Science.gov

Sample records for great observatories origins

  1. Search for cosmic strings in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, J. L.; Albin, E.; James, K. A.; Goldman, J.; Maruyama, D.; Smoot, G. F.

    2008-06-15

    We search Hubble Space Telescope Treasury Program images collected as part of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey for pairs of galaxies consistent with the gravitational lensing signature of a cosmic string. Our technique includes estimates of the efficiency for finding the lensed galaxy pair. In the north (south) survey field we find no evidence out to a redshift of greater than 0.5 (0.3) for cosmic strings to a mass per unit length limit of G{mu}/c{sup 2}<3.0x10{sup -7} at 95% confidence limits (C.L.). In the combined 314.9 arcmin{sup 2} of the north and south survey fields this corresponds to a global limit on {omega}{sub strings}<0.02. Our limit on G{mu}/c{sup 2} is more than an order of magnitude lower than searches for individual strings in cosmic microwave background (CMB) data. Our limit is higher than other CMB and gravitational wave searches, however, we note that it is less model dependent than these other searches.

  2. NASA'S Great Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Why are space observatories important? The answer concerns twinkling stars in the night sky. To reach telescopes on Earth, light from distant objects has to penetrate Earth's atmosphere. Although the sky may look clear, the gases that make up our atmosphere cause problems for astronomers. These gases absorb the majority of radiation emanating from celestial bodies so that it never reaches the astronomer's telescope. Radiation that does make it to the surface is distorted by pockets of warm and cool air, causing the twinkling effect. In spite of advanced computer enhancement, the images finally seen by astronomers are incomplete. NASA, in conjunction with other countries' space agencies, commercial companies, and the international community, has built observatories such as the Hubble Space Telescope, the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory to find the answers to numerous questions about the universe. With the capabilities the Space Shuttle provides, scientist now have the means for deploying these observatories from the Shuttle's cargo bay directly into orbit.

  3. The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey. VLT/VIMOS spectroscopy in the GOODS-south field: Part II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balestra, I.; Mainieri, V.; Popesso, P.; Dickinson, M.; Nonino, M.; Rosati, P.; Teimoorinia, H.; Vanzella, E.; Cristiani, S.; Cesarsky, C.; Fosbury, R. A. E.; Kuntschner, H.; Rettura, A.

    2010-03-01

    (EW) of the Ly-α and found evidence for a lack of bright LBGs with high EW of the Ly-α. Finally, we obtained new redshifts for 12 X-ray sources of the CDFS and extended-CDFS. Conclusions: After the completion of the two complementary ESO/GOODS spectroscopic campaigns with VIMOS and FORS2 at VLT, the number of spectroscopic redshifts in CDFS/GOODS field increased dramatically, in particular at z ⪆ 2. These data provide the redshift information indispensable to achieve the scientific goals of GOODS, such as tracing the evolution of galaxy masses, morphologies, clustering, and star formation. Based on observations made at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO program 171.A-3045 The Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey: ESO Public Observations of the SIRTF Legacy/HST Treasury/Chandra Deep Field South.)Catalogs and data products are available in electronic form at http://archive.eso.org/cms/eso-data/data-packagesAppendices are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  4. NASA's Great Observatories: Paper Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educational brief discusses observatory stations built by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for looking at the universe. This activity for grades 5-12 has students build paper models of the observatories and study their history, features, and functions. Templates for the observatories are included. (MVL)

  5. z {approx} 4 H{alpha} EMITTERS IN THE GREAT OBSERVATORIES ORIGINS DEEP SURVEY: TRACING THE DOMINANT MODE FOR GROWTH OF GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Shim, Hyunjin; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Dickinson, Mark; Lin Lihwai; Yan, Chi-Hung; Spinrad, Hyron; Stern, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    We present evidence for strong H{alpha} emission in galaxies with spectroscopic redshifts in the range of 3.8 < z < 5.0 over the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey fields. Among 74 galaxies detected in the Spitzer IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m bands, more than 70% of the galaxies show clear excess at 3.6 {mu}m compared to the expected flux density from stellar continuum only. We provide evidence that this 3.6 {mu}m excess is due to H{alpha} emission redshifted into the 3.6 {mu}m band, and classify these 3.6 {mu}m excess galaxies to be H{alpha} emitter (HAE) candidates. The selection of HAE candidates using an excess in broadband filters is sensitive to objects whose rest-frame H{alpha} equivalent width (EW) is larger than 350 A. The H{alpha} inferred star formation rates (SFRs) of the HAEs range between 20 and 500 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and are a factor of {approx}6 larger than SFRs inferred from the UV continuum. The ratio between the H{alpha} luminosity and UV luminosity of HAEs is also on average larger than that of local starbursts. Possible reasons for such strong H{alpha} emission in these galaxies include different dust extinction properties, young stellar population ages, extended star formation histories, low metallicity, and a top-heavy stellar initial mass function. Although the correlation between UV slope {beta} and L{sub H{alpha}}/L{sub UV} raises the possibility that HAEs prefer a dust extinction curve which is steeper in the UV, the most dominant factor that results in strong H{alpha} emission appears to be star formation history. The H{alpha} EWs of HAEs are large despite their relatively old stellar population ages constrained by spectral energy distribution fitting, suggesting that at least 60% of HAEs produce stars at a constant rate. Under the assumption that the gas supply is sustained, HAEs are able to produce {approx}> 50% of the stellar mass density that is encompassed in massive (M{sub *} > 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}) galaxies at z {approx} 3

  6. Conceiving and Marketing NASA's Great Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, Martin

    2009-01-01

    In late 1984, Dr. Charles P. (Charlie) Pellerin Jr., director of the Astrophysics Division of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) faced a dilemma. Congress and the White House had given approval to work that would lead to the launch of the Gamma Ray Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope, but competing segments of the astronomical community were clamoring for two additional missions, the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) and the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF). Pellerin knew that Congress would not countenance a request for another costly astronomical space observatory so soon after approving GRO and HST. He also foresaw that if he arbitrarily assigned priority to either AXAF or SIRTF he would split the astronomical community. The losing faction would be up on Capitol Hill, lobbying Congress to reverse the decision; and Congress would do what it always does with split communities --- nothing. Pellerin called a meeting of leading astrophysicists to see how a persuasive argument could be made for both these new observatories and to market them as vital to a first comprehensive inventory of the universe conducted across all wavelength ranges. The group provided Pellerin a rotating membership of astrophysicists, who could debate and resolve issues so that decisions he reached would have solid community support. It also helped him to market his ideas in Congress. Ultimately, the concept of the Great Observatories came to be accepted; but its implementation faced myriad difficulties. False starts, political alliances that never worked out, and dramatic changes of direction necessitated by the Challenger disaster of early 1986 continually kept progress off balance. My paper follows these twists and turns from late 1984 to the announcement, on February 1, 1988, that President Reagan's FY89 budget proposal to Congress had designated AXAF for a new start.

  7. The great observatories for space astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harwit, M.; Neal, V.

    1986-01-01

    Motivated by the ancient urge to observe, measure, compute, and understand the nature of the Universe, the available advanced technology is used to place entire observatories into space for investigations across the spectrum. Stellar evolution, development and nature of the Universe, planetary exploration, technology, NASA's role, and careers in asronomy are displayed.

  8. NASA's Great Observatories Paper Model Kits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Education Dept.

    The Hubble Space Telescope, the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, was built to study the cosmos from low-Earth orbit for 10 to 15 years or more. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory is a complex spacecraft fitted with four different gamma ray detectors, each of which concentrates on different but overlapping energy range and was…

  9. Great Observatories Present Rainbow of a Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer, Hubble and Chandra space observatories teamed up to create this multi-wavelength, false-colored view of the M82 galaxy. The lively portrait celebrates Hubble's 'sweet sixteen' birthday.

    X-ray data recorded by Chandra appears in blue; infrared light recorded by Spitzer appears in red; Hubble's observations of hydrogen emission appear in orange, and the bluest visible light appears in yellow-green.

    About the Movie M82 is shown in all its wavelength glory. Dissolving from Chandra X-ray Observatory images of three X-ray energy bands to images in three bands of the infrared spectrum taken by the Spitzer Space Telescope, and ending with the Hubble Space Telescope's visible- and near-infrared-light image. The three observatories' images were composited to reveal the galaxy's stars, as well as gas and dust features.

    Note: The size of the Full-Res TIFF for the still image is 4299 samples x 3490 lines.

  10. Conceiving and marketing NASA's Great Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwit, Martin

    2009-08-01

    In early 1984, the astronomical community’s plans to launch a series of powerful telescopes able to study celestial sources at almost any wavelength were in trouble. The President of the United States had just declared his priority for a Space Station that was bound to be expensive, and Congress could not understand why yet another set of space observatories was needed when others were already being funded. To realize their aims, astronomers would have to advocate their needs much more effectively than in the past.

  11. NASA's Great Observatories Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for larger version

    In 1609, Galileo improved the newly invented telescope, turned it toward the heavens, and revolutionized our view of the universe. In celebration of the 400th anniversary of this milestone, 2009 has been designated as the International Year of Astronomy.

    Today, NASA's Great Observatories are continuing Galileo's legacy with stunning images and breakthrough science from the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory.

    While Galileo observed the sky using visible light seen by the human eye, technology now allows us to observe in many wavelengths, including Spitzer's infrared view and Chandra's view in X-rays. Each wavelength region shows different aspects of celestial objects and often reveals new objects that could not otherwise be studied.

    This image of the spiral galaxy Messier 101 is a composite of views from Spitzer, Hubble, and Chandra. The red color shows Spitzer's view in infrared light. It highlights the heat emitted by dust lanes in the galaxy where stars can form. The yellow color is Hubble's view in visible light. Most of this light comes from stars, and they trace the same spiral structure as the dust lanes. The blue color shows Chandra's view in X-ray light. Sources of X-rays include million-degree gas, exploded stars, and material colliding around black holes.

    Such composite images allow astronomers to see how features seen in one wavelength match up with those seen in another wavelength. It's like seeing with a camera, night vision goggles, and X-ray vision all at once.

    In the four centuries since Galileo, astronomy has changed dramatically. Yet our curiosity and quest for knowledge remain the same. So, too, does our wonder at the splendor of the universe.

    The International Year of Astronomy Great Observatories Image Unveiling is supported by the NASA Science Mission Directorate

  12. The origin of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorak, John

    2011-05-15

    I first stepped through the doorway of the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in 1976, and I was impressed by what I saw: A dozen people working out of a stone-and-metal building perched at the edge of a high cliff with a spectacular view of a vast volcanic plain. Their primary purpose was to monitor the island's two active volcanoes, Kilauea and Mauna Loa. I joined them, working for six weeks as a volunteer and then, years later, as a staff scientist. That gave me several chances to ask how the observatory had started.

  13. The Great Geospace Observatory and Simultaneous Missions of Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donovan, Eric; Brandt, Pontus; Siebeck, David; Spann, James; Lester, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A predictive understanding of the sun to geospace environment is one of the main goals of ILWS. This can only be achieved through a "system-level" approach, meaning long-term, simultaneous, continuous observations across the relevant scales of the magnetosphere and ionosphere/thermosphere (IT). To date such an approach, which must involve simultaneous, multi-scale, global imaging of different geospace regions, has not been carried out for a complete geomagnetic storm. Such imagery, now routine for the Solar community, is of critical scientific importance and captures public imagination. Its absence in geospace studies has limited the growth and impact of geospace science. In this presentation, we discuss a concept called the Great Geospace Observatory, which would involve coordinated geospace imaging through an international effort of multiple, simultaneous Missions of Opportunity. In this way, the cost would be spread among different agencies as well as putting remote sensors in vantage points optimized for each type of imaging. 24/7 auroral imaging from weather satellites on Molniya (or similar) orbits, EUV imaging of the plasmasphere from high-inclination orbits, continuous and global ENA imaging from geosynchronous commercial satellites, and continuous X-ray imaging of the cusp and magnetosheath from a high-altitude dedicated probe would quantitatively track system-level dynamics at through substorms, sawtooth events, steady magnetospheric convection, and storms; studying energy and mass coupling between the solar wind, magnetosphere, and the upper atmosphere. In our minds, The Great Geospace Observatory represents the next strategic step for ILWS and needs to be seriously considered.

  14. SPASE: Metadata Interoperability in the Great Observatory Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieman, J. R.; King, T. A.; Roberts, D. A.; King, J. H.

    2006-05-01

    SPASE is the Space Physics Archive Search and Extract project. This project is funded by NASA to provide a data model for the Great Observatory data environment that can be used as a common basis for locating and retrieving data of interest for the space and solar physics community. Common terminology that maps to much of the disparate metadata being used by these systems enables unified searches across the archives and ready comparison of the results to determine time overlaps, data commonalities, applicability for research purposes, etc. The SPASE Data Model Version 1.0 has been created and will be described. The model now needs to be tested by the community by describing a wide variety of data holdings and providing feedback for further improvement of the model. The latest version of the Data Model can be obtained by clicking on the Link marked "Current Draft" at the following web site: http://www.igpp.ucla.edu/spase/. Hundreds of data descriptions created with this model in mind have been entered into the Virtual Space Physics Observatory search engine called the "Space and Solar Physics Product Finder". We recommend exercising this system to find data of interest and to see the value of a common data model for search and retrieval. The VSPO Product Finder is available at the following URL: http://vspo.gsfc.nasa.gov/websearch/dispatcher. Future enhancements of the SPASE Data Model will include more depth of description to more fully describe the science content of a data set as well as automated tools to ease the task of describing data according to the Data Model. As always, the value of the SPASE effort will depend on the use and feedback by the space physics community.

  15. NASA's Great Observatories May Unravel 400-Year Old Supernova Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    Four hundred years ago, sky watchers, including the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, best known as the discoverer of the laws of planetary motion, were startled by the sudden appearance of a "new star" in the western sky, rivaling the brilliance of the nearby planets. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Multiple Images of Kepler's Supernova Remnant Modern astronomers, using NASA's three orbiting Great Observatories, are unraveling the mysteries of the expanding remains of Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy. When a new star appeared Oct. 9, 1604, observers could use only their eyes to study it. The telescope would not be invented for another four years. A team of modern astronomers has the combined abilities of NASA's Great Observatories, the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Chandra X-ray Observatory, to analyze the remains in infrared radiation, visible light, and X-rays. Ravi Sankrit and William Blair of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore lead the team. The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust, 14 light-years wide and expanding at 4 million mph. Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material, surrounded by an expanding shock wave sweeping up interstellar gas and dust. Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit "Multi-wavelength studies are absolutely essential for putting together a complete picture of how supernova remnants evolve," Sankrit said. Sankrit is an associate research scientist, Center for Astrophysical Sciences at Hopkins and lead for HST astronomer observations. "For instance, the infrared data are dominated by heated interstellar dust, while optical and X-ray observations sample different temperatures of gas," Blair added. Blair is a research professor, Physics and Astronomy Department at Hopkins and lead astronomer for SST observations. "A range of

  16. Briefings Set for Launch of Next "Great Observatory" in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-06-01

    NASA's next Space Shuttle flight will provide astronomers with a new look at the universe and make history with NASA's first female mission commander. Reporters can get an overview of the mission at a series of briefings July 7. The briefings will begin at 9 a.m. EDT at NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston. The five-day flight is scheduled for launch no earlier than July 20. STS-93 will be led by U.S. Air Force Colonel Eileen Collins, the first woman to command an American space mission. The flight's primary objective will be to deploy the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the third of NASA's Great Observatories. Collins and her crew of four will carry Chandra, the heaviest payload ever deployed from the shuttle, into orbit and deploy it approximately seven hours after launch. An upper stage will carry the observatory to its final orbit, more than one-third of the way to the Moon. Chandra will allow scientists to obtain unprecedented X-ray images of exploding stars, black holes and other exotic environments to help them understand the structure and evolution of the universe. The first two briefings will provide an overview of mission operations and science to be conducted by Chandra. The NASA Television Video File will follow at noon. The crew press conference will begin at 2 p.m. EDT. The briefings will be carried live on NASA Television, with question-and-answer capability for reporters covering the event from participating NASA centers. NASA Television is available on transponder 9C of the GE-2 satellite at 85 degrees West longitude, vertical polarization, frequency 3880 MHz, audio of 6.8 MHz. Media planning to attend the briefings must notify the Johnson Space Center newsroom by June 28 to ensure proper badging. Each reporter's name, affiliation and country of citizenship should be faxed to the newsroom at 281/483-2000. IMPORTANT NOTE: Reporters can schedule in-person or telephone interviews STS-93 crew. These interviews will begin at about 3:15 p.m. EDT. Media

  17. On the Need for the Great Geospace Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, E.; Brandt, P. C.; Sibeck, D. G.; Spann, J. F.; Lester, M.

    2011-12-01

    A predictive understanding of the sun to geospace environment is a fundamental goal in solar-terrestrial science. This can only be achieved through a "system-level" approach, meaning long-term, simultaneous, continuous observations across the relevant scales of the magnetosphere and ionosphere/thermosphere (IT). To date such an approach, which must involve simultaneous, multi-scale, global imaging of the different geospace regions, has not been carried out for even one complete geomagnetic storm. Such imagery, now routine for the Solar community, is of critical scientific importance and captures public imagination, and its absence in geospace studies has limited the growth and impact of geospace science. Here, we present a concept called the Great Geospace Observatory, which would involve coordinated geospace imaging through an international effort of multiple, simultaneous Missions of Opportunity. In this way, the cost would be spread among different agencies as well as putting remote sensors in vantage points optimized for each type of imaging. 24/7 auroral imaging from weather satellites on Molniya (or similar) orbits, EUV imaging of the plasmasphere from high-inclination orbits, continuous and global ENA imaging from geosynchronous commercial satellites, and continuous X-ray imaging of the cusp and magnetosheath from a high-altitude dedicated probe would quantitatively track system-level, multi-scale dynamics through substorms, sawtooth events, steady magnetospheric convection, and storms. The GGO would enable studies of the nonlinear coupling between the solar wind, magnetosphere, and the upper atmosphere. In our minds, GGO represents the next strategic step for the international geospace effort and needs to be seriously considered.

  18. Origin of Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    SciTech Connect

    Luchkov, B.

    1981-09-01

    The Great Red Spot, a giant vortex in the Jovian atmosphere, may owe its origin to the structure of Jupiter's magnetic field and radiation belt. Several Spot parameters resemble those of the Brazil anomaly, a negative anomaly in the terrestrial field. It is shown qualitatively that the Spot has developed at the site of a negative anomaly in the Jovian field and is continually supplied by precipitation of energetic radiation-belt particles into the planet's atmosphere.

  19. NASA's Great Observatories May Unravel 400-Year Old Supernova Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-10-01

    Four hundred years ago, sky watchers, including the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, best known as the discoverer of the laws of planetary motion, were startled by the sudden appearance of a "new star" in the western sky, rivaling the brilliance of the nearby planets. Kepler's Supernova Remnant Multiple Images of Kepler's Supernova Remnant Modern astronomers, using NASA's three orbiting Great Observatories, are unraveling the mysteries of the expanding remains of Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy. When a new star appeared Oct. 9, 1604, observers could use only their eyes to study it. The telescope would not be invented for another four years. A team of modern astronomers has the combined abilities of NASA's Great Observatories, the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST), Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Chandra X-ray Observatory, to analyze the remains in infrared radiation, visible light, and X-rays. Ravi Sankrit and William Blair of the Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore lead the team. The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust, 14 light-years wide and expanding at 4 million mph. Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material, surrounded by an expanding shock wave sweeping up interstellar gas and dust. Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit Interview with Dr. Ravi Sankrit "Multi-wavelength studies are absolutely essential for putting together a complete picture of how supernova remnants evolve," Sankrit said. Sankrit is an associate research scientist, Center for Astrophysical Sciences at Hopkins and lead for HST astronomer observations. "For instance, the infrared data are dominated by heated interstellar dust, while optical and X-ray observations sample different temperatures of gas," Blair added. Blair is a research professor, Physics and Astronomy Department at Hopkins and lead astronomer for SST observations. "A range of

  20. Chandra: Ten Years of Amazing Science with a Great Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    We review briefly review the history of the development of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, highlighting certain details that many attendees of this Conference might not be aware of. We then present a selection of scientific highlights of the first 10 years of this remarkable and unique mission.

  1. The COMPTON Observatory: Reflections on its origins and history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniffen, D. A.; Gehrels, N.

    1997-05-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) was planned as a mission to make the first comprehensive study of the gamma-ray sky over the full gamma-ray spectrum. It followed on the heels of two successful small astronomy satellites with high energy gamma-ray telescopes, SAS-2 and COS-B, and the High Energy Astronomical Observatory (HEAO) with low-energy gamma-ray detectors. The guideline was to cover the spectrum from the high energy limit of the x-ray domain to the highest energies for which a detectable flux might be reasonably observed. The objective was to include transients as well as persistent sources. The efforts to get such a mission approved stands as a model for developing a consensus of the scientific community for a mission involving a relatively small community of observers. A broad and vigorous guest investigator program was a key element in this effort. The results of the guest investigator program are testimony to the wisdom of this plan. The great success of GRO (now the Compton Observatory) was a result of the dedicated efforts of a few individuals and a project management team that understood how to work with scientists. In spite of increasing budgetary pressure and long delays beyond their control, the project management brought GRO to its successful launch with a minimum of cost growth resulting from the delays. This development period set the stage for what has been one of the most successful scientific programs in NASA's history. The very exciting results presented at this conference by a very broad community of scientists is a testimony to the dedicated efforts of a small group of visionaries with the foresight to see the potential of such a mission.

  2. AVOCADO: A Virtual Observatory Census to Address Dwarfs Origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Sánchez-Janssen

    2011-12-01

    Dwarf galaxies are by far the most abundant of all galaxy types, yet their properties are still poorly understood-especially due to the observational challenge that their intrinsic faintness represents. AVOCADO aims at establishing firm conclusions on their formation and evolution by constructing a homogeneous, multiwavelength dataset for a statistically significant sample of several thousand nearby dwarfs (-18 < Mi < -14). Using public data and Virtual Observatory tools, we have built GALEX+SDSS+2MASS spectral energy distributions that are fitted by a library of single stellar population models. Star formation rates, stellar masses, ages and metallicities are further complemented with structural parameters that can be used to classify them morphologically. This unique dataset, coupled with a detailed characterization of each dwarf's environment, allows for a fully comprehensive investigation of their origins and to track the (potential) evolutionary paths between the different dwarf types.

  3. Cosmic Origins Spectrograph: Servicing Mission Observatory Verification Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, Charles D.; Sahnow, D.; Aloisi, A.; Biagetti, C.; Osterman, S.; Froning, C.; Penton, S.; Green, J.; Oliveira, C.; Osten, R.; Niemi, S.; STScI COS Team; COS IDT Team

    2010-01-01

    The Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) was installed onboard the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in May, 2009 as part of the most recent servicing mission (SM4). COS is optimized for observing faint point sources at moderate spectral resolutions and is the most sensitive UV spectrograph ever flown on HST. The FUV channel, which is 10 to 30 times more sensitive than STIS, covers the wavelength range from 1150 to 1800 A with medium resolution gratings (G130M/G160M) and from 900 to 2400 A. with a low resolution grating (G140L). The medium resolution gratings in the NUV channel (G185M/G225M/G285M) cover 1700 to 3200 A., while the low resolution grating (G230L) covers 1700 to 3200 A. As part of the overall HST Servicing Mission Observatory Verification (SMOV), COS on-orbit functionality was verified via an extensive set of 34 observing programs comprising nearly 2800 individual exposures. We present a thorough discussion of the organization, inter-relationships, and dependencies of the programs in the verification plan. Sequential activities were executed that concentrated on the general areas of initial instrument checkout; detector HV turn-on and operation; initial detector characterization; NUV focus and alignment; FUV focus and alignment; initial target acquisition verification; wavelength calibration; and thorough target acquisition assessment, all leading to enabling of basic science functionality. Finally science-related calibrations and verifications were performed including flux calibration, flat field characterization, spectroscopic performance verification, high S/N operation, and thermal and structural stability measurements. Several companion presentations describe results from specific programs and verification areas in more detail.

  4. Kepler's Supernova Studied Through the Combined Abilities of NASA's Great Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Four hundred years ago, sky watchers, including the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler, best known as the discoverer of the laws of planetary motion, were startled by the sudden appearance of a new star in the western sky, rivaling the brilliance of the nearby planets. Modern astronomers, using NASA's three orbiting Great Observatories, are unraveling the mysteries of the expanding remains of Kepler's supernova, the last such object seen to explode in our Milky Way galaxy. When a new star appeared Oct. 9, 1604, observers could use only their eyes to study it. The telescope would not be invented for another four years. A team of modern astronomers has the combined abilities of NASA's Great Observatories, the Spritzer Space Telescope (SST), Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), to analyze the remains in infrared radiation, visible light, and X-rays. Visible-light images from Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys reveal where the supernova shock wave is slamming into the densest regions of surrounding gas. The astronomers used the SST to probe for material that radiates in infrared light, which shows heated microscopic dust particles that have been swept up by the supernova shock wave. The CXO data show regions of very hot gas. The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust, 14 light-years wide and expanding at 4 million mph. There have been six known supernovas in our Milky Way over the past 1,000 years. Kepler's is the only one in which astronomers do not know what type of star exploded. By combining information from all three Great Observatories, astronomers may find the clues they need. Project management for both the HST and CXO programs is the responsibility of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

  5. "Constellation-X and JWST: Concurrent X-ray and Infrared Great Observatories"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornschemeier, Ann

    2007-01-01

    Great synergy has been enjoyed between NASA's current Great Observatories and we expect that this will continue in the next decade with the concurrent operation of both Constellation-X and JWST. The great increase in sensitivity offered by these two observatories, working in unison, will be required for a number of key science investigations, several of which we describe in this poster. For instance, although >SO% of the cosmic X-ray background is resolved at 2-8 keV in the deepest Chandra surveys, the peak of the cosmic X-ray background remains largely unexplained (at energies of 8-40 keV). There may be a significant population of obscured (perhaps Compton-thick) AGN that produce this part of the extragalactic background radiation, and Constellation-X's large collecting area and spectroscopic capabilities over the 1-40 keV bandpass will allow determination of the nature of the obscuring material. This obscured nuclear emission is expected to be re-emitted at longer wavelengths and hence mid-infrared (MIR) observations can be crucial to reveal obscured AGN emission. However, current photometric observations in the infrared are limited by contamination from star formation, and sensitive, moderate-to-high resolution IR spectroscopy (provided by JWST) will be required. In addition, the two observatories will make great advances in unraveling the nature of the highest redshift AGN (4 < z < 8; and possibly 8dow)n to Seyfert luminosities and will probe the formation and evolution of galaxy groups and clusters (including important cosmological measurements). This poster describes these science areas and briefly touches upon the role of the various Con-X and JWST instruments in these science investigations.

  6. NASA's Great Observatories Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy With a National Unveiling of Spectacular Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    In 1609, Galileo first turned his telescope to the heavens and gave birth to modern astronomy. To commemorate four hundred years of exploring the universe, 2009 is designated the International Year of Astronomy. NASA's Great Observatories - the Hubble Space Telescope, Spitzer Space Telescope, and Chandra X-ray Observatory - are marking the occasion with the release of a suite of images at over 100 planetariums, museums, nature centers, and schools across the country in conjunction with Galileo's birthday on February 15. The selected sites will unveil a large 9-square-foot print of the spiral galaxy Messier 101 that combines the optical view of Hubble, the infrared view of Spitzer, and the X-ray view of Chandra into one multi-wavelength picture. "It's like using your eyes, night vision goggles, and X-ray vision all at the same time," says Dr. Hashima Hasan, lead scientist for the International Year of Astronomy at NASA Headquarters in Washington. Cas A animation Chandra X-ray Image of M101 Participating institutions also will display a matched trio of Hubble, Spitzer, and Chandra images of Messier 101. Each image shows a different wavelength view of the galaxy that illustrates not only the different science uncovered by each observatory, but also just how far astronomy has come since Galileo. Messier 101 is a face-on spiral galaxy about 22 million light-years away in the constellation Ursa Major. It is in many ways similar to, but larger than, our own Milky Way galaxy. Hubble's visible light view shows off the swirls of bright stars and glowing gas that give the galaxy its nickname the Pinwheel Galaxy. In contrast, Spitzer's infrared-light image sees into the spiral arms and reveals the glow of dust lanes where dense clouds can collapse to form new stars. Chandra's X-ray picture uncovers the high-energy features in the galaxy, such as remnants of exploded stars or matter zooming around black holes. The juxtaposition of observations from these three telescopes

  7. The Spitzer Space Telescope's performance: getting the most out of a great observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Suzanne R.; Levine, Deborah A.

    2006-06-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope was launched on August 25 th, 2003, and has been operating virtually flawlessly for over two years. The projected cryogenic lifetime for Spitzer is currently 5.5 years, substantially exceeding the required lifetime of 2.5 years and the pre-launch prediction of 5 years. The Spitzer Project has made a singular effort to extend Spitzer's lifetime through operational changes to conserve helium. Additionally, many updates to calibration and scheduling activities have been made in order to maximum the scientific return from Spitzer. Spitzer has met its level one science time requirement of 90%, and routinely exceeds it today. All this has been achieved with an operating budget that is substantially smaller than that of NASA's other Great Observatories. This paper will describe the overall performance of the Spitzer Space Telescope Science Operations System and detail the modifications made to increase both the helium lifetime and the science data return. It will also discuss trades made between performance improvements and cost. Lessons learned which can be applied to future observatory operations will be included in the paper. This work was performed at the California Institute of Technology under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  8. Perchlorate in the Great Lakes: isotopic composition and origin.

    PubMed

    Poghosyan, Armen; Sturchio, Neil C; Morrison, Candice G; Beloso, Abelardo D; Guan, Yunbin; Eiler, John M; Jackson, W Andrew; Hatzinger, Paul B

    2014-10-01

    Perchlorate is a persistent and mobile contaminant in the environment with both natural and anthropogenic sources. Stable isotope ratios of oxygen (δ(18)O, Δ(17)O) and chlorine (δ(37)Cl) along with the abundance of the radioactive isotope (36)Cl were used to trace perchlorate sources and behavior in the Laurentian Great Lakes. These lakes were selected for study as a likely repository of recent atmospheric perchlorate deposition. Perchlorate concentrations in the Great Lakes range from 0.05 to 0.13 μg per liter. δ(37)Cl values of perchlorate from the Great Lakes range from +3.0‰ (Lake Ontario) to +4.0‰ (Lake Superior), whereas δ(18)O values range from -4.1‰ (Lake Superior) to +4.0‰ (Lake Erie). Great Lakes perchlorate has mass-independent oxygen isotopic variations with positive Δ(17)O values (+1.6‰ to +2.7‰) divided into two distinct groups: Lake Superior (+2.7‰) and the other four lakes (∼+1.7‰). The stable isotopic results indicate that perchlorate in the Great Lakes is dominantly of natural origin, having isotopic composition resembling that measured for indigenous perchlorate from preindustrial groundwaters of the western USA. The (36)Cl/Cl ratio of perchlorate varies widely from 7.4 × 10(-12) (Lake Ontario) to 6.7 × 10(-11) (Lake Superior). These (36)ClO4(-) abundances are consistent with an atmospheric origin of perchlorate in the Great Lakes. The relatively high (36)ClO4(-) abundances in the larger lakes (Lakes Superior and Michigan) could be explained by the presence of (36)Cl-enriched perchlorate deposited during the period of elevated atmospheric (36)Cl activity following thermonuclear bomb tests in the Pacific Ocean. PMID:25171443

  9. Image of the Great Nebula in Andromeda, M31 Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Both of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2/Einstein Observatory imaging devices were used to observe the Great Nebula in Andromeda, M31. This is a smaller field and more detailed view of the central region of the Great Nebula in Andromeda, M31, taken with the High Resolution Imager. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978.

  10. NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach: Engaging the Public with NASA's Next Great Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Joel David; Jirdeh, Hussein; Eisenhamer, Bonnie; Smith, Denise Anne

    2015-08-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope is the successor to the Hubble Space Telescope. STScI and the Office of Public Outreach are committed to bringing awareness of the technology, the excitement, and the future science potential of this great observatory to the public, to educators and students, and to the scientific community, prior to its 2018 launch. We currently engage the full range of the public and scientific communities using a variety of high impact, memorable initiatives, in combination with modern technologies to extend reach, linking the science goals of Webb to the ongoing discoveries being made by Hubble. We have injected Webb-specific content into ongoing E/PO programs: for example, active classroom learning via the STEM Innovation Project (SIP) and 3-D visualizations developed for modern inexpensive platforms, the production and collection of materials for speakers related to any Webb topic (engineering, science, or education), the addition of Webb materials to the Amazing Space programs and updating them for general usage, and the development of simulated Webb observations illustrating the science of the next decade.

  11. NASA and Japanese X-ray observatories Clarify Origin of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Recent observations from NASA and Japanese X-ray observatories have helped clarify one of the long-standing mysteries in astronomy -- the origin of cosmic rays. This image from Japan's Suzaku X-ray observatory shows RXJ1713.7-3946. This supernova remnant is the gaseous remnant of a massive star that exploded. The remnant is about 1,600 years old. The contour lines show where gamma-ray intensity is highest, as measured by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (HESS) in Namibia.

  12. Image of the Great Nebula in Andromeda, M31 Taken by the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Both of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO) 2/Einstein Observatory imaging devices were used to observe the Great Nebula in Andromeda, M31. This image is a wide field x-ray view of the center region of M31 by the HEAO-2's Imaging Proportional Counter. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978.

  13. Perchlorate in The Great Lakes: Distribution, Isotopic Composition and Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, A.; Sturchio, N. C.; Jackson, W. A.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J. M.; Hatzinger, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Concentrations, stable chlorine and oxygen isotopic compositions, and 36Cl abundances of perchlorate were investigated in the five Laurentian Great Lakes. Samples were collected during monitoring cruises in 2007 and 2008 of the U.S. EPA's RV Lake Guardian and in 2010 at the water supply intake of Marquette, MI on the southern shore of Lake Superior. Concentrations of perchlorate were measured by IC/MS/MS at 24 locations, including one or two depth profiles in each lake. Mean concentrations (μg/L) are: Superior, 0.06 × 0.01; Michigan, 0.10 × 0.01; Huron, 0.11 × 0.01; Erie, 0.08 × 0.01, and Ontario, 0.09 × 0.01. Concentration vs. depth is nearly constant in each lake, indicating well-mixed conditions. Perchlorate was extracted from near-surface water by passing 15,000 to 80,000 L of water through 1-L cartridges containing Purolite A530E bifunctional anion-exchange resin. In the laboratory, perchlorate was eluted from the resin, purified, and precipitated as a >99% pure crystalline phase. Milligram amounts were recovered from each lake. Chlorine and oxygen isotopic analyses were performed at Caltech using the Cameca 7f-GEO SIMS instrument, following validation of the SIMS method with analyses of USGS-37 and USGS-38 isotopic reference materials. Results indicate a relatively narrow range in δ37Cl values (+2.9 to +3.9 ‰) and a wider range in δ18O values (-4.0 to +4.1 ‰), with a general geographic trend of increasing δ18O from west to east. Oxygen-17 was measured at UIC using dual-inlet IRMS of O2 produced by decomposition of KClO4. Great Lakes perchlorate has mass-independent oxygen isotopic variations with positive Δ17O values (+1.6 ‰ to +2.7 ‰) divided into two distinct groups: Lake Superior (+2.7 ‰) and the other four lakes (~ +1.7 ‰). The isotopic data indicate that perchlorate is dominantly of natural origin, having stable isotopic compositions resembling those of perchlorate from pre-industrial groundwaters in the western USA. The 36Cl

  14. Prototyping a large-scale distributed system for the Great Observatories era - NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shames, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is a distributed information system intended to support research in the Great Observatories era, to simplify access to data, and to enable simultaneous analyses of multispectral data sets. Here, the user agent and interface, its functions, and system components are examined, and the system architecture and infrastructure is addressed. The present status of the system and related future activities are examined.

  15. Spitzer Space Telescope Leads NASA's Great Observatories to Uncover Black Holes and Other Hidden Objects in the Distant Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    Astronomers unveiled the deepest images from NASA's new Spitzer Space Telescope today, and announced the detection of distant objects -- including several supermassive black holes -- that are nearly invisible in even the deepest images from telescopes operating at other wavelengths. Mark Dickinson, of the National Optical Astronomy Observatory in Tucson, Ariz., and Principal Investigator for the new observations, says, "With these ultra-deep Spitzer images, we are easily seeing objects throughout time and space, out to redshifts of 6 or more, where the most distant known galaxies lie. Moreover, we see some objects that are completely invisible to optical telescopes, but whose existence was hinted at by previous observations from the Chandra and Hubble Observatories." Seven of the objects detected in the Spitzer images may be part of the long-sought population of "missing" supermassive black holes that powered the bright cores of the earliest active galaxies. The discovery finally completes a full accounting of all the X-ray sources seen in one of the deepest surveys of the universe ever taken. This detective story required no less than the combined power of NASA's three Great Observatories in space -- the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope. Each observatory works with different wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation, from the high-energy X-rays that Chandra detects, through visible light with Hubble, and into the infrared with Spitzer. The combination of these telescopes yields far more information than any single instrument would. All three telescopes peered out to distances of up to 13 billion light-years toward a small patch of the southern sky containing more than 10,000 galaxies, in a coordinated project called the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (or GOODS, for short). Chandra images detected over two hundred X-ray sources believed to be supermassive black holes lying in the centers of young

  16. Are the Odds Against the Origin of Life Too Great?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Statistics are offered to "prove" odds against the origin of life. Presents a summary analysis of all known examples to be used to check these claims whenever they are brought up in conversations, debates, books, or articles. Addresses scientific work misused by anti-evolutionists and the pseudoscientific assertions of the anti-evolutionists…

  17. Great Problems of Mathematics: A Course Based on Original Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laubenbacher, Reinhard C.; Pengelley, David J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the history of five selected problems from mathematics that are included in an undergraduate honors course designed to utilize original sources for demonstrating the evolution of ideas developed in solving these problems: area and the definite integral, the beginnings of set theory, solutions of algebraic equations, Fermat's last…

  18. The great observatories origins deep survey. VLT/VIMOS spectroscopy in the GOODS-south field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popesso, P.; Dickinson, M.; Nonino, M.; Vanzella, E.; Daddi, E.; Fosbury, R. A. E.; Kuntschner, H.; Mainieri, V.; Cristiani, S.; Cesarsky, C.; Giavalisco, M.; Renzini, A.; GOODS Team

    2009-02-01

    Aims: We present the first results from the VIsible Multiobject Spectrograph (VIMOS) ESO/GOODS program of spectroscopy for faint galaxies in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S). This program complements the FORS2 ESO/GOODS campaign. Methods: All 3312 spectra were obtained in service mode with VIMOS at the ESO/VLT UT3. The VIMOS LR-Blue and MR grisms were used to cover different redshift ranges. Galaxies at 1.8 < z < 3.5 were observed in the GOODS VIMOS-LR-Blue campaign. Galaxies at z < 1 and Lyman Break Galaxies at z > 3.5 were observed in the VIMOS MR survey. Results: Here we report results for the first 12 masks (out of 20 total). We extracted 2344 from 6 LR-Blue masks and 968 from 6 MR masks. A large percentage, 33% of the LR-Blue and 18% of the MR spectra, are serendipitous observations. We obtained 1481 and 656 redshifts in the LR-Blue and MR campaign, respectively, for a total success rate of 70% and 75%, respectively, which decrease to 63% and 68% when also the serendipitous targets are considered. The typical redshift accuracy is σz = 0.001. The reliability of the redshift estimate varies with the quality flag. The LR-Blue quality flag A redshifts are reliable at ~95% confidence level, flag B redshifs at ~70% and quality C et ~40%. The MR redshift reliability is somewhat higher: 100% for quality flag A, ~90% for quality flag B and ~70% for flag C. By complementing our VIMOS spectroscopic catalog with all existing spectroscopic redshifts publicly available in the CDF-S, we created a redshift master catalog. By comparing this redshift compilation with different photometric redshift catalogs we estimate the completeness level of the CDF-S spectroscopic coverage in several redshift bins. Conclusions: The completeness level is very high, >60%, at z < 3.5, and it is very uncertain at higher redshift. The master catalog was used also to estimate completeness and contamination levels of different galaxy photometric selection techniques. The BzK selection method leads to a ~86% complete sample of z > 1.4 galaxies at iAB < 25 mag and with a contamination ~23% of lower redshift objects. The so-called “sub”-U-dropout and the U-dropout methods lead to an 80% complete galaxy sample at z > 1.4 and iAB < 25 mag, with ~24% low redshift contaminants.

  19. AGN and Starbursts in Dusty Galaxy Mergers: Insights from the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzarella, Joseph M.

    2014-07-01

    The Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS) is combining imaging and spectroscopic data from the Herschel, Spitzer, Hubble, GALEX, Chandra, and XMM-Newton space telescopes augmented with extensive ground-based observations in a multiwavelength study of approximately 180 Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) and 20 Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) that comprise a statistically complete subset of the 60μm-selected IRAS Revised Bright Galaxy Sample. The objects span the full range of galaxy environments (giant isolated spirals, wide and close pairs, minor and major mergers, merger remnants) and nuclear activity types (Seyfert 1, Seyfert 2, LINER, starburst/HII), with proportions that depend strongly on the total infrared luminosity. I will review the science motivations and present highlights of recent results selected from over 25 peer-reviewed journal articles published recently by the GOALS Team. Statistical investigations include detection of high-ionization Fe K emission indicative of deeply embedded AGN, comparison of UV and far-IR properties, investigations of the fraction of extended emission as a function of wavelength derived from mid-IR spectroscopy, mid-IR spectral diagnostics and spectral energy distributions revealing the relative contributions of AGN and starbursts to powering the bolometric luminosity, and quantitative structure analyses that delineate the evolution of stellar bars and nuclear stellar cusps during the merger process. Multiwavelength dissections of individual systems have unveiled large populations of young star clusters and heavily obscured AGN in early-stage (II Zw 96), intermediate-stage (Mrk 266, Mrk 273), and late-stage (NGC 2623, IC 883) mergers. A recently published study that matches numerical simulations to the observed morphology and gas kinematics in mergers has placed four systems on a timeline spanning 175-260 million years after their first passages, and modeling of additional (U)LIRGs is underway. A very

  20. The JEM-EUSO mission: a space observatory to study the origin of Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertaina, M.; Parizot, E.

    2014-11-01

    The Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) onboard the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EUSO) of the International Space Station (ISS) is an innovative space-based mission with the aim of detecting Ultra-High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECRs) from the ISS, by using the Earth's atmosphere as a calorimeter viewed by a fluorescence telescope. An observatory able to produce an arrival direction map with more than several hundreds events above 5 × 1019 eV would give important information on the origin of the UHECRs and identify structures in the sky map that contain information about the source density and/or distribution. This is likely to lead to an understanding of the acceleration mechanisms with a high potential for producing discoveries in astrophysics and/or fundamental physics. The scientific motivations of the mission as well as the current development status of the instrument and its performance are reviewed.

  1. The origin and evolution of the great resonance in the Jovian satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesel, W.

    1981-04-01

    The problem of the creation and subsequent evolution of the great resonance among the three inner Galilean satellites of Jupiter is studied by using a periodic orbit/Floquet reference solution to the dynamics. It is shown that the only instability the system can experience is associated with the great libration. By numerically integrating an unstable periodic orbit, the resonant state which preceded the periodic orbit is characterized. A second numerical experiment demonstrates that this resonant state can be directly entered under the influence of tidal forces, without the prior formation of an individual 2:1 resonance pair. Finally, the method of adiabatic invariants is used to prove that tidal evolution after capture will reduce the amplitude of the great libration to zero. These results enable the assembly of a complete description of the origin and evolution of the great resonance.

  2. Contributions of the "Great" X-Ray Observatories (XMM-Newton and Chandra) to Astronomy and Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin

    2011-01-01

    NASA s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ESA s XMM-Newton made their first observations over a decade ago. The unprecedented and complementary capabilities of these observatories to detect, image, and measure the energy of cosmic X-rays, achieved less than 50 years after the first detection of an extra-solar X-ray source, represent an increase in sensitivity comparable in going from naked-eye observations to the most powerful optical telescopes over the past 400 years. In this presentation we highlight some of the many discoveries made using these powerful X-ray observatories that have transformed 21st century astronomy. We briefly discuss future prospects for this truly exciting field.

  3. Gamma-Ray Flashes of Atmospheric Origin. The Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory Guest Investigator Program: Cycle 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallozzi, Robert S.; Fishman, G. J.; Pendleton, G. N.; Inan, U. S.

    2000-01-01

    The BATSE detectors on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory have recorded the first observations of an unexplained terrestrial phenomenon: brief, intense flashes of MeV photons. These events, known as terrestrial gamma-ray flashes, must originate at altitudes above 30 km to be observed by the orbiting detectors. More than 70 of these events have been observed in nine years of observations. The most likely origin of these high-energy photons is bremsstrahlung from relativistic electrons from high altitude electrical discharges above thunderstorm regions. We proposed to analyze observations of temporal and spectral properties of these events, and to produce a catalog of event characteristics. Temporal correlations with radio observations made at Palmer Station, Antarctica and spatial correlations with satellite images of thunderstorm regions near GRO during these events were investigated, aiding in verification and testing of proposed theoretical models of the atmospheric processes believed to be responsible for these unique observations.

  4. Disseminated lymphoma of presumptive T-cell origin in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Malka, Shachar; Crabbs, Torrie; Mitchell, Elizabeth B; Zehnder, Ashley; Kent, Michael S; Lowenstine, Linda J; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2008-09-01

    A geriatric male great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) that was a resident at a raptor center was presented for examination because of stridor and weight loss. Results of physical examination, diagnostic imaging, and biopsy were consistent with disseminated lymphoma involving the oropharynx, neck region (including thyroid and parathyroid glands), keel, spleen, and liver. Attempts to treat the owl with chlorambucil failed, and the owl was euthanatized 5 months later. Neoplastic cells from this owl were immunoreactive to CD-3 antibody, suggesting the lymphoma was of T-cell origin. PMID:19014096

  5. The Origin of Basin of Great Lakes in Western Mongolia: Glaciated Super Valley, Not Super Flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khukhuudei, Ulambadrakh; Otgonbayar, Orolzodmaa

    2015-04-01

    Research for morphology, its origin of the Basin of Great Lakes in Western Mongolia, is few and far between, particularly, any in recent years. The origin of the morphology of the basin presents a new study, combining previous study materials, their results and interpreting the digital photos. Also the main bases of theory is Pleistocene Last Glacial Maximum distribution. Many scholars have proven that global glaciation covered many areas of the Northern Hemisphere during the Pleistocene era. This global glaciation occurred in the northwest part of Mongolia to Mongolian Altay, Khangay and Khuvsgul mountain range. At the same time, the present appearance of basin that developed inheriting since the Mesozoic era, forms by global glaciation. The morphology of Basin of Great Lakes is super trough or glaciated super valley. At current day, "knock and lochan" topography (scoured region) and rock drumlins lie in the central part of the basin. Huge meltwater from this glaciation formed Shargasub-basin as a super kettle hole by erosion and overflowed water from it formed pluvial basins or big lakes in the Lake Valley.

  6. Climatic influences on wood anatomy and tree-ring features of Great Basin conifers at a new mountain observatory1

    PubMed Central

    Ziaco, Emanuele; Biondi, Franco; Rossi, Sergio; Deslauriers, Annie

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: A network of mountain observing stations has been installed in the Great Basin of North America. NevCAN (Nevada Climate-ecohydrological Assessment Network), which spans a latitudinal range of 2.5° and two elevation ranges of about 2000 m each, enabled us to investigate tree growth in relation to climate. • Methods: We analyzed wood anatomy and tree-ring characteristics of four conifer species in response to different levels of water availability by comparing a low- and a high-elevation population. Chronologies of earlywood and latewood widths, as well as cellular parameters, were developed from the year 2000 to 2012. • Results: At the southern (drier and warmer) sites, Pinus monophylla had smaller cell lumen, tracheid diameter, and cell wall thickness. Pinus monophylla and P. flexilis showed bigger cellular elements at the higher elevations, whereas the opposite pattern was found in Picea engelmannii and Pinus longaeva. When all species and sites were pooled together, stem diameter was positively related with earlywood anatomical parameters. • Discussion: We have provided a glimpse of the applications that NevCAN, as a new scientific tool, could allow in the general field of botany. In particular, we were able to investigate how differences in water stress related to elevation lead to changes in xylem anatomy. PMID:25309838

  7. Lunar Surface Origins Exploration (LunaSOX) -Virtual observatory facility for solar wind plasma interactions with the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John

    A new virtual observatory facility is being will be implemented in support of solar wind and terrestrial magnetospheric plasma interactions with the lunar surface and atmospheric envi-ronments. The NASA Heliophysics virtual observatory approach of open on-line metadata registration, discovery, access, and supporting value-added tools will be applied to selected data products from lunar surface, lunar orbital, and earth-orbiting solar wind monitors. The LunaSOX facilty at lunasox,gsfc.nasa.gov will be operated by a science focus group for NASA's Virtual Heliospheric Observatory. Initial primary focus will be on the Apollo ALSEP solar wind monitor data products already accessible on-line in through the Coordinated Data Anal-ysis Web (CDAWeb) service of the NASA Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF). These data will be recast in forms appropriate for support of the plasma interaction modeling and the new value-added data products will be posted through the virtual observatory. Supporting lunar and Earth orbit data of the Apollo era in the NASA archives will be similarly treated and posted on-line. The LunaSOX virtual observatory will also provide links to other available lunar data. Selected data analysis (e.g., OMNIWeb), orbital ephemeris (SSCWeb), and associated visualization tools of SPDF will be utilized in support of the modeling and virtual observatory efforts. Please contact the author for potential virtual observatory support of specific data products related to plasma interactions with the lunar surface and atmosphere.

  8. Great ape origins of personality maturation and sex differences: a study of orangutans and chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Alexander; King, James E

    2015-04-01

    Human personality development evinces increased emotional stability, prosocial tendencies, and responsibility. One hypothesis offered to explain this pattern is Social-Investment Theory, which posits that culturally defined social roles, including marriage and employment, are responsible for the increased maturity. Alternatively, Five-Factor Theory emphasizes the role of biological factors, such as those governing physical development, which may predate the emergence of humans. Five-Factor Theory, unlike Social-Investment Theory, predicts that all or some of the human personality developmental trends should be present in great apes, our closest evolutionary relatives. To test this prediction and to better understand the evolutionary origins of sex differences, we examined age and sex differences in the chimpanzee and orangutan personality domains Extraversion, Dominance, Neuroticism, and Agreeableness. We also examined the Activity and Gregariousness facets of Extraversion and the orangutan Intellect domain. Extraversion and Neuroticism declined across age groups in both species, in common with humans. A significant interaction indicated that Agreeableness declined in orangutans but increased in chimpanzees, as it does in humans, though this may reflect differences in how Agreeableness was defined in each species. Significant interactions indicated that male chimpanzees, unlike male orangutans, displayed higher Neuroticism scores than females and maintained higher levels of Activity and Dominance into old age than female chimpanzees, male orangutans, and female orangutans. Personality-age correlations were comparable across orangutans and chimpanzees and were similar to those reported in human studies. Sex differences were stronger in chimpanzees than in humans or orangutans. These findings support Five-Factor Theory, suggest the role of gene-culture coevolution in shaping personality development, and suggest that sex differences evolved independently in different

  9. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…

  10. A Virtual Observatory Census to Address Dwarfs Origins (AVOCADO). I. Science goals, sample selection, and analysis tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Amorín, R.; García-Vargas, M.; Gomes, J. M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Jiménez-Esteban, F.; Mollá, M.; Papaderos, P.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Rodrigo, C.; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Solano, E.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Even though they are by far the most abundant of all galaxy types, the detailed properties of dwarf galaxies are still only poorly characterised - especially because of the observational challenge that their intrinsic faintness and weak clustering properties represent. Aims: AVOCADO aims at establishing firm conclusions on the formation and evolution of dwarf galaxies by constructing and analysing a homogeneous, multiwavelength dataset for a statistically significant sample of approximately 6500 nearby dwarfs (Mi - 5 log h100 > - 18 mag). The sample is selected to lie within the 20 < D < 60 h100-1 Mpc volume covered by the SDSS-DR7 footprint, and is thus volume-limited for Mi - 5 log h100 < -16 mag dwarfs - but includes ≈1500 fainter systems. We will investigate the roles of mass and environment in determining the current properties of the different dwarf morphological types - including their structure, their star formation activity, their chemical enrichment history, and a breakdown of their stellar, dust, and gas content. Methods: We present the sample selection criteria and describe the suite of analysis tools, some of them developed in the framework of the Virtual Observatory. We use optical spectra and UV-to-NIR imaging of the dwarf sample to derive star formation rates, stellar masses, ages, and metallicities - which are supplemented with structural parameters that are used to classify them morphologically. This unique dataset, coupled with a detailed characterisation of each dwarf's environment, allows for a fully comprehensive investigation of their origins and enables us to track the (potential) evolutionary paths between the different dwarf types. Results: We characterise the local environment of all dwarfs in our sample, paying special attention to trends with current star formation activity. We find that virtually all quiescent dwarfs are located in the vicinity (projected distances ≲ 1.5 h100-1 Mpc) of ≳ L∗ companions, consistent with

  11. A Sun-to-Earth Campaign Joining Observations from the Great Observatory with Worldwide Satellite and Ground-Based Resources to Investigate System Science Frontiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozyra, J. U.; Shibata, K.; Barnes, R. J.; Basu, S.; Davila, J. M.; Fox, N. J.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Pallamraju, D.; Paxton, L. J.; Ridley, A.; Weiss, M.; Young, C. A.; Zanetti, L. J.

    2006-05-01

    An Internet-based cross-disciplinary analysis campaign that will make heavy use of Great Observatory missions as well as international satellite and ground-based assets is being undertaken with joint support from the CAWSES, IHY, LWS, and ICESTAR programs planned for late April or early May 2006. An evolving list of open science questions that serve as sun-to-Earth focus areas for the worldwide campaign were identified during a small interdisciplinary CAWSES workshop at Stanford University in December 2005 as well as during a joint CAWSES/ICESTAR session at the CEDAR meeting in Boulder the preceding summer. The analysis campaign will take place over the Internet in the form of virtual poster sessions with message boards and monitors that summarize the important science issues and new results daily. Poster authors will be asked to closely monitor their message boards during the day of their poster session as well as the following day. Outreach to other disciplines and international students will take the form of tutorial talks that place campaign science issues into the context of the current state of knowledge in each discipline area. Global models and data sets (TEC, magnetometer maps, ULF wave maps, assimilative models, MHD model outputs, continuous solar images) will be available to provide context for local and regional observations. The Community Coordinated Data Center (CCMC) is developing a small number of new data display formats that extract data from global models and place it in the same format as the observations either for ground-based stations or along satellite tracks. Other ideas being explored include real time upload of additional posters in response to issues raised during the poster session, library of related articles, reference archive of observations, etc. A summary of which aspects and/or tools worked and which were less useful will be presented.

  12. New data on mitochondrial diversity and origin of Hemimysis anomala in the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Questel, Jennifer M.; Walsh, Maureen G.; Smith, Randall J., Jr.; Welsh, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    The most recent Ponto-Caspian species to invade the Laurentian Great Lakes is the crustacean Hemimysis anomala, first reported in 2006. A previous study described three haplotype groups (A, B, C) of H. anomala in native and invaded areas within Europe, but only one haplotype (A1) in a sample from Lake Michigan. Our study expands these results to additional populations in the Great Lakes basin, and evaluates relationships among North American and European populations. A 549-bp fragment of themitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene was analyzed from populations of H. anomala in Lakes Ontario, Erie, Huron, and the St. Lawrence River.Two different haplotypes, A1 and B1,were observed in the sampled populations of H. anomala and in a previous analysis from H. anomala in Oneida Lake (New York). Our results, in contrast with a previous study, detect an additional haplotype in North America.

  13. Recently recovered Kenyapithecus mandible and its implications for great ape and human origins.

    PubMed

    McCrossin, M L; Benefit, B R

    1993-03-01

    We report here a Kenyapithecus africanus juvenile mandible recovered from middle Miocene (ca. 14-16 million years) deposits of Maboko Island (Lake Victoria), Kenya. Symphyseal and dental attributes of the mandible distinguish K. africanus, a species widely regarded as the earliest known member of the great ape and human clade, from other Miocene large-bodied hominoids. The Maboko Island mandible exhibits a markedly proclined symphyseal axis, massive inferior transverse torus, mesiodistally narrow, high-crowned, and strongly procumbent lateral incisor, and molars with cingula restricted to the median buccal cleft. Although the presence of some of these conditions in Kenyapithecus was suggested earlier, the fragmentary and ill-preserved nature of previously known specimens led certain authorities to doubt their validity. Our assessment of mandibular and dental morphology indicates that K. africanus diverged after Proconsul and Griphopithecus but prior to the last common ancestor of Sivapithecus, extant great apes, and humans. The robustly constructed mandibular symphysis and anterior dentition suggest that incisal biting played as important a role as thick molar enamel in the dietary adaptations of K. africanus. PMID:8446615

  14. Characterization and origin of polar dissolved organic matter from the Great Salt Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.; Rostad, C.E.; Davisson, M.L.

    2004-01-01

    Polar dissolved organic matter (DOM) was isolated from a surface-water sample from the Great Salt Lake by separating it from colloidal organic matter by membrane dialysis, from less-polar DOM fractions by resin sorbents, and from inorganic salts by a combination of sodium cation exchange followed by precipitation of sodium salts by acetic acid during evaporative concentration. Polar DOM was the most abundant DOM fraction, accounting for 56% of the isolated DOM. Colloidal organic matter was 14C-age dated to be about 100% modern carbon and all of the DOM fractions were 14C-age dated to be between 94 and 95% modern carbon. Average structural models of each DOM fraction were derived that incorporated quantitative elemental and infrared, 13C-NMR, and electrospray/mass spectrometric data. The polar DOM model consisted of open-chain N-acetyl hydroxy carboxylic acids likely derived from N-acetyl heteropolysaccharides that constituted the colloidal organic matter. The less polar DOM fraction models consisted of aliphatic alicyclic ring structures substituted with carboxyl, hydroxyl, ether, ester, and methyl groups. These ring structures had characteristics similar to terpenoid precursors. All DOM fractions in the Great Salt Lake are derived from algae and bacteria that dominate DOM inputs in this lake.

  15. Recently recovered Kenyapithecus mandible and its implications for great ape and human origins.

    PubMed Central

    McCrossin, M L; Benefit, B R

    1993-01-01

    We report here a Kenyapithecus africanus juvenile mandible recovered from middle Miocene (ca. 14-16 million years) deposits of Maboko Island (Lake Victoria), Kenya. Symphyseal and dental attributes of the mandible distinguish K. africanus, a species widely regarded as the earliest known member of the great ape and human clade, from other Miocene large-bodied hominoids. The Maboko Island mandible exhibits a markedly proclined symphyseal axis, massive inferior transverse torus, mesiodistally narrow, high-crowned, and strongly procumbent lateral incisor, and molars with cingula restricted to the median buccal cleft. Although the presence of some of these conditions in Kenyapithecus was suggested earlier, the fragmentary and ill-preserved nature of previously known specimens led certain authorities to doubt their validity. Our assessment of mandibular and dental morphology indicates that K. africanus diverged after Proconsul and Griphopithecus but prior to the last common ancestor of Sivapithecus, extant great apes, and humans. The robustly constructed mandibular symphysis and anterior dentition suggest that incisal biting played as important a role as thick molar enamel in the dietary adaptations of K. africanus. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8446615

  16. CONSTRAINTS ON THE ORIGIN OF COSMIC RAYS ABOVE 10{sup 18} eV FROM LARGE-SCALE ANISOTROPY SEARCHES IN DATA OF THE PIERRE AUGER OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.; Andringa, S.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Castillo, J. Alvarez; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aramo, C.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Antici'c, T.; Arganda, E.; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration; and others

    2013-01-01

    A thorough search for large-scale anisotropies in the distribution of arrival directions of cosmic rays detected above 10{sup 18} eV at the Pierre Auger Observatory is reported. For the first time, these large-scale anisotropy searches are performed as a function of both the right ascension and the declination and expressed in terms of dipole and quadrupole moments. Within the systematic uncertainties, no significant deviation from isotropy is revealed. Upper limits on dipole and quadrupole amplitudes are derived under the hypothesis that any cosmic ray anisotropy is dominated by such moments in this energy range. These upper limits provide constraints on the production of cosmic rays above 10{sup 18} eV, since they allow us to challenge an origin from stationary galactic sources densely distributed in the galactic disk and emitting predominantly light particles in all directions.

  17. Performance as Promised: How the Chandra X-ray Observatory Accomplished One of Nasa's Most Challenging Missions for Billions of Dollars Less than Originally Planned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Greg; Hefner, Keith

    2004-01-01

    As the nation looks toward bold new ventures in space, the Chandra X-ray Observatory program offers an example of how billion-dollar missions can be successfully developed within tightening fiscal constraints. Chandra experienced many of challenges facing bold space programs (state-of-the-art technical requirements and budget-induced slips and restructurings), and yet the Chandra team achieved nearly all the originally envisioned performance for dramatically lower cost. This was accomplished by a combination of team- work, systems engineering, advanced technology insertion, and effective approaches for program implementation. A thorough tradeoff of science utility vs. cost led to the selection of a highly elliptical orbit with uncrewed robotic delivery, deployment, and maintenance. Progressive, focused technology demonstrations were accomplished prior to commitment of major resources to critical elements of the system design, such as the high resolution mirror assembly (HRMA). Pathfinder hardware was developed to reduce risks. A variety of schedule risk reduction measures were implemented and resulted in the X-ray calibration taking place exactly within five days of its originally planned date after after five years of development. The team worked together in an effective manner to contain requirements creep. reductions such as the ACIS-2 chip device. It is estimated that the above combination of measures achieved the avoidance of over $4B in costs, while enabling a highly successful mission.

  18. Astronomical observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, D. N.

    1983-01-01

    The layout and equipment of astronomical observatories, the oldest scientific institutions of human society are discussed. The example of leading observatories of the USSR allows the reader to familiarize himself with both their modern counterparts, as well as the goals and problems on which astronomers are presently working.

  19. Ondrejov Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Ondrejov Observatory is located 20 miles from Prague in the village of Ondrejov. It was established in 1898 as a private observatory and donated to the state of Czechoslovakia in 1928. Since 1953 it has been part of the Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic; there are 40 astronomers....

  20. Amateur Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavin, M.

    1997-08-01

    A roundup of amateur observatories in this country and abroad, with construction and location details, concluding with a detailed description and architect's drawing of the author's own observatory at Worcester Park, Surrey. The text of the 1996 Presidential Address to the British Astronomical Association.

  1. Architecture, heterogeneity, and origin of late Miocene fluvial deposits hosting the most important aquifer in the Great Plains, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joeckel, R. M.; Wooden, S. R.; Korus, J. T.; Garbisch, J. O.

    2014-08-01

    The Ash Hollow Formation (AHF) of the Ogallala Group is an important sedimentary archive of the emergence of the Great Plains and it contains major groundwater resources. Stratal patterns of constituent alluvial lithofacies demonstrate that the AHF is much more heterogeneous than is commonly assumed. Very fine- to fine-grained sandstone dominate overall, chiefly lithofacies Sm (massive to locally stratified sandstone). Stacked, thin sheets of Sm with accretionary macroform surfaces are common, indicating that many sandstone architectural elements originated as compound-bar deposits in dominantly sand-bed streams. Channel forms are difficult to identify and steep cutbanks are absent. Multiple units of lithofacies Sm show dense, and sometimes deep, burrowing by insects well above water tables under ancient floodplains. Massive, pedogenically modified siltstones (Fm), which compose floodplain fine architectural elements, are subsidiary in volumetric abundance to sandstones. Paleosols in these siltstones lack evidence for well-developed B horizons and advanced stages of maturity. Thin lenses of impure carbonate and laminated mud (lithofacies association Fl + C), which appear in most exposures, are deposits of ponded water in abandoned channels. Paleosols, ponded-water elements, and large vertebrate burrows in both Sm and Fm indicate that episodes of floodplain deposition, bar accretion, and channel filling were regularly followed by intervals of nondeposition on floodplains and by channel migration and abandonment. This study documents a major downdip change in the Ogallala Group overall, from source-proximal gravelly successions in the Wyoming Gangplank and deep, narrow paleovalley fills extending eastward into the Nebraska Panhandle. The lithofacies composition, stratigraphic architecture, and stratal dimensions of the AHF in the present study area are compatible with the planform geometries and floodplain soils of modestly-sized, sandy, low-sinuosity braided streams

  2. Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake

    PubMed Central

    Harris, L N; Chavarie, L; Bajno, R; Howland, K L; Wiley, S H; Tonn, W M; Taylor, E B

    2015-01-01

    Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing in sympatry, for example, have now been described in many species, yet few studies have directly assessed the association between morphological and genetic variation. Morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, are found in several large-lake systems including Great Bear Lake (GBL), Northwest Territories, Canada, where several shallow-water forms are known. Here, we assess microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation among four morphotypes of Lake Trout from the five distinct arms of GBL, and also from locations outside of this system to evaluate several hypotheses concerning the evolution of morphological variation in this species. Our data indicate that morphotypes of Lake Trout from GBL are genetically differentiated from one another, yet the morphotypes are still genetically more similar to one another compared with populations from outside of this system. Furthermore, our data suggest that Lake Trout colonized GBL following dispersal from a single glacial refugium (the Mississippian) and support an intra-lake model of divergence. Overall, our study provides insights into the origins of morphological and genetic variation in post-glacial populations of fishes and provides benchmarks important for monitoring Lake Trout biodiversity in a region thought to be disproportionately susceptible to impacts from climate change. PMID:25204304

  3. Evolution and origin of sympatric shallow-water morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Canada's Great Bear Lake.

    PubMed

    Harris, L N; Chavarie, L; Bajno, R; Howland, K L; Wiley, S H; Tonn, W M; Taylor, E B

    2015-01-01

    Range expansion in north-temperate fishes subsequent to the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciers has resulted in the rapid colonization of previously unexploited, heterogeneous habitats and, in many situations, secondary contact among conspecific lineages that were once previously isolated. Such ecological opportunity coupled with reduced competition likely promoted morphological and genetic differentiation within and among post-glacial fish populations. Discrete morphological forms existing in sympatry, for example, have now been described in many species, yet few studies have directly assessed the association between morphological and genetic variation. Morphotypes of Lake Trout, Salvelinus namaycush, are found in several large-lake systems including Great Bear Lake (GBL), Northwest Territories, Canada, where several shallow-water forms are known. Here, we assess microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA variation among four morphotypes of Lake Trout from the five distinct arms of GBL, and also from locations outside of this system to evaluate several hypotheses concerning the evolution of morphological variation in this species. Our data indicate that morphotypes of Lake Trout from GBL are genetically differentiated from one another, yet the morphotypes are still genetically more similar to one another compared with populations from outside of this system. Furthermore, our data suggest that Lake Trout colonized GBL following dispersal from a single glacial refugium (the Mississippian) and support an intra-lake model of divergence. Overall, our study provides insights into the origins of morphological and genetic variation in post-glacial populations of fishes and provides benchmarks important for monitoring Lake Trout biodiversity in a region thought to be disproportionately susceptible to impacts from climate change. PMID:25204304

  4. Great Galactic Buddies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 8.15 Billion Lightyears8.59 Billion Lightyears8.98 Billion Lightyears 9.09 Billion Lightyears

    Like great friends, galaxies stick together. Astronomers using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope have spotted a handful of great galactic pals bonding back when the universe was a mere 4.6 billion years old. The universe is believed to be 13.7 billion years old.

    Collectively, these great galactic buddies are called galaxy clusters. A typical galaxy cluster can contain hundreds of galaxies and trillions of stars.

    In this false-color composite, some of the oldest galaxy clusters in the universe pose for Spitzer's infrared array camera. The individual galaxies that make up the distant clusters are shown as red dots in all four images.

    The green blobs are Milky Way stars along the line of sight, and the blue specks are faint galaxies at various distances along the line of sight. The green and blue data are from a visible-light, ground-based telescope.

    The cluster at 9.1 billion light-years away (lower right panel) is currently the most distant galaxy cluster ever detected.

    These images are three-color composites, in which blue represents visible light with a wavelength of 0.4 microns, and green indicates visible light of 0.8 microns. The visible data were captured by the ground-based Mosaic I camera at the Kitt Peak National Observatory in Tucson, Ariz. Red represents infrared light of 4.5 microns, captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera.

  5. Taosi Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Taosi observatory is the remains of a structure discovered at the later Neolithic Taosi site located in Xiangfen County, Shanxi Province, in north-central China. The structure is a walled enclosure on a raised platform. Only rammed-earth foundations of the structure remained. Archaeoastronomical studies suggest that this structure functioned as an astronomical observatory. Historical circumstantial evidence suggests that it was probably related to the legendary kingdom of Yao from the twenty-first century BC.

  6. THE GREAT OBSERVATORIES ORIGINS DEEP SURVEY: CONSTRAINTS ON THE LYMAN CONTINUUM ESCAPE FRACTION DISTRIBUTION OF LYMAN-BREAK GALAXIES AT 3.4 < z < 4.5

    SciTech Connect

    Vanzella, E.; Nonino, M.; Fontanot, F.; Cristiani, S.; Tozzi, P.; Giavalisco, M.; Inoue, A. K.; Grazian, A.; Giallongo, E.; Boutsia, K.; Fontana, A.; Pentericci, L.; Dickinson, M.; Stern, D.; Ferguson, H.; Spinrad, H.; Rosati, P.

    2010-12-10

    We use ultra-deep ultraviolet VLT/VIMOS intermediate-band and VLT/FORS1 narrowband imaging in the GOODS Southern field to derive limits on the distribution of the escape fraction (f{sub esc}) of ionizing radiation for L {>=} L*{sub z=3} Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at redshift 3.4-4.5. Only one LBG, at redshift z = 3.795, is detected in its Lyman continuum (LyC; S/N {approx_equal} 5.5), the highest redshift galaxy currently known with a direct detection. Its ultraviolet morphology is quite compact (R{sub eff} = 0.8 kpc physical). Three out of seven active galactic nuclei are also detected in their LyC, including one at redshift z = 3.951 and z{sub 850} = 26.1. From stacked data (LBGs), we set an upper limit to the average f{sub esc} in the range 5%-20%, depending on how the data are selected (e.g., by magnitude and/or redshift). We undertake extensive Monte Carlo simulations that take into account intergalactic attenuation, stellar population synthesis models, dust extinction, and photometric noise in order to explore the moments of the distribution of the escaping radiation. Various distributions (exponential, log-normal, and Gaussian) are explored. We find that the median f{sub esc} is lower than {approx_equal}6% with an 84% percentile limit not larger than 20%. If this result remains valid for fainter LBGs down to current observational limits, then the LBG population might be not sufficient to account for the entire photoionization budget at the redshifts considered here, with the exact details dependent upon the assumed ionizing background and QSO contribution thereto. It is possible that f{sub esc} depends on the UV luminosity of the galaxies, with fainter galaxies having higher f{sub esc}, and estimates of f{sub esc} from a sample of faint LBGs from HUDF (i{sub 775} {<=}28.5) are in broad quantitative agreement with such a scenario.

  7. Keele Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorus van Loon, Jacco; Albinson, James; Bagnall, Alan; Bryant, Lian; Caisley, Dave; Doody, Stephen; Johnson, Ian; Klimczak, Paul; Maddison, Ron; Robinson, StJohn; Stretch, Matthew; Webb, John

    2015-08-01

    Keele Observatory was founded by Dr. Ron Maddison in 1962, on the hill-top campus of Keele University in central England, hosting the 1876 Grubb 31cm refractor from Oxford Observatory. It since acquired a 61cm research reflector, a 15cm Halpha solar telescope and a range of other telescopes. Run by a group of volunteering engineers and students under directorship of a Keele astrophysicist, it is used for public outreach as well as research. About 4,000 people visit the observatory every year, including a large number of children. We present the facility, its history - including involvement in the 1919 Eddington solar eclipse expedition which proved Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity - and its ambitions to erect a radio telescope on its site.

  8. The so-called Great Spanish Influenza Pandemic of 1918 may have originated in France in 1916.

    PubMed Central

    Oxford, J S

    2001-01-01

    This discussion piece examines the likely epicentre of the influenza pandemic of 1918-1919. Contrary to previous studies that have proposed a Chinese origin, there is documentation that suggests that, in this instance, the virus spread eastwards to China from Europe. Although more recent oubreaks of influenza have undoubtedly had an Oriental origin, the evidence indicates that future outbreaks could conceivably arise anywhere in the world. PMID:11779384

  9. In Brief: Chandra Observatory marks 10 years in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-08-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, originally envisioned as a 5-year mission, was deployed into an elliptical orbit around Earth 10 years ago, on 23 July 1999. The most powerful X-ray telescope yet, Chandra has provided a peak into the high-energy universe and has independently confirmed the existence of dark energy. Martin Weisskopf, Chandra project scientist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., said discoveries made possible by the observatory “have made dramatic changes to our understanding of the universe and its constituents.” “The Great Observatories program—of which Chandra is a major part—shows how astronomers need as many tools as possible to tackle the big questions out there,” said Ed Weiler, associate administrator of NASA's Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. The Hubble Space Telescope, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, and Spitzer Space Telescope are NASA's other Great Observatories. For more information, visit http://chandra.harvard.edu/ten/ and http://chandra.nasa.gov.

  10. Tools for Coordinated Planning Between Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jeremy; Fishman, Mark; Grella, Vince; Kerbel, Uri; Maks, Lori; Misra, Dharitri; Pell, Vince; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    With the realization of NASA's era of great observatories, there are now more than three space-based telescopes operating in different wavebands. This situation provides astronomers with a unique opportunity to simultaneously observe with multiple observatories. Yet scheduling multiple observatories simultaneously is highly inefficient when compared to observations using only one single observatory. Thus, programs using multiple observatories are limited not due to scientific restrictions, but due to operational inefficiencies. At present, multi-observatory programs are conducted by submitting observing proposals separately to each concerned observatory. To assure that the proposed observations can be scheduled, each observatory's staff has to check that the observations are valid and meet all the constraints for their own observatory; in addition, they have to verify that the observations satisfy the constraints of the other observatories. Thus, coordinated observations require painstaking manual collaboration among the observatory staff at each observatory. Due to the lack of automated tools for coordinated observations, this process is time consuming, error-prone, and the outcome of the requests is not certain until the very end. To increase observatory operations efficiency, such manpower intensive processes need to undergo re-engineering. To overcome this critical deficiency, Goddard Space Flight Center's Advanced Architectures and Automation Branch is developing a prototype effort called the Visual Observation Layout Tool (VOLT). The main objective of the VOLT project is to provide visual tools to help automate the planning of coordinated observations by multiple astronomical observatories, as well as to increase the scheduling probability of all observations.

  11. Why is the Great Red Spot Red? The Exogenic, Photolytic Origin of the UV/Blue-Absorbing Chromophores of Jupiter’s Great Red Spot as Determined by Spectral Analysis of Cassini/VIMS Observations using New Laboratory Optical Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baines, Kevin H.; Carlson, Robert W.; Momary, Thomas W.

    2014-11-01

    For centuries, a major question for Jupiter has been: Why is the Great Red Spot red? In particular, two major theories have been proposed: (1) that the coloring is due to photolytic processes in the upper cloud layer, or (2) it is due to the upwellimg of red materials processed relatively deep within the troposphere. Utilizing indices of refraction for red choromophores generated by the photolysis of ammonia and acetylene in the laboratory, we present results of a spectral analysis of the core of Jupiter’s Great Red Spot (GRS) as observed by the visual channel of the Cassini/Visual Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS). Consistent with the physical origin of such laboratory-generated chromophores in Jupiter - i.e., by solar-driven UV photolysis within the upper levels of the GRS structure near ~ 0.3 bar - our spectral modeling yields satisfactory results for such Mie scattering chromophores only when they are confined to the upper ~ 100 mbar of the GRS. Beneath this reddish upper cloud layer, our models indicate that the remainder of the GRS cloud - assumed to extend down to at least the ammonia condensation level near 0.6 bar - must be relatively spectrally bright throughout the UV-red spectrum; that is, they must be predominantly a whitish or grey color at depth. Thus, our 0.35-1.0 micron spectral models of the GRS are inconsistent with an endogenic origin of the reddish coloring originating in the depths of Jupiter, but are consistent with a photolytic origin due to the photolysis of ammonia and acetylene in the upper troposphere.

  12. Genetic effects of habitat restoration in the Laurentian Great Lakes: an assessment of lake sturgeon origin and genetic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jamie Marie Marranca; Amy Welsh; Roseman, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) have experienced significant habitat loss, resulting in reduced population sizes. Three artificial reefs were built in the Huron-Erie corridor in the Great Lakes to replace lost spawning habitat. Genetic data were collected to determine the source and numbers of adult lake sturgeon spawning on the reefs and to determine if the founder effect resulted in reduced genetic diversity. DNA was extracted from larval tail clips and 12 microsatellite loci were amplified. Larval genotypes were then compared to 22 previously studied spawning lake sturgeon populations in the Great Lakes to determine the source of the parental population. The effective number of breeders (Nb) was calculated for each reef cohort. The larval genotypes were then compared to the source population to determine if there were any losses in genetic diversity that are indicative of the founder effect. The St. Clair and Detroit River adult populations were found to be the source parental population for the larvae collected on all three artificial reefs. There were large numbers of contributing adults relative to the number of sampled larvae. There was no significant difference between levels of genetic diversity in the source population and larval samples from the artificial reefs; however, there is some evidence for a genetic bottleneck in the reef populations likely due to the founder effect. Habitat restoration in the Huron-Erie corridor is likely resulting in increased habitat for the large lake sturgeon population in the system and in maintenance of the population's genetic diversity.

  13. Grand Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Eric W.

    2002-01-01

    Various concepts have been recently presented for a 100 m class astronomical observatory. The science virtues of such an observatory are many: resolving planets orbiting around other stars, resolving the surface features of other stars, extending our temporal reach back toward the beginning (at and before stellar and galactic development), improving on the Next Generation Space Telescope, and other (perhaps as yet) undiscovered purposes. This observatory would be a general facility instrument with wide spectral range from at least the near ultraviolet to the mid infrared. The concept espoused here is based on a practical, modular design located in a place where temperatures remain (and instruments could operate) within several degrees of absolute zero with no shielding or cooling. This location is the bottom of a crater located near the north or south pole of the moon, most probably the South Polar Depression. In such a location the telescope would never see the sun or the earth, hence the profound cold and absence of stray light. The ideal nature of this location is elaborated herein. It is envisioned that this observatory would be assembled and maintained remotely through the use of expert robotic systems. A base station would be located above the crater rim with (at least occasional) direct line-of-sight access to the earth. Certainly it would be advantageous, but not absolutely essential, to have humans travel to the site to deal with unexpected contingencies. Further, observers and their teams could eventually travel there for extended observational campaigns. Educational activities, in general, could be furthered thru extended human presence. Even recreational visitors and long term habitation might follow.

  14. Origin of the great dichotomy of the Solar System: small terrestrial embryos and massive giant planet cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbidelli, Alessandro; Lambrechts, Michiel; Bitsch, Bertram; Jacobson, Seth

    2015-08-01

    The basic structure of the solar system is set by the presence of low-mass terrestrial planets in its inner part and giant planets in its outer part. This is the result of the formation of a system of multiple Mars-mass embryos in the inner disk and of a few multi-Earth-mass cores in the outer part, within the lifetime of the gaseous component of the protoplanetary disk. What was the origin of this dichotomy in the mass distribution of embryos/cores? We show in this paper that the classic processes of runaway and oligarchic growth from a disk of planetesimals can not explain this dichotomy, even if the original surface density of solids increased at the snowline. Instead, the accretion of drifting pebbles by embryos/cores can explain the dichotomy, provided that some assumptions hold true. We propose that the mass flow of pebbles is two-times lower and the characteristic size of the pebbles is ten times smaller within the snowline than beyond the snowline (respectively at r < r_ice and r > r_ice, where r_ice is the snowline heliocentric distance), due to ice sublimation and the splitting of icy pebbles into a collection of chondrule-size silicate grains. In this case, objects of original sub-lunar mass would grow at drastically different rates in the two regions of the disk. Within the snowline these bodies would reach approximately the mass of Mars while beyond the snowline they would grow to 20 Earth masses. The results may change quantitatively with the assumed parameters, but the establishment of a clear dichotomy in the mass distribution of protoplanets appears robust.

  15. Do comets C/1861 G1 (Thatcher) and C/1861 J1 (Great comet) have a common origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branham, R. L.

    2015-10-01

    A new orbit is calculated for Comet C/1861 G1 (Thatcher), associated with the Lyrid meteor shower, to replace Oppolzer's orbit of 1864. The new orbit is based upon 649 observations, 326 in right ascension and 323 in declination, made between 11 April 1861 and 7 Sept. 1861. The final orbit uses residuals calculated with the Welsch weighting function. The comet's period of 416.87 ± 0.56 yr agrees with Oppolzer's period of 415 yr athough other elements such as the inclination differ. Although the post-perihelion residuals are relatively random, 52.1% probability of randomness, pre-perihelion residuals lack randomness indicating possible deviations from Keplerian motion caused by ejection of meteoritic material. Comet Thatcher is unrelated to the Great comet of 1861.

  16. The great lunar hot spot and the composition and origin of the Apollo mafic (``LKFM'') impact-melt breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    2000-02-01

    Thorium-rich, mafic impact-melt breccias from the Apollo 14-17 missions, that is, those breccias identified with the composition known as ``LKFM,'' are regarded largely as products of basin-forming impacts that penetrated the feldspathic crust and sampled underlying mafic material and magma-ocean residuum carrying the compositional signature of KREEP (potassium, rare earth elements, phosphorous). Despite considerable compositional variation among such breccias, compositions of all of them correspond to mixtures of only four components: (1) a norite with composition generally similar to that of Apollo 15 basalt (mean abundance: 58% range: ~30-95%), (2) Fo~90 dunite (mean: 13%, range: 1-27%), (3) feldspathic upper crust (mean: 29%, range: 4-50%), and FeNi metal (0.1-1.7%). Petrographic evidence has shown that much of the feldspathic component, but none of the KREEP component, is clastic. This observation and the high proportion of KREEP norite component in the breccias suggest that the melt zone of the impact or impacts forming the breccias contained little feldspathic material but consisted predominantly of material with the average composition of KREEP norite. The dunite component probably derives ultimately from the upper mantle. These conclusions support the hypothesis that the breccias were not formed in typical feldspathic crust but instead by one or more impacts into what is designated here ``the great lunar hot spot,'' that is, the anomalous Th-rich terrane in the Imbrium-Procellarum area identified by the Apollo and Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectrometers. The LKFM composition is a special product of the great lunar hot spot and is not the average composition of the lower crust in typical feldspathic highlands. Similarly, Mg-suite and alkali-suite plutonic rocks of the Apollo collection are likely all differentiation products of the hot spot, not of plutons that might occur in typical feldspathic crust.

  17. Tools for Coordinating Planning Between Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J.; Maks, L.; Fishman, M.; Grella, V.; Kerbel, U.; Misra, D.; Pell, V.

    With the realization of NASA's era of great observatories, there are now more than three space-based telescopes operating in different wave bands. This situation provides astronomers with a unique opportunity to simultaneously observe with multiple observatories. Yet scheduling multiple observatories simultaneously is highly inefficient when compared to observations using only a single observatory. Thus, programs using multiple observatories are limited not by scientific restrictions, but by operational inefficiencies. At present, multi-observatory programs are initiated by submitting observing proposals separately to each concerned observatory. To assure that the proposed observations can be scheduled, each observatory's staff has to check that the observations are valid and meet all constraints for their own observatory; in addition, they have to verify that the observations satisfy the constraints of the other observatories. Thus, coordinated observations require painstaking manual collaboration among staffs at each observatory. Due to the lack of automated tools for coordinated observations, this process is time consuming and error-prone, and the outcome of requests is not certain until the very end. To increase multi-observatory operations efficiency, such resource intensive processes need to be re-engineered. To overcome this critical deficiency, Goddard Space Flight Center's Advanced Architectures and Automation Branch is developing a prototype called the Visual Observation Layout Tool (VOLT). The main objective of VOLT is to provide visual tools to help automate the planning of coordinated observations by multiple astronomical observatories, as well as to increase the probability of scheduling all observations.

  18. Origins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of resources dealing with the theme of origins of life, the universe, and traditions. Includes Web sites, videos, books, audio materials, and magazines with appropriate grade levels and/or subject disciplines indicated; professional resources; and learning activities. (LRW)

  19. The Great Wall in the CfA survey - Its origin and imprint on the microwave background radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atrio-Barandela, F.; Kashlinsky, A.

    1992-01-01

    The paper models the evolution of the Great Wall (GW) after recombination and the influence of its time-dependent gravitational potential on the MBR. It is shown that within the framework of the Zel'dovich approximation the (pre)GW region can be treated as an ellipsoid. The GW is approximated as an oblate ellipsoid that started at recombination with an almost spherical shape, but with initial density contrast, delta-i, much smaller than it had to be in the spherical model in order to reach the observed density contrast of beta-f of 5. The resultant delta-i is compatible with the rms value of delta-rho/rho on the GW scale at recombination for models with the n less than 0 power spectrum of the primordial density field. It is shown that the time-dependent potential of the GW will induce a detectable fluctuation in MBR. The possibility of similar structures located at higher redshifts producing measurable and perhaps dominant statistical MBR anisotropies by this effect is also discussed.

  20. The history of Vienna University Observatory - illustrated by its historical instruments and by a typoscript by Johann Steinmayr. (Original Title: Die Geschichte der Universitätssternwarte Wien - Dargestellt anhand ihrer historischen Instrumente und eines Typoskripts von Johann Steinmayr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen; Müller, Isolde; Posch, Thomas

    The present Institute for Astronomy of Vienna University comprises an important collection of historical instruments. They originate, among others, from the holdings of historical observatories, starting from the Jesuit observatory of the first half of the 18th century. The present volume offers a presentation of all instruments in photos and descriptions. Among those are telescopes from two centuries, angle measuring devices, clocks, globes, as well as various auxiliary instruments for positional astronomy and for astrophysical researches. Also instruments from Vienniese workshops, which document the high level of local instrument construction, are included in the collection. The second part of the book contains the first publication of the history of the Viennese observatories by Johann Steinmayr, written in 1932-1935, and preceded by a biographical essay by Nora Pärr. His text is based on an extensive study of sources and is until now the most complete of its kind, Steinmayr, who was a member of the Society of Jesus, was sentenced to death in 1944 by the national socialist People's Court because of his involvement in the Austrian resistance movement.

  1. Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011: Cloud particles containing ammonia and water ices indicate a deep convective origin. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, L. A.; Baines, K. H.; Fry, P.

    2013-12-01

    Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011 was first detected by amateur astronomers in early December 2010 and later found in Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) images taken on 5 December, when it took the form of a 1000 km wide bright spot. Within a week the head of the storm grew by a factor of ten in width and within a few months created a wake that encircled the planet. This is the sixth Great Saturn Storm in recorded history, all having appeared in the northern hemisphere, and most near northern summer solstice at intervals of roughly 30 years (Sanchez-Lavega et al. 1991, Nature 353, 397-401). That the most recent storm appeared 10 years early proved fortunate because Cassini was still operating in orbit around Saturn and was able to provide unique observations from which we could learn much more about these rare and enormous events. Besides the dramatic dynamical effects displayed at the visible cloud level by high-resolution imaging observations (Sayanagi et al. 2013, Icarus 223, 460-478), dramatic thermal changes also occurred in the stratosphere above the storm (Fletcher et al. 2011, Science 332, 1413), and radio measurements of lightning (Fischer et al., 2011, Nature 475, 75-77) indicated strong convective activity at deeper levels. Numerical models of Saturn's Giant storms (Hueso and Sanchez-Lavega 2004, Icarus 172, 255-271) suggest that they are fueled by water vapor condensation beginning at the 10-12 bar level, some 250 km below the visible cloud tops. That idea is also supported by our detection of water ice near the cloud tops (Sromovsky et al. 2013, Icarus 226, 402-418). From Cassini VIMS spectral imaging taken in February 2011, we learned that the storm's cloud particles are strong absorbers of sunlight at wavelengths from 2.8 to 3.1 microns. Such absorption is not seen on Saturn outside of storm regions, implying a different kind of cloud formation process as well as different cloud composition inside the storm region. We found compelling evidence

  2. Ice Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    blugerman, n.

    2015-10-01

    My project is to make ice observatories to perceive astral movements as well as light phenomena in the shape of cosmic rays and heat, for example.I find the idea of creating an observation point in space, that in time will change shape and eventually disappear, in consonance with the way we humans have been approaching the exploration of the universe since we started doing it. The transformation in the elements we use to understand big and small transformations, within the universe elements.

  3. Virtual Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genova, Françoise

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy has been at the forefront among scientific disciplines for the sharing of data, and the advent of the World Wide Web has produced a revolution in the way astronomers do science. The recent development of the concept of Virtual Observatory builds on these foundations. This is one of the truly global endeavours of astronomy, aiming at providing astronomers with seamless access to data and tools, including theoretical data. Astronomy on-line resources provide a rare example of a world-wide, discipline-wide knowledge infrastructure, based on internationally agreed interoperability standards.

  4. Effects of coancestry on accuracy of individual assignments to population of origin: examples using Great Lakes lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

    PubMed

    Guinand, Bruno; Scribner, Kim T; Page, Kevin S; Filcek, Kristi; Main, Laura; Burnham-Curtis, Mary K

    2006-05-01

    Methods for assigning individuals to population of origin are widely used in ecological genetics, resources management, and forensics. Characteristics of genetic data obtained from putative source populations that enhance accuracy of assignment are well established. How non-independence within and among unknown individuals to be classified [i.e., gene correlations within individual (inbreeding) and gene correlations among individuals within group (coancestry)] affect assignment accuracy is poorly understood. We used empirical data for six microsatellite loci and offspring from full-sib crosses of hatchery strains of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush; Salmonidae) representing known levels of coancestry (mean theta = 0.006 and 0.06) within families to investigate how gene correlations can affect assignment. Additional simulations were conducted to further investigating the influence of allelic diversity (2, 6 or 10 alleles per locus) and inbreeding (F = 0.00, 0.05, and 0.15) on assignment accuracy for cases of low and high inter-population variance in allele frequency (mean F (st) = 0.01 and 0.1, respectively). Inbreeding had no effect on accuracy of assignments. In contrast, variance in assignment accuracy across replicated simulations, and for each empirical case study increased with increasing coancestry, reflecting non-independence of probabilities of correct assignment among members of kin groups. Empirical estimates of assignment error rates should be interpreted with caution if appreciable levels of coancestry are suspected. Additional emphasis should be placed on sampling designs (spatially and temporally) that define or minimize the potential for sampling related individuals. PMID:16850237

  5. Observatory verification: principles and lessons learned in commissioning the Hubble Observatory following shuttle servicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagetti, Carl

    2002-12-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was designed for periodic servicing by Space Shuttle astronauts. These servicing missions enable state-of-the-art upgrades to the Observatory"s scientific capabilities, engineering upgrades and refurbishments, and, when needed, repairs. Since its launch and deployment in 1990, there have been four space shuttle missions to service the HST. (A fifth is currently scheduled for March 2004) In each case, upon completion of a servicing mission and the astronauts" release of the telescope, HST undergoes a period of intense and highly coordinated verification activities designed to commission the Observatory"s new capabilities and components for normal operations. The commissioning program following the 1990 deployment mission was known as OV/SV (orbital verification/science verification) while each of those following the subsequent Shuttle servicings has become known as servicing mission observatory verification, or SMOV. The 1990 OV/SV activities were hampered and greatly complicated by the problem of spherical aberration of the primary optics. The first servicing mission, SM1, in December 1993, is still remembered as the Hubble repair mission, having restored HST"s optics to within the original mission specifications. SMOV1 was important not only for confirming the optical fixes with spectacular early images, but also for demonstrating the effectiveness of "success-oriented" scheduling as a technique for orbital verification. The second servicing mission, SM2, in February 1997, greatly enhanced the scientific capabilities of HST but did so at the cost of greatly increased mechanical and operational complexity. The resulting SMOV2 program was accordingly the most complicated and ambitious till then and, as it turned out, the most responsive and resilient, as the newly installed instruments presented serious, unforeseen on-orbit problems. The third servicing mission, SM3a, carried out in December 1999, was essentially an emergency mission

  6. Urania in the Marketplace: Observatories as Holiday Destinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumstay, Kenneth S.

    2015-01-01

    During the twentieth century astronomical imagery was frequently incorporated, by manufacturers of industrial and consumer goods, into advertisements which appeared in popular magazines in America. The domes and telescopes of major observatories were often featured. In some cases, particularly within the Golden State of California, major astronomical facilities (notably the Lick and Mt. Wilson Observatories) were touted as tourist attractions and were publicized as such by tourist bureaus, railroads, and hotels.A particularly interesting example is provided by the Hotel Vendome in San Jose. With completion of the Lick Observatory (and the 36-inch Great Refractor) in 1887, the local business community felt that the city needed a first-class resort hotel. The architectural firm of Jacob Lenzen & Son was hired to design a grand hotel, comparable to those found in locales such as Monterey and Pasadena. The resulting four-story, 150-room structure cost 250,000, a phenomenal sum in those days. Yet, within just fourteen years, tourist demand led to the construction of a 36-room annex. Of course, a great resort hotel would not be complete without the opportunity for excursion, and the Mt. Hamilton Stage Company offered daily trips to the famous Lick Observatory.Farther south, the Mt. Wilson Observatory began construction of its own hotel in 1905.The original structure was destroyed by fire in 1913, and replaced by a second which was used by visitors until 1966.Early examples of advertisements for these observatories, recalling the heyday of astronomical tourism, are presented. A few more recent ones for Arecibo and Palomar are included for comparison.

  7. Great Lakes: Great Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6) "Watering"; (7) "Soil Erosion by Water"; (8) "Soil…

  8. Haystack Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Radio astronomy programs comprise three very-long-baseline interferometer projects, ten spectral line investigations, one continuum mapping in the 0.8 cm region, and one monitoring of variable sources. A low-noise mixer was used in mapping observations of 3C273 at 31 GHz and in detecting of a new methyl alcohol line at 36,169 MHz in Sgr B2. The new Mark 2 VLBI recording terminal was used in galactic H2O source observations using Haystack and the Crimean Observatory, USSR. One feature in W29 appears to have a diameter of 0.3 millisec of arc and a brightness temperature of 1.4 x 10 to the 15th power K. Geodetic baseline measurements via VLBI between Green Bank and Haystack are mutually consistent within a few meters. Radar investigations of Mercury, Venus, Mars, and the Moon have continued. The favorable opposition of Mars and improvements in the radar permit measurements on a number of topographic features with unprecedented accuracy, including scarps and crater walls. The floor of Mare Serenitatis slopes upward towards the northeast and is also the location of a strong gravitational anomaly.

  9. Proventricular adenocarcinoma in a Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) and a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus); identification of origin by mucin histochemistry.

    PubMed

    Yonemaru, Kayoko; Sakai, Hiroki; Asaoka, Yoshiji; Yanai, Tokuma; Fukushi, Hideto; Watanabe, Ken; Hirai, Katsuya; Masegi, Toshiaki

    2004-02-01

    Cases of proventricular neoplasm in a Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) and a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) were observed. Microscopically, the neoplastic cells formed branching tubules or acini in both cases. Galactose oxidase-Schiff (GOS) staining revealed that the cytoplasm of the normal surface epithelium and surface mucosubstances of the proventriculus adjacent to the neoplasm were positive in both cases. The neoplastic cells in both cases were also classified as GOS-positive. Therefore, the two proventricular neoplasms in this report were diagnosed as proventricular adenocarcinoma that arose from the proventricular surface epithelium. This study suggests that the mucosubstances, which the neoplastic cells produced, were a useful index for identifying the origin of the neoplastic cells in the birds. PMID:14681071

  10. ESO's Two Observatories Merge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    On February 1, 2005, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has merged its two observatories, La Silla and Paranal, into one. This move will help Europe's prime organisation for astronomy to better manage its many and diverse projects by deploying available resources more efficiently where and when they are needed. The merged observatory will be known as the La Silla Paranal Observatory. Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General, comments the new development: "The merging, which was planned during the past year with the deep involvement of all the staff, has created unified maintenance and engineering (including software, mechanics, electronics and optics) departments across the two sites, further increasing the already very high efficiency of our telescopes. It is my great pleasure to commend the excellent work of Jorge Melnick, former director of the La Silla Observatory, and of Roberto Gilmozzi, the director of Paranal." ESO's headquarters are located in Garching, in the vicinity of Munich (Bavaria, Germany), and this intergovernmental organisation has established itself as a world-leader in astronomy. Created in 1962, ESO is now supported by eleven member states (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom). It operates major telescopes on two remote sites, all located in Chile: La Silla, about 600 km north of Santiago and at an altitude of 2400m; Paranal, a 2600m high mountain in the Atacama Desert 120 km south of the coastal city of Antofagasta. Most recently, ESO has started the construction of an observatory at Chajnantor, a 5000m high site, also in the Atacama Desert. La Silla, north of the town of La Serena, has been the bastion of the organization's facilities since 1964. It is the site of two of the most productive 4-m class telescopes in the world, the New Technology Telescope (NTT) - the first major telescope equipped with active optics - and the 3.6-m, which hosts HARPS

  11. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a…

  12. Next Generation Virtual Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, P.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual Observatories (VO) are now being established in a variety of geoscience disciplines beyond their origins in Astronomy and Solar Physics. Implementations range from hydrology and environmental sciences to solid earth sciences. Among the goals of VOs are to provide search/ query, access and use of distributed, heterogeneous data resources. With many of these goals being met and usage increasing, new demands and requirements are arising. In particular there are two of immediate and pressing interest. The first is use of VOs by non-specialists, especially for information products that go beyond the usual data, or data products that are sought for scientific research. The second area is citation and attribution of artifacts that are being generated by VOs. In some sense VOs are re-publishing (re-packaging, or generating new synthetic) data and information products. At present only a few VOs address this need and it is clear that a comprehensive solution that includes publishers is required. Our work in VOs and related semantic data framework and integration areas has lead to a view of the next generation of virtual observatories which the two above-mentioned needs as well as others that are emerging. Both of the needs highlight a semantic gap, i.e. that the meaning and use for a user or users beyond the original design intention is very often difficult or impossible to bridge. For example, VOs created for experts with complex, arcane or jargon vocabularies are not accessible to the non-specialist and further, information products the non-specialist may use are not created or considered for creation. In the second case, use of a (possibly virtual) data or information product (e.g. an image or map) as an intellectual artifact that can be accessed as part of the scientific publication and review procedure also introduces terminology gaps, as well as services that VOs may need to provide. Our supposition is that formalized methods in semantics and semantic web

  13. Great Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, Robert

    2000-05-01

    Spectacular and mysterious objects that come and go in the night sky, comets have dwelt in our popular culture for untold ages. As remnants from the formation of the Solar system, they are objects of key scientific research and space missions. As one of nature's most potent and dramatic dangers, they pose a threat to our safety--and yet they were the origin of our oceans and perhaps even life itself. This beautifully illustrated book tells the story of the biggest and most awe-inspiring of all comets: those that have earned the title "Great." Robert Burnham focuses on the Great comets Hyakutake in 1996 and Hale-Bopp in 1997, which gripped attention worldwide because, for many, they were the first comets ever seen. He places these two recent comets in the context of their predecessors from past ages, among them the famous Comet Halley. Great Comets explains the exciting new discoveries that have come from these magnificent objects and profiles the spaceprobes to comets due for launch in the next few years. The book even takes a peek behind Hollywood's science-fiction fantasies to assess the real risks humanity faces from potential impacts of both comets and asteroids. For everyone interested in astronomy, this exciting book reveals the secrets of the Great Comets and provides essential tools for keeping up to date with comet discoveries in the future. Robert Burnham has been an amateur astronomer since the mid-1950s. He has been a senior editor of Astronomy magazine (1986-88) and is the author of many books and CD-ROMS, including Comet Hale-Bopp: Find and Enjoy the Great Comet and Comet Explorer.

  14. Mission Planning for the CHANDRA X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullins, Larry D.; Stone, Russell, L.; Evans, Steven W.

    1999-01-01

    The CHANDRA x-ray observatory started life as the Advanced X-ray Facility (AXAF) but was renamed Chandra in December of 1998 at the of a nationwide contest by NASA to name the new observatory. The honors the Nobel Prize winning astrophysicist S. Chandrasekar who astrophysics at the University of Chicago for more than 50 years, following graduate studies at Cambridge University in England. The observatory has been under construction for a decade under the management of the Observatory observatory, Projects office at the Marshall Space Flight Center; the same office that oversaw the construction of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. This observatory is a member of NASA's great observatory series of missions of which Hubble and Compton are members. This paper describes the mission planning that was conducted at MSFC to design the orbit and launch window that would permit the new observatory to function properly.

  15. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope and Water Chemistry Characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Q.; Socki, R.; Niles, P. B.; Romanek, C. S.; Datta, S.; Darnell, M.; Bissada, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to understand subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for identification of their origins, there are secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other lines of evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify origins of volatile compounds. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41°32'N, 120°5'W), located in a typical basin and range province in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows during late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO42-, respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth estimated by both dissolved SiO2 and Na-K-Ca geothermometers are in the range of 125.0 to 135.4 °C, and

  16. Bathythermal habitat use by strains of Great Lakes- and Finger Lakes-origin lake trout in Lake Huron after a change in prey fish abundance and composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergstedt, Roger A.; Argyle, Ray L.; Krueger, Charles C.; Taylor, William W.

    2012-01-01

    A study conducted in Lake Huron during October 1998–June 2001 found that strains of Great Lakes-origin (GLO) lake trout Salvelinus namaycush occupied significantly higher temperatures than did Finger Lakes-origin (FLO; New York) lake trout based on data from archival (or data storage) telemetry tags that recorded only temperature. During 2002 and 2003, we implanted archival tags that recorded depth as well as temperature in GLO and FLO lake trout in Lake Huron. Data subsequently recorded by those tags spanned 2002–2005. Based on those data, we examined whether temperatures and depths occupied by GLO and FLO lake trout differed during 2002–2005. Temperatures occupied during those years were also compared with occupied temperatures reported for 1998–2001, before a substantial decline in prey fish biomass. Temperatures occupied by GLO lake trout were again significantly higher than those occupied by FLO lake trout. This result supports the conclusion of the previous study. The GLO lake trout also occupied significantly shallower depths than FLO lake trout. In 2002–2005, both GLO and FLO lake trout occupied significantly lower temperatures than they did in 1998–2001. Aside from the sharp decline in prey fish biomass between study periods, the formerly abundant pelagic alewife Alosa pseudoharengus virtually disappeared and the demersal round goby Neogobius melanostomus invaded the lake and became locally abundant. The lower temperatures occupied by lake trout in Lake Huron during 2002–2005 may be attributable to changes in the composition of the prey fish community, food scarcity (i.e., a retreat to cooler water could increase conversion efficiency), or both.

  17. Molonglo Observatory: Building the Cross and MOST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAdam, Bruce

    2008-03-01

    When Bernard Mills left the GSIRO in 1960 to establish a radio astronomy group in the School of Physics, University of Sydney, he had not only invented the principle of cross-type radio telescopes but proved their great efficiency at surveying the positions, intensity and structure of radio sources. He had ambitious plans for a second generation Cross - a radio telescope with arms one mile long. This paper describes the circumstances of Mills' appointment as Professor of Astrophysics and the recruitment of an international Department that achieved his vision with the Molonglo Cross: The construction involved interaction with many colleagues - engineers in other university departments and government agencies, and with the contracting firms. Formal links were set up with the Electrical Engineering Department through The Radio Astronomy Centre in the University of Sydney and then with Arecibo Observatory through the Cornell-Sydney University Astronomy Center. When the Molonglo Cross completed its main survey in 1978 after eleven years, it was switched off and the EW arm was then converted to the Molonglo Observatory Synthesis Telescope. Many of the staff involved with the MOST are now challenged by SKAMP, testing systems for the Square Kilometre Array with cylindrical geometry in the Molonglo Prototype. These two later developments out of the original Cross telescope are described briefly.

  18. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope and Water Chemistry Characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41 deg 32'N, 120 deg 5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4(2-), respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth

  19. The Origin of Carbon-bearing Volatiles in Surprise Valley Hot Springs in the Great Basin: Carbon Isotope aud Water Chemistry Characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike; Bissada, Adry K.

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous hydrothermal fields within the Great Basin of North America, some of which have been exploited for geothermal resources. With methane and other carbon-bearing compounds being observed, in some cases with high concentrations, however, their origins and formation conditions remain unknown. Thus, studying hydrothermal springs in this area provides us an opportunity to expand our knowledge of subsurface (bio)chemical processes that generate organic compounds in hydrothermal systems, and aid in future development and exploration of potential energy resources as well. While isotope measurement has long been used for recognition of their origins, there are several secondary processes that may generate variations in isotopic compositions: oxidation, re-equilibration of methane and other alkanes with CO2, mixing with compounds of other sources, etc. Therefore, in addition to isotopic analysis, other evidence, including water chemistry and rock compositions, are necessary to identify volatile compounds of different sources. Surprise Valley Hot Springs (SVHS, 41º32'N, 120º5'W), located in a typical basin and range province valley in northeastern California, is a terrestrial hydrothermal spring system of the Great Basin. Previous geophysical studies indicated the presence of clay-rich volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Tertiary age beneath the lava flows in late Tertiary and Quaternary. Water and gas samples were collected for a variety of chemical and isotope composition analyses, including in-situ pH, alkalinity, conductivity, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), major and trace elements, and C and H isotope measurements. Fluids issuing from SVHS can be classified as Na-(Cl)-SO4 type, with the major cation and anion being Na+ and SO4 2-, respectively. Thermodynamic calculation using ORP and major element data indicated that sulfate is the most dominant sulfur species, which is consistent with anion analysis results. Aquifer temperatures at depth estimated

  20. A new Magnetic Observatory in Pantanal - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, F.; Pinheiro, K.; Linthe, H.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of a Magnetic Observatory is to register the variations of the Earth's magnetic field in a long temporal scale. Using this data it is possible to study field variations of both external and internal origins. The external variations concern interactions between the magnetosphere and the solar wind, in general are measured in a short time scale. The internal field generated by convection of a high electrical conductivity fluid in the external core by a mechanism known as the geodynamo. Usually the internal field time variations are longer than in the external field and are called secular variations. Measurements carried out over the last century suggest that field intensity is decreasing rapidly. The decreasing of the field's intensity is not the same around the globe, especially at the SAMA (South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly) regions, where this reduction is occurring faster. The global distribution of magnetic observatories is uneven, with few observatories in South America. In Brazil, there are three magnetic observatories, but only Vassouras Observatory (VSS- RJ) is part of the INTERMAGNET network. The National Observatory has plans to install seven new observatories in Brazil. Pantanal was the chosen location for installing the first observatory because of its privileged location, close to the SAMA region, and its data can contribute to more information about its origin. We followed the procedures suggested by the IAGA to build this observatory. The first step is to perform a magnetic survey in order to avoid strong magnetic gradients in the location where the absolute and variometers houses will be installed. The next step, the construction of the observatory, includes the selection of special non-magnetic material for the variometer and absolute houses. All materials used were previously tested using a proton magnetometer GSM-19. After construction of the whole infrastructure, the equipment was installed. This Project is a cooperation between Brazilian

  1. ESO's Two Observatories Merge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-02-01

    On February 1, 2005, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) has merged its two observatories, La Silla and Paranal, into one. This move will help Europe's prime organisation for astronomy to better manage its many and diverse projects by deploying available resources more efficiently where and when they are needed. The merged observatory will be known as the La Silla Paranal Observatory. Catherine Cesarsky, ESO's Director General, comments the new development: "The merging, which was planned during the past year with the deep involvement of all the staff, has created unified maintenance and engineering (including software, mechanics, electronics and optics) departments across the two sites, further increasing the already very high efficiency of our telescopes. It is my great pleasure to commend the excellent work of Jorge Melnick, former director of the La Silla Observatory, and of Roberto Gilmozzi, the director of Paranal." ESO's headquarters are located in Garching, in the vicinity of Munich (Bavaria, Germany), and this intergovernmental organisation has established itself as a world-leader in astronomy. Created in 1962, ESO is now supported by eleven member states (Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom). It operates major telescopes on two remote sites, all located in Chile: La Silla, about 600 km north of Santiago and at an altitude of 2400m; Paranal, a 2600m high mountain in the Atacama Desert 120 km south of the coastal city of Antofagasta. Most recently, ESO has started the construction of an observatory at Chajnantor, a 5000m high site, also in the Atacama Desert. La Silla, north of the town of La Serena, has been the bastion of the organization's facilities since 1964. It is the site of two of the most productive 4-m class telescopes in the world, the New Technology Telescope (NTT) - the first major telescope equipped with active optics - and the 3.6-m, which hosts HARPS

  2. Planetary research at Lowell Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, William A.

    1988-01-01

    Scientific goals include a better determination of the basic physical characteristics of cometary nuclei, a more complete understanding of the complex processes in the comae, a survey of abundances and gas/dust ratios in a large number of comets, and measurement of primordial (12)C/(13)C and (14)N/(15)N ratios. The program also includes the observation of Pluto-Charon mutual eclipses to derive dimensions. Reduction and analysis of extensive narrowband photometry of Comet Halley from Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Perth Observatory, Lowell Observatory, and Mauna Kea Observatory were completed. It was shown that the 7.4-day periodicity in the activity of Comet Halley was present from late February through at least early June 1986, but there is no conclusive evidence of periodic variability in the preperihelion data. Greatly improved NH scalelengths and lifetimes were derived from the Halley data which lead to the conclusion that the abundance of NH in comets is much higher than previously believed. Simultaneous optical and thermal infrared observations were obtained of Comet P/Temple 2 using the MKO 2.2 m telescope and the NASA IRTF. Preliminary analysis of these observations shows that the comet's nucleus is highly elongated, very dark, and quite red.

  3. Lunar astronomical observatories - Design studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Burns, Jack O.; Chua, Koon Meng; Duric, Nebojsa; Gerstle, Walter H.

    1990-01-01

    The best location in the inner solar system for the grand observatories of the 21st century may be the moon. A multidisciplinary team including university students and faculty in engineering, astronomy, physics, and geology, and engineers from industry is investigating the moon as a site for astronomical observatories and is doing conceptual and preliminary designs for these future observatories. Studies encompass lunar facilities for radio astronomy and astronomy at optical, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are significant engineering challenges in design and construction on the moon, the rewards for astronomy can be great, such as detection and study of earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars, and the task for engineers promises to stimulate advances in analysis and design, materials and structures, automation and robotics, foundations, and controls. Fabricating structures in the reduced-gravity environment of the moon will be easier than in the zero-gravity environment of earth orbit, as Apollo and space-shuttle missions have revealed. Construction of observatories on the moon can be adapted from techniques developed on the earth, with the advantage that the moon's weaker gravitational pull makes it possible to build larger devices than are practical on earth.

  4. Recent results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Gascón, Alberto; Collaboration: Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2014-07-23

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to investigate the origin and nature of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) using a hybrid detection technique. In this contribution we present some of the most recent results of the observatory, namely the upper-end of the spectrum of cosmic rays, state-of-the-art analyses on mass composition, the measurements of the proton-air cross-section, and the number of muons at ground.

  5. Overview of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory (originally called the Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility - AXAF) is the X-Ray component of NASA's "Great Observatory" Program. Chandra is a NASA facility that provides scientific data to the international astronomical community in response to scientific proposals for its use. The Observatory is the product of the efforts of many organizations in the United States and Europe. The Great Observatories also include the Hubble Space Telescope for space-based observations of astronomical objects primarily in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, the now defunct Compton Gamma- Ray Observatory that was designed to observe gamma-ray emission from astronomical objects, and the soon-to-be-launched Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF). The Chandra X-Ray Observatory (hereafter CXO) is sensitive to X-rays in the energy range from below 0.1 to above 10.0 keV corresponding to wavelengths from 12 to 0.12 nanometers. The relationship among the various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, sorted by characteristic temperature and the corresponding wavelength, is illustrated. The German physicist Wilhelm Roentgen discovered what he thought was a new form of radiation in 1895. He called it X-radiation to summarize its properties. The radiation had the ability to pass through many materials that easily absorb visible light and to free electrons from atoms. We now know that X-rays are nothing more than light (electromagnetic radiation) but at high energies. Light has been given many names: radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-ray and gamma radiation are all different forms. Radio waves are composed of low energy particles of light (photons). Optical photons - the only photons perceived by the human eye - are a million times more energetic than the typical radio photon, whereas the energies of X-ray photons range from hundreds to thousands of times higher than that of optical photons. Very low temperature systems

  6. The observatories and instruments of Tycho Brahe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) was the most important observational astronomer until the invention of the telescope in 1608. By construction new instruments and devising new observing methods, Tycho succeeded in significantly increasing measurement accuracy: He increased the size of his instruments (e.g. a large wooden quadrant of diameter 5.4 m and a mural quadrant); he used metal and masonry rather than wood; he modified construction techniques to achieve greater stability; to provide shelter from the wind, his instruments were in subterranean nooks; his instruments were permanently and solidly mounted; for better angular readings, he developed new subdivisions and diopters (Tycho used transversals to obtain the greatest possible angular resolution readings. His instrumental sights (diopters) were specially designed to minimize errors); he carefully analysed all the errors (Tycho's aim was to reduce thethe uncertainty to less than one minute of arc); he used fundamental stars for the first time; he preferred measuring equatorial coordinates directly instead of using the zodiacal system, i.e. using the equatorial armillary sphere instead of the zodiacal armillary sphere; he tried a new measuring method with clocks and his mural quadrant (1582) for determining the right ascension; he took atmospheric refraction into account. Most of his high-accuracy instruments have been distroyed. Only two sextants, made by Jost Bürgi and Erasmus Habermel around 1600, still exist in the Narodny Technicky Muzeum (NTM) [National Technical Museum] in Prague. A model of the wooden quadrant is in the old observatory in Copenhagen, in the round tower. But we have good descriptions of the instruments (half circles of 2.3 m radius, quadrants up to 2 m radius including the mural quadrant, sextants up to 1.6 m, armillary spheres of 1.5 m radius and the great equatorial armillary sphere of 2.7 m, triquetrum and celestial globe of 1.5 m) in Tycho's book Astronomiae instauratae mechanica

  7. INTEGRATING GEOPHYSICS, GEOLOGY, AND HYDROLOGY TO DETERMINE BEDROCK GEOMETRY CONTROLS ON THE ORIGIN OF ISOLATED MEADOW COMPLEXES WITHIN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN, NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian meadow complexes found in mountain ranges of the Central Great Basin physiographic region (western United States) are of interest to researchers as they contain significant biodiversity relative to the surrounding basin areas. These meadow complexes are currently degradi...

  8. The MicroObservatory Net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.; Sadler, P.

    1994-12-01

    A group of scientists, engineers and educators based at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) has developed a prototype of a small, inexpensive and fully integrated automated astronomical telescope and image processing system. The project team is now building five second generation instruments. The MicroObservatory has been designed to be used for classroom instruction by teachers as well as for original scientific research projects by students. Probably in no other area of frontier science is it possible for a broad spectrum of students (not just the gifted) to have access to state-of-the-art technologies that would allow for original research. The MicroObservatory combines the imaging power of a cooled CCD, with a self contained and weatherized reflecting optical telescope and mount. A microcomputer points the telescope and processes the captured images. The MicroObservatory has also been designed to be used as a valuable new capture and display device for real time astronomical imaging in planetariums and science museums. When the new instruments are completed in the next few months, they will be tried with high school students and teachers, as well as with museum groups. We are now planning to make the MicroObservatories available to students, teachers and other individual users over the Internet. We plan to allow the telescope to be controlled in real time or in batch mode, from a Macintosh or PC compatible computer. In the real-time mode, we hope to give individual access to all of the telescope control functions without the need for an "on-site" operator. Users would sign up for a specific period of time. In the batch mode, users would submit jobs for the telescope. After the MicroObservatory completed a specific job, the images would be e-mailed back to the user. At present, we are interested in gaining answers to the following questions: (1) What are the best approaches to scheduling real-time observations? (2) What criteria should be used

  9. Latest results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhenry-Yvon, Isabelle

    2016-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to investigate the origin and nature of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR) with energies from 1017 to 1020 eV. In this paper we will review some of the most recent results obtained from data of the Pierre Auger Observatory, namely the spectrum of cosmic rays, the anisotropies in arrival directions and the studies related to mass composition and to the number of muons measured at the ground. We will also discuss the implication of these results for assembling a consistent description of the composition, origin and propagation of cosmic rays.

  10. INTERMAGNET and magnetic observatories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Chulliat, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    A magnetic observatory is a specially designed ground-based facility that supports time-series measurement of the Earth’s magnetic field. Observatory data record a superposition of time-dependent signals related to a fantastic diversity of physical processes in the Earth’s core, mantle, lithosphere, ocean, ionosphere, magnetosphere, and, even, the Sun and solar wind.

  11. The Norwegian Naval Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, Bjørn Ragnvald

    2007-07-01

    Archival material has revealed milestones and new details in the history of the Norwegian Naval Observatories. We have identified several of the instrument types used at different epochs. Observational results have been extracted from handwritten sources and an extensive literature search. These allow determination of an approximate location of the first naval observatory building (1842) at Fredriksvern. No physical remains exist today. A second observatory was established in 1854 at the new main naval base at Horten. Its location is evident on military maps and photographs. We describe its development until the Naval Observatory buildings, including archives and instruments, were completely demolished during an allied air bomb raid on 23 February 1945. The first director, C.T.H. Geelmuyden, maintained scientific standards at the the Observatory between 1842 and 1870, and collaborated with university astronomers to investigate, develop, and employ time-transfer by telegraphy. Their purpose was accurate longitude determination between observatories in Norway and abroad. The Naval Observatory issued telegraphic time signals twice weekly to a national network of sites, and as such served as the first national time-service in Norway. Later the Naval Observatory focused on the particular needs of the Navy and developed into an internal navigational service.

  12. Beijing Ancient Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunli

    The Beijing Ancient Observatory is now the only complete example of an observatory from the seventeenth century in the world. It is a monument to the prosperity of astronomy in traditional China. Its instruments are emblems of the encounter and amalgamation of Chinese and European Science in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

  13. Svetloe Radio Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolentsev, Sergey; Rahimov, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes information about the Svetloe Radio Astronomical Observatory activities in 2012. Last year, a number of changes took place in the observatory to improve some technical characteristics and to upgrade some units to their required status. The report provides an overview of current geodetic VLBI activities and gives an outlook for the future.

  14. Zelenchukskaya Radio Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smolentsev, Sergey; Dyakov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes information about Zelenchukskaya Radio Astronomical Observatory activities in 2012. Last year a number of changes took place in the observatory to improve some technical characteristics and to upgrade some units to the required status. The report provides an overview of current geodetic VLBI activities and gives an outlook for the future.

  15. The Arecibo Observatory as an MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodman, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    The radars and other systems at the Arecibo Observatory were designed and built, originally, for incoherent-scatter and radio-astronomy research. More recently, important additions have been made for planetary radar and artificial RF heating of the ionosphere. Although designed and built for a different application, these systems have shown to be very powerful tools for tropospheric, stratospheric and mesospheric research. The Observatory at present has two main radars: one at 430 and the other at 2380 MHz. In addition, 50-MHz MST radar work has been done using portable transmitters brought to the Observatory for this purpose. This capability will become permanent with the recent acquisition of a transmitter at this frequency. Furthermore, control and data processing systems have been developed to use the powerful HF transmitter and antennas of the HF-heating facility as an HF bistatic radar. A brief description of the four radars available at the Observatory is presented.

  16. Strasbourg's "Academy" observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, André

    2011-08-01

    The observing post located on the roof of Strasbourg's 19th-century "Academy" is generally considered as the second astronomical observatory of the city: a transitional facility between the (unproductive) turret lantern at the top of the Hospital Gate and the German (Wilhelminian) Observatory. The current paper reviews recent findings from archives (blueprints, inventories, correspondence, decrees and other documents) shedding some light on this observatory of which virtually nothing was known to this day. While being, thanks to Chrétien Kramp (1760-1826), an effective attempt to establish an actual observatory equipped with genuine instrumentation, the succession of political regimes in France and the continual bidding for moving the university to other locations, together with the faltering of later scholars, torpedoed any significant scientific usage of the place. A meridian instrument with a Cauchoix objective doublet was however recovered by the German observatory and is still existing.

  17. The Millennium Run Observatory: first light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overzier, R.; Lemson, G.; Angulo, R. E.; Bertin, E.; Blaizot, J.; Henriques, B. M. B.; Marleau, G.-D.; White, S. D. M.

    2013-01-01

    Simulations of galaxy evolution aim to capture our current understanding as well as to make predictions for testing by future experiments. Simulations and observations are often compared in an indirect fashion: physical quantities are estimated from the observational data and compared to models. However, many applications can benefit from a more direct approach, where the observing process is also simulated, so that the models are seen fully from the observer's perspective. To facilitate this, we have developed the Millennium Run Observatory (MRObs), a theoretical virtual observatory which uses virtual telescopes to `observe' semi-analytic galaxy formation simulations based on the suite of Millennium Run (MR) dark matter simulations. The MRObs produces data that can be processed and analysed using the standard observational software packages developed for real observations. At present, we produce images in 40 filters covering the rest-frame ultraviolet to infrared for two stellar population synthesis models, for three different models of absorption by the intergalactic medium, and in two cosmologies (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe year 1 and 7). Galaxy distributions for a large number of mock light cones can be `observed' using models of major ground- and space-based telescopes. The data include light cone catalogues linked to structural properties of galaxies, pre-observation model images, mock telescope images and Source Extractor products that can all be traced back to the higher level dark matter, semi-analytic galaxy and light cone catalogues available in the MR data base. Here, we describe our methods and announce a first public release of simulated observations that emulate a large number of extragalactic surveys [e.g. Sloan Digital Sky Survey, Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHT-LS), Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), GOODS/Early Release Science (ERS), Cosmic Assembly Near-Infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS

  18. Light Phenomena over the ESO Observatories II: Red Sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horálek, P.; Christensen, L. L.; Bór, J.; Setvák, M.

    2016-03-01

    A rare atmospheric phenomenon, known as red sprites, was observed and captured on camera from the La Silla Observatory. This event signalled the first time that these extremely short-lived flashes of red light, originating in the Earth’s upper atmosphere, were photographed from a major astronomical observatory. Further images of red sprites from the La Silla Paranal Observatory sites are presented and the nature of red sprites is discussed.

  19. The Virtual Observatory: I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.

    2014-11-01

    The concept of the Virtual Observatory arose more-or-less simultaneously in the United States and Europe circa 2000. Ten pages of Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millennium: Panel Reports (National Academy Press, Washington, 2001), that is, the detailed recommendations of the Panel on Theory, Computation, and Data Exploration of the 2000 Decadal Survey in Astronomy, are dedicated to describing the motivation for, scientific value of, and major components required in implementing the National Virtual Observatory. European initiatives included the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory at the European Southern Observatory, the AstroGrid project in the United Kingdom, and the Euro-VO (sponsored by the European Union). Organizational/conceptual meetings were held in the US at the California Institute of Technology (Virtual Observatories of the Future, June 13-16, 2000) and at ESO Headquarters in Garching, Germany (Mining the Sky, July 31-August 4, 2000; Toward an International Virtual Observatory, June 10-14, 2002). The nascent US, UK, and European VO projects formed the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) at the June 2002 meeting in Garching, with yours truly as the first chair. The IVOA has grown to a membership of twenty-one national projects and programs on six continents, and has developed a broad suite of data access protocols and standards that have been widely implemented. Astronomers can now discover, access, and compare data from hundreds of telescopes and facilities, hosted at hundreds of organizations worldwide, stored in thousands of databases, all with a single query.

  20. The Penllergare Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birks, J. L.

    2005-12-01

    This rather picturesque and historically important Victorian observatory was built by the wealthy John Dillwyn Llewelyn near to his mansion, some four miles north-west of Swansea, Wales. He had many scientific interests, in addition to astronomy, and was a notable pioneer of photography in Wales. Together with his eldest daughter, Thereza, (who married the grandson of the fifth Astronomer Royal, Nevil Maskelyne), he took some early photographs of the Moon from this site. This paper describes the construction of the observatory, and some of those primarily involved with it. Despite its having undergone restoration work in 1982, the state of the observatory is again the cause for much concern.

  1. Global Health Observatory (GHO)

    MedlinePlus

    ... repository Reports Country statistics Map gallery Standards Global Health Observatory (GHO) data Monitoring health for the SDGs ... relevant web pages on the theme. Monitoring the health goal: indicators of overall progress Mortality and global ...

  2. Observatory Improvements for SOFIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peralta, Robert A.; Jensen, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint project between NASA and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), the German Space Agency. SOFIA is based in a Boeing 747 SP and flown in the stratosphere to observe infrared wavelengths unobservable from the ground. In 2007 Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) inherited and began work on improving the plane and its telescope. The improvements continue today with upgrading the plane and improving the telescope. The Observatory Verification and Validation (V&V) process is to ensure that the observatory is where the program says it is. The Telescope Status Display (TSD) will provide any information from the on board network to monitors that will display the requested information. In order to assess risks to the program, one must work through the various threats associate with that risk. Once all the risks are closed the program can work towards improving the observatory.

  3. Chicago's Dearborn Observatory: a study in survival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartky, Ian R.

    2000-12-01

    The Dearborn Observatory, located on the Old University of Chicago campus from 1863 until 1888, was America's most promising astronomical facility when it was founded. Established by the Chicago Astronomical Society and directed by one of the country's most gifted astronomers, it boasted the largest telescope in the world and virtually unlimited operating funds. The Great Chicago Fire of 1871 destroyed its funding and demolished its research programme. Only via the sale of time signals and the heroic efforts of two amateur astronomers did the Dearborn Observatory survive.

  4. Mechanical Overview of the International X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, David W.; McClelland, Ryan S.

    2009-01-01

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) is a new collaboration between NASA, ESA, and JAXA which is under study for launch in 2020. IXO will be a large 6600 kilogram Great Observatory-class mission which will build upon the legacies of the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories. It combines elements from NASA's Constellation-X program and ESA's XEUS program. The observatory will have a 20-25 meter focal length, which necessitates the use of a deployable instrument module. Currently the project is actively trading configurations and layouts of the various instruments and spacecraft components. This paper will provide a snapshot of the latest observatory configuration under consideration and summarize the observatory from the mechanical engineering perspective.

  5. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory, one of NASA's Great Observatories, was successfully launched on July 23, 1999 by the Space Shuttle Columbia. After release from Columbia, an Inertial Upper Stage was used to further boost the observatory. After five subsequent firings over 15 days of an internal propulsion system, the Observatory was placed in a highly elliptical orbit. The first x-rays focussed by the telescope were observed on August 12, 1999. Despite an initial surprise that the x-ray telescope was far more efficient for concentrating low-energy protons than had been anticipated, the observatory is performing well and is returning superb scientific data. Operating together with other space observatories, most notably the recently activated XMM-Newton, it is clear that with Chandra we are entering a new era of discovery in high-energy astrophysics.

  6. Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO) is located at the end of a causeway in a mountain lake more than 2 km above sea level. The site has more than 300 sunny days a year and a natural inversion caused by the lake which makes for very clean images. BBSO is the only university observatory in the US making high-resolution observations of the Sun. Its daily images are posted at http://www.bbso.njit.e...

  7. The Origin of Carbon-Bearing Volatiles in a Continental Hydrothermal System in the Great Basin: Water Chemistry and Isotope Characterizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.; Romanek, Christopher; Datta, Saugata; Darnell, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Hydrothermal systems on Earth are active centers in the crust where organic molecules can be synthesized biotically or abiotically under a wide range of physical and chemical conditions [1-3]. Not only are volatile species (CO, CO2, H2, and hydrocarbons) a reflection of deep-seated hydrothermal alteration processes, but they also form an important component of biological systems. Studying carbon-bearing fluids from hydrothermal systems is of specific importance to understanding (bio-)geochemical processes within these systems. With recent detection of methane in the martian atmosphere [4-7] and the possibility of its hydrothermal origin [8, 9], understanding the formation mechanisms of methane may provide constraints on the history of the martian aqueous environments and climate.

  8. Great Apes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  9. The Astronomical Observatory of the University of Coimbra (1772--1799): its Instruments and Scientific Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Fernando B.

    2012-09-01

    The establishment of scientific education at the University of Coimbra was one of the most important features of the Reform of the University in 1772. One of the best examples is the creation of the Faculty Mathematics and of the Astronomical Observatory (OAUC) - it was here that Alexandre Gouveia (1731--1808), who would be bishop of Beijing (1785--1808), obtained his degree in Mathematics. The foundation of the OAUC was fundamental in the institutionalization of astronomical science in Portugal, during a period when astronomy, supported by the great theoretical advances of the celestial mechanics and applied mathematics, could finally provide some important solutions to the most prominent scientific problems since Newton (questions about celestial mechanics, navigation, geodesy, etc.). Such questions were also central in the conception and planning of OAUC - the first Portuguese university-based astronomical observatory, although with aspects of a National Observatory. Jose Monteiro da Rocha (1734--1819) was the central personality in the conception, planning and construction of OAUC, as well in its instrument's provision (purchased and assembled throughout the 1780s) and posterior scientific activity. The construction of the OAUC was originally planned for the site of the Castle of the city of Coimbra. In 1775, when only the first floor of the Observatory was built, the construction stopped. However, to fulfill the teaching needs a small provisional Observatory was built inside the courtyard of the University. This provisional Observatory would eventually run for about 15 years! The definitive OAUC was built between the years 1790--99. In this communication we pretend to study the establishment of the OAUC and its primary astronomical collection (a transit instrument, a portable quadrant, a sector, several telescopes, etc.) and how that collection was responsible for the construction plan of the OAUC and the establishment of its Astronomical Ephemeris (1803).

  10. Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) Prelaunch Mission Operations Report (MOR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Program is an endeavor to understand the origin and fate of the universe, to understand the birth and evolution of the large variety of objects in the universe, from the most benign to the most violent, and to probe the fundamental laws of physics by examining their behavior under extreme physical conditions. These goals are pursued by means of observations across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, and through theoretical interpretation of radiations and fields associated with astrophysical systems. Astrophysics orbital flight programs are structured under one of two operational objectives: (1) the establishment of long duration Great Observatories for viewing the universe in four major wavelength regions of the electromagnetic spectrum (radio/infrared/submillimeter, visible/ultraviolet, X-ray, and gamma ray), and (2) obtaining crucial bridging and supporting measurements via missions with directed objectives of intermediate or small scope conducted within the Explorer and Spacelab programs. Under (1) in this context, the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) is one of NASA's four Great Observatories. The other three are the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for the visible and ultraviolet portion of the spectrum, the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) for the X-ray band, and the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) for infrared wavelengths. GRO's specific mission is to study the sources and astrophysical processes that produce the highest energy electromagnetic radiation from the cosmos. The fundamental physical processes that are known to produce gamma radiation in the universe include nuclear reactions, electron bremsstrahlung, matter-antimatter annihilation, elementary particle production and decay, Compton scattering, synchrotron radiation. GRO will address a variety of questions relevant to understanding the universe, such as: the formation of the elements; the structure and dynamics of the Galaxy; the nature of pulsars; the existence

  11. Creating Griffith Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Griffith Observatory has been the iconic symbol of the sky for southern California since it began its public mission on May 15, 1935. While the Observatory is widely known as being the gift of Col. Griffith J. Griffith (1850-1919), the story of how Griffith’s gift became reality involves many of the people better known for other contributions that made Los Angeles area an important center of astrophysics in the 20th century. Griffith began drawing up his plans for an observatory and science museum for the people of Los Angeles after looking at Saturn through the newly completed 60-inch reflector on Mt. Wilson. He realized the social impact that viewing the heavens could have if made freely available, and discussing the idea of a public observatory with Mt. Wilson Observatory’s founder, George Ellery Hale, and Director, Walter Adams. This resulted, in 1916, in a will specifying many of the features of Griffith Observatory, and establishing a committee managed trust fund to build it. Astronomy popularizer Mars Baumgardt convinced the committee at the Zeiss Planetarium projector would be appropriate for Griffith’s project after the planetarium was introduced in Germany in 1923. In 1930, the trust committee judged funds to be sufficient to start work on creating Griffith Observatory, and letters from the Committee requesting help in realizing the project were sent to Hale, Adams, Robert Millikan, and other area experts then engaged in creating the 200-inch telescope eventually destined for Palomar Mountain. A Scientific Advisory Committee, headed by Millikan, recommended that Caltech Physicist Edward Kurth be put in charge of building and exhibit design. Kurth, in turn, sought help from artist Russell Porter. The architecture firm of John C. Austin and Fredrick Ashley was selected to design the project, and they adopted the designs of Porter and Kurth. Philip Fox of the Adler Planetarium was enlisted to manage the completion of the Observatory and become its

  12. Digital Data Preservation and Curation: A Collaboration Among Libraries, Publishers, and the Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Steffen, J.; Choudhury, S.; Dilauro, T.; Szalay, A.; Vishniac, E.; Ehling, T.; Milkey, R.; Plante, R.

    2007-10-01

    Astronomers are producing and analyzing data at ever more prodigious rates. NASA's Great Observatories, ground-based national observatories, and major survey projects have archive and data distribution systems in place to manage their standard data products, and these are now interlinked through the protocols and metadata standards agreed upon in the Virtual Observatory. However, the digital data associated with peer-reviewed publications is only rarely archived. Most often, astronomers publish graphical representations of their data but not the data themselves. Other astronomers cannot readily inspect the data to either confirm the interpretation presented in a paper or extend the analysis. Highly processed data sets reside on departmental servers and the personal computers of astronomers, and may or may not be available a few years hence. We are investigating ways to preserve and curate the digital data associated with peer-reviewed journals in astronomy. The technology and standards of the VO provide one component of the necessary technology. A variety of underlying systems can be used to physically host a data repository, and indeed this repository need not be centralized. The repository, however, must be managed and data must be documented through high quality, curated metadata. Multiple access portals must be available: the original journal, the host data center, the Virtual Observatory, or any number of topically-oriented data services utilizing VO-standard access mechanisms.

  13. The dome on Ball Hill - the RAE observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privett, G.

    2001-12-01

    A telescope and instrumentation developed at Farnborough in the 1960s as part of the Skylark rocket project is described. Although long disused for their original purpose, the observatory and telescope remain, and have recently been restored.

  14. Three-D Simulation of the Origin of the Pollutant Ozone Maxima in the Great African Plume: New Meteorology, New Chemistry for TRACE-A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfeild, Robert; Vastano, John; Singh, Hanwant; Chan, K. Roland (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Burning in South Central Africa is primarily responsible for the vast buildup of ozone in the mid-Atlantic noticeable in the Belem, Brazil, ozonesondes, and also visible in analyses using the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS). We report on full-scale chemistry simulations for the SAFARI/TRACE-A field period of September-October, 1992. These observational programs provided a wealth of comparison data, including spectacular depictions of the vertical structure of ozone and particulate pollution over Africa, South America, and the Equatorial Atlantic [Browell JGR, 1996, submitted] above and below the NASA DC-8 airplane path. These depictions provide strict tests on the ability of a 3-d simulation and its controlling input parameters, most notably the biomass burning emissions strength. We use meteorology from MM5 used as a synoptic assimilation model and our own GRACES Global Regional Air Chemistry Event Simulator. This report will focus on the unique meteorology of the Equatorial Atmosphere around the Gulf of Guinea during the TRACE-A period, which we describe as "the opening of the gate," "the Great African Plume," and the "African Recirculatory System." We expect to assess whether the ozone observed is primarily "transported African smog," the standard view, or whether "re-$NO_[x)$-ification" of the Central Atlantic troposphere (reduction of nitric acid to active nitrogen oxides in clouds or aerosol) may be required for "extended intercontinental ozone production." A status report on a second nitrogen problem, "lower-tropospheric missing NO(y)," in which we find a serious imbalance in the $NO_ {x }$ and $NO_{y}$ budgets when compared with similar atmospheric tracers, will be given. An elaboration of the concepts set off by quotation marks in this abstract will be given in the talk.

  15. Everyday astronomy @ Sydney Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parello, S. L.

    2008-06-01

    Catering to a broad range of audiences, including many non-English speaking visitors, Sydney Observatory offers everything from school programmes to public sessions, day care activities to night observing, personal interactions to web-based outreach. With a history of nearly 150 years of watching the heavens, Sydney Observatory is now engaged in sharing the wonder with everybody in traditional and innovative ways. Along with time-honoured tours of the sky through two main telescopes, as well as a small planetarium, Sydney Observatory also boasts a 3D theatre, and offers programmes 363 days a year - rain or shine, day and night. Additionally, our website neversleeps, with a blog, YouTube videos, and night sky watching podcasts. And for good measure, a sprinkling of special events such as the incomparable Festival of the Stars, for which most of northern Sydney turns out their lights. Sydney Observatory is the oldest working observatory in Australia, and we're thrilled to be looking forward to our 150th Anniversary next year in anticipation of the International Year of Astronomy immediately thereafter.

  16. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

    1994-06-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

  17. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D.

    1994-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Compton) is the second in NASA's series of great Observatories. Launched on 1991 April 5, Compton represents a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made. We describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and the observing program of the first 2 years of the mission. Examples of early discoveries by Compton are enumerated, including the discovery that gamma-ray bursts are isotropic but spatially inhomogeneous in their distribution; the discovery of a new class of high-energy extragalacatic gamma-ray sources, the gamma-ray AGNs; the discovery of emission from SN 1987A in the nuclear line of Co-57; and the mapping of emission from Al-26 in the interstellar medium (ISM) near the Galactic center. Future observations will include deep surveys of selected regions of the sky, long-tem studies of individual objects, correlative studies of objects at gamma-ray and other energies, a Galactic plane survey at intermediate gamma-ray energies, and improved statistics on gamma-ray bursts to search for small anisotropies. After completion of the all-sky survey, a Guest Investigator program is in progress with guest observers' time share increasing from 30% upward for the late mission phases.

  18. A National Solar Digital Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, F.

    2000-05-01

    The continuing development of the Internet as a research tool, combined with an improving funding climate, has sparked new interest in the development of Internet-linked astronomical data bases and analysis tools. Here I outline a concept for a National Solar Digital Observatory (NSDO), a set of data archives and analysis tools distributed in physical location at sites which already host such systems. A central web site would be implemented from which a user could search all of the component archives, select and download data, and perform analyses. Example components include NSO's Digital Library containing its synoptic and GONG data, and the forthcoming SOLIS archive. Several other archives, in various stages of development, also exist. Potential analysis tools include content-based searches, visualized programming tools, and graphics routines. The existence of an NSDO would greatly facilitate solar physics research, as a user would no longer need to have detailed knowledge of all solar archive sites. It would also improve public outreach efforts. The National Solar Observatory is operated by AURA, Inc. under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  19. Astrophysics science operations in the Great Observatories era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riegler, Guenter R.

    1991-01-01

    Plans for Astrophysics science operations during the decade of the nineties are described from the point of view of a scientist who wishes to make a space-borne astronomical observation or to use archival astronomical data. 'Science Operations' include the following: proposal preparation, observation planning and execution, data collection, data processing and analysis, and dissemination of results. For each of these areas of science operations, we derive technology requirements for the next ten to twenty years. The scientist will be able to use a variety of services and infrastructure, including the 'Astrophysics Data System.' The current status and plans for these science operations services are described.

  20. Swift Observatory Space Simulation Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espiritu, Mellina; Choi, Michael K.; Scocik, Christopher S.

    2004-01-01

    The Swift Observatory is a Middle-Class Explorer (MIDEX) mission that is a rapidly re-pointing spacecraft with immediate data distribution capability to the astronomical community. Its primary objectives are to characterize and determine the origin of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) and to use the collected data on GRB phenomena in order to probe the universe and gain insight into the physics of black hole formation and early universe. The main components of the spacecraft are the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT), X-Ray Telescope (XRT), and Optical Bench (OB) instruments coupled with the Swift spacecraft (S/C) bus. The Swift Observatory will be tested at the Space Environment Simulation (SES) chamber at the Goddard Space Flight Center from May to June 2004 in order to characterize its thermal behavior in a vacuum environment. In order to simulate the independent thermal zones required by the BAT, XRT, UVOT, and OB instruments, the spacecraft is mounted on a chariot structure capable of maintaining adiabatic interfaces and enclosed in a modified, four section MSX fixture in order to accommodate the strategic placement of seven cryopanels (on four circuits), four heater panels, and a radiation source burst simulator mechanism. There are additionally 55 heater circuits on the spacecraft. To mitigate possible migration of silicone contaminants from BAT to the XRT and UVOT instruments, a contamination enclosure is to be fabricated around the BAT at the uppermost section of the MSX fixture. This paper discuses the test requirements and implemented thermal vacuum test configuration for the Swift Observatory.

  1. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory, the third of NASA's four Great Observatories and its flagship mission for X-ray astronomy, was launched by NASA's Space Shuttle Columbia on July 23, 1999. The first X-ray sources were observed on August 12, 1999. The brightest of these sources named Leon X-1 in honor of Chandra's Telescope Scientist who played the leading role in establishing the key to Chandra's great advance in angular resolution. Over the past years, the Observatory's ability to provide sub-arc second X-ray images and high resolution spectra has established it as one of the most versatile and powerful tools for astrophysical research in the 21st century. Chandra explores the high-energy regions of the universe, observing X-ray sources with fluxes ranging over more than 10 orders of magnitude. The longevity of Chandra also provides a long observing baseline enabling temporal studies over time-scales of years. I will discuss how the Observatory works, the current operational status, and scientific highlights covering a variety of objects from stars with nearby planets that impact the stellar activity to the deepest Chandra surveys.

  2. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This artist's conception depicts the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-1 in orbit. The first observatory, designated HEAO-1, was launched on August 12, 1977 aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle and was designed to survey the sky for additional x-ray and gamma-ray sources as well as pinpointing their positions. The HEAO-1 was originally identified as HEAO-A but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit. The HEAO project involved the launching of three unmarned scientific observatories into low Earth orbit between 1977 and 1979 to study some of the most intriguing mysteries of the universe; pulsars, black holes, neutron stars, and super nova. Hardware support for the imaging instruments was provided by American Science and Engineeing. The HEAO spacecraft were built by TRW, Inc. under project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  3. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    This drawing is a schematic of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-1. The first observatory, designated HEAO-1, was launched on August 12, 1977 aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle and was designed to survey the sky for additional x-ray and gamma-ray sources as well as pinpointing their positions. The HEAO-1 was originally identified as HEAO-A but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit. The HEAO project involved the launching of three unmarned scientific observatories into low Earth orbit between 1977 and 1979 to study some of the most intriguing mysteries of the universe; pulsars, black holes, neutron stars, and super nova. Hardware support for the imaging instruments was provided by American Science and Engineeing. The HEAO spacecraft were built by TRW, Inc. under project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  4. WFIRST Observatory Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    The WFIRST observatory will be a powerful and flexible wide-field near-infrared facility. The planned surveys will provide data applicable to an enormous variety of astrophysical science. This presentation will provide a description of the observatory and its performance characteristics. This will include a discussion of the point spread function, signal-to-noise budgets for representative observing scenarios and the corresponding limiting sensitivity. Emphasis will be given to providing prospective Guest Observers with information needed to begin thinking about new observing programs.

  5. Yellowstone Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Lowenstern, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Eruption of Yellowstone's Old Faithful Geyser. Yellowstone hosts the world's largest and most diverse collection of natural thermal features, which are the surface expression of magmatic heat at shallow depths in the crust. The Yellowstone system is monitored by the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), a partnership among the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Yellowstone National Park, and the University of Utah. YVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Yellowstone and YVO at http://volcanoes.usgs.gov/yvo.

  6. Observatory Sponsoring Astronomical Image Contest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    and to provide a showcase for a broad range of astronomical research and celestial objects," Adams added. In addition, NRAO is developing enhanced data visualization techniques and data-processing recipes to assist radio astronomers in making quality images and in combining radio data with data collected at other wavelengths, such as visible-light or infrared, to make composite images. "We encourage all our telescope users to take advantage of these techniques to showcase their research," said Juan Uson, a member of the NRAO scientific staff and the observatory's EPO scientist. "All these efforts should demonstrate the vital and exciting roles that radio telescopes, radio observers, and the NRAO play in modern astronomy," Lo said. "While we want to encourage images that capture the imagination, we also want to emphasize that extra effort invested in enhanced imagery also will certainly pay off scientifically, by revealing subtleties and details that may have great significance for our understanding of astronomical objects," he added. Details of the NRAO Image Contest, which will become an annual event, are on the observatory's Web site. The observatory will announce winners on October 15. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation, operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  7. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becklin, E. E.; Gehrz, R. D.; Roellig, T. L.

    2012-10-01

    The joint U.S. and German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), a program to develop and operate a 2.5-meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747SP, has obtained first science with the FORCAST camera in the 5 to 40 micron spectral region and the GREAT heterodyne spectrometer in the 130 to 240 micron spectral region. We briefly review the characteristics and status of the observatory. Spectacular science results on regions of star formation will be discussed. The FORCAST images show several discoveries and the potential for determining how massive stars form in our Galaxy. The GREAT heterodyne spectrometer has made mapping observations of the [C II] line at 158 microns, high J CO lines, and other molecular lines including SH. The HIPO high speed photometer and the high speed camera FDC were used to observe the 2011 June 23 UT stellar occultation by Pluto.

  8. Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Torun Center for Astronomy is located at Piwnice, 15 km north of Torun, Poland. A part of the Faculty of Physics and Astronomy of the Nicolaus Copernicus University, it was created by the union of Torun Radio Astronomy Observatory (TRAO) and the Institute of Astronomy on 1 January 1997....

  9. Strasbourg's "First" astronomical observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, André

    2011-08-01

    The turret lantern located at the top of the Strasbourg Hospital Gate is generally considered as the first astronomical observatory of the city, but such a qualification must be treated with caution. The thesis of this paper is that the idea of a tower-observatory was brought back by a local scholar, Julius Reichelt (1637-1717), after he made a trip to Northern Europe around 1666 and saw the "Rundetårn" (Round Tower) recently completed in Copenhagen. There, however, a terrace allowed (and still allows) the full viewing of the sky, and especially of the zenith area where the atmospheric transparency is best. However, there is no such terrace in Strasbourg around the Hospital Gate lantern. Reichelt had also visited Johannes Hevelius who was then developing advanced observational astronomy in Gdansk, but nothing of the kind followed in Strasbourg. Rather, the Hospital Gate observatory was built essentially for the prestige of the city and for the notoriety of the university, and the users of this observing post did not make any significant contributions to the progress of astronomical knowledge. We conclude that the Hospital Gate observatory was only used for rudimentary viewing of bright celestial objects or phenomena relatively low on the horizon.

  10. Armenian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2015-07-01

    Vast amount of information continuously accumulated in astronomy requires finding new solutions for its efficient storage, use and dissemination, as well as accomplishing new research projects. Virtual Observatories (VOs) have been created in a number of countries to set up a new environment for these tasks. Based on them, the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) was created in 2002, which unifies 19 VO projects, including Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) founded in 2005. ArVO is a project of Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) aimed at construction of a modern system for data archiving, extraction, acquisition, reduction, use and publication. ArVO technical and research projects are presented, including the Global Spectroscopic Database, which is being built based on Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS). Quick optical identification of radio, IR or X-ray sources will be possible by plotting their positions in the DFBS or other spectroscopic plate and matching all available data. Accomplishment of new projects by combining data is so important that the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) recently created World Data System (WDS) for unifying data coming from all science areas, and BAO has also joined it.

  11. High Energy Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An overview of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory 2 contributions to X-ray astronomy is presented along with a brief description of the satellite and onboard telescope. Observations relating to galaxies and galactic clusters, black holes, supernova remnants, quasars, and cosmology are discussed.

  12. Poznan acute Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    This Poznan acute Astronomical Observatory is a unit of the Adam Mickiewicz University, located in Poznan acute, Poland. From its foundation in 1919, it has specialized in astrometry and celestial mechanics (reference frames, dynamics of satellites and small solar system bodies). Recently, research activities have also included planetary and stellar astrophysics (asteroid photometry, catalysmic b...

  13. Arecibo Observatory for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartus, P.; Isidro, G. M.; La Rosa, C.; Pantoja, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    We describe new materials available at the Arecibo Observatory for visitors with visual impairments. These materials include a guide in Braille that describes the telescope, explains some basic terms used in radio astronomy, and lists frequently asked questions. We have also designed a tactile model of the telescope. Our interest is in enabling…

  14. Astrometry and early astrophysics at Kuffner Observatory in the late 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habison, Peter

    The astronomer and mathematician Norbert Herz encouraged Moriz von Kuffner, owner of the beer brewery in Ottakring, to finance a private scientific observatory in the western parts of Vienna. In the years 1884-87 the Kuffner Observatory was built at the Gallitzinberg in Wien-Ottakring. It was an example of enlighted patronage and noted at the time for its rapid acquisition of new instruments and by increasing international recognition. It contained the largest heliometer in the world and the largest meridian circle in the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. Of the many scientists who worked here we mention Leo de Ball, Gustav Eberhard, Johannes Hartmann and we should not forget Karl Schwarzschild. Here in Vienna he published papers on celestial mechanics, measuring techniques, optics and his fundamental papers concerning photographic photometry, in particular the quantitative determination of the departure of the reciprocity law. The telescope and the associated camera with which he carried out his measurements are still in existence at the observatory. The observatory houses important astronomical instruments from the 19th century. All telescopes were made by Repsold und Söhne in Hamburg, and Steinheil in Munich. These two German companies were best renowned for quality and precision in high standard astronomical instruments. The Great Refractor (270/3500 mm) is still the third largest refractor in Austria. It was installed at the observatory in 1886 and was used together with the Schwarzschild Refractor for early astrophysical work including photography. It is this double refractor, where Schwarzschild carried out his measurements on photographic photometry. The Meridian Circle (132/1500 mm) was the largest meridian passage instrument of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Today it is the largest meridian circle in Austria and still one of the largest in Europe. The telescope is equipped with one of the first impersonal micrometers of that time. First observations were carried

  15. Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO): overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Tananbaum, Harvey D.; Van Speybroeck, Leon P.; O'Dell, Stephen L.

    2000-07-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory, the x-ray component of NASA's Great Observatories, was launched early in the morning of 1999, July 23 by the Space Shuttle Columbia. The Shuttle launch was only the first step in placing the observatory in orbit. After release from the cargo bay, the Inertial Upper Stage performed two firings, and separated from the observatory as planned. Finally, after five firings of Chandra's own Integral Propulsion System--the last of which took place 15 days after launch--the observatory was placed in its highly elliptical orbit of approximately 140,000 km apogee and approximately 10,000 km perigee. After activation, the first x-rays focused by the telescope were observed on 1999, August 12. Beginning with these initial observations one could see that the telescope had survived the launch environment and was operating as expected. The month following the opening of the sun-shade door was spent adjusting the focus for each set of instrument configurations, determining the optical axis, calibrating the star camera, establishing the relative response functions, determining energy scales, and taking a series of `publicity' images. Each observation proved to be far more revealing than was expected. Finally, and despite an initial surprise and setback due to the discovery that the Chandra x-ray telescope was far more efficient for concentrating low-energy protons that had been anticipated, the observatory is performing well and is returning superb scientific data. Together with other space observations, most notably the recently activated XMM-Newton, it is clear that we are entering a new era of discovery in high-energy astrophysics.

  16. Great Quotes for Great Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Todd; Lumpa, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Over 600 insightful, witty nuggets to motivate and inspire you... and everyone else at your school. Teachers--display these quotes in your classrooms! Administrators--insert them into your faculty memos and share them at staff meetings! Why is this book unique? (1) it includes over 100 original quotes from internationally acclaimed speaker and…

  17. The Great Astronomical Ear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiatt, Blanchard

    1980-01-01

    Presents a description of the world's largest radio/radar antenna, the Areciba Observatory in Puerto Rico. Activities at the observatory are discussed as well as the scientific research in the field of radio astronomy. (SA)

  18. Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Venezky, Dina Y.; Murray, Tom; Read, Cyrus

    2008-01-01

    Steam plume from the 2006 eruption of Augustine volcano in Cook Inlet, Alaska. Explosive ash-producing eruptions from Alaska's 40+ historically active volcanoes pose hazards to aviation, including commercial aircraft flying the busy North Pacific routes between North America and Asia. The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) monitors these volcanoes to provide forecasts of eruptive activity. AVO is a joint program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAFGI), and the State of Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys (ADGGS). AVO is one of five USGS Volcano Hazards Program observatories that monitor U.S. volcanoes for science and public safety. Learn more about Augustine volcano and AVO at http://www.avo.alaska.edu.

  19. Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mount Wilson Observatory, located in the San Gabriel Mountains near Pasadena, California, was founded in 1904 by George Ellery Hale with financial support from Andrew Carnegie. In the 1920s and 1930s, working at the 2.5 m Hooker telescope, Edwin Hubble made two of the most important discoveries in the history of astronomy: first, that `nebulae' are actually island universes—galaxies—each with bil...

  20. Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, a government research institute founded in 1972, is located close to the villa where Galileo spent the last 11 years of his life. Under the directorship of Giorgio Abetti (1921-53) it became the growth point of Italian astrophysics with emphasis on solar physics; a tradition continued by his successor Guglielmo Righini (1953-78). Since 1978 the activities ha...

  1. SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, Nans; Bowers, Al

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the great astronomical observatories both space and land based that are now operational. It shows the history of the development of SOFIA, from its conception in 1986 through the contract awards in 1996 and through the planned first flight in 2007. The major components of the observatory are shown and there is a comparison of the SOFIA with the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), which is the direct predecessor to SOFIA. The development of the aft ramp of the KAO was developed as a result of the wind tunnel tests performed for SOFIA development. Further slides show the airborne observatory layout and the telescope's optical layout. Included are also vies of the 2.5 Meter effective aperture, and the major telescope's components. The presentations reviews the technical challenges encountered during the development of SOFIA. There are also slides that review the wind tunnel tests, and CFD modeling performed during the development of SOFIA. Closing views show many views of the airplane, and views of SOFIA.

  2. Megalithic observatory Kokino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenev, Gj.

    2006-05-01

    In 2001, on the footpath of a mountain peak, near the village of Kokino, archeologist Jovica Stankovski discovered an archeological site from The Bronze Age. The site occupies a large area and is scaled in two levels. Several stone seats (thrones) are dominant in this site and they are pointing towards the east horizon. The high concentration of the movable archeological material found on the upper platform probably indicates its use in a function containing still unknown cult activities. Due to precise measurements and a detailed archaeoastronomical analysis of the site performed in the past three years by Gjore Cenev, physicist from the Planetarium in Skopje, it was shown that the site has characteristics of a sacred site, but also of a Megalithic Observatory. The markers found in this observatory point on the summer and winter solstices and spring and autumn equinoxes. It can be seen that on both sides of the solstice markers, that there are markers for establishing Moon's positions. The markers are crafted in such a way that for example on days when special rites were performed (harvest rites for example) the Sun filled a narrow space of the marker and special ray lighted the man sitting on only one of the thrones, which of course had a special meaning. According to the positions of the markers that are used for Sun marking, especially on the solstice days, it was calculated that this observatory dates from 1800 B.C.

  3. Sierra Remote Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringwald, Fred; Morgan, G. E.; Barnes, F. S., III; Goldman, D. S.; Helm, M. R.; Mortfield, P.; Quattrocchi, K. B.; Van Vleet, L.

    2009-05-01

    We report the founding of a new facility for astrophotography and small-telescope science. Sierra Remote Observatories are eight small observatories at 4610' altitude in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. The sky brightness during New Moon typically rates 3 on the Bortle scale. Typical seeing is 1.2", with a one-sigma range between 1.0" and 1.6", measured during 2007 June-September. All eight observatories are operated by remote control over the Internet, from as far away as Toronto and South Carolina. The telescopes range in aperture from 106 mm to 16 inches. Color images have so far been published in several magazines (Astronomy, Practical Astronomer, and Sky & Telescope) and on NASA's Astronomy Picture of the Day website. Science programs include time-resolved photometry of cataclysmic variables including the discovery of a 3.22-hour periodicity in the light curve of the nova-like V378 Pegasi, the serendipitous discovery of a previously undesignated spherical bubble in Cygnus, the discovery of three asteroids, and monitoring of Comet Lulin.

  4. The Russian Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dluzhnevskaya, O. B.; Malkov, O. Yu.; Kilpio, A. A.; Kilpio, E. Yu.; Kovaleva, D. A.; Sat, L. A.

    The Russian Virtual Observatory (RVO) will be an integral component of the International Virtual Observatory (IVO). The RVO has the main goal of integrating resources of astronomical data accumulated in Russian observatories and institutions (databases, archives, digitized glass libraries, bibliographic data, a remote access system to information and technical resources of telescopes etc.), and providing transparent access for scientific and educational purposes to the distributed information and data services that comprise its content. Another goal of the RVO is to provide Russian astronomers with on-line access to the rich volumes of data and metadata that have been, and will continue to be, produced by astronomical survey projects. Centre for Astronomical Data (CAD), among other Russian institutions, has had the greatest experience in collecting and distributing astronomical data for more than 20 years. Some hundreds of catalogs and journal tables are currently available from the CAD repository. More recently, mirrors of main astronomical data resources (VizieR, ADS, etc) are now maintained in CAD. Besides, CAD accumulates and makes available for the astronomical community information on principal Russian astronomical resources.

  5. The Pierre Auger Observatory: Mass composition results and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervé, A. E.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory has been designed to study ultra-high energy cosmic rays. The study of their mass composition can help constrain models concerning their nature and origin. We discuss the different methods of deriving the mass composition of the primary cosmic rays. The methods use different parameters that describe various characteristics of the shower development. We will also discuss the prospects expected from an upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory.

  6. Distributed Observatory Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godin, M. A.; Bellingham, J. G.

    2006-12-01

    A collection of tools for collaboratively managing a coastal ocean observatory have been developed and used in a multi-institutional, interdisciplinary field experiment. The Autonomous Ocean Sampling Network program created these tools to support the Adaptive Sampling and Prediction (ASAP) field experiment that occurred in Monterey Bay in the summer of 2006. ASAP involved the day-to-day participation of a large group of researchers located across North America. The goal of these investigators was to adapt an array of observational assets to optimize data collection and analysis. Achieving the goal required continual interaction, but the long duration of the observatory made sustained co-location of researchers difficult. The ASAP team needed a remote collaboration tool, the capability to add non-standard, interdisciplinary data sets to the overall data collection, and the ability to retrieve standardized data sets from the collection. Over the course of several months and "virtual experiments," the Ocean Observatory Portal (COOP) collaboration tool was created, along with tools for centralizing, cataloging, and converting data sets into common formats, and tools for generating automated plots of the common format data. Accumulating the data in a central location and converting the data to common formats allowed any team member to manipulate any data set quickly, without having to rely heavily on the expertise of data generators to read the data. The common data collection allowed for the development of a wide range of comparison plots and allowed team members to assimilate new data sources into derived outputs such as ocean models quickly. In addition to the standardized outputs, team members were able to produce their own specialized products and link to these through the collaborative portal, which made the experimental process more interdisciplinary and interactive. COOP was used to manage the ASAP vehicle program from its start in July 2006. New summaries were

  7. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: mission status.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) is the second in NASA's series of Great Observatories. Compton has now been operating for over two and a half years, and has given a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments are all in good health, and many significant discoveries have already been made and continue to be made. The authors describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments and the observing programs for the first three years of the mission. During Phases 2 and 3 of the mission a Guest Investigator program has been in progress with the Guest Observers' time share increasing from 30% to over 50% for the later mission phases.

  8. How To Cover NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-07-01

    NASA's newest space telescope, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, is scheduled for launch not earlier than July 20, 1999, aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-93. The world's most powerful X-ray observatory, Chandra will join the Hubble Space Telescope and NASA's other great observatories in an unprecedented study of our universe. With its capability to "see" an otherwise invisible but violent, vibrant and ever-changing universe, Chandra will provide insights into the universe's structure and evolution. The following information is designed to assist news media representatives cover launch and activation of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Covering from the Chandra Control Center NASA will establish a news center at the Chandra X-ray Observatory Operations Control Center in Cambridge, Mass., during the critical period of launch and early activation. The news center will be open from approximately two days prior to launch until the observatory is established in its operating orbit approximately 11 days after launch. The telephone numbers for the news center are: (617) 496-4454 (617) 496-4462 (617) 496-4484 The news center will be staffed around the clock during the Shuttle mission by media relations officers knowledgeable about the Chandra mission and its status. Media covering from the news center will be provided work space and have opportunities for face-to-face interviews with Chandra management, control team members and Chandra scientists. They will be able to participate in daily Chandra status briefings and have access to a special control room viewing area. Additionally, media covering from Cambridge will receive periodic status reports on Chandra and the STS-93 mission, and will be able to participate in interactive televised briefings on the STS-93 mission originating from other NASA centers. While advance accreditation is not required, media interested in covering Chandra from the Operations Control Center should contact Dave Drachlis by telephone at (256) 544

  9. Astronomical publications of Melbourne Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andropoulos, Jenny Ioanna

    2014-05-01

    During the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, four well-equipped government observatories were maintained in Australia - in Melbourne, Sydney, Adelaide and Perth. These institutions conducted astronomical observations, often in the course of providing a local time service, and they also collected and collated meteorological data. As well, some of these observatories were involved at times in geodetic surveying, geomagnetic recording, gravity measurements, seismology, tide recording and physical standards, so the term "observatory" was being used in a rather broad sense! Despite the international renown that once applied to Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories, relatively little has been written by modern-day scholars about astronomical activities at these observatories. This research is intended to rectify this situation to some extent by gathering, cataloguing and analysing the published astronomical output of the two Observatories to see what contributions they made to science and society. It also compares their contributions with those of Sydney, Adelaide and Perth Observatories. Overall, Williamstown and Melbourne Observatories produced a prodigious amount of material on astronomy in scientific and technical journals, in reports and in newspapers. The other observatories more or less did likewise, so no observatory of those studied markedly outperformed the others in the long term, especially when account is taken of their relative resourcing in staff and equipment.

  10. Portable coastal observatories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frye, Daniel; Butman, Bradford; Johnson, Mark; von der Heydt, Keith; Lerner, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Ocean observational science is in the midst of a paradigm shift from an expeditionary science centered on short research cruises and deployments of internally recording instruments to a sustained observational science where the ocean is monitored on a regular basis, much the way the atmosphere is monitored. While satellite remote sensing is one key way of meeting the challenge of real-time monitoring of large ocean regions, new technologies are required for in situ observations to measure conditions below the ocean surface and to measure ocean characteristics not observable from space. One method of making sustained observations in the coastal ocean is to install a fiber optic cable from shore to the area of interest. This approach has the advantage of providing power to offshore instruments and essentially unlimited bandwidth for data. The LEO-15 observatory offshore of New Jersey (yon Alt et al., 1997) and the planned Katama observatory offshore of Martha's Vineyard (Edson et al., 2000) use this approach. These sites, along with other cabled sites, will play an important role in coastal ocean science in the next decade. Cabled observatories, however, have two drawbacks that limit the number of sites that are likely to be installed. First, the cable and the cable installation are expensive and the shore station needed at the cable terminus is often in an environmentally sensitive area where competing interests must be resolved. Second, cabled sites are inherently limited geographically to sites within reach of the cable, so it is difficult to cover large areas of the coastal ocean.

  11. The PS1 Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Nick; Morgan, J.; Pier, E.; Chambers, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System (Pan-STARRS) will use gigapixel cameras on multi-aperture telescopes to survey the sky in the visible and near-infrared bands. The first surveys will begin in 2008 using a single telescope system (PS1) has been deployed on Haleakala, Maui. This facility is currently undergoing commissioning tests. The PS1 telescope is a 1.8-m f/4 Richey-Chretien design that employs three 50 cm diameter correcting lens. The optical system produces a 3 degree diameter field of view at the focal plane. Images will be recorded on a 1.4 gigapixel CCD camera (described in an accompanying poster presentation). The survey programs will be conducted using g, r, i, and z filters which closely approximate the band-pass and response of those used in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These filters will be supplemented with a y band filter further to the infrared of z and a wide w filter for solar system observations. The images from the PS1 camera are supplemented by an Imaging Sky Probe that will provide co-pointed photometric calibration images of each target field. An all-sky camera at the observatory monitors sky conditions and transparency. The operation of the PS1 telescope is supported by the Observatory, Telescope, and Instrument Software (OTIS) system. The OTIS software interfaces the telescope control software provided by the vendor and the CCD camera computer systems. OTIS also records and archives environmental metadata from the dome and the observatory weather station.

  12. NASA's Heliophysics System Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Steven

    2016-04-01

    NASA formulates and implements a national research program for understanding the Sun and its interactions with the Earth and the solar system and how these phenomena impact life and society. This research provides theory, data, and modeling development services to national and international space weather efforts utilizing a coordinated and complementary fleet of spacecraft, called the Heliophysics System Observatory (HSO), to understand the Sun and its interactions with Earth and the solar system, including space weather. This presentation will focus on NASA's role in space weather research and the contributions the agency continues to provide to the science of space weather, leveraging inter-agency and international collaborations for the benefit of society.

  13. Strasbourg Observatory Archives Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, A.

    2002-12-01

    Official talks in France and Germany after World War I were generally of hatred and revenge. Strasbourg Observatory had just changed nationality (from Prussian to French) for the first time (this would happen again at the outbreak of WWII and after the conflict). Documents show that astronomers did not share the general attitude. For example the inventory book started in German was continued in French after 1918. It is moving to see those different handwritings in two different languages on the same pages -- making of that book a unique document in various respects, but also reminding us that the native language of the region was in fact Alsacian.

  14. Acquirement of the observatory code of Langkawi National Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loon, Chin Wei; Zainuddin, Mohd. Zambri; Ahmad, Nazhatulshima; Shukor, Muhammad Shamim; Tahar, Muhammad Redzuan

    2015-04-01

    Observatory code was assigned by The International Astronomical Union (IAU) Minor Planet Center (MPC) for a permanent observatory that intended to do astrometric CCD-observing program of minor planet or comets in solar system. The purpose of acquiring an observatory code is to document specific details about a particular observation site and the types of instruments used within the observatory. In addition, many astronomical centers and stations worldwide will know there is an active observatory at the particular location and international cooperation program in astronomy observation is possible. The Langkawi National Observatory has initiated an observation program to monitor minor planet, specifically those Near Earth Objects (NEOs) that may bring potentially hazardous to the Earth. In order to fulfil the requirement that stated by MPC for undertaking astrometric CCD-observing program, an observatory code was required. The instruments and methods that applied to obtain the observatory code will be discussed. The Langkawi National Observatory is now coded as O43 and listed in the MPC system, the single worldwide location for receipt and distribution of positional measurements of minor planets, comets and outer irregular natural satellites of major planets.

  15. The great asteroid nomenclature controversy of 1801

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Clifford J.

    1992-01-01

    With the almost complete neglect of 19th century asteroid research by professional historians of science, it is scarcely surprising that great gaps exist in our knowledge of that important field. This paper focuses on issue of naming the first asteroid. This seemingly innocuous issue assumed great importance because many believed the object discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi at Palermo Observatory to be the eighth primary planet of the solar system.

  16. The Asiago Observatory's reflectogoniometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, S.; Pernechele, C.; Barbieri, C.

    1999-09-01

    We present the Asiago Astrophysical Observatory reflectogoniometer, a useful instrument which allows to perform laboratory studies of transmitted and diffuse light. In particular the instrument allows a complete characterization of the Bidirectional Reflectance Function (BDRF) for spherical shape samples and of the Transmittance Function for plane samples. The instrument is placed in an optical laboratory of the Asiago Astrophysical Observatory. Data are acquired by a CCD camera, equipped with its own frame grabber card, and analysed by a pc. Image calibration, i.e. the procedure that converts the value of each pixel of a CCD frame in a radiometric quantity, follows the standard sequence used for remote sensing application (bias, dark, flat fielding, distortion corrections, reflectogoniometric calibration, using a reflectometric standard), and it is implemented in a data reduction pipeline. The instrument tests performed until now have confirm that the imaging-goniophotometer is an instrument suitable for the quick characterization of diffusing surfaces in all the tree possible configuration: transmittance measurements (translucent plates), partial reflectance measurements (diffusing sheets), and bidirectional function characterization (coatings and paints). The goniophotometer may have different astronomical and industrial applications: it can be used for the characterization of absorbance properties of paints for baffling in spatial missions, of diffusive properties of flat field panels, of trasmittance properties of different glasses type and of reflective properties of rocks surfaces, like, for example, meteorites samples.

  17. Wendelstein Observatory Operations Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gössl, C. A.; Snigula, J. M.; Munzert, T.

    2014-05-01

    LMU München operates an astrophysical observatory on Mt. Wendelstein which has been equipped with a modern 2m-class telescope recently. The new Fraunhofer telescope is starting science operations now with a 64 Mpixel, 0.5°×0.5° FoV wide field camera and will successively be equipped with a three channel optical/NIR camera and two fibre coupled spectrographs (IFU spectrograph VIRUSW already in operation at the 2.7m McDonald, Texas and an upgraded Echelle spectrograph FOCES formerly operated at Calar Alto oberservatory, Spain). All instruments will be mounted simultaneously and can be activated within a minute. The observatory also operates a small 40cm telescope with a CCD-camera and a simple fibre coupled spectrograph for students lab and photometric monitoring as well as a large number of support equipment like a meteo station, allsky cameras, a multitude of webcams, in addition to a complex building control system environment. Here we describe the ongoing effort to build a centralised controlling interface for all. This includes remote/robotic operation, visualisation via browser technologies, and data processing and archiving.

  18. Wendelstein Observatory control software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gössl, Claus; Snigula, Jan; Kodric, Mihael; Riffeser, Arno; Munzert, Tobias

    2014-07-01

    LMU München operates an astrophysical observatory on Mt. Wendelstein1 which has been equipped with a modern 2m-class telescope2, 3 recently. The new Fraunhofer telescope has started science operations in autumn 2013 with a 64 Mpixel, 0:5 x 0:5 square degree FoV wide field camera,4 and will successively be equipped with a 3 channel optical/NIR camera5 and 2 fibre coupled spectrographs (IFU spectrograph VIRUSW6 already in operation at the 2.7 McDonald, Texas and an upgraded Echelle spectrograph FOCES7, 8 formerly operated at Calar Alto oberservatory, Spain). All instruments will be mounted simultaneously and can be activated within a minute. The observatory also operates a small 40cm telescope with a CCD-camera and a simple fibre coupled spectrograph for students lab and photometric monitoring as well as a large number of support equipment like a meteo station, allsky cameras, a multitude of webcams, in addition to a complex building control system environment. Here we describe the ongoing effort to build a centralised controlling interface for all hardware. This includes remote/robotic operation, visualisation via web browser technologies, and data processing and archiving.

  19. Lessons from the MicroObservatory Net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.; Sadler, P.; Gould, R.; Leiker, S.; Antonucci, P.; Deutsch, F.

    1998-12-01

    Over the past several years, we have developed a fully integrated automated astronomical telescope system which combines the imaging power of a cooled CCD, with a self-contained and weatherized 15 cm reflecting optical telescope and mount. Each telescope can be pointed and focused remotely, and filters, field of view and exposure times can be changed easily. The MicroObservatory Net consists of five of these telescopes. They are being deployed around the world at widely distributed longitudes for access to distant night skies during local daytime. Remote access to the MicroObservatories over the Internet has been available to select schools since 1995. The telescopes can be controlled in real time or in delay mode, from any computer using Web-based software. Individuals have access to all of the telescope control functions without the need for an `on-site' operator. After a MicroObservatory completes a job, the user is automatically notified by e-mail that the image is available for viewing and downloading from the Web site. Images are archived at the Web site, along with sample challenges and a user bulletin board, all of which encourage collaboration between schools. The Internet address of the telescopes is http://mo-www.harvard.edu/MicroObservatory/. The telescopes were designed for classroom instruction by teachers, as well as for use by students and amateur astronomers for original scientific research projects. In this talk, we will review some of the experiences we, students and teachers have had in using the telescopes. Support for the MicroObservatory Net has been provided by the NSF, Apple Computer, Inc. and Kodak, Inc.

  20. Latest results from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dembinski, Hans P.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    2012-02-01

    The Pierre Auger Observatory, located in the Province of Mendoza, Argentina, is the World's largest detector for cosmic rays at ultra-high energies. In its seven years of operation it has collected an exposure of more than 20000 km2 sr yr, larger than all previous experiments combined. Its original design, optimized for the energy range 1018 eV to 1020 eV, is currently enhanced to cover energies down to almost 1017 eV. We give an overview of the latest results with a focus on the prospect to study nuclear interactions with cosmic rays and conclude with a brief outlook on developments and extensions of the observatory. Full author list

  1. External field contributions in observatory monthly means

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, N.

    2009-04-01

    Monthly means of the magnetic field measurements taken by ground observatories are a useful data source for studying temporal changes of the core magnetic field. However, the usual way of calculating monthly means as the arithmetic mean of all days (geomagnetic quiet as well as disturbed) and all local times (day and night) may result in contributions of external (magnetospheric and ionospheric) origin in the monthly means. Such a contamination makes monthly means less favorable for core field studies. We investigate this problem by calculating modified monthly means from observatory hourly means using different statistical approaches (arithmetic mean, median, robust mean, ...) and data selection criteria (all days, quiet days only, local night data only, ...). An assessment of the different approaches is done by means of generalized cross-validation.

  2. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 in orbit. The HEAO-2, the first imaging and largest x-ray telescope built to date, was capable of producing actual photographs of x-ray objects. Shortly after launch, the HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978. The HEAO-2 was originally identified as HEAO-B but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit.

  3. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidouche, M.; Young, E.; Marcum, P.; Krabbe, A.

    2010-12-01

    We present one of the new generations of observatories, the Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). This is an airborne observatory consisting of a 2.7-m telescope mounted on a modified Boeing B747-SP airplane. Flying at an up to 45,000 ft (14 km) altitude, SOFIA will observe above more than 99 percent of the Earth's atmospheric water vapor allowing observations in the normally obscured far-infrared. We outline the observatory capabilities and goals. The first-generation science instruments flying on board SOFIA and their main astronomical goals are also presented.

  4. GPM Core Observatory Launch Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation depicts the launch of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Core Observatory satellite from Tanegashima Space Center, Japan. The launch is currently scheduled for Feb. 27, 2014....

  5. Observatory ends scientific investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO-3), which was instrumental in the discovery of the first suspected black hole, wound up its scientific investigation at the end of 1980. Spacecraft science operations were terminated after 8½ years of operation. Named Copernicus, OAO-3 performed consistently beyond design specifications and 7½ years beyond project requirements. Its performance profile, according to the NASA-Goddard engineers and scientists, was ‘astonishing.’While formal scientific investigations were ended December 31, a series of engineering tests are still being made until February 15. At that time, all contact with the spacecraft will end. Project engineers are uncertain whether Copernicus will orient itself permanently toward the sun, begin a permanent orbital tumbling action, or a variation of both.

  6. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellerive, A.; Klein, J. R.; McDonald, A. B.; Noble, A. J.; Poon, A. W. P.

    2016-07-01

    This review paper provides a summary of the published results of the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) experiment that was carried out by an international scientific collaboration with data collected during the period from 1999 to 2006. By using heavy water as a detection medium, the SNO experiment demonstrated clearly that solar electron neutrinos from 8B decay in the solar core change into other active neutrino flavors in transit to Earth. The reaction on deuterium that has equal sensitivity to all active neutrino flavors also provides a very accurate measure of the initial solar flux for comparison with solar models. This review summarizes the results from three phases of solar neutrino detection as well as other physics results obtained from analyses of the SNO data.

  7. Orbiting Carbon Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    Human impact on the environment has produced measurable changes in the geological record since the late 1700s. Anthropogenic emissions of CO2 today may cause the global climate to depart for its natural behavior for many millenia. CO2 is the primary anthropogenic driver of climate change. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory goals are to help collect measurements of atmospheric CO2, answering questions such as why the atmospheric CO2 buildup varies annually, the roles of the oceans and land ecosystems in absorbing CO2, the roles of North American and Eurasian sinks and how these carbon sinks respond to climate change. The present carbon cycle, CO2 variability, and climate uncertainties due atmospheric CO2 uncertainties are highlighted in this presentation.

  8. The virtual observatory registry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Greene, G.; Le Sidaner, P.; Plante, R. L.

    2014-11-01

    In the Virtual Observatory (VO), the Registry provides the mechanism with which users and applications discover and select resources-typically, data and services-that are relevant for a particular scientific problem. Even though the VO adopted technologies in particular from the bibliographic community where available, building the Registry system involved a major standardisation effort, involving about a dozen interdependent standard texts. This paper discusses the server-side aspects of the standards and their application, as regards the functional components (registries), the resource records in both format and content, the exchange of resource records between registries (harvesting), as well as the creation and management of the identifiers used in the system based on the notion of authorities. Registry record authors, registry operators or even advanced users thus receive a big picture serving as a guideline through the body of relevant standard texts. To complete this picture, we also mention common usage patterns and open issues as appropriate.

  9. Spitzer Space Telescope : observatory desciption and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Keyur C.; Spath, Stuart R.

    2004-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope, the last of the four Great Observatories commissioned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, was successfully launched on August 25, 2003 from Kennedy Space Center. The engineering systems for Spitzer were developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, and Ball Aerospace & Technology Corp. This paper provides an overview of Spitzer, a technical description of all the engineering subsystems, and the associated challenges involved in developing them to satisfy the mission requirements. In addition, this paper describes the performance of the engineering subsystems during the In-Orbit Checkout phase, the Science Verification phase, and the early portions of the Nominal Mission.

  10. Operations with the FUSE observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, William P.; Kruk, Jeffrey W.; Moos, Henry W.; Oegerle, William R.

    2003-02-01

    The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer satellite (FUSE) is a NASA Origins mission launched on 1999 June 24 and operated from the Johns Hopkins University Homewood campus in Baltimore, MD. FUSE consists of four aligned telescopes feeding twin far-ultraviolet spectrographs that achieve a spectral resolution of R=20,000 over the 905-1187 Å spectral region. This makes FUSE complementary to the Hubble Space Telescope and of broad general interest to the astronomical community. FUSE is operated as a general-purpose observatory with proposals evaluated and selected by NASA. The FUSE mission concept evolved dramatically over time. The version of FUSE that was built and flown was born out of the "faster, better, cheaper" era, which drove not only the mission development but also plans for operations. Fixed price contracts, a commercial spacecraft, and operations in the University environment were all parts of the low cost strategy. The satellite performs most functions autonomously, with ground contacts limited typically to seven 12-minute contacts per day through a dedicated ground station. All support functions are managed by a staff of 40 scientists and engineers located at Johns Hopkins. In this configuration, we have been able to achieve close to 30% average on-target science efficiency. In short, FUSE is a successful example of the "faster, better, cheaper" philosophy.

  11. Global geodetic observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucher, Claude; Pearlman, Mike; Sarti, Pierguido

    2015-01-01

    Global geodetic observatories (GGO) play an increasingly important role both for scientific and societal applications, in particular for the maintenance and evolution of the reference frame and those applications that rely on the reference frame for their viability. The International Association of Geodesy (IAG), through the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS), is fully involved in coordinating the development of these systems and ensuring their quality, perenniality and accessibility. This paper reviews the current role, basic concepts, and some of the critical issues associated with the GGOs, and advocates for their expansion to enhance co-location with other observing techniques (gravity, meteorology, etc). The historical perspective starts with the MERIT campaign, followed by the creation of international services (IERS, IGS, ILRS, IVS, IDS, etc). It provides a basic definition of observing systems and observatories and the build up of the international networks and the role of co-locations in geodesy and geosciences and multi-technique processing and data products. This paper gives special attention to the critical topic of local surveys and tie vectors among co-located systems in sites; the agreement of space geodetic solutions and the tie vectors now place one of the most significant limitations on the quality of integrated data products, most notably the ITRF. This topic focuses on survey techniques, extrapolation to instrument reference points, computation techniques, systematic biases, and alignment of the individual technique reference frames into ITRF. The paper also discusses the design, layout and implementation of network infrastructure, including the role of GGOS and the benefit that would be achieved with better standardization and international governance.

  12. Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beier, E. W.

    1992-03-01

    This document is a technical progress report on work performed at the University of Pennsylvania during the current year on the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory project. The motivation for the experiment is the measurement of neutrinos emitted by the sun. The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO) is a second generation dedicated solar neutrino experiment which will extend the results of our work with the Kamiokande II detector by measuring three reactions of neutrinos rather than the single reaction measured by the Kamiokande experiment. The collaborative project includes physicists from Canada, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Full funding for the construction of this facility was obtained in Jan. 1990, and its construction is estimated to take five years. The motivation for the SNO experiment is to study the fundamental properties of neutrinos, in particular the mass and mixing parameters, which remain undetermined after decades of experiments in neutrino physics utilizing accelerators and reactors as sources of neutrinos. To continue the study of neutrino properties it is necessary to use the sun as a neutrino source. The long distance to the sun makes the search for neutrino mass sensitive to much smaller mass than can be studied with terrestrial sources. Furthermore, the matter density in the sun is sufficiently large to enhance the effects of small mixing between electron neutrinos and mu or tau neutrinos. This experiment, when combined with the results of the radiochemical Cl-37 and Ga-71 experiments and the Kamiokande II experiment, should extend our knowledge of these fundamental particles, and as a byproduct, improve our understanding of energy generation in the sun.

  13. Global Ionosphere Radio Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, I. A.; Reinisch, B. W.; Huang, X. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Global Ionosphere Radio Observatory (GIRO) comprises a network of ground-based high-frequency vertical sounding sensors, ionosondes, with instrument installations in 27 countries and a central Lowell GIRO Data Center (LGDC) for data acquisition and assimilation, including 46 real-time data streams as of August 2014. The LGDC implemented a suite of technologies for post-processing, modeling, analysis, and dissemination of the acquired and derived data products, including: (1) IRI-based Real-time Assimilative Model, "IRTAM", that builds and publishes every 15-minutes an updated "global weather" map of the peak density and height in the ionosphere, as well as a map of deviations from the classic IRI climate; (2) Global Assimilative Model of Bottomside Ionosphere Timelines (GAMBIT) Database and Explorer holding 15 years worth of IRTAM computed maps at 15 minute cadence;. (3) 17+ million ionograms and matching ionogram-derived records of URSI-standard ionospheric characteristics and vertical profiles of electron density; (4) 10+ million records of the Doppler Skymaps showing spatial distributions over the GIRO locations and plasma drifts; (5) Data and software for Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance (TID) diagnostics; and (6) HR2006 ray tracing software mated to the "realistic" IRTAM ionosphere. In cooperation with the URSI Ionosonde Network Advisory Group (INAG), the LGDC promotes cooperative agreements with the ionosonde observatories of the world to accept and process real-time data of HF radio monitoring of the ionosphere, and to promote a variety of investigations that benefit from the global-scale, prompt, detailed, and accurate descriptions of the ionospheric variability.

  14. The brazilian indigenous planetary-observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonso, G. B.

    2003-08-01

    We have performed observations of the sky alongside with the Indians of all Brazilian regions that made it possible localize many indigenous constellations. Some of these constellations are the same as the other South American Indians and Australian aborigines constellations. The scientific community does not have much of this information, which may be lost in one or two generations. In this work, we present a planetary-observatory that we have made in the Park of Science Newton Freire-Maia of Paraná State, in order to popularize the astronomical knowledge of the Brazilian Indians. The planetary consists, essentially, of a sphere of six meters in diameter and a projection cylinder of indigenous constellations. In this planetary we can identify a lot of constellations that we have gotten from the Brazilian Indians; for instance, the four seasonal constellations: the Tapir (spring), the Old Man (summer), the Deer (autumn) and the Rhea (winter). A two-meter height wooden staff that is posted vertically on the horizontal ground similar to a Gnomon and stones aligned with the cardinal points and the soltices directions constitutes the observatory. A stone circle of ten meters in diameter surrounds the staff and the aligned stones. During the day we observe the Sun apparent motions and at night the indigenous constellations. Due to the great community interest in our work, we are designing an itinerant indigenous planetary-observatory to be used in other cities mainly by indigenous and primary schools teachers.

  15. The International X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Randall; Ixo Team

    2009-09-01

    The International X-ray Observatory (IXO), a joint ESA-JAXA-NASA effort, will address fundamental and timely questions in astrophysics: What happens close to a black hole? How did supermassive black holes grow? How does large scale structure form? What is the connection between these processes? To address these questions IXO will trace orbits close to the event horizon of black holes, measure black hole spin for several hundred active galactic nuclei (AGN), use spectroscopy to characterize outflows and the environment of AGN during their peak activity, search for super-massive black holes out to redshift z = 10, map bulk motions and turbulence in galaxy clusters, find the missing baryons in the cosmic web using background quasars, and observe the process of cosmic feedback where black holes inject energy on galactic and intergalactic scales. IXO will employ optics with 3 sq m collecting area and 5 arc sec angular resolution - 20 times more collecting area at 1 keV than any previous X-ray observatory. Focal plane instruments will deliver a 100-fold increase in effective area for high-resolution spectroscopy, deep spectral imaging over a wide field of view, deep polarimetric sensitivity, microsecond spectroscopic timing, and high count rate capability. The mission is being planned for launch in 2021 to an L2 orbit, with a five-year lifetime and consumables for 10 years. Previous experience assures us that unexpected discoveries will abound - a key feature of great observatories.

  16. Irish astronomers eager to use European gamma-ray space observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    Space observatories are today helping astronomers discover and understand the furthest reaches of the Universe. But the origin of gamma-ray bursts, brief but extremely powerful explosions, is still one of the great cosmic mysteries. INTEGRAL will be a space observatory whose objective is to gather gamma rays, the most energetic radiation that comes from space, pinpointing and studying their sources with an unprecedented resolution and sensitivity. In addition to tracking down gamma-ray bursts, the observatory will bring much new information on stellar explosions, black holes and the formation of elements. With no other dedicated gamma-ray mission on the horizon, the world's scientists are eagerly awaiting the start of the mission, just 12 months away. Ireland's astronomers and astrophysicists will be privileged users. Professor Brian McBreen of University College Dublin, and Professor Evert Meurs of the Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies (DIAS) and Director of Dunsink Observatory, are both co-investigators for the Optical Monitor Camera (OMC), one of INTEGRAL's four science instruments. Their teams have also contributed to the science analysis software to be used at the INTEGRAL Science Data Centre (ISDC). Professor McBreen, an authority in the field of gamma-ray bursts, was one of the founding fathers of the project in the 1980s that subsequently led to INTEGRAL. The spacecraft is currently undergoing environmental tests at ESA's Technical and Research Centre (ESTEC) in the Netherlands. The launch, on a Russian Proton rocket from Baïkonour, is scheduled for October 2002. Speakers at the press conference will include , Ireland's Minister for Commerce, Science and Technology Mr. Noel Treacy, the President of RIA Professor T.D. Spearman, and Professor David Southwood, Director of Science at the European Space Agency and the Irish co-investigators.

  17. Ancient "Observatories" - A Relevant Concept?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    It is quite common, when reading popular books on astronomy, to see a place referred to as "the oldest observatory in the world". In addition, numerous books on archaeoastronomy, of various levels of quality, frequently refer to the existence of "prehistoric" or "ancient" observatories when describing or citing monuments that were certainly not built with the primary purpose of observing the skies. Internet sources are also guilty of this practice. In this chapter, the different meanings of the word observatory will be analyzed, looking at how their significances can be easily confused or even interchanged. The proclaimed "ancient observatories" are a typical result of this situation. Finally, the relevance of the concept of the ancient observatory will be evaluated.

  18. The Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnellan, A.; Rundle, J. B.; Fox, G.; Pierce, M.; McLeod, D.; Parker, J. W.; Tullis, T.; Grant, L.

    2003-12-01

    Under the auspices of NASA we are developing the Solid Earth Research Virtual Observatory (SERVO). The initial focus of the observatory is spaced-based observational data, ground-based sensor data (GPS, seismicity), simulation data, and published/historical fault measurements, coupled with earthquake fault and tectonic modeling and pattern recognition software. This observatory will enable investigators to seamlessly merge multiple data sets and models, and create new queries. In the SERVO framework, simulation data will be archived together with analysis/animation tools and the original simulation code. Observational data, which is heterogeneous and distributed in nature, will be accessible through cooperative federated databases. SERVO will include tools for visualization, datamining and pattern recognition, with data fusion into a web services (portal) based Problem Solving Environment (PSE). SERVO couples distributed data sources, applications, and hardware resources through an XML-based Web Services framework. Users access the services (and thus distributed resources) through Web browser-based Problem Solving Environment clients. The Web services approach defines standard, programming language-independent application programming interfaces, so non-browser client applications may also be built. Initial application codes in SERVO are GeoFEST, a parallel 3D finite element code, Virtual California, a boundary element code to simulate fault interactions, PARK, a boundary element code for studying unstable slip on faults, and two pattern recognizers RDAHMM, which uses a modification of Hidden Markov Models to analyze time series data, and PDPC, which looks for anomalies in seismicity data.

  19. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    This illustration is a schematic of the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)-2 and its experiments. It shows the focal plane instruments (at the right) plus the associated electronics for operating the telescope as it transmitted its observations to the ground. A fifth instrument, the Monitor Proportional Counter, is located near the front of the telescope. Four separate astronomical instruments are located at the focus of this telescope and they could be interchanged for different types of observations as the observatory pointed at interesting areas of the Sky. Two of these instruments produced images; a High Resolution Imaging Detector and an Imaging Proportional Counter. The other two instruments, the Solid State Spectrometer and the Crystal Spectrometer, measured the spectra of x-ray objects. A fifth instrument, the Monitor Proportional Counter, continuously viewed space independently to study a wider band of x-ray wavelengths and to examine the rapid time variations in the sources. The HEAO-2 was nicknamed the Einstein Observatory by its scientific experimenters in honor of the centernial of the birth of Albert Einstein, whose concepts of relativity and gravitation have influenced much of modern astrophysics, particularly x-ray astronomy. The HEAO-2, designed and developed by TRW, Inc. under the project management of the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched aboard an Atlas/Centaur launch vehicle on November 13, 1978. The HEAO-2 was originally identified as HEAO-B but the designation was changed once the spacecraft achieved orbit.

  20. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1956 Quarterly Administrative Reports

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. This report consists of four parts.

  1. Klimovskaya: A new geomagnetic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, A. A.; Sidorov, R. V.; Krasnoperov, R. I.; Grudnev, A. A.; Khokhlov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    In 2011 Geophysical Center RAS (GC RAS) began to deploy the Klimovskaya geomagnetic observatory in the south of Arkhangelsk region on the territory of the Institute of Physiology of Natural Adaptations, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (IPNA UB RAS). The construction works followed the complex of preparatory measures taken in order to confirm that the observatory can be constructed on this territory and to select the optimal configuration of observatory structures. The observatory equipping stages are described in detail, the technological and design solutions are described, and the first results of the registered data quality control are presented. It has been concluded that Klimovskaya observatory can be included in INTERMAGNET network. The observatory can be used to monitor and estimate geomagnetic activity, because it is located at high latitudes and provides data in a timely manner to the scientific community via the web-site of the Russian-Ukrainian Geomagnetic Data Center. The role of ground observatories such as Klimovskaya remains critical for long-term observations of secular variation and for complex monitoring of the geomagnetic field in combination with low-orbiting satellite data.

  2. The Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, William D.

    2008-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) is the first Space Weather Mission in NASA's Living With a Star Program. SDO's main goal is to understand, driving towards a predictive capability, those solar variations that influence life on Earth and humanity's technological systems. The past decade has seen an increasing emphasis on understanding the entire Sun, from the nuclear reactions at the core to the development and loss of magnetic loops in the corona. SDO's three science investigations (HMI, AIA, and EVE) will determine how the Sun's magnetic field is generated and structured, how this stored magnetic energy is released into the heliosphere and geospace as the solar wind, energetic particles, and variations in the solar irradiance. SDO will return full-disk Dopplergrams, full-disk vector magnetograms, full-disk images at nine EIUV wavelengths, and EUV spectral irradiances, all taken at a rapid cadence. This means you can 'observe the database' to study events, but we can also move forward in producing quantitative models of what the Sun is doing today. SDO is scheduled to launch in 2008 on an Atlas V rocket from the Kennedy Space Center, Cape Canaveral, Florida. The satellite will fly in a 28 degree inclined geosynchronous orbit about the longitude of New Mexico, where a dedicated Ka-band ground station will receive the 150 Mbps data flow. How SDO data will transform the study of the Sun and its affect on Space Weather studies will be discussed.

  3. Architecture of Chinese Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chen-Zhou; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2004-06-01

    Virtual Observatory (VO) is brought forward under the background of progresses of astronomical technologies and information technologies. VO architecture design embodies the combination of above two technologies. As an introduction of VO, principle and workflow of Virtual Observatory are given firstly. Then the latest progress on VO architecture is introduced. Based on the Grid technology, layered architecture model and service-oriented architecture model are given for Chinese Virtual Observatory. In the last part of the paper, some problems on architecture design are discussed in detail.

  4. Development of Mykolaiv Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazhaev, A.; Protsyuk, Yu.

    Results obtained in 2010-2013 on the development of astronomical databases and web services are presented. Mykolaiv Virtual Observatory (MVO) is a part of the Ukrainian Virtual Observatory (UkrVO). At present, MVO consists of three major databases containing data on: astrometric catalogues, photographic plates, CCD observations. The databases facilitate the process of data mining and provide easy access to the textual and graphic information on the results of observations and their reduction obtained during the whole history of Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory (NAO).

  5. OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The description, development history, test history, and orbital performance analysis of the OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory are presented. The OSO-6 Orbiting Solar Observatory was the sixth flight model of a series of scientific spacecraft designed to provide a stable platform for experiments engaged in the collection of solar and celestial radiation data. The design objective was 180 days of orbital operation. The OSO-6 has telemetered an enormous amount of very useful experiment and housekeeping data to GSFC ground stations. Observatory operation during the two-year reporting period was very successful except for some experiment instrument problems.

  6. History of the Marseille Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prévot, Marie-Louise; Caplan, James

    The Marseille Observatory was founded in 1702 by the Jesuit order. It was located near the Vieux Port until the 1860s, when it was taken over as an annex to the Paris Observatory, directed by Le Verrier, and moved to its present location on the Plateau Longchamp. It again became independent in 1873. For information on the early history of the observatory we are largely indebted to F.X. von Zach, who spent several years in Marseille, and who was a good friend of J. Thulis, director from 1801 to 1810. Some aspects of the foundation and early history of the observatory, and of the lives of some of the astronomers who worked there, are presented and illustrated. Our collection of old instruments and documents are described.

  7. Haystack Observatory Technology Development Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaudoin, Chris; Corey, Brian; Niell, Arthur; Cappallo, Roger; Whitney, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Technology development at MIT Haystack Observatory were focused on four areas in 2012: VGOS developments at GGAO; Digital backend developments and workshop; RFI compatibility at VLBI stations; Mark 6 VLBI data system development.

  8. Islamic Astronomical Instruments and Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidarzadeh, Tofigh

    This chapter is a brief survey of astronomical instruments being used and developed in Islamic territories from the eighth to the fifteenth centuries as well as a concise account of major observatories and observational programs in this period.

  9. The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helou, George; Kessler, Martin F.

    1995-01-01

    ISO, scheduled to launch in 1995, will carry into orbit the most sophisticated infrared observatory of the decade. Overviews of the mission, instrument payload and scientific program are given, along with a comparison of the strengths of ISO and SOFIA.

  10. Light Phenomena over the ESO Observatories III: Zodiacal Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horálek, P.; Christensen, L. L.; Nesvorný, D.; Davies, R.

    2016-06-01

    The zodiacal light is often seen at the ESO observatories in the hours after sunset and before sunrise. The origin of the zodiacal light is described and recent research briefly summarised. Some fine images of the zodiacal light from Paranal and La Silla, including the full extent of the night sky are presented.

  11. Sofia Observatory Performance and Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temi, Pasquale; Miller, Walter; Dunham, Edward; McLean, Ian; Wolf, Jurgen; Becklin, Eric; Bida, Tom; Brewster, Rick; Casey, Sean; Collins, Peter; Jakob, Holger; Killebrew, Jana; Lampater, Ulrich; Mandushev, Georgi; Marcum, Pamela; Meyer, Allan; Pfueller, Enrico; Reinacher, Andreas; Roeser, Hans-Peter; Savage, Maureen; Teufel, Stefan; Wiedemann, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) has recently concluded a set of engineering flights for Observatory performance evaluation. These in-flight opportunities have been viewed as a first comprehensive assessment of the Observatory's performance and will be used to address the development activity that is planned for 2012, as well as to identify additional Observatory upgrades. A series of 8 SOFIA Characterization And Integration (SCAI) flights have been conducted from June to December 2011. The HIPO science instrument in conjunction with the DSI Super Fast Diagnostic Camera (SFDC) have been used to evaluate pointing stability, including the image motion due to rigid-body and flexible-body telescope modes as well as possible aero-optical image motion. We report on recent improvements in pointing stability by using an Active Mass Damper system installed on Telescope Assembly. Measurements and characterization of the shear layer and cavity seeing, as well as image quality evaluation as a function of wavelength have been performed using the HIPO+FLITECAM Science Instrument configuration (FLIPO). A number of additional tests and measurements have targeted basic Observatory capabilities and requirements including, but not limited to, pointing accuracy, chopper evaluation and imager sensitivity. SCAI activities included in-flight partial Science Instrument commissioning prior to the use of the instruments as measuring engines. This paper reports on the data collected during the SCAI flights and presents current SOFIA Observatory performance and characterization.

  12. Automation of Coordinated Planning Between Observatories: The Visual Observation Layout Tool (VOLT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maks, Lori; Koratkar, Anuradha; Kerbel, Uri; Pell, Vince

    2002-01-01

    Fulfilling the promise of the era of great observatories, NASA now has more than three space-based astronomical telescopes operating in different wavebands. This situation provides astronomers with the unique opportunity of simultaneously observing a target in multiple wavebands with these observatories. Currently scheduling multiple observatories simultaneously, for coordinated observations, is highly inefficient. Coordinated observations require painstaking manual collaboration among the observatory staff at each observatory. Because they are time-consuming and expensive to schedule, observatories often limit the number of coordinated observations that can be conducted. In order to exploit new paradigms for observatory operation, the Advanced Architectures and Automation Branch of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center has developed a tool called the Visual Observation Layout Tool (VOLT). The main objective of VOLT is to provide a visual tool to automate the planning of coordinated observations by multiple astronomical observatories. Four of NASA's space-based astronomical observatories - the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and Chandra - are enthusiastically pursuing the use of VOLT. This paper will focus on the purpose for developing VOLT, as well as the lessons learned during the infusion of VOLT into the planning and scheduling operations of these observatories.

  13. The Carl Sagan solar and stellar observatories as remote observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saucedo-Morales, J.; Loera-Gonzalez, P.

    In this work we summarize recent efforts made by the University of Sonora, with the goal of expanding the capability for remote operation of the Carl Sagan Solar and Stellar Observatories, as well as the first steps that have been taken in order to achieve autonomous robotic operation in the near future. The solar observatory was established in 2007 on the university campus by our late colleague A. Sánchez-Ibarra. It consists of four solar telescopes mounted on a single equatorial mount. On the other hand, the stellar observatory, which saw the first light on 16 February 2010, is located 21 km away from Hermosillo, Sonora at the site of the School of Agriculture of the University of Sonora. Both observatories can now be remotely controlled, and to some extent are able to operate autonomously. In this paper we discuss how this has been accomplished in terms of the use of software as well as the instruments under control. We also briefly discuss the main scientific and educational objectives, the future plans to improve the control software and to construct an autonomous observatory on a mountain site, as well as the opportunities for collaborations.

  14. Invited review article: The Chandra X-ray Observatory.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Daniel A

    2014-06-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is an orbiting x-ray telescope facility. It is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's four "Great Observatories" that collectively have carried out astronomical observations covering the infrared through gamma-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Chandra is used by astronomers world-wide to acquire imaging and spectroscopic data over a nominal 0.1-10 keV (124-1.24 Å) range. We describe the three major parts of the observatory: the telescope, the spacecraft systems, and the science instruments. This article will emphasize features of the design and development driven by some of the experimental considerations unique to x-ray astronomy. We will update the on-orbit performance and present examples of the scientific highlights. PMID:24985792

  15. Invited Review Article: The Chandra X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.

    2014-06-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is an orbiting x-ray telescope facility. It is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's four "Great Observatories" that collectively have carried out astronomical observations covering the infrared through gamma-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Chandra is used by astronomers world-wide to acquire imaging and spectroscopic data over a nominal 0.1-10 keV (124-1.24 Å) range. We describe the three major parts of the observatory: the telescope, the spacecraft systems, and the science instruments. This article will emphasize features of the design and development driven by some of the experimental considerations unique to x-ray astronomy. We will update the on-orbit performance and present examples of the scientific highlights.

  16. Enhancing the International X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, Rolf; Dailey, D.; Lillie, C.

    2010-03-01

    We present results of systems studies expected to significantly enhance the science utility and reduce technical as well as cost risks for the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). Our Northrop Grumman team draws on the experience of building and operating Chandra and others of NASA's premier astrophysical observatories (Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, James Webb Space Telescope) as well as our experience as a leading developer of deployable space structures. For IXO, we have developed (a) an optical bench concept that has the potential to increase the focal length from 20 to 25 m within the current mass and stability requirements; (b) an instrument and system layout that increases the accessible field of regard; and (c) a number of design choices based on flight proven concepts that reduce cost risk. Our concept for the IXO deployable bench is a Tensegrity structure formed by two telescoping booms (compression) and a hexapod cable (tension) truss. This arrangement achieves the required stiffness for the optical bench at minimal mass while employing only high TRL components and flight proven elements. While the overall concept is innovative and will require further evaluation, it is based on existing elements, can be fully tested on the ground and does not require any new technology. We have also explored the options opened by using hinged, articulating solar panels, and found that when used along with a fully enclosed MLI tent surrounding the optical bench, and an instrument module utilizing radially facing radiator panels, the enhanced configuration will enable us to greatly increase IXO's field of regard without distorting the optical bench beyond acceptable tolerances, making more of the sky accessible for observation at any given time.

  17. Enhancing the International X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dailey, Dean; Danner, Rolf; Lillie, Chuck

    2009-09-01

    We present preliminary results of systems studies expected to significantly enhance the science utility and reduce technical as well as cost risks for the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). Our Northrop Grumman team draws on the experience of building and operating Chandra and others of NASA's premier astrophysical observatories (Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, James Webb Space Telescope) as well as our experience as a leading developer of deployable space structures. For IXO, we have developed (a) an optical bench concept that increases the focal length from 20 to 25 m within the current mass and stability requirements; (b) an instrument and system layout that increases the accessible field of regard; and (c) a number of design choices based on flight proven concepts that reduce cost risk. Our concept for the IXO deployable bench is a tensegrity structure formed by two telescoping booms (compression) and a hexapod cable (tension) truss. This arrangement achieves the required stiffness for the optical bench at minimal mass while employing only high TRL components and flight proven elements. While the overall concept is innovative and will require further evaluation, it is based on existing elements, can be fully tested on the ground and does not require any new technology. We have also explored the options opened by using hinged, articulating solar panels, and found that when used along with a fully enclosed MLI tent surrounding the optical bench, and an instrument module utilizing radially facing radiator panels, the enhanced configuration will enable us to greatly increase IXO's field of regard without distorting the optical bench beyond acceptable tolerances, making more of the sky accessible for observation at any given time.

  18. Enhancing the International X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, Rolf; Dailey, D.; Lillie, C.

    2010-01-01

    We present preliminary results of systems studies expected to significantly enhance the science utility and reduce technical as well as cost risks for the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). Our Northrop Grumman team draws on the experience of building and operating Chandra and others of NASA's premier astrophysical observatories (Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, James Webb Space Telescope) as well as our experience as a leading developer of deployable space structures. For IXO, we have developed (a) an optical bench concept that increases the focal length from 20 to 25 m within the current mass and stability requirements; (b) an instrument and system layout that increases the accessible field of regard; and (c) a number of design choices based on flight proven concepts that reduce cost risk. Our concept for the IXO deployable bench is a Tensegrity structure formed by two telescoping booms (compression) and a hexapod cable (tension) truss. This arrangement achieves the required stiffness for the optical bench at minimal mass while employing only high TRL components and flight proven elements. While the overall concept is innovative and will require further evaluation, it is based on existing elements, can be fully tested on the ground and does not require any new technology. We have also explored the options opened by using hinged, articulating solar panels, and found that when used along with a fully enclosed MLI tent surrounding the optical bench, and an instrument module utilizing radially facing radiator panels, the enhanced configuration will enable us to greatly increase IXO's field of regard without distorting the optical bench beyond acceptable tolerances, making more of the sky accessible for observation at any given time.

  19. Enhancing the International X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, Rolf; Dailey, D.; Lillie, C.

    2010-02-01

    We present results of systems studies expected to significantly enhance the science utility and reduce technical as well as cost risks for the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). Our Northrop Grumman team draws on the experience of building and operating Chandra and others of NASA's premier astrophysical observatories (Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, James Webb Space Telescope) as well as our experience as a leading developer of deployable space structures. For IXO, we have developed (a) an optical bench concept that has the potential to increase the focal length from 20 to 25 m within the current mass and stability requirements; (b) an instrument and system layout that increases the accessible field of regard; and (c) a number of design choices based on flight proven concepts that reduce cost risk. Our concept for the IXO deployable bench is a Tensegrity structure formed by two telescoping booms (compression) and a hexapod cable (tension) truss. This arrangement achieves the required stiffness for the optical bench at minimal mass while employing only high TRL components and flight proven elements. While the overall concept is innovative and will require further evaluation, it is based on existing elements, can be fully tested on the ground and does not require any new technology. We have also explored the options opened by using hinged, articulating solar panels, and found that when used along with a fully enclosed MLI tent surrounding the optical bench, and an instrument module utilizing radially facing radiator panels, the enhanced configuration will enable us to greatly increase IXO's field of regard without distorting the optical bench beyond acceptable tolerances, making more of the sky accessible for observation at any given time.

  20. GEOSCOPE Observatory Recent Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, N.; Pardo, C.; Bonaime, S.; Stutzmann, E.; Maggi, A.

    2010-12-01

    The GEOSCOPE observatory consists of a global seismic network and a data center. The 31 GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 19 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers, as required by the Federation of Seismic Digital Network (FDSN). In most stations, a pressure gauge and a thermometer are also installed. Currently, 23 stations send data in real or near real time to GEOSCOPE Data Center and tsunami warning centers. In 2009, two stations (SSB and PPTF) have been equipped with warpless base plates. Analysis of one year of data shows that the new installation decreases long period noise (20s to 1000s) by 10 db on horizontal components. SSB is now rated in the top ten long period stations for horizontal components according to the LDEO criteria. In 2010, Stations COYC, PEL and RER have been upgraded with Q330HR, Metrozet electronics and warpless base plates. They have been calibrated with the calibration table CT-EW1 and the software jSeisCal and Calex-EW. Aluminum jars are now installed instead of glass bells. A vacuum of 100 mbars is applied in the jars which improves thermal insulation of the seismometers and reduces moisture and long-term corrosion in the sensor. A new station RODM has just been installed in Rodrigues Island in Mauritius with standard Geoscope STS2 setup: STS2 seismometer on a granite base plate and covered by cooking pot and thermal insulation, it is connected to Q330HR digitizer, active lightning protection, Seiscomp PC and real-time internet connection. Continuous data of all stations are collected in real time or with a delay by the GEOSCOPE Data Center in Paris where they are validated, archived and made available to the international scientific community. Data are freely available to users by different interfaces according data types (see : http://geoscope.ipgp.fr) - Continuous data in real time coming

  1. Tsunami Research and Monitoring Enabled through Ocean Network Canada's NEPTUNE Cabled Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heesemann, M.; Insua, T. L.; Mihaly, S. F.; Thomson, R.; Rabinovich, A.; Fine, I.; Scherwath, M.; Moran, K.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada (ONC; http://www.oceannetworks.ca/) operates the multidisciplinary NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled ocean observatories off the west coast of Canada and an increasing number of miniature ocean observatories, such as in the Canadian Arctic. All data collected by these observatories are archived and publicly available through ONC's Oceans 2.0 data portal. Much of the data are related to marine geohazards, such as earthquakes, submarine landslides, and tsunamis and are delivered in real-time to various agencies, including early warning centers. The NEPTUNE and VENUS cabled observatories consist of over 850 km of cable deployed inshore and offshore off Vancouver Island and covers the coastal zones, the northern part of the Cascadia subduction zone, Cascadia Basin, and the Endeavour Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Geological evidence suggests that there is a 25-40% probability of a magnitude 8 or greater megathrust earthquake along the Cascadia subduction zone in the next 50 years and that the most recent great earthquake (estimated magnitude ~9.0) that occurred in 1700 caused widespread tsunami damage. However, most of the tsunamis that arrive in the area originate from distant sources around the Pacific. Over the last 100 years, numerous major tsunamis have occurred in the Pacific Ocean, killing many tens of thousands of people. The NEPTUNE observatory includes high-precision bottom pressure recorders (BPRs) at each major nodes and a tsunami meter consisting of three BPRs arranged on a ~20 km radius circle around the flat Cascadia Basin site. On September 30, 2009, just days after the first NEPTUNE instruments were installed, the first tsunami waves of 2.5-6.0 cm amplitude generated by the Mw 8.1 Samoa earthquake were recorded by six BPRs. The Samoan tsunami was followed by several other events recorded by the network, including the 2010 Chilean tsunami, the 2011 Tōhoku-Oki earthquake and tsunami, and the 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunami. These open

  2. Observatory Bibliographies as Research Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, S. L.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, observatory bibliographies were maintained to provide insight in how successful a observatory is as measured by its prominence in the (refereed) literature. When we set up the bibliographic database for the Chandra X-ray Observatory (http://cxc.harvard.edu/cgi-gen/cda/bibliography) as part of the Chandra Data Archive ((http://cxc.harvard.edu/cda/), very early in the mission, our objective was to make it primarily a useful tool for our user community. To achieve this we are: (1) casting a very wide net in collecting Chandra-related publications; (2) including for each literature reference in the database a wealth of metadata that is useful for the users; and (3) providing specific links between the articles and the datasets in the archive that they use. As a result our users are able to browse the literature and the data archive simultaneously. As an added bonus, the rich metadata content and data links have also allowed us to assemble more meaningful statistics about the scientific efficacy of the observatory. In all this we collaborate closely with the Astrophysics Data System (ADS). Among the plans for future enhancement are the inclusion of press releases and the Chandra image gallery, linking with ADS semantic searching tools, full-text metadata mining, and linking with other observatories' bibliographies. This work is supported by NASA contract NAS8-03060 (CXC) and depends critically on the services provided by the ADS.

  3. Great cities look small.

    PubMed

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-08-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  4. Great cities look small

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N.; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  5. Lunar Observatories: Why, Where, and When?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, D. Paul, Jr.; Durst, Steve; Chen, Peter C.

    1999-01-01

    The value of Moon-based astronomical instruments has been repeatedly supported by several major studies and conferences, such as the "Astrophysics from the Moon" meeting held in Annapolis, Maryland, in 1990 (Mumma and Smith, 1990). A comprehensive review of the advantages of lunar observatories was published in the same year by Burns et al. (1990). However, the decade since then has seen a number of major developments bearing on the topic of lunar observatories, including the following. Two space astronomy programs have been outstandingly successful since 1990: the Cosmic Background Explorer ((COBE) and the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These instruments have shown for the first time the structure of the universe in the first stages of its creation, i.e., the "Big Bang." One result of these discoveries has been to focus new space astronomy programs on fundamental problems such as shape of the universe, evolution of galaxies, and the nature of "dark" matter. Since these questions involve the very earliest stages of the history of the universe, to study them requires observation of extremely distant objects. Because of the expansion of the universe, all radiation from such objects is greatly redshifted, into the infrared region of the spectrum. For this reason, the Next Generation Space Telescope, the successor to HST, will be an infrared telescope.

  6. Delaware River and Catskill Region Hydrologic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, M. B.; Brutsaert, W. H.; Walter, M. T.; Degaetano, A. T.; Steenhuis, T. S.

    2004-12-01

    This poster presents the nationally unique opportunities for hydrology-based research in the Delaware River and Catskill Mountain (DelCat) Region. The DelCat region encompasses all of the Delaware river Basin and the New York City Catskills' source watersheds. It has been a key water resource region prior to the founding of our country. This mountain-river-estuary hydrologic system together with other watersheds in the Catskills has supported the population and economic growth of major metropolitan areas of the early United States by providing water supply, land and forests, transportation, power generation, fisheries, recreation, and pollution elimination. The presentation is an account of a forthcoming effort designed to elicit support and participation. After greatly expanding the user and research community for the DelCat observatory, we will design the facility to serve a large user base interested in studies on a wide range of basic and applied hydrologic science topics and issues. Our current plans are to define the form of the hydrologic observatory, and to forecast the nature of what hydrologic sciences can achieve in the DelCat Region.

  7. TRW Ships NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory To Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    Two U.S. Air Force C-5 Galaxy transport planes carrying the observatory and its ground support equipment landed at Kennedy's Space Shuttle Landing Facility at 2:40 p.m. EST this afternoon. REDONDO BEACH, CA.--(Business Wire)--Feb. 4, 1999--TRW has shipped NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory ("Chandra") to the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), in Florida, in preparation for a Space Shuttle launch later this year. The 45-foot-tall, 5-ton science satellite will provide astronomers with new information on supernova remnants, the surroundings of black holes, and other celestial phenomena that produce vast quantities of X-rays. Cradled safely in the cargo hold of a tractor-trailer rig called the Space Cargo Transportation System (SCTS), NASA's newest space telescope was ferried on Feb. 4 from Los Angeles International Airport to KSC aboard an Air Force C-5 Galaxy transporter. The SCTS, an Air Force container, closely resembles the size and shape of the Shuttle cargo bay. Over the next few months, Chandra will undergo final tests at KSC and be mated to a Boeing-provided Inertial Upper Stage for launch aboard Space Shuttle Columbia. A launch date for the Space Shuttle STS-93 mission is expected to be announced later this week. The third in NASA's family of Great Observatories that includes the Hubble Space Telescope and the TRW-built Compton Gamma Ray observatory, Chandra will use the world's most powerful X-ray telescope to allow scientists to "see" and monitor cosmic events that are invisible to conventional optical telescopes. Chandra's X-ray images will yield new insight into celestial phenomena such as the temperature and extent of gas clouds that comprise clusters of galaxies and the superheating of gas and dust particles as they swirl into black holes. A TRW-led team that includes the Eastman Kodak Co., Raytheon Optical Systems Inc., and Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. designed and built the Chandra X-ray Observatory for NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. The

  8. Magdalena Ridge Observatory Project Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laubscher, Bryan E.; Buscher, David F.; Chang, Mark J.; Cobb, Michael L.; Haniff, Chris A.; Horton, Richard F.; Jorgensen, Anders M.; Klinglesmith, Dan; Loos, Gary; Nemzek, Robert J.

    The Magdalena Ridge Observatory (MRO) is a project with the goal of building a state of the art observatory on Magdalena Ridge west of Socorro New Mexico. This observatory will be sited above 3700 meters and will consist of a 10-element 400-meter baseline optical/infrared imaging interferometer and a separate 2.4-meter telescope with fast response capability. The MRO consortium members include New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology University of Puerto Rico Mew Mexico Highlands University New Mexico State University and the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The University of Cambridge is a joint participant in the current design phase of the interferometer and expects to join the consortium. We will present an overview of the optical interferometer and single telescope designs and review their instrumentation and science programs

  9. Visits to La Plata Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinstein, A.

    1985-03-01

    La Plata Observatory will welcome visitors to ESO-La Silla that are willing to make a stop at Buenos Aires on their trip to Chile or on their way back. There is a nice guesthouse at the Observatory that can be used, for a couple of days or so, by astronomers interested in visiting the Observatory and delivering talks on their research work to the Argentine colleagues. No payments can, however, be made at present. La Plata is at 60 km from Buenos Aires. In the same area lie the Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica dei Espacio (IAFE), in Buenos Aires proper, and the Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomia (IAR). about 40 km from Buenos Aires on the way to La Plata. Those interested should contacl: Sr Decano Prof. Cesar A. Mondinalli, or Dr Alejandro Feinstein, Observatorio Astron6mico, Paseo dei Bosque, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. Telex: 31216 CESLA AR.

  10. Technology progress of Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Chenzhou; Zhao, Yongheng; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Yanxia

    2002-12-01

    The project of Virtual Observatory (VO) is the result of breakthroughs in telescope, detector, computer and Internet technologies. The combination with the new information technology is the major characteristic of the VO development. Extensible markup language (XML) and Grid as two trends of information technology will be adopted widely in the VO. The VO architecture is based upon the standard layered architecture of Grid. In the paper, technologies related in each layer of the VO architecture are introduced. The global Virtual Observatory provides new chances for Chinese astronomy. Using the abundant resources in the Internet and chances provided by open-source software, Chinese astronomers should cooperate with national IT experts and push the Virtual Observatory projects of China as soon as possible.

  11. GAIA virtual observatory - development and practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrjäsuo, Mikko; Marple, Steve

    2010-05-01

    The Global Auroral Imaging Access, or GAIA, is a virtual observatory providing quick access to summary data from satellite and ground-based instruments that remote sense auroral precipitation (http://gaia-vxo.org). This web-based service facilitates locating data relevant to particular events by simultaneously displaying summary images from various data sets around the world. At the moment, there are GAIA server nodes in Canada, Finland, Norway and the UK. The development is an international effort and the software and metadata are freely available. The GAIA system is based on a relational database which is queried by a dedicated software suite that also creates the graphical end-user interface if such is needed. Most commonly, the virtual observatory is used interactively by using a web browser: the user provides the date and the type of data of interest. As the summary data from multiple instruments are displayed simultaneously, the user can conveniently explore the recorded data. The virtual observatory provides essentially instant access to the images originating from all major auroral instrument networks including THEMIS, NORSTAR, GLORIA and MIRACLE. The scientific, educational and outreach use is limited by creativity rather than access. The first version of the GAIA was developed at the University of Calgary (Alberta, Canada) in 2004-2005. This proof-of-concept included mainly THEMIS and MIRACLE data, which comprised of millions of summary plots and thumbnail images. However, it was soon realised that a complete re-design was necessary to increase flexibility. In the presentation, we will discuss the early history and motivation of GAIA as well as how the development continued towards the current version. The emphasis will be on practical problems and their solutions. Relevant design choices will also be highlighted.

  12. Composition of the ultramafic-mafic contact interval of the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe at Ngezi mine: Comparisons to the Bushveld Complex and implications for the origin of the PGE reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, W. D.; Määttää, S.; Yang, S.; Oberthür, T.; Lahaye, Y.; Huhma, H.; Barnes, S.-J.

    2015-12-01

    The Great Dyke contains the world's second largest platinum resource after the Bushveld Complex. Isotopic and trace element data from the interval straddling the contact between the Ultramafic and Mafic Sequences of the Great Dyke indicate a less enriched composition than in the Bushveld Complex (Great Dyke: Sri 0.7024-0.7028, εNd mostly - 1 to + 1, Ce/Sm 2-6; Bushveld: Sri 705-0.709, εNd - 5 to - 7, Ce/Sm 5-15). These data are interpreted to reflect relatively moderate amounts of contamination of the Great Dyke parent magma. All analyzed isotopes show little variation across the Main Sulfide Zone and the ultramafic-mafic contact. This corroborates earlier work by other researchers that the Great Dyke crystallized from a single magma type. Mixing of compositionally distinct magmas, proposed to have caused sulfide melt saturation in the Bushveld Complex, seemingly played little or no role in the formation of the PGE mineralization in the Main Sulfide Zone, and neither did enhanced crustal contamination of specific magma batches. Instead, sulfide melt saturation of the magma was likely triggered by silicate fractionation. The mechanism of concentration of the sulfide melt remains uncertain, but theoretical considerations suggest that phase sorting in response to slumping of crystal mushes, possibly caused by chamber subsidence, played an important role. This model is consistent with the highly irregular, undulating nature of the contact between the mafic and ultramafic zones of the intrusion, in the hanging wall of the Main Sulfide Zone.

  13. The Compton Observatory Science Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shrader, Chris R. (Editor); Gehrels, Neil (Editor); Dennis, Brian (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The Compton Observatory Science Workshop was held in Annapolis, Maryland on September 23-25, 1991. The primary purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas and information among scientists with interests in various areas of high energy astrophysics, with emphasis on the scientific capabilities of the Compton Observatory. Early scientific results, as well as reports on in-flight instrument performance and calibrations are presented. Guest investigator data products, analysis techniques, and associated software were discussed. Scientific topics covered included active galaxies, cosmic gamma ray bursts, solar physics, pulsars, novae, supernovae, galactic binary sources, and diffuse galactic and extragalactic emission.

  14. High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This is an artist's concept describing the High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO). The HEAO project involved the launching of three unmarned scientific observatories into low Earth orbit between 1977 and 1979 to study some of the most intriguing mysteries of the universe; pulsars, black holes, neutron stars, and super nova. This concept was painted by Jack Hood of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Hardware support for the imaging instruments was provided by American Science and Engineering. The HEAO spacecraft were built by TRW, Inc. under project management of the MSFC.

  15. Three Great Eyes on Kepler's Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Composite

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chandra X-Ray Data (blue) Chandra X-Ray Data (green)Hubble Telescope (visible-light)Spitzer Telescope (infrared)

    NASA's three Great Observatories -- the Hubble Space Telescope, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Chandra X-ray Observatory -- joined forces to probe the expanding remains of a supernova, called Kepler's supernova remnant, first seen 400 years ago by sky watchers, including astronomer Johannes Kepler.

    The combined image unveils a bubble-shaped shroud of gas and dust that is 14 light-years wide and is expanding at 4 million miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per second). Observations from each telescope highlight distinct features of the supernova remnant, a fast-moving shell of iron-rich material from the exploded star, surrounded by an expanding shock wave that is sweeping up interstellar gas and dust.

    Each color in this image represents a different region of the electromagnetic spectrum, from X-rays to infrared light. These diverse colors are shown in the panel of photographs below the composite image. The X-ray and infrared data cannot be seen with the human eye. By color-coding those data and combining them with Hubble's visible-light view, astronomers are presenting a more complete picture of the supernova remnant.

    Visible-light images from the Hubble telescope (colored yellow) reveal where the supernova shock wave is slamming into the densest regions of surrounding gas. The bright glowing knots are dense clumps from instabilities that form behind the shock wave. The Hubble data also show thin filaments of gas that look like rippled sheets seen edge-on. These filaments reveal where the shock wave is encountering lower-density, more uniform interstellar material.

    The Spitzer telescope shows microscopic dust particles (colored red) that have been heated by the

  16. First results from the first Croatian geomagnetic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandic, Igor; Herak, Davorka; Heilig, Balazs

    2013-04-01

    The first Croatian geomagnetic observatory was established in the area of the Nature Park Lonjsko Polje, after a century of sporadic efforts originating from the proposals of Andrija Mohorovicic. The location was chosen after exhaustive surveys of possible sites. It is located far enough from sources of civilization noise, and was found to be an area without magnetic anomalies and with a low field gradient. The construction of the observatory buildings was completed in the autumn of 2011. The furnishing and installation of instruments and test measurements were completed by the beginning of summer 2012, ever since we have continuous recordings of the geomagnetic elements. In the beginning of December 2012 the fluxgate magnetometer LEMI-035 (H,D,Z orientation) has been installed under the framework of the PLASMON project in cooperation with the Tihany Observatory (Hungary). Permanent data of high quality from our observatory will contribute to the monitoring of the Earth's magnetic field on the regional and global levels, thus enabling further development of geomagnetism in Croatia through collaboration with scientists from the other countries, participation in the international projects, eventual membership in the International Real-time Magnetic Observatory Network (INTERMAGNET), etc. The field elements for the epoch 2012,75 and the baselines are presented together with highlights of some recorded geomagnetic events so far. Furthermore, the comparison between the variation data recorded by the dIdD and the fluxgate LEMI-035 magnetometer is presented.

  17. On-orbit assembly and servicing of future space observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillie, C. F.

    2006-06-01

    NASA's experience servicing the Hubble Space Telescope, including the installation of optical elements to compensate for a mirror manufacturing error; replacement of failed avionics and worn-out batteries, gyros, thermal insulation and solar arrays; upgrades to the data handling subsystem; installation of far more capable instruments; and retrofitting the NICMOS experiment with a mechanical cryocooler has clearly demonstrated the advantages of on-orbit servicing. This effort has produced a unique astronomical observatory that is orders of magnitude more capable than when it was launched and can be operated for several times its original design life. The in-space operations capabilities that are developed for NASA's Exploration Program will make it possible to assemble and service spacecraft in space and to service them in cis-lunar and L2 orbits. Future space observatories should be designed to utilize these capabilities. This paper discusses the application of the lessons learned from HST and our plans for servicing the Advanced X-ray Astrophysical Observatory with the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and the Space Station Freedom Customer Servicing Facility to future space observatories, such as SAFIR and LifeFinder that are designed to operate in heliocentric orbits. It addresses the use of human and robotic in-space capabilities that would be required for on-orbit assembly and servicing for future space observatories, and describes some of our design concepts for these activities.

  18. Historical Examples of Lobbying: The Case of Strasbourg Astronomical Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heck, Andre

    2012-08-01

    Several astronomical observatories have been established in Strasbourg in very differing contexts. In the late 17th century, an observing post (scientifically sterile) was put on top of a tower, the Hospital Gate, essentially for the prestige of the city and the notoriety of the university. In the 19th century, the observatory built on the Académie hosting the French university was the first attempt to set up in the city a real observatory equipped with genuine instrumentation with the purpose of carrying out serious research, but the succession of political regimes in France and the continual bidding for moving the university to other locations, together with the faltering of later scholars, torpedoed any significant scientific usage of the place. After the 1870-1871 Franco-Prussian war, the German authorities set up a prestigious university campus with a whole range of institutes together with a modern observatory consisting of several buildings and hosting a flotilla of excellent instruments, including the then largest refractor of the country. This paper illustrates various types of lobbying used in the steps above while detailing, from archive documents largely unexploited so far, original research on the two first observatories.

  19. AUGO II: a comprehensive subauroral zone observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, I. S.; Connors, M. G.

    2010-12-01

    A new geophysical observatory dedicated to the study of the aurora borealis will be built 25 km southwest of the town of Athabasca, Alberta, Canada. It is anticipated to see first light in the winter of 2010/2011 and be fully operational in the fall of 2011. Based on the highly successful Athabasca University Geophysical Observatory (AUGO), opened in 2002 at the Athabasca University campus in Athabasca, Alberta, AUGO II will have expanded observational capacity featuring up to eight climate-controlled domed optical observation suites for instrumentation, on-site accommodation for up to six researchers, and most importantly, dark skies free of light pollution from urban development. AUGO II will share the same advantages as its predecessor, one being its location in central Alberta, allowing routine study of the subauroral zone, auroral oval studies during active times, and very rarely of the polar cap. Like the original AUGO, AUGO II will be in close proximity to major highways, be connected to a high bandwidth network, and be within two hour driving distance to the city of Edmonton and its international airport. Opportunities are open for guest researchers in space physics to conduct auroral studies at this new, state-of-the-art research facility through the installation of remotely controlled instruments and/or campaigns. An innovative program of instrument development will accompany the new observatory’s enhanced infrastructure with a focus on magnetics and H-beta meridian scanning photometry.

  20. Review of "Great Teachers and Great Leaders"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    "Great Teachers and Great Leaders" (GTGL) is one of six research summaries issued by the U.S. Department of Education in support of its Blueprint for Reform. This review examines the presentation of research about improving teacher and administrator quality in GTGL. The review concludes that there are serious flaws in the research summary. The…

  1. Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redmond, Jay; Kodak, Charles

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical parameters and the technical staff of the Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) system at the fundamental station Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO). It also gives an overview about the VLBI activities during the previous year. The outlook lists the outstanding tasks to improve the performance of GGAO.

  2. ISS images for Observatory protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Zamorano, Jaime

    2015-08-01

    Light pollution is the main factor of degradation of the astronomical quality of the sky along the history. Astronomical observatories have been monitoring how the brightness of the sky varies using photometric measures of the night sky brightness mainly at zenith. Since the sky brightness depends in other factors such as sky glow, aerosols, solar activity and the presence of celestial objects, the continuous increase of light pollution in these enclaves is difficult to trace except when it is too late.Using models of light dispersion on the atmosphere one can determine which light pollution sources are increasing the sky brightness at the observatories. The input satellite data has been provided by DMSP/OLS and SNPP/VIIRS. Unfortunately their panchromatic bands (color blinded) are not useful to detect in which extension the increase is due to the dramatic change produced by the irruption of LED technology in outdoor lighting. The only instrument in the space that is able to distinguish between the various lighting technologies are the DSLR cameras used by the astronauts onboard the ISS.Current status for some astronomical observatories that have been imaged from the ISS is presented. We are planning to send an official request to NASA with a plan to get images for the most important astronomical observatories. We ask support for this proposal by the astronomical community and especially by the US-based researchers.

  3. The Coronal Solar Magnetism Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, S.; Landi, E.; Zhang, J.; Lin, H.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of coronal and chromospheric magnetic fields are arguably the most important observables required for advances in our understanding of the processes responsible for coronal heating, coronal dynamics and the generation of space weather that affects communications, GPS systems, space flight, and power transmission. The Coronal Solar Magnetism Observatory (COSMO) is a proposed ground-based suite of instruments designed for routine study of coronal and chromospheric magnetic fields and their environment, and to understand the formation of coronal mass ejections (CME) and their relation to other forms of solar activity. This new facility will be operated by the High Altitude Observatory of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (HAO/NCAR) with partners at the University of Michigan, the University of Hawaii and George Mason University in support of the solar and heliospheric community. It will replace the current NCAR Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (http://mlso.hao.ucar.edu). COSMO will enhance the value of existing and new observatories on the ground and in space by providing unique and crucial observations of the global coronal and chromospheric magnetic field and its evolution. The design and current status of the COSMO will be reviewed.

  4. The gamma-ray observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    An overview is given of the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) mission. Detection of gamma rays and gamma ray sources, operations using the Space Shuttle, and instruments aboard the GRO, including the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSE), the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL), and the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) are among the topics surveyed.

  5. The Virtual Observatory in Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, R. J.

    2006-07-01

    In the past several years, the Virtual Observatory has progressed from concept to implementation. There is now a well-established International Virtual Observatory Alliance {http://ivoa.net/} with formal processes for the development and promotion of technical standards. The national VO projects have developed science applications layered on the core technologies, and these applications are providing new research opportunities for the astronomy community. The VO projects are also actively engaging the community through technical training programs such as the EuroVO Workshop (June 2005), AstroGrid Workshop (July 2005), and the US National Virtual Observatory Summer School (September 2005). As the research community begins to adopt VO tools and technology and rely on VO services, the VO projects need to prepare for something akin to routine observatory operations. System integration and testing, revision tracking, version/platform support, documentation, resource allocation, service reliability, metadata curation, and user support all need to be taken seriously in an environment/system that is inherently distributed, uncentralized, and undergoing continuing enhancements to the infrastructure.

  6. Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferré, Bénédicte; Mienert, Jürgen; Winther, Svein; Hageberg, Anne; Rune Godoe, Olav; Partners, Noon

    2010-05-01

    The Norwegian Ocean Observatory Network (NOON) is led by the University of Tromsø and collaborates with the Universities of Oslo and Bergen, UniResearch, Institute of Marine Research, Christian Michelsen Research and SINTEF. It is supported by the Research Council of Norway and oil and gas (O&G) industries like Statoil to develop science, technology and new educational programs. Main topics relate to ocean climate and environment as well as marine resources offshore Norway from the northern North Atlantic to the Arctic Ocean. NOON's vision is to bring Norway to the international forefront in using cable based ocean observatory technology for marine science and management, by establishing an infrastructure that enables real-time and long term monitoring of processes and interactions between hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. This activity is in concert with the EU funded European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap and European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observation (EMSO) project to attract international leading research developments. NOON envisions developing towards a European Research Infrastructure Consortium (ERIC). Beside, the research community in Norway already possesses a considerable marine infrastructure that can expand towards an international focus for real-time multidisciplinary observations in times of rapid climate change. PIC The presently established cable-based fjord observatory, followed by the establishment of a cable-based ocean observatory network towards the Arctic from an O&G installation, will provide invaluable knowledge and experience necessary to make a successful larger cable-based observatory network at the Norwegian and Arctic margin (figure 1). Access to large quantities of real-time observation from the deep sea, including high definition video, could be used to provide the public and future recruits to science a fascinating insight into an almost unexplored part of the Earth beyond the Arctic Circle

  7. Synchrotron Radiation from Outer Space and the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    The universe provides numerous extremely interesting astrophysical sources of synchrotron X radiation. The Chandra X-ray Observatory and other X-ray missions provide powerful probes of these and other cosmic X-ray sources. Chandra is the X-ray component of NASA's Great Observatory Program which also includes the Hubble Space telescope, the Spitzer Infrared Telescope Facility, and the now defunct Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory provides the best angular resolution (sub-arcsecond) of any previous, current, or planned (for the foreseeable near future) space-based X-ray instrumentation. We present here a brief overview of the technical capability of this X-Ray observatory and some of the remarkable discoveries involving cosmic synchrotron sources.

  8. SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Eric; Kunz, Nans; Bowers, Al

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The contents include: 1) Heritage & History; 2) Level 1 Requirements; 3) Top Level Overview of the Observatory; 4) Development Challenges; and 5) Highlight Photos.

  9. SOFIA - Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunz, Nans; Bowers, Al

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The contents include: 1) Heritage & History; 2) Level 1 Requirements; 3) Top Level Overview of the Observatory; 4) Development Challenges; and 5) Highlight Photos.

  10. The Magnetic Observatory Buildings at the Royal Observatory, Cape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, I. S.

    2015-10-01

    During the 1830s there arose a strong international movement, promoted by Carl Friedrich Gauss and Alexander von Humboldt, to characterise the earth's magnetic field. By 1839 the Royal Society in London, driven by Edward Sabine, had organised a "Magnetic Crusade" - the establishment of a series of magnetic and meteorological observatories around the British Empire, including New Zealand, Australia, St Helena and the Cape. This article outlines the history of the latter installation, its buildings and what became of them.

  11. Astronomical observatory for shuttle. Phase A study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guthals, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    The design, development, and configuration of the astronomical observatory for shuttle are discussed. The characteristics of the one meter telescope in the spaceborne observatory are described. A variety of basic spectroscopic and image recording instruments and detectors which will permit a large variety of astronomical observations are reported. The stDC 37485elines which defined the components of the observatory are outlined.

  12. STS-37 Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) at KSC Payload Hazardous Servicing Fac

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) workers at the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility are removing the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) from its storage container. GRO, one of four NASA Great Observatories, arrived at KSC on 02-06-90 from the California plant of builder TRW. Weighing a massive 34,700 pounds, GRO will be the heaviest payload without an upper stage ever carried aboard the Space Shuttle. It is scheduled for deployment from Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37.

  13. STS-37 Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) at KSC Payload Hazardous Servicing Fac

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    At the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, the overhead crane lifts the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) from its storage container. GRO, one of four NASA Great Observatories, arrived at KSC on 02-06-90 from the California plant of builder TRW. Weighing a massive 34,700 pounds, GRO will be the heaviest payload without an upper stage ever carried aboard the Space Shuttle. It is scheduled for deployment from Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, during STS-37.

  14. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: highlights from the first three years of the mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Shrader, C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray observatory is the second in NASA's series of Great Observatories. It has been in operation for over three years, and has given a dramatic increase in capability over previous gamma-ray missions. The spacecraft and scientific instruments continue to function nearly flawlessly, and many significant discoveries have been made. The authors describe the capabilities of the four scientific instruments, and highlight some of the results from the first three years of the mission.

  15. New Geophysical Observatory in Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez Bettucci, L.; Nuñez, P.; Caraballo, R. R.; Ogando, R.

    2013-05-01

    In 2011 began the installation of the first geophysical observatory in Uruguay, with the aim of developing the Geosciences. The Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory Aiguá (OAGA) is located within the Cerro Catedral Tourist Farm (-34 ° 20 '0 .89 "S/-54 ° 42 '44.72" W, h: 270m). This has the distinction of being located in the center of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly. Geologically is emplaced in a Neoproterozoic basement, in a region with scarce anthropogenic interference. The OAGA has, since 2012, with a GSM-90FD dIdD v7.0 and GSM-90F Overhauser, both of GEM Systems. In addition has a super-SID receiver provided by the Stanford University SOLAR Center, as a complement for educational purposes. Likewise the installation of a seismograph REF TEK-151-120A and VLF antenna is being done since the beginning of 2013.

  16. Boscovich and the Brera Observatory .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonello, E.

    In the mid 18th century both theoretical and practical astronomy were cultivated in Milan by Barnabites and Jesuits. In 1763 Boscovich was appointed to the chair of mathematics of the University of Pavia in the Duchy of Milan, and the following year he designed an observatory for the Jesuit Collegium of Brera in Milan. The Specola was built in 1765 and it became quickly one of the main european observatories. We discuss the relation between Boscovich and Brera in the framework of a short biography. An account is given of the initial research activity in the Specola, of the departure of Boscovich from Milan in 1773 and his coming back just before his death.

  17. International ultraviolet explorer observatory operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This volume contains the Final Report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) Observatory Operations contract, NAS5-28787. The report summarizes the activities of the IUE Observatory over the 13-month period from November 1985 through November 1986 and is arranged in sections according to the functions specified in the Statement of Work (SOW) of the contract. In order to preserve numerical correspondence between the technical SOW elements specified by the contract and the sections of this report, project management activities (SOW element 0.0.) are reported here in Section 7, following the reports of technical SOW elements 1.0 through 6.0. Routine activities have been summarized briefly whenever possible; statistical compilations, reports, and more lengthy supplementary material are contained in the Appendices.

  18. The Role of the Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robson, I.

    2005-12-01

    Observatories are the engine room of astronomical outreach. They provide the tools that allow research discoveries to be made in addition to employing many of the research astronomers and public information officers (PIOs). Where accessible, they provide a natural venue for public visits and centres of excellence. They engage in a wide variety of outreach activities in their own right with varying degrees of success, often linked to funding. In all of this, the enthusiasm and high calibre activities of individuals can never be overestimated. We review the above and report the results from a 'health of stock' survey conducted of a large sample of mainly ground-based observatories refl ecting their overall activities and experiences.

  19. International Ultraviolet Explorer Observatory operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains the final report for the International Ultraviolet Explorer IUE Observatory Operations contract. The fundamental operational objective of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) program is to translate competitively selected observing programs into IUE observations, to reduce these observations into meaningful scientific data, and then to present these data to the Guest Observer in a form amenable to the pursuit of scientific research. The IUE Observatory is the key to this objective since it is the central control and support facility for all science operations functions within the IUE Project. In carrying out the operation of this facility, a number of complex functions were provided beginning with telescope scheduling and operation, proceeding to data processing, and ending with data distribution and scientific data analysis. In support of these critical-path functions, a number of other significant activities were also provided, including scientific instrument calibration, systems analysis, and software support. Routine activities have been summarized briefly whenever possible.

  20. Ny-Alesund Geodetic Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sieber, Moritz

    2013-01-01

    In 2012 the 20-m telescope at Ny-Alesund, Svalbard, operated by the Norwegian Mapping Authority (NMA), took part in 163 out of 168 scheduled sessions of the IVS program. Since spring, all data was transferred by network, and the receiver monitoring computer was replaced by a bus-coupler. In autumn, the NMA received building permission for a new observatory from the Governor of Svalbard. The bidding process and first construction work for the infrastructure will start in 2013.

  1. Planetary Science Virtual Observatory architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erard, S.; Cecconi, B.; Le Sidaner, P.; Berthier, J.; Henry, F.; Chauvin, C.; André, N.; Génot, V.; Jacquey, C.; Gangloff, M.; Bourrel, N.; Schmitt, B.; Capria, M. T.; Chanteur, G.

    2014-11-01

    In the framework of the Europlanet-RI program, a prototype of Virtual Observatory dedicated to Planetary Science was defined. Most of the activity was dedicated to the elaboration of standards to retrieve and visualize data in this field, and to provide light procedures to teams who wish to contribute with on-line data services. The architecture of this VO system and selected solutions are presented here, together with existing demonstrators.

  2. High Energy Astrophysical Observatory (HEAO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Series of three NASA orbital observatories. HEAO-1, launched in August 1977, successfully completed the most accurate all-sky survey of x-ray sources up to that time. Discovered the `Cygnus Superbubble' created by a series of supernovae. HEAO-2 (later known as EINSTEIN), launched in 1978, was the first true x-ray astronomy satellite. HEAO-3, launched in September 1979, carried a gamma ray spectro...

  3. Vibration budget for observatory equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMartin, Douglas G.; Thompson, Hugh

    2015-07-01

    Vibration from equipment mounted on the telescope and in summit support buildings has been a source of performance degradation at existing astronomical observatories, particularly for adaptive optics performance. Rather than relying only on best practices to minimize vibration, we present here a vibration budget that specifies allowable force levels from each source of vibration in the observatory (e.g., pumps, chillers, cryocoolers, etc.). This design tool helps ensure that the total optical performance degradation due to vibration is less than the corresponding error budget allocation and is also useful in design trade-offs, specifying isolation requirements for equipment, and tightening or widening individual equipment vibration specifications as necessary. The vibration budget relies on model-based analysis of the optical consequences that result from forces applied at different locations and frequencies, including both image jitter and primary mirror segment motion. We develop this tool here for the Thirty Meter Telescope but hope that this approach will be broadly useful to other observatories, not only in the design phase, but for verification and operations as well.

  4. ALOHA Cabled Observatory: Early Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, B. M.; Lukas, R.; Duennebier, F. K.

    2011-12-01

    The ALOHA Cabled Observatory (ACO) was installed 6 June 2011, extending power, network communications and timing to a seafloor node and instruments at 4726 m water depth 100 km north of Oahu. The system was installed using ROV Jason operated from the R/V Kilo Moana. Station ALOHA is the field site of the Hawaii Ocean Time-series (HOT) program that has investigated temporal dynamics in biology, physics, and chemistry since 1988. HOT conducts near monthly ship-based sampling and makes continuous observations from moored instruments to document and study climate and ecosystem variability over semi-diurnal to decadal time scales. The cabled observatory system will provide the infrastructure for continuous, interactive ocean sampling enabling new measurements as well as a new mode of ocean observing that integrates ship and cabled observations. The ACO is a prototypical example of a deep observatory system that uses a retired first-generation fiber-optic telecommunications cable. Sensors provide live video, sound from local and distant sources, and measure currents, pressure, temperature, and salinity. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed.

  5. Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Timothy M.; Rosing, W.; Pickles, A.; Howell, D. A.

    2009-05-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) is a privately-funded observatory dedicated to time-domain astronomy. Our main observing tool will be a homogeneous world-wide network of 12 x 1m optical telescopes, each equipped for both imaging and spectroscopy. We will also continue to operate 2m telscopes in Hawaii and Australia, and we plan to deploy a few tens of 0.4m imaging telescopes for education and for bright-object research. LCOGT has membership in the Pan-STARRS1 consortium, in the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), and in LSST. In accord with these affiliations, our staff's scientific interests are concentrated in (but not restricted to) the areas of extrasolar planets, extragalactic transients (especially SNe), and pulsating stars. In this poster we describe the observatory in general terms, including its research agenda, its telescope deployment plans and schedule, its notable technical challenges, and its anticipated methods of working with the wider astronomical community. For more detailed information about LCOGT's aims and projects, please see the related posters in this session.

  6. Solar initiative at Oukaimeden Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benkaldoun, Zouhair; Makela, Jonathan J.; Meriwether, John W.

    2013-07-01

    The solar research program at Oukaimeden Observatory started in 1988 with the helioseimological IRIS network. The Moroccan researchers involved in this research have analyzed solar observations in order to detect and characterize the solar sphere modes of oscillations. In the coming year, the researchers at the Oukaimeden Observatory will add new research capabilities by joining the International Space Weather Initiative (ISWI), installing a suite of optical instruments, comprising a Remote Equatorial Nighttime Observatory of Ionospheric Regions (RENOIR). The scope and objectives to be achieved in this proposed project are to: • deploy a Fabry-Perot interferometer and wide-angle imaging system to the Observatoire Astronomique Universitaire de LOukaimeden; • train students and researchers from Cadi Ayyad University on the operation of the equipment and related analysis techniques; • collect and analyze data from the equipment to study properties of upper-atmospheric winds and temperatures and how they relate to the occurrence of space weather; and • develop an international collaboration network with other researchers using similar instrumentation in Brazil and Peru. We will present here the plan we intend to develop for the Moroccan solar program in connection with ISWI.

  7. NASA Names Premier X-Ray Observatory and Schedules Launch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-12-01

    NASA's Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility has been renamed the Chandra X-ray Observatory in honor of the late Indian-American Nobel laureate, Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar. The telescope is scheduled to be launched no earlier than April 8, 1999 aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia mission STS-93, commanded by astronaut Eileen Collins. Chandrasekhar, known to the world as Chandra, which means "moon" or "luminous" in Sanskrit, was a popular entry in a recent NASA contest to name the spacecraft. The contest drew more than six thousand entries from fifty states and sixty-one countries. The co-winners were a tenth grade student in Laclede, Idaho, and a high school teacher in Camarillo, CA. The Chandra X-ray Observatory Center (CXC), operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, will control science and flight operations of the Chandra X-ray Observatory for NASA from Cambridge, Mass. "Chandra is a highly appropriate name," said Harvey Tananbaum, Director of the CXC. "Throughout his life Chandra worked tirelessly and with great precision to further our understanding of the universe. These same qualities characterize the many individuals who have devoted much of their careers to building this premier X-ray observatory." "Chandra probably thought longer and deeper about our universe than anyone since Einstein," said Martin Rees, Great Britain's Astronomer Royal. "Chandrasekhar made fundamental contributions to the theory of black holes and other phenomena that the Chandra X-ray Observatory will study. His life and work exemplify the excellence that we can hope to achieve with this great observatory," said NASA Administrator Dan Goldin. Widely regarded as one of the foremost astrophysicists of the 20th century, Chandrasekhar won the Nobel Prize in 1983 for his theoretical studies of physical processes important to the structure and evolution of stars. He and his wife immigrated from India to the U.S. in 1935. Chandrasekhar served on the faculty of the University of

  8. Virtual Observatories and a Vision for 21st Century Data Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.; Weigel, R. S.

    2007-05-01

    During the International Geophysical Year (1957-1958), member countries established geophysical observatories around the world. These nations were pursuing major IGY objectives - to collect geophysical data as widely as possible and to provide free access to these data for all scientists around the globe. By the beginning of the 21st century, we have achieved an unparalleled ability to acquire data and have attained a good understanding of traditional regions - the ionosphere, the magnetosphere, and other such "spheres". Much of the new and important science now is coming from the study of the boundaries between these regions and of coupling between geophysical domains. Thus, we need to make data available in a readily accessible form and in much greater quantities to a wider range of scientists than ever before. Several major international initiatives have been proposed to commemorate and to follow on from the original IGY. Scientific societies have promoted the establishment of a system of Virtual Observatories (VxOs). These initiatives have the potential of providing a forward impetus to advances in space science in this century similar to that provided by the IGY fifty years ago. The electronic Geophysical Year (eGY) program, for example, embraces all available and upcoming geophysical data (e.g., atmospheric, geomagnetic, ionospheric, magnetospheric, etc.) and will facilitate the deployment and integration of cross-disciplinary and international virtual geophysical observatories that are "deployed" in cyberspace. This concept implies a free access to all available data through the Internet and World Wide Web, taking advantage of existing networking infrastructure and software technologies (e.g., Internet, XML, Semantic Web, etc.). Such efforts can be smoothly incorporated into the planned International Years and will provide an international focus for a resolve to address the issues of data release, data discovery, and data preservation. In this talk we

  9. GAIA - A Virtual Auroral Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, E.; Spanswick, E.; Syrj M; Marple, S.; Jackel, B.; Kauristie, K.; Honary, F.; Mende, S.; Weatherwax, A.; Moen, J.; Sandahl, I.

    2005-12-01

    Advancements in computer, communications, and instrument technologies have spawned an explosion of activity in ground-based geospace observations. There is increasing interest in the development of virtual observatories as we approach the International Polar and Heliosphysical Years and the electronic Geophysical Year, and are faced with burgeoning data sets from arrays of different instrument types the world over. We are developing a virtual observatory for dealing with data from geospace optical and riometer systems. While these two classes of instruments are very different in their observational technique, they are close relatives in what they observe, which is primarily auroral precipitation. The GAIA (Global Auroral Imaging Access) Project is a network-based set of tools for browsing summary data from All-Sky Imagers (ASIs), Meridian Scanning Photometers (MSPs), and riometers worldwide, and that provides indexes for direct access to data at PI institutes. This program is the virtual observatory component of the IPY Auroral Optical Network (AON) and GLORIA (Global Riometer Imaging Array) projects, and falls under the ICESTAR IPY grouping. As well, GAIA is being developed so as to be fully consistent with the data policies described in the `Declaration of the eGY'. We demonstrate the GAIA concept with ASI data from Canada and Finland, MSP data from Canada, and riometer data from Canada and Scandinavia. We explore the requirements that such a system must meet in order to be successful, which include ease of use, credit to data providers, ability for data providers to monitor usage, and reliance on software rather than hardware. The latter is consistent with our concept of a summary data set consisting of keograms, time series, and thumbnail images, a fully peer to peer data access system, and a relational data base that allows for easy grouping of and linkages between data. We describe how we are ensuring that GAIA is compatible with larger efforts such as SPIDR

  10. Great Lakes: Chemical Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)

  11. Making Kew Observatory: the Royal Society, the British Association and the politics of early Victorian science.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Lee T

    2015-09-01

    Built in 1769 as a private observatory for King George III, Kew Observatory was taken over in 1842 by the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS). It was then quickly transformed into what some claimed to be a 'physical observatory' of the sort proposed by John Herschel - an observatory that gathered data in a wide range of physical sciences, including geomagnetism and meteorology, rather than just astronomy. Yet this article argues that the institution which emerged in the 1840s was different in many ways from that envisaged by Herschel. It uses a chronological framework to show how, at every stage, the geophysicist and Royal Artillery officer Edward Sabine manipulated the project towards his own agenda: an independent observatory through which he could control the geomagnetic and meteorological research, including the ongoing 'Magnetic Crusade'. The political machinations surrounding Kew Observatory, within the Royal Society and the BAAS, may help to illuminate the complex politics of science in early Victorian Britain, particularly the role of 'scientific servicemen' such as Sabine. Both the diversity of activities at Kew and the complexity of the observatory's origins make its study important in the context of the growing field of the 'observatory sciences'. PMID:26256312

  12. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1961 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  13. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1962 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  14. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1971 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  15. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1980 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  16. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1964 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  17. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1978 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  18. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1965 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  19. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1984 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  20. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1972 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  1. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1983 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  2. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1967 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  3. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1969 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  4. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1982 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  5. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1975 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  6. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1960 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  7. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1979 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  8. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1957 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  9. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1976 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  10. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1959 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  11. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1968 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  12. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1973 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  13. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1958 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  14. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1966 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  15. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1977 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  16. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1981 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  17. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1963 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  18. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1970 Quarterly Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  19. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1985 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  20. Hawaiian Volcano Observatory 1974 Annual Administrative Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nakata, Jennifer S., (compiler)

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTORY NOTE The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory Summaries have been published in the current format since 1956. The Quarterly Summaries (1956 through 1973) and the Annual Summaries (1974 through 1985) were originally published as Administrative Reports. These reports have been compiled and published as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports. The quarterly reports have been combined and published as one annual summary. All the summaries from 1956 to the present are now available as .pdf files at http://www.usgs.gov/pubprod. The earthquake summary data are presented as a listing of origin time, depth, magnitude, and other location parameters. Network instrumentation, field station sites, and location algorithms are described. Tilt and other deformation data are included until Summary 77, January to December 1977. From 1978, the seismic and deformation data are published separately, due to differing schedules of data reduction. There are eight quarters - from the fourth quarter of 1959 to the third quarter of 1961 - that were never published. Two of these (4th quarter 1959, 1st quarter 1960) have now been published, using handwritten notes of Jerry Eaton (HVO seismologist at the time) and his colleagues. The seismic records for the remaining six summaries went back to California in 1961 with Jerry Eaton. Other responsibilities intervened, and the seismic summaries were never prepared.

  1. Long-Term Seeing Characteristics at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Espinosa, O. D.; Nenow, J.; Marquette, W. H.

    2003-05-01

    We present observations of long-term seeing characteristics from June 1997 to September 2002 obtained with Seykora-type scintillometers at Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). BBSO is an ideal site for ground-based campaign-style observations. Since BBSO is situated on a small island in a 2,000 m high mountain lake in the cloudless mountains of Souther California, it benefits from excellent seeing conditions all day long. The atmospheric turbulence that degrades images originates primarily from two layers near the ground and at the level of the jet stream. BBSO's dome is located at the end of a 300 m long causeway jutting into the lake. Since the lake, with its cool waters, provides a natural inversion, and the dome has three kilometers of open water to its west, the boundary layer seeing is effectively suppressed. In addition, the east-west orientation of the Big Bear Valley provides a natural channel for the prevailing winds from the west resulting in a nearly laminar flow at the observatory site. We present a comparison of scintillometer data with climate data and analyze a one year long sub-set for local seeing variations near the lake shore and at the observatory island. We would like to thank Jacques Beckers and the National Solar Observatory for providing the scintillometer data. This work was supported by NSF under grant ATM 00-86999, ATM 00-76602, and ATM 02-36945 and by NASA under grant NAG 5-9682.

  2. Solar Physics at the Kodaikanal Observatory: A Historical Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, S. S.; Mallik, D. C. V.; Bagare, S. P.; Rajaguru, S. P.

    The Kodaikanal Observatory traces its origins to the East India Company, which started an observatory in Madras "for promoting the knowledge of astronomy, geography, and navigation in India." Observations began in 1787 at the initiative of William Petrie, an officer of the Company, with the use of two 3-in achromatic telescopes, two astronomical clocks with compound pendulums, and a transit instrument. By the early nineteenth century, the Madras Observatory had already established a reputation as a leading astronomical center devoted to work on the fundamental positions of stars, and a principal source of stellar positions for most of the southern hemisphere stars. John Goldingham (1796-1805, 1812-1830), T.G. Taylor (1830-1848),W.S. Jacob (1849-1858), and Norman R. Pogson (1861-1891) were successive Government Astronomers who led the activities in Madras. Scientific highlights of the work included a catalogue of 11,000 southern stars produced by theMadras Observatory in 1844 under Taylor's direction using the new 5-ft transit instrument.

  3. Atlas of Great Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyan, Ronald; Dunlop, Storm

    2015-01-01

    Foreword; Using this book; Part I. Introduction: Cometary beliefs and fears; Comets in art; Comets in literature and poetry; Comets in science; Cometary science today; Great comets in antiquity; Great comets of the Middle Ages; Part II. The 30 Greatest Comets of Modern Times: The Great Comet of 1471; Comet Halley 1531; The Great Comet of 1556; The Great Comet of 1577; Comet Halley, 1607; The Great Comet of 1618; The Great Comet of 1664; Comet Kirch, 1680; Comet Halley, 1682; The Great Comet of 1744; Comet Halley, 1759; Comet Messier, 1769; Comet Flaugergues, 1811; Comet Halley, 1835; The Great March Comet of 1843; Comet Donati, 1858; Comet Tebbutt, 1861; The Great September Comet of 1882; The Great January Comet of 1910; Comet Halley, 1910; Comet Arend-Roland, 1956; Comet Ikeya-Seki, 1965; Comet Bennett, 1970; Comet Kohoutek, 1973-4; Comet West, 1976; Comet Halley, 1986; Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, 1994; Comet Hyakutake, 1996; Comet Hale-Bopp, 1997; Comet McNaught, 2007; Part III. Appendices; Table of comet data; Glossary; References; Photo credits; Index.

  4. Functional characterization of spectral tuning mechanisms in the great bowerbird short-wavelength sensitive visual pigment (SWS1), and the origins of UV/violet vision in passerines and parrots

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One of the most striking features of avian vision is the variation in spectral sensitivity of the short wavelength sensitive (SWS1) opsins, which can be divided into two sub-types: violet- and UV- sensitive (VS & UVS). In birds, UVS has been found in both passerines and parrots, groups that were recently shown to be sister orders. While all parrots are thought to be UVS, recent evidence suggests some passerine lineages may also be VS. The great bowerbird (Chlamydera nuchalis) is a passerine notable for its courtship behaviours in which males build and decorate elaborate bower structures. Results The great bowerbird SWS1 sequence possesses an unusual residue combination at known spectral tuning sites that has not been previously investigated in mutagenesis experiments. In this study, the SWS1 opsin of C. nuchalis was expressed along with a series of spectral tuning mutants and ancestral passerine SWS1 pigments, allowing us to investigate spectral tuning mechanisms and explore the evolution of UV/violet sensitivity in early passerines and parrots. The expressed C. nuchalis SWS1 opsin was found to be a VS pigment, with a λmax of 403 nm. Bowerbird SWS1 mutants C86F, S90C, and C86S/S90C all shifted λmax into the UV, whereas C86S had no effect. Experimentally recreated ancestral passerine and parrot/passerine SWS1 pigments were both found to be VS, indicating that UV sensitivity evolved independently in passerines and parrots from a VS ancestor. Conclusions Our mutagenesis studies indicate that spectral tuning in C. nuchalis is mediated by mechanisms similar to those of other birds. Interestingly, our ancestral sequence reconstructions of SWS1 in landbird evolution suggest multiple transitions from VS to UVS, but no instances of the reverse. Our results not only provide a more precise prediction of where these spectral sensitivity shifts occurred, but also confirm the hypothesis that birds are an unusual exception among vertebrates where some descendants re

  5. The CEOS Recovery Observatory Pilot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosford, S.; Proy, C.; Giros, A.; Eddy, A.; Petiteville, I.; Ishida, C.; Gaetani, F.; Frye, S.; Zoffoli, S.; Danzeglocke, J.

    2015-04-01

    Over the course of the last decade, large populations living in vulnerable areas have led to record damages and substantial loss of life in mega-disasters ranging from the deadly Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 and Haiti earthquake of 2010; the catastrophic flood damages of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the Tohoku tsunami of 2011, and the astonishing extent of the environmental impact of the Deepwater Horizon explosion in 2009. These major catastrophes have widespread and long-lasting impacts with subsequent recovery and reconstruction costing billions of euros and lasting years. While satellite imagery is used on an ad hoc basis after many disasters to support damage assessment, there is currently no standard practice or system to coordinate acquisition of data and facilitate access for early recovery planning and recovery tracking and monitoring. CEOS led the creation of a Recovery Observatory Oversight Team, which brings together major recovery stakeholders such as the UNDP and the World Bank/Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, value-adding providers and leading space agencies. The principal aims of the Observatory are to: 1. Demonstrate the utility of a wide range of earth observation data to facilitate the recovery and reconstruction phase following a major catastrophic event; 2. Provide a concrete case to focus efforts in identifying and resolving technical and organizational obstacles to facilitating the visibility and access to a relevant set of EO data; and 3. Develop dialogue and establish institutional relationships with the Recovery phase user community to best target data and information requirements; The paper presented here will describe the work conducted in preparing for the triggering of a Recovery Observatory including support to rapid assessments and Post Disaster Needs Assessments by the EO community.

  6. The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Ford, Linda A.; Zambrano-Marin, Luisa; Petty, Bryan M.; Sternke, Elizabeth; Ortiz, Andrew M.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.

    2015-11-01

    The Arecibo Observatory Space Academy (AOSA) is a ten (10) week pre-college research program for students in grades 9-12. Our mission is to prepare students for academic and professional careers by allowing them to receive an independent and collaborative research experience on topics related to space and aide in their individual academic and social development. Our objectives are to (1) Supplement the student’s STEM education via inquiry-based learning and indirect teaching methods, (2) Immerse students in an ESL environment, further developing their verbal and written presentation skills, and (3) To foster in every student an interest in science by exploiting their natural curiosity and knowledge in order to further develop their critical thinking and investigation skills. AOSA provides students with the opportunity to share lectures with Arecibo Observatory staff, who have expertise in various STEM fields. Each Fall and Spring semester, selected high school students, or Cadets, from all over Puerto Rico participate in this Saturday academy where they receive experience designing, proposing, and carrying out research projects related to space exploration, focusing on four fields: Physics/Astronomy, Biology, Engineering, and Sociology. Cadets get the opportunity to explore their topic of choice while practicing many of the foundations of scientific research with the goal of designing a space settlement, which they present at the NSS-NASA Ames Space Settlement Design Contest. At the end of each semester students present their research to their peers, program mentors, and Arecibo Observatory staff. Funding for this program is provided by NASA SSERVI-LPI: Center for Lunar Science and Exploration with partial support from the Angel Ramos Visitor Center through UMET and management by USRA.

  7. Exploring the Digital Universe with Europe's Astrophysical Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    N° 73-2001 - Paris, 5 December 2001 The aim of AVO is to give astronomers instant access to the vast databanks now being built up by the world's observatories and forming what is in effect a "digital sky". Using AVO astronomers will be able, for example, to retrieve the elusive traces of the passage of an asteroid as it passes the Earth and so predict its future path and perhaps warn of a possible impact. When a giant star comes to the end of its life in a cataclysmic explosion called a supernova, they will be able to access the digital sky and pinpoint the star shortly before it exploded, adding invaluable data to the study of the evolution of stars. Modern observatories observe the sky continuously and data accumulates remorselessly in the digital archives. The growth rate is impressive and many hundreds of terabytes of data -corresponding to many thousands of billions of pixels - are already available to scientists. The real sky is being digitally reconstructed in the databanks. The volume and complexity of data and information available to astronomers are overwhelming. Hence the problem of how astronomers can possibly manage, distribute and analyse this great wealth of data. The Astrophysical Virtual Observatory will enable them to meet the challenge and "put the Universe online". AVO is a three-year project, funded by the European Commission under its Research and Technological Development (RTD) scheme, to design and implement a virtual observatory for the European astronomical community. The Commission has awarded a contract valued at EUR 4m for the project, starting on 15 November. AVO will provide software tools to enable astronomers to access the multi-wavelength data archives over the Internet and so give them the capability to resolve fundamental questions about the Universe by probing the digital sky. Equivalent searches of the "real" sky would, in comparison, both be prohibitively costly and take far too long. Towards a Global Virtual Observatory The

  8. Gravity research at Cottrell observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuman, V. S.; Anderson, J. D.; Lau, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    The Cottrell gravity research observatory and work in progress are described. Equipment in place and equipment to be installed, the cryogenic gravity meter (CGM), concrete pads to support the vertical seismometer, CGM, and guest experiments, techniques of data analysis, and improvements needed in the CGM are discussed. Harmonic earth eigenvibrations with multipole moments are examined and their compatibility with a fictitious black hole binary system (of which the primary central mass is assigned a value one million solar masses) located 400 light-years away is shown by calculations.

  9. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Charles E.

    2005-01-01

    CO2 is the principal human generated driver of climate change. Accurate forecasting of future climate requires an improved understanding of the global carbon cycle and its interaction with the climate system. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) will make global, space-based observations of atmospheric CO2 with the precision, resolution, and coverage needed to understand sources and sinks. OCO data will provide critical information for decision makers including the scientific basis for policy formulation, guide for carbon management strategies and treaty monitoring.

  10. the Large Aperture GRB Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Bertou, Xavier

    2009-04-30

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique (SPT) in ground based water Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on the project progresses and the first operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 6 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

  11. Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becklin, Eric E.

    2001-01-01

    The joint U.S. and German SOFIA project to develop and operate a 2.5-meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747-SP is now well into development. First science flights will begin in 2004 with 20% of the observing time assigned to German investigators. The observatory is expected to operate for over 20 years. The sensitivity, characteristics and science instrument complement are discussed. Present and future instrumentation will allow unique astrobiology experiments to be carried out. Several experiments related to organic molecules in space will be discussed.

  12. Taking Charge: Walter Sydney Adams and the Mount Wilson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brashear, R.

    2004-12-01

    The growing preeminence of American observational astronomy in the first half of the 20th century is a well-known story and much credit is given to George Ellery Hale and his skill as an observatory-building entrepreneur. But a key figure who has yet to be discussed in great detail is Walter Sydney Adams (1876-1956), Hale's Assistant Director at Mount Wilson Observatory. Due to Hale's illnesses, Adams was Acting Director for much of Hale's tenure, and he became the second Director of Mount Wilson from 1923 to 1946. Behind his New England reserve Adams was instrumental in the growth of Mount Wilson and thus American astronomy in general. Adams was hand-picked by Hale to take charge of stellar spectroscopy work at Yerkes and Mount Wilson and the younger astronomer showed tremendous loyalty to Hale and Hale's vision throughout his career. As Adams assumed the leadership role at Mount Wilson he concentrated on making the observatory a place where researchers worked with great freedom but maintain a high level of cooperation. This paper will concentrate on Adams's early years and look at his growing relationship with Hale and how he came to be the central figure in the early history of Mount Wilson as both a solar and stellar observatory. His education, his years at Dartmouth and Yerkes (including his unfortunate encounter with epsilon Leonis), and his formative years on Mount Wilson are all important in learning how he shaped the direction of Mount Wilson and the development of American astronomy in the first half of the 20th century. This latter history cannot be complete until we bring Adams into better focus.

  13. Some Central Asian observatories for the WET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meistas, E.

    1993-01-01

    The Mt. Maidanak Observatory, one of several observatories in the former Soviet Central Asia, is located at an important longitude to fill in the gap in the WET (Whole Earth Telescope) network. The Lithuanian astronomical station on Mt. Maidanak was successfully tested in May 1992 for future WET campaigns. In the September 1992 campaign it provided some useful data for the WET. In February 1993 the observatory was nationalized by the Uzbekistan government, and almost all astronomical activities there have stopped. The future use of this observatory for the WET campaigns is uncertain, but there are some signs that the situation is improving. We have examined the possibility of using other Central Asian observatories for the WET. A contact was established with the Fesenkov Astronomical Institute in Alma-Ata, and in October 1993 WET observations were made at the Assy-Turgen Observatory in Kazakhstan.

  14. Protection of the Guillermo Haro Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, E.; Carraminana, A. P.

    The Guillermo Haro Astrophysical Observatory, with a 2m telescope, is one of only two professional observatories in Mexico. The observatory, run by the InstitutoNacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), is located in the north of Mexico, in Cananea, Sonora. Since 1995 the observatory has faced the potential threat of pollution by an open cast mine to be opened at 3kms from the observatory. In the absence of national or regional laws enforcing protection to astronomical sites in Mexico, considerable effort has been needed to guarantee the conditions of the site. We present the studies carried out to ensure the protection of the Guillermo Haro Observatory from pollution due to dust, light and vibrations.

  15. EMSO: European multidisciplinary seafloor observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, Paolo; Beranzoli, Laura

    2009-04-01

    EMSO has been identified by the ESFRI Report 2006 as one of the Research Infrastructures that European members and associated states are asked to develop in the next decades. It will be based on a European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the aim of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes, providing long time series data for the different phenomenon scales which constitute the new frontier for study of Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry, and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on past EU projects and is supported by several EU initiatives, such as the on-going ESONET-NoE, aimed at strengthening the ocean observatories' scientific and technological community. The EMSO development relies on the synergy between the scientific community and industry to improve European competitiveness with respect to countries such as USA, Canada and Japan. Within the FP7 Programme launched in 2006, a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) was issued in order to support the foundation of the legal and organisational entity in charge of building up and managing the infrastructure, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. The EMSO-PP project, coordinated by the Italian INGV with participation by 11 institutions from as many European countries, started in April 2008 and will last four years.

  16. Worldwide R&D of Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, C. Z.; Zhao, Y. H.

    2008-07-01

    Virtual Observatory (VO) is a data intensive online astronomical research and education environment, taking advantages of advanced information technologies to achieve seamless and uniform access to astronomical information. The concept of VO was introduced in the late 1990s to meet the challenges brought up with data avalanche in astronomy. In the paper, current status of International Virtual Observatory Alliance, technical highlights from world wide VO projects are reviewed, a brief introduction of Chinese Virtual Observatory is given.

  17. Enhancing the International X-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, Rolf; Dailey, Dean; Lillie, Charles; Spittler, Connie

    2010-07-01

    Over the last two years, we have studied system concepts for the International X-ray Observatory (IXO) with the goal of increasing the science return of the mission and to reduce technical and cost risk. We have developed an optical bench concept that has the potential to increase the focal length from 20 to 25 m within the current mass and stability requirements. Our deployable bench is a tensegrity structure formed by two telescoping booms (compression) and a hexapod cable (tension) truss. This arrangement achieves the required stiffness for the optical bench at minimal mass while employing only high TRL components and flight proven elements. The concept is based on existing elements, can be fully tested on the ground and does not require new technology. Our design further features hinged, articulating solar panels, an optical bench fully enclosed in MLI and an instrument module with radially facing radiator panels. We find that our design can be used over a wide range of sun angles, thereby greatly increasing IXO's field of regard, without distorting the optical bench. This makes a much larger fraction of the sky instantaneously accessible to IXO.

  18. Solar Dynamics Observatory Launch and Commissioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Kristin, D.; Bourkland, L.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Liu, Kuo-Chia; Mason, Paul A. C.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.; Russo, Angela M.; Starin, Scott R.; Vess, Melissa F.

    2011-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) was launched on February 11, 2010. Over the next three months, the spacecraft was raised from its launch orbit into its final geosynchronous orbit and its systems and instruments were tested and calibrated in preparation for its desired ten year science mission studying the Sun. A great deal of activity during this time involved the spacecraft attitude control system (ACS); testing control modes, calibrating sensors and actuators, and using the ACS to help commission the spacecraft instruments and to control the propulsion system as the spacecraft was maneuvered into its final orbit. This paper will discuss the chronology of the SDO launch and commissioning, showing the ACS analysis work performed to diagnose propellant slosh transient and attitude oscillation anomalies that were seen during commissioning, and to determine how to overcome them. The simulations and tests devised to demonstrate correct operation of all onboard ACS modes and the activities in support of instrument calibration will be discussed and the final maneuver plan performed to bring SDO on station will be shown. In addition to detailing these commissioning and anomaly resolution activities, the unique set of tests performed to characterize SDO's on-orbit jitter performance will be discussed.

  19. The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becklin, Eric

    2015-08-01

    The joint U.S. and German Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), a 2.5-meter infrared airborne telescope in a Boeing 747SP, is now fully operational with cameras and spectrometers in the 1 to 240 micron region. It will be one of the major observatories for the next 20 years to observe the local ISM in this spectral region. We will give a brief overview of the SOFIA observatory, telescope, instrumentation and recent science. Future observing opportunities and participation in future instrument developments, over the lifetime of the SOFIA observatory will be discussed.

  20. The Uncertain Future of Arecibo Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altschuler, D. R.

    2009-05-01

    After forty years of existence, Arecibo Observatory has an uncertain future. On November 3th, 2006 the ``Senior Review'' (SR), an advisory panel, recommended to the astronomy division of NSF that the anual budget destinated to astronomy in the Observatory, should be reduced from US10.5 million annual to US8 million during the first 3 years. The SR also indicated that the Observatory have to be closed in 2011, if an external financial source is not found. The SR panel was called to find near US30 million in savings (approximately 25% of total budget of the five national observatories, including Arecibo) to redirect them to operate new future projects.

  1. SOFIA Observatory Obtains 'First Light' Images

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, successfully obtained its "First Light"" images during an overnight flight May 26. Scientists are now processing the data gathered...

  2. NASA capabilities roadmap: advanced telescopes and observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Lee D.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Telescopes and Observatories (ATO) Capability Roadmap addresses technologies necessary for NASA to enable future space telescopes and observatories collecting all electromagnetic bands, ranging from x-rays to millimeter waves, and including gravity-waves. It has derived capability priorities from current and developing Space Missions Directorate (SMD) strategic roadmaps and, where appropriate, has ensured their consistency with other NASA Strategic and Capability Roadmaps. Technology topics include optics; wavefront sensing and control and interferometry; distributed and advanced spacecraft systems; cryogenic and thermal control systems; large precision structure for observatories; and the infrastructure essential to future space telescopes and observatories.

  3. Astronomical Site Characterization at the Canarian Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Varela, A. M.; Castro-Almazán, J. A.

    2015-04-01

    Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (La Palma) and Teide Observatory (Tenerife) are prime astronomical sites, as confirmed by more than 30 years of intensive site-testing campaigns. The IAC has long been aware of the importance of promoting initiatives for the characterization and protection of the Canarian Observatories. For this purpose, in the late ’80s a Sky Team was created to measure the atmospheric parameters relating to astronomical observations, to design and develop new instruments and techniques for astronomical site testing, and to improve and maintain a high level of instrumentation in site characterization. New instruments and techniques are welcomed by the Observatories.

  4. The Role of Project Science in the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2006-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory, one of NASA's Great Observatories, has an outstanding record of scientific and technical success. This success results from the efforts of a team comprising NASA, its contractors, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the instrument groups, and other elements of the scientific community, including thousands of scientists who utilize this powerful facility for astrophysical research. We discuss the role of NASA Project Science in the formulation, development, calibration, and operation of the Chandra X-ray Observatory. In addition to representing the scientific community within the Project, Project Science performed what we term "science systems engineering". This activity encompasses translation of science requirements into technical requirements and assessment of the scientific impact of programmatic and technical trades. We briefly describe several examples of science systems engineering conducted by Chandra Project Science.

  5. Highlights from Three Years of the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    August 12, 2002 marked the third anniversary of the first light observed with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO) which had been launched on July 23 of that same year. The CXO is the X-ray component of NASA's Great Observatory Program that also includes the Hubble Space Telescope for observations in the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, the now defunct Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory and the soon-to-be-launched Space Infra-Red Telescope Facility. The scientific return from the Observatory has been spectacular. Images of objects as local as the moon's of Jupiter and comets, to those which show the details of the emission of the hot gas pervading clusters of galaxies have been obtained. The technical status of the instrumentation and the performance of the X-ray optics will be reviewed and an overview of some of the exciting results will be presented.

  6. An Overview of the Performance and Scientific Results from the Chandra X-Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Brinkman, B.; Canizares, C.; Garmire, G.; Murray, S.; Van Speybroeck, L. P.

    2002-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory (CXO), the X-ray component of NASA's Great Observatories, was launched on 1999 July 23 by the space shuttle Columbia. After satellite systems activation, the first X-rays focused by the telescope were observed on 1999 August 12. Beginning with the initial observation it was clear that the telescope had survived the launch environment and was operating as expected. Despite an initial surprise due to the discovery that the telescope was far more efficient for concentrating CCD-damaging low-energy protons than had been anticipated, the observatory is performing well and is returning superb scientific data. Together with other space observatories, most notably XMM-Newton, it is clear that we have entered a new era of discovery in high-energy astrophysics.

  7. Astronomical Research with the MicroObservatory Net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.; Sadler, P.; Gould, R.; Leiker, S.; Antonucci, P.; Deutsch, F.

    1997-05-01

    We have developed a fully integrated automated astronomical telescope system which combines the imaging power of a cooled CCD, with a self-contained and weatherized 15 cm reflecting optical telescope and mount. The MicroObservatory Net consists of five of these telescopes. They are currently being deployed around the world at widely distributed longitudes. Remote access to the MicroObservatories over the Internet has now been implemented. Software for computer control, pointing, focusing, filter selection as well as pattern recognition have all been developed as part of the project. The telescopes can be controlled in real time or in delay mode, from a Macintosh, PC or other computer using Web-based software. The Internet address of the telescopes is http://cfa- www.harvard.edu/cfa/sed/MicroObservatory/MicroObservatory.html. In the real-time mode, individuals have access to all of the telescope control functions without the need for an `on-site' operator. Users can sign up for a specific period of ti me. In the batch mode, users can submit requests for delayed telescope observations. After a MicroObservatory completes a job, the user is automatically notified by e-mail that the image is available for viewing and downloading from the Web site. The telescopes were designed for classroom instruction, as well as for use by students and amateur astronomers for original scientific research projects. We are currently examining a variety of technical and educational questions about the use of the telescopes including: (1) What are the best approaches to scheduling real-time versus batch mode observations? (2) What criteria should be used for allocating telescope time? (3) With deployment of more than one telescope, is it advantageous for each telescope to be used for just one type of observation, i.e., some for photometric use, others for imaging? And (4) What are the most valuable applications of the MicroObservatories in astronomical research? Support for the MicroObservatory

  8. The Next Great Generation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownstein, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ideas from a new book, "Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation," (by Neil Howe and William Strauss) suggesting that youth culture is on the cusp of a radical shift with the generation beginning with this year's college freshmen who are typically team oriented, optimistic, and poised for greatness on a global scale. Includes a…

  9. GREAT LAKES LIMNOLOGY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has primary responsibility within the U.S. for conducting surveillance monitoring of the offshore waters of the Great Lakes. This monitoring is intended to fulfill provis...

  10. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  11. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  12. The Next Great Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, K. V.

    2007-12-01

    value of systems-level thinking, and it makes good sense to make this the essential mantra of Earth science undergraduate and graduate programs of the future. We must emphasize that Earth science plays a central role in understanding processes that have shaped our planet since the origin of our species, processes that have thus influenced the rise and fall of human societies. By studying the co-evolution of Earth and human societies, we lay a critical part of the foundation for future environmental policymaking. If we can make this point persuasively, Earth science might just be the "next great science".

  13. The 40-Foot Solar Eclipse Camera of the Lick Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, John; Orchiston, W.

    2009-01-01

    The primary goal of the Lick Observatory's direct solar eclipse photography program was to secure high-resolution images of coronal detail that was visible only during the brief moments of a total eclipse of the Sun. Obtaining a wide range of plate scales of the eclipsed Sun became a vital necessity in accomplishing this objective. Cameras and telescopes with unique pedigrees_some of which were originally intended for other astronomical and non-astronomical duties_were put to the test. The Lick Observatory sent seventeen eclipse expeditions worldwide beginning January 1889 and ending in 1932. Direct coronal photography was a significant part of the program and continued to the end of the expedition series. These expeditions occurred at a time when little was known about coronal content, motion within the corona or the forces that shaped the corona. Early successful attempts by E.E. Barnard, S.W. Burnham and J.M. Schaeberle to obtain coronal photographs with increasing image size and resolution set the stage for Schaeberle. He designed what would become the hallmark of the Observatory's expeditions, a camera of 5-inches aperture with a 40-foot focal length. It was this instrument which set the new standard for high-resolution eclipse imaging. By the end of the expeditions, new generation cameras originally intended for Vulcan searches and Einstein theory of relativity verification imaging replaced the 40-foot camera for coronal photography. This paper will present the cameras, their operators, views of the instruments at the various eclipse sites, a sample of the images produced and a summary of the Lick Observatory's most significant contributions to coronal science.

  14. Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Lal, Nand; McGuire, Robert E.; Szabo, Adam; Narock, Thomas W.; Armstrong, Thomas P.; Manweiler, Jerry W.; Patterson, J. Douglas; Hill, Matthew E.; Vandergriff, Jon D.; McKibben, Robert B.; Lopate, Clifford; Tranquille, Cecil

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO) focuses on improved discovery, access, and usability of heliospheric energetic particle and ancillary data products from selected spacecraft and sub-orbital instruments of the heliophysics data environment. The energy range of interest extends over the full range of particle acceleration from keV energies of suprathermal seed particles to GeV energies of galactic cosmic ray particles. Present spatial coverage is for operational and legacy spacecraft operating from the inner to the outer heliosphere, e.g. from measurements by the two Helios spacecraft to 0.3 AU to the inner heliosheath region now being traversed by the two Voyager spacecraft. This coverage will eventually be extended inward to ten solar radii by the planned NASA solar probe mission and at the same time beyond the heliopause into the outer heliosheath by continued Voyager operations. The geospace fleet of spacecraft providing near-Earth interplanetary measurements, selected magnetospheric spacecraft providing direct measurements of penetrating interplanetary energetic particles, and interplanetary cruise measurements from planetary spacecraft missions further extend VEPO resources to the domain of geospace and planetary interactions. Ground-based (e.g., neutron monitor) and high-altitude suborbital measurements can expand coverage to the highest energies of galactic cosmic rays affected by heliospheric interaction and of solar energetic particles. Science applications include investigation of solar flare and coronal mass ejection events. acceleration and transport of interplanetary particles within the inner heliosphere, cosmic ray interactions with planetary surfaces and atmospheres, sources of suprathermal and anomalous cosmic ray ions in the outer heliosphere, and solar cycle modulation of galactic cosmic rays. Robotic and human exploration, and eventual habitation, of planetary and space environments beyond the Earth require knowledge of radiation

  15. Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Lal, N.; McGuire, R. E.; Szabo, A.; Narock, T. W.; Armstrong, T. P.; Manweiler, J. W.; Patterson, J. D.; Hill, M. E.; Vandergriff, J. D.; McKibben, R. B.; Lopate, C.; Tranquille, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO) focuses on improved discovery, access, and usability of heliospheric energetic particle and ancillary data products from selected spacecraft and sub-orbital instruments of the heliophysics data environment. The energy range of interest extends over the full range of particle acceleration from keV energies of suprathermal seed particles to GeV energies of galactic cosmic ray particles. Present spatial coverage is for operational and legacy spacecraft operating from the inner to the outer heliosphere, e.g. from measurements by the two Helios spacecraft to 0.3 AU to the inner heliosheath region now being traversed by the two Voyager spacecraft. This coverage will eventually be extended inward to ten solar radii by the planned NASA solar probe mission and at the same time beyond the heliopause into the outer heliosheath by continued Voyager operations. The geospace fleet of spacecraft providing near-Earth interplanetary measurements, selected magnetospheric spacecraft providing direct measurements of penetrating interplanetary energetic particles, and interplanetary cruise measurements from planetary spacecraft missions further extend VEPO resources to the domain of geospace and planetary interactions. Ground-based (e.g., neutron monitor) and high-altitude suborbital measurements can expand coverage to the highest energies of galactic cosmic rays affected by heliospheric interaction and of solar energetic particles. Science applications include investigation of solar flare and coronal mass ejection events, acceleration and transport of interplanetary particles within the inner heliosphere, cosmic ray interactions with planetary surfaces and atmospheres, sources of suprathermal and anomalous cosmic ray ions in the outer heliosphere, and solar cycle modulation of galactic cosmic rays. Robotic and human exploration, and eventual habitation, of planetary and space environments beyond the Earth require knowledge of radiation

  16. CALISTO - A Novel Architecture for the Single Aperture Far Infrared Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Daniel F.; Goldsmith, P.; Benford, D.

    2007-12-01

    Following the success of Spitzer, and in expectation of success with JWST and Herschel, the astronomical community is looking ahead to a large aperture far infrared mission that can build on the scientific results of these missions. This expectation was formalized by the 2000 Decadal recommendation for design studies on a SAFIR - a single aperture far infrared observatory. A JWST-inspired architecture for SAFIR was considered in a Vision Mission study several years ago. We present here a exciting new architecture for this important mission that offers several advantages. This CALISTO (Cryogenic Far-Infrared/Submillimeter Observatory) architecture, originally developed by JPL, builds on the thermally optimized passive cooling design of the Vision Mission version of SAFIR, and focal plane instrument strategies as well, but is based on a 4x6m ellipsoidal primary that greatly simplifies deployment out of an ELV launch shroud. Used off-axis, this design is much less affected by scattered (e.g. galactic plane and ZODI) emission than previous architectures, providing astronomical background-limited facility over much of the sky. Technologies for such a large mirror, diffraction-limited at 20µm, are now becoming credible. Using the large focal plane to host envisioned large format sensor arrays operating with high spatial resolution, CALISTO will resolve the far infrared extragalactic background, and trace the chemical evolution of galaxies. Simple models suggest that detection of the first structure in the universe, marked by cooling primordial clouds of molecular hydrogen at high z, may be achievable with such a telescope. Further building on the work of Spitzer, CALISTO will trace the development of planetary systems, probing the inner structure of star forming disks, and reveal the structure of nearby solar systems using the structure of debris disks that surround them. We review in this paper the science goals and engineering challenges for this mission.

  17. Sensor networks for cabled ocean observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, B. M.; McGinnis, T.; Kirkham, H.

    2003-04-01

    This paper considers the development of a support infrastructure for subsea observatory sensors and networks. Some sensors will be self-contained individual items, others will be part of a sensor network using, for example, secondary cables and junction boxes to extend the horizontal reach 10s to 100s of km from backbone nodes, or using moorings to distribute observatory capabilities throughout the water column and (equivalently) down boreholes into the crust. Included in the support infrastructure could be acoustic navigation and communications systems, free-swimming AUVs, and bottom rovers that could carry sensors and could provide data and energy "tanker" service. Because of the likely long term observatory application of sensors, and the high cost of access, methods of self-calibration of sensors will also be useful. The sensor infrastructure would supplement the observatory infrastructure that is part of the NSF Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI). This Initiative plans to provide junction box nodes on the seafloor that furnish power and communications, and distribute time. There are three elements of the OOI: a regional scale cabled observatory (such as NEPTUNE) with dozens of nodes; a sparse global array of buoys with seafloor nodes; and an expanded system of coastal observatories. Each of these observatories will depend on suites of sensors from a number of investigators, and it is likely that once the observatory infrastructure itself has been installed and commissioned, most of the physical interaction with an observatory will be for installing, operating, servicing, and recovering sensors. These activities will be supported by the proposed infrastructure, enabling the full potential of the observatory to be reached.

  18. Overview of Virtual Observatory Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. G.

    2009-07-01

    I provide a brief introduction and tour of selected Virtual Observatory tools to highlight some of the core functions provided by the VO, and the way that astronomers may use the tools and services for doing science. VO tools provide advanced functions for searching and using images, catalogues and spectra that have been made available in the VO. The tools may work together by providing efficient and innovative browsing and analysis of data, and I also describe how many VO services may be accessed by a scripting or command line environment. Early science usage of the VO provides important feedback on the development of the system, and I show how VO portals try to address early user comments about the navigation and use of the VO.

  19. Manastash Ridge Observatory Autoguider Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozo, Jason; Huehnerhoff, Joseph; Armstrong, John; Davila, Adrian; Johnson, Courtney; McMaster, Alex; Olinger, Kyle

    2016-06-01

    The Astronomy Undergraduate Engineering Group (AUEG) at the University of Washington has designed and manufactured a novel autoguider system for the 0.8-meter telescope at the Manastash Ridge Observatory in Ellensburg, Washington. The system uses a pickoff mirror placed in the unused optical path, directing the outer field to the guide camera via a system of axi-symmetrically rotating relay mirrors (periscope). This allows the guider to sample nearly 7 times the area that would be possible with the same fixed detector. This system adds closed loop optical feedback to the tracking capabilities of the telescope. When tuned the telescope will be capable of acheiving 0.5 arcsecond tracking or better. Dynamic focusing of the primary optical path will also be an included feature of this system. This unique guider will be a much needed upgrade to the telescope allowing for increased scientific capability.

  20. Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the technical parameters and the technical staff of the VLBI system at the fundamental station GGAO. It also gives an overview about the VLBI activities during the report year. The Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory (GGAO) consists of a 5-meter radio telescope for VLBI, a new 12-meter radio telescope for VLBI2010 development, a 1-meter reference antenna for microwave holography development, an SLR site that includes MOBLAS-7, the NGSLR development system, and a 48" telescope for developmental two-color Satellite Laser Ranging, a GPS timing and development lab, a DORIS system, meteorological sensors, and a hydrogen maser. In addition, we are a fiducial IGS site with several IGS/IGSX receivers. GGAO is located on the east coast of the United States in Maryland. It is approximately 15 miles NNE of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland.

  1. Alaska Volcano Observatory's KML Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valcic, L.; Webley, P. W.; Bailey, J. E.; Dehn, J.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual Globes are now giving the scientific community a new medium to present data, which is compatible across multiple disciplines. They also provide scientists the ability to display their data in real-time, a critical factor in hazard assessment. The Alaska Volcano Observatory remote sensing group has developed Keyhole Markup Language (KML) tools that are used to display satellite data for volcano monitoring and forecast ash cloud movement. The KML tools allow an analyst to view the satellite data in a user-friendly web based environment, without a reliance on non-transportable, proprietary software packages. Here, we show how the tools are used operationally for thermal monitoring of volcanic activity, volcanic ash cloud detection and dispersion modeling, using the Puff model. animate.images.alaska.edu/

  2. HELIO: The Heliophysics Integrated Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, R. D.; Csillaghy, A.; Aboudarham, J.; Jacquey, C.; Hapgood, M. A.; Bocchialini, K.; Messerotti, M.; Brooke, J.; Gallagher, P.; Fox, P.; Hurlburt, N.; Roberts, D. A.; Sanchez Duarte, L.

    2011-01-01

    Heliophysics is a new research field that explores the Sun-Solar System Connection; it requires the joint exploitation of solar, heliospheric, magnetospheric and ionospheric observations. HELIO, the Heliophysics Integrated Observatory, will facilitate this study by creating an integrated e-Infrastructure that has no equivalent anywhere else. It will be a key component of a worldwide effort to integrate heliophysics data and will coordinate closely with international organizations to exploit synergies with complementary domains. HELIO was proposed under a Research Infrastructure call in the Capacities Programme of the European Commission's 7th Framework Programme (FP7). The project was selected for negotiation in January 2009; following a successful conclusion to these, the project started on 1 June 2009 and will last for 36 months.

  3. Autonomous Infrastructure for Observatory Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, R.

    This is an era of rapid change from ancient human-mediated modes of astronomical practice to a vision of ever larger time domain surveys, ever bigger "big data", to increasing numbers of robotic telescopes and astronomical automation on every mountaintop. Over the past decades, facets of a new autonomous astronomical toolkit have been prototyped and deployed in support of numerous space missions. Remote and queue observing modes have gained significant market share on the ground. Archives and data-mining are becoming ubiquitous; astroinformatic techniques and virtual observatory standards and protocols are areas of active development. Astronomers and engineers, planetary and solar scientists, and researchers from communities as diverse as particle physics and exobiology are collaborating on a vast range of "multi-messenger" science. What then is missing?

  4. Photometry and the Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, C.; Solano, E.

    2013-05-01

    Building Spectral Energy Distributions combining data from different sources is becoming more important as astronomy takes an increasingly multi-wavelength approach. In order to do this, photometry data must be described in sufficient detail to allow for the conversion to compatible flux density units (including the description of magnitude systems and zero points). Furthermore, comparing observed photometry with the synthetic one for theoretical models allows to infer physical properties from the observed objects. But in order to do that, an even more detailed description of the observed photometric points is needed, including the transmission curves of the filters corresponding to the observed data. In the Virtual Observatory an important effort has been done towards this standardization with the Photometry Data Model. And in the SVO we have developed several services to help in this direction, providing detailed information about filters, synthetic photometry for theoretical models and tools to use all this to analyze observed data and estimate object physical properties.

  5. Large space observatories of the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nein, M.; Howell, J.; Morgan, S.; de Sanctis, C.; Koch, D.

    1987-01-01

    Early in the 21st century, advanced space telescopes will be readied to continue the astronomical observations of the Great Observatories currently under development. This paper describes representative concepts from the very large UV/optical and gamma-ray telescopes under study by NASA, the scientific community, and industry. These studies demonstrate that historical approaches to improving the resolution and sensitivity of space telescopes have reached technology barriers which can only be overcome by innovative solutions to the telescope design. Some of the key technology issues which are guiding the approaches for advanced space telescopes are discussed, and arguments are presented that enabling technology development for these future systems must commence now.

  6. The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrels, N.; Chipman, E.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The Arthur Holly Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (Compton) was launched by the Space Shuttle Atlantis on 5 April 1991. The spacecraft and instruments are in good health and returning exciting results. The mission provides nearly six orders of magnitude in spectral coverage, from 30 keV to 30 GeV, with sensitivity over the entire range an order of magnitude better than that of previous observations. The 16,000 kilogram observatory contains four instruments on a stabilized platform. The mission began normal operations on 16 May 1991 and is now over half-way through a full-sky survey. The mission duration is expected to be from six to ten years. A Science Support Center has been established at Goddard Space Flight Center for the purpose of supporting a vigorous Guest Investigator Program. New scientific results to date include: (1) the establishment of the isotropy, combined with spatial inhomogeneity, of the distribution of gamma-ray bursts in the sky; (2) the discovery of intense high energy (100 MeV) gamma-ray emission from 3C 279 and other quasars and BL Lac objects, making these the most distant and luminous gamma-ray sources ever detected; (3) one of the first images of a gamma-ray burst; (4) the observation of intense nuclear and position-annihilation gamma-ray lines and neutrons from several large solar flares; and (5) the detection of a third gamma-ray pulsar, plus several other transient and pulsing hard X-ray sources.

  7. TUM Critical Zone Observatory, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Völkel, Jörg; Eden, Marie

    2014-05-01

    Founded 2011 the TUM Critical Zone Observatory run by the Technische Universität München and partners abroad is the first CZO within Germany. TUM CZO is both, a scientific as well as an education project. It is a watershed based observatory, but moving behind this focus. In fact, two mountainous areas are integrated: (1) The Ammer Catchment area as an alpine and pre alpine research area in the northern limestone Alps and forelands south of Munich; (2) the Otter Creek Catchment in the Bavarian Forest with a crystalline setting (Granite, Gneiss) as a mid mountainous area near Regensburg; and partly the mountainous Bavarian Forest National Park. The Ammer Catchment is a high energy system as well as a sensitive climate system with past glacial elements. The lithology shows mostly carbonates from Tertiary and Mesozoic times (e.g. Flysch). Source-to-sink processes are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment down to the last glacial Ammer Lake as the regional erosion and deposition base. The consideration of distal depositional environments, the integration of upstream and downstream landscape effects are characteristic for the Ammer Catchment as well. Long term datasets exist in many regards. The Otter Creek catchment area is developed in a granitic environment, rich in saprolites. As a mid mountainous catchment the energy system is facing lower stage. Hence, it is ideal comparing both of them. Both TUM CZO Catchments: The selected catchments capture the depositional environment. Both catchment areas include historical impacts and rapid land use change. Crosscutting themes across both sites are inbuilt. Questions of ability to capture such gradients along climosequence, chronosequence, anthroposequence are essential.

  8. Golden legacy from ESA's observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-07-01

    ISO was the first space observatory able to see the sky in infrared light. Using its eyes, we have discovered many new phenomena that have radically changed our view of the Universe. Everybody knows that when something is heated it glows. However, things also glow with a light our eyes cannot detect at room temperature: infrared light. Infrared telescopes do not work well on the Earth’s surface because such light is absorbed by the atmosphere. ISO looked at the cold parts of the universe, usually the 'cold and dusty' parts. It peered into clouds of dust and gas where stars were being born, observing for the first time the earliest stages of star formation. It discovered, for example, that stars begin to form at temperatures as low as -250°C or less. Scientists were able to follow the evolution of dust from where it is produced (that is, old stars - the massive 'dust factories') to the regions where it forms new planetary systems. ISO found that most young stars are surrounded by discs of dust that could harbour planets. The observatory also analysed the chemical composition of cosmic dust, thereby opening up a new field of research, ‘astromineralogy’. With ISO we have been able to discover the presence of water in many different regions in space. Another new discipline, 'astrochemistry', was boosted when ISO discovered that the water molecule is common in the Universe, even in distant galaxies, and complex organic molecules like benzene readily form in the surroundings of some stars. "ISO results are impacting most fields of astronomical research, almost literally from comets to cosmology," explains Alberto Salama, ISO Project Scientist. "Some results answer questions. Others open new fields. Some are already being followed up by existing telescopes; others have to await future facilities." When ISO's operational life ended, in 1998, its observations became freely available to the world scientific community via ISO’s data archive. In May 2003 the

  9. Scientific Workflows and the Sensor Web for Virtual Environmental Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, I.; Vahed, A.

    2008-12-01

    Virtual observatories mature from their original domain and become common practice for earth observation research and policy building. The term Virtual Observatory originally came from the astronomical research community. Here, virtual observatories provide universal access to the available astronomical data archives of space and ground-based observatories. Further on, as those virtual observatories aim at integrating heterogeneous ressources provided by a number of participating organizations, the virtual observatory acts as a coordinating entity that strives for common data analysis techniques and tools based on common standards. The Sensor Web is on its way to become one of the major virtual observatories outside of the astronomical research community. Like the original observatory that consists of a number of telescopes, each observing a specific part of the wave spectrum and with a collection of astronomical instruments, the Sensor Web provides a multi-eyes perspective on the current, past, as well as future situation of our planet and its surrounding spheres. The current view of the Sensor Web is that of a single worldwide collaborative, coherent, consistent and consolidated sensor data collection, fusion and distribution system. The Sensor Web can perform as an extensive monitoring and sensing system that provides timely, comprehensive, continuous and multi-mode observations. This technology is key to monitoring and understanding our natural environment, including key areas such as climate change, biodiversity, or natural disasters on local, regional, and global scales. The Sensor Web concept has been well established with ongoing global research and deployment of Sensor Web middleware and standards and represents the foundation layer of systems like the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS). The Sensor Web consists of a huge variety of physical and virtual sensors as well as observational data, made available on the Internet at standardized

  10. EARLY SCIENCE WITH SOFIA, THE STRATOSPHERIC OBSERVATORY FOR INFRARED ASTRONOMY

    SciTech Connect

    Young, E. T.; Becklin, E. E.; De Buizer, J. M.; Andersson, B.-G.; Casey, S. C.; Helton, L. A.; Marcum, P. M.; Roellig, T. L.; Temi, P.; Herter, T. L.; Guesten, R.; Dunham, E. W.; Backman, D.; Burgdorf, M.; Caroff, L. J.; Erickson, E. F.; Davidson, J. A.; Gehrz, R. D.; Harper, D. A.; Harvey, P. M.; and others

    2012-04-20

    The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is an airborne observatory consisting of a specially modified Boeing 747SP with a 2.7 m telescope, flying at altitudes as high as 13.7 km (45,000 ft). Designed to observe at wavelengths from 0.3 {mu}m to 1.6 mm, SOFIA operates above 99.8% of the water vapor that obscures much of the infrared and submillimeter. SOFIA has seven science instruments under development, including an occultation photometer, near-, mid-, and far-infrared cameras, infrared spectrometers, and heterodyne receivers. SOFIA, a joint project between NASA and the German Aerospace Center Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft und-Raumfahrt, began initial science flights in 2010 December, and has conducted 30 science flights in the subsequent year. During this early science period three instruments have flown: the mid-infrared camera FORCAST, the heterodyne spectrometer GREAT, and the occultation photometer HIPO. This Letter provides an overview of the observatory and its early performance.

  11. The contribution of L'Aquila (Italy) Geomagnetic Observatory to MAGDAS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepidi, S.; Meloni, A.; Palangio, P.; Yumoto, K.

    2011-12-01

    The geomagnetic Observatory of L'Aquila (Italy) was founded by Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) in 1958, on the occasion of the International Geophysical Year. It is the main Italian geomagnetic observatory. Since 1999 L'Aquila Observatory belongs to the Intermagnet system, an International network grouping worldwide geomagnetic observatories able to provide Earth's magnetic field measurements according to precise quality standards. Geomagnetic field measurements in L'Aquila are used to study the variations of the Earth's geomagnetic field, both of internal and external origin. In November 2008 a new magnetometer was installed in L'Aquila within the MAGDAS project, coordinated by SERC. The location of this installation can be useful to complete the MAGDAS monitoring system to study solar-terrestrial events.

  12. The Chandra X-Ray Observatory and its Role for the Study of Ionized Plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Chandra X-Ray Observatory was launched in July of 1999. Featuring a 1000cm2-class X-ray telescope with sub-arcsecond angular resolution, the Observatory has observed targets from the solar system including the earth s moon, comets, and planets to the most distant galaxy clusters and active galactic nuclei. Capable of performing moderate energy resolution image-resolved spectroscopy using its CCD detectors, and high-resolution grating spectroscopy, the Observatory has produced, and continues to produce, valuable data and insights into the emission mechanisms of the ionized plasmas in which the X-rays originate. We present a brief overview of the Observatory to provide insight as to how to use it for your investigations. We also present an, admittedly brief and biased, overview of some of the results of investigations performed with Chandra that may be of interest to this audience.

  13. Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This view of Jupiter's Great Red Spot is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft. The image was created using two filters, violet and near-infrared, at each of two camera positions. The Great Red Spot is a storm in Jupiter's atmosphere and is at least 300 years-old. Winds blow counterclockwise around the Great Red Spot at about 400 kilometers per hour (250 miles per hour). The size of the storm is more than one Earth diameter (13,000 kilometers or 8,000 miles) in the north-south direction and more than two Earth diameters in the east-west direction. In this oblique view, where the Great Red Spot is shown on the planet's limb, it appears longer in the north-south direction. The image was taken on June 26, 1996.

    The Galileo mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  14. THE GREAT RIVERS NEWSLETTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Rivers Newsletter is a periodic publication of the EPA's Mid-Continent Ecology Division. It is designed to disseminate timely information about the EMAP-GRE project among EPA investigators; state, federal, and tribal collaborators; and other stakeholders.

  15. Cosmic Ray Observatories for Space Weather Studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Xavier

    2016-07-01

    The Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX) was created in October 2014. Some observatories measure data for the service at different frequencies and particles. Two cosmic ray observatories detect the particle variations attributed to solar emissions, and are an important source of information for the SCiESMEX. The Mexico City Cosmic Ray Observatory consists of a neutron monitor (6-NM-64) and a muon telescope, that detect the hadronic and hard component of the secondary cosmic rays in the atmosphere. It has been in continous operation since 1990. The Sierra Negra Cosmic Ray Observatory consists of a solar neutron telescope and the scintillator cosmic ray telescope. These telescopes can detect the neutrons, generated in solar flares and the hadronic and hard components of the secondary cosmic rays. It has been in continous operation since 2004. We present the two observatories and the capability to detect variations in the cosmic rays, generated by the emissions of the solar activity.

  16. Development of Observatories for the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyo, N.; Namba, Y.; Saruhashi, T.; Sawada, I.; Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.; Kano, Y.; Yamano, M.; Muraki, H.; Fulton, P. M.; Brodsky, E. E.; Davis, E. E.; Sun, T.; Mori, J. J.; Chester, F. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake and accompanying tsunami produced the largest slip ever recorded in an earthquake and devastated much of northern Japan on March 11, 2011. The IODP proposal for JFAST (Japan Trench Fast Drilling project) planned to drill into the Tohoku subduction zone using the research ship Chikyu, measure the fault zone physical properties, recover fault zone material, and install an observatory to directly record the temperature anomaly caused by frictional slip during the earthquake. Considering the significant technical and operational challenges related to the great water depth of ~7,000 meters, and timing constraints, the observatory needed to be both robust and simple. After frequent discussions among scientists, engineers and operators, we decided to prepare two different types of observatories. 1. Autonomous MTL (Miniature Temperature Logger) observatory. The important temperature monitoring is accomplished by 55 MTLs attached to a string (Vectran rope) which is suspended inside a 4.5" casing in the borehole. The string latches at the top of the casing to allow retrieval using the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) Kaiko operated by JAMSTEC. This observatory avoids risks associated with a thermistor cable and wellhead data logger, and increases reliability by applying proven technologies. Perhaps most importantly, this configuration allows flexibility in defining the final depth distribution of the temperature sensors. This is advantageous since information of the exact depth of the fault zone will be known only after drilling and logging. Also, the judicious placement of weak links along the string helps to minimize possible loss of the entire sensor string if it is clamped by post-seismic movements that deform the casing. 2. Telemetered PT (Pressure and Temperature) observatory. Based on the previous deployment experience of the NanTroSEIZE C0010 observatory, we prepared another system that enables long term monitoring and repeated ROV data

  17. Exploring the Digital Universe with Europe's Astrophysical Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    digitally reconstructed in the databanks! The richness and complexity of data and information available to the astronomers is overwhelming. This has created a major problem as to how astronomers can manage, distribute and analyse this great wealth of data . The Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (AVO) will allow astronomers to overcome the challenges and enable them to "put the Universe online". AVO is supported by the European Commission The AVO is a three-year project, funded by the European Commission under its Research and Technological Development (RTD) scheme, to design and implement a virtual observatory for the European astronomical community. The European Commission awarded a contract valued at 4 million Euro for the AVO project , starting 15 November 2001. AVO will provide software tools to enable astronomers to access the multi-wavelength data archives over the Internet and so give them the capability to resolve fundamental questions about the Universe by probing the digital sky. Equivalent searches of the 'real' sky would, in comparison, be both costly and take far too long. Towards a Global Virtual Observatory The need for virtual observatories has also been recognised by other astronomical communities. The National Science Foundation in the USA has awarded 10 million Dollar (approx. 11.4 million Euro) for a National Virtual Observatory (NVO). The AVO project team has formed a close alliance with the NVO and both teams have representatives on their respective committees. It is clear to the NVO and AVO communities that there are no intrinsic boundaries to the virtual observatory concept and that all astronomers should be working towards a truly global virtual observatory that will enable new science to be carried out on the wealth of astronomical data held in the growing number of first class international astronomical archives. The AVO involves six partner organisations led by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Munich (Germany). The other partner

  18. Alaska Volcano Observatory at 20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) was established in 1988 in the wake of the 1986 Augustine eruption through a congressional earmark. Even within the volcanological community, there was skepticism about AVO. Populations directly at risk in Alaska were small compared to Cascadia, and the logistical costs of installing and maintaining monitoring equipment were much higher. Questions were raised concerning the technical feasibility of keeping seismic stations operating through the long, dark, stormy Alaska winters. Some argued that AVO should simply cover Augustine with instruments and wait for the next eruption there, expected in the mid 90s (but delayed until 2006), rather than stretching to instrument as many volcanoes as possible. No sooner was AVO in place than Redoubt erupted and a fully loaded passenger 747 strayed into the eruption cloud between Anchorage and Fairbanks, causing a powerless glide to within a minute of impact before the pilot could restart two engines and limp into Anchorage. This event forcefully made the case that volcano hazard mitigation is not just about people and infrastructure on the ground, and is particularly important in the heavily traveled North Pacific where options for flight diversion are few. In 1996, new funding became available through an FAA earmark to aggressively extend volcano monitoring far into the Aleutian Islands with both ground-based networks and round-the-clock satellite monitoring. Beyond the Aleutians, AVO developed a monitoring partnership with Russians volcanologists at the Institute of Volcanology and Seismology in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The need to work together internationally on subduction phenomena that span borders led to formation of the Japan-Kamchatka-Alaska Subduction Processes (JKASP) consortium. JKASP meets approximately biennially in Sapporo, Petropavlovsk, and Fairbanks. In turn, these meetings and support from NSF and the Russian Academy of Sciences led to new international education and

  19. The Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, Michael John; O'Neill, Clare K.; Palmer, Matthew R.

    2010-05-01

    A pre-operational Coastal Observatory has been functioning since August 2002 in Liverpool Bay, Irish Sea. Its rationale is to develop the science underpinning the ecosystem based approach to marine management, including distinguishing between natural and man-made variability, with particular emphasis on eutrophication and predicting responses of a coastal sea to climate change. Liverpool Bay has strong tidal mixing, receives fresh water principally from the Dee, Mersey and Ribble estuaries, each with different catchment influences, and has enhanced levels of nutrients. Horizontal and vertical density gradients are variable both in space and time. The challenge is to understand and model accurately this variable region which is turbulent, turbid, receives enhanced nutrients and is productive. The Observatory has three components, for each of which the goal is some (near) real-time operation - measurements; coupled 3-D hydrodynamic, wave and ecological models; a data management and web-based data delivery system which provides free access to the data, http://cobs.pol.ac.uk. The integrated measurements are designed to test numerical models and have as a major objective obtaining multi-year records, covering tidal, event (storm / calm / bloom), seasonal and interannual time scales. The four main strands on different complementary space or time scales are:- a) fixed point time series (in situ and shore-based); very good temporal and very poor spatial resolution. These include tide gauges; a meteorological station on Hilbre Island at the mouth of the Dee; two in situ sites, one by the Mersey Bar, measuring waves and the vertical structure of current, temperature and salinity. A CEFAS SmartBuoy whose measurements include surface nutrients is deployed at the Mersey Bar site. b) regular (nine times per year) spatial water column surveys on a 9 km grid; good vertical resolution for some variables, limited spatial coverage and resolution, and limited temporal resolution. The

  20. Challenges of the GEOSCOPE Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pardo, C.; Bonaime, S.; Stutzmann, E.; Roult, G.; Maggi, A.; GEOSCOPE Group

    2007-12-01

    The GEOSCOPE observatory consists of a global seismic network and a data center. The observatory was launched in 1982 by the French National Center of Scientific Research (CNRS/INSU) and progressively 30 stations have been installed across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. The GEOSCOPE stations are located on 18 countries and equipped with three component very broad-band seismometers (STS1 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers, as required by the Federation of Seismic Digital Network (FDSN). In most stations a pressure gauge and a thermometer are also installed. During the last years, 13 stations have been upgraded in order to send data in real or near real time to GEOSCOPE Data Center. In 2008, two new real time stations will be installed in the Indian Ocean: in the South of Madagascar and on Rodrigues island. Four stations in the Carribean region and in South America will also be upgraded to send real time data to GEOSCOPE Data Center and to local tsunami warning centers. Continuous data of all stations are collected in real time or with a delay by the GEOSCOPE Data Center in Paris where they are validated, stored and made accessible to the international scientific community. Users have free and open access to: - real time data from 13 stations. These data are transfered from the stations to the Geoscope Data Center using the seedlink protocol developed by GEOFON. Seedlink also enables to make these data accessible to the Tsunami Warning Centers and to other data center. These data are available to users through the GEOSCOPE web interface. - validated continous waveforms and meta data of all stations by using the NetDC system (Networked Data Centers). Data can be requested from the GEOSCOPE Data Center and from other networked centers associated to the FDSN. - a selection of seismograms corresponding to large earthquakes via a web interface - the power spectrum estimates of the seismic noise averaged over sequences of 24 hours for each station

  1. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap (Report 2006, http://cordis.europa.eu/esfri/roadmap.htm), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. The development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90 and is being supported by several EU initiatives, as the on-going ESONET-NoE, coordinated by IFREMER (2007-2011, http://www.esonet-emso.org/esonet-noe/), and aims at gathering together the Research Community of the Ocean Observatories. In 2006 the FP7 Capacities Programme launched a call for Preparatory Phase (PP) projects, that will provide the support to create the legal and organisational entities in charge of managing the infrastructures, and coordinating the financial effort among the countries. Under this call the EMSO-PP project was approved in 2007 with the coordination of INGV and the participation of other 11 Institutions of 11 countries. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years. The EMSO is a key-infrastructure both for Ocean Sciences and for Solid Earth Sciences. In this respect it will enhance and complement profitably the capabilities of other European research infrastructures such as EPOS, ERICON-Aurora Borealis, and SIOS. The perspective of the synergy among EMSO and other ESFRI Research Infrastructures will be outlined. EMSO Partners: IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph

  2. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, P.; Partnership, Emso

    2009-04-01

    EMSO, a Research Infrastructure listed within ESFRI (European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures) Roadmap), is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. EMSO will reply also to the need expressed in the frame of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) to develop a marine segment integrated in the in situ and satellite global monitoring system. The EMSO development relays upon the synergy between the scientific community and the industry to improve the European competitiveness with respect to countries like USA/Canada, NEPTUNE, VENUS and MARS projects, Taiwan, MACHO project, and Japan, DONET project. In Europe the development of an underwater network is based on previous EU-funded projects since early '90, and presently supported by EU initiatives. The EMSO infrastructure will constitute the extension to the sea of the land-based networks. Examples of data recorded by seafloor observatories will be presented. EMSO is presently at the stage of Preparatory Phase (PP), funded in the EC FP7 Capacities Programme. The project has started in April 2008 and will last 4 years with the participation of 12 Institutions representing 12 countries. EMSO potential will be significantly increased also with the interaction with other Research Infrastructures addressed to Earth Science. 2. IFREMER-Institut Français de Recherche pour l'exploitation de la mer (France, ref. Roland Person); KDM-Konsortium Deutsche Meeresforschung e.V. (Germany, ref. Christoph Waldmann); IMI-Irish Marine Institute (Ireland, ref. Michael Gillooly); UTM-CSIC-Unidad de

  3. The North Pole Environmental Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morison, J.; Aagaard, K.; Falkner, K.; Heiberg, A.; McPhee, M.; Moritz, D.; Overland, J.; Perovich, D.; Richter-Menge, J.; Shimada, K.; Steele, M.; Takizawa, T.; Woodgate, R.

    2001-12-01

    The Arctic environment is changing. The North Pole Environmental Observatory (NPEO) was established as a type of program of long-term observations required to understand Arctic change. The North Pole region was chosen because it is central to observed changes, there is a reasonable past history of measurements, and there is often a large gap there in the coverage of surface measurements. NPEO has three main components, (1) an automated drifting station composed of several buoys to measure atmospheric, upper ocean, and ice variables, (2) a sub-surface mooring at the Pole measuring ocean properties and ice draft, and (3) an airborne hydrographic survey that provides a snapshot spatial description of upper ocean properties. The first observatory was established at the Pole in April 2000 by aircraft flying out of Alert. The drifting station portion consisted of ocean ice and meteorological buoys. Over one year the drifting station passed south through Fram Strait and stopped operating in the Greenland Sea. The airborne hydrographic survey made 6 stations between Alert, the Pole, and beyond. The sub-surface mooring was not deployed. In 2001 the drifting station was similar, but the operation was expanded to deploy a 4000-m mooring at the Pole. The mooring includes current meters, C-T sensors, ADCP, and an ice draft-profiling sonar. It will be recovered in 2002. The hydrographic survey covered a new line from the Pole to 85N, 170W. The 2000 hydrographic survey showed that the changes characterizing the Pole region in the 1990s persist, but with some deepening and some slight retreat toward climatology. The section from Alert shows that upper ocean conditions near the coast have become much like the Western Arctic with low mixed layer salinity and a secondary shallow temperature maximum. The observations indicate a general counterclockwise shift in water mass locations. Among other things, the NPEO 2000 drifting station data indicate the cold halocline is still thinner

  4. The GEOSCOPE broadband seismic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douet, Vincent; Vallée, Martin; Zigone, Dimitri; Bonaimé, Sébastien; Stutzmann, Eléonore; Maggi, Alessia; Pardo, Constanza; Bernard, Armelle; Leroy, Nicolas; Pesqueira, Frédéric; Lévêque, Jean-Jacques; Thoré, Jean-Yves; Bes de Berc, Maxime; Sayadi, Jihane

    2016-04-01

    The GEOSCOPE observatory has provided continuous broadband data to the scientific community for the past 34 years. The 31 operational GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 17 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1, T240 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers (Q330HR). Seismometers are installed with warpless base plates, which decrease long period noise on horizontal components by up to 15dB. All stations send data in real time to the IPGP data center, which transmits them automatically to other data centers (FDSN/IRIS-DMC and RESIF) and tsunami warning centers. In 2016, three stations are expected to be installed or re-installed: in Western China (WUS station), in Saint Pierre and Miquelon Island (off the East coast of Canada) and in Walis and Futuna (SouthWest Pacific Ocean). The waveform data are technically validated by IPGP (25 stations) or EOST (6 stations) in order to check their continuity and integrity. Scientific data validation is also performed by analyzing seismic noise level of the continuous data and by comparing real and synthetic earthquake waveforms (body waves). After these validations, data are archived by the IPGP data center in Paris. They are made available to the international scientific community through different interfaces (see details on http://geoscope.ipgp.fr). Data are duplicated at the FDSN/IRIS-DMC data center and a similar duplication at the French national data center RESIF will be operational in 2016. The GEOSCOPE broadband seismic observatory also provides near-real time information on global moderate-to-large seismicity (above magnitude 5.5-6) through the automated application of the SCARDEC method (Vallée et al., 2011). By using global data from the FDSN - in particular from GEOSCOPE and IRIS/USGS stations -, earthquake source parameters (depth, moment magnitude, focal mechanism, source time function) are determined about 45

  5. A Bibliometric Analysis of Observatory Publications 2008-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crabtree, D. R.

    2015-04-01

    Refereed publications are the primary output of modern observatories. I examine the productivity and impact of a significant number of observatories, as well as some other interesting aspects of observatory papers.

  6. Graduate Astronomy Education in the Early Days of Lick Observatory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterbrock, Donald E.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses Lick Observatory's (University of California) early graduate students and graduate program in astronomy. The history of the Lick Observatory and famous astronomy professors and astronomers associated with the Lick Observatory are also discussed. (DS)

  7. Decomposability and scalability in space-based observatory scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Stephen F.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss issues of problem and model decomposition within the HSTS scheduling framework. HSTS was developed and originally applied in the context of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) scheduling problem, motivated by the limitations of the current solution and, more generally, the insufficiency of classical planning and scheduling approaches in this problem context. We first summarize the salient architectural characteristics of HSTS and their relationship to previous scheduling and AI planning research. Then, we describe some key problem decomposition techniques supported by HSTS and underlying our integrated planning and scheduling approach, and we discuss the leverage they provide in solving space-based observatory scheduling problems.

  8. The Little Thompson Observatory's Astronomy Education Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Andrea E.

    2007-12-01

    The Little Thompson Observatory is a community-built E/PO observatory and is a member of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project. The observatory is located on the grounds of Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. Annually we have approximately 5,000 visitors, which is roughly equal to the population of the small town of Berthoud, CO. This past year, we have used the funding from our NASA ROSS E/PO grant to expand our teacher workshop programs, and included the baseball-sized meteorite that landed in Berthoud three years ago. Our teacher programs have involved scientists from the Southwest Research Institute and from Fiske Planetarium at CU-Boulder. We thank the NASA ROSS E/PO program for providing this funding! We also held a Colorado Project ASTRO-GEO workshop, and the observatory continues to make high-school astronomy courses available to students from the surrounding school districts. Statewide, this year we helped support the development and construction of three new educational observatories in Colorado, located in Estes Park, Keystone, and Gunnison. The LTO is grateful to have received the recently-retired 24-inch telescope from Mount Wilson Observatory as part of the TIE program. To provide a new home for this historic telescope, we have doubled the size of the observatory and are building a second dome (all with volunteer labor). During 2008 we plan to build a custom pier and refurbish the telescope.

  9. Telescopes in Education: the Little Thompson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, A. E.; Melsheimer, T. T.

    2004-05-01

    The Little Thompson Observatory is the first community-built E/PO observatory that is accessible to other schools remotely, via the Internet. This observatory is the second member of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project. The observatory is located on the grounds of Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. The observatory will celebrate its fifth anniversary in summer 2004, and we are planning to expand the building to accommodate our growing number of visitors! We are grateful to have received an IDEAS grant to provide teacher training workshops for K-12 schools to make use of the observatory, including remote observing from classrooms. Students connect to the observatory over the Internet, and then receive the images back on their local computers. We have recently submitted ROSS E/PO proposals toward future teacher programs. A committee of teachers and administrators from the Thompson School District selected these workshops to count towards Incentive Credits (movement on the salary schedule) because the course meets the criteria: "Learning must be directly transferable to the classroom with students and relate to standards, assessment and/or technology." Our program is also accredited by Colorado State University.

  10. The Malaysian Robotic Solar Observatory (P29)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, M.; Asillam, M. F.; Ismail, M. K. H.

    2006-11-01

    Robotic observatory with small telescopes can make significant contributions to astronomy observation. They provide an encouraging environment for astronomers to focus on data analysis and research while at the same time reducing time and cost for observation. The observatory will house the primary 50cm robotic telescope in the main dome which will be used for photometry, spectroscopy and astrometry observation activities. The secondary telescope is a robotic multi-apochromatic refractor (maximum diameter: 15 cm) which will be housed in the smaller dome. This telescope set will be used for solar observation mainly in three different wavelengths simultaneously: the Continuum, H-Alpha and Calcium K-line. The observatory is also equipped with an automated weather station, cloud & rain sensor and all-sky camera to monitor the climatic condition, sense the clouds (before raining) as well as to view real time sky view above the observatory. In conjunction with the Langkawi All-Sky Camera, the observatory website will also display images from the Malaysia - Antarctica All-Sky Camera used to monitor the sky at Scott Base Antarctica. Both all-sky images can be displayed simultaneously to show the difference between the equatorial and Antarctica skies. This paper will describe the Malaysian Robotic Observatory including the systems available and method of access by other astronomers. We will also suggest possible collaboration with other observatories in this region.

  11. National Virtual Aeronomical Observatory (NVAO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huestis, D. L.; Cosby, P. C.; Slanger, T. G.

    2002-05-01

    The Applied Information Systems Research program of NASA's Office of Space Science has indicated its plan to fund SRI's proposal for establishment of the National Virtual Aeronomical Observatory (NVAO). Astronomers' echelle spectrographs are already recording high-resolution survey spectra of optical emissions from excited atoms and molecules in the Earth's night atmosphere, during every hour of every night at numerous locations world-wide. Since 1997 SRI researchers, under support from NSF's Atmospheric Sciences Division, have been finding atmospheric surprises in a small subset of the potentially available sky spectra, collected from a few collaborating astronomers using the Keck telescopes. The NVAO will collect such spectra and make them available to all atmospheric scientists, in standardized formats, with appropriate access and inquiry tools. Students and researchers will be able to perform ``observations" on the ``real atmosphere" from their desktops, either as educational exercises, as publishable research, or as ``dry run" experiments before taking the field. We seek to identify astronomers who might be willing to donate sky spectra. We also want to learn about other telescope and spectrograph capabilities and operations, especially wavelength and intensity calibration and archiving.

  12. Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2011-01-01

    The Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) sounding rocket will observe smallscale eruptive events called "Rapid Blue-shifted Events" (RBEs) [Rouppe van der Voort et al., 2009], the on-disk equivalent of Type-II spicules, and extend observations that explore their role in the solar coronal heating problem [De Pontieu et al., 2011]. LASO utilizes a new and novel optical design to simultaneously observe two spatial dimensions at 4.2" spatial resolution (2.1" pixels) over a 2'x2' field of view with high spectral resolution of 66mAngstroms (33mAngstroms pixels) across a broad 20Angstrom spectral window. This spectral window contains three strong chromospheric and transition region emissions and is centered on the strong Hydrogen Lyman-a emission at 1216Angstroms. This instrument makes it possible to obtain new data crucial to the physical understanding of these phenomena and their role in the overall energy and momentum balance from the upper chromosphere to lower corona. LASO was submitted March 2011 in response to the ROSES SHP-LCAS call.

  13. Pulsar Observatory for Students (POS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Bhal Chandra; Manoharan, P. K.; Gopakumar, A.; Mitra, D.; Bagchi, Joydeep; Saikia, D. J.

    2012-07-01

    A new program, to initiate motivated undergraduate students to the methodology of pulsar astronomy in particular and radio astronomy in general, is being launched at the Ooty Radio Telescope (ORT). The ORT is a 530 m X 30 m cylindrical radio telescope operating at 325 MHz, having an equatorial mount. Its equatorial mount allows modestly trained students to make pulsar observations without any substantial help from the observatory. Due to its large collecting area, it is a sensitive instrument for pulsar astronomy, capable of detecting a large number of pulsars with short observation time. The program consists of biannual workshops that will introduce scores of students to basics of radio-astronomy and pulsars. It will also train them in the use of the ORT as well as expose them to the future prospects and excitements in the field. The second leg of the program involves live ORT observations by these trained students during various academic breaks. There is a possibility for a follow up program of highly motivated students, selected from this program, to pursue projects of their interest from the data obtained in these sensitive observations. The long term aim of the program is to enlarge the pulsar astronomy community in the country. The presentation will highlight the main features of this program and describe the experience drawn from such programs.

  14. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, David; Johnson, Christyl

    2003-01-01

    The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) mission was selected by NASA's Office of Earth Science as the fifth mission in its Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) Program. OCO will make the first global, space-based measurements of atmospheric CO2 with the precision, resolution, and coverage needed to characterize sources and sinks of this important greenhouse gas. These measurements will improve our ability to forecasts CO2-induced climate change. OCO will fly in a 1:15 PM sun-synchronous orbit, sharing its ground track with the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua platform. It will carry high-resolution spectrometers to measure reflected sunlight in the molecular oxygen (O2) A-band at 0.76-microns and the CO2 bands at 1.61 and 2.06 microns to retrieve the column-averaged CO2 dry air mole fraction, XCO2. A comprehensive validation and correlative measurement program has been incorporated into this mission to ensure that XCO2 can be retrieved with precisions of 0.3% (1 ppm) on regional scales.

  15. Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Allred, J.; Airapetian, V.; Gong, Q.; Fontenla, J.; McIntosh, S.; de Pontieu, B.

    2011-05-01

    The Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) sounding rocket will observe small-scale eruptive events called "Rapid Blue-shifted Events” (RBEs), the on-disk equivalent of Type-II spicules, and extend observations that explore their role in the solar coronal heating problem. LASO utilizes a new and novel optical design to simultaneously observe two spatial dimensions at 4.2" spatial resolution (2.1” pixels) over a 2'x2' field of view with high spectral resolution of 66mÅ (33mÅ pixels) across a broad 20Å spectral window. This spectral window contains three strong chromospheric and transition region emissions and is centered on the strong Hydrogen Lyman-α emission at 1216Å. This instrument makes it possible to obtain new data crucial to the physical understanding of these phenomena and their role in the overall energy and momentum balance from the upper chromosphere to lower corona. LASO was submitted March 2011 in response to the ROSES SHP-LCAS call.

  16. Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlin, P. C.; Allred, J. C.; Airapetian, V.; Gong, Q.; Mcintosh, S. W.; De Pontieu, B.; Fontenla, J. M.

    2011-12-01

    The Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) sounding rocket will observe small-scale eruptive events called "Rapid Blue-shifted Events" (RBEs) [Rouppe van der Voort et al., 2009], the on-disk equivalent of Type-II spicules, and extend observations that explore their role in the solar coronal heating problem [De Pontieu et al., 2011]. LASO utilizes a new and novel optical design to simultaneously observe two spatial dimensions at 4.2" spatial resolution (2.1" pixels) over a 2'x2' field of view with high spectral resolution of 66mÅ (33mÅ pixels) across a broad 20Å spectral window. This spectral window contains three strong chromospheric and transition region emissions and is centered on the strong Hydrogen Lyman-α emission at 1216Å. This instrument makes it possible to obtain new data crucial to the physical understanding of these phenomena and their role in the overall energy and momentum balance from the upper chromosphere to lower corona. LASO was submitted March 2011 in response to the ROSES SHP-LCAS call.

  17. Science and the Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowler, Patrick; Schade, David

    The Canadian Virtual Observatory (CVO) is the cornerstone of a budding international partnership that delivers high quality scientific content and capabilities to the astronomical community. We have developed a uniform astronomical data model to characterise all types of observational data across the entire electromagnetic spectrum; this model enables users to find archive data based on the content and the quality without letting the technology get in the way. We have also developed general purpose source and object catalogs to store information extracted from the data using standard techniques and algorithms. These catalogs are explorable with a variety of scientific tools from a web interface for simple tasks to a programmatic interface for sophisticated analysis involving client and server side processing. Finally all of the data processing and analysis tasks we have executed or will execute are viewable via our processing catalog; links between object and source catalogs processing catalogs and observation catalogs allow users to examine the complete pedigree of every single derived value. Thus the entire system is open to peer review which is the cornerstone of science.

  18. EMSO: European Multidisciplinary Seafloor Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favali, Paolo; Partnership, Emso

    2010-05-01

    EEMSO, an ESFRI Research Infrastructure, is the European-scale network of multidisciplinary seafloor observatories from the Arctic to the Black Sea with the scientific objective of long-term real-time monitoring of processes related to geosphere/biosphere/hydrosphere interactions. EMSO will enhance our understanding of processes through long time series appropriate to the scale of the phenomena, constituting the new frontier of studying Earth interior, deep-sea biology and chemistry and ocean processes. EMSO will reply also to the need expressed in the frame of GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) to develop a marine segment integrated in the in situ and satellite global monitoring system. The EMSO infrastructure will extend the coverage to the sea of the monitoring, integrating the land-based networks with multidisciplinary seafloor measurements. With this aim the two European research infrastructures EPOS (European Plate Observing System) and EMSO can operate in coordination in order to increase the mutual benefits. EMSO is presently at the stage of Preparatory Phase, funded in the EC FP7. The EMSO status, the perspectives and relations with other existing or incoming sensor networks and data infrastructures are outlined.

  19. An Overview of the Performance of the Chandra X-ray Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Aldcroft, T. L.; Bautz, M.; Cameron, R. A.; Dewey, D.; Drake, J. J.; Grant, C. E.; Marshall, H. L.; Murray, S. S.

    2004-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is the X-ray component of NASA's Great Observatory Program which includes the recently launched Spitzer Infrared Telescope, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) for observations in the visible, and the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) which, after providing years of useful data has reentered the atmosphere. All these facilities provide, or provided, scientific data to the international astronomical community in response to peer-reviewed proposals for their use. The Chandra X-ray Observatory was the result of the efforts of many academic, commercial, and government organizations primarily in the United States but also in Europe. NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) manages the Project and provides Project Science; Northrop Grumman Space Technology (NGST - formerly TRW) served as prime contractor responsible for providing the spacecraft, the telescope, and assembling and testing the Observatory; and the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) provides technical support and is responsible for ground operations including the Chandra X-ray Center (CXC). Telescope and instrument teams at SAO, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), the Pennsylvania State University (PSU), the Space Research Institute of the Netherlands (SRON), the Max-Planck Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), and the University of Kiel support also provide technical support to the Chandra Project. We present here a detailed description of the hardware, its on-orbit performance, and a brief overview of some of the remarkable discoveries that illustrate that performance.

  20. The Great Ice Age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Louis L.

    1992-01-01

    The Great Ice Age, a recent chapter in the Earth's history, was a period of recurring widespread glaciations. During the Pleistocene Epoch of the geologic time scale, which began about a million or more years ago, mountain glaciers formed on all continents, the icecaps of Antarctica and Greenland were more extensive and thicker than today, and vast glaciers, in places as much as several thousand feet thick, spread across northern North America and Eurasia. So extensive were these glaciers that almost a third of the present land surface of the Earth was intermittently covered by ice. Even today remnants of the great glaciers cover almost a tenth of the land, indicating that conditions somewhat similar to those which produced the Great Ice Age are still operating in polar and subpolar climates.

  1. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 3. Origins

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-13

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. If the LHC is successful, it will explain the nature of the Universe around us in terms of a few simple ingredients and a few simple rules. But the Universe now was forged in a Big Bang where conditions were very different, and the rules were very different, and those early moments were crucial to determining how things turned out later. At the LHC they can recreate conditions as they were billionths of a second after the Big Bang, before atoms and nuclei existed. They can find out why matter and antimatter didn't mutually annihilate each other to leave behind a Universe of pure, brilliant light. And they can look into the very structure of space and time - the fabric of the Universe

  2. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 3. Origins

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. If the LHC is successful, it will explain the nature of the Universe around us in terms of a few simple ingredients and a few simple rules. But the Universe now was forged in a Big Bang where conditions were very different, and the rules were very different, and those early moments were crucial to determining how things turned out later. At the LHC they can recreate conditions as they were billionths of a second after the Big Bang, before atoms and nuclei existed. They can find out why matter and antimatter didn't mutually annihilate each other to leave behind a Universe of pure, brilliant light. And they can look into the very structure of space and time - the fabric of the Universe

  3. SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) with Telescope Configuration Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy) with Telescope Configuration Changes Artwork. Concepts: Based on 18 Years of Experience of Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) Operation, Characteristics, Operations and Science

  4. Using Virtual Observatories for Heliophysics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigel, Robert S.; Baker, Daniel N.; Roberts, D. Aaron; King, Todd

    2009-11-01

    Scientific satellites, balloons, ground-based instruments, and other observational platforms are producing rich streams of data about the Earth and space. Ensuring widespread access to such data has led to the development of a new type of observatory: the virtual observatory. Existing only in cyberspace, virtual observatories are Web-based interfaces that point users to online data repositories. More important, they allow users not only to access and view multiple sources of information at the same time but also to cross-compare data to build new insights.

  5. The U.S. National Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanisch, Robert

    The U.S. National Virtual Observatory project is a development effort aimed at implementing the framework for an eventual Virtual Observatory facility. Project activities include the development of metadata standards resource and service registries table and image access protocols interfaces to the computational grid and access to VO resources for education and public outreach. Select science prototypes are used to guide technical development and demonstrate the capabilities of the VO framework for enhancing research. The US NVO project works closely with international VO partners through the International Virtual Observatory Alliance. The US NVO project is funded by the National Science Foundation under Cooperative Agreement AST0122449 with The Johns Hopkins University.

  6. AURA and its US National Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmondson, Frank K.

    1997-04-01

    The subject of this history is the science and politics of the establishment, funding, construction and operation of two important American observatories, the Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) and the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). The book is written from the unique perspective of Frank K. Edmondson, a former member of the AURA board of directors. Drawing on oral histories, archival material, as well as the author's personal participation from 1956 to the present, this is a personal account of a period of major innovation in American optical astronomy. Will be of interest to historians and astronomers alike.

  7. Neutrino Astrophysics and the Origin of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desiati, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    The IceCube Observatory is the largest neutrino telescope currently collecting data. With its km ^{3} volume it is designed to detect high energy neutrinos of astrophysical origin. With the discovery of astrophysical neutrinos, in 2013, IceCube has opened the era of neutrino astronomy. The origin of the cosmic rays, however, is still a puzzle that will be solved only in a multi-messenger and multi-wavelength approach involving several experiments and observatories. In this presentation the recent results from the IceCube Observatory will be shown, along with the multi-messenger combined analyses and real time alert plans currently in operation.

  8. NASA Awards Chandra X-Ray Observatory Follow-On Contract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-08-01

    NASA has awarded a contract to the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass., to provide science and operational support for the Chandra X-ray Observatory, one of the world's most powerful tools to better understand the structure and evolution of the universe. The contract will have a period of performance from August 31, 2003, through July 31, 2010, with an estimated value of 373 million. It is a follow-on contract to the existing contract with Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory that has provided science and operations support to the Observatory since its launch in July 1999. At launch the intended mission life was five years. As a result of Chandra's success, NASA extended the mission from five to 10 years. The value of the original contract was 289 million. The follow-on contract with the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory will continue through the 10-year mission. The contract type is cost reimbursement with no fee. The contract covers mission operations and data analysis, which includes the observatory operations, science data processing and the general and guaranteed time observer (astronomer) support. The observatory operations tasks include monitoring the health and status of the observatory and developing and up linking the observation sequences during Chandra's communication coverage periods. The science data processing tasks include the competitive selection, planning, and coordination of science observations with the general observers and processing and delivery of the resulting scientific data. There are approximately 200 to 250 observing proposals selected annually out of about 800 submitted, with a total amount of observing time of about 20 million seconds. Chandra has exceeded expectations of scientists, giving them unique insight into phenomena light years away, such as exotic celestial objects, matter falling into black holes, and stellar explosions. X-ray astronomy can only be performed from space because Earth's atmosphere

  9. Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A better than average view of the Great Barrier Reef was captured by SeaWiFS on a recent overpass. There is sunglint northeast of the reef and there appears to be some sort of filamentous bloom in the Capricorn Channel.

  10. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  11. The Great Poetry Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Sharon M.

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that parent involvement improves academic achievement, but in the busy world in which we live it is often difficult to promote. Many researchers suggest that successful programs value parents' limited time constraints, diversity of literacy skills, and availability of materials. The Great Poetry Race provides an easy vehicle to…

  12. The Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  13. 1 Great Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethery, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

  14. The Great Mathematician Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Sabrina R.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Mathematician Project (GMP) introduces both mathematically sophisticated and struggling students to the history of mathematics. The rationale for the GMP is twofold: first, mathematics is a uniquely people-centered discipline that is used to make sense of the world; and second, students often express curiosity about the history of…

  15. What great managers do.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Marcus

    2005-03-01

    Much has been written about the qualities that make a great manager, but most of the literature overlooks a fundamental question: What does a great manager actually do? While there are countless management styles, one thing underpins the behavior of all great managers. Above all, an exceptional manager comes to know and value the particular quirks and abilities of her employees. She figures out how to capitalize on her staffers' strengths and tweaks her environment to meet her larger goals. Such a specialized approach may seem like a lot of work. But in fact, capitalizing on each person's uniqueness can save time. Rather than encourage employees to conform to strict job descriptions that may include tasks they don't enjoy and aren't good at, a manager who develops positions for his staff members based on their unique abilities will be rewarded with behaviors that are far more efficient and effective than they would be otherwise. This focus on individuals also makes employees more accountable. Because staffers are evaluated on their particular strengths and weaknesses, they are challenged to take responsibility for their abilities and to hone them. Capitalizing on a person's uniqueness also builds a stronger sense of team. By taking the time to understand what makes each employee tick, a great manager shows that he sees his people for who they are. This personal investment not only motivates individuals but also galvanizes the entire team. Finally, this approach shakes up existing hierarchies, which leads to more creative thinking. To take great managing from theory to practice, the author says, you must know three things about a person: her strengths, the triggers that activate those strengths, and how she learns. By asking the right questions, squeezing the right triggers, and becoming aware of your employees' learning styles, you will discover what motivates each person to excel. PMID:15768677

  16. Atmospheric aerosols from Mauna Loa Observatory, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Zoller, W.H.; Holmes, J.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have been collected for chemical analysis at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii since 1979. The samples were collected in two wind quadrants, a clean [open quotes]down-slope[close quotes] quadrant and a more contaminated [open quotes]up-slope[close quotes] quadrant. Some of the findings of this work have been the identification of Asian dust traveling to the Hawaiian Islands every spring of the year, and this dust dominates the yearly record because it is very intense and contains predominantly crustal dust along with pollutants from the Asian mainland, such as coal combustion in China. Additional interpretation of the data set of weekly samples has shown the presence of pollutants from both North and South America as well as different areas of Asia that are transported by wind systems to the central Pacific Ocean. By subtracting these episodic transport events, one can look at the oceanic background aerosols that are originating from the ocean and look at the occurrence of the natural aerosol generating systems in the oceanic region that are related to climatic change. One of the important groups of elements are the sulfur and halogen families and the naturally occurring volatile elements (selenium, arsenic, antimony, etc.) that are produced by biogenic activity in the world's oceans and affect the chemistry of the atmosphere, particularly clouds in remote marine areas. Investigations such as this work allow one to evaluate the importance of natural versus anthropogenic sources of the volatile elements to the atmosphere, allowing us to have a much better understanding of man's impact on climate. The nuclear analytical techniques are particularly well suited to this type of sample because it consists of aerosols deposited on a clean Teflon or cellulose substrate, which normally offers very little interference with the analysis.

  17. The Extreme Universe Space Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Jim; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This talk will describe the Extreme Universe Space Observatory (EUSO) mission. EUSO is an ESA mission to explore the most powerful energy sources in the universe. The mission objectives of EUSO are to investigate EECRs, those with energies above 3x10(exp 19) eV, and very high-energy cosmic neutrinos. These objectives are directly related to extreme conditions in the physical world and possibly involve the early history of the big bang and the framework of GUTs. EUSO tackles the basic problem posed by the existence of these extreme-energy events. The solution could have a unique impact on fundamental physics, cosmology, and/or astrophysics. At these energies, magnetic deflection is thought to be so small that the EECR component would serve as the particle channel for astronomy. EUSO will make the first measurements of EAS from space by observing atmospheric fluorescence in the Earth's night sky. With measurements of the airshower track, EUSO will determine the energy and arrival direction of these extreme-energy events. EUSO will make high statistics observations of CRs beyond the predicted GZK cutoff energy and widen the channel for high-energy neutrino astronomy. The energy spectra, arrival directions, and shower profiles will be analyzed to distinguish the nature of these events and search for their sources. With EUSO data, we will have the possibility to discover a local EECR source, test Z-burst scenarios and other theories, and look for evidence of the breakdown of the relativity principle at extreme Lorentz factors.

  18. Virtual Observatory Services at WFAU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holliman, M.; Read, M.; Hambly, N.; Mann, R. G.

    2010-12-01

    The Wide Field Astronomy Unit hosts a large number of Virtual Observatory (VO) services that enable access to both data and processing applications housed on our servers in Edinburgh. These services provide astronomers with a powerful set of tools for obtaining and processing data in ways unattainable through conventional access methods. The services offered include cone search and ADQL access to a number of major databases developed by our data centre such as UKIDSS, SuperCOSMOS Science Archive, and the 6dF Galaxy Survey, and also many mirrors of important databases developed elsewhere, such as SDSS, IRAS, and 2XMM. Images for UKIDSS and SuperCOSMOS are accessible through SIA services. There are useful data processing tools like the STILTS library for table manipulation, a data mining tool for classification using kernel density analysis, and a service for converting VOTables into KML for use in Google Sky. Also hosted are a number of VO infrastructure services like a full registry and VOSpace that enable users to find resources and store data in an online accessible location. WFAU provides secured VO services to the proprietary UKIDSS releases, which are the first secured VO services for a major proprietary data resource in the entire VO. With a limited knowledge of python and a copy of the VODesktop software astronomers can script up workflows that utilize these services to perform complex operations like cross matching between disparate datasets or extracting catalogues from images remotely. Since many of our databases are too large to be downloaded and accessed locally these services make it possible to accomplish complicated tasks online and on dedicated hardware. WFAU’s list of VO services will continue to grow as new IVOA standards are implemented and with the addition of new datasets like the VISTA surveys.

  19. Exploring the Digital Universe with Europe's Astrophysical Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    digitally reconstructed in the databanks! The richness and complexity of data and information available to the astronomers is overwhelming. This has created a major problem as to how astronomers can manage, distribute and analyse this great wealth of data . The Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (AVO) will allow astronomers to overcome the challenges and enable them to "put the Universe online". AVO is supported by the European Commission The AVO is a three-year project, funded by the European Commission under its Research and Technological Development (RTD) scheme, to design and implement a virtual observatory for the European astronomical community. The European Commission awarded a contract valued at 4 million Euro for the AVO project , starting 15 November 2001. AVO will provide software tools to enable astronomers to access the multi-wavelength data archives over the Internet and so give them the capability to resolve fundamental questions about the Universe by probing the digital sky. Equivalent searches of the 'real' sky would, in comparison, be both costly and take far too long. Towards a Global Virtual Observatory The need for virtual observatories has also been recognised by other astronomical communities. The National Science Foundation in the USA has awarded 10 million Dollar (approx. 11.4 million Euro) for a National Virtual Observatory (NVO). The AVO project team has formed a close alliance with the NVO and both teams have representatives on their respective committees. It is clear to the NVO and AVO communities that there are no intrinsic boundaries to the virtual observatory concept and that all astronomers should be working towards a truly global virtual observatory that will enable new science to be carried out on the wealth of astronomical data held in the growing number of first class international astronomical archives. The AVO involves six partner organisations led by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in Munich (Germany). The other partner

  20. Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    CTIO is operated by the ASSOCIATION OF UNIVERSITIES FOR RESEARCH IN ASTRONOMY Inc. (AURA), under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation as part of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories....

  1. In Brief: Deep-sea observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-11-01

    The first deep-sea ocean observatory offshore of the continental United States has begun operating in the waters off central California. The remotely operated Monterey Accelerated Research System (MARS) will allow scientists to monitor the deep sea continuously. Among the first devices to be hooked up to the observatory are instruments to monitor earthquakes, videotape deep-sea animals, and study the effects of acidification on seafloor animals. ``Some day we may look back at the first packets of data streaming in from the MARS observatory as the equivalent of those first words spoken by Alexander Graham Bell: `Watson, come here, I need you!','' commented Marcia McNutt, president and CEO of the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, which coordinated construction of the observatory. For more information, see http://www.mbari.org/news/news_releases/2008/mars-live/mars-live.html.

  2. Resource Information Management in Chinese Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chang-Hua; Cui, Chen-Zhou; Li, Lian; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2008-06-01

    Information technology has been affecting on all fields of traditional scientific research deeply. Virtual Observatory is a typical example of combination of the latest information technologies with astronomy. Taking advantages of advanced information technologies, for example, Grid technology, it aims to achieve the seamless and global access to astronomical information and maximum scientific output of huge modern astronomic datasets. In the process of design and implementation of resource information system for Chinese Virtual Observatory, the authors adopt Open Grid Service Architecture (OGSA) as its infrastructure, and all resources are managed in the system as services. Resource management, especially resource registry and discovery is a key consideration for both Grid and Virtual Observatory, which affects directly on the performance of the whole system. Based on OGSA and one of its implementations, GT3, this paper describes the design and implementation of resource information management system in Chinese Virtual Observatory.

  3. Astronomical research at the Hopkins PHOENIX Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, J. L.

    1985-09-01

    After trying astrophotography and radio astronomy it was decided that the best way to do meaningful astronomical research at a small private observatory was by doing photoelectric photometry. Having the observatory located in the back yard of a private residence affors the luxury of observing any time the sky conditions permit. Also modest equipment is all that is needed to do accurate UBV photometry of stars 8th magnitude and brighter. Since beginning in 1980 the Hopkins Phoenix Observatory has published papers on several RS CVn star systems, 31 Cygni, 22 Vul, 18 Tau Per, and has followed the 1982-1984 eclipse of Epsilon Aurigae from its start to the present with over 1000 UBV measurements. In addition the Hopkins Phoenix Observatory has developed several pieces of photometry equipment including the HPO PEPH-101 photometer head and photon counting electronics.

  4. Asteroid Lightcurves from the Preston Gott Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Maurice

    2012-04-01

    Results of analysis of CCD photometry observations obtained at the Preston Gott Observatory of asteroids 970 Primula, 3015 Candy, 3751 Kiang, 6746 Zagar, 7750 McEwen, 10046 Creighton, and 19251 Totziens are presented.

  5. The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith. M. W. E.; Fox, D. B.; Cowen, D. F.; Meszaros, P.; Tesic, G.; Fixelle, J.; Bartos, I.; Sommers, P.; Ashtekar, Abhay; Babu, G. Jogesh; Barthelmy, S. D.; Coutu, S.; DeYoung, T.; Falcone, A. D.; Gao, Shan; Hashemi, B.; Homeier, A.; Marka, S.; Owen, B. J.; Taboada, I.

    2013-01-01

    We summarize the science opportunity, design elements, current and projected partner observatories, and anticipated science returns of the Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON). AMON will link multiple current and future high-energy, multimessenger, and follow-up observatories together into a single network, enabling near real-time coincidence searches for multimessenger astrophysical transients and their electromagnetic counterparts. Candidate and high-confidence multimessenger transient events will be identified, characterized, and distributed as AMON alerts within the network and to interested external observers, leading to follow-up observations across the electromagnetic spectrum. In this way, AMON aims to evoke the discovery of multimessenger transients from within observatory subthreshold data streams and facilitate the exploitation of these transients for purposes of astronomy and fundamental physics. As a central hub of global multimessenger science, AMON will also enable cross-collaboration analyses of archival datasets in search of rare or exotic astrophysical phenomena.

  6. SOFIA Observatory Conducts Night Checkout Flight

    NASA Video Gallery

    This spectacular video captures NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy as it flew a nighttime checkout flight over northern and central California the first week of March 2013. The...

  7. Renewable Energy for the Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weilenmann, U.

    2012-06-01

    The operation of observatories at remote sites presents significant demands for electrical energy. The use of renewable energy may become the solution to cope with the ever-rising prices for electrical energy produced from fossil fuels. There is not only a purely commercial aspect, but also the carbon footprint of observatory activities has to be considered. As a first step on the way to a "greener" Paranal Observatory, we propose the installation of a solar cooling system for the cooling of the telescope enclosures, using the abundant insolation that is freely available in the north of Chile. Further into the future, feasible options for photovoltaic and wind energy could supply the needs of the Paranal Observatory in a sustainable manner.

  8. Margaret Huggins and Tulse Hill Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Barbara J.

    2016-04-01

    Photography, instrument design, methodology, interpretation - all skills brought to William Huggins' observatory by his persistent and careful wife Margaret. Together they developed spectroscopy into a powerful research tool. Barbara Becker tells the story.

  9. Observing at Kitt Peak National Observatory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Martin

    1981-01-01

    Presents an abridged version of a chapter from the author's book "In Quest of Telescopes." Includes personal experiences at Kitt Peak National Observatory, and comments on telescopes, photographs, and making observations. (SK)

  10. Ten years of the Spanish Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, E.

    2015-05-01

    The main objective of the Virtual Observatory (VO) is to guarantee an easy and efficient access and analysis of the information hosted in astronomical archives. The Spanish Virtual Observatory (SVO) is a project that was born in 2004 with the goal of promoting and coordinating the VO-related activities at national level. SVO is also the national contact point for the international VO initiatives, in particular the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA) and the Euro-VO project. The project, led by Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), is structured around four major topics: a) VO compliance of astronomical archives, b) VO-science, c) VO- and data mining-tools, and d) Education and outreach. In this paper I will describe the most important results obtained by the Spanish Virtual Observatory in its first ten years of life as well as the future lines of work.

  11. Arapahos on the Great Plains. Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoonhunter, Bob; Woodenlegs, Martha

    The student workbook is derived from "An Ethnological Report on Cheyenne and Arapaho: Aboriginal Occupation," by Zachary Gussow and "Northern Snows to Southern Summers--An Arapaho Odyssey," by Bob Spoonhunter. The first section discusses the Arapaho origins by recounting many different legends that explain how they arrived on the Great Plains. The…

  12. The Chandra X-ray Observatory: An Astronomical Facility Available to the World

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Randall K.

    2006-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray observatory, one of NASA's "Great Observatories," provides high angular and spectral resolution X-ray data which is freely available to all. In this review I describe the instruments on chandra along with their current calibration, as well as the chandra proposal system, the freely-available Chandra analysis software package CIAO, and the Chandra archive. As Chandra is in its 6th year of operation, the archive already contains calibrated observations of a large range of X-ray sources. The Chandra X-ray Center is committed to assisting astronomers from any country who wish to use data from the archive or propose for observations

  13. A Green Robotic Observatory for Astronomy Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Archer, K.

    2008-09-01

    With the development of robotic telescopes and stable remote observing software, it is currently possible for a small institution to have an affordable astronomical facility for astronomy education. However, a faculty member has to deal with the light pollution (observatory location on campus), its nightly operations and regular maintenance apart from his day time teaching and research responsibilities. While building an observatory at a remote location is a solution, the cost of constructing and operating such a facility, not to mention the environmental impact, are beyond the reach of most institutions. In an effort to resolve these issues we have developed a robotic remote observatory that can be operated via the internet from anywhere in the world, has a zero operating carbon footprint and minimum impact on the local environment. The prototype observatory is a clam-shell design that houses an 8-inch telescope with a SBIG ST-10 CCD detector. The brain of the observatory is a low draw 12-volt harsh duty computer that runs the dome, telescope, CCD camera, focuser, and weather monitoring. All equipment runs of a 12-volt AGM-style battery that has low lead content and hence more environmental-friendly to dispose. The total power of 12-14 amp/hrs is generated from a set of solar panels that are large enough to maintain a full battery charge for several cloudy days. This completely eliminates the need for a local power grid for operations. Internet access is accomplished via a high-speed cell phone broadband connection or satellite link eliminating the need for a phone network. An independent observatory monitoring system interfaces with the observatory computer during operation. The observatory converts to a trailer for transportation to the site and is converted to a semi-permanent building without wheels and towing equipment. This ensures minimal disturbance to local environment.

  14. Early German Plans for a Southern Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century the Heidelberg astronomer Max Wolf (1863-1932) proposed a southern observatory. In 1907 Hermann Carl Vogel (1841-1907), director of the Astrophysical Observatory Potsdam, suggested a southern station in Spain. His ideas for building an observatory in Windhuk for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant were taken over by the Göttingen astronomers. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after having visited the observatories in America, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, where it would have better weather than in Germany and also give access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhuk to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963, as is well described by Blaauw (1991). Blaauw, Adriaan: ESO's Early History. The European Southern Observatory from Concept to Reality. Garching bei München: ESO 1991.

  15. Callable Virtual Observatory Functionality: Sample Use Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurman, Joseph B.

    2007-01-01

    A virtual observatory with an Application Programming Interface (API) can become a powerful tool in analysis and modeling. In particular, an API that integrates time selection on such criteria as "most recent" and closest to a given absolute time simplifies the user-end programming considerably. We examine three types of use cases (nowcasting, data assimilation input, and user-defined sampling rates) for such functionality in the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO).

  16. The Near-Infrared Chromosphere Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, David M.; Bernasconi, Pietro N.; Labonte, Barry J.; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Fox, Nicola J.; Kalkofen, Wolfgang; Lin, Haoseng

    2002-10-01

    The Near-Infrared Chromosphere Observatory (NICO) is a proposed balloon-borne observatory aiming to investigate the magnetic structure and the sources of heating in the solar chromosphere. NICO will be based on the successful Flare Genesis Experiment (FGE), a pioneer in applying novel technologies for the study of the Sun. NICO will map magnetic fields, velocity fields, and heating events in the chromosphere with unprecedented quality.

  17. SOFIA: Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, E. F.; Davidson, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    SOFIA, (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) is a planned 2.5 meter telescope to be installed in a Boeing 747 aircraft and operated at altitudes from 41,000 to 46,000 feet. It will permit routine measurement of infrared radiation inaccessible from the ground-based sites, and observation of astronomical objects and transient events from anywhere in the world. The concept is based on 18 years of experience with NASA's Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), which SOFIA would replace.

  18. G. V. Schiaparelli and the Arcetri Observatory .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, S.; Galli, D.; Gasperini, A.

    In Autumn 1873, Schiaparelli was offered the directorship of the Arcetri Observatory in Florence, vacant because of the death of G. B. Donati. Schiaparelli accepted the position, intrigued by the possibility of working in an newly built institute of modern concept, hosting the largest refractor available in Italy. However, at the beginning of 1874 he withdrew his acceptance, due to family affairs. Nevertheless, he committed to follow the development of the Observatory, giving his advice at least until 1878.

  19. Early German plans for southern observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, G.

    2002-07-01

    As early as the 18th and 19th centuries, French and English observers were active in South Africa. Around the beginning of the 20th century, Heidelberg and Potsdam astronomers proposed a southern observatory. Then Göttingen astronomers suggested building an observatory in Windhoek for photographing the sky and measuring the solar constant. In 1910 Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916), after a visit to observatories in the United States, pointed out the usefulness of an observatory in South West Africa, in a climate superior to that in Germany, giving German astronomers access to the southern sky. Seeing tests were begun in 1910 by Potsdam astronomers, but WW I stopped the plans. In 1928 Erwin Finlay-Freundlich (1885-1964), inspired by the Hamburg astronomer Walter Baade (1893-1960), worked out a detailed plan for a southern observatory with a reflecting telescope, spectrographs and an astrograph with an objective prism. Paul Guthnick (1879-1947), director of the Berlin observatory, in cooperation with APO Potsdam and Hamburg, made a site survey to Africa in 1929 and found the conditions in Windhoek to be ideal. Observations were started in the 1930s by Berlin and Breslau astronomers, but were stopped by WW II. In the 1950s, astronomers from Hamburg and The Netherlands renewed the discussion in the framework of European cooperation, and this led to the founding of ESO in 1963.

  20. Telescopes in Education: the Little Thompson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, A. E.; Melsheimer, T. T.

    2002-12-01

    The Little Thompson Observatory is the first community-built observatory that is part of a high school and accessible to other schools remotely, via the Internet. This observatory is the second member of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project. Construction of the building was done completely by volunteer labor, and first light occurred in May 1999. The observatory is located on the grounds of Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. We are grateful to have received an IDEAS grant to provide teacher training workshops for K-12 schools to make use of the observatory, including remote observing from classrooms. Students connect to the observatory over the Internet, and then receive the images back on their local computers. A committee of teachers and administrators from the Thompson School District have selected these workshops to count towards Incentive Credits (movement on the salary schedule) because the course meets the criteria: "Learning must be directly transferable to the classroom with students and relate to standards, assessment and/or technology." In addition, this past summer our program became an accredited course by Colorado State University. Our next project is to partner with the Discovery Center Science Museum and Colorado State University to provide additional teacher education programs. Our training materials have also been shared with TIE/Mt. Wilson, NASA Goddard and Howard University, which are working together to develop a similar teacher education program.

  1. Telescopes in Education: the Little Thompson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, A. E.; Melsheimer, T. T.; Sackett, C.

    2001-12-01

    The Little Thompson Observatory is believed to be the first observatory built as part of a high school and accessible to other schools remotely, via the Internet. This observatory is the second member of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project. Construction of the building was done completely by volunteer labor, and first light occurred in May 1999. The observatory is located on the grounds of Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. We are grateful to have received an IDEAS grant to provide teacher training workshops for K-12 schools in Colorado to make use of the observatory, including remote observing from classrooms. Students connect to the observatory over the Internet, and then receive the images back on their local computers. We are honored that a committee of teachers and administrators from the Thompson School district have selected these workshops to count towards Incentive Credits (movement on the salary schedule) because the course meets the criteria: "Learning must be directly transferable to the classroom with students and relate to standards, assessment and/or technology." Also in the past year, our training materials have been shared with NASA Goddard and Howard University, which are working together to develop a similar teacher education program.

  2. Telescopes in Education: the Little Thompson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, A. E.; Melsheimer, T. T.

    2003-05-01

    The Little Thompson Observatory is the first community-built observatory that is part of a high school and accessible to other schools remotely, via the Internet. This observatory is the second member of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project. Construction of the building was done completely by volunteer labor, and first light occurred in May 1999. The observatory is located on the grounds of Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. We are grateful to have received an IDEAS grant to provide teacher training workshops for K-12 schools to make use of the observatory, including remote observing from classrooms. Students connect to the observatory over the Internet, and then receive the images back on their local computers. A committee of teachers and administrators from the Thompson School District have selected these workshops to count towards Incentive Credits (movement on the salary schedule) because the course meets the criteria: "Learning must be directly transferable to the classroom with students and relate to standards, assessment and/or technology." In addition, this past summer our program became an accredited course by Colorado State University. Our next project is to partner with the Discovery Center Science Museum and Colorado State University to provide additional teacher education programs. Our training materials have also been shared with TIE/Mt. Wilson, NASA Goddard and Howard University, which are working together to develop a similar teacher education program.

  3. Telescopes in Education: the Little Thompson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, A. E.; Melsheimer, T. T.

    2003-12-01

    The Little Thompson Observatory is the first community-built observatory that is part of a high school and accessible to other schools remotely, via the Internet. This observatory is the second member of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project. Construction of the building was done completely by volunteer labor, and first light occurred in May 1999. The observatory is located on the grounds of Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. We are grateful to have received an IDEAS grant to provide teacher training workshops for K-12 schools to make use of the observatory, including remote observing from classrooms. Students connect to the observatory over the Internet, and then receive the images back on their local computers. A committee of teachers and administrators from the Thompson School District selected these workshops to count towards Incentive Credits (movement on the salary schedule) because the course meets the criteria: "Learning must be directly transferable to the classroom with students and relate to standards, assessment and/or technology." Our program is also accredited by Colorado State University.

  4. Observatories of Sawai Jai Singh II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson-Roehr, Susan N.

    Sawai Jai Singh II, Maharaja of Amber and Jaipur, constructed five observatories in the second quarter of the eighteenth century in the north Indian cities of Shahjahanabad (Delhi), Jaipur, Ujjain, Mathura, and Varanasi. Believing the accuracy of his naked-eye observations would improve with larger, more stable instruments, Jai Singh reengineered common brass instruments using stone construction methods. His applied ingenuity led to the invention of several outsize masonry instruments, the majority of which were used to determine the coordinates of celestial objects with reference to the local horizon. During Jai Singh's lifetime, the observatories were used to make observations in order to update existing ephemerides such as the Zīj-i Ulugh Begī. Jai Singh established communications with European astronomers through a number of Jesuits living and working in India. In addition to dispatching ambassadorial parties to Portugal, he invited French and Bavarian Jesuits to visit and make use of the observatories in Shahjahanabad and Jaipur. The observatories were abandoned after Jai Singh's death in 1743 CE. The Mathura observatory was disassembled completely before 1857. The instruments at the remaining observatories were restored extensively during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

  5. The Origin(s) of Whales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhen, Mark D.

    2010-05-01

    Whales are first found in the fossil record approximately 52.5 million years ago (Mya) during the early Eocene in Indo-Pakistan. Our knowledge of early and middle Eocene whales has increased dramatically during the past three decades to the point where hypotheses of whale origins can be supported with a great deal of evidence from paleontology, anatomy, stratigraphy, and molecular biology. Fossils also provide preserved evidence of behavior and habitats, allowing the reconstruction of the modes of life of these semiaquatic animals during their transition from land to sea. Modern whales originated from ancient whales at or near the Eocene/Oligocene boundary, approximately 33.7 Mya. During the Oligocene, ancient whales coexisted with early baleen whales and early toothed whales. By the end of the Miocene, most modern families had originated, and most archaic forms had gone extinct. Whale diversity peaked in the late middle Miocene and fell thereafter toward the Recent, yielding our depauperate modern whale fauna.

  6. "Route of astronomical observatories'' project: classical observatories from the Renaissance to the rise of astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    2015-08-01

    Observatories offer a good possibility for serial transnational applications. A well-known example for a thematic programme is the Struve arc, already recognized as World Heritage.I will discuss what has been achieved and show examples, like the route of astronomical observatories or the transition from classical astronomy to modern astrophysics (La Plata, Hamburg, Nice, etc.), visible in the architecture, the choice of instruments, and the arrangement of the observatory buildings in an astronomy park. This corresponds to the main categories according to which the ``outstanding universal value'' (UNESCO criteria ii, iv and vi) of the observatories have been evaluated: historic, scientific, and aesthetic. This proposal is based on the criteria of a comparability of the observatories in terms of the urbanistic complex and the architecture, the scientific orientation, equipment of instruments, authenticity and integrity of the preserved state, as well as in terms of historic scientific relations and scientific contributions.Apart from these serial transnational applications one can also choose other groups like baroque or neo-classical observatories, solar physics observatories or a group of observatories equipped with the same kind of instruments and made by the same famous firm. I will also discuss why the implementation of the Astronomy and World Heritage Initiative is difficult and why there are problems to nominate observatories for election in the national Tentative Lists

  7. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, "September of My Years;" "Early Bird," the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  8. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, “September of My Years” “Early Bird,” the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  9. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J. Iwan

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  10. The great intimidators.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Roderick M

    2006-02-01

    After Disney's Michael Eisner, Miramax's Harvey Weinstein, and Hewlett-Packard's Carly Fiorina fell from their heights of power, the business media quickly proclaimed thatthe reign of abrasive, intimidating leaders was over. However, it's premature to proclaim their extinction. Many great intimidators have done fine for a long time and continue to thrive. Their modus operandi runs counter to a lot of preconceptions about what it takes to be a good leader. They're rough, loud, and in your face. Their tactics include invading others' personal space, staging tantrums, keeping people guessing, and possessing an indisputable command of facts. But make no mistake--great intimidators are not your typical bullies. They're driven by vision, not by sheer ego or malice. Beneath their tough exteriors and sharp edges are some genuine, deep insights into human motivation and organizational behavior. Indeed, these leaders possess political intelligence, which can make the difference between paralysis and successful--if sometimes wrenching--organizational change. Like socially intelligent leaders, politically intelligent leaders are adept at sizing up others, but they notice different things. Those with social intelligence assess people's strengths and figure out how to leverage them; those with political intelligence exploit people's weaknesses and insecurities. Despite all the obvious drawbacks of working under them, great intimidators often attract the best and brightest. And their appeal goes beyond their ability to inspire high performance. Many accomplished professionals who gravitate toward these leaders want to cultivate a little "inner intimidator" of their own. In the author's research, quite a few individuals reported having positive relationships with intimidating leaders. In fact, some described these relationships as profoundly educational and even transformational. So before we throw out all the great intimidators, the author argues, we should stop to consider what

  11. Great Basin Paleontological Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Zhang, Ning; Hofstra, Albert H.; Morrow, Jared R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This work was conceived as a derivative product for 'The Metallogeny of the Great Basin' project of the Mineral Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the course of preparing a fossil database for the Great Basin that could be accessed from the Internet, it was determined that a comprehensive paleontological bibliography must first be compiled, something that had not previously been done. This bibliography includes published papers and abstracts as well as unpublished theses and dissertations on fossils and stratigraphy in Nevada and adjoining portions of California and Utah. This bibliography is broken into first-order headings by geologic age, secondary headings by taxonomic group, followed by ancillary topics of interest to both paleontologists and stratigraphers; paleoecology, stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, paleogeography, tectonics, and petroleum potential. References were derived from usage of Georef, consultation with numerous paleontologists and geologists working in the Great Basin, and literature currently on hand with the authors. As this is a Web-accessible bibliography, we hope to periodically update it with new citations or older references that we have missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the readers think should be added. As a final note, we gratefully acknowledge the helpful reviews provided by A. Elizabeth J. Crafford (Anchorage, Alaska) and William R. Page (USGS, Denver, Colorado).

  12. The Newest Hot Jupiter Archetype Through the Eyes of NASA's Great Observatories, Part 2 of 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Kevin; Bean, Jacob; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan; Line, Michael; Kreidberg, Laura; Showman, Adam; Kataria, Tiffany

    2014-12-01

    Until recently, WASP-43b was an unfamiliar name within a sea of confirmed transiting exoplanets. However, it is now one of the most intensely scrutinized exoplanets to date, joining the ranks of exoplanet archetypes HD 209458b and HD 189733b. In an in-depth investigation into this hot Jupiter's atmospheric composition and circulation, we dedicated 61 HST orbits to obtain a spectroscopic phase curve (the first of its kind with any telescope) from 1.1 to 1.7 microns. With the recent publication of our findings in Science and ApJL, WASP-43b is becoming the subject of numerous theoretical and observational follow-up investigations. Last cycle, we were awarded 26 hours of DDT to observe the transmission, dayside emission, and phase-resolved emission of WASP-43b at 4.5 microns. Here we propose to complete our IR spectrum by repeating our high-precision measurement at 3.6 microns. Data from just one Spitzer channel does not allow for a direct comparison with other Spitzer phase-curve targets and is insufficient to achieve our goals. This is because it is the flux variation between the two Spitzer channels (in conjunction with the HST data) that will enable us to determine the oxygen and carbon abundances in the planet's atmosphere, measure the variation of hot spot offset as a function of altitude, and resolve competing hypotheses on the large day-night WFC3 flux variations. This final point is particularly important because, up until now, Spitzer has been our only window into these planets' day-night contrasts and HST is telling us a different story. With exoplanet phase curves sure to be one of the main enduring Spitzer legacies, we must connect what we have learned from Spitzer to current and future HST data so that we can properly interpret these important measurements of benchmark exoplanets. This will allow us to connect all phase-curve measurements under one theory and predict future spectroscopic results with JWST.

  13. The Newest Hot Jupiter Archetype Through the Eyes of NASAs Great Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Kevin; Bean, Jacob; Desert, Jean-Michel; Fortney, Jonathan; Showman, Adam

    2014-07-01

    Today, WASP-43b is an unfamiliar name within a pool of hundreds of confirmed transiting exoplanets. However, WASP-43b is on the verge of becoming one of the most intensely scrutinized exoplanets to date, joining the ranks of the exoplanet archetypes HD 209458b and HD 189733b. As part of a focused and in-depth investigation into this hot Jupiter's atmospheric composition and circulation, we dedicated 61 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) orbits to obtain a spectroscopic phase curve (the first of its kind with any telescope) between 1.1 and 1.7 microns. With two papers presenting our findings now on the verge of being accepted, WASP-43b will quickly become a rising star as it will be the subject of numerous theoretical and observational follow-up investigations. In this proposal, we aim to expand our investigation of WASP-43b to new pressure and temperature regions using the Spitzer Space Telescope. We propose an intensive program to sample the transmission, dayside emission, and phase-resolved emission spectra of WASP-43b in both the 3.6 and 4.5 micron channels at high precision. The Spitzer data will enable us to determine the oxygen and carbon abundances in the planet's atmosphere, search for the first signature of varying chemical composition as a function of longitude on a planet, measure the variation of hot spot offset as a function of altitude, and resolve competing hypotheses on the large day-night WFC3 flux variations. This final point is particularly important because, up until now, Spitzer has been our only window into these planets' day-night contrasts and HST is telling us a different story. With exoplanet phase curves sure to be one of the main enduring Spitzer legacies, we must connect what we have learned from Spitz er to current and future HST data so that, prior to its deactivation, we may learn if Spitzer has been telling us ``the truth'' for all of these years. Only the channel 2 observations were approved in this DDT.

  14. Exploring the Frontier of Exoplanet Atmosphere Dynamics with NASA's Great Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreidberg, Laura; Bean, Jacob; Stevenson, Kevin; Showman, Adam; Fortney, Jonathan; Line, Michael; Desert, Jean-Michel

    2014-12-01

    We propose a joint Spitzer+HST program to explore the frontier of exoplanet atmosphere dynamics. We will pursue a multi-wavelength approach to create detailed maps of the thermal structure of two of the best target hot Jupiters. First, we will perform secondary eclipse mapping for WASP-18b with Spitzer at 4.5 microns to complement existing Spitzer+HST phase curve observations. The combination of these data will yield the first ever map of an exoplanet's thermal structure as a function of latitude, longitude, and altitude, and provide a benchmark for 3D atmospheric circulation models of highly irradiated planets. Second, we will use a new technique pioneered by our team to observe full-orbit phase curves for WASP-103b with Spitzer and HST/WFC3. These observations will reveal the planet's phase-resolved emission spectrum and determine the global temperature-pressure profile and atmospheric composition, as well as its heat redistribution and Bond albedo. This program will significantly expand the sample of thoroughly characterized exoplanets and enable comparative planetology beyond the Solar System. Spitzer and HST are the facilities that have made the strongest contributions to our understanding of exoplanet atmospheres thus far, and we are now in a position to combine their powers in a strategic way to yield unprecedentedly detailed characterization of hot Jupiter atmospheric dynamics. This program will set the stage for even more precise investigations that will be possible with JWST.

  15. The Beginnings of the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Nagyszombat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartha, L.

    The beginnings of astronomical education and research in Nagyszombat can be traced back to the 17th century. In the middle of the 18th century, astronomical research received a new impetus with the founding of a dedicated astronomical observatory. While the university and its main observatory were moved to the capital Buda in 1777, observations continued in the old observing station at Nagyszombat until 1785. The first director of the observatory, Franciscus X. Weiss (1717--1785) and his assistants (J.N. Sajnovics, F. v. P. Triesnecker. F. X. Bruna and F. Taucher) made a great number of astrometric measurements, i.e. observations of eclipses, the determination of positions of the Moon and planets rep. to bright stars, the last contact of the transit ov Venus (1761) and from the events of Jovian satellites.

  16. Designing Hydrologic Observatories as a Community Resource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, R. P.; Duncan, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    CUAHSI convened a workshop in August 2004 to explore what makes a successful hydrologic observatory. Because of their high cost, only a small number of observatories will be operated, at least initially. (CUAHSI has recommended a pilot network of 5 observatories to develop operational experience and an eventual network of approximately 15 sites.) Because hydrologic scientists can work "in their backyard" (unlike oceanographers or astronomers), hydrologic observatories must offer significant advantages over current methods of field work to successfully attract researchers. Twenty-four teams of scientists submitted "prospectuses" of potential locations for hydrologic observatories for consideration by network attendees. These documents (available at http://www.cuahsi.org) were marketing documents to the workshop participants, who voted for a hypothetical network of 5 observatories from the 24 proposed sites. This network formed the basis for a day of discussions on necessary attributes of core data and how to form a network of observatories from a collection of sites that are designed and implemented individually. Key findings included: 1) Core data must be balanced among disciplines. Although the hydrologic cycle is an organizing principle for the design of HOs, physical data cannot dominate the core data; chemical and biological data, although more expensive to collect, must be given equal footing. 2) New data collection must strategically leverage existing data. Resources are always limited, so that a successful HO must carefully target gaps in existing data, as determined by an explicitly stated conceptual model, and fill them rather than designing an independent study. 3) Site logistics must support remote researchers. Significant resources will be necessary for on-site staff to handle housing, transportation, permitting and other needs. 4) Network-level hypotheses are required early in the implementation of HOs. A network will only emerge around hypotheses

  17. The Little Thompson Observatory's Astronomy Education Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, Andrea E.

    2008-05-01

    The Little Thompson Observatory is a community-built E/PO observatory and is a member of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project. The observatory is located on the grounds of Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. Annually we have approximately 5,000 visitors, which is roughly equal to the population of the small town of Berthoud, CO. In spring 2008, we offered a special training session to boost participation in the GLOBE at Night international observing program. During 2005-2007 we used the funding from our NASA ROSS E/PO grant to expand our teacher workshop programs, and included the baseball-sized meteorite that landed in Berthoud four years ago. Our teacher programs are ongoing, and include scientists from the Southwest Research Institute and from Fiske Planetarium at CU-Boulder. We thank the NASA ROSS E/PO program for providing this funding! Statewide, we are a founding member of Colorado Project ASTRO-GEO, and the observatory offers high-school astronomy courses to students from the surrounding school districts. We continue to support the development and construction of three new educational observatories in Colorado, located in Estes Park, Keystone and Gunnison. The LTO is grateful to have received the retired 24-inch telescope from Mount Wilson Observatory as part of the TIE program. To provide a new home for this historic telescope, we have doubled the size of the observatory and are building a second dome (almost all construction done with volunteer labor). During 2008 we will be building a custom pier and refurbishing the telescope.

  18. Meaningful metrics for observatory publication statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rots, Arnold H.; Winkelman, Sherry L.; Becker, Glenn E.

    2012-09-01

    Observatories have wrestled for decades with the questions how to measure their importance to the astronomical community, what their scientific impact is, and how their performance in that respect compares to that of other observatories. There is a general sense that the answer is to be found in the publication record - specifically, in the refereed journal articles. However, simple parameters (such as the number of papers) are not helpful, because in isolation (applied to a single observatory) they are meaningless, while in comparison between observatories they are subject to external influences that all but invalidate the comparisons. We were fortunate in having the Chandra X-ray Observatory's bibliographic database with its rich variety of metadata available as a resource for experimenting with more sophisticated metrics. Out of this project we propose a modest set that contains meaningful information when viewed in the isolation of a single observatory as well as in comparison with other observatories. Even so, we urge users not to draw conclusions on the basis of the face value of the comparisons, but only after a serious analysis of potential causes for any differences or similarities. We have designed our metrics to provide useful information in three main areas of interest: speed of publication; fraction of observing time published; and archival usage. The basic measured parameters are the percentage of available observing time published as a function of the data's age, at a few specific age values; the median time it takes to publish observations; and similar parameters for multiple publications of the same observations. Citation of results is a fourth category, but it does not lend itself well to comparisons and defies the search for definite statements.

  19. The Fram Strait integrated ocean observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahrbach, E.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Rettig, S.; Rohardt, G.; Sagen, H.; Sandven, S.; Hansen, E.

    2012-04-01

    A long-term oceanographic moored array has been operated since 1997 to measure the ocean water column properties and oceanic advective fluxes through Fram Strait. While the mooring line along 78°50'N is devoted to monitoring variability of the physical environment, the AWI Hausgarten observatory, located north of it, focuses on ecosystem properties and benthic biology. Under the EU DAMOCLES and ACOBAR projects, the oceanographic observatory has been extended towards the innovative integrated observing system, combining the deep ocean moorings, multipurpose acoustic system and a network of gliders. The main aim of this system is long-term environmental monitoring in Fram Strait, combining satellite data, acoustic tomography, oceanographic measurements at moorings and glider sections with high-resolution ice-ocean circulation models through data assimilation. In future perspective, a cable connection between the Hausgarten observatory and a land base on Svalbard is planned as the implementation of the ESONET Arctic node. To take advantage of the planned cabled node, different technologies for the underwater data transmission were reviewed and partially tested under the ESONET DM AOEM. The main focus was to design and evaluate available technical solutions for collecting data from different components of the Fram Strait ocean observing system, and an integration of available data streams for the optimal delivery to the future cabled node. The main components of the Fram Strait integrated observing system will be presented and the current status of available technologies for underwater data transfer will be reviewed. On the long term, an initiative of Helmholtz observatories foresees the interdisciplinary Earth-Observing-System FRAM which combines observatories such as the long term deep-sea ecological observatory HAUSGARTEN, the oceanographic Fram Strait integrated observing system and the Svalbard coastal stations maintained by the Norwegian ARCTOS network. A vision

  20. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  1. Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    SciTech Connect

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN /Santiago de Compostela U.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malargue and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.

  2. Proposed Ozark Plateaus Province Hydrologic Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, R. K.; Brahana, J. V.; Matlock, M. D.; Chaubey, I.; Pavlowsky, R. T.; Gilzow, F.

    2004-12-01

    The Upper White River, which drains about 40 percent of the Ozarks Ecoregion, is the main drain for the Ozark Plateaus and is characteristic of rivers draining other karst areas within the United States and the world. The proposed Ozark Plateaus Hydrologic Observatory (OPHO) encompasses twelve 8-digit hydrologic units covering about 67,000 km2 in parts of three states (Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma). Six major U.S. Army Corps of Engineers reservoirs are within the OPHO including four on the main stem of the White River and one on the Illinois River. Karst features are prominent in the Salem, Ozark, and Springfield Plateaus of the OPHO, and include numerous solutionally enlarged fractures, caves, sinkholes, and sinking streams. Within the basin are numerous and diverse biological communities, representing influences from 1) eastern deciduous forest, 2) Great Plains prairies, 3) arid southwest, and 4) relicts of northern species from the Pleistocene Ice Age. Also contain in the OPHO is a diverse and unique array of mussels, an imperiled river organism (38 species), and crayfish. In the extensive karst regions of the OPHO are found largely endemic subterranean organisms also dependent on good water quality: for example, the Ozark Cavefish, Bristly Cave Crayfish and the recently federally- listed Tumbling Creek Cave Snail. Mantled karst aquifers characteristic of the Ozark Plateaus Region represent a coupled atmospheric/surface water/groundwater system that is highly susceptible to external forcing. Little attenuation of contaminants occurs as water moves from surface sources into and through the mantled karst aquifer to discharge naturally at springs and streams throughout the Ozark Plateau Region, and to wells. Because of the very open character of the aquifer, extremely dynamic biogeochemical cycling of nutrients occurs. Upper White River Reservoir development, filling and operation historically have altered and continue to alter the hydrologic and ecosystems

  3. Astronomical Data Integration Beyond the Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemson, G.; Laurino, O.

    2015-09-01

    "Data integration" generally refers to the process of combining data from different source data bases into a unified view. Much work has been devoted in this area by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA), allowing users to discover and access databases through standard protocols. However, different archives present their data through their own schemas and users must still select, filter, and combine data for each archive individually. An important reason for this is that the creation of common data models that satisfy all sub-disciplines is fraught with difficulties. Furthermore it requires a substantial amount of work for data providers to present their data according to some standard representation. We will argue that existing standards allow us to build a data integration framework that works around these problems. The particular framework requires the implementation of the IVOA Table Access Protocol (TAP) only. It uses the newly developed VO data modelling language (VO-DML) specification, which allows one to define extensible object-oriented data models using a subset of UML concepts through a simple XML serialization language. A rich mapping language allows one to describe how instances of VO-DML data models are represented by the TAP service, bridging the possible mismatch between a local archive's schema and some agreed-upon representation of the astronomical domain. In this so called local-as-view approach to data integration, “mediators" use the mapping prescriptions to translate queries phrased in terms of the common schema to the underlying TAP service. This mapping language has a graphical representation, which we expose through a web based graphical “drag-and-drop-and-connect" interface. This service allows any user to map the holdings of any TAP service to the data model(s) of choice. The mappings are defined and stored outside of the data sources themselves, which allows the interface to be used in a kind of crowd-sourcing effort

  4. The Platte River Hydrologic Observatory (PRIVHO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, F.; Ramirez, J. A.; Thurow, T. L.

    2004-12-01

    The Platte River Hydrologic Observatory (PRIVHO), located within the Platte River Basin, of the U.S. central Great Plains, affords excellent interdisciplinary and multi-disciplinary research opportunities for scientists to examine the impacts of scaling, to investigate forcing feedbacks and coupling of various interconnected hydrological, geological, climatological and biological systems, and to test the applicability and limits of prediction in keeping with all five of CUAHSI's priority science criteria; linking hydrologic and biogeochemical cycles, sustainability of water resources, hydrologic and ecosystem interactions, hydrologic extremes, and fate and transport of contaminants. In addition, PRIVHO is uniquely positioned to investigate many human dimension questions such as those related to interstate and intrastate conflicts over water use, evolution of water policy and law in the wake of advancing science, societal and economic changes that are driven by water use, availability and management, and human impacts on climate and land use changes. The Platte River traverses several important environmental gradients, including temperature and precipitation-to-evaporation ratio, is underlain by the High Plains Aquifer under much of its reach, crosses a number of terrestrial ecoregions, and in central Nebraska, serves as a vital link in the Central Flyway, providing habitat for 300 species of migratory birds and many threatened or endangered species. The Platte River flows through metropolitan, urban and agricultural settings and is impacted by both point and non-point pollution. The Platte River is one of the most over-appropriated rivers in the country with 15 major dams, hundreds of small reservoirs, and thousands of irrigation wells. The river provides municipal and industrial water supplies for about 3.5 million people, irrigation water for millions of acres of farmland, and generates millions of dollars of hydroelectric power. PRIVHO will allow researchers to

  5. The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy - A New Tool for Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzek, M. J.; Becklin, E.; Burgdorf, M. J.; Reach, W.

    2010-12-01

    The Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) is a joint US/German effort to fly a 2.5 meter telescope on a modified Boeing 747SP aircraft at stratospheric altitudes where the atmosphere is largely transparent at infrared wavelengths. Key goals of the observatory include understanding the formation of stars and planets; the origin and evolution of the interstellar medium; the star formation history of galaxies; and planetary science. SOFIA offers the convenient accessibility of a ground-based observatory coupled with performance advantages of a space-based telescope. SOFIA’s scientific instruments can be exchanged regularly for repairs, to accommodate changing scientific requirements, and to incorporate new technologies. SOFIA’s portability will enable specialized observations of transient and location-specific events such as stellar occultations of Trans-Neptunian Objects. Unlike many spaceborne observatories, SOFIA can observe bright planets and moons directly, and can observe objects closer to the sun than Earth, e.g. comets in their most active phase, and the planet Venus. SOFIA’s first generation instruments cover the spectral range of .3 to 240 microns and have been designed with planetary science in mind. The High-speed Imaging Photometer for Occultations (HIPO) is designed to measure occultations of stars by Kuiper Belt Objects, with SOFIA flying into the predicted shadows and timing the occultation ingress and egress to determine the size of the occulting body. HIPO will also enable transit observations of extrasolar planets. The Faint Object Infrared Camera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) and the High-resolution Airborne Wideband Camera (HAWC) will enable mid-infrared and far-infrared (respectively) imaging with a wide range of filters for comets and giant planets, and colorimetric observations of small, unresolved bodies to measure the spectral energy distribution of their thermal emission. The German Receiver for Astronomy at

  6. Missing Great Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.; Martin, S.

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence of three earthquakes with Mw greater than 8.8, and six earthquakes larger than Mw8.5, since 2004 has raised interest in the long-term rate of great earthquakes. Past studies have focused on rates since 1900, which roughly marks the start of the instrumental era. Yet substantial information is available for earthquakes prior to 1900. A re-examination of the catalog of global historical earthquakes reveals a paucity of Mw ≥ 8.5 events during the 18th and 19th centuries compared to the rate during the instrumental era (Hough, 2013, JGR), suggesting that the magnitudes of some documented historical earthquakes have been underestimated, with approximately half of all Mw≥8.5 earthquakes missing or underestimated in the 19th century. Very large (Mw≥8.5) magnitudes have traditionally been estimated for historical earthquakes only from tsunami observations given a tautological assumption that all such earthquakes generate significant tsunamis. Magnitudes would therefore tend to be underestimated for deep megathrust earthquakes that generated relatively small tsunamis, deep earthquakes within continental collision zones, earthquakes that produced tsunamis that were not documented, outer rise events, and strike-slip earthquakes such as the 11 April 2012 Sumatra event. We further show that, where magnitudes of historical earthquakes are estimated from earthquake intensities using the Bakun and Wentworth (1997, BSSA) method, magnitudes of great earthquakes can be significantly underestimated. Candidate 'missing' great 19th century earthquakes include the 1843 Lesser Antilles earthquake, which recent studies suggest was significantly larger than initial estimates (Feuillet et al., 2012, JGR; Hough, 2013), and an 1841 Kamchatka event, for which Mw9 was estimated by Gusev and Shumilina (2004, Izv. Phys. Solid Ear.). We consider cumulative moment release rates during the 19th century compared to that during the 20th and 21st centuries, using both the Hough

  7. Design of a Lunar Farside Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The design of a mantendable lunar farside observatory and science base is presented. A farside observatory will allow high accuracy astronomical observations, as well as the opportunity to perform geological and low gravity studies on the Moon. The requirements of the observatory and its support facilities are determined, and a preliminary timeline for the project development is presented. The primary areas of investigation include observatory equipment, communications, habitation, and surface operations. Each area was investigated to determine the available options, and each option was evaluated to determine the advantages and disadvantages. The options selected for incorporation into the design of the farside base are presented. The observatory equipment deemed most suitable for placement on the lunar farside consist of large optical and radio arrays and seismic equipment. A communications system consisting of a temporary satellite about the L sub 2 libration point and followed by a satellite at the stable L sub 5 libration point was selected. A space station common module was found to be the most practical option for housing the astronauts at the base. Finally, a support system based upon robotic construction vehicles and the use of lunar materials was determined to be a necessary component of the base.

  8. Fostering Student Awareness in Observatory STEM Careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keonaonaokalauae Acohido, Alexis Ann; Michaud, Peter D.; Gemini Public Information and Outreach Staff

    2016-01-01

    It takes more than scientists to run an observatory. Like most observatories, only about 20% of Gemini Observatory's staff is PhD. Scientists, but 100% of those scientists would not be able to do their jobs without the help of engineers, administrators, and other support staff that make things run smoothly. Gemini's Career Brochure was first published in 2014 to show that there are many different career paths available (especially in local host communities) at an astronomical observatory. Along with the printed career brochure, there are supplementary videos available on Gemini's website and Youtube pages that provide a more detailed and personal glimpse into the day-in-the-life of a wide assortment of Gemini employees. A weakness in most observatory's outreach programming point to the notion that students (and teachers) feel there is a disconnect between academics and where students would like to end up in their career future. This project is one of the ways Gemini addresses these concerns. During my 6-month internship at Gemini, I have updated the Career Brochure website conducted more in-depth interviews with Gemini staff to include as inserts with the brochure, and expanded the array of featured careers. The goal of my work is to provide readers with detailed and individualized employee career paths to show; 1) that there are many ways to establish a career in the STEM fields, and 2), that the STEM fields are vastly diverse.

  9. The Livingston Island Geomagnetic and Ionospheric Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altadill, David; Marsal, Santiago; Blanch, Estefania; Miquel Torta, J.; Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Germán Solé, J.; Cid, Òscar; José Curto, Juan; Ibáñez, Miguel; Segarra, Antoni; Lluís Pijoan, Joan; Juan, Juan Miguel

    2014-05-01

    The Ebre Observatory Institute manages a geophysical observatory installed at the Spanish Antarctic Station (SAS) Juan Carlos I. It was set up in 1995 and it has been updated yearly by our team throughout several projects carried out since then. Nowadays, it hosts a magnetic station providing 1-second data of the 3 components (X, Y, Z) and the total force (F) during the entire year, and an ionospheric station providing vertical and oblique data during austral summer. This observatory has provided long data series of high scientific value from this remote region of the Earth. They have been used to improve the knowledge of the climate and weather behavior of the geomagnetic field and ionosphere in the area, and to model and expand the capacity of data transmission. This contribution aims to present a brief review of the instruments installed at SAS, the research results obtained from their data, and the developing activities under the current project. Finally, future perspectives are outlined with regard to adapting our geophysical observatory to the evolving needs of observatory practice.

  10. Telescopes in Education: the Little Thompson Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweitzer, A. E.; Melsheimer, T. T.

    2002-05-01

    The Little Thompson Observatory is believed to be the first of its kind, located next to a high school and accessible to other schools remotely over the Internet. This observatory is the second member of the Telescopes in Education (TIE) project. Construction was done completely by volunteer labor, and the observatory was built on the grounds of Berthoud High School in northern Colorado. During 2001, we averaged 400-500 visitors per month. We are grateful to have received a STScI IDEAS grant to provide teacher training workshops for K-12 schools in northern Colorado to make use of the observatory, including remote observing from classrooms. Students connect to the observatory over the Internet, and then receive the images back on their local computers. We are honored that a committee of teachers and administrators from the Thompson School district have selected these workshops to count towards Incentive Credits (movement on the salary schedule) because the course meets the criteria: "Learning must be directly transferable to the classroom with students and relate to standards, assessment and/or technology." Also in the past year, our training materials have been shared with NASA Goddard and Howard University, which are working together to develop a similar teacher education program. Our next goal is to add solar observing capability! Please visit our website at www.starkids.org.

  11. Undergraduate Astronomy Instruction with an Automated Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, M. N.; Littler, C.; Weathers, D.

    2001-12-01

    The University of North Texas (UNT) currently enrolls about 2400 students per academic year in survey astronomy classes. All students complete a 1-credit laboratory course, designed to fulfill a laboratory science curriculum requirement. As one element in our laboratory program, we are developing an automated observatory for use by these students. The UNT Monroe Observatory, located at a dark site 45 miles from campus, has been designed with a roll-off roof covering two (expandable to four) observing stations. Each station consists of a Celestron 14-inch telescope on a Paramount GT-1100 base from Software Bisque, outfitted with an AP7 CCD camera from Apogee Instruments. We intend to remotely operate these stations from the university in Denton. We are developing an integrated astronomy laboratory sequence, employing digital imagery from the remote observatory, multimedia presentations in a planetarium, and table-top experiments in a lab setting. The automated observatory will permit students to conduct individualized observational astronomy experiments in a manner similar to those employed in astronomical research. As of October 2001, we have acquired equipment for two observing stations, prepared the site, completed the building design, and signed a construction contract. We anticipate first use during the 2002-2003 academic year. The UNT Observatory has been funded in part through the National Science Foundation's CCLI grant program, #9950630.

  12. An international network of magnetic observatories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Jeffrey J.; Chulliat, A.

    2013-01-01

    Since its formation in the late 1980s, the International Real-Time Magnetic Observatory Network (INTERMAGNET), a voluntary consortium of geophysical institutes from around the world, has promoted the operation of magnetic observatories according to modern standards [eg. Rasson, 2007]. INTERMAGNET institutes have cooperatively developed infrastructure for data exchange and management ads well as methods for data processing and checking. INTERMAGNET institute have also helped to expand global geomagnetic monitoring capacity, most notably by assisting magnetic observatory institutes in economically developing countries by working directly with local geophysicists. Today the INTERMAGNET consortium encompasses 57 institutes from 40 countries supporting 120 observatories (see Figures 1a and 1b). INTERMAGNET data record a wide variety of time series signals related to a host of different physical processes in the Earth's interiors and in the Earth's surrounding space environment [e.g., Love, 2008]. Observatory data have always had a diverse user community, and to meet evolving demand, INTERMAGNET has recently coordinated the introduction of several new data services.

  13. Science Enabled by Ocean Observatory Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, B. M.; Lee, C.; Gobat, J.; Freitag, L.; Miller, J. H.; Committee, I.

    2004-12-01

    Ocean observatories have the potential to examine the physical, chemical, biological, and geological parameters and processes of the ocean at time and space scales previously unexplored. Acoustics provides an efficient and cost-effective means by which these parameters and processes can be measured and information can be communicated. Integrated acoustics systems providing navigation and communications for mobile platforms and conducting acoustical measurements in support of science objectives are critical and essential elements of the ocean observatories presently in the planning and implementation stages. The ORION Workshop (Puerto Rico, 4-8 January 2004) developed science themes that can be addressed utilizing ocean observatory infrastructure. The use of acoustics to sense the 3-d/volumetric ocean environment on all temporal and spatial scales was discussed in many ORION working groups. Science themes that are related to acoustics and measurements using acoustics are reviewed and tabulated, as are the related and sometimes competing requirements for passive listening, acoustic navigation and acoustic communication around observatories. Sound in the sea, brought from observatories to universities and schools via the internet, will also be a major education and outreach mechanism.

  14. Atmospheric turbulence measurements at Ali Observatory, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyong; Yao, Yongqiang; Vernin, Jean; Chadid, Merieme; Wang, Yiping; Wang, Hongshuai; Yin, Jia; Giordano, Christophe; Qian, Xuan

    2012-09-01

    The atmospheric turbulence characteristics are important to evaluate the quality of ground-based astronomical observatory. In order to characterize Ali observatory, Tibet. we have developed a single star Scidar (SSS) system, which is able to continuously monitor the vertical profiles of both optical turbulence and wind speed. The main SSS configuration includes a 40cm telescope and a CCD camera for fast sampling the star scintillation pattern. The SSS technique analyzes the scintillation patterns in real time, by computing the spatial auto-correlation and at least two cross-correlation images, and retrieves both C2 n (h) and V (h) vertical profiles from the ground up to 30km. This paper presents the first turbulence measurements with SSS at Ali observatory in October, 2011. We have successfully obtained the profiles of optical turbulence and wind speed, as well as the key parameters for adaptive optics, such as seeing, coherence time, and isoplanatic angle. The favourable results indicate that Ali observatory can be an excellent astronomical observatory.

  15. Maintenance management at La Silla Paranal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montano, Nelson

    2008-07-01

    From the beginning of the VLT project, the European Southern Observatory (ESO) considered the application of a competent maintenance strategy a fundamental aspect for future operations of the Paranal Observatory. For that purpose, a special maintenance philosophy was developed during the project stage and applied during the initial years of operations. The merging of the La Silla and Paranal Observatories in 2005 added a new managerial challenge to the regular operational requirements (high availability and reliability) which motivated ESO Management to develop a stronger strategy for the operations of the new merged Observatory. Part of the new strategy considered the creation of a dedicated department for the management of all maintenance activities, separating this support from the traditional scheme where the Engineering Department had the responsibility for the entire technical support to operations. In order to keep a competent level of maintenance operations for the new unified Observatory, the La Silla Paranal (LSP) Maintenance Department has been using a well known maintenance management model used in various industrial applications as a guide. Today the operations of the Maintenance Department are concentrated on developing and implementing practices regarding concepts such as Maintenance Tactics, Planning, Data Management, Performance Indicators and Material Management. In addition to that, advances related to Reliability Analysis been taken in order to reach a superior level of excellence. The results achieved by the LSP Maintenance Department are reflected in a reduced rate of functional failures, allowing uninterrupted operations of the Observation sites.

  16. The University of Montana's Blue Mountain Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    The University of Montana's Department of Physics and Astronomy runs the state of Montana's only professional astronomical observatory. The Observatory, located on nearby Blue Mountain, houses a 16 inch Boller and Chivens Cassegrain reflector (purchased in 1970), in an Ash dome. The Observatory sits just below the summit ridge, at an elevation of approximately 6300 feet. Our instrumentation includes an Op-Tec SSP-5A photoelectric photometer and an SBIG ST-9E CCD camera. We have the only undergraduate astronomy major in the state (technically a physics major with an astronomy option), so our Observatory is an important component of our students' education. Students have recently carried out observing projects on the photometry of variable stars and color photometry of open clusters and OB associations. In my poster I will show some of the data collected by students in their observing projects. The Observatory is also used for public open houses during the summer months, and these have become very popular: at times we have had 300 visitors in a single night.

  17. Detecting Extrasolar Planets With Millimeter-Wave Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1996-01-01

    Do nearby stars have planetary systems like our own? How do such systems evolve? How common are such systems? Proposed radio observatories operating at millimeter wavelengths could start answering these questions within the next 6-10 years, according to scientists at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). Bryan Butler, Robert Brown, Richard Simon, Al Wootten and Darrel Emerson, all of NRAO, presented their findings today to the American Astronomical Society meeting in San Antonio, TX. Detecting planets circling other stars is a particularly difficult task, and only a few such planets have been discovered so far. In order to answer fundamental questions about planetary systems and their origin, scientists need to find and study many more extrasolar planets. According to the NRAO scientists, millimeter-wavelength observatories could provide valuable information about extrasolar planetary systems at all stages of their evolution. "With instruments planned by 2005, we could detect planets the size of Jupiter around a solar-type star out to a distance of 100 light-years," said Robert Brown, Associate Director of NRAO. "That means," he added, "that we could survey approximately 2,000 stars of different types to learn if they have planets this size." Millimeter waves occupy the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum between radio microwaves and infrared waves. Telescopes for observing at millimeter wavelengths utilize advanced electronic equipment similar to that used in radio telescopes observing at longer wavelengths. Millimeter-wave observatories offer a number of advantages in the search for extrasolar planets. Planned multi-antenna millimeter-wave telescopes can provide much higher resolving power, or ability to see fine detail, than current optical or infrared telescopes. Millimeter-wave observations would not be degraded by interference from the "zodiacal light" reflected by interplanetary dust, either in the extrasolar system or our own solar system

  18. The CHANDRA X-Ray Observatory: Thermal Design, Verification, and Early Orbit Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, David A.; Freeman, Mark D.; Lynch, Nicolie; Lavois, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The CHANDRA X-ray Observatory (formerly AXAF), one of NASA's "Great Observatories" was launched aboard the Shuttle in July 1999. CHANDRA comprises a grazing-incidence X-ray telescope of unprecedented focal-length, collecting area and angular resolution -- better than two orders of magnitude improvement in imaging performance over any previous soft X-ray (0.1-10 keV) mission. Two focal-plane instruments, one with a 150 K passively-cooled detector, provide celestial X-ray images and spectra. Thermal control of CHANDRA includes active systems for the telescope mirror and environment and the optical bench, and largely passive systems for the focal plans instruments. Performance testing of these thermal control systems required 1-1/2 years at increasing levels of integration, culminating in thermal-balance testing of the fully-configured observatory during the summer of 1998. This paper outlines details of thermal design tradeoffs and methods for both the Observatory and the two focal-plane instruments, the thermal verification philosophy of the Chandra program (what to test and at what level), and summarizes the results of the instrument, optical system and observatory testing.

  19. The Infrared-Optical Telescope (IRT) of the Exist Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kutyrev, Alexander; Bloom, Joshua; Gehrels, Neil; Golisano, Craig; Gong, Quan; Grindlay, Jonathan; Moseley, Samuel; Woodgate, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The IRT is a 1.1m visible and infrared passively cooled telescope, which can locate, identify and obtain spectra of GRB afterglows at redshifts up to z 20. It will also acquire optical-IR, imaging and spectroscopy of AGN and transients discovered by the EXIST (The Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope). The IRT imaging and spectroscopic capabilities cover a broad spectral range from 0.32.2m in four bands. The identical fields of view in the four instrument bands are each split in three subfields: imaging, objective prism slitless for the field and objective prism single object slit low resolution spectroscopy, and high resolution long slit on single object. This allows the instrument, to do simultaneous broadband photometry or spectroscopy of the same object over the full spectral range, thus greatly improving the efficiency of the observatory and its detection limits. A prompt follow up (within three minutes) of the transient discovered by the EXIST makes IRT a unique tool for detection and study of these events, which is particularly valuable at wavelengths unavailable to the ground based observatories.

  20. Mie Lidar for Aerosols and Clouds Monitoring at Otlica Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Stanič, S.; Bergant, K.; Filipčič, A.; Veberič, D.; Forte, B.

    2009-04-01

    Aerosol and cloud densities are the most important atmospheric parameters, which significantly influence the atmospheric conditions. The study of their spatial and temporal properties can provide detailed information about the transport processes of the air masses. In recent years, lidar techniques for remote sensing of the atmospheric parameters have been greatly improved. Like the lidar systems of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina (35.2S, 69.1W, 1400 m a.s.l.), the Mie lidar built at Otlica Observatory (45.93N, 13.91E, 945 m a.s.l.) in Slovenia employs the same hardware, including the transmitter, the receiver, and the DAQ system. Due to its high-power laser, large-diameter telescope, and photon-counting data-acquisition technique, the Mie lidar has the potential ability to measure the tropospheric and stratospheric atmospheric conditions, and is suitable for monitoring the changes of the cirrus clouds and atmospheric boundary layer. We have been performing routine atmospheric monitoring experiments with the Otlica Mie lidar since September 2008. Using the techniques of event-averaging, noise-elimination, and data-gluing, the far end of lidar probing range is extended from 30 km up to 40 km. The extinction profiles are calculated using the Klett method and the time-height-intensity plots were made. They clearly show the evolution of atmospheric conditions, especially the motion of the cirrus clouds above Otlica.

  1. Compton Gamma Ray Observatory: Lessons Learned in Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, G. A.; Joseph, G. W.; Behrens, H. W.; Asato, D. I.; Carlson, R. A.; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory was the second of NASA's Great Observatories. At 17 1/2 tons. it was the heaviest astrophysical payload ever flown at the time of its launch on April 5, 1991 aboard the Space Shuttle. During initial, on-orbit priming of the spacecraft's monopropellant hydrazine propulsion system, a severe waterhammer transient was experienced. At that time, anomalous telemetry readings were received from on-board propulsion system instrumentation. This led to ground analyses and laboratory investigations as to the root cause of the waterhammer, potential damage to system integrity and functionality, and risks for switching from the primary (A-side) propulsion system to the redundant (B-side) system. The switchover to B-side was ultimately performed successfully and the spacecraft completed its basic and extended missions in this configuration. Nine years later, following a critical control gyroscope failure, Compton was safely deorbited and re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on June 4, 2000. Additional risk assessments concerning viability of A- and B-sides were necessary to provide confidence in attitude and delta-V authority and reliability to manage the precisely controlled reentry. This paper summarizes the design and operation of the propulsion system used on the spacecraft and provides "lessons learned" from the system engineering investigations into the propellant loading procedures, the initial priming anomaly, mission operations, and the commanded re-entry following the gyro failure.

  2. The Digitation of the Astronomical Plates of Catania Astrophysical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massimino, P.; Catalano, S.; Cigna, M.; Greco, V., Mangano, A.; Marilli, E.; Blanco, C.

    2006-07-01

    To make easily available the great amount of highly valuable information stored in the photographic archives of many Italian Observatories and of the Specola Vaticana, a large-scale National Project to digitize the plates was financially supported by the Italian Ministry of Education (MIUR) (Barbieri et al. 2003, 2004). The contribution of the Catania Astrophysical Observatory and of the Physics and Astronomy Department of Catania University to the Project is to digitize the image plates of the "Carte du Ciel" and of the Astrographic Catalogue obtained from 1896 to 1907. Moreover plates of the 1910 passage of Halley's comet and other plates obtained during the XX Century (Massimino et al. 2004) have been digitized. A set of identical systems, composed of a commercial flat-bed-retro-illuminated scanner, a dedicated personal computer and an acquisition software, has been installed in the Institutes involved in the Project. The main characteristics of Astroplates, a software program developed in Catania, that uses the IDL libraries to manage the astronomical images acquired with the scanner from photographic plates are presented.

  3. Distributed data mining in the National Virtual Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borne, Kirk D.

    2003-03-01

    The astronomy research community is about to become the beneficiary of huge multi-terabyte databases from a host of sky surveys. The rich and diverse information content within this "virtual sky" and the array of results to be derived therefrom will far exceed the current capacity of data search and research tools. The new digital surveys have the potential of facilitating a wide range of scientific discoveries about the Universe! To enable this to happen, the astronomical community is embarking on an ambitious endeavor, the creation of a National Virtual Observatory (NVO). This will in fact develop into a Global Virtual Observatory. To facilitate the new type of science enabled by the NVO, new techniques in data mining and knowledge discovery in large databases must be developed and deployed, and the next generation of astronomers must be trained in these techniques. This activity will benefit greatly from developments in the fields of information technology, computer science, and statistics. Aspects of the NVO initiative, including sample science user scenarios and user requirements will be presented. The value of scientific data mining and some early test case results will be discussed in the context of the speaker's research interests in colliding and merging galaxies.

  4. Long term monitoring of mountain sites in the National Ecological Observatory Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, A.; Berukoff, S. J.; Buur, H.; DeNicholas, J.; Denslow, M.; Kampe, T. U.; Roehm, C. L.; Stewart, M.; Taylor, J. R.; Tazik, D.

    2013-12-01

    Currently under construction, the nation's first continental-scale ecological observatory, the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will quantify the impacts of climate change, land use, and biological invasions by collecting instrumental and observational data for 30 years at 106 aquatic and terrestrial sites across the U.S., including Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. The sites have been strategically selected to represent a range of vegetation, landforms, climates, and land uses. Several are located in high elevation areas, including three terrestrial and two aquatic sites in the central Rocky Mountains situated along a transect from the Great Basin in the west to the Colorado Plateau in the east. In the Intermountain West, dust resulting from urban and agricultural land use is transported over long distances. When deposited on the snowpack in the mountains, it alters the surface albedo, affecting snowmelt timing and altering local and regional feedbacks to climate and impacting water quality of streams. In addition, nitrogen compounds produced in the densely settled Front Range corridor of Colorado can be recirculated back to the mountains, affecting the local biogeochemistry and biodiversity. Standardized measurements of key climate, atmospheric, soil, organismal, and aquatic variables will allow for comparison of responses to dust and nitrogen deposition. In addition, other environmental changes between sites both along the Great Basin-central Rocky Mountains-Colorado Plateau transect and within the observatory as a whole can be evaluated. NEON is applying Systems Engineering, a discipline that uses a requirements-based approach to scope, design, build and manage complex systems throughout their lifecycle, as a critical component of the observatory to ensure standardization across sites. In this talk, we will discuss the benefits and challenges of applying Systems Engineering to an ecological observatory, utilizing the science and technical

  5. Angola: a great future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The companies represented in Angola and their concessions by area are tabulated, including offshore leases. The government of this only recently independent country puts great emphasis on petroleum development and welcomes foreign companies. The major portion of the production comes from the fields in the Cabinda area. In the future, the reserves in the Congo basin will become more important. Exploration activity is intense and concentrated on the near offshore area of the country. The gas reserves are still not entirely known; present production serves only the needs of petroleum production, including a gas injection project in the Cabinda area and the production of LPG. A map of the offshore concession blocks also is shown.

  6. Jupiter's Great Red spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This color composite made from Voyager 2 narrow-angle camera frames shows the Great Red Spot during the late Jovian afternoon. North of the Red Spot lies a curious darker section of the South Equatorial Belt (SEB), the belt in which the Red Spot is located. A bright eruption of material passing from the SEB northward into the diffuse equatorial clouds has been observed on all occasions when this feature passes north of the Red Spot. The remnants of one such eruption are apparent in this photograph. To the lower left of the Red Spot lies one of the three long-lived White Ovals. This photograph was taken on June 29, 1979, when Voyager 2 was over 9 million kilometers (nearly 6 million miles) from Jupiter. The smallest features visible are over 170 kilometers (106 miles) across.

  7. Ending the great drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riordan, Michael

    2008-10-01

    With the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) springing to life at the CERN laboratory near Geneva, the great data drought in elementary particle physics is finally about to end. Not since the second phase of CERN's Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) began operations in 1996 has the field been able to probe virgin territory and measure truly new and exotic phenomena. And that machine merely doubled the energy reach of electron-positron colliders into regions that had already been partially explored using the Tevatron at Fermilab in the US. Researchers at these colliders - the world's most powerful for over a decade - could only chip away at the outer fringes of the unknown. But the LHC, built by installing thousands of superconducting magnets in the LEP tunnel, will permit physicists to strike deep into its dark heart. There they will almost certainly discover something distinctively different.

  8. The Great Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, Jack

    1989-11-01

    This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

  9. Europa's Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, B. E.; Blankenship, D. D.; Patterson, G. W.; Schenk, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    Unique to the surface of Europa, chaos terrain is diagnostic of the properties and dynamics of its icy shell. While models have suggested that partial melt within a thick shell or melt-through of a thin shell may form chaos, neither model has been able to definitively explain all observations of chaos terrain. However, we present a new model that suggests large melt lenses form within the shell and that water-ice interactions above and within these lenses drive the production of chaos. Our analysis of the geomorphology of Conamara Chaos and Thera Macula, was used to infer and test a four-stage lens-collapse chaos formation model: 1) Thermal plumes of warm, pure ice ascend through the shell melting the impure brittle ice above, producing a lake of briny water and surface down draw due to volume reduction. 2) Surface deflection and driving force from the plume below hydraulically seals the water in place. 3) Extension of the brittle ice lid generates fractures from below, allowing brines to enter and fluidize the ice matrix. 4) As the lens and now brash matrix refreeze, thermal expansion creates domes and raises the chaos feature above the background terrain. This new "lense-collapse" model indicates that chaos features form in the presence of a great deal of liquid water, and that large liquid water bodies exist within 3km of Europa's surface comparable in volume to the North American Great Lakes. The detection of shallow subsurface "lakes" implies that the ice shell is recycling rapidly and that Europa may be currently active. In this presentation, we will explore environments on Europa and their analogs on Earth, from collapsing Antarctic ice shelves to to subglacial volcanos in Iceland. I will present these new analyses, and describe how this new perspective informs the debate about Europa's habitability and future exploration.

  10. Teaching Astronomy at the UCM Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, D.; Zamorano, J.; Gallego, J.; de Castro, E.

    There is a long tradition on teaching Astronomy at the UCM University. Since 1972 it is possible to study Astrophysics at the Faculty of Physics of the UCM. The facilities of the UCM Observatory are improving continuously every year. Nowadays two domes (4 m) are available. The west dome is mainly used for doing solar observations while the east dome is generally used to do night observations. The available instruments allow us to make a small-scaled reproduction of how people work in a large observatory. At the UCM Observatory students of the Astrophysics career do many different kinds of exercises based on the current techniques used by professional astronomers. In addition, during the last years of the career they also have the opportunity of doing a research work under the supervision of a professor.

  11. The Lowell Observatory Predoctoral Scholar Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Belle, Gerard; Prato, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Lowell Observatory is pleased to solicit applications for our Predoctoral Scholar Fellowship Program. Now beginning its eighth year, this program is designed to provide unique research opportunities to graduate students in good standing, currently enrolled at Ph.D. granting institutions. Lowell staff research spans a wide range of topics, from astronomical instrumentation, to icy bodies in our solar system, exoplanet science, stellar populations, star formation, and dwarf galaxies. The Observatory's new 4.3 meter Discovery Channel Telescope has successfully begun science operations and we anticipate the commissioning of new instruments in 2015, making this a particularly exciting time in our history. Student research is expected to lead to a thesis dissertation appropriate for graduation at the doctoral level at the student's home institution. The Observatory provides competitive compensation and full benefits to student scholars. For more information, see http://www2.lowell.edu/rsch/predoc.php and links therein. Applications for Fall 2016 are due by May 1, 2016.

  12. Undergraduate Astronomy Instruction With an Automated Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, Michael; Littler, Christopher; Weathers, Duncan

    2001-10-01

    The University of North Texas currently enrolls 2400 students per academic year in survey astronomy classes. As one element in our laboratory program, we are developing an automated observatory for use by these students. The UNT Monroe Observatory is located at a dark site approximately 45 miles northwest of Denton (80 miles from the Dallas / Fort Worth Metroplex). We plan 2-4 telescopes in the 36-40 cm range, outfitted with CCD cameras, to be remotely operated from the University in Denton. This automated observatory will permit students to conduct individualized observational astronomy experiments in a manner similar to those employed in astronomical research. These imaging experiments will be the centerpiece of the students' laboratory experience. Our goal is to provide an exemplary laboratory experience for students attempting to meet a natural science curriculum requirement. Currently, the equipment has been procured and the observing site prepared. We anticipate first use during the 2002-2003 academic year.

  13. Earth Atmosphere Observatory Formation at L2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mettler, Edward; Acikmese, A. Behcet; Breckenridge, William G.; Mecenka, Steven A.; Tubbs, Eldred F.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a product of research supported by NASA under RASC (the Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts) program. It presents an overall system architecture, and covers issues of deployment, navigation, and control related to a formation of two spacecraft in the neighborhood of the Sun-Earth L2 Lagrange point (on the Sun-Earth line), that serves as an observatory of Earth's atmosphere. The observatory concept definition study was a multi-center NASA effort conducted in 2003, and covered a much wider scope than is presented in this focused paper.The Earth observatory at L2 is a unique design concept that can improve the knowledge and understanding of dynamic, chemical and radiative mechanisms that cause changes in the atmosphere, and can lead to the development of models and techniques to predict short and long-term climate changes.

  14. OSO-7 Orbiting Solar Observatory program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The seventh Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO-7) in the continuing series designed to gather solar and celestial data that cannot be obtained from the earth's surface is described. OSO-7 was launched September 29, 1971. It has been highly successful in returning scientific data giving new and important information about solar flare development, coronal temperature variations, streamer dynamics of plasma flow, and solar nuclear processes. OSO-7 is expected to have sufficient lifetime to permit data comparisons with the Skylab A mission during 1973. The OSO-7 is a second generation observatory. It is about twice as large and heavy as its predecessors, giving it considerably greater capability for scientific measurements. This report reviews mission objectives, flight history, and scientific experiments; describes the observatory; briefly compares OSO-7 with the first six OSO's; and summarizes the performance of OSO-7.

  15. Space Weather in Magnetic Observatory Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilder, S. A.; Truong, F.

    2012-12-01

    Space weather impacts human activity by degrading satellite operation or disrupting electrical power grids. By exploiting small differences in the time stamp between magnetometer pairs to facilitate data filtering, we find that ground-based magnetic observatories are well suited to measure space weather phenomena, and in particular, high frequency fluctuations known as pulsations. Several of the world's consortium of INTERMAGNET observatories are used in the analyses. They show that pulsation amplitudes attain a maximum near local noon over diurnal periods. Long-term trends in pulsation amplitude correlate well with the solar cycle, with the greatest effect occurring during the waning part of the cycle when the derivative of the number of sunspots attains a maximum rate of decrease. Seasonal variability and total amplitude of the diurnal expression of pulsations depends on latitude. Our study highlights the utility of ground-based observatories to understand solar phenomena and suggests how INTERMAGNET data and protocol could be better tuned to monitor space weather.

  16. Developing an astronomical observatory in Paraguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troche-Boggino, Alexis E.

    Background: Paraguay has some heritage from the astronomy of the Guarani Indians. Buenaventura Suarez S.J. was a pioneer astronomer in the country in the XVIII century. He built various astronomical instruments and imported others from England. He observed eclipses of Jupiter's satellites and of the Sun and Moon. He published his data in a book and through letters. The Japanese O.D.A. has collaborated in obtaining equipment and advised their government to assist Paraguay in building an astronomical observatory, constructing a moving-roof observatory and training astronomers as observatory operators. Future: An astronomical center is on the horizon and some possible fields of research are being considered. Goal: To improve education at all possible levels by not only observing sky wonders, but also showing how instruments work and teaching about data and image processing, saving data and building a data base. Students must learn how a modern scientist works.

  17. Environmental effects on lunar astronomical observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Wetzel, John P.

    1992-01-01

    The Moon offers a stable platform with excellent seeing conditions for astronomical observations. Some troublesome aspects of the lunar environment will need to be overcome to realize the full potential of the Moon as an observatory site. Mitigation of negative effects of vacuum, thermal radiation, dust, and micrometeorite impact is feasible with careful engineering and operational planning. Shields against impact, dust, and solar radiation need to be developed. Means of restoring degraded surfaces are probably essential for optical and thermal control surfaces deployed in long-lifetime lunar facilities. Precursor missions should be planned to validate and enhance the understanding of the lunar environment (e.g., dust behavior without and with human presence) and to determine environmental effects on surfaces and components. Precursor missions should generate data useful in establishing keepout zones around observatory facilities where rocket launches and landings, mining, and vehicular traffic could be detrimental to observatory operation.

  18. Lessons Learned During the Refurbishment and Testing of an Observatory After Long-Term Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawk, John; Peabody, Sharon; Stavely, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS) 2015, Silver Spring, MD NCTS 21070-15. This paper addresses the lessons learned during the refurbishment and testing of the thermal control system for a spacecraft which was placed into long-term storage. The DSCOVR (Deep Space Climate Observatory) Observatory (formerly known as Triana) was originally scheduled to launch on the Space Shuttle in 2002. With the Triana spacecraft nearly complete, the mission was canceled and the satellite was abruptly put into storage in 2001. In 2008 the observatory was removed from storage to begin refurbishment and testing. Problems arose associated with hardware that was not currently manufactured, coatings degradation, and a significant lack of documentation. Also addressed is the conversion of the thermal and geometric math models for use with updated thermal analysis software tools.

  19. Development of Nautical Almanac at Korea Astronomy Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, In-Woo; Shin, Junho

    1994-12-01

    In Korea Astronomy Observatory, we developed a S/W package to compile the Korean Nautical Almanac. We describe the motivation to develop the S/W and explain the S/W package in general terms. In appendix, we describe the procedure to calculate the polaris table in more detail. When we developed the S/W, we paid much attention to produce accurate data. We also made great effort to automate the compilation of Nautical Almanac as far as possible, since the compilation is time consuming labour extensive. As a result, the S/W we developed turns out to be very accurate and efficient to compile Nautical Almanac. In fact, we could compile a Korean Nautical Almanac in a few days.

  20. Fatigue Management Strategies for the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendrick, Gregg

    2012-01-01

    Operation of the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy entails a great deal of night-time work, with the potential for both acute and chronic sleep loss, as well as circadian rhythm dysynchrony. Such fatigue can result in performance decrements, with an increased risk of operator error. The NASA Dryden Flight Research Center manages this fatigue risk by means of a layered approach, to include: 1) Education and Training 2) Work Schedule Scoring 3) Obtained Sleep Metrics 4) Workplace and Operational Mitigations and 5) Incident or Accident Investigation. Specifically, quantitative estimation of the work schedule score, as well as the obtained sleep metric, allows Supervisors and Managers to better manage the risk of fatigue within the context of mission requirements.

  1. Original Misunderstanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Humorist Josh Billings quipped, "About the most originality that any writer can hope to achieve honestly is to steal with good judgment." Billings was harsh in his view of originality, but his critique reveals a tension faced by students every time they write a history paper. Research is the essence of any history paper. Especially in high school,…

  2. Chandra X-Ray Observatory Arrives at KSC for Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-04-01

    's most powerful X-ray telescope to allow scientists to monitor cosmic events that are invisible to conventional optical telescopes. Chandra's X-ray images will yield new insight into celestial phenomena such as the temperature and extent of gas clouds that comprise clusters of galaxies and the superheating of gas and dust particles as they swirl into black holes. Chandra, previously known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), is the third in NASA's family of Great Observatories that includes the Hubble Space Telescope and the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. NASA News National Aeronautics and Space Administration John F. Kennedy Space Center Kennedy Space Center, Florida 32899

  3. Astronomical Limiting Magnitude at Langkawi Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainuddin, Mohd. Zambri; Loon, Chin Wei; Harun, Saedah

    2010-07-01

    Astronomical limiting magnitude is an indicator for astronomer to conduct astronomical measurement at a particular site. It gives an idea to astronomer of that site what magnitude of celestial object can be measured. Langkawi National Observatory (LNO) is situated at Bukit Malut with latitude 6°18' 25'' North and longitude 99°46' 52'' East in Langkawi Island. Sky brightness measurement has been performed at this site using the standard astronomical technique. The value of the limiting magnitude measured is V = 18.6+/-1.0 magnitude. This will indicate that astronomical measurement at Langkawi observatory can only be done for celestial objects having magnitude less than V = 18.6 magnitudes.

  4. Three Worlds of the Megalithic Observatory Kokino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenev, G.

    2011-06-01

    Mountain in its symbolic presentation can be considered as a world axis and place for alliance of three worlds: heavenly world, ours or middle world and underworld. Image of the three worlds represents also intellectual establishment, proportion and unity among Gods, Cosmos and Man. The three observation posts of the Megalithic Observatory Kokino actually are symbols of those three worlds in the ancient people's imagination, defining ritual activities. At the same time, they were used for organizing all agricultural and stock breeding activities of the early agricultural communities in the wider region surrounding the ancient observatory.

  5. Required technologies for lunar astronomical observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Stewart W.; Wetzel, John P.

    1992-01-01

    Each of the major new observatories proposed to take advantage of the characteristics of the lunar environment requires appropriate advances in technology. These technologies are in the areas of contamination/interference control, test and evaluation, manufacturing, construction, autonomous operations and maintenance, power and heating/cooling, stable precision structures, optics, parabolic antennas, and communications/control. Telescopes for the lunar surface need to be engineered to operate for long periods with minimal intervention by humans or robots. What is essential for lunar observatory operation is enforcement of a systems engineering approach that makes compatible all lunar operations associated with habitation, resource development, and science.

  6. Radio frequency interference at QUASAR Network Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilin, Gennadii

    2011-07-01

    Different sources of radio frequency interference (RFI) at Quasar-network observatories and their affect on VLBIsessions are discussed. For example, the stronger of them registered last time are UMTS mobile phone base stations which were built not far from Quasar-network observatories location. These stations emit signals near 2100MHz and produce RFI of critical level. To control RFI level regular spectral measurements of the intermediate frequency signals at the outputs of the receivers are conducted. As a result, real spread of RFI sources, including DORIS, have to be taken into account in planning of VLBI observation sessions and especially it is concerned VLBI 2010 project realization.

  7. Public relations for a national observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finley, David G.

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) is a government-funded organization providing state-of-the art observational facilities to the astronomical community on a peer-reviewed basis. In this role, the NRAO must address three principal constituencies with its public-relations efforts. These are: the astronomical community; the funding and legislative bodies of the Federal Government; and the general public. To serve each of these constituencies, the Observatory has developed a set of public-relations initiatives supported by public-relations and outreach professionals as well as by management and scientific staff members. The techniques applied and the results achieved in each of these areas are described.

  8. SOFIA: The Stratospheric Observatory For Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hildebrand, Roger H.; Davidson, Jacqueline A.

    1990-01-01

    SOFIA, an airborne observatory intended to be carried aboard a Boeing 747 high performance aircraft, is described. The observatory is predicted to provide a threefold greater aperture than that of the Kuiper telescope. The Boeing aircraft will carry the 2.5 diameter telescope and its observers to altitudes of 14,000 and above where the atmosphere is very nearly transparent at all wavelengths. Various aspects and specific missions of the SOFIA project, a cooperative venture of the U.S. and Germany, are described.

  9. Science with Indian Astronomical Observatory, Hanle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, T. P.; Anupama, G. C.

    Indian Astronomical Observatory, Hanle, is the high altitude (4500 m above msl) observatory operated by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore. The 2-m Himalayan Chandra Telescope (HCT) installed in the autumn of 2000 as a first step towards a national large telescope is operated remotely from Bangalore. HCT data has resulted in 70 research publications till date, with average citations of 9.2 per paper. Some of the results are described in this brief review. The development of this high altitude site has also attracted other facilities in the area of Very High Energy gamma ray astronomy using atmospheric Čerenkov technique, and also in earth sciences.

  10. The Plate Boundary Observatory Cascadia Network: Development and Installation of a Large Scale Real-time GPS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, K. E.; Blume, F.; Berglund, H. T.; Dittman, T.; Feaux, K.; Gallaher, W. W.; Mattioli, G. S.; Mencin, D.; Walls, C. P.

    2013-12-01

    The EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), through a NSF-ARRA supplement, has enhanced the geophysical infrastructure in in the Pacific Northwest by upgrading 232 Plate Boundary Observatory GPS stations to allow the collection and distribution of high-rate (1 Hz), low-latency (<1 s) data streams (RT-GPS). These upgraded stations supplemented the original 100 RT-GPS stations in the PBO GPS network. The addition of the new RT-GPS sites in the Pacific Northwest should spur new volcano and earthquake research opportunities in an area of great scientific interest and high geophysical hazard. Streaming RT-GPS data will enable researchers to detect and investigate strong ground motion during large geophysical events, including a possible plate-interface earthquake, which has implications for earthquake hazard mitigation. A total of 282 PBO stations were upgraded and added to the UNAVCO real-time GPS system, along with addition of 22 new meteorological instruments to existing PBO stations. Extensive testing of BGAN satellite communications systems has been conducted to support the Cascadia RT-GPS upgrades and the installation of three BGAN satellite fail over systems along the Cascadia margin will allow for the continuation of data flow in the event of a loss of primary communications during in a large geophysical event or other interruptions in commercial cellular networks. In summary, with these additional upgrades in the Cascadia region, the PBO RT-GPS network will increase to 420 stations. Upgrades to UNAVCO's data infrastructure included evaluation and purchase of the Trimble Pivot Platform, servers, and additional hardware for archiving the high rate data. UNAVCO staff is working closely with the UNAVCO community to develop data standards, protocols, and a science plan for the use of RT-GPS data.

  11. Construction of a Research Observatory on a Small-College Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dire, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Coast Guard Academy (CGA) is the smallest of the five federal service academies, with approximately 900 cadets enrolled. Historically, astronomy has been an integral part of the curriculum, as evidenced by an astronomical observatory being one of the original buildings constructed in 1932 on the Academy's present campus. In the 1990s, the original observatory was in need of major renovation. Also, light pollution and development on campus made it practical to relocate the observatory 12 miles east of campus, on a large plot of rural land owned by the Coast Guard Foundation. However, no appropriated funds were available for construction of a new facility. A \\30,000 grant was obtained from the Robert T. Alexander (CGA Class of 1931) Trust for construction of a new 256-square-foot observatory. A Coast Guard civil engineer designed the building to house a 12.5-foot diameter Ash Dome . He, along with the Academy's astronomy professor, built the observatory on Saturdays over a 27-month period. Volunteers helped with the excavation, concrete work, masonry, and dome installation. The final building was appraised at \\144,000, netting a savings of \\$114,000 for CGA. Another grant from the Alexander Trust was obtained for the purchase of a new 0.51 m Ritchey-Chretien telescope manufactured by Parallax Instruments in Montgomery Center, VT. The telescope was installed in August 2002, with first light in September 2002. The observatory is used for the elective introductory astronomy course, and undergraduate and faculty research. Telescope time may be available for faculty and students from other institutions.

  12. The Material Culture of Nineteenth-Century Astrometry, its Circulation and Heritage at the Astronomical Observatory of Lisbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raposo, Pedro

    The Astronomical Observatory of Lisbon was founded in 1857 in the sequence of a controversy on stellar parallax measurements involving astronomers from the Observatory of Paris and the Observatory of Pulkovo. The development of this discussion led the contenders to recognize Lisbon as a suitable place to carry out this kind of measurements and to foster the field of stellar astronomy. Some local actors strived to keep up with this wave of international interest and establish a first-rank astronomical institution in the Portuguese capital. In order to fulfil this goal, correspondence was intensively exchanged with leading foreign astronomers and instrument makers. Besides, a Portuguese Navy officer bound to become the first director of the new institution was commissioned to visit several observatories and instrument workshops abroad, and to spend a few years in Pulkovo as a trainee astronomer. Although founded with generous financial support from the Portuguese crown and lavishly equipped and constructed, the Observatory of Lisbon was later affected by limiting budgets and a shortage of qualified personnel. Nevertheless, local efforts to improve instruments as well as observation and calculation techniques enabled its astronomers to yield important contributions to positional astronomy, especially towards the end of the nineteenth century and the beginnings of the twentieth century. The original instruments and spaces of the Observatory of Lisbon, strongly modelled on those of Pulkovo, are very well preserved, constituting an outstanding extant example of a mid-nineteenth century advanced observatory. The history they embody testifies the connectedness of the astronomical heritage worldwide.

  13. Great Wall of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER sub-image covers a 12 x 12 km area in northern Shanxi Province, China, and was acquired January 9, 2001. The low sun angle, and light snow cover highlight a section of the Great Wall, visible as a black line running diagonally through the image from lower left to upper right. The Great Wall is over 2000 years old and was built over a period of 1000 years. Stretching 4500 miles from Korea to the Gobi Desert it was first built to protect China from marauders from the north.

    This image is located at 40.2 degrees north latitude and 112.8 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and

  14. Wisconsin's Role in the First Orbiting Astronomical Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Code, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO-II) launched on December 7, 1968, was the first optical observatory to be operated above the earth's atmosphere. It contained two major instruments, the Smithsonian Celescope and the Wisconsin Experiment Package (WEP), composed of ultraviolet photometers and spectrometers. In 1957 the Soviet "Sputnik" Satellite started the race to space. The National Academy of Science circulated a letter drafted by Lloyd Berkner soliciting suggestions for scientific payloads for a 100 lb satellite. The University of Wisconsin was one of the organizations that responded with a proposal for an ultraviolet photometer. Shortly afterwards when NASA came into existence Wisconsin was one of those that received funding for a study of a 100 lb UV photometric telescope. By the time our preliminary design was completed NASA had developed a plan for an astronomical platform to support all varieties of experiments requiring pointing, power and command and data capability and payload weights over 1000 lbs. To adapt to this new dimension we clustered our telescopes and shared the volume with the four telescope of the Smithsonian Celescope. Celescope would look out one end of the spacecraft and the Wisconsin Experiment Package WEP would look out the other end. Since no one had ever done this before both NASA and ourselves had a lot to learn. One feature of our design was redundancy. The clustering contributed to this approach but there was both hardware and software redundancy throughout. This paper will describe elements of the origin of WEP, it's fabrication, operation and scientific yield

  15. Education and Outreach for the Pierre Auger Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, G.

    The scale and scope of the physics studied at the Auger Observatory offer significant opportunities for original outreach work. Education, outreach and public relations of the Auger collaboration are coordinated in a separate task whose goals are to encourage and support a wide range of education and outreach efforts that link schools and the public with the Auger scientists and the science of cosmic rays, particle physics, and associated technologies. The presentation will focus on the impact of the collaboration in Mendoza Province, Argentina, as: the Auger Visitor Center in Malargüe that has hosted over 25,000 visitors since 2001, the Auger Celebration and a collaboration-sponsored science fair held on the Observatory campus in November 2005, the opening of the James Cronin School in Malargüe in November 2006, public lectures, school visits, and courses for science teachers. As the collaboration prepares its northern hemisphere site proposal, plans for an enhanced outreach program are being developed in parallel and will be described.

  16. Possible Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Observatory Mission Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    The existence of gravitational waves was established by the discovery of the Binary Pulsar PSR 1913+16 by Hulse and Taylor in 1974, for which they were awarded the 1983 Nobel Prize. However, it is the exploitation of these gravitational waves for the extraction of the astrophysical parameters of the sources that will open the first new astronomical window since the development of gamma ray telescopes in the 1970's and enable a new era of discovery and understanding of the Universe. Direct detection is expected in at least two frequency bands from the ground before the end of the decade with Advanced LIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays. However, many of the most exciting sources will be continuously observable in the band from 0.1-100 mHz, accessible only from space due to seismic noise and gravity gradients in that band that disturb ground-based observatories. This poster will discuss a possible mission concept, Space-based Gravitational-wave Observatory (SGO-Mid) developed from the original Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) reference mission but updated to reduce risk and cost.

  17. Gravity drives Great Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Gordon; Forster, Marnie

    2010-05-01

    The most violent of Great Earthquakes are driven by ruptures on giant megathrusts adjacent to actively forming mountain belts. Current theory suggests that the seismic rupture harvests (and thus releases) elastic energy that has been previously stored in locked segments of the megathrust. The general belief, however, is that this energy was accumulated as the result of relative motion of the adjacent stiff elastic tectonic plates. This mechanism fails to explain many first order aspects of large earthquakes, however. The energy source for strain accumulation must also include gravitational collapse of orogenic crust and/or in the foundering (or roll-back) of an adjacent subducting lithospheric slab. Therefore we have conducted an analysis of the geometry of aftershocks, and report that this allows distinction of two types of failure on giant megathrusts. Mode I failure involves horizontal shortening, and is consistent with the classic view that megathrusts fail in compression, with motion analogous to that expected if accretion takes place against a rigid (or elastic) backstop. Mode II failure involves horizontal extension, and requires the over-riding plate to stretch during an earthquake. This process is likely to continue during the subsequent period of afterslip, and therefore will again be evident in aftershock patterns. Mode I behaviour may well have applied to the southern segment of the Sumatran megathrust, from whence emanated the rupture that drove the 2004 Great Earthquake. Mode II behaviour appears to apply to the northern segment of the same rupture, however. The geometry of aftershocks beneath the Andaman Sea suggest that the crust above the initial rupture failed in an extensional mode. The edge of the Indian plate is foundering, with slab-hinge roll-back in a direction orthogonal to its motion vector. The only possible cause for this extension therefore is westward roll-back of the subducting Indian plate, and the consequent gravity-driven movement

  18. Microbial diversity within Juan de Fuca ridge basement fluids sampled from oceanic borehole observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jungbluth, S.; Bowers, R.; Lin, H.; Hsieh, C.; Cowen, J. P.; Rappé, M.

    2012-12-01

    Three generations of sampling and instrumentation platforms known as Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kit (CORK) observatories affixed to Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) boreholes are providing unrivaled access to fluids originating from 1.2-3.5 million-years (Myr) old basaltic crust of the eastern flank of the Juan de Fuca ridge. Borehole fluid samples obtained via a custom seafloor fluid pumping and sampling system coupled to CORK continuous fluid delivery lines are yielding critical insights into the biogeochemistry and nature of microbial life inhabiting the sediment-covered basement environment. Direct microscopic enumeration revealed microbial cell abundances that are 2-41% of overlying bottom seawater. Snapshots of basement fluid microbial diversity and community structure have been obtained through small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene cloning and sequencing from five boreholes that access a range of basement ages and temperatures at the sediment-basement interface. SSU rRNA gene clones were derived from four different CORK installations (1026B, 1301A, 1362A, and 1362B) accessing relatively warmer (65°C) and older (3.5 Myr) ridge flank, and one location (1025C) accessing relatively cooler (39°C) and younger (1.2 Myr) ridge flank, revealing that warmer basement fluids had higher microbial diversity. A sampling time-series collected from borehole 1301A has revealed a microbial community that is temporally variable, with the dominant lineages changing between years. Each of the five boreholes sampled contained a unique microbial assemblage, however, common members are found from both cultivated and uncultivated lineages within the archaeal and bacterial domains, including meso- and thermophilic microbial lineages involved with sulfur cycling (e.g Thiomicrospira, Sulfurimonas, Desulfocapsa, Desulfobulbus). In addition, borehole fluid environmental gene clones were also closely related to uncultivated lineages

  19. A Great Moment for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-05-01

    VLT First Light Successfully Achieved The European Southern Observatory announces that First Light has been achieved with the first VLT 8.2-m Unit Telescope at the Paranal Observatory. Scientifically useful images have been obtained as scheduled, on May 25 - 26, 1998. A first analysis of these images convincingly demonstrates the exceptional potential of the ESO Very Large Telescope. Just one month after the installation and provisional adjustment of the optics, the performance of this giant telescope meets or surpasses the design goals, in particular as concerns the achievable image quality. Exposures lasting up to 10 minutes confirm that the tracking, crucial for following the diurnal rotation of the sky, is very accurate and stable. It appears that the concept developed by ESO for the construction of the VLT, namely an actively controlled, single thin mirror, yields a very superior performance. In fact, the angular resolution achieved even at this early stage is unequalled by any large ground-based telescope . The combination of large area and fine angular resolution will ultimately result in a sensitivity for point sources (e.g. stars), which is superior to any yet achieved by existing telescopes on Earth. The present series of images demonstrate these qualities and include some impressive first views with Europe's new giant telescope. After further optimization of the optical, mechanical and electronic systems, and with increasing operational streamlining, this telescope will be able to deliver unique astronomical data of the highest quality. The commissioning and science verification phases of the complex facility including instruments will last until April 1, 1999, at which time the first visiting astronomers will be received. The full significance of this achievement for astronomy will take time to assess. For Europe, this is a triumph of the collaboration between nations, institutions and industries. For the first time in almost a century, European

  20. International lunar observatory / power station: from Hawaii to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durst, S.

    Astronomy's great advantages from the Moon are well known - stable surface, diffuse atmosphere, long cool nights (14 days), low gravity, far side radio frequency silence. A large variety of astronomical instruments and observations are possible - radio, optical and infrared telescopes and interferometers; interferometry for ultra- violet to sub -millimeter wavelengths and for very long baselines, including Earth- Moon VLBI; X-ray, gamma-ray, cosmic ray and neutrino detection; very low frequency radio observation; and more. Unparalleled advantages of lunar observatories for SETI, as well as for local surveillance, Earth observation, and detection of Earth approaching objects add significant utility to lunar astronomy's superlatives. At least nine major conferences in the USA since 1984 and many elsewhere, as well as ILEWG, IAF, IAA, LEDA and other organizations' astronomy-from-the-Moon research indicate a lunar observatory / power station, robotic at first, will be one of the first mission elements for a permanent lunar base. An international lunar observatory will be a transcending enterprise, highly principled, indispensable, soundly and broadly based, and far- seeing. Via Astra - From Hawaii to the Moon: The astronomy and scie nce communities, national space agencies and aerospace consortia, commercial travel and tourist enterprises and those aspiring to advance humanity's best qualities, such as Aloha, will recognize Hawaii in the 21st century as a new major support area and pan- Pacific port of embarkation to space, the Moon and beyond. Astronomical conditions and facilities on Hawaii's Mauna Kea provide experience for construction and operation of observatories on the Moon. Remote and centrally isolated, with diffuse atmosphere, sub-zero temperature and limited working mobility, the Mauna Kea complex atop the 4,206 meter summit of the largest mountain on the planet hosts the greatest collection of large astronomical telescopes on Earth. Lunar, extraterrestrial