicates that water levels in lakes and aquifers across the upper Great Lakes region of North America have been dominated by a climatically driven, near-decadal oscillation for at least 70 years. The historical oscillation (~13 years) is remarkably consistent among small seepage lakes, groundwater tables, and the two largest Laurentian Great Lakes despite substantial differences in hydrology. Hydrologic analyses indicate that the oscillation has been governed primarily by changes in the net atmospheric flux of water (P - E) and stage-dependent outflow. The oscillation is hypothetically connected to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns originating in the midlatitude North Pacific that support the flux of moisture into the region from the Gulf of Mexico. Recent data indicate an apparent change in the historical oscillation characterized by an ~12 years downward trend beginning in 1998. Record low water levels region wide may mark the onset of a new hydroclimatic regime.

  2. Fish consumption among women anglers of childbearing age in the Great Lakes region.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Nancy A; Bruce Lauber, T; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Knuth, Barbara A

    2016-10-01

    Fish consumption advisories are issued by the federal government for women of childbearing age (WCBA). These advisories make recommendations about the amount and types of fish that should be consumed to provide the greatest health benefits to women and their children while avoiding risks from chemical contaminants. We used diary methods to study fish consumption patterns of 1395 WCBA in the Great Lakes coastal region who purchased fishing licenses, a group which has significant opportunity to eat larger quantities of fish. Very few members of this group reported exceeding the federal recommendations for total fish consumption (between 3% and 5% depending on assumptions about portion sizes), consumption of canned "white" tuna (0%), or consumption of "do not eat" species (4%). They did report eating more fish on average than recent national study estimates, but they did not report consuming as much fish as is recommended to obtain the greatest health benefits of fish consumption. Only 10-12% of study participants reported eating within the recommended range of 8-12oz. of fish per week, with 84-87% eating less than the recommended amount. Additional efforts are likely needed to encourage WCBA to eat more low-risk fish, even among this group of higher-than-average fish consumers. PMID:27309721

  3. Three air quality studies: Great Lakes ozone formation and nitrogen dry deposition; and Tucson aerosol chemical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, Theresa

    (arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, and nickel) in the southern Tucson metropolitan area. A Tucson company that uses beryllium oxide to manufacture thermally conductive ceramics has prompted strong citizen concern. This study found that the study area has good air quality with respect to PM10 and metals, with ambient concentrations meeting US Environmental Protection Agency and World Health Organization standards. Beryllium was detected only once (during a dust storm) and was ascribed to naturally-occurring beryllium in the suspended soil. The third paper (to be submitted to the Journal of Great Lakes Research) studies nitrogen dry deposition over Lake Michigan and Lake Superior. Numerous studies have shown that wet and dry deposition of nitrogen has contributed to the eutrophication of coastal waters and declining productivity of marine fisheries. Nitrogen dry deposition over the Great Lakes themselves, as opposed to the shorelines, has not been documented in the peer-reviewed literature. This paper calculates nitrogen dry deposition over Lake Michigan and Lake Superior, using aircraft measurements from the LADCO Aircraft Study, and finds that over-water, nitrogen dry deposition is a significant source of nitrogen to Lake Michigan and Lake Superior.

  4. A simulation study of atmospheric mercury and its deposition in the Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Shanique L.; Kim, Myoungwoo; Lin, Peng; Crist, Kevin C.; Ghosh, Saikat; Kotamarthi, V. Rao

    2014-09-01

    The Great Lakes eco-region is one of the largest sources of fresh water in North America; however it is chronically exposed to heavy metal loadings such as mercury. In this study a comprehensive model evaluation was conducted to determine mercury loadings to the Great Lakes. The study also evaluated the relative impact of anthropogenic mercury emissions from China, regional and global sources on deposition to the Great Lakes. For the 2005 study period, CMAQ 4.7.1 model estimated a total of 6.4 ± 0.5 metric tons of mercury deposited in the Great Lakes. The total deposition breakdown showed a net loading for Lake Superior of 1906 ± 246 kg/year which is the highest of all the lakes. Lake Michigan followed with 1645 ± 203 kg/year and 1511 ± 107 kg/year in Lake Huron. The lowest total deposition was seen in Lakes Erie and Ontario amassing annual totals of 837 ± 107 kg and 506 ± 63 kg, respectively. Wet and dry deposition of mercury were both significant pathways and exhibited strong seasonal variability with higher deposition occurring in the warmer months (June-November) and the lowest in winter. Wet deposition of RGM significantly influenced the deposition proportions accounting for roughly 90% of all mercury deposited. Of the three emission sources (global background, integrated planning management (IPM) and Chinese), global background concentrations represented the maximum impact to deposition loading in the Great Lakes, except for Lake Erie and parts of Lake Michigan. There was minimal seasonality for the global background, but differences in percentage contribution between dry (28-97%) and wet deposition (43-98%) was predicted. The contributions were seen mainly in the northern sections of the Great Lakes further away from IPM point sources. These findings suggest strong localized impact of IPM sources on the southernmost lakes. Deposition as a result of emissions from China exhibited seasonality in both wet and dry deposition and showed significant

  5. Proceedings of Workshop on Priority Great Lakes Environmental Research Initiatives (Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, Michigan, October 10-11, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsak, Arthur P., Ed.

    This publication contains the proceedings of a workshop held in Ann Arbor, Michigan to identify the priority Great Lakes environmental research initiatives. The five major objectives of the workshop include the determination of research initiatives, opportunities for university research communities to discuss and recommend future research…

  6. Integrating Climate Change Into Restoration Practices in the Great Lakes Region: Creating a "Climate-smart" Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koslow, M.; Murray, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    Stakeholders from various Great Lakes sectors such as industry, state and city, federal, non-profit and academia gathered in September of 2010 in Buffalo, New York to provide ideas and input on how to integrate climate change into actions of the United States federal agencies. The mechanism by which the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) employ climate change adaptation actions in the Great Lakes region is the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI). In 2010 475 million was allocated through the GLRI to NOAA and EPA for on-the-ground ecological restoration projects throughout the region and 300 million is expected for 2011. With the goal to make these restoration projects "climate-smart," stakeholders made recommendations that include: application of information from the scientific community, emergency measures to deal with climate change-related surprises, priority steps for dealing with non-climate change related issues that are to be affected by climate change and steps to deal with climate change impacts on the Great Lakes ecosystem that differ from other ecosystems.

  7. Evaluation of ERTS data for certain oceanographic uses. [upwelling, water circulation, and pollution in Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, A. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Upwelling along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan was occurring during the 3 and 21 August 1973 visits by ERTS-1. The NOAA-2 VHRR thermal-IR data are being digitized for comparison. Early indications are that these upwellings induced a calcium carbonate precipitate to form in the surface waters. It is most pronounced in the MSS-4 channel. On the lake bottom this jell-like sediment is known as marl and adds to the eutrophication of the lake. This phenomenon may help to explain the varve-like nature of bottom cores that have been observed in the Great Lakes.

  8. Artificial propagation of coregonines in the management of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Thomas N.

    1986-01-01

    Numerous stresses caused wide fluctuations in the abundance of Great Lakes coregonine fishes during the last century. State, Provincial, and Federal agencies attempted to bolster these fisheries by stocking more than 32 billion fry of lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and 6 billion fry of lake herring (C. artedii) over a period of about 90 years (1870-1960). Propagation efforts were unsuccessful in arresting the decline of these fishes, perhaps because the stocking densities were too low. It appears that stocking densities must exceed 41% of the natural hatch to produce measurable success in a planting program that augments natural reproduction. Stocking of any of the Great Lakes with lake whitefish at these levels would require several billion fry per lake annually. Such a program is too large to be practical and intensified protection of the remaining stocks would be more cost effective. A species such as the shortnose cisco (C. reighardi) which has only a small number of extant individuals, and can therefore be significantly augmented with fewer stocked fish, may be a much better candidate for propagation than is the lake whitefish. Propagation of coregonines in the Great Lakes should be considered only in localities that have little or no natural recruitment and then only for rehabilitation, and only if accompanied by adequate assessment of the performance of the stocked fish.

  9. Persistent unstable atmospheric boundary layer enhances sensible and latent heat loss in a tropical great lake: Lake Tanganyika

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verburg, Piet; Antenucci, Jason P.

    2010-06-01

    Energy fluxes across the surface of lakes regulate heat storage and affect the water balance. Sensible and latent heat fluxes are affected by atmospheric stability, especially for large lakes. We examined the effect of atmospheric stability on the heat fluxes on seasonal time scales at Lake Tanganyika, East Africa, by estimating hourly sensible and latent heat fluxes and net radiation using thermistor chains and meteorological stations. The atmosphere was almost always unstable, in contrast to the atmosphere above North American Great Lakes which is unstable in winter and stable in summer. Persistent atmospheric instability resulted in a 13% and 18% increase in the annual mean heat loss by latent and sensible heat fluxes, respectively, relative to conditions of neutral stability. The persistent unstable atmosphere is caused by a higher water surface temperature compared with air temperature, which we argue is the case in general in (sub)tropical lakes. Low humidity further enhanced the frequency of unstable conditions and enhanced the exchange of heat and vapor from the lake to the atmosphere. The estimated heat fluxes were sensitive to the temporal scale of data inputs and to the local values of parameters such as air density. To our knowledge this is the first paper that demonstrates and quantifies the effect of atmospheric stability on latent and sensible heat fluxes from a lake on an annual basis, using data collected from the lake surface.

  10. New data on mitochondrial diversity and origin of Hemimysis anomala in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Questel, Jennifer M.; Walsh, Maureen G.; Smith, Randall J., Jr.; Welsh, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    The most recent Ponto-Caspian species to invade the Laurentian Great Lakes is the crustacean Hemimysis anomala, first reported in 2006. A previous study described three haplotype groups (A, B, C) of H. anomala in native and invaded areas within Europe, but only one haplotype (A1) in a sample from Lake Michigan. Our study expands these results to additional populations in the Great Lakes basin, and evaluates relationships among North American and European populations. A 549-bp fragment of themitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene was analyzed from populations of H. anomala in Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, and the St. Lawrence River.Two different haplotypes, A1 and B1,were observed in the sampled populations of H. anomala and in a previous analysis from H. anomala in Oneida Lake (New York). Our results, in contrast with a previous study, detect an additional haplotype in North America.

  11. Distribution and dispersal of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) in the Great Lakes region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Leach, Joseph H.; Kovalak, William P.

    1991-01-01

    Dreissena polymorpha (Pallas), a small mussel common throughout most of Europe, was discovered in June of 1988 in the southern part of Lake St. Clair. Length–frequency analyses of populations from the Great Lakes and review of historical benthic studies suggest that the mussel was introduced into Lake St. Clair in late 1986, probably as a result of the discharge of ballast water from an ocean-crossing vessel. Following the 1990 reproductive season, Dreissenapopulations ranged from the head of the St. Clair River, through Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Welland Canal, and the Niagara River to the western basin and southern shoreline of Lake Ontario. Isolated populations were found in the St. Lawrence River and in harbours in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior. The rapid dispersal of this organism has resulted from its high fecundity, pelagic larval stage, bysso-pelagic drifting ability of juveniles, and human activities associated with commercial shipping, fishing, and boating (research and pleasure). Virtually any waterbody that can be reached by boaters and fisherman within a few days travel of the lower Great Lakes, particularly Lake Erie, seems to be at risk of being invaded by this nuisance species.

  12. Food habits of diving ducks in the Great Lakes after the zebra mussel invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    1996-01-01

    Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) invaded the Great Lakes in the mid-1980s and quickly reached high densities. The objective of this study was to determine current consumption of zebra mussels by waterfowl in the Great Lakes region. Feeding Lesser Scaups (Aythya affinis), Greater Scaups (A. marila), Canvasbacks (A. valisineria), Redheads (A. americana), Buffleheads (Bucephala albeola) and Common Goldeneyes (B. clangula) were collected in western Lake Erie and in Lake St. Clair between fall and spring, 1992-1993 to determine food habits. All 10 Redheads, 97% of Lesser Scaups, 83% of Goldeneyes, 60% of Buffleheads and 9% of Canvasbacks contained one or more zebra mussels in their upper gastrointestinal tracts. The aggregate percent of zebra mussels in the diet of Lesser Scaups was higher in Lake Erie (98.6%) than in Lake St. Clair (54.4%). Zebra mussels (aggregate percent) dominated the diet of Common Goldeneyes (79.2%) but not in Buffleheads (23.5%), Redheads (21%) or Canvasbacks (9%). Lesser Scaups from Lake Erie fed on larger zebra mussels ( = 10.7 i?? 0.66 mm SE) than did Lesser Scaups from Lake St. Clair ( = 4.4 i?? 0.22 mm). Lesser Scaups, Buffleheads and Common Goldeneyes from Lake Erie consumed zebra mussels of similar size.

  13. Forging the Link: Using a Conservative Mixing Framework to Characterize Connections between Rivers and Great Lakes in River-lake Transition Zones

    EPA Science Inventory

    River-to-Great Lake transition zones are hydrologically, biogeochemically and biologically dynamic areas that regulate nutrient and energy fluxes between rivers and Great Lakes. Our goal is to characterize the biogeochemical properties of the river-lake transition zones and under...

  14. Rodent neurotoxicity bioassays for screening contaminated Great Lakes fish

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, M.K.; Hoffman, R.; Gerstenberger, S.; Dellinger, J.A.

    1996-03-01

    Standard laboratory rat neurotoxicity protocols were used to study the consequences resulting from the consumption of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Superior (LS) and the consumption of carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Little Lake Butte des Morte (LLBM) near Oshkosh, Wisconsin, USA. Two 90-d subchronic studies are described, including a 45-d exposure to fish diets using male Sprague-Dawley hooded rats, and a 90-d exposure to fish diets using female rats of the same species. Behavioral alterations were tested using a battery of behavioral tests. In addition, pharmacologic challenges using apomorphine and D-amphetamine were administered to the rats to reveal latent neurotoxic effects. Cumulative fish consumption data were recorded daily, weight gain recorded weekly, and behavior data collected prior to exposure, and on days 7, 14, 55 {+-} 2, 85 {+-} 2. Motor activity data were collected on days 30 {+-} 2, 60 {+-} 2, and 90 {+-} 2 of the feeding protocols. Brain tissue from rodents fed these fish were subsequently analyzed for either mercury (Hg) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Mercury concentrations were increased in the brains of the walleye-fed rats, and PCB concentrations ranged from 0.5 nl/L to 10 nl/L in the brains of rats fed carp from LLBM, a Lake Michigan tributary. Adult male rats fed LLBM carp for 45 d exhibited the greatest behavior responses to the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine on the accelerating rotarod, although these differences were not significant. The 90-d exposure of LS walleye or Hg-spiked LS walleye resulted in behavior alterations on tactile startle response and second footsplay. D-Amphetamine challenge caused changes in tactile startle response, second footsplay, and accelerating rotarod performance after consuming walleye diets. Rats fed LLBM carp had altered behavioral responses to apomorphine on the accelerating rotarod.

  15. Species succession and sustainability of the Great Lakes fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eshenroder, Randy L.; Burnham-Curtis, Mary K.

    1999-01-01

    This article concentrates on the sustainability of the offshore pelagic and deepwater fish communities that were historically dominated by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). The causes of alteration in these fish communities (i.e., overfishing, introductions, and cultural eutrophication) were identified by Loftus and Regier (1972). Here we look at the ecology of these altered communities in relation to sustainability and discuss the need for restoration.

  16. Acute toxicities to larval rainbow trout of representative compounds detected in Great Lakes fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Carol Cotant

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes has ranked the potential hazard to fish and invertebrates of various chemical compounds detected in two Great Lakes fishes-- lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, and walleye, Stizostedion vitreum vitreum (Hesselberg and Seelye 1982). This hazard assessment has included the identification of the potential sources of the compounds, determination of the occurrence and abundance of the compounds in Great Lakes fish, and the determination of acute toxicities of representative compounds of 19 chemical classes (Passino and Smith 1987a). In further studies Smith et al. (1988) focused on 6 of the 19 classes of compounds using the zooplankter Daphnia pulex as the test organism. They ranked the six classes as follows (in decreasing order of toxicity): polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkyl halides, nitrogen-containing compounds, cyclic alkanes, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, and silicon-containing compounds.

  17. Source Attribution for Mercury Deposition to the Great Lakes Region in the Context of Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Fisher, J. A.; Wu, S.; Kumar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Mercury contamination in the Great Lakes region has important implications for human and wildlife health therein. Atmospheric deposition serves as an important pathway for mercury entering into the lakes and mercury originating from sources outside North America also contributes to part of the total mercury deposited to the Great Lakes. Understanding the source apportionment of mercury deposition to the Great Lakes region is critical for policy making. We investigate the present day source attribution of mercury deposition to the Great Lakes region as well as the perturbations driven by various factors in the context of global change (such as the changes in biomass burning emissions, anthropogenic emissions and land use/land cover) using the GEOS-Chem global model. We will quantify the relative contribution of different emission sources (e.g., anthropogenic vs natural) and different regions (e.g., domestic vs intercontinental-transport) to mercury deposition in the Great Lakes region. In addition, we will conduct sensitivity tests to evaluate the model's sensitivity to processes such as atmospheric redox reactions and how it affects the source attribution.

  18. Surficial substrates and bathymetry of five historical lake trout spawning reefs in near-shore waters of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Brown, Charles L.; Kennedy, Gregory W.; French, John R. P., III

    1992-01-01

    The reestablishment of self-sustaining stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the lower four Great Lakes has been substantially impeded because planted fish do not produce enough progeny that survive and reproduce. The causes for this failure are unknown, but many historical spawning sites of lake trout have been degraded by human activities and can no longer produce viable swim-up fry. In this study, we used side-scan sonar and an underwater video camera to survey, map, and evaluate the sustainability of one reef in each of the five Great Lakes for lake trout spawning and fry production. At four of the reef sites, we found good-to-excellent substrate for spawning and fry production by the shallow-water strains of lake trout that are now being planted. These substrates were in water 6-22 m deep and were composed largely of rounded or angular rubble and cobble. Interstitial spaces in these substrates were 20 cm or deeper and would protect naturally spawned eggs and fry from predators, ice scour, and buffeting by waves and currents. Subsequent studies of egg survival by other researchers confirmed our evaluation that the best substrates at two of these sites still have the potential to produce viable swim-up fry.

  19. Genetic effects of habitat restoration in the Laurentian Great Lakes: an assessment of lake sturgeon origin and genetic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamie Marie Marranca; Amy Welsh; Roseman, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) have experienced significant habitat loss, resulting in reduced population sizes. Three artificial reefs were built in the Huron-Erie corridor in the Great Lakes to replace lost spawning habitat. Genetic data were collected to determine the source and numbers of adult lake sturgeon spawning on the reefs and to determine if the founder effect resulted in reduced genetic diversity. DNA was extracted from larval tail clips and 12 microsatellite loci were amplified. Larval genotypes were then compared to 22 previously studied spawning lake sturgeon populations in the Great Lakes to determine the source of the parental population. The effective number of breeders (Nb) was calculated for each reef cohort. The larval genotypes were then compared to the source population to determine if there were any losses in genetic diversity that are indicative of the founder effect. The St. Clair and Detroit River adult populations were found to be the source parental population for the larvae collected on all three artificial reefs. There were large numbers of contributing adults relative to the number of sampled larvae. There was no significant difference between levels of genetic diversity in the source population and larval samples from the artificial reefs; however, there is some evidence for a genetic bottleneck in the reef populations likely due to the founder effect. Habitat restoration in the Huron-Erie corridor is likely resulting in increased habitat for the large lake sturgeon population in the system and in maintenance of the population's genetic diversity.

  20. Projecting Future Water Availability in the Great Lakes Megalopolis: Reconstructing Lake Michigan-Huron Lake Level and Regional Hydroclimate Using Tree Rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, K. R.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to accurately predict water availability in the cities surrounding Lake Michigan-Huron becomes particularly difficult when the uncertain effects of climate change, such as changes in precipitation patterns and evaporation rates, are considered. Lake level reconstructions provide useful model inputs to better predict this availability. Annual tree-ring widths have been successfully utilized in reconstructions of lake levels in the Great Lakes region via the creation of proxy datasets of temperature and precipitation that are then input into a multilinear regression model to reconstruct annual average lake level. Here, the combination of this approach with analysis of instrumental records of precipitation and stream flow input allows for a more comprehensive understanding of regional hydroclimate and improved projection of future water resource availability. Annual tree-ring widths of cores collected from four old-growth forests near southern Lake Michigan were combined with over 30 archived tree-ring width chronologies from the Great Lakes region and used to create proxy datasets of temperature and precipitation. A multilinear regression model related these proxy variables to Lake Michigan-Huron lake level and stream flow of the Saint Clair River, which flows into Lake Michigan-Huron, for the period of available instrumental record (1860-present). When possible, the available tree-ring widths were used to reconstruct these variables for years prior to the instrumental record. Timing and severity of rainfall events were also analyzed to identify spatial and temporal patterns and their variability over time. The combination of updated tree-ring width chronologies, chronologies from newly sampled sites, and instrumental records of various indicators of water availability provides novel and valuable insight into the future lake level of Lake Michigan-Huron.

  1. Atmospheric transformation of multispectral remote sensor data. [Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The effects of earth's atmosphere were accounted for, and a simple algorithm, based upon a radiative transfer model, was developed to determine the radiance at earth's surface free of atmospheric effects. Acutal multispectral remote sensor data for Lake Erie and associated optical thickness data were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the atmospheric transformation algorithm. The basic transformation was general in nature and could be applied to the large scale processing of multispectral aircraft or satellite remote sensor data.

  2. Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus is not the cause of thiamine deficiency impeding lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) recruitment in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richter, Catherine A.; Evans, Allison N.; Wright-Osment, Maureen K.; Zajicek, James L.; Heppell, Scott A.; Riley, Stephen C.; Krueger, Charles C.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency is a global concern affecting wildlife, livestock, and humans. In Great Lakes salmonines, thiamine deficiency causes embryo mortality and is an impediment to restoration of native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) stocks. Thiamine deficiency in fish may result from a diet of prey with high levels of thiaminase I. The discoveries that the bacterial species Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus produces thiaminase I, is found in viscera of thiaminase-containing prey fish, and causes mortality when fed to lake trout in the laboratory provided circumstantial evidence implicating P. thiaminolyticus. This study quantified the contribution of P. thiaminolyticus to the total thiaminase I activity in multiple trophic levels of Great Lakes food webs. Unexpectedly, no relationship between thiaminase activity and either the amount of P. thiaminolyticus thiaminase I protein or the abundance of P. thiaminolyticus cells was found. These results demonstrate that P. thiaminolyticus is not the primary source of thiaminase activity affecting Great Lakes salmonines and calls into question the long-standing assumption that P. thiaminolyticus is the source of thiaminase in other wild and domestic animals.

  3. Phylogenies of microcystin-producing cyanobacteria in the lower Laurentian Great Lakes suggest extensive genetic connectivity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Timothy W; Watson, Susan B; Rozmarynowycz, Mark J; Ciborowski, Jan J H; McKay, Robert Michael; Bullerjahn, George S

    2014-01-01

    Lake St. Clair is the smallest lake in the Laurentian Great Lakes system. MODIS satellite imagery suggests that high algal biomass events have occurred annually along the southern shore during late summer. In this study, we evaluated these events and tested the hypothesis that summer bloom material derived from Lake St. Clair may enter Lake Erie via the Detroit River and represent an overlooked source of potentially toxic Microcystis biomass to the western basin of Lake Erie. We conducted a seasonally and spatially resolved study carried out in the summer of 2013. Our goals were to: 1) track the development of the 2013 summer south-east shore bloom 2) conduct a spatial survey to characterize the extent of toxicity, taxonomic diversity of the total phytoplankton population and the phylogenetic diversity of potential MC-producing cyanobacteria (Microcystis, Planktothrix and Anabaena) during a high biomass event, and 3) compare the strains of potential MC-producers in Lake St. Clair with strains from Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. Our results demonstrated a clear predominance of cyanobacteria during a late August bloom event, primarily dominated by Microcystis, which we traced along the Lake St. Clair coastline downstream to the Detroit River's outflow at Lake Erie. Microcystin levels exceeded the Province of Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standard (1.5 µg L(-1)) for safe drinking water at most sites, reaching up to five times this level in some areas. Microcystis was the predominant microcystin producer, and all toxic Microcystis strains found in Lake St. Clair were genetically similar to toxic Microcystis strains found in lakes Erie and Ontario. These findings suggest extensive genetic connectivity among the three systems. PMID:25207941

  4. Phylogenies of Microcystin-Producing Cyanobacteria in the Lower Laurentian Great Lakes Suggest Extensive Genetic Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Timothy W.; Watson, Susan B.; Rozmarynowycz, Mark J.; Ciborowski, Jan J. H.; McKay, Robert Michael; Bullerjahn, George S.

    2014-01-01

    Lake St. Clair is the smallest lake in the Laurentian Great Lakes system. MODIS satellite imagery suggests that high algal biomass events have occurred annually along the southern shore during late summer. In this study, we evaluated these events and tested the hypothesis that summer bloom material derived from Lake St. Clair may enter Lake Erie via the Detroit River and represent an overlooked source of potentially toxic Microcystis biomass to the western basin of Lake Erie. We conducted a seasonally and spatially resolved study carried out in the summer of 2013. Our goals were to: 1) track the development of the 2013 summer south-east shore bloom 2) conduct a spatial survey to characterize the extent of toxicity, taxonomic diversity of the total phytoplankton population and the phylogenetic diversity of potential MC-producing cyanobacteria (Microcystis, Planktothrix and Anabaena) during a high biomass event, and 3) compare the strains of potential MC-producers in Lake St. Clair with strains from Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. Our results demonstrated a clear predominance of cyanobacteria during a late August bloom event, primarily dominated by Microcystis, which we traced along the Lake St. Clair coastline downstream to the Detroit River's outflow at Lake Erie. Microcystin levels exceeded the Province of Ontario Drinking Water Quality Standard (1.5 µg L−1) for safe drinking water at most sites, reaching up to five times this level in some areas. Microcystis was the predominant microcystin producer, and all toxic Microcystis strains found in Lake St. Clair were genetically similar to toxic Microcystis strains found in lakes Erie and Ontario. These findings suggest extensive genetic connectivity among the three systems. PMID:25207941

  5. Great Salt Lake, and precursors, Utah: The last 30,000 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, R.J.; Baedecker, M.J.; Eugster, H.P.; Forester, R.M.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Jones, B.F.; Kelts, K.; McKenzie, J.; Madsen, D.B.; Rettig, S.L.; Rubin, M.; Bowser, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Sediment cores up to 6.5 m in length from the South Arm of Great Salt Lake, Utah, have been correlated. Radiocarbon ages and volcanic tephra layers indicate a record of greater than 30,000 years. A variety of approaches have been employed to collect data used in stratigraphic correlation and lake elevation interpretation; these include acoustic stratigraphy, sedimentologic analyses, mineralogy, geochemistry (major element, C, O and S isotopes, and organics), paleontology and pollen. The results indicate that prior to 32,000 year B.P. an ephemeral saline lake-playa system was present in the basin. The perennial lake, which has occupied the basin since this time, rose in a series of three major steps; the freshest water conditions and presumably highest altitude was reached at about 17,000 year B.P. The lake remained fresh for a brief period, followed by a rapid increase in salinity and sharp lowering in elevation to levels below that of the present Great Salt Lake. The lake remained at low elevations, and divided at times into a north and south Basin, until about 8,000 year B.P. Since that time, with the exception of two short rises to about 1290 m, the lake level has remained near the present elevation of 1280 m. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Remote Sensing as a Tool to Track Algal Blooms in the Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradt, S. R.; Wurtsbaugh, W. A.; Naftz, D.; Moore, T.; Haney, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake is a large hypersaline, terminal water body in northern Utah, USA. The lake has both a significant economic importance to the local community as a source of brine shrimp and mineral resources, as well as, an ecological importance to large numbers of migratory waterfowl. Due to nutrient input from sewage treatment plants, sections of the Great Salt Lake are subjected to highly eutrophic conditions. One of the main tributaries, Farmington Bay, experiences massive blooms of cyanobacteria which can reach concentrations in excess of 300 mg l-1 in the bay. Effects of these blooms can be observed stretching into the rest of the lake. The detrimental outcomes of the blooms include unsightly scums, foul odor and the danger of cyanobacterial toxins. While the blooms have an obvious effect on Farmington Bay, it is quite possible that the cyanobacteria impact a much wider area of the lake as currents move eutrophic water masses. Of particular interest is the reaction of brine shrimp to the plumes of cyanobacteria-rich water leaving Farmington Bay. We are employing remote sensing as a tool to map the distribution of algae throughout the lake and produce lake-wide maps of water quality on a regular basis. On-lake reflectance measurements have been coupled with MODIS satellite imagery to produce a time series of maps illustrating changes in algal distribution. The successes and shortcomings of our remote sensing technique will be a central topic of this presentation.

  7. Investigating the Great Lakes Environment, Unit One: The Sea Lamprey Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Leslie; And Others

    Presented are 11 middle school activities dealing with the sea lamprey and its impact upon the Great Lakes. Included are background information, lesson outlines, references, masters for student worksheets, a wall map, game boards, and two filmstrip-tape units. Using these materials students can learn ecological concepts and some Great Lakes…

  8. Life history differences between fat and lean morphs of lake charr (Salvelinus namaycush) in Great Slave Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.; Nate, Nancy A.; Chavarie, Louise; Muir, Andrew M.; Zimmerman, Mara S.; Krueger, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    Life history characteristics (size, age, plumpness, buoyancy, survival, growth, and maturity) were compared between fat and lean morphs of lake charr Salvelinus namaycush in Great Slave Lake, Canada, to determine if differences may reflect effects of resource polymorphism. Lake charr were sampled using graded-mesh gill nets set in three depth strata. Of 236 lake charr captured, 122 were a fat morph and 114 were a lean morph. Males and females did not differ from each other in any attributes for either fat or lean morphs. The fat morph averaged 15 mm longer, 481 g heavier, and 4.7 years older than the lean morph. The fat morph averaged 26% heavier and 48% more buoyant at length than the lean morph. Survival of the fat morph was 1.7% higher than that of the lean morph. The fat morph grew at a slower annual rate to a shorter asymptotic length than the lean morph. Fat and lean morphs matured at similar lengths and ages. We concluded that the connection between resource polymorphism and life histories in lean versus fat lake charr suggests that morph-specific restoration objectives may be needed in lakes where lake charr diversity is considered to be a restoration goal.

  9. Geobiological Assessment of Evaporite Deposits in the Great Salt Lake Desert: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, K.; Zabrusky, K.; Lossing, R.; Hoehler, T. M.; Spear, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    The study of analog evaporitic environments on Earth is of increasing importance due to the multiple reports of possible evaporite deposits across the martian surface. If life ever evolved on the red planet, these deposits could have harbored potential energy sources and preserved microfossils. Evaporite deposits on earth are often associated with preserved organic material, and understanding the relationships of evaporites and organics will be important for such detections on Mars. Additionally, naturally occurring perchlorate deposits are typically associated with evaporitic materials and further understanding of geobiological processes of this oxidant will be of great use for future habitability assessments on Mars. In order to fully evaluate the astrobiological potential of martian evaporites, a wide variety of terrestrial analog systems can be studied. One understudied system is the Great Salt Lake Desert and its associated features. The Great Salt Lake Desert is the remnant bed of ancient Lake Bonneville, one of the several giant lakes from the Pleistocene Epoch and covered about 20,000 square miles of western Utah and smaller sections of eastern Nevada and southern Idaho. The most well know remnant lake features are the Bonneville Salt Flats and the Great Salt Lake. The Bonneville Salt Flats represent a mainly closed system that receives little to no recharge. The Great Salt Lake, however, still has fresh water recharge its southern arm. The mineralogy of both systems is dominated by halite. The salt flats also have deposits of gypsum, potassium chloride, and a host of magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts. Although the Great Salt Lake Desert has high economic importance, the geobiological potential of its evaporitic features has rarely been studied and there is little to no information regarding the microbial diversity within some of the richest deposits. Here we present the preliminary results of a geobiological study of a sample transect that stretches

  10. Shallow Water Offshore Wind Optimization for the Great Lakes (DE-FOA-0000415) Final Report: A Conceptual Design for Wind Energy in the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wissemann, Chris; White, Stanley M

    2014-02-28

    The primary objective of the project was to develop a innovative Gravity Base Foundation (GBF) concepts, including fabrication yards, launching systems and installation equipment, for a 500MW utility scale project in the Great Lakes (Lake Erie). The goal was to lower the LCOE by 25%. The project was the first to investigate an offshore wind project in the Great Lakes and it has furthered the body of knowledge for foundations and installation methods within Lake Erie. The project collected historical geotechnical information for Lake Erie and also used recently obtained data from the LEEDCo Icebreaker Project (FOA DE-EE0005989) geotechnical program to develop the conceptual designs. Using these data-sets, the project developed design wind and wave conditions from actual buoy data in order to develop a concept that would de-risk a project using a GBF. These wind and wave conditions were then utilized to create reference designs for various foundations specific to installation in Lake Erie. A project partner on the project (Weeks Marine) provided input for construction and costing the GBF fabrication and installation. By having a marine contractor with experience with large marine projects as part of the team provides credibility to the LCOE developed by NREL. NREL then utilized the design and construction costing information as part of the LCOE model. The report summarizes the findings of the project. • Developed a cost model and “baseline” LCOE • Documented Site Conditions within Lake Erie • Developed Fabrication, Installation and Foundations Innovative Concept Designs • Evaluated LCOE Impact of Innovations • Developed Assembly line “Rail System” for GBF Construction and Staging • Developed Transit-Inspired Foundation Designs which incorporated: Semi-Floating Transit with Supplemental Pontoons Barge mounted Winch System • Developed GBF with “Penetration Skirt” • Developed Integrated GBF with Turbine Tower • Developed Turbine, Plant

  11. Thiamine status of rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) eggs in the Great Lakes, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Ketola, H. George; Zehfus, Micheal H.; Crosswait, Jonathan R.; Rinchard, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    During spring 2006–2009, eggs were collected for analysis of total thiamine from gravid rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) captured in each of the Great Lakes and two other waters as references for comparison. Mean standard length (mm ± standard error) of gravid females significantly differed between sample waters, with the Atlantic Ocean population being the longest (189 ± 12.3 mm) and Lake Michigan population the shortest (122 ± 0.3 mm). Mean thiamine concentrations (nmol/g ± standard error) for single-year samples for Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, and Little Clear Pond (New York) were 9.9 ± 0.8, 3.9 ± 0.7, and 8.1 ± 2.3 nmol/g, respectively. Thiamine concentrations for multiple-year samples ranged from 1.1 to 15.6 for Lake Ontario, from 2.6 to 3.3 for Lake Erie, from 5.0 to 9.9 for Lake Superior, and from 10.9 to 13.3 for the Atlantic Ocean (Fore River). Although highly variable within populations and across years, thiamine concentrations in most spawning adults appeared to be adequate in all the waters for the years sampled except for 2006 and 2009 in Lake Ontario and 2009 in Lake Erie.

  12. LINKING GREAT WATERSHEDS WITH LAKE MICHIGAN: THE LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance Study -- which is focusing on atrazine, PCBs, nutrients, suspended solids, trans-nonachlor, and mercury. The relative contribution of contaminants to Lake Michigan will be examined for all major watersheds in the basin. - - - Further ...

  13. Great Lakes water quality scenario models: Operational feasibility -Lake Michigan Mass Balance models

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of the Lake Michigan Mass Balance models were provided (eutrophication/nutrients, atrazine, mercury, and PCBs) with emphasis on the PCB model post-audit and forecast for Lake Trout. Provided were modeling construct, model description, and primary results. An assessm...

  14. Changes in lake levels, salinity and the biological community of Great Salt Lake (Utah, USA), 1847-1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephens, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    Great Salt Lake is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world, with an area of about 6000 square kilometers at its historic high elevation. Since its historic low elevation of 1277.52 meters in 1963, the lake has risen to a new historic high elevation of 1283.77 meters in 1986-1987, a net increase of about 6.25 meters. About 60 percent of this increase, 3.72 meters, has occurred since 1982 in response to greater than average precipitation and less than average evaporation. Variations in salinity have resulted in changes in the composition of the aquatic biological community which consists of bacteria, protozoa, brine shrimp and brine flies. These changes were particularly evident following the completion of a causeway in 1959 which divided the lake. Subsequent salinities in the north part of the lake have ranged from 16 to 29 percent and in the south part from 6 to 28 percent. Accompanying the rise in lake elevation from 1982 to 1987 have been large decreases in salinity of both parts of the lake. This has resulted in changes in the biota from obligate halophiles, such as Dunaliella salina and D. viridis, to opportunistic forms such as a blue-green alga (Nodularia spumigena). The distribution and abundance of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) in the lake also have followed closely the salinity. In 1986, when the salinity of the south part of the lake was about 6 percent, a population of brackish-water killifish (Lucania parva) was observed along the shore near inflow from a spring. ?? 1990 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  15. Coastal Lake Record of Holocene Paleo-Storms from Northwest Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donoghue, J. F.; Coor, J. L.; Wang, Y.; Das, O.; Kish, S.; Elsner, J.; Hu, X. B.; Niedoroda, A. W.; Ye, M.

    2009-12-01

    The northwest Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico has an unusually active storm history. Climate records for a study area in the mid-region of the Florida panhandle coast show that 29 hurricanes have made landfall within a 100-km radius during historic time. These events included 9 major storms (category 3 or higher). A longer-term geologic record of major storm impacts is essential for better understanding storm climatology and refining morphodynamic models. The Florida panhandle region contains a series of unique coastal lakes which are long-lived and whose bottom sediments hold a long-term record of coastal storm occurrence. The lakes are normally isolated from the open Gulf, protected behind a near-continuous dune barrier. Lake water is normally fresh to brackish. Lake bottom sediments consist of organic-rich muds. During major storms the dunes are breached and the lakes are temporarily open to marine water and the possibility of sandy overwash. Both a sedimentologic and geochemical signature is imparted to the lake sediments by storm events. Bottom sediment cores have been collected from the lakes. The cores have been subsampled and subjected to sedimentologic, stable isotopic and geochronologic analyses. The result is a sediment history of the lakes, and a record of storm occurrence during the past few millennia. The outcome is a better understanding of the long-term risk of major storms. The findings are being incorporated into a larger model designed to make reliable predictions of the effects of near-future climate change on natural coastal systems and on coastal infrastructure, and to enable cost-effective mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  16. Postglacial Development and Geological Structure of the Great Lake Ladoga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amantov, Aleksey; Amantova, Marina

    2014-05-01

    Lake Ladoga is one of the key intriguing regions for constraining the glacial rebound model. It is located close to the margin of expansion of the last glaciation. The majority of data of its post-glacial development, rebound and drainage are disputable in spite of huge amount of data collected by different researchers. The modern basin is located on the slope of the Baltic shield sloping under the Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic cover of the Russian platform, and in spatial links with the shape of Riphean (Mesoproterozoic) basin. Because of this position and contrast topography, several papers report on strong neotectonics with differentiated movements and unclear role of the isostatic rebound. We want to highlight the following points: 1. Lake Ladoga basin is clearly a product of Cenozoic erosion, with the dominant role in glacial time. Different resistance of Mesoproterozoic formations causes the contrast relief. We consider the deepest northwestern part as the world largest glacial cirque. 2. Sub-Upper Vendian peneplain (base of the "proper" sedimentary cover) and other major Upper Vendian-Cambrian reference horizons show gentle tilt across the area of distribution, as seen in shallow seismic profiling. They continue offshore in the same way, showing clear absence of noticable neotectonic movements that could change the overall rebound pattern. 3. Modeling, which includes sediment redistribution, shows it's potentially significant role in landscape changes. Widespread thick Ice Lake sediments should be deposited north of the highland of Karelic peninsula, and their later erosion contributed to minor additional uplift. 4. Water level fluctuations are well known for the Ladoga post-glacial history. In hydroisostatic response Ladoga appeared as a circle with the center of additional uplift (or subsidence) migrating southwards. This caused deviations of pure glacial isobases. 5. Peat autocompaction / compaction changed topography over time, especially in oldest sedge

  17. Trophic state determination for shallow coastal lakes from Landsat imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welby, C. W.; Witherspoon, A. M.; Holman, R. E., III

    1981-01-01

    A study has been carried out to develop a photo-optical technique by which Landsat imagery can be used to monitor trophic states of lakes. The proposed technique uses a single number to characterize the trophic state, and a feature within the satellite scene is used as an internal standard for comparison of the lakes in time. By use of the technique it is possible to assess in retrospect the trophic state of each individual lake.

  18. Climatic changes near the Great Lakes inferred from 141 year ice records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Assel, Raymond A.; Robertson, Dale M.

    1992-01-01

    Freeze-up and break-up dates and duration of ice cover for lakes and rivers represent an integration of weather conditions prior to the specified event(s). Changes in mean ice conditions may be used as quantitative indicators of climatic changes if long homogenous ice records are accompanied by sufficiently homogenous air temperature records to calibrate the changes in mean ice cover in terms of climatic variables. Historical ice records dating back to 1855 are available for Lake Mendota, WI (located on the southwestern side of Lake Michigan) and back to 1851 for Grand Traverse Bay, MI (located on the northeastern side of Lake Michigan). Changes in the mean ice cover of these two systems were used to describe changes in fall, winter, and spring air temperatures in the area near the Great Lakes during the past 141 years. 

  19. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Implementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Upper East River, Tributary to Green Bay, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriman, Katherine R.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.

  20. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Iimplementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Alger Creek, Tributary to Saginaw River, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriman, Katherine R.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.