Science.gov

Sample records for greatly deeper shafts

  1. The Clearing of Ammonia and Deeper Clouds in the Wake of Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Baines, Kevin H.; Fry, Patrick M.

    2015-11-01

    Saturn's Great Storm of 2010-2011 produced a planet-encircling wake that slowly transitioned from a region that was mainly dark at 5 microns in February 2011 to a region that was almost entirely bright and remarkably uniform by January 2012 (Momary and Baines, 2014, AAS/DPS Meeting Abstracts). The uniformity and high emission levels suggested that the entire wake region had been cleared not only of the ammonia clouds that the storm had generated, but also of deep aerosols that normally provide significant blocking of the thermal emission from Saturn's warmer deep atmosphere. Measurements of 2.2-cm emission in May 2011 (Jannsen et al. 2013, Icarus 226, 522-535; Laraia et al. 2013, Icarus 226, 641-654) showed that the wake region was becoming "dried out" with respect to ammonia vapor, suggesting that a depletion of NH3 clouds might be occurring. Our analysis of VIMS spectra from December 2012 confirmed a clearing of NH3 particles but showed that two significant cloud layers remained behind: about 5 optical depths (at 2 microns) in a 120-530 mbar layer (needed to match levels of reflected sunlight), and an optically thick cloud near 3.5 bars (needed to limit 5-micron thermal emission). From spectra taken from the same latitude region upstream of the storm in February 2011 we inferred a similar cloud structure, with the main exception being that the deep thermal blocking layer, likely composed of NH4SH particles, was more spatially variable and at a lower effective pressure (2.9 bars vs. 3.5 bars), reducing 5-micron emission by a factor of 2 or more relative to the cleared region in the wake. While the storm head and early wake region displayed strong signatures of ammonia ice, these were not present prior to the storm, and disappeared completely as part of the wake clearing event. The main reason for the high 5-micron brightness of the cleared region is the removal of cloud particles in the region between about 500 mbar and 3.5 bars. Its exceptional horizontal

  2. Civic Education and Deeper Learning. Deeper Learning Research Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Peter; Kawashima-Ginsberg, Kei

    2015-01-01

    This report proposes that the turn toward deeper learning in education reform should go hand in hand with a renewed emphasis on high-quality civics education. Not only does deeper learning have great potential to promote civic outcomes and strengthen our democracy but, at the same time, civic education exemplifies deeper learning, in that it…

  3. Shaft adjuster

    DOEpatents

    Harry, Herbert H.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus and method for the adjustment and alignment of shafts in high power devices. A plurality of adjacent rotatable angled cylinders are positioned between a base and the shaft to be aligned which when rotated introduce an axial offset. The apparatus is electrically conductive and constructed of a structurally rigid material. The angled cylinders allow the shaft such as the center conductor in a pulse line machine to be offset in any desired alignment position within the range of the apparatus.

  4. Shaft balancing

    DOEpatents

    Irwin, John A.

    1979-01-01

    A gas turbine engine has an internal drive shaft including one end connected to a driven load and an opposite end connected to a turbine wheel and wherein the shaft has an in situ adjustable balance system near the critical center of a bearing span for the shaft including two 360.degree. rings piloted on the outer diameter of the shaft at a point accessible through an internal engine panel; each of the rings has a small amount of material removed from its periphery whereby both of the rings are precisely unbalanced an equivalent amount; the rings are locked circumferentially together by radial serrations thereon; numbered tangs on the outside diameter of each ring identify the circumferential location of unbalance once the rings are locked together; an aft ring of the pair of rings has a spline on its inside diameter that mates with a like spline on the shaft to lock the entire assembly together.

  5. Blind shaft development

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-02-15

    The article discusses how Shaft Drillers International (SDI) is breaking new ground in shaft development and ground stabilization. Techniques of blind shaft drilling and raise bore shaft development developed by SDI are briefly explained. An associated company, Coastal Drilling East, deals with all types of ground improvement such as pre-grouting work for shafts, grouting of poor soil and water leaks into the mine. 3 photos.

  6. SHAFT79 user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.; Schroeder, R.C.

    1980-03-01

    SHAFT79 (Simultaneous Heat And Fluid Transport) is an integrated finite difference program for computing two-phase non-isothermal flow in porous media. The principal application for which SHAFT79 is designed is in geothermal reservoir simulation. SHAFT79 solves the same equations as an earlier version, called SHAFT78, but uses much more efficient mathematical and numerical methods. The present SHAFT79 user's manual gives a brief account of equations and numerical methods and then describes in detail how to set up input decks for running the program. The application of SHAFT79 is illustrated by means of a few sample problems. (MHR)

  7. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, G.L.

    1998-05-05

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotatable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor. 11 figs.

  8. Bent shaft motor

    DOEpatents

    Benavides, Gilbert L.

    1998-01-01

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

  9. SEAL FOR ROTATING SHAFT

    DOEpatents

    Coffman, R.T.

    1957-12-10

    A seal is described for a rotatable shaft that must highly effective when the shaft is not rotating but may be less effective while the shaft is rotating. Weights distributed about a sealing disk secured to the shaft press the sealing disk against a tubular section into which the shiilt extends, and whem the shaft rotates, the centrifugal forces on the weights relieve the pressurc of the sealing disk against the tubular section. This action has the very desirible result of minimizing the wear of the rotating disk due to contact with the tubular section, while affording maximum sealing action when it is needed.

  10. 118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) FORWARD LOOKING AFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    118. #3 SHAFT ALLEY (PROPELLER SHAFT) - FORWARD LOOKING AFT ON PORT SIDE SHOWING THE SHAFT, SHAFT PACKING GLAND, SHAFT SEAL COOLING WATER LINE AND FIVE INCH FIRE MAIN PIPING. - U.S.S. HORNET, Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Sinclair Inlet, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  11. Circumferential shaft seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A circumferential shaft seal is described which comprises two sealing rings held to a rotating shaft by means of a surrounding elastomeric band. The rings are segmented and are of a rigid sealing material such as carbon or a polyimide and graphite fiber composite.

  12. Vertical shaft windmill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grana, D. C.; Inge, S. V., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A vertical shaft has several equally spaced blades mounted. Each blade consists of an inboard section and an outboard section skew hinged to the inboard section. The inboard sections automatically adjust their positions with respect to the fixed inboard sections with changes in velocity of the wind. This windmill design automatically governs the maximum rotational speed of shaft.

  13. Crank shaft support assembly

    DOEpatents

    Natkin, Robert J.; Oltmans, Bret; Allison, John E.; Heater, Thomas J.; Hines, Joy Adair; Tappen, Grant K.; Peiskammer, Dietmar

    2007-10-23

    A crank shaft support assembly for increasing stiffness and reducing thermal mismatch distortion in a crank shaft bore of an engine comprising different materials. A cylinder block comprises a first material and at least two crank journal inserts are insert-molded into respective crank journal regions of the cylinder block and comprise a second material having greater stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion that the first material. At least two bearing caps are bolted to the respective crank journal inserts and define, along with the crank journal inserts, at least two crank shaft support rings defining a crank shaft bore coaxially aligned with a crank shaft axis. The bearing caps comprise a material having higher stiffness and a lower thermal coefficient of expansion than the first material and are supported on the respective crank journal inserts independently of any direct connection to the cylinder block.

  14. Rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Langebrake, Clair O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transducer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  15. Rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Langebrake, C.O.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is a novel rotary shaft seal assembly which provides positive-contact sealing when the shaft is not rotated and which operates with its sealing surfaces separated by a film of compressed ambient gas whose width is independent of the speed of shaft rotation. In a preferred embodiment, the assembly includes a disc affixed to the shaft for rotation therewith. Axially movable, non-rotatable plates respectively supported by sealing bellows are positioned on either side of the disc to be in sealing engagement therewith. Each plate carries piezoelectric transucer elements which are electrically energized at startup to produce films of compressed ambient gas between the confronting surfaces of the plates and the disc. Following shutdown of the shaft, the transducer elements are de-energized. A control circuit responds to incipient rubbing between the plate and either disc by altering the electrical input to the transducer elements to eliminate rubbing.

  16. Fabricated torque shaft

    DOEpatents

    Mashey, Thomas Charles

    2002-01-01

    A fabricated torque shaft is provided that features a bolt-together design to allow vane schedule revisions with minimal hardware cost. The bolt-together design further facilitates on-site vane schedule revisions with parts that are comparatively small. The fabricated torque shaft also accommodates stage schedules that are different one from another in non-linear inter-relationships as well as non-linear schedules for a particular stage of vanes.

  17. MULTIPLE SHAFT TOOL HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Colbert, H.P.

    1962-10-23

    An improved tool head arrangement is designed for the automatic expanding of a plurality of ferruled tubes simultaneously. A plurality of output shafts of a multiple spindle drill head are driven in unison by a hydraulic motor. A plurality of tube expanders are respectively coupled to the shafts through individual power train arrangements. The axial or thrust force required for the rolling operation is provided by a double acting hydraulic cylinder having a hollow through shaft with the shaft cooperating with an internally rotatable splined shaft slidably coupled to a coupling rigidly attached to the respectlve output shaft of the drill head, thereby transmitting rotary motion and axial thrust simultaneously to the tube expander. A hydraulic power unit supplies power to each of the double acting cylinders through respective two-position, four-way valves, under control of respective solenoids for each of the cylinders. The solenoids are in turn selectively controlled by a tool selection control unit which in turn is controlled by signals received from a programmed, coded tape from a tape reader. The number of expanders that are extended in a rolling operation, which may be up to 42 expanders, is determined by a predetermined program of operations depending upon the arrangement of the ferruled tubes to be expanded in the tube bundle. The tape reader also supplies dimensional information to a machine tool servo control unit for imparting selected, horizontal and/or vertical movement to the tool head assembly. (AEC)

  18. Deeper Learning for Students with Disabilities. Deeper Learning Research Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Sharon; Danielson, Louis; Zumeta, Rebecca; Holdheide, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Office of Special Education Programs now requires states to fully disclose the precise steps they will take to ensure better outcomes for students with disabilities. This new requirement can aid educators in implementing effective practices for providing deeper learning opportunities for these students. With the…

  19. New methodology for shaft design based on life expectancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    The design of power transmission shafting for reliability has not historically received a great deal of attention. However, weight sensitive aerospace and vehicle applications and those where the penalties of shaft failure are great, require greater confidence in shaft design than earlier methods provided. This report summarizes a fatigue strength-based, design method for sizing shafts under variable amplitude loading histories for limited or nonlimited service life. Moreover, applications factors such as press-fitted collars, shaft size, residual stresses from shot peening or plating, corrosive environments can be readily accommodated into the framework of the analysis. Examples are given which illustrate the use of the method, pointing out the large life penalties due to occasional cyclic overloads.

  20. Assessing Deeper Learning. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Robert

    2011-01-01

    New assessments that measure deeper learning--whether students understand challenging content and are able to apply that knowledge to think critically, solve problems, communicate their understanding, and work with their peers--are essential if students are to develop the competencies they need to succeed in an increasingly complex world. Such…

  1. Detail of exciter turbine showing shaft, scroll case, servomotor and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of exciter turbine showing shaft, scroll case, servo-motor and operating ring (left foreground) and hand wheel for butterfly valve (right background) - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Dam and Powerhouse, Morony Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  2. Shaft Position Optical Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Hakum, Claef F. (Inventor); Johnson, Clarence S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an optical sensor that senses the movement of a shaft. Detection of radial movement is made when a portion of light incident on the shaft sensor-target is blocked. For detection of axial movement, a disk with flat surface is mounted and used to block a portion of light. The variation in the amount of light allowed to pass through is a measure of the position of the shaft. As proposed by this invention, significant improvement is made with respect to sensitivity and linearity of the system when the light is permanently partially blocked. To accomplish this goal this invention adds a boss to the system. To eliminate possible drift of system performance due to LED degradation or temperature variation, a feedback feature is added to the system.

  3. Polygonal shaft hole rotor

    DOEpatents

    Hussey, John H.; Rose, John Scott; Meystrik, Jeffrey J.; White, Kent Lee

    2001-01-23

    A laminated rotor for an induction motor has a plurality of ferro-magnetic laminations mounted axially on a rotor shaft. Each of the plurality of laminations has a central aperture in the shape of a polygon with sides of equal length. The laminations are alternatingly rotated 180.degree. from one another so that the straight sides of the polygon shaped apertures are misaligned. As a circular rotor shaft is press fit into a stack of laminations, the point of maximum interference occurs at the midpoints of the sides of the polygon (i.e., at the smallest radius of the central apertures of the laminations). Because the laminates are alternatingly rotated, the laminate material at the points of maximum interference yields relatively easily into the vertices (i.e., the greatest radius of the central aperture) of the polygonal central aperture of the next lamination as the shaft is inserted into the stack of laminations. Because of this yielding process, the amount of force required to insert the shaft is reduced, and a tighter fit is achieved.

  4. Shaft seal system

    DOEpatents

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1985-01-01

    A shaft seal system is disclosed for isolating two regions of different fluid mediums through which a rotatable shaft extends. The seal system includes a seal housing through which the shaft extends and which defines an annular land and an annular labyrinth both of which face on the shaft so that each establishes a corresponding fluid sealing annulus. A collection cavity is formed in communication with the annular sealing spaces, and fluids compatible with the fluids in each of the two regions to be isolated are introduced, respectively, into the annular sealing spaces and collected in the collection cavity from which the fluid mixture is removed and passed to a separator which separates the fluids and returns them to their respective annular sealing spaces in a recycling manner. In the illustrated embodiment, the isolated fluid mediums comprise a liquid region and a gas region. Gas is removed from the gas region and passed through a purifier and a gas pump operative to introduce the purified gas through the labyrinth sealing annulus to the collection cavity. After passing to the separator, the separated gas is passed through a dryer from which the dried gas is caused to pass through the labyrinth sealing annulus into the collection cavity independently of the purified gas so as to insure isolation of the gas region in the event of sealing gas pump malfunction.

  5. Shaft generator transmissions

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Economical on-board power can be generated from two-stroke, low-speed engines by installing a multistage hollow-shaft gearbox on the propeller intermediate shaft to drive the generator. Gearbox manufacturer Asug, based in Dessau, Germany, has designed units specifically for this purpose. The Asug shaft generator drive concept for generator drives at the front end of the engine is designed to reduce installation costs and uses an integrated engine-gearbox foundation. The complete propulsion system, consisting of the diesel engine, gear with coupling and generator, can be completely or partially preassembled outside the ship`s engine room to reduce onboard assembly time. A separate foundation for this arrangement is not necessary. The company offers a full range of gearboxes to generate power from 500 kW up to 5000 kW. Gearboxes driven from the forward engine end often incorporate an additional gear stage to gain energy from an exhaust turbine. This arrangement feeds part of the exhaust energy back into the system to increase efficiency. Latest installations of Asug shaft generator gears are in container ships and cargo/container ships built in Turkey and China.

  6. Gravity in a Mine Shaft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Peter M.; Hall, David J.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the effects of gravity, local density compared to the density of the earth, the mine shaft, centrifugal force, and air buoyancy on the weight of an object at the top and at the bottom of a mine shaft. (JRH)

  7. U1h shaft project

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Briggs; R. G. Musick

    2000-06-30

    The U1h shaft project is a design/build subcontract to construct one 20 foot (ft) finished diameter shaft to a depth of 1,045 ft at the Nevada Test Site. Atkinson Construction was subcontracted by Bechtel Nevada to construct the U1h Shaft for the Department of Energy. The project consists of furnishing and installing the sinking plant, construction of the 1,045 ft of concrete lined shaft, development of a shaft station at a depth of 976 ft, and construction of a loading pocket at the station. The outfitting of the shaft and installation of a new hoist may be incorporated into the project at a later date. This paper should be of interest to those involved with the construction of relatively deep shafts and underground excavations.

  8. HUMERAL SHAFT FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Benegas, Eduardo; Ferreira Neto, Arnaldo Amado; Neto, Raul Bolliger; Santis Prada, Flavia de; Malavolta, Eduardo Angeli; Marchitto, Gustavo Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Humeral shaft fractures (HSFs) represent 3% of the fractures of the locomotor apparatus, and the middle third of the shaft is the section most affected. In the majority of cases, it is treated using nonsurgical methods, but surgical indications in HSF cases are increasingly being adopted. The diversity of opinions makes it difficult to reach a consensus regarding the types of osteosynthesis, surgical technique and quantity and quality of synthesis materials that should be used. It would appear that specialists are far from reaching a consensus regarding the best method for surgical treatment of HSFs. We believe that less invasive methods, which favor relative stability, are the most appropriate methods, since the most feared complications are less frequent. PMID:27019833

  9. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L.; Schroeder, John E.; Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Alvarez, Patricio D.

    2010-09-21

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  10. Rotary shaft sealing assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie L; Schroeder, John E; Kalsi, Manmohan S; Alvarez, Patricio D

    2013-08-13

    A rotary shaft sealing assembly in which a first fluid is partitioned from a second fluid in a housing assembly having a rotary shaft located at least partially within. In one embodiment a lip seal is lubricated and flushed with a pressure-generating seal ring preferably having an angled diverting feature. The pressure-generating seal ring and a hydrodynamic seal may be used to define a lubricant-filled region with each of the seals having hydrodynamic inlets facing the lubricant-filled region. Another aspect of the sealing assembly is having a seal to contain pressurized lubricant while withstanding high rotary speeds. Another rotary shaft sealing assembly embodiment includes a lubricant supply providing a lubricant at an elevated pressure to a region between a lip seal and a hydrodynamic seal with a flow control regulating the flow of lubricant past the lip seal. The hydrodynamic seal may include an energizer element having a modulus of elasticity greater than the modulus of elasticity of a sealing lip of the hydrodynamic seal.

  11. Forging Long Shafts On Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilghman, Chris; Askey, William; Hopkins, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Isothermal-forging apparatus produces long shafts integral with disks. Equipment based on modification of conventional isothermal-forging equipment, required stroke cut by more than half. Enables forging of shafts as long as 48 in. (122 cm) on typical modified conventional forging press, otherwise limited to making shafts no longer than 18 in. (46cm). Removable punch, in which forged material cools after plastic deformation, essential novel feature of forging apparatus. Technology used to improve such products as components of gas turbines and turbopumps and of other shaft/disk parts for powerplants, drive trains, or static structures.

  12. Using Ada: The deeper challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, David A.

    1986-01-01

    The Ada programming language and the associated Ada Programming Support Environment (APSE) and Ada Run Time Environment (ARTE) provide the potential for significant life-cycle cost reductions in computer software development and maintenance activities. The Ada programming language itself is standardized, trademarked, and controlled via formal validation procedures. Though compilers are not yet production-ready as most would desire, the technology for constructing them is sufficiently well known and understood that time and money should suffice to correct current deficiencies. The APSE and ARTE are, on the other hand, significantly newer issues within most software development and maintenance efforts. Currently, APSE and ARTE are highly dependent on differing implementer concepts, strategies, and market objectives. Complex and sophisticated mission-critical computing systems require the use of a complete Ada-based capability, not just the programming language itself; yet the range of APSE and ARTE features which must actually be utilized can vary significantly from one system to another. As a consequence, the need to understand, objectively evaluate, and select differing APSE and ARTE capabilities and features is critical to the effective use of Ada and the life-cycle efficiencies it is intended to promote. It is the selection, collection, and understanding of APSE and ARTE which provide the deeper challenges of using Ada for real-life mission-critical computing systems. Some of the current issues which must be clarified, often on a case-by-case basis, in order to successfully realize the full capabilities of Ada are discussed.

  13. Shaft drilling rig

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.; Ajiro, S.

    1986-06-17

    A shaft drilling rig is described which consists of: a supporting structure for a drill string having a plurality of components for drilling a shaft into the earth by imparting a turning and thrust for drilling at least to a drill bit on the drill string, the drilling being down to a predetermined depth, and then a further drill string component having at least at the bottom end thereof an inner wall extending substantially in the axial direction of the component being newly added to the drill string for further drilling; means for receiving at least the bottom end of the further drill string component and for supporting it, and having a member with the outer circumference engageable with the inner wall of the further component, the receiving means supporting the further drill string component in a free standing position; means for supporting the receiving means and having a guiding device for guiding the receiving means between a position where the further drill string component is to be added to the drill string and a parking position spaced laterally of the drill string from the first mentioned position; and means for holding a lower part of the drill string which has been separated from the upper part of the drill string preparatory to adding the further drill string component so that the axis of the lower part is substantially aligned with the drilling direction.

  14. [Approaches to radial shaft].

    PubMed

    Bartoníček, J; Naňka, O; Tuček, M

    2015-10-01

    In the clinical practice, radial shaft may be exposed via two approaches, namely the posterolateral Thompson and volar (anterior) Henry approaches. A feared complication of both of them is the injury to the deep branch of the radial nerve. No consensus has been reached, yet, as to which of the two approaches is more beneficial for the proximal half of radius. According to our anatomical studies and clinical experience, Thompson approach is safe only in fractures of the middle and distal thirds of the radial shaft, but highly risky in fractures of its proximal third. Henry approach may be used in any fracture of the radial shaft and provides a safe exposure of the entire lateral and anterior surfaces of the radius.The Henry approach has three phases. In the first phase, incision is made along the line connecting the biceps brachii tendon and the styloid process of radius. Care must be taken not to damage the lateral cutaneous nerve of forearm.In the second phase, fascia is incised and the brachioradialis identified by the typical transition from the muscle belly to tendon and the shape of the tendon. On the lateral side, the brachioradialis lines the space with the radial artery and veins and the superficial branch of the radial nerve running at its bottom. On the medial side, the space is defined by the pronator teres in the proximal part and the flexor carpi radialis in the distal part. The superficial branch of the radial nerve is retracted together with the brachioradialis laterally, and the radial artery medially.In the third phase, the attachment of the pronator teres is identified by its typical tendon in the middle of convexity of the lateral surface of the radial shaft. The proximal half of the radius must be exposed very carefully in order not to damage the deep branch of the radial nerve. Dissection starts at the insertion of the pronator teres and proceeds proximally along its lateral border in interval between this muscle and insertion of the supinator

  15. Shaft seal assembly and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keba, John E. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A pressure-actuated shaft seal assembly and associated method for controlling the flow of fluid adjacent a rotatable shaft are provided. The seal assembly includes one or more seal members that can be adjusted between open and closed positions, for example, according to the rotational speed of the shaft. For example, the seal member can be configured to be adjusted according to a radial pressure differential in a fluid that varies with the rotational speed of the shaft. In addition, in the closed position, each seal member can contact a rotatable member connected to the shaft to form a seal with the rotatable member and prevent fluid from flowing through the assembly. Thus, the seal can be closed at low speeds of operation and opened at high speeds of operation, thereby reducing the heat and wear in the seal assembly while maintaining a sufficient seal during all speeds of operation.

  16. Shaft sinking method

    SciTech Connect

    Sainsbury, G.M.

    1987-10-20

    A method is described of sinking shafts comprising excavating a series of lifts wherein each lift is excavated by drilling a pattern of blast holes for the full depth of the lift boring a large diameter hole for the full depth of the lift. Then creating a chamber only at the lower end of the large diameter hole, blasting a portion of the walls of the chamber to deposit rock material into the chamber, extracting at least a portion of the rock material created by the blast and repeating the blasting and extraction step throughout the length of the lift from the bottom to the top and when the volume of the lift is blasted extracting the remaining rock broken material.

  17. Vibration reduction on automotive shafts using piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, Holger; Riedel, Mathias; Schmidt, Knut; Bianchini, Emanuele

    2003-08-01

    This paper reports an experimental study on active vibration reduction for automotive shafts with the use of piezoelectric material. The work focuses on an axle of an Audi A2. The demand in the automobile sector for higher comfort in the vehicle is of a great importance alongside the requirements of lighter weight and low fuel consumption. These requirements are typically in conflict with each other. One solution is the use of intelligent materials instead of viscoelastic materials and proof mass absorbers. These solutions are quite heavy especially at low frequencies. Active vibration control and piezoelectric devices are advantageous in this application due to their low mass to performance ratio. Our research study explores the use of such piezoelectric devices for an axle. In conjunction with electronics it will reduce vibrations in the first natural bending mode of the axle. Laboratory tests simulated the condition present in the road. At first a stationary set up was used, then a simulated disturbance was input at the attachment points of the shaft. Finally, a test with rotating shaft was performed. Piezoelectric devices (custom QuickPacks from ACX, a Division of Cymer) were used as sensors and as actuators to properly control the axle during the different operating conditions. The power consumption of each actuator pair was less than 20W. The work described here details the test setup, the control strategy, the hardware implementation as well as the test results obtained.

  18. Dual rotating shaft seal apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Griggs, J.E.; Newman, H.J.

    1983-06-16

    The report is directed to apparatus suitable for transferring torque and rotary motion through a wall in a manner which is essentially gas impermeable. The apparatus can be used for pressurizing, agitating, and mixing fluids and features two ferrofluidic, i.e., ferrometic seals. Each seal is disposed on one of two supported shafts and each shaft is operably connected at one end to a gear mechanism and at its other end to an adjustable coupling means which is to be connected to a rotatable shaft extending through a wall through which torque and rotary motion are to be transferred.

  19. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2015-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures. PMID:27026999

  20. Designing Deeper Learning Experiences for Online Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czerkawski, Betul C.

    2014-01-01

    Deeper learning promotes students' active engagement in learning environments, so they can continuously explore, reflect and produce information to build complex knowledge structures. Consequently, deeper learning has become a major focus of scholarly investigation and debate. Multiple studies have been conducted to describe the…

  1. Evidence of Deeper Learning Outcomes: Findings from the Study of Deeper Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, James

    2014-01-01

    The "Study of Deeper Learning: Opportunities and Outcomes", funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, is a "proof-of-concept" study to determine whether students attending high schools with a mature and at least moderately well-implemented approach to promoting deeper learning experience greater deeper learning…

  2. Process for sinking of shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Kissich, A.; Schetina, O.; Wrulich, H.; Zitz, A.

    1983-04-12

    For sinking of shafts, a cutting machine is provided having its cutting arm pivotable around a vertical axis and a horizontal axis. The cutting arm carries cutting heads which are rotatable around an axis horizontally arranged and extending perpendicularly relative to the axis of the cutting arm. The shaft is now sunk around its circumference in direction of its axis, for which purpose first the uppermost lead of a screw surface is prepared. On this uppermost lead of the screw surface the cutting machine is advanced until the cutting heads contact the shaft wall. In the following, a floor cut is made whereupon a further floor cut is made at a lower level. Starting from a corresponding position of the cutting machine surfaces are cut free starting from the shaft wall. This manner of operation is continued thereby repeating the previous process steps until the whole screw surface is cut free, the cutting machine thereby being moved in backward direction. Any area possibly remaining close to the axis of the shaft and being not within the operating range of the cutting arm can subsequently be broken away or be removed by cutting operating in another position of the cutting machine.

  3. Axle Shaft Optical Inspection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freese, Fritz; Geise, Philip; George, Eugene; Singh, Tom

    1980-11-01

    An electro-optical instrument to gauge automotive rear axle shafts is described. A high contrast image of the axle lug flange is projected via a high quality photographic lens on two self-scanning linear photodiode arrays. In one three-second rotation, a dedicated digital processor measures bolt circle location, hole diameter and separation. The unit automatically: compares each measurement with preset tolerances, computes the average bolt circle diameter, computes the bolt circle runout, makes a pass/fail decision, provides a digital readout, marks the axle shaft with colored ink and provides the operator a pass/fail light.

  4. An exploratory shaft facility in SALT: Draft shaft study plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    This draft Shaft Study Plan describes a program of testing and monitoring in the Exploratory Shafts of a candidate high-level nuclear waste repository site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The purpose of the programs to assist with site characterization in support of a determination of site suitability for development as a repository design and performance assessment evaluations. The program includes a variety of geological, geophysical, geomechanical, thermomechanical, and geohydrological testing and monitoring. The program is presented as a series of separate studies concerned with geological, geomechanical, and geohydrological site characterization, and with evaluating the mechanical and hydrological response of the site to construction of the shafts. The various studies, and associated test or monitoring methods are shown. The procedure used in developing the test program has been to initially identify the information necessary to satisfy (1) federal, state, and local requirements, and (2) repository program requirements. These information requirements have then been assessed to determine which requirements can be addressed wholly or in significant part by monitoring and testing from within the shafts. Test methods have been identified to address specific information requirements. 67 refs., 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  5. Shaft encoder presents digital output

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillis, D. A.

    1966-01-01

    Circuits that include compensation circuitry time a capacitance relative to a reference voltage so that a digital presentation occurs that is representative of the positional condition of the mechanical shaft being monitored. This circuitry may be employed in multiples to furnish binary encoding of a number of rotating devices simultaneously.

  6. Geotechnical instrumentation for repository shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Lentell, R.L.; Byrne, J.

    1993-09-01

    The US Congress passed the Nuclear Waste Policy Act in 1980, which required that three distinctly different geologic media be investigated as potential candidate sites for the permanent disposal of high-level nuclear waste. The three media that were selected for study were basalt (WA), salt (TX, LA, MS, UT), and tuff (NV). Preliminary Exploratory Shaft Facilities (ESF) designs were prepared for seven candidate salt sites, including bedded and domal salt environments. A bedded-salt site was selected in Deaf Smith County, TX for detailed site characterization studies and ESF Final Design. Although Congress terminated the Salt Repository Program in 1988, Final Design for the Deaf Smith ESF was completed, and much of the design rationale can be applied to subsequent deep repository shafts. This paper presents the rationale for the geotechnical instrumentation that was designed for construction and operational performance monitoring of the deep shafts of the in-situ test facility. The instrumentation design described herein can be used as a general framework in designing subsequent instrumentation programs for future high-level nuclear waste repository shafts.

  7. Repairing A Shaft Prone To Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Roger A.; Larsen, David V.; Bates, Garold A.

    1991-01-01

    Shaft of hydraulic motor now outlives its bearings. Procedure for repairing John Deere Series 50 (or equivalent) hydraulic motor solves problem posed by common type of fatigue failure of shaft. Includes forming internally threaded hole in end of shaft, inserting double-threaded end stud, and adding washers and collars.

  8. 30 CFR 57.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft sets. 57.19106 Section 57.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19106 Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material....

  9. 30 CFR 56.19106 - Shaft sets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft sets. 56.19106 Section 56.19106 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Shaft sets. Shaft sets shall be kept in good repair and clean of hazardous material....

  10. Shaft Coupler With Friction and Spline Clutches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thebert, Glenn W.

    1987-01-01

    Coupling, developed for rotor of lift/cruise aircraft, employs two clutches for smooth transmission of power from gas-turbine engine to rotor. Prior to ascent, coupling applies friction-type transition clutch that accelerates rotor shaft to speeds matching those of engine shaft. Once shafts synchronized, spline coupling engaged and friction clutch released to provide positive mechanical drive.

  11. 30 CFR 56.19102 - Shaft guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft guides. 56.19102 Section 56.19102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Shaft guides. A means shall be provided to guide the movement of a shaft conveyance....

  12. 30 CFR 57.19102 - Shaft guides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft guides. 57.19102 Section 57.19102 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND....19102 Shaft guides. A means shall be provided to guide the movement of a shaft conveyance....

  13. 14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shafting joints. 27.935 Section 27.935... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must...

  14. 14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shafting joints. 29.935 Section 29.935... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation...

  15. 14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shafting joints. 29.935 Section 29.935... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation...

  16. 14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shafting joints. 29.935 Section 29.935... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation...

  17. 14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shafting joints. 27.935 Section 27.935... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must...

  18. 14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shafting joints. 27.935 Section 27.935... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must...

  19. 14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shafting joints. 27.935 Section 27.935... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must...

  20. 14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shafting joints. 29.935 Section 29.935... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation...

  1. 14 CFR 29.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shafting joints. 29.935 Section 29.935... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation...

  2. 14 CFR 27.935 - Shafting joints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shafting joints. 27.935 Section 27.935... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.935 Shafting joints. Each universal joint, slip joint, and other shafting joints whose lubrication is necessary for operation must...

  3. Outsourcing goes to a deeper level.

    PubMed

    Davies, Julie

    2003-12-01

    Medical device manufacturers and diagnostics companies are among the fastest adopters of the outsourcing model. This article outlines how a deeper level of outsourcing is evolving and how this will transform just about every part of a company's business. PMID:14981887

  4. Providing Opportunities for Deeper Learning: Findings from the Study of Deeper Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Catherine; O'Day, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The "Study of Deeper Learning: Opportunities and Outcomes," funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, is a "proof-of-concept" study to determine whether students attending high schools with a mature and at least moderately well-implemented approach to promoting "deeper learning" experience greater deeper…

  5. Measurement of shaft diameters by machine vision.

    PubMed

    Wei, Guang; Tan, Qingchang

    2011-07-01

    A machine vision method for accurately measuring the diameters of cylindrical shafts is presented. Perspective projection and the geometrical features of cylindrical shafts are modeled in order to enable accurate measurement of shaft diameters. Some of the model parameters are determined using a shaft of known diameter. The camera model itself includes radial and tangential distortions terms. Experiments were used to measure the accuracy of the proposed method and the effect of the position of the camera relative to the shaft, as well as other factors. PMID:21743525

  6. Shaft Diameter Measurement Using Structured Light Vision

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Siyuan; Tan, Qingchang; Zhang, Yachao

    2015-01-01

    A method for measuring shaft diameters is presented using structured light vision measurement. After calibrating a model of the structured light measurement, a virtual plane is established perpendicular to the measured shaft axis and the image of the light stripe on the shaft is projected to the virtual plane. On the virtual plane, the center of the measured shaft is determined by fitting the projected image under the geometrical constraints of the light stripe, and the shaft diameter is measured by the determined center and the projected image. Experiments evaluated the measuring accuracy of the method and the effects of some factors on the measurement are analyzed. PMID:26274963

  7. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This book contains lesson plans that provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into elementary subjects. The book is divided into three subject areas: (1) History, which includes the origins of the Great Lakes, Great Lakes people, and shipwrecks; (2) Social Studies, which covers government, acid rain as a…

  8. Hermetic seal for a shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lombardi, F. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An hermetic seal for a linear rod having a portion thereof projected axially through a port defined in a wall for a pressure chamber and supported thereby for omni-directional motion is described. The seal is characterized by a resilient, impervious, cylindrical body having a first section concentrically related to the shaft and integrally affixed thereto comprising a linear ordered array of annular flutes. A second section integrally is affixed to the wall of the chamber and concentrically related to the port comprising a second linear ordered array of annular flutes. A third section is interposed between the first and second sections and integrally affixed in coaxial alignment therewith comprising an annular ordered array of linear flutes concentrically related to the shaft, whereby axial, angular, and pivotal motion of the rod is accommodated.

  9. Great Lakes: Great Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Sea Grant Inst., Albany, NY.

    This folder contains 12 fact sheets designed to improve the quality of gardens near the Great Lakes. The titles are: (1) "Your Garden and the Great Lakes"; (2) "Organic Gardening"; (3) "Fruit and Vegetable Gardening"; (4) "Composting Yard Wastes"; (5) "Herbicides and Water Quality"; (6) "Watering"; (7) "Soil Erosion by Water"; (8) "Soil…

  10. Securing Bearing Races To Turbopump Shafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, Dale H.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed method of attaching inner race of roller bearing to shaft prevents loosening now caused by difference between coefficients of thermal expansion of race and shaft materials. Intended for cryogenic turbopump in which race made of 440C stainless-steel alloy and shaft made of Inconel(R) 100 nickel alloy. Flanges of race replaced by tension bands that shrink faster as they are cooled. Tension band engages race on slightly sloping surface so axial forces do not dislodge it.

  11. Management of Humeral Shaft Fractures; Non-Operative Versus Operative

    PubMed Central

    Clement, Nicholas D.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Functional humeral bracing remains the gold standard for treatment of humeral shaft fractures. There is an increasing trend in the literature to perform operative fixation of these fractures. Evidence Acquisition: The aim of this systematic review was to compare the level one evidence for the outcome of non-operative with operative management of humeral shaft fractures in adults. A comprehensive electronic literature search of Medline and PubMed was performed with specific inclusion criteria to identify randomized controlled trials. Results: In total, seventeen different studies were identified from the search terms and combinations used. Only one study met the inclusion criteria; however, this was a published study protocol of an ongoing trial currently being conducted. One additional published protocol for an ongoing trial was also identified, but this was for a prospective comparative observational study. Although this latter study may not be level one evidence, it would offer great insight into the functional outcome of humeral shaft fractures and economic implications of operative management, which is currently not addressed in the literature. Two retrospective comparative studies were also identified, one of which demonstrated a significantly lower rate of nonunion and malunion in those patients undergoing operative management. Conclusions: This systematic review demonstrated a deficiency in the current literature of level one evidence available for the management of humeral shaft fractures. The current ongoing randomized control trail would offer a greater insight into the management of humeral shaft fractures and help confirm or refute the current literature. If this randomized control trial affirms the reduction in the rate of nonunion with operative fixation, a cost economic analysis is essential. As it would seem to offer operative management to all patients may be over treatment and not to offer this at all would undertreat. PMID:26401493

  12. Unitary Shaft-Angle and Shaft-Speed Sensor Assemblies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alhorn, Dean C.; Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.

    2006-01-01

    The figure depicts a unit that contains a rotary-position or a rotary-speed sensor, plus electronic circuitry necessary for its operation, all enclosed in a single housing with a shaft for coupling to an external rotary machine. This rotation sensor unit is complete: when its shaft is mechanically connected to that of the rotary machine and it is supplied with electric power, it generates an output signal directly indicative of the rotary position or speed, without need for additional processing by other circuitry. The incorporation of all of the necessary excitatory and readout circuitry into the housing (in contradistinction to using externally located excitatory and/or readout circuitry) in a compact arrangement is the major difference between this unit and prior rotation-sensor units. The sensor assembly inside the housing includes excitatory and readout integrated circuits mounted on a circular printed-circuit board. In a typical case in which the angle or speed transducer(s) utilize electromagnetic induction, the assembly also includes another circular printed-circuit board on which the transducer windings are mounted. A sheet of high-magnetic permeability metal ("mu metal") is placed between the winding board and the electronic-circuit board to prevent spurious coupling of excitatory signals from the transducer windings to the readout circuits. The housing and most of the other mechanical hardware can be common to a variety of different sensor designs. Hence, the unit can be configured to generate any of variety of outputs by changing the interior sensor assembly. For example, the sensor assembly could contain an analog tachometer circuit that generates an output proportional (in both magnitude and sign or in magnitude only) to the speed of rotation.

  13. Spiral groove seal. [for hydraulic rotating shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Mating flat surfaces inhibit leakage of a fluid around a stationary shaft. A spiral groove pattern produces a pumping action toward the fluid when the shaft rotates which prevents leakage while a generated hydraulic lifting force separates the mating surfaces to minimize wear.

  14. Great Minds? Great Lakes!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Great Lakes National Program Office.

    This booklet introduces an environmental curriculum for use in a variety of elementary subjects. The lesson plans provide an integrated approach to incorporating Great Lakes environmental issues into the subjects of history, social studies, and environmental sciences. Each of these sections contains background information, discussion points, and a…

  15. Exhaust powered drive shaft torque enhancer

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, A.B.

    1986-09-30

    This patent describes a power producing combination including an internal combustion engine and a mounting frame therefor, and power transmission means including rotating drive shaft means connected to the engine. The improvement described here is a drive shaft torque enhancing device, the device comprising: a multiplicity of blades secured to the drive shaft, equally spaced therearound, each generally lying in a plane containing the axis of the drive shaft; torque enhancer feed duct means for selectively directing a stream of exhaust gases from the engine to impact against the blades to impart torque to the drive shaft; and wherein the power producing combination is used in a vehicle, the vehicle having braking means including a brake pedal; and the power producing combination further comprising torque enhancer disengagement means responsive to motion of the brake pedal.

  16. Passive magnetic bearing for a horizontal shaft

    DOEpatents

    Post, Richard F.

    2003-12-02

    A passive magnetic bearing is composed of a levitation element and a restorative element. The levitation element is composed of a pair of stationary arcuate ferromagnetic segments located within an annular radial-field magnet array. The magnet array is attached to the inner circumference of a hollow shaft end. An attractive force between the arcuate segments and the magnet array acts vertically to levitate the shaft, and also in a horizontal transverse direction to center the shaft. The restorative element is comprised of an annular Halbach array of magnets and a stationary annular circuit array located within the Halbach array. The Halbach array is attached to the inner circumference of the hollow shaft end. A repulsive force between the Halbach array and the circuit array increases inversely to the radial space between them, and thus acts to restore the shaft to its equilibrium axis of rotation when it is displaced therefrom.

  17. Shaft Sinking at the Nevada Test Site, U1h Shaft Project

    SciTech Connect

    B. Briggs; R. Musick

    2001-03-01

    The U1h Shaft Project is a design/build subcontract to construct one 6.1 meter (m) (20 feet (ft)) finished diameter shaft to a depth of 321.6 m (1,055 ft.) at the Nevada Test Site. Atkinson Construction was subcontracted by Bechtel Nevada to construct the U1h Shaft for the U.S. Department of Energy. The project consists of furnishing and installing the sinking plant, construction of the 321.6 m (1,055 ft.) of concrete lined shaft, development of a shaft station at a depth of 297.5 m (976 ft.), and construction of a loading pocket at the station. The outfitting of the shaft and installation of a new hoist may be incorporated into the project at a later date. This paper will describe the design phase, the excavation and lining operation, shaft station construction and the contractual challenges encountered on this project.

  18. The Role of Digital Technologies in Deeper Learning. Students at the Center: Deeper Learning Research Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dede, Chris

    2014-01-01

    To compete in today's global, knowledge-based, innovation-centered economy, young people must go beyond a high school diploma and acquire not just academic knowledge, but interpersonal and interpersonal capacities. That is, they must engage in deeper learning. As schools shift away from traditional education models in favor or providing deeper…

  19. Going deeper: teaching more than the mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruck, R. A.

    2013-02-01

    What follows is a description of an introductory holography course titled "Lasers and Holography," taught by the author at Columbia College Chicago since 1997. Because this is a science class at an arts college with an open admissions policy, these students have many different levels of education, dissimilar backgrounds, and varied fields of interest. There are few science majors. Therefore, specific learning objectives are developed. The author contends that for many of these students it is not enough to teach the physics of making holograms. To inspire and instill a lifelong appreciation for science and physics, one must go still deeper. Students need to be touched on more than just an intellectual level. Consequently, a broader approach is used. Ultimately, it may stir students to want to learn more, and to be confident they can. The paper addresses: 1) Becoming aware of one's individual state of seeing 2) Perceptual illusions: their impact on the advancement of science 3) Promoting artistic applications and exposing students to fine art holography 4) Teaching holography as an information processing, as well as an image-making technology 5) Introducing and exploring philosophical implications of holographic principles.

  20. Shaft/shaft-seal interface characteristics of a multiple disk centrifugal blood pump.

    PubMed

    Manning, K B; Miller, G E

    1999-06-01

    A multiple disk centrifugal pump (MDCP) is under investigation as a potential left ventricular assist device. As is the case with most shaft driven pumps, leakage problems around the shaft/shaft seal interface are of major interest. If leakage were to occur during or after implantation, potential events such as blood loss, clotting, blood damage, and/or infections might result in adverse effects for the patient. Because these effects could be quite disastrous, potential shaft and shaft seal materials have been investigated to determine the most appropriate course to limit these effects. Teflon and nylon shaft seals were analyzed as potential candidates along with a stainless steel shaft and a Melonite coated shaft. The materials and shafts were evaluated under various time durations (15, 30, 45, and 60 min), motor speeds (800, 1,000, 1,200, and 1,400 rpm), and outer diameters (1/2 and 3/4 inches). The motor speed and geometrical configurations were typical for the MDCP under normal physiologic conditions. An air and water study was conducted to analyze the inner diameter wear, the inner temperature values, and the outer temperature values. Statistical comparisons were computed for the shaft seal materials, the shafts, and the outer diameters along with the inner and outer temperatures. The conclusions made from the results indicate that both the tested shaft seal materials and shaft materials are not ideal candidates to be used for the MDCP. Teflon experienced a significant amount of wear in air and water studies. Nylon did experience little wear, but heat generation was an evident problem. A water study on nylon was not conducted because of its molecular structure. PMID:10392284

  1. Repair of the Czar Shaft sinkhole

    SciTech Connect

    Deatherage, J.D.; Starkey, J.; Gustavson, N.

    1996-12-31

    After a Portion of the Queen Mine parking lot collapsed into a sinkhole, an engineering study was conducted to confirm that the cause of the damage was settlement into the Czar Shaft in Bisbee, Arizona. Historical records were researched to describe and locate the original shaft, and a seismic refraction survey was performed to define the foundation conditions within and around the shaft. Recommended mitigation measures were developed to repair the parking lot. Mitigation included design and construction of a flexible geosynthetic cap and telltale settlement monitoring system.

  2. Evidence of Deeper Learning Outcomes. Findings from the Study of Deeper Learning Opportunities and Outcomes: Report 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeiser, Kristina L.; Taylor, James; Rickles, Jordan; Garet, Michael S.; Segeritz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The "Study of Deeper Learning: Opportunities and Outcomes"--funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation--aimed to determine whether students attending high schools with a mature and at least moderately well implemented approach to promoting deeper learning actually experienced greater deeper learning opportunities and outcomes…

  3. Providing Opportunities for Deeper Learning. Findings from the Study of Deeper Learning Opportunities and Outcomes: Report 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Catherine; Taylor, James; Zeiser, Kristina L.; Rickles, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    The "Study of Deeper Learning: Opportunities and Outcomes"--funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation--aimed to determine whether students attending high schools with a mature and at least moderately well implemented approach to promoting deeper learning actually experienced greater deeper learning opportunities and outcomes…

  4. Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Subsystem (OMS) Engine Propellant Leakage Ball-Valve Shaft Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueders, Kathy; Buntain, Nick; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Evidence of propellant leakage across ball-valve shaft seals has been noted during the disassembly of five flight engines and one test engine at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, White Sands Test Facility. Based on data collected during the disassembly of these five engines, the consequences of propellant leakage across the ball-valve shaft seals can be divided into four primary areas of concern: Damage to the ball-valve pinion shafts, damage to sleeved bearings inside the ball-valve and actuator assemblies, degradation of the synthetic rubber o-rings used in the actuator assemblies, and corrosion and degradation to the interior of the actuator assemblies. The exact time at which leakage across the ball-valve shaft seals occurs has not been determined, however, the leakage most likely occurs during engine firings when, depending on the specification used, ball-valve cavity pressures range as high as 453 to 550 psia. This potential pressure range for the ball-valve cavities greatly exceeds the acceptance leakage test pressure of 332 psia. Since redesign and replacement of the ball-valve shaft seals is unlikely, the near term solution to prevent damage that occurs from shaft-seal leakage is to implement a routine overhaul and maintenance program for engines in the fleet. Recommended repair, verification, and possible preventative maintenance measures are discussed in the paper.

  5. The Shape of Deeper Learning: Strategies, Structures, and Cultures in Deeper Learning Network High Schools. Findings from the Study of Deeper Learning Opportunities and Outcomes: Report 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberman, Mette; Bitter, Catherine; Anthony, Jennifer; O'Day, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The "Study of Deeper Learning: Opportunities and Outcomes"--funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation--is a proof-of-concept study, the purpose of which was to determine whether students attending high schools with a mature and at least moderately well implemented approach to promoting deeper learning actually experienced…

  6. Development of variable-shaft-speed alternator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothbart, G.; Fullwood, R.

    1982-02-01

    A variable shaft speed alternator (VSSA) consists of an ordinary unmodified 1-1/2 Hp wound-rotor motor, with polyphase excitation controlled by solid state switching and a hybrid of analog and digital circuitry. This circuitry senses both shaft speed and line phase resulting in logic levels which control the current flow in each rotor coil. A first order polynomial was found using the least-squares regression method which accurately expressed the relationship among shaft speed, excitation power, and output power, VSSA torque was inferred from observations to be proportional to output power. Efficiency for converting mechanical power to electrical was inferred over a range of shaft speeds. A break-even speed below which no net power is produced was observed to be 0.375 of the synchronous speed for all output power levels. Similar behavior was observed with power fed to the power network (grid). Additional measurements involved VSSA performance at various power factors.

  7. Flexible shaft and roof drilling system

    DOEpatents

    Blanz, John H.

    1981-01-01

    A system for drilling holes in the roof of a mine has a flexible shaft with a pair of oppositely wound, coaxial flat bands. One of the flat bands defines an inner spring that is wound right handed into a helical configuration, adjacent convolutions being in nesting relationship to one another. The other flat band defines an outer spring that is wound left handed into a helical configuration about the inner band, adjacent convolutions being nesting relationship with one another. A transition member that is configured to hold a rock bit is mounted to one end of the flexible shaft. When torque and thrust are applied to the flexible shaft by a driver, the inner spring expands outwardly and the outer spring contracts inwardly to form a relatively rigid shaft.

  8. Reliability assessment of underground shaft closure

    SciTech Connect

    Fossum, A.F.

    1994-12-31

    The intent of the WIPP, being constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico, is to provide the technological basis for the safe disposal of radioactive Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense programs of the United States. In determining this technological basis, advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques are used to determine the probability of time-to-closure of a hypothetical underground shaft located in an argillaceous salt formation and filled with compacted crushed salt. Before being filled with crushed salt for sealing, the shaft provides access to an underground facility. Reliable closure of the shaft depends upon the sealing of the shaft through creep closure and recompaction of crushed backfill. Appropriate methods are demonstrated to calculate cumulative distribution functions of the closure based on laboratory determined random variable uncertainty in salt creep properties.

  9. Integrated controls and health monitoring fiberoptic shaft monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, P.; Darejeh, H.; Collins, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Recent work was performed on development optical technology to provide real time monitoring of shaft speed, shaft axial displacement, and shaft orbit of the OTVE hydrostatic bearing tester. Results show shaft axial displacement can be optically measured (at the same time as shaft orbital motion and speed) to within 0.3 mills by two fiber optic deflectometers. The final results of this condition monitoring development effort are presented.

  10. High Pressure Rotary Shaft Sealing Mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.

    2001-05-08

    A laterally translatable pressure staged rotary shaft sealing mechanism having a seal housing with a shaft passage therein being exposed to a fluid pressure P1 and with a rotary shaft being located within the shaft passage. At least one annular laterally translatable seal carrier is provided. First and second annular resilient sealing elements are supported in axially spaced relation by the annular seal carriers and have sealing relation with the rotary shaft. The seal housing and at least one seal carrier define a first pressure staging chamber exposed to the first annular resilient sealing element and a second pressure staging chamber located between and exposed to the first and second annular resilient sealing elements. A first fluid is circulated to the first pressure chamber at a pressure P1, and a second staging pressure fluid is circulated to the second pressure chamber at a fraction of pressure P1 to achieve pressure staging, cooling of the seals. Seal placement provides hydraulic force balancing of the annular seal carriers.

  11. CENTRIFUGAL PUMP AND SHAFT SEALING MEANS

    DOEpatents

    Rushing, F.C.

    1960-09-01

    A description is given of sealing means between a hollow rotatable shaft and a stationary member surrounding the shaft which defines therewith a sealing space of annular cross-section, comprising a plurality of axially spaced rings held against seats by ring springs which serve to subdivide the sealing space- into a plurality of zones. Process gas introduced into the hollow shaft through a port communicating with a centrally located zone which iu turn communicates with a bore in the sleeve, is removed from the shaft through a second port communicating with an adjacent central zone and discharged through a second bore. A sealant gas is supplied to an end zone under a pressure sufficient to cause it to flow axially into adjacent zones and then maintained at a lower pressure than either the sealant gas source or the process gas inlet zone, preventing the sealant gas from entering the shaft and allowing gases leaking into the sealant gas to be withdrawn and led to a separator.

  12. Coupled shaft-torsion and blade-bending vibrations of a rotating shaft-disk-blade unit

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.C.; Ho, K.B.

    1996-01-01

    A new approach to analyzing the dynamic coupling between shaft torsion and blade bending of a rotating shaft-disk-blade unit is introduced. The approach allows the shaft to vibrate freely around its rotation axis instead of assuming a periodic perturbation of the shaft speed that may accommodate the shaft flexibility only to a limited extent. A weighted residual method is applied, and the receptances at the connections of blades and shaft-disk are formulated. Numerical examples are given for cases with between two and six symmetrically arranged blades. The results show not only coupling between the shaft, disk, and blades, but also coupling between individual blades where the shaft acts as a rigid support and experiences no torsional vibration. The blade-coupling modes occurred only in repeated frequencies. Finally, the effect of shaft speed on the modal frequencies was investigated. Plots illustrating the occurrence of critical speeds and flutter instabilities are presented.

  13. Shaft drill bit with overlapping cutter arrangement

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, R.A.; Pessier, R.C.

    1981-02-03

    An earth boring drill bit for large diameter shafts has an improved cutter arrangement. The drill bit has a cutter support member with a number of cutters mounted to it for disintegrating the earth formation face. At least one inner cutter is mounted near the center for cutting the center area. A number of gage cutters are mounted at the periphery to cut the gage area of the shaft. A number of intermediate cutters are spaced between the inner and gage cutters. Each intermediate cutter overlaps onehalf of its width with an adjacent intermediate cutter.

  14. 30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for a ventilation door in conformance with 30 CFR 57.8531. Within 50 feet but no closer than 20 feet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY...

  15. 30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for a ventilation door in conformance with 30 CFR 57.8531. Within 50 feet but no closer than 20 feet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for a ventilation door in conformance with 30 CFR 57.8531. Within 50 feet but no closer than 20 feet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for a ventilation door in conformance with 30 CFR 57.8531. Within 50 feet but no closer than 20 feet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4760 - Shaft mines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for a ventilation door in conformance with 30 CFR 57.8531. Within 50 feet but no closer than 20 feet... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shaft mines. 57.4760 Section 57.4760 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY...

  19. 6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF DRIFT SHAFT, HOIST MOTOR, WORM WHEEL GEAR ASSEMBLY, CROSS SHAFT, AND INTERMEDIATE GEAR HOIST ASSEMBLY FOR CONTROL GATE NO. 6, LOOKING WEST - Long Lake Hydroelectric Plant, Spillway Dam, Spanning Spokane River, Ford, Stevens County, WA

  20. 8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. IRON MOUNTAIN SHAFT ROOM TO UNIT #5 SHOWING TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT OF SHAFT AND PUMP IN COLORADO RIVER AQUEDUCT PUMPHOUSES. - Iron Mountain Pump Plant, South of Danby Lake, north of Routes 62 & 177 junction, Rice, San Bernardino County, CA

  1. 108. BASEMENT, DRIVE SHAFT BENEATH ORIGINAL SHOP OF 1883. BELT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    108. BASEMENT, DRIVE SHAFT BENEATH ORIGINAL SHOP OF 1883. BELT AT RIGHT CONNECTS TO MAIN DRIVE SHAFT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  2. 161. BLACKSMITH SHOP, OVERHEAD SHAFT. BELT ON LEFT CONNECTS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    161. BLACKSMITH SHOP, OVERHEAD SHAFT. BELT ON LEFT CONNECTS TO SHAFTS WHICH RUN POWER PRESS AND HYDRAULIC TIRE SETTER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  3. 107. BASEMENT, DRIVE SHAFT THAT RUNS JOINTER IN BENCH SHOP. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    107. BASEMENT, DRIVE SHAFT THAT RUNS JOINTER IN BENCH SHOP. BELT ON RIGHT CONNECTS TO MAIN DRIVE SHAFT. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  4. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  5. 46 CFR 171.100 - Shaft tunnels and stern tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. 171.100 Section 171.100... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.100 Shaft tunnels and... and the machinery space must be located in a watertight shaft tunnel. The vessel must be designed...

  6. 46 CFR 171.100 - Shaft tunnels and stern tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shaft tunnels and stern tubes. 171.100 Section 171.100... PERTAINING TO VESSELS CARRYING PASSENGERS Additional Subdivision Requirements § 171.100 Shaft tunnels and... and the machinery space must be located in a watertight shaft tunnel. The vessel must be designed...

  7. Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keba, John E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of The Influence of Rocket Engine Characteristics on Shaft Sealing Technology Needs. The topics include: 1) Rocket Turbomachinery Shaft Seals (Inter-Propellant-Seal (IPS) Systems, Lift-off Seal Systems, and Technology Development Needs); 2) Rocket Engine Characteristics (Engine cycles, propellants, missions, etc., Influence on shaft sealing requirements); and 3) Conclusions.

  8. Tachometer Derived From Brushless Shaft-Angle Resolver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David E.; Smith, Dennis A.

    1995-01-01

    Tachometer circuit operates in conjunction with brushless shaft-angle resolver. By performing sequence of straightforward mathematical operations on resolver signals and utilizing simple trigonometric identity, generates voltage proportional to rate of rotation of shaft. One advantage is use of brushless shaft-angle resolver as main source of rate signal: no brushes to wear out, no brush noise, and brushless resolvers have proven robustness. No switching of signals to generate noise. Another advantage, shaft-angle resolver used as shaft-angle sensor, tachometer input obtained without adding another sensor. Present circuit reduces overall size, weight, and cost of tachometer.

  9. Fiber-Optic Sensor Would Detect Movements Of Shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roschak, Edmund J.

    1989-01-01

    Fiber-optic sensor senses both rotational speed and axial displacement of shaft in motor, pump, or other rotating machine. Does not require magnetic materials, notches, or grooves in shaft. Required modification of shaft is etching or plating surface to make ring black around half circumference and reflective around other half along short length at one end or some other convenient location. Triangular bundle of sending and receiving optical fibers aimed at black/reflective ring on shaft. Frequency and amplitude of output pulses of fiber-optic probe indicates rotational frequency and axial position of shaft.

  10. An applicational process for dynamic balancing of turbomachinery shafting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a time-efficient methodology for dynamically balancing turbomachinery shafting. This methodology minimizes costly facility downtime by using a balancing arbor (mandrel) that simulates the turbomachinery (rig) shafting. The need for precision dynamic balancing of turbomachinery shafting and for a dynamic balancing methodology is discussed in detail. Additionally, the inherent problems (and their causes and effects) associated with unbalanced turbomachinery shafting as a function of increasing shaft rotational speeds are discussed. Included are the design criteria concerning rotor weight differentials for rotors made of different materials that have similar parameters and shafting. The balancing methodology for applications where rotor replaceability is a requirement is also covered. This report is intended for use as a reference when designing, fabricating, and troubleshooting turbomachinery shafting.

  11. Hair shaft videodermoscopy in netherton syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rakowska, Adriana; Kowalska-Oledzka, Elzbieta; Slowinska, Monika; Rosinska, Danuta; Rudnicka, Lidia

    2009-01-01

    Netherton syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder, characterized by ichthyosis, atopic manifestations, and hair shaft abnormalities (trichorrhexis invaginata). The diagnosis of Netherton syndrome may be established on the basis of just one abnormal hair, but it is often difficult to find a hair with pathognomonic features on light microscopic examination. Every attempt requires pulling new hairs. We present the case of an 11-year-old female patient with Netherton syndrome in whom hair and scalp videodermoscopy (trichoscopy) was used to visualize typical bamboo hairs and hairs with golf tee type endings in the scalp hairs and eyebrows. Trichoscopy is a method, which allows noninvasive viewing of hair shafts in many-fold magnification without the need of pulling hair for diagnostic purposes. This case shows that trichoscopy may be employed to significantly improve the chance of establishing the diagnosis of Netherton syndrome in patients. PMID:19706096

  12. Lunar vertical-shaft mining system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Introne, Steven D. (Editor); Krause, Roy; Williams, Erik; Baskette, Keith; Martich, Frederick; Weaver, Brad; Meve, Jeff; Alexander, Kyle; Dailey, Ron; White, Matt

    1994-01-01

    This report proposes a method that will allow lunar vertical-shaft mining. Lunar mining allows the exploitation of mineral resources imbedded within the surface. The proposed lunar vertical-shaft mining system is comprised of five subsystems: structure, materials handling, drilling, mining, and planning. The structure provides support for the exploration and mining equipment in the lunar environment. The materials handling subsystem moves mined material outside the structure and mining and drilling equipment inside the structure. The drilling process bores into the surface for the purpose of collecting soil samples, inserting transducer probes, or locating ore deposits. Once the ore deposits are discovered and pinpointed, mining operations bring the ore to the surface. The final subsystem is planning, which involves the construction of the mining structure.

  13. Treatment shaft for combined sewer overflow detention.

    PubMed

    Wright, Steven J; Ghalib, Saad; Eloubaidy, Aziz

    2010-05-01

    A deep, large-diameter underground shaft to provide detention storage for combined sewer overflow control may be advantageous in urban environments, where space limitations require solutions with a small footprint. An underflow baffle wall is provided at the center of the treatment shaft to prevent short-circuiting of the flow. An additional objective is to maintain low headlosses through the structure. A physical model study was conducted to determine the effect of the bottom elevation of the baffle wall on the headloss and breakthrough curve for dye injected to the inflow. It was found that there is a considerable range of elevations for which the structure behaves acceptably in providing adequate contact time for disinfectant while maintaining small headlosses. PMID:20480764

  14. Great Apes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sleeman, Jonathan M.; Cerveny, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia of great apes is often necessary to conduct diagnostic analysis, provide therapeutics, facilitate surgical procedures, and enable transport and translocation for conservation purposes. Due to the stress of remote delivery injection of anesthetic agents, recent studies have focused on oral delivery and/or transmucosal absorption of preanesthetic and anesthetic agents. Maintenance of the airway and provision of oxygen is an important aspect of anesthesia in great ape species. The provision of analgesia is an important aspect of the anesthesia protocol for any procedure involving painful stimuli. Opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often administered alone, or in combination to provide multi-modal analgesia. There is increasing conservation management of in situ great ape populations, which has resulted in the development of field anesthesia techniques for free-living great apes for the purposes of translocation, reintroduction into the wild, and clinical interventions.

  15. UPPER LIMB TRACTION DEVICE FOR ANTEROGRADE INTRAMEDULLARY LOCKED NAIL OF HUMERAL SHAFT FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, Mário Chaves; Gomes, Felipe Antônio; Linhares, Daniel Campos; Gonçalves, Lucas Braga Jacques; Vilela, José Carlos Souza; de Andrade, Ronaldo Percopi

    2015-01-01

    Diaphyseal fractures of the femur and tibia in adults are mostly treated surgically, usually by means of intramedullary locked-nail osteosynthesis. Some comminuted and/or highly deviated shaft fractures may present a veritable technical challenge. Fracture (or orthopedic) tables, which enable vertical, horizontal and rotational instrumental stabilization of the limb, greatly facilitate reduction and implant placement maneuvers and are widely used by orthopedic surgeons. Humeral shaft fractures are mostly treated nonsurgically. However, some cases with indications that are well defined in the literature require surgical treatment. They can be fixed by means of plates or intramedullary nails, using anterograde or retrograde routes. In the humerus, fracture reduction and limb stabilization maneuvers for implantation of intramedullary nails are done manually, usually by two assistants. Because muscle fatigue may occur, this option may be less efficient. The aim of this paper is to present an external upper-limb traction device for use in anterograde intramedullary locked-nail osteosynthesis of humeral shaft fractures that enables vertical, horizontal and rotational stabilization of the upper limb, in a manner similar to the device used for the lower limbs. The device is portable, of simple construction, and can be installed on any operating table equipped with side rails. It was used for surgical treatment of 29 humeral shaft fractures using an anterograde locked intramedullary nail. Our experience was extremely positive. We did not have any complications relating to its use and we believe that it notably facilitated the surgical procedures. PMID:27022560

  16. Shaft-Angle Sensor Based on Tunnel-Diode Oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, Talso

    2008-01-01

    A proposed brushless shaft-angle sensor for use in extreme cold would offer significant advantages over prior such sensors: (1) It would be capable of operating in extreme cold; and (2) Its electronic circuitry would be simpler than that of a permanent-magnet/ multiple-Hall-probe shaft-angle sensor that would otherwise ordinarily be used to obtain comparable angular resolution. The principle of operation of the proposed shaft-angle sensor requires that the shaft (or at least the portion of the shaft at the sensor location) be electrically insulating. The affected portion of the shaft would be coated with metal around half of its circumference. Two half-circular-cylinder electrodes having a radius slightly larger than that of the shaft would be mounted on the stator, concentric with the shaft, so that there would be a small radial gap between them and the outer surface of the shaft. Hence, there would be a capacitance between each stationary electrode and the metal coat on the shaft.

  17. Deeper Learning: A Primer for State Legislators. ECS Education Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of schools across the country are working hard to provide a "deeper" learning experience for their students, and state legislators are being asked to create policies that support wide-scale implementation of 21st century learning practices. This primer is created for state policymakers seeking to modify instruction and…

  18. Fostering Deeper Critical Inquiry with Causal Layered Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haigh, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Causal layered analysis (CLA) is a technique that enables deeper critical inquiry through a structured exploration of four layers of causation. CLA's layers reach down from the surface litany of media understanding, through the layer of systemic causes identified by conventional research, to underpinning worldviews, ideologies and philosophies,…

  19. Spanning can be prevented, corrected in deeper water

    SciTech Connect

    Beckmann, M.M.; Hale, J.R.; Lamison, C.W. )

    1991-12-23

    Analysis and correction of subsea pipeline spans are becoming more important as pipelay operations move into the deeper waters of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. Careful rout selection may prevent spanning. This article sets forth methods for eliminating spans during design or correcting those which occur despite careful design.

  20. Twin-capacitive shaft angle encoder with analog output signal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Wilson, R. L. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A precision capacitive shaft encoder providing a dc signal corresponding to the angular position of a shaft is described. Two variable capacitances are coupled in tandem by a rotatable shaft. Each capacitor has a capacitance that varies linearly with a change in the angular position of the shaft. The sum of the two capacitances is always constant for any angular position of the shaft. Each capacitance is alternately coupled to a reference dc voltage and a discharge circuit. The capacitances are electrically coupled in series and the charge periodically acquired at the junction of the capacitance is a function of the position of the shaft. An error-compensating voltage is imposed on the junction when the capacitances are coupled to the reference voltages. The junction is coupled to sample-and-hold apparatus provided with a error-correcting circuit.

  1. Intramedullary nailing of pediatric femoral shaft fracture.

    PubMed

    Hosalkar, Harish S; Pandya, Nirav K; Cho, Robert H; Glaser, Diana A; Moor, Molly A; Herman, Martin J

    2011-08-01

    Intramedullary nail fixation of pediatric long bone fracture, particularly femoral shaft fracture, has revolutionized the care and outcome of these complex injuries. Nailing is associated with a high rate of union and a low rate of complications. Improved understanding of proximal femoral vascularity has led to changes in nail insertion methodology. Multiple fixation devices are available; selection is based on fracture type, patient age, skeletal maturity, and body mass index. A thorough knowledge of anatomy and biomechanics is required to achieve optimal results without negatively affecting skeletal development. PMID:21807915

  2. 10. Photocopied August 1978. CLOSEUP VIEW OF TURBINE SHAFT PENETRATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopied August 1978. CLOSE-UP VIEW OF TURBINE SHAFT PENETRATING THE STEEL PLATE BULKHEAD THROUGH A STUFFING BOX AND AND ALSO SHOWING THE CONTROL GATE SHAFT. THIS PARTICULAR UNIT WAS INSTALLED IN 1916. THE ADMISSION OF WATER TO ALL FOUR RUNNERS IN A PENSTOCK UNIT COULD SIMULTANEOUSLY BE CONTROLLED BY THE CONTROL SHAFT ON THE LEFT. (899) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  3. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative High-Speed Shaft Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.; McNiff, B.

    2014-09-01

    Instrumentation has been added to the high-speed shaft, pinion, and tapered roller bearing pair of the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox to measure loads and temperatures. The new shaft bending moment and torque instrumentation was calibrated and the purpose of this document is to describe this calibration process and results, such that the raw shaft bending and torque signals can be converted to the proper engineering units and coordinate system reference for comparison to design loads and simulation model predictions.

  4. Proposed design procedure for transmission shafting under fatigue loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    A new standard for the design of transmission shafting is reported. Computed was the diameter of rotating solid steel shafts under combined cyclic bending and steady torsion is presented. The formula is based on an elliptical variation of endurance strength with torque exhibited by combined stress fatigue data. Fatigue factors are cited to correct specimen bending endurance strength data for use in the shaft formula. A design example illustrates how the method is to be applied.

  5. Great Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, Robert

    2000-05-01

    Spectacular and mysterious objects that come and go in the night sky, comets have dwelt in our popular culture for untold ages. As remnants from the formation of the Solar system, they are objects of key scientific research and space missions. As one of nature's most potent and dramatic dangers, they pose a threat to our safety--and yet they were the origin of our oceans and perhaps even life itself. This beautifully illustrated book tells the story of the biggest and most awe-inspiring of all comets: those that have earned the title "Great." Robert Burnham focuses on the Great comets Hyakutake in 1996 and Hale-Bopp in 1997, which gripped attention worldwide because, for many, they were the first comets ever seen. He places these two recent comets in the context of their predecessors from past ages, among them the famous Comet Halley. Great Comets explains the exciting new discoveries that have come from these magnificent objects and profiles the spaceprobes to comets due for launch in the next few years. The book even takes a peek behind Hollywood's science-fiction fantasies to assess the real risks humanity faces from potential impacts of both comets and asteroids. For everyone interested in astronomy, this exciting book reveals the secrets of the Great Comets and provides essential tools for keeping up to date with comet discoveries in the future. Robert Burnham has been an amateur astronomer since the mid-1950s. He has been a senior editor of Astronomy magazine (1986-88) and is the author of many books and CD-ROMS, including Comet Hale-Bopp: Find and Enjoy the Great Comet and Comet Explorer.

  6. 23. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT SAFETY NET ACCESS, NORTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT SAFETY NET ACCESS, NORTHWEST ELEVATOR LOADING DOOR. - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  7. 21. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT, TOP ELEVATOR SUPPORT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW SECOND FLOOR, ELEVATOR SHAFT, TOP ELEVATOR SUPPORT, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  8. 20. VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT FROM FIRST FLOOR TO SKYLIGHT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT FROM FIRST FLOOR TO SKYLIGHT, LOOKING SKYWARD, NORTH - Bates Manufacturing Company, Storehouse, Northeast corner of Chestnut Street & Hines Alley, Lewiston, Androscoggin County, ME

  9. 9. Interior view, overhead line shafting and lathe workbench, east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view, overhead line shafting and lathe workbench, east shop, ground floor, looking northwest. - Larrabee & Hingston Company, Main Shop Building, 19 Howley Street, Peabody, Essex County, MA

  10. How School Districts Can Support Deeper Learning: The Need for Performance Alignment. Executive Summary. Deeper Learning Research Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Meredith I.; Rainey, Lydia R.

    2015-01-01

    School district leaders nationwide aspire to help their schools become vibrant places for learning--where students have meaningful academic opportunities "and" develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills, the ability to communicate effectively, and other deeper learning capacities that are essential to success in later life.…

  11. 30 CFR 56.19105 - Landings with more than one shaft entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Landings with more than one shaft entrance. 56... Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19105 Landings with more than one shaft entrance. A safe means of passage around open shaft compartments shall be provided on landings with more than one entrance to the shaft....

  12. Deeper penetration of large earthquakes on seismically quiescent faults.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junle; Lapusta, Nadia

    2016-06-10

    Why many major strike-slip faults known to have had large earthquakes are silent in the interseismic period is a long-standing enigma. One would expect small earthquakes to occur at least at the bottom of the seismogenic zone, where deeper aseismic deformation concentrates loading. We suggest that the absence of such concentrated microseismicity indicates deep rupture past the seismogenic zone in previous large earthquakes. We support this conclusion with numerical simulations of fault behavior and observations of recent major events. Our modeling implies that the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake on the San Andreas Fault in Southern California penetrated below the seismogenic zone by at least 3 to 5 kilometers. Our findings suggest that such deeper ruptures may occur on other major fault segments, potentially increasing the associated seismic hazard. PMID:27284188

  13. Deeper penetration of large earthquakes on seismically quiescent faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Junle; Lapusta, Nadia

    2016-06-01

    Why many major strike-slip faults known to have had large earthquakes are silent in the interseismic period is a long-standing enigma. One would expect small earthquakes to occur at least at the bottom of the seismogenic zone, where deeper aseismic deformation concentrates loading. We suggest that the absence of such concentrated microseismicity indicates deep rupture past the seismogenic zone in previous large earthquakes. We support this conclusion with numerical simulations of fault behavior and observations of recent major events. Our modeling implies that the 1857 Fort Tejon earthquake on the San Andreas Fault in Southern California penetrated below the seismogenic zone by at least 3 to 5 kilometers. Our findings suggest that such deeper ruptures may occur on other major fault segments, potentially increasing the associated seismic hazard.

  14. Is MIPO in humeral shaft fractures really safe? Postoperative ultrasonographic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Livani, Bruno; Belangero, William; Andrade, Kleber; Zuiani, Guilherme; Pratali, Raphael

    2009-12-01

    In the last few years there has been great interest in minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) in the treatment of humeral shaft fractures. None of these studies showed the anatomical relationship between the radial nerve and the material of the implant in vivo. We performed postoperative ultrasonographic measurement of the distance between the radial nerve and the material implanted using the MIPO technique. Nineteen patients underwent postoperative ultrasound examinations. Group A comprised midshaft fractures and group B distal third fractures. The point of greatest proximity between the radial nerve and the implant was measured. In group A the distance was between 1.6 and 19.6 mm (mean: 9.3 mm) and in group B between 1.0 and 8.1 mm (mean: 4.0 mm). The ultrasound findings reveal that the radial nerve is quite close to the implant material, especially in the transition between the third and fourth quarters of the humeral shaft. PMID:18704415

  15. 8. Generator Barrel and Shaft of Unit 1, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Generator Barrel and Shaft of Unit 1, view to the northwest, with turbine shaft and thrust bearing visible in upper center of photograph. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  16. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or air contamination from any other source; (4) Equipped with an automatic signal device designed to... be examined before each shift and the quantity of air in the slope or shaft measured daily by a... connected to the slope or shaft opening with fireproof air ducts; (3) Designed to permit the reversal of...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ventilation of slopes and shafts. 77.1911 Section 77.1911 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Slope and Shaft Sinking §...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1911 - Ventilation of slopes and shafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or air contamination from any other source; (4) Equipped with an automatic signal device designed to... be examined before each shift and the quantity of air in the slope or shaft measured daily by a... connected to the slope or shaft opening with fireproof air ducts; (3) Designed to permit the reversal of...

  19. Thermo-plastic analysis of a bowed sodium pump shaft

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, E.O.

    1989-03-01

    A hollow sodium pump shaft was found to have a residual bow sufficient to cause unacceptable vibrations. Investigations suggested that the bow was caused by a sodium overfill event while the pump was shut down and the shaft was not turning. A rising sodium level with natural convection effects could result in local heating of the shaft. Even though the shaft may be essentially free, a local one-sided thermal loading may cause thermal stresses and plastic stains sufficient to give a residual bow when the thermal load is removed. A series of elastic-plastic analyses were carried out to assess the likelihood of the proposed mechanism's causing the residual bow. A special purpose computer program modelled the shaft as a Bernoulli beam. Isotropic hardening was evaluated by successive approximation. For each case studied, a loading sequence was followed by an assumed elastic unloading step, and the thermal loading zone was assumed small compared to the shaft length. These simplifying assumptions allowed parameterization of several variables--yield stress, thermal loading magnitude, extent of the heated zone around the shaft circumference, temperature distribution around the circumference, and shaft unrestrained/restrained conditions. Although the magnitude of the residual bow is not centered with the solution using mean parameters of this study, it is possible that a one-sided combination of parameter values did exist and that such a condition caused the bow under the proposed mechanism. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  20. 7. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT GROUND LEVEL. VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. ENTRANCE VIEW OF ELEVATOR SHAFT AT GROUND LEVEL. VIEW SHOWS VERTICAL LADDER AND CAGE ALONG ELEVATOR SHAFT. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Signal Tower, Corner of Seventh Street & Avenue D east of Drydock No. 1, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  1. A coupled mechanical/hydrologic model for WIPP shaft seals

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, B.

    1991-06-01

    Effective sealing of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) shafts will be required to isolate defense-generated transuranic wastes from the accessible environment. Shafts penetrate water-bearing hard rock formations before entering a massive creeping-salt formation (Salado) where the WIPP is located. Short and long-term seals are planned for the shafts. Short-term seals, a composite of concrete and bentonite, will primarily be located in the hard rock formations separating the water-bearing zones from the Salado Formation. These seals will limit water flow to the underlying long-term seals in the Salado. The long-term seals will consist of lengthly segments of initially unsaturated crushed salt. Creep closure of the shaft will consolidate unsaturated crushed salt, thereby reducing its permeability. However, water passing through the upper short-term seals and brine inherent to the salt host rock itself will eventually saturate the crushed salt and consolidation could be inhibited. Before saturating, portions of the crushed salt in the shafts are expected to consolidate to a permeability equivalent to the salt host rock, thereby effectively isolating the waste from the overlying water-bearing formations. A phenomenological model is developed for the coupled mechanical/hydrologic behavior of sealed WIPP shafts. The model couples creep closure of the shaft, crushed salt consolidation, and the associated reduction in permeability with Darcy's law for saturated fluid flow to predict the overall permeability of the shaft seal system with time. 17 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. 7. DETAIL VIEW NORTH OF TURBINE OUTPUT SHAFT, FLYWHEEL (RIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW NORTH OF TURBINE OUTPUT SHAFT, FLYWHEEL (RIGHT CENTER), VERTICAL SHAFT TO GOVERNOR WITH RACK-AND-PINION GEARING (LEFT), AND BELTS - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 1, Immediately West of South Main Street, North Bank of Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  3. 14 CFR 27.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 27.931 Section 27... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power on,...

  4. 14 CFR 27.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 27.931 Section 27... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power on,...

  5. 14 CFR 29.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 29.931 Section 29... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power-on,...

  6. 14 CFR 29.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 29.931 Section 29... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power-on,...

  7. 14 CFR 27.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 27.931 Section 27... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power on,...

  8. 14 CFR 29.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 29.931 Section 29... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power-on,...

  9. 29. Basement under central corridor. Shaft on right actuates cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Basement under central corridor. Shaft on right actuates cross over valve. Shaft at left operates main flood valve to admit water into the bed. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Filtration Plant, South side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  10. 30 CFR 57.19104 - Clearance at shaft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance at shaft stations. 57.19104 Section 57.19104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19104 Clearance at...

  11. 30 CFR 56.19104 - Clearance at shaft stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clearance at shaft stations. 56.19104 Section 56.19104 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19104 Clearance at...

  12. Improved Rotary Transformer For Shaft-Position Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    Improved rotary transformer for Inductosyn (or equivalent) shaft-position-indicating circuit has pair of ferrite cores instead of the solid-iron cores. Designed with view toward decreasing excitation power (to maximum allowable 2 W) supplied to shaft-position-indicating circuit to increase its output signal and make tracking system less vulnerable to electromagnetic interference.

  13. Safety Aspects Related to Vibrational Diagnostics of Deep Mine Shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kompała, Janusz; Motyka, Zbigniew; Passia, Henryk; Szade, Adam; Świder, Janusz

    2010-05-01

    Exploitation of deep mine shafts is connected with vitally important aspects of work and public safety. The latter becomes clear keeping in mind the fact that in many locations of the European coal and ore mining countries, the shafts can be found in close proximity of free access areas such as, for instance, public roads. On the other hand, proper operational capabilities of mine shaft installation determine the level of safety of hundreds underground miners, in a single underground mine, who use the shaft at least twice a day. Reliable operation of shaft installations is a derivative of many factors influencing the shaft frame as such, and its surroundings, e.g. changing of water conditions in the ground. Consequently, systematic control (including continuous monitoring if need be) of the vibration level of both the rotating machinery installed within the shaft structure, and frame supporting elements (including continuous monitoring) is compulsory. Currently, only in the Upper Silesia coal mining region, approximately 35 such structures are under extensive vibrational control. The paper presents sets of vibration parameters measurements obtained using conventional, and laser-based instrumentation, performed on some of those shaft structures. In relation to these results safety aspects have been discussed.

  14. BASE OF BULLWHEEL DRIVE SHAFT IN VAULT MOTOR ROOM, CONNECTING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BASE OF BULLWHEEL DRIVE SHAFT IN VAULT MOTOR ROOM, CONNECTING TO REDUCTION GEAR SHAFTING. FERREL SPEED REDUCER IN FOREGROUND, FACING WEST. NOTE TWO DIAGONAL LINES: TORQUE CONVERTER CABLE (IN PIECE OF WHITE GUTTER), THROTTLE CABLE (IN LOWER STEEL TUBING). - Mad River Glen, Single Chair Ski Lift, 62 Mad River Glen Resort Road, Fayston, Washington County, VT

  15. 14 CFR 27.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 27.931 Section 27... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power on,...

  16. 14 CFR 27.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 27.931 Section 27... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power on,...

  17. 14 CFR 29.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 29.931 Section 29... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power-on,...

  18. 14 CFR 29.931 - Shafting critical speed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shafting critical speed. 29.931 Section 29... speed. (a) The critical speeds of any shafting must be determined by demonstration except that...) If any critical speed lies within, or close to, the operating ranges for idling, power-on,...

  19. Industrial Applications Of Optical Shaft Encoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmister, Brian W.

    1980-11-01

    The development of the microprocessor and mini-computer for industrial process control has made the optical shaft angle encoder a natural choice for a position feedback transducer. Many of these applications, however, require the encoder to operate reliably in extremely hostile environments. In response to this, the encoder manufacturer has been faced with reliability problems which fall into the following general categories: 1. Exposure to weather 2. Wide operating and storage temperature range 3. Exposure to corrosive chemicals 4. Severe shock and vibration 5. High electrical noise levels 6. Severe blows to encoder housing 7. Operation in explosive atmospheres Three of these applications expose the encoder to most of these environmental conditions: 1. A jack-up control position feedback for an offshore oil well drilling rig 2. A depth measurement system for oil well logging instrumentation 3. Elevation and azimuth feedback for a solar power plant heliostat

  20. Process for producing shaft furnace cokes

    SciTech Connect

    Nishioka, K.; Sunami, Y.

    1981-06-09

    An impregnated carbonaceous material which can be mixed with basic coal to form a mixture which, once roasted, forms an effective shaft furnace coke. The impregnated carbonaceous material is formed by finely crushing an inert carbonaceous material such as powdered coke, coal gasification char, coal liquifaction residue coal, oil coke, and semi-dry-distilled char, and mixing and impregnating the crushed carbonaceous material with an aromatic pitch such as coal tar, coal tar pitch, asphalt, and pitch obtained by heat-treating or solvent extracting an asphalt. The mixing is conducted at a temperature above the aromatic pitch melting point. The impregnated carbonaceous material contains preferably 50 to 95 parts by weight of crushed inert carbonaceous material and 5 to 50 parts by weight aromatic pitch.

  1. Intramedullary nailing of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Kyrö, A; Lamppu, M; Böstman, O

    1995-01-01

    Sixty-four displaced tibial shaft fractures were treated using intramedullary nailing, either primarily or after an attempt at conservative treatment, which consisted of closed reduction under anaesthesia and immobilisation in a long-leg plaster cast. There were 37 closed and 27 open fractures. Three patients had a fracture of both tibiae. The median time period from the intramedullary nailing of the closed solitary fractures to union was about the same after primary nailing as after delayed nailing. Although the fractures were different in these groups, it is possible that the time spent in conservative treatment before intramedullary nailing brings no additional benefits. The incidence of deep infection in open fractures after primary nailing was 1/16. The fractures, in which an acceptable position could not be maintained using conservative methods, were mainly spiral in configuration and located in the distal third or at the junction of the middle and distal thirds of the tibia. PMID:7645911

  2. 8. FLOOR 2: SPUR GEAR TO COB CRUSHER ENGAGING GREAT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. FLOOR 2: SPUR GEAR TO COB CRUSHER ENGAGING GREAT SPUR WHEEL; NEXT TO IT IS THE SHAFT TO THE INTERNAL WINDING MECHANISM; BEYOND IT THE EAST BURR STONE AND STONE NUT - Pantigo Windmill, James Lane, East Hampton, Suffolk County, NY

  3. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jun; Wang, Zhiqian; Shen, Chengwu; Wen, Zhuoman; Liu, Shaojin; Cai, Sheng; Li, Jianrong

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendicular to the rotating shaft. The reversal measurement method is applied to decrease the effect of inclinometer drifts caused by temperature, to eliminate inclinometer and rotating shaft mechanical error and inclinometer systematic error to attain high measurement accuracy. The uncertainty estimation shows that the accuracy of rotating shaft tilt angle measurement depends mainly on the inclinometer uncertainty and its uncertainty is almost the same as the inclinometer uncertainty in the simulation. The experimental results indicate that measurement time is 4 seconds; the range of rotating shaft tilt angle is 0.002° and its standard deviation is 0.0006° using NS-5/P2 inclinometer, whose precision and resolution are ±0.01° and 0.0005°, respectively.

  4. Thermal equivalency study for steel propulsion shafting and flat plate

    SciTech Connect

    Dikshit, V.A.; Atteridge, D.G.

    1994-12-31

    The electroslag strip surfacing (ESS) process despite its advantage of high deposition rates, low base metal dilutions, and uniform penetrations, over unknown in the United States and has only recently started to gain acceptance as a feasible process for surfacing on large components, e.g., propulsion shafting. Electroslag strip surfacing was made on service scale shaft and on various flat plates using the same surfacing materials and parameters. Thermal history measurements were made by chromel-alumel thermocouples mounted on the shaft and the flat plates. The data were collected by a computer-controlled data acquisition system and subsequently postprocessed using commercial spreadsheet/graphics software programs. The t{sub 8-5} cooling times for the shaft and the flat plates showed a strong dependence on the interpass preheat temperature, but was independent of the maximum temperature. The t{sub 8-5} cooling times for the shaft and flat plate of the same thickness, and for the 76 and 127 mm thick flat plates were found to match very closely. This led to the conclusion that the thermal history results for 127 mm thick shaft and 127 to 67 mm thick flat plates made from similar steels show thermal equivalence for ESS and provide the justification for using 67 to 127 mm thick plates instead of 127 mm thick service scale shafting for process characterization.

  5. Stress fractures of the femoral shaft in athletes: a new treatment algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Ivkovic, A; Bojanic, I; Pecina, M

    2006-01-01

    Background Femoral shaft stress fractures in athletes are not common but pose a great diagnostic challenge to clinicians. Because of few clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment are often delayed. Furthermore, if not treated correctly, these fractures are well known for complications and difficulties. Objective To develop a well structured and reproducible treatment algorithm for athletes with femoral shaft stress fractures. Methods The proposed algorithm is carried out in four phases, each lasting three weeks, and the move to the next phase is based on the result of the tests carried out at the end of the previous phase. Over nine years, we treated seven top level athletes, aged 17–21. In all athletes, diagnosis was based on physical examination, plain radiographs, and bone scan. Results As a result of the treatment method, all the athletes were fully engaged in athletic activity 12–18 weeks after the beginning of treatment. After completion of the treatment, the athletes were followed up for 48–96 months. During the follow up, there was no recurrence of discomfort or pain, and all the athletes eventually returned to competition level. Conclusion These results and data available from the literature suggest that the algorithm is the optimal treatment protocol for femoral shaft stress fractures in athletes, avoiding the common complications and difficulties. PMID:16720887

  6. Construction features of the exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, G.W.; Fiore, J.N.

    1984-12-31

    The Exploratory Shaft (ES) at Yucca Mountain is planned to be constructed during 1985 and 1986 as part of the detailed site characterization for one of three sites which may be selected as candidates for location of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Conventional mining methods will be used for the shaft sinking phase of the ES project. The ES will be comprised of surface support facilities, a 1480-ft-deep circular shaft lined with concrete to a finished inside diameter of 12 ft, lateral excavations and test installations extending up to 200 ft from the shaft, and long lateral borings extending up to 2300 ft from the shaft. The estimated time for sinking the shaft to a total depth of about 1480 ft and completing the lateral excavations and borings is about two years. The major underground development planned for the primary test level at a depth of 1200 ft consists of the equivalent of 1150 ft of 15- by 15-ft drift. The total volume of rock to be removed from the shaft proper and the lateral excavations totals about 1/2 million cubic feet. Construction equipment for the shaft and underground excavation phases consists of conventional mine hoisting equipment, shot hole and rock bolt drilling jumbos, mucking machines, and hauling machines. The desire to maintain relatively uniform and even walls in selected shaft and drift intervals will require that controlled blasting techniques be employed. Certain lateral boring operations associated with tests to be conducted in the underground development may pose some unusual problems or require specialized equipment. One of the operations is boring and lining a 30-in.-diam by 600-ft-long horizontal hole with a boring machine being developed under the direction of Sandia National Laboratories. Another special operation is coring long lateral holes (500 to 2000 ft) with minimum use of liquid circulating fluids. 8 figures.

  7. Mechanical coupling for a rotor shaft assembly of dissimilar materials

    DOEpatents

    Shi, Jun; Bombara, David; Green, Kevin E.; Bird, Connic; Holowczak, John

    2009-05-05

    A mechanical coupling for coupling a ceramic disc member to a metallic shaft includes a first wedge clamp and a second wedge clamp. A fastener engages a threaded end of a tie-bolt to sandwich the ceramic disc between the wedge clamps. An axial spring is positioned between the fastener and the second wedge clamp to apply an axial preload along the longitudinal axis. Another coupling utilizes a rotor shaft end of a metallic rotor shaft as one wedge clamp. Still another coupling includes a solid ceramic rotor disc with a multiple of tie-bolts radially displaced from the longitudinal axis to exert the preload on the solid ceramic rotor disc.

  8. Computing Operating Characteristics Of Bearing/Shaft Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, James D.

    1996-01-01

    SHABERTH computer program predicts operating characteristics of bearings in multibearing load-support system. Lubricated and nonlubricated bearings modeled. Calculates loads, torques, temperatures, and fatigue lives of ball and/or roller bearings on single shaft. Provides for analysis of reaction of system to termination of supply of lubricant to bearings and other lubricated mechanical elements. Valuable in design and analysis of shaft/bearing systems. Two versions of SHABERTH available. Cray version (LEW-14860), "Computing Thermal Performances Of Shafts and Bearings". IBM PC version (MFS-28818), written for IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS.

  9. Noncontact Measurement Of Shaft Speed, Torque, And Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madzsar, George C.

    1993-01-01

    Noncontact fiber-optic sensor and associated electronic equipment measure twist and speed of rotation of shaft. Measurements determine torque and power. Response of sensor remains linear even at cryogenic temperatures. Reflective strips on rotating shaft reflect two series of light pulses back into optical system. Bidirectional coupler in each of two optical fiber paths separates reflected light from incident light, sending it to photodiode for output to analog-to-digital converter and computer. Sensor requires no slip rings or telemetry to transfer signals from shaft. Well suited for providing data on performances of turbopumps for such cryogenic fluids as liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen.

  10. Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D. ); Bethmann, H.K. )

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs.

  11. Application of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs to large agitators

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.E.; Anderson, T.D.; Bethmann, H.K.

    1991-12-31

    This paper describes the basis for and implementation of hydraulically assembled shaft coupling hubs for large tank-mounted agitators. This modification to the original design was intended to minimize maintenance personnel exposure to ionizing radiation and also provide for disassembly capability without damage to shafts or hubs. In addition to realizing these objectives, test confirmed that the modified couplings reduced agitator shaft end runouts approximately 65%, thereby reducing bearing loads and increasing service life, a significant enhancement for a nuclear facility. 5 refs.

  12. Influence of fluid temperature gradient on the flow within the shaft gap of a PLR pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, W.; Rosic, B.; Zhang, Q.; Khanal, B.

    2016-03-01

    In nuclear power plants the primary-loop recirculation (PLR) pump circulates the high temperature/high-pressure coolant in order to remove the thermal energy generated within the reactor. The pump is sealed using the cold purge flow in the shaft seal gap between the rotating shaft and stationary casing, where different forms of Taylor-Couette flow instabilities develop. Due to the temperature difference between the hot recirculating water and the cold purge water (of order of 200 °C), the flow instabilities in the gap cause temperature fluctuations, which can lead to shaft or casing thermal fatigue cracks. The present work numerically investigated the influence of temperature difference and rotating speed on the structure and dynamics of the Taylor-Couette flow instabilities. The CFD solver used in this study was extensively validated against the experimental data published in the open literature. Influence of temperature difference on the fluid dynamics of Taylor vortices was investigated in this study. With large temperature difference, the structure of the Taylor vortices is greatly stretched at the interface region between the annulus gap and the lower recirculating cavity. Higher temperature difference and rotating speed induce lower fluctuating frequency and smaller circumferential wave number of Taylor vortices. However, the azimuthal wave speed remains unchanged with all the cases tested. The predicted axial location of the maximum temperature fluctuation on the shaft is in a good agreement with the experimental data, identifying the region potentially affected by the thermal fatigue. The physical understandings of such flow instabilities presented in this paper would be useful for future PLR pump design optimization.

  13. A Deeper Look at the Fundamentals of Heterodyne Detection Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar; Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2007-01-01

    We generally accept the experimentally observed criteria for heterodyne detections that the two waves that are mixed must (i) be collinear, (ii) have matched wave fronts and (iii) cannot be orthogonally polarized. We have not found in the literature adequate physical explanations for these requirements. The purpose of this paper is to find deeper physical understanding of the coherent heterodyne detection processes that could lead to better coherent laser radar system designs1. We find that there are a number of unresolved paradoxes in classical and quantum optics regarding the definitions and understanding of the "interference" and "coherence" properties of light, which are attributed as essentially due to inherent properties of the EM waves. A deeper exploration indicates that it is the various quantum mechanical properties of the detecting material dipoles that make light detectable (visible, or measurable) to us. Accordingly, all the properties that we generally attribute to only light, are in reality manifestations of collective properties of dipole-light interactions. "Interference" and "coherence" can be better understood in terms of this mutual interaction, followed by energy absorption by the dipoles from EM wave fields, manifesting in some measurable transformation of the detecting dipoles. Light beams do not interfere by themselves. The superposition effects due to light beams become manifest through the response characteristics of the detecting dipoles. In this paper, we will show some preliminary expe rimental results that clearly demonstrate that the heterodyning wave fronts have quantitative degradation in signal generation as the angle between them deviates from perfect collinearity. Subsequently, we will propose a hypothesis for this behavior. We will present experimental data establishing that the so called incoherent light can be detected through heterodyne mixing as long as the pulse length contained in the "incoherent" light is longer than the

  14. Bridging plate osteosynthesis of humeral shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Livani, Bruno; Belangero, William Dias

    2004-06-01

    This study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Faculty of Medical Sciences and developed during November 2000 and July 2001 in the Orthopedic and Traumatology Department of UNICAMP. There were 15 patients, 11 males, age between 14 and 66 years. All fractures were unilateral. Of the 15 patients eight were polytraumatised, two of them had open fractures. The others had an isolated fracture of the humerus, of which one was open. None of the patients had previous lesions of the radial nerve, but in two patients there was a lesion of the brachial plexus. All of the patients underwent a bridging plate osteosynthesis of the humeral shaft fractures using only two small incisions proximal and distal to the fracture site. We used broad or narrow D.C.P. plates for large fragments mostly with 12 holes, fixed with two or three screws at each end. All cases united with an average time of 8-12 weeks, with the exception of one case with a grade III open fracture and a brachial plexus lesion on the same side. We had no major complications. All patients recovered good function of the limb without significant residual deformity. PMID:15135278

  15. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agencies are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.

  16. Achieving Deeper Energy Savings in Federal Energy Performance Contracts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Shonder, John A.; Nasseri, Cyrus

    2015-01-01

    Legislation requires each agency of the US federal government to reduce the aggregate energy use index of its buildings by 30% by 2015, with respect to a 2003 baseline. The declining availability of appropriated funding means that energy performance contracting will be key to achieving this goal. Historically however, energy performance contracts have been able to reduce energy use by only about 20% over baseline. Achieving 30% energy reductions using performance contracting will require new approaches and a specific focus on achieving higher energy savings, both by ESCOs and by agencies. This paper describes some of the ways federal agenciesmore » are meeting this challenge, and presents results from the efforts of one agency the US General Services Administration -- to achieve deeper energy savings in conventional energy savings performance contracts.« less

  17. 1. SHAFT HOUSE, NORTH ELEVATION; (HEADFRAME INCORPORATED INTO THE STRUCTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SHAFT HOUSE, NORTH ELEVATION; (HEADFRAME INCORPORATED INTO THE STRUCTURE IS VISIBLE AS THE PROJECTING SUPERSTRUCTURE). - Joker Mine, Shafthouse, Medicine Bow National Forest, Northwest of Keystone, Keystone, Albany County, WY

  18. 18. DETAIL OF SHAFT COLLAR AND CAGE GUIDES. VIEW LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL OF SHAFT COLLAR AND CAGE GUIDES. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH INCLUDES DETAIL OF RIVETED STEEL CONSTRUCTION OF HEADFRAME. - Butte Mineyards, Stewart Mine, Intersection of Main & Woolman Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  19. 8. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF SOUTH TURBINE SHAFT AND PULLEY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF SOUTH TURBINE SHAFT AND PULLEY WHEEL - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 2, South Main Street opposite Durham Street, North bank Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  20. 9. DETAIL VIEW WEST OF MIDDLE TURBINE DRAFT TUBE, SHAFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL VIEW WEST OF MIDDLE TURBINE DRAFT TUBE, SHAFT, AND PULLEY WHEEL - Willimantic Linen Company, Mill No. 2, South Main Street opposite Durham Street, North bank Willimantic River, Windham, Windham County, CT

  1. Nonsynchronous vibrations observed in a supercritical power transmission shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darlow, M. S.; Zorzi, E. S.

    1979-01-01

    A flexible shaft is prone to a number of vibration phenomena which occur at frequencies other than synchronous with rotational speed. Nonsynchronous vibrations from several sources were observed while running a test rig designed to simulate the operation of a supercritical power transmission shaft. The test rig was run first with very light external damping and then with a higher level of external damping, for comparison. As a result, the effect of external damping on the nonsynchronous vibrations of the test rig was observed. All of these nonsynchronous vibrations were of significant amplitude. Their presence in the vibrations spectra for a supercritical power transmission shaft at various speeds in the operating range indicates that very careful attention to all of the vibration spectra should be made in any supercritical power transmission shafting. This paper presents a review of the analysis performed and a comparison with experimental data. A thorough discussion of the observed nonsynchronous whirl is also provided.

  2. 173. STORAGE ROOM, LOOKING WEST FROM ELEVATOR SHAFT INTO STORAGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    173. STORAGE ROOM, LOOKING WEST FROM ELEVATOR SHAFT INTO STORAGE AREA ADDED AS PART OF 1905 ELEVATOR ADDITION. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  3. Looking southwest at the motor, drive shaft, and stokers for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking southwest at the motor, drive shaft, and stokers for boilers numbers 1 through 6. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  4. 8. VIEW LOOKING UP INTO TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT FROM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW LOOKING UP INTO TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT FROM THIRD FLOOR, SHOWING OPERATING CABLES AT LEFT, MAIN CABLE IN CENTER, AND CAR GUIDE AT RIGHT - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. 7. VIEW OF SHAFT ON FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING COUNTERWEIGHT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF SHAFT ON FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING COUNTERWEIGHT AND ITS GUIDE AT LEFT, OPERATING CABLE AT RIGHT, CARLIGHT ELECTRIC CABLE IS LOOPED IN FRONT OF WINDOW - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. 158. BLACKSMITH SHOP, DRIVE SHAFT FOR BLACKSMITH AND WOOD SHOPS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    158. BLACKSMITH SHOP, DRIVE SHAFT FOR BLACKSMITH AND WOOD SHOPS. BELT ON RIGHT POWERS GRUBER BUILT BELT SANDER. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  7. 17. TOP OF TURBINE LOOKING NORTHWEST. SHAFT TO GENERATOR IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. TOP OF TURBINE LOOKING NORTHWEST. SHAFT TO GENERATOR IN CENTER. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  8. 18. TURBINE AND GENERATOR SHAFT IN CONCRETE HOUSING OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. TURBINE AND GENERATOR SHAFT IN CONCRETE HOUSING OF THE TURBINE FLUME. - Potomac Power Plant, On West Virginia Shore of Potomac River, about 1 mile upriver from confluence with Shenandoah River, Harpers Ferry, Jefferson County, WV

  9. Free Vibration of a Rotating Tapered Composite Timoshenko Shaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM, W.; ARGENTO, A.; SCOTT, R. A.

    1999-09-01

    A mechanical model is developed of a tapered, filament-wound composite, Timoshenko shaft which is rotating at constant speed about its axis. The model represents an extended length cutting tool intended for use in high-speed operations. The effects of shaft tapering and the use of composite materials on the structure's free response are studied. The spatial solutions to the equations of motion are carried out using the general Galerkin method. It is found that by tapering, bending natural frequencies and stiffness can be significantly increased over those of uniform shafts having the same volume and made of the same material. The potential for designing a taper function to meet a particular cutting need is also discussed. Various composite laminate cases are treated and it is found that improvements of performance are possible over equivalent steel shafts.

  10. 17. Detail view of coupling shaft connection between reduction gear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Detail view of coupling shaft connection between reduction gear and cane mill drive gears - Hacienda Azucarera la Igualdad, Sugar Mill Ruins & Steam Engine, PR Route 332, Guanica, Guanica Municipio, PR

  11. 28. VIEW FROM AFT LOOKING FORWARD. VERTICAL SHAFT GOES TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW FROM AFT LOOKING FORWARD. VERTICAL SHAFT GOES TO CAPSTAN BARREL. LARGE DRUM ON LEFT PART OF SPUD ENGINE CABLE DRUM. - Dredge CINCINNATI, Docked on Ohio River at foot of Lighthill Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  12. Interior of Right Powerhouse, looking northeast, showing shaft from Francis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of Right Powerhouse, looking northeast, showing shaft from Francis turbine (below) extending to the generator (above). This is unit G-10. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam Powerplant Complex, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  13. 39. ENGINE LATHE, SANDER, AND LATHE WITH PATTERNS AND SHAFTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. ENGINE LATHE, SANDER, AND LATHE WITH PATTERNS AND SHAFTS ABOVE-LOOKING NORTHWEST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  14. 8. Detail of gears, drive shaft and connection at bridgeway ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of gears, drive shaft and connection at bridgeway - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  15. 1. DETAIL BELOW ROASTER, SOUTHEAST VIEW (SHAFT, TURNING GEAR MECHANISM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. DETAIL BELOW ROASTER, SOUTHEAST VIEW (SHAFT, TURNING GEAR MECHANISM AND FURNACE). - Vanadium Corporation of America (VCA) Naturita Mill, Steel Skimmer Salt Roaster, 3 miles Northwest of Naturita, between Highway 141 & San Miguel River, Naturita, Montrose County, CO

  16. 15. FAN HOUSE ON TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. Hot ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. FAN HOUSE ON TOP OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  17. 13. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. Hot Springs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF INTERIOR OF ELEVATOR SHAFT. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  18. 41. PATTERN STORAGE, GRIND STONE, WATER TANK, SHAFTING, AND TABLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. PATTERN STORAGE, GRIND STONE, WATER TANK, SHAFTING, AND TABLE SAW (L TO R)-LOOKING WEST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  19. 13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Detail view of drum screen short shaft gears, journal bearing, rotation drive chain, upper sprocket gear, and drum screen edge in background, facing southeast (downstream) from drum screen cover. - Congdon Canal, Fish Screen, Naches River, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  20. 80. VIEW OF PLACING WHEELS IN SHAFT OF NO. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    80. VIEW OF PLACING WHEELS IN SHAFT OF NO. 2 UNIT IN POSITION. OVERVIEW LOOKING EAST IN THE POWERHOUSE, Print No. 234, April 1904 - Electron Hydroelectric Project, Along Puyallup River, Electron, Pierce County, WA

  1. 18. VIEW NORTHEAST, SHAFT, CAM, AND OPERATING ARM FOR NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW NORTHEAST, SHAFT, CAM, AND OPERATING ARM FOR NORTH END LOCK, INBOARD SIDE OF WEST BASCULE GIRDER - Grand Street Bridge, Spanning Pequonnock River at Grand Street, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  2. DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF CLASSIFIER, TAILINGS LAUNDER TROUGH, LINE SHAFTS, AND CONCENTRATION TABLES, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. SLURRY EXITING THE BALL MILL WAS COLLECTED IN AN AMALGAMATION BOX (MISSING) FROM THE END OF THE MILL, AND INTRODUCED INTO THE CLASSIFIER. THE TAILINGS LAUDER IS ON THE GROUND AT LOWER RIGHT. THE LINE SHAFTING ABOVE PROVIDED POWER TO THE CONCENTRATION TABLES BELOW AT CENTER RIGHT. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  3. Measuring Motor-Shaft Clearance And Wobble During Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chern, Engmin James

    1996-01-01

    Noncontact proximity sensor, preferably eddy-current liftoff probe, provides realtime measurement of distance and small variations of distance between two mechanical components designed to be maintained at precise, fixed distance. In particular, system intended for use in measuring lateral clearance and variations in lateral clearance (wobble) of motor shaft relative to motor housing while shaft turning. Provides early indication of wear in motor bearings. Rate of rotation also measured.

  4. 4. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT. CENTRAL LINE SHAFTING RUNNING NORTHSOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. INTERIOR VIEW OF BASEMENT. CENTRAL LINE SHAFTING RUNNING NORTH-SOUTH IS IN PLACE; AT RIGHT IS A PRESS FOR WORKING THE ALUMINUM SHEETS; E. W. BLISS CO. OF BROOKLYN, NEW YORK, MANUFACTURED THE PRESS. MACHINERY ORIGINALLY POWERED BY OVERHEAD BELTS CONNECTED TO CENTRAL LINE SHAFTS; BY ABOUT THE 1940s THE MACHINERY WAS ELECTRICALLY POWERED. - Illinois Pure Aluminum Company, 109 Holmes Street, Lemont, Cook County, IL

  5. 11. Turbine Pit and Shaft of Unit 1, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Turbine Pit and Shaft of Unit 1, view to the south, with operating ring at base of shaft and servo motor arms in foreground and in left background recess. Turbine monitoring and auxiliary equipment is located in the rightbackground recess. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Noxon Rapids Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, South bank of Clark Fork River at Noxon Rapids, Noxon, Sanders County, MT

  6. Automatic Tension Adjuster For Flexible-Shaft Grinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard K.; Hoult, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Flexible shaft of grinding tool automatically maintained in tension by air pressure. Probelike tool bent to reach hard-to-reach areas for grinding and polishing. Unless shaft held in tension, however, it rubs against its sheath, overheating and wearing out quickly. By taking up slack in flexible cable, tension adjuster reduces friction and enables tool to operate more efficiently, in addition to lengthening operating life.

  7. 30 CFR 57.19105 - Landings with more than one shaft entrance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Landings with more than one shaft entrance. 57... MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19105 Landings with more than one shaft entrance. A safe means of passage around open shaft compartments shall be provided on landings with more than one entrance to...

  8. 30 CFR 57.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 57... MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a shaft “Men Working in Shaft” signs shall be posted at all devices controlling...

  9. 30 CFR 56.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 56... Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a shaft “Men Working in Shaft” signs shall be posted at all devices controlling hoisting operations...

  10. 30 CFR 57.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 57... MINES Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 57.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a shaft “Men Working in Shaft” signs shall be posted at all devices controlling...

  11. 30 CFR 56.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 56... Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a shaft “Men Working in Shaft” signs shall be posted at all devices controlling hoisting operations...

  12. 30 CFR 56.19108 - Posting warning signs during shaft work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Posting warning signs during shaft work. 56... Personnel Hoisting Shafts § 56.19108 Posting warning signs during shaft work. When persons are working in a shaft “Men Working in Shaft” signs shall be posted at all devices controlling hoisting operations...

  13. Salt Repository Project shaft design guide: Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    The Salt Repository Project (SRP) Shaft Design Guide (SDG) and the accompanying SRP Input to Seismic Design define the basic approach for developing appropriate shaft designs for a high-level nuclear waste repository in salt at a proposed site in Deaf Smith County, Texas. The SDG is based on current mining industry standards and practices enhanced to meet the special needs of an underground nuclear waste repository. It provides a common approach for design of both the exploratory and repository shafts. The SDG defines shaft lining and material concepts and presents methods for calculating the loads and displacements that will be imposed on lining structures. It also presents the methodology and formulae for sizing lining components. The SDG directs the shaft designer to sources of geoscience and seismic design data for the Deaf Smith County, Texas repository site. In addition, the SDG describes methods for confirming shaft lining design by means of computer analysis, and it discusses performance monitoring needs that must be considered in the design. 113 refs., 18 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. Shaft Siting and Configuration for Flexible Operating Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Boutin

    2001-08-02

    The purpose of this document as stated in the ''Technical Work Plan for Subsurface Design Section FY 01 Work Activities'' (CRWMS M&O 2001a, pg. 14) is to review and evaluate the most current concepts for shaft siting and configuration. The locations of the shaft sites will be evaluated in reference to the overall subsurface ventilation layout shown in Figure 1. The scope will include discussions on pad size requirements, shaft construction components such as collars, shaft stations, sumps, ground support and linings, head frames, fan ducting and facility equipping. In addition to these, shaft excavation methodologies and integration with the overall subsurface construction schedule will be described. The Technical Work Plan (TWP), (CRWMS M&O 2001a), for this document has been prepared in accordance with AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering and Regulatory Compliance Activities''. This document will be prepared in accordance with AP-3.10Q, ''Analysis and Models''. This document contributes to Site Recommendation (SR). The intended use of this document is to provide an analysis for shaft siting and configuration criteria for subsequent construction. This document identifies preliminary design concepts that should not be used for procurement, fabrication, or construction.

  15. Speed control device for a heavy duty shaft. [solar sails for spacecraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, A. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A speed control device is characterized by a reference speed shaft spatially related to a heavy duty shaft, a drive train for driving the reference speed shaft at a constant angular velocity, a drive train for driving the heavy duty shaft at a variable angular velocity and a speed control assembly for continuously comparing the angular velocity of the heavy duty shaft with the angular velocity of the reference speed shaft. A brake assembly is connected to the heavy duty shaft and is adapted to respond to errors in the angular velocity of the heavy duty shaft in order to reduce the angular velocity of the heavy duty shaft to that of the reference speed shaft.

  16. On Shaft Data Acquisition System (OSDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedings, Marc; DeHart, Shawn; Formby, Jason; Naumann, Charles

    2012-01-01

    On Shaft Data Acquisition System (OSDAS) is a rugged, compact, multiple-channel data acquisition computer system that is designed to record data from instrumentation while operating under extreme rotational centrifugal or gravitational acceleration forces. This system, which was developed for the Heritage Fuel Air Turbine Test (HFATT) program, addresses the problem of recording multiple channels of high-sample-rate data on most any rotating test article by mounting the entire acquisition computer onboard with the turbine test article. With the limited availability of slip ring wires for power and communication, OSDAS utilizes its own resources to provide independent power and amplification for each instrument. Since OSDAS utilizes standard PC technology as well as shared code interfaces with the next-generation, real-time health monitoring system (SPARTAA Scalable Parallel Architecture for Real Time Analysis and Acquisition), this system could be expanded beyond its current capabilities, such as providing advanced health monitoring capabilities for the test article. High-conductor-count slip rings are expensive to purchase and maintain, yet only provide a limited number of conductors for routing instrumentation off the article and to a stationary data acquisition system. In addition to being limited to a small number of instruments, slip rings are prone to wear quickly, and introduce noise and other undesirable characteristics to the signal data. This led to the development of a system capable of recording high-density instrumentation, at high sample rates, on the test article itself, all while under extreme rotational stress. OSDAS is a fully functional PC-based system with 48 channels of 24-bit, high-sample-rate input channels, phase synchronized, with an onboard storage capacity of over 1/2-terabyte of solid-state storage. This recording system takes a novel approach to the problem of recording multiple channels of instrumentation, integrated with the test

  17. Laying, operating innovations pace move to deeper water

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    Innovations driven by the offshore industry's move into deeper, colder water and its continuing demand for solid operating research were highlighted in technical papers presented at the 26th Offshore Technology Conference held in Houston, May 2--5. For pipe line connecting and laying operations, there were discussions concerning: a diverless jumper connector system for two 12-in. lines to be carried out in 2,130 ft water depth; what's believed to be the first near vertical, deepwater, J-lay project, conducted in 2,860 ft of water; first year results from operation of a prototype subsea, ROV-controlled, lightweight pipe line trencher for flexible lines. In operating research, scientists reported on new laboratory test apparatus and results designed to investigate wax deposition and gel strength of waxy live crude oils. Operators, perhaps for the first time, have data on the impact of oil bubble point, flowrate and paraffin inhibitor on wax deposition and the impact of oil bubble point and pipe size on the gel strength of waxy crudes, including both stock tank oils and live oils.

  18. A CANDLE for a deeper in vivo insight.

    PubMed

    Coupé, Pierrick; Munz, Martin; Manjón, Jose V; Ruthazer, Edward S; Collins, D Louis

    2012-05-01

    A new Collaborative Approach for eNhanced Denoising under Low-light Excitation (CANDLE) is introduced for the processing of 3D laser scanning multiphoton microscopy images. CANDLE is designed to be robust for low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions typically encountered when imaging deep in scattering biological specimens. Based on an optimized non-local means filter involving the comparison of filtered patches, CANDLE locally adapts the amount of smoothing in order to deal with the noise inhomogeneity inherent to laser scanning fluorescence microscopy images. An extensive validation on synthetic data, images acquired on microspheres and in vivo images is presented. These experiments show that the CANDLE filter obtained competitive results compared to a state-of-the-art method and a locally adaptive optimized non-local means filter, especially under low SNR conditions (PSNR<8dB). Finally, the deeper imaging capabilities enabled by the proposed filter are demonstrated on deep tissue in vivo images of neurons and fine axonal processes in the Xenopus tadpole brain. PMID:22341767

  19. A Deeper Look at the "Neural Correlate of Consciousness".

    PubMed

    Fink, Sascha Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    A main goal of the neuroscience of consciousness is: find the neural correlate to conscious experiences (NCC). When have we achieved this goal? The answer depends on our operationalization of "NCC." Chalmers (2000) shaped the widely accepted operationalization according to which an NCC is a neural system with a state which is minimally sufficient (but not necessary) for an experience. A deeper look at this operationalization reveals why it might be unsatisfactory: (i) it is not an operationalization of a correlate for occurring experiences, but of the capacity to experience; (ii) it is unhelpful for certain cases which are used to motivate a search for neural correlates of consciousness; (iii) it does not mirror the usage of "NCC" by scientists who seek for unique correlates; (iv) it hardly allows for a form of comparative testing of hypotheses, namely experimenta crucis. Because of these problems (i-iv), we ought to amend or improve on Chalmers's operationalization. Here, I present an alternative which avoids these problems. This "NCC2.0" also retains some benefits of Chalmers's operationalization, namely being compatible with contributions from extended, embedded, enacted, or embodied accounts (4E-accounts) and allowing for the possibility of non-biological or artificial experiencers. PMID:27507950

  20. Going deeper: metagenome of a hadopelagic microbial community.

    PubMed

    Eloe, Emiley A; Fadrosh, Douglas W; Novotny, Mark; Zeigler Allen, Lisa; Kim, Maria; Lombardo, Mary-Jane; Yee-Greenbaum, Joyclyn; Yooseph, Shibu; Allen, Eric E; Lasken, Roger; Williamson, Shannon J; Bartlett, Douglas H

    2011-01-01

    microbes residing in a deeper layer of the ocean far removed from the more productive sun-drenched zones above. PMID:21629664

  1. Going Deeper: Metagenome of a Hadopelagic Microbial Community

    PubMed Central

    Eloe, Emiley A.; Fadrosh, Douglas W.; Novotny, Mark; Zeigler Allen, Lisa; Kim, Maria; Lombardo, Mary-Jane; Yee-Greenbaum, Joyclyn; Yooseph, Shibu; Allen, Eric E.; Lasken, Roger; Williamson, Shannon J.; Bartlett, Douglas H.

    2011-01-01

    microbes residing in a deeper layer of the ocean far removed from the more productive sun-drenched zones above. PMID:21629664

  2. Laboratory modeling of laterally-loaded drilled shafts in clay

    SciTech Connect

    Mayne, P.W.; Kulhawy, F.H.; Trautmann, C.H.

    1995-12-01

    The behavior of free-head rigid drilled shafts under static and cyclic lateral and moment loading was investigated using laboratory models in relatively large test chambers. This testing program represents perhaps one of the first larger-scale laboratory test series to utilize cast-in-place concrete shafts in consolidated and prestressed cohesive soil deposits for realistic simulation of prototype drilled shafts in clays. The construction procedure incorporated the actual effects of concrete curing and soil/concrete interface roughness, and the soil-deposit preparation included the characteristic anisotropy and overconsolidation associated with natural clays. A total of 28 cylindrical shafts having diameters of 51, 89, and 175 mm (2.0, 3.5, and 6.9 in.) and depth-do-diameter (D/B) ratios of 3--8 were constructed and tested. Many of the shafts were instrumented with total stress cells and pore-water stress transducers to permit both total and effective stress measurements during the load testing. The results of the lateral and moment load tests indicated a high degree of nonlinearity in the monotonic static load-displacement response, but it can be represented adequately by a hyperbola. This hyperbola also provides a reference backbone curve for the cyclic loading behavior.

  3. Method of lining a vertical mine shaft with concrete

    DOEpatents

    Eklund, James D.; Halter, Joseph M.; Rasmussen, Donald E.; Sullivan, Robert G.; Moffat, Robert B.

    1981-01-01

    The apparatus includes a cylindrical retainer form spaced inwardly of the wall of the shaft by the desired thickness of the liner to be poured and having overlapping edges which seal against concrete flow but permit the form to be contracted to a smaller circumference after the liner has hardened and is self-supporting. A curb ring extends downwardly and outwardly toward the shaft wall from the bottom of the retainer form to define the bottom surface of each poured liner section. An inflatable toroid forms a seal between the curb ring and the shaft wall. A form support gripper ring having gripper shoes laterally extendable under hydraulic power to engage the shaft wall supports the retainer form, curb ring and liner until the newly poured liner section becomes self-supporting. Adjusting hydraulic cylinders permit the curb ring and retainer form to be properly aligned relative to the form support gripper ring. After a liner section is self-supporting, an advancing system advances the retainer form, curb ring and form support gripper ring toward a shaft boring machine above which the liner is being formed. The advancing system also provides correct horizontal alignment of the form support gripper ring.

  4. The Effect of Operational Parameters on the Characteristics of Gas-Solid Flow Inside the COREX Shaft Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Mingyin; Wu, Shengli; Du, Kaiping; Shen, Wei; Ma, Xiaodong; Chen, Mao; Zhao, Baojun

    2015-02-01

    The COREX shaft furnace is of great importance to the whole C-3000 process. There are many problems with the operation of the COREX shaft furnace, especially with gas and burden distribution, that have as yet been little studied. The present work establishes a three-dimensional quarter model. After validation by operating data in Baosteel, the model is used to investigate the gas utilization rate and the metallization rate of the COREX shaft furnace. The parameters, including the reducing gas flow, the volume fraction of gas phase, and the multilayered burden, are systematically investigated. The results show that the reducing gas flow has a great influence on the gas utilization rate and the metallization rate, while the volume fraction of gas phase has a more significant effect on the metallization rate than on the gas utilization rate. In order to obtain a higher metallization rate, the reducing gas flow needs to be adjusted step by step and the volume fraction of gas phase needs to be increased. In addition, ore and coke need to be discharged separately in order to increase the solid metallization rate.

  5. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

  6. Failure analysis of a tool steel torque shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    A low design load drive shaft used to deliver power from an experimental exhaust heat recovery system to the crankshaft of an experimental diesel truck engine failed during highway testing. An independent testing laboratory analyzed the failure by routine metallography and attributed the failure to fatigue induced by a banded microstructure. Visual examination by NASA of the failed shaft plus the knowledge of the torsional load that it carried pointed to a 100 percent ductile failure with no evidence of fatigue. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed this. Torsional test specimens were produced from pieces of the failed shaft and torsional overload testing produced identical failures to that which had occurred in the truck engine. This pointed to a failure caused by a high overload and although the microstructure was defective it was not the cause of the failure.

  7. Shaft seal assembly for high speed and high pressure applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadt, W. F.; Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A seal assembly is provided for reducing the escape of fluids from between a housing and a shaft rotably mounted in the housing. The seal assembly comprises a pair of seal rings resiliently connected to each other and disposed in side-by-side relationship. In each seal ring, both the internal bore surface and the radial face which faces away from the other seal ring are provided with a plurality of equi-spaced recesses. The seal faces referred to are located adjacent a seating surface of the housing. Under normal operating conditions, the seal assembly is stationary with respect to the housing, and the recesses generate life, keep the assembly spaced from the rotating shaft and allow slip therebetween. The seal assembly can seize on the shaft, and slip will then occur between the radial faces and the housing.

  8. WIPP air-intake shaft disturbed-rock zone study

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, T.; Hurtado, L.D.

    1996-12-01

    The disturbed-rock zone surrounding the air-intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was investigated to determine the extent and the permeability of the disturbed-rock zone as a function of radial distance from the 6.1 m diameter shaft, at different elevations within the Salado. Gas- and brine-permeability tests were performed in the bedded halite of the Salado formation at two levels within the air-intake shaft. The gas- and brine-permeability test results demonstrated that the radial distance to an undisturbed formation permeability of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}21} m{sup 2} was less than 3.0 m.

  9. NNWSI exploratory shaft site and construction method recommendation report

    SciTech Connect

    Bertram, S.G.

    1984-08-01

    This report documents the process by which alternative construction methods were evaluated and by which potential sites were screened by the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) project for the exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain, in Nye County, Nevada. The evaluation was made by the Ad Hoc Technical Overview Contractor Committee. Our recommendations were to construct a vertical shaft using conventional mining techniques in a dry canyon known as Coyote Wash, located on the east flank of the mountain. 11 references, 10 figures, 15 tables.

  10. Probable maximum floods at the Yucca Mountain exploration shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Cardle, J.A.; Lim, S.T.

    1990-10-01

    This paper presents an analysis of flood flows in the Coyote Wash at the proposed high level nuclear waste repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Estimates of the hydrographs at various points in this wash resulting from the 100 year storm and from the probable maximum storms are developed and compared with other results. Flows in this particular wash are particularly critical due to the adjacent location of the proposed exploratory shafts. The resulting hydrographs at the site of the exploratory shaft pad are delineated.

  11. Failure analysis of a tool steel torque shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, J. R.

    1983-01-01

    A low design load drive shaft used to deliver power from an experimental exhaust heat recovery system to the crankshaft of an experimental diesel truck engine failed during highway testing. An independent testing laboratory analyzed the failure by routine metallography and attributed the failure to fatigue induced by a banded microstructure. Visual examination by NASA of the failed shaft plus the knowledge of the torsional load that it carried pointed to a 100 percent ductile failure with no evidence of fatigue. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed this. Previously announced in STAR as N82-11184

  12. Skew And Twist Resistant Hydrodynamic Rotary Shaft Seal

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie; Kalsi, Manmohan Singh

    2000-03-14

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which and cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland. Compared to prior art, this invention provides a dramatic reduction of seal and shaft wear in abrasive environments and provides a significant increase in seal life.

  13. Double crush syndrome due to plating of humeral shaft fracture

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yi-Gang; Chang, Shi-Min

    2014-01-01

    Median nerve injury is rarely associated with the humeral shaft fracture. A Sixty two year old woman with a displaced humeral shaft fracture, developed a symptomatic carpal tunnel syndrome after plating with a screw protruding medially. 16 months later, the implants were removed and the symptoms gradually improved without carpal tunnel release surgery. A double crush syndrome resulted due to the proximal compression by the medially protruding screw and the distal compression by carpal tunnel. The proximal decompression produced by removal of the screw led to relief of the symptoms. PMID:24741148

  14. Shaft transducer having dc output proportional to angular velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handlykken, M. B. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A brushless dc tachometer is disclosed that includes a high strength toroidal permanent magnet for providing a uniform magnetic field in an air gap, an annular pole piece opposite the magnet, and a pickup coil wound around the pole piece and adapted to rotate about the axis of the pole piece. The pickup coil is rotated by an input shaft to which the coil is coupled with the friction clip. The output of the coil is conducted to circuitry by a twisted wire pair. The input shaft also activates a position transducing potentiometer.

  15. Adaptive optics for deeper imaging of biological samples.

    PubMed

    Girkin, John M; Poland, Simon; Wright, Amanda J

    2009-02-01

    Optical microscopy has been a cornerstone of life science investigations since its first practical application around 400 years ago with the goal being subcellular resolution, three-dimensional images, at depth, in living samples. Nonlinear microscopy brought this dream a step closer, but as one images more deeply the material through which you image can greatly distort the view. By using optical devices, originally developed for astronomy, whose optical properties can be changed in real time, active compensation for sample-induced aberrations is possible. Submicron resolution images are now routinely recorded from depths over 1mm into tissue. Such active optical elements can also be used to keep conventional microscopes, both confocal and widefield, in optimal alignment. PMID:19272766

  16. Is MIPO in humeral shaft fractures really safe? Postoperative ultrasonographic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Belangero, William; Andrade, Kleber; Zuiani, Guilherme; Pratali, Raphael

    2008-01-01

    In the last few years there has been great interest in minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) in the treatment of humeral shaft fractures. None of these studies showed the anatomical relationship between the radial nerve and the material of the implant in vivo. We performed postoperative ultrasonographic measurement of the distance between the radial nerve and the material implanted using the MIPO technique. Nineteen patients underwent postoperative ultrasound examinations. Group A comprised midshaft fractures and group B distal third fractures. The point of greatest proximity between the radial nerve and the implant was measured. In group A the distance was between 1.6 and 19.6 mm (mean: 9.3 mm) and in group B between 1.0 and 8.1 mm (mean: 4.0 mm). The ultrasound findings reveal that the radial nerve is quite close to the implant material, especially in the transition between the third and fourth quarters of the humeral shaft. PMID:18704415

  17. 11. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM IN BASEMENT BELOW SHAFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM IN BASEMENT BELOW SHAFT SHOWING LOW CABINET THAT HOUSES HYDRAULIC CYLINDER AND CLOSET THAT HOUSES TRAVELING SHEAVES AT RIGHT, WITH CABINET AND CLOSET DOORS OPEN, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  18. 10. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM IN BASEMENT BELOW SHAFT, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW OF ELEVATOR MACHINE ROOM IN BASEMENT BELOW SHAFT, SHOWING LOW CABINET THAT HOUSES HYDRAULIC CYLINDER AND CLOSET THAT HOUSES TRAVELING SHEAVES AT RIGHT; OPERATING CABLE SHEAVE AT TOP OF PICTURE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - 72 Marlborough Street, Residential Hydraulic Elevator, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. 53. Drive shaft, motors, eddie currents, brakes, and differential gears ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Drive shaft, motors, eddie currents, brakes, and differential gears in south machinery room (interior of both machinery rooms is identical). Facing east. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. DETAIL SHOWING THE STERN TUBE, PROPELLOR SHAFT AND RELATED EQUIPMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL SHOWING THE STERN TUBE, PROPELLOR SHAFT AND RELATED EQUIPMENT IN THE LOWER MOTOR ROOM. NOTE THE WORM-WHEEL TURNING GEAR AT CENTER, AND THE KINGBURY THRUST BEARING IN THE FOREGROUND IMMEDIATELY FOREWORD OF THE WORM-WHEEL GEAR. NOTE ALSO THE 50-POUND IRON BALLAST BLOCKS STACKED BETWEEN FRAMES. - Lightship 116, Pier 3, Inner Harbor, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  1. 9. Detail of Stoney gates, showing shaft that drives rack ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail of Stoney gates, showing shaft that drives rack and pinion gears to raise and lower gates, looking south. Photo by Jet Lowe, HAER, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  2. Simulating seepage into mine shafts and tunnels with MODFLOW.

    PubMed

    Zaidel, Jacob; Markham, Bradley; Bleiker, David

    2010-01-01

    In cases when an equivalent porous medium assumption is suitable for simulating groundwater flow in bedrock aquifers, estimation of seepage into underground mine workings (UMWs) can be achieved by specifying MODFLOW drain nodes at the contact between water bearing rock and dewatered mine openings. However, this approach results in significant numerical problems when applied to simulate seepage into an extensive network of UMWs, which often exist at the mine sites. Numerical simulations conducted for individual UMWs, such as a vertical shaft or a horizontal drift, showed that accurate prediction of seepage rates can be achieved by either applying grid spacing that is much finer than the diameter/width of the simulated openings (explicit modeling) or using coarser grid with cell sizes exceeding the characteristic width of shafts or drifts by a factor of 3. Theoretical insight into this phenomenon is presented, based on the so-called well-index theory. It is demonstrated that applying this theory allows to minimize numerical errors associated with MODFLOW simulation of seepage into UMWs on a relatively coarse Cartesian grid. Presented examples include simulated steady-state groundwater flow from homogeneous, heterogeneous, and/or anisotropic rock into a vertical shaft, a horizontal drift/cross-cut, a ramp, two parallel drifts, and a combined system of a vertical shaft connected to a horizontal drift. PMID:20039952

  3. Metatarsal Shaft Fracture with Associated Metatarsophalangeal Joint Dislocation.

    PubMed

    Tung, Taranjit Singh

    2016-01-01

    Metatarsophalangeal joint dislocations of lesser toes are often seen in the setting of severe claw toes. Traumatic irreducible dislocations have been reported in rare cases following both low-energy and high-energy injuries to the forefoot. In this case report, I present a previously unreported association of a metatarsal shaft fracture with metatarsophalangeal joint dislocation of a lesser toe. PMID:27597914

  4. Light microscopic hair shaft analysis in ectodermal dysplasia syndromes.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Stefanie A; Mason, Ashley R; Salkey, Kimberly; Williams, Judith V; Pariser, David M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to catalog hair shaft abnormalities in individuals with ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes using light microscopy and to compare findings with those in unaffected controls. Light microscopy was performed in a nonblinded manner on hair shafts from 65 participants with seven types of ED (hypohidrotic ED, ED-ectrodactyly-cleft lip or palate, ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip and palate, Clouston syndrome, Goltz syndrome, Schopf-Schulz Passarge syndrome, and oculodentodigital dysplasia) and 41 unaffected controls. Hair donations were collected at the 28th Annual National Family Conference held by the National Foundation for Ectodermal Dysplasia. Control participants were recruited from a private dermatology practice and an academic children's hospital outpatient dermatology clinic. Sixty-five affected participants and 41 unaffected controls were included in the analysis. We assessed the hair shafts of ED and control participants for abnormalities visible using LM. Light microscopy identified various pathologic hair shaft abnormalities in each type of ED, although none of the findings were statistically significantly different from those of the control group. Light microscopy is a poor adjuvant tool in the diagnosis of ED syndromes. Most findings are nonspecific and not sufficiently sensitive. PMID:22084904

  5. Monitoring the Blind Shaft Borer Project, Oak Grove, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Amstutz, R.; Danowski, T.

    1982-03-01

    In 1974, plans of the United States to obtain energy self-sufficiency included a significant increase in coal production, primarily from new underground mines in the Eastern states. The poor condition of coal shaft sinking companies was a major concern. The US Bureau of Mines perceived similarities between shaft sinking and tunnel boring and felt that a machine could be produced for faster, safer shaft sinking. In January 1975, the Robbins Co., a major producer of tunnel boring machines, submitted an unsolicited proposal to the Bureau of Mines to develop, design, build and demonstrate a Blind Shaft Borer (BSB). In June 1975, a contract was initiated to start work on a BSB. After the Department of Energy was formed, the project was transferred to their Department of Fossil Fuel. In late 1978, while the BSB was being assembled for the field trial near Oak Grove, Alabama, the DOE contracted with Williams Brothers Engineering Company to monitor the site activities and provide technical advice to the Technical Project Manager. This report reviews the BSB project prior to the field trial, describes field trial operations as observed by Williams Brothers Engineering Company personnel and provides a summary of daily activities. It also details project problems, interim efforts to resolve them, results obtained and recommendations to preclude their re-occurrence on future BSB projects.

  6. Imaging a vertical shaft from a tunnel using muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonal, N.; Preston, L. A.; Dorsey, D. J.; Schwellenbach, D.; Green, A.; Smalley, D.

    2015-12-01

    We use muon technology to image a vertical shaft from a tunnel. The density of the materials through which cosmic ray muons pass influences the flux of muons because muons are more attenuated by higher density material. Additionally, muons can travel several kilometers allowing measurements through deep rock. Density maps are generated from muon flux measurements to locate subsurface features like tunnel structures and ore bodies. Additionally, muon data can be jointly inverted with other data such as gravity and seismic to produce higher quality earth models than produced from a single method. We collected several weeks of data in a tunnel to image a vertical shaft. The minimum length of rock between the vertical shaft and the detector is 120 meters and the diameter of the vertical shaft is 4.6 meters. The rock the muons traveled through consists of Tertiary age volcanic tuff and steeply dipping, small-displacement faults. Results will be presented for muon flux in the tunnel and Monte-Carlo simulations of this experiment. Simulations from both GEANT4 (Geometry And Tracking version 4) and MCNP6 (Monte-Carlo N-Particle version 6) models will be compared. The tunnel overburden from muon measurements is also estimated and compared with actual the overburden. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Metatarsal Shaft Fracture with Associated Metatarsophalangeal Joint Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Metatarsophalangeal joint dislocations of lesser toes are often seen in the setting of severe claw toes. Traumatic irreducible dislocations have been reported in rare cases following both low-energy and high-energy injuries to the forefoot. In this case report, I present a previously unreported association of a metatarsal shaft fracture with metatarsophalangeal joint dislocation of a lesser toe. PMID:27597914

  8. 9. VIEW OF FRANCIS TURBINE, GENERATOR DRIVE SHAFT. NOTE ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF FRANCIS TURBINE, GENERATOR DRIVE SHAFT. NOTE ORIGINAL EXCITER AND GENERATOR RHEOSTATS ATOP CONTROL PANEL AT REAR. CONTROL PANEL IS ORIGINAL EXCEPT FOR HORIZONTAL TOP PANEL WITH CLOCK AT LEFT AND SYNCHROSCOPE AT RIGHT, LOOKING EAST - Centerville Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse, Butte Creek, Centerville, Butte County, CA

  9. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting and their impact on design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leowenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  10. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  11. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  12. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  13. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  14. 10 CFR 60.134 - Design of seals for shafts and boreholes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. 60.134 Section....134 Design of seals for shafts and boreholes. (a) General design criterion. Seals for shafts and... closure. (b) Selection of materials and placement methods. Materials and placement methods for seals...

  15. Monitoring techniques for the X-29A aircraft's high-speed rotating power takeoff shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voracek, David F.

    1990-01-01

    The experimental X-29A forward swept-wing aircraft has many unique and critical systems that require constant monitoring during ground or flight operation. One such system is the power takeoff shaft, which is the mechanical link between the engine and the aircraft-mounted accessory drive. The X-29A power takeoff shaft opertes in a range between 0 and 16,810 rpm, is longer than most jet engine power takeoff shafts, and is made of graphite epoxy material. Since the X-29A aircraft operates on a single engine, failure of the shaft during flight could lead to loss of the aircraft. The monitoring techniques and test methods used during power takeoff shaft ground and flight operations are discussed. Test data are presented in two case studies where monitoring and testing of the shaft dynamics proved instrumental in discovering and isolating X-29A power takeoff shaft problems. The first study concerns the installation of an unbalanced shaft. The effect of the unbalance on the shaft vibration data and the procedure used to correct the problem are discussed. The second study deals with the shaft exceeding the established vibration limits during flight. This case study found that the vibration of connected rotating machinery unbalances contributed to the excessive vibration level of the shaft. The procedures used to identify the contributions of other rotating machinery unbalances to the power takeoff shaft unbalance are discussed.

  16. Controlled blasting and its implications for the NNWSI project exploratory shaft

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eeckhout, E.M.

    1987-09-01

    This report reviews controlled blasting techniques for shaft sinking. Presplitting and smooth blasting are the techniques of principal interest. Smooth blasting is preferred for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations exploratory shaft. Shaft damage can be monitored visually or by peak velocity measurements and refractive techniques. Damage into the rock should be limited to 3 ft. 40 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Structure and mechanical properties of naturally occurring lightweight foam-filled cylinder--the peacock's tail coverts shaft and its components.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Q; Jiao, D; Meyers, M A; Zhang, Z F

    2015-04-01

    Feather shaft, which is primarily featured by a cylinder filled with foam, possesses a unique combination of mechanical robustness and flexibility with a low density through natural evolution and selection. Here the hierarchical structures of peacock's tail coverts shaft and its components are systematically characterized from millimeter to nanometer length scales. The variations in constituent and geometry along the length are examined. The mechanical properties under both dry and wet conditions are investigated. The deformation and failure behaviors and involved strengthening, stiffening and toughening mechanisms are analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively and correlated to the structures. It is revealed that the properties of feather shaft and its components have been optimized through various structural adaptations. Synergetic strengthening and stiffening effects can be achieved in overall rachis owing to increased failure resistance. This study is expected to aid in deeper understandings on the ingenious structure-property design strategies developed by nature, and accordingly, provide useful inspiration for the development of high-performance synthetic foams and foam-filled materials. PMID:25662166

  18. Numerical Simulation of Cavitation Phenomena for Hybrid Contra-Rotating Shaft Propellers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung-Hoon; Choo, Sung-Han; Park, Jeong-Yong; Choi, Gil-Hwan

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with a numerical simulation of cavitation flow around a hybrid contra-rotating shaft propeller operating in wake field. The simulation for the cavitating flow is performed for straight operating and turning condition of podded propeller located behind the main propeller using unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes. The behavior of the main propeller is almost similar regardless of the turning angle. In contrast, the cavitation behavior of the podded propeller depending on the turning angle appears to be entirely different due to the change of the load distribution on the podded propeller. At the large angle of the turning condition, the unstable cavity flow due to the large amount of cavitation and the hub vortex separated from the forward propeller as well as face cavitation is observed. Thus, a great caution on the cavitation phenomena is needed when designing and operating the HCRSP.

  19. Can New Tests Lead to Better Teaching and Deeper Learning? Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faxon-Mills, Susannah; Hamilton, Laura S.; Rudnick, Mollie; Stecher, Brian M.

    2014-01-01

    Many states have adopted the Common Core State Standards (CCSS), which emphasize "deeper learning" skills, such as mastery of core academic content, critical thinking, problem-solving, and collaboration. But can the new tests being developed to align with the CCSS be used to promote deeper learning and high-quality classroom instruction?…

  20. Crosswalk Analysis of Deeper Learning Skills to Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.

    2011-01-01

    The Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) conducted a crosswalk between the Deeper Learning Skills (DLS) and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The purpose of the crosswalk was to understand the ways in which strategies for deeper learning relate to the CCSS. This comparison was not solely or simply an alignment study, although some…

  1. Shaft sealing issue in CO2 storage sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieudonné, A.-C.; Charlier, R.; Collin, F.

    2012-04-01

    Carbon capture and storage is an innovating approach to tackle climate changes through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Deep saline aquifers, depleted oil and gas reservoirs and unmineable coal seams are among the most studied reservoirs. However other types of reservoir, such as abandonned coal mines, could also be used for the storage of carbon dioxide. In this case, the problem of shaft sealing appears to be particularly critical regarding to the economic, ecologic and health aspects of geological storage. The purpose of the work is to study shaft sealing in the framework of CO2 storage projects in abandoned coal mines. The problem of gas transfers around a sealing system is studied numerically using the finite elements code LAGAMINE, which has been developped for 30 years at the University of Liege. A coupled hydro-mechanical model of unsaturated geomaterials is used for the analyses. The response of the two-phase flow model is first studied through a simple synthetic problem consisting in the injection of gas in a concrete-made column. It stands out of this first modeling that the advection of the gas phase represents the main transfer mechanism of CO2 in highly unsaturated materials. Furthermore the setting of a bentonite barrier seal limits considerably the gas influx into the biosphere. A 2D axisymetric hydromechanical modeling of the Anderlues natural gas storage site is then performed. The geological and hydrogeological contexts of the site are used to define the problem, for the initial and boundary conditions, as well as the material properties. In order to reproduce stress and water saturation states in the shale before CO2 injection in the mine, different phases corresponding to the shaft sinking, the mining and the set up of the sealing system are simulated. The system efficiency is then evaluated by simulating the CO2 injection with the imposed pressure at the shaft wall. According to the modeling, the low water saturation of concrete and

  2. Review of "Great Teachers and Great Leaders"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaker, Paul

    2010-01-01

    "Great Teachers and Great Leaders" (GTGL) is one of six research summaries issued by the U.S. Department of Education in support of its Blueprint for Reform. This review examines the presentation of research about improving teacher and administrator quality in GTGL. The review concludes that there are serious flaws in the research summary. The…

  3. Shaft Voltage and Life of Bearing electric-erosion for the Brushless DC Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maetani, Tatsuo; Isomura, Yoshinori; Komiyama, Hiroshi; Morimoto, Shigeo

    This paper describes the life of noise of bearing electro-erosion in the shaft voltage of brushless DC motors. We confirmed that shaft voltage is suppressed to equal to or less than the dielectric breakdown voltage of bearing lubricant in the insulated rotor proposed for suppression of shaft voltage. However, since bearing electro-erosion appears over time along with the deterioration of noise performance, the threshold of the shaft voltage to secure noise performance over long periods of time is necessary. Therefore, the threshold of the shaft voltage that influences the life of noise was obtained in acceleration tests.

  4. The Research of Crusher Blade Carrier Shaft Based on Balancing Test and Dynamic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiaomei; Qian, Suxiang; Yu, Zhiheng

    The unbalanced blade carrier shaft leads to mill Vibration, and affects crushing effects. Study on SG-4390 plastic crusher blade carrier shaft was conducted, the experiment of blade carrier shaft balancing test was done by hard-bearing balancing machine, and the balance level had reached 95.4%. Besides, ANSYS Workbench analysis was done for the tested blade carrier shaft. The results showed the crushing effect is significantly improved, including the blade carrier shaft dynamic characteristic. By the way, the paper provides a reference for crusher similar mill structure optimization.

  5. Bilateral Simultaneous Femoral Neck and Shafts Fractures - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghifar, Amirreza; Saied, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Simultaneous fractures of the femoral neck and shaft are not common injuries, though they cannot be considered rare. Herein, we report our experience with a patient with bilateral occurance of this injury. Up to the best of our knowkedge this is the first case reported in literature in which correct diagnosis was made initially. Both femurs were fixed using broad 4.5 mm dynamic compression plate and both necks were fixed using 6.5 mm cannulated screws. Femur fixation on one side was converted to retrograde nailing because of plate failure. Both neck fractures healed uneventfully. In spite of rarity of concomitant fractures of femoral neck and shaft, this injury must be approached carefully demanding especial attention and careful device selection. PMID:25692158

  6. Severity estimation of cracked shaft vibrations within fluid film bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabhu, B. S.; Sekhar, A. S.

    1995-07-01

    The equations of motion, with four degrees of freedom, taking into consideration the flexibility, damping and cross coupling of the fluid film bearings are derived for a cracked Jeffcott rotor supported on fluid film bearings. Dimensionless equations are developed for dynamic radial load, dynamic pressure developed in the fluid film bearings and coefficient of dissipation considering the journal vibrations in two harmonics; bearing fluid film stiffness and damping coefficients. These are applied to a cracked Jeffcott rotor supported on different types of bearings, i.e., cylindrical journal bearings, offset cylindrical bearings, tilting pad journal bearings and three-lobe bearings. Based on the allowable dynamic pressure developed in the fluid bearings, the severity of cracked shaft and allowable crack depths are estimated in this study. Measurement of dynamic pressure and dissipation for monitoring the crack growth is suggested. However, 2x vibration is the best indicator of cracks in the shafts.

  7. Interim reclamation report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploration shaft site

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.; Hefty, M.G.

    1990-02-01

    In 1968, a program was started to assess the feasibility of storing Hanford Site defense waste in deep caverns constructed in basalt. This program was expanded in 1976 to include investigations of the Hanford Site as a potential location for a mined commercial nuclear waste repository. Extensive studies of the geotechnical aspects of the site were undertaken, including preparations for drilling a large diameter Exploratory Shaft. This report describes the development of the reclamation program for the Exploratory Shaft Facility, its implementation, and preliminary estimates of its success. The goal of the reclamation program is to return sites disturbed by the repository program as nearly as practicable to their original conditions using native plant species. 43 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  8. Robotic assisted reduction of femoral shaft fractures using Stewart platform.

    PubMed

    Majidifakhr, Kamran; Kazemirad, Siavash; Farahmand, Farzam

    2009-01-01

    A robotic system with 6 DOF mobility was proposed for reduction of femoral shaft fractures based on Stewart platform. A plan for implementing the platform on bone fragments was introduced and a step by step strategy for performing the reduction procedure, based on the system's inverse kinematic solution, was proposed. The efficacy of the system was evaluated in some case studies and it was shown that it can be locked to act as an external fixator. PMID:19377143

  9. Ergometer calibrator. [for any ergometer utilizing rotating shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gause, R. L. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    An apparatus is presented for accurately calibrating ergometers so that the work rate produced by the particular ergometer being calibrated is accurate. The apparatus includes a dc motor which is coupled directly to the ergometer for rotating it at various speeds. Positioned on the shaft between the dc motor and the ergometer is a torque sensor and tachometer, which feed signals to a power computer for subsequent recording. A speed controller is utilized with the dc motor.

  10. Skew and twist resistant hydrodynamic rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie; Kalsi, Manmohan Singh

    1999-01-01

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which and cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland.

  11. Skew and twist resistant hydrodynamic rotary shaft seal

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, L.; Kalsi, M.S.

    1999-02-23

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft seal suitable for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion which incorporates one or more resilient protuberances which cooperate with the gland walls to hold the seal straight in its installation groove in unpressurized and low pressure lubricant retention applications thereby preventing skew-induced wear caused by impingement of abrasive contaminants present in the environment, and which also serve as radial bearings to prevent tipping of the seal within its installation gland. 14 figs.

  12. Interior of Right Powerhouse, looking northeast, showing shaft from Francis ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of Right Powerhouse, looking northeast, showing shaft from Francis turbine (below) extending to the generator (above). This is unit G-11, a Francis turbine that is identical to the others in the Right Powerhouse: manufactured in 1950 by the Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Newport News, Virginia; 165,000 horsepower, 330 ft. head, 120 rpm. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam Powerplant Complex, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  13. Dynamics of a supercritical composite shaft mounted on viscoelastic supports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagnier, O.; Hochard, C.

    2014-01-01

    The damping in a carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminate is greater than that which occurs in most metallic materials. In the supercritical regime, the damping can trigger unstable whirl oscillations, which can have catastrophic effects. The vibrations occurring in a supercritical composite drive shaft are investigated here in order to predict instabilities of this kind. A simply supported carbon/epoxy composite tube mounted on viscoelastic supports is studied, using an approximation of the Rayleigh-Timoshenko equation. The damping process is assumed to be hysteretic. The composite behavior is described in terms of modulus and loss factor, taking homogenized values. The critical speeds are obtained in several analytical forms in order to determine the effects of factors such as the rotatory inertia, the gyroscopic forces, the transverse shear and the supports stiffness. Assuming that the hysteretic damping can be expressed in terms of the equivalent viscous model, the threshold speed is obtained in the form of an analytical criterion. The influence of the various factors involved is quantified at the first critical speed of a subcritical composite shaft previously described in the literature. The influence of the coupling mechanisms on the unsymmetrical composite laminate and the end fittings is also investigated using a finite element model. None of these parameters were found to have a decisive influence in this case. Those having the greatest effects were the transverse shear and the supports stiffness. The effects of the composite stacking sequence, the shaft length and the supports stiffness on the threshold speed were then investigated. In particular, drive shafts consisting only of ±45° or ±30° plies can be said to be generally unstable in the supercritical regime due to their very high loss factors.

  14. 3. Unit 4 Turbine Pit Shaft and Operating Ring, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Unit 4 Turbine Pit Shaft and Operating Ring, view to the northeast. One of the servo motor housings is visible in the right background of the photograph. Notice the wicket gate linkage greasing tubes along the top of the operating ring. - Washington Water Power Clark Fork River Cabinet Gorge Hydroelectric Development, Powerhouse, North Bank of Clark Fork River at Cabinet Gorge, Cabinet, Bonner County, ID

  15. Engine having multiple pumps driven by a single shaft

    DOEpatents

    Blass, James R.

    2001-01-01

    An engine comprises an engine housing. A first engine fluid sub-system that includes a first pump and the engine housing defining a first fluid passage is also included in the engine. The engine also includes at least one additional engine fluid sub-system that includes a second pump and the engine housing defining a second fluid passage. A rotating shaft is at least partially positioned in the engine housing, the first pump and the second pump.

  16. Proximal humerus shaft fracture after pectoralis major tendon rupture repair.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Jeff A; Goldberg, Ben; Wolin, Preston

    2011-06-01

    Surgical repair of a complete pectoralis major tendon rupture at the humeral insertion has superior results compared to nonoperative treatment. To our knowledge, a proximal humerus shaft fracture occurring at the site of the bone trough and cortical drill holes after a pectoralis major tendon rupture repair has not been reported in the literature.A 45-year-old man sustained an acute left pectoralis major tendon rupture at the humeral insertion while performing a bench press maneuver. He underwent acute surgical repair. Approximately 8 weeks postoperatively, the patient fell from a standing height and sustained a proximal humerus shaft fracture through the repair site at the bone trough. Three days after the fracture, the patient underwent open reduction and internal fixation of the proximal humerus shaft fracture and exploration of the pectoralis major tendon repair. The fracture was found to be at the level of the repair site, and the pectoralis major tendon was completely intact to the distal fragment. The fracture healed uneventfully, and the patient regained full motion and strength of his extremity with no limitations.Any type of surgical fixation that creates a hole in the humerus or decreases the cross-sectional area such as a bone trough creates a stress riser. Patients undergoing pectoralis tendon repair that involves violating the humerus with a bone trough or hole have a slight risk of postoperative humerus fracture, especially if sustaining an early traumatic event such as a fall. PMID:21667914

  17. Detection of cracks in shafts with the Approximated Entropy algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio, Diego Luchesi; Nicoletti, Rodrigo

    2016-05-01

    The Approximate Entropy is a statistical calculus used primarily in the fields of Medicine, Biology, and Telecommunication for classifying and identifying complex signal data. In this work, an Approximate Entropy algorithm is used to detect cracks in a rotating shaft. The signals of the cracked shaft are obtained from numerical simulations of a de Laval rotor with breathing cracks modelled by the Fracture Mechanics. In this case, one analysed the vertical displacements of the rotor during run-up transients. The results show the feasibility of detecting cracks from 5% depth, irrespective of the unbalance of the rotating system and crack orientation in the shaft. The results also show that the algorithm can differentiate the occurrence of crack only, misalignment only, and crack + misalignment in the system. However, the algorithm is sensitive to intrinsic parameters p (number of data points in a sample vector) and f (fraction of the standard deviation that defines the minimum distance between two sample vectors), and good results are only obtained by appropriately choosing their values according to the sampling rate of the signal.

  18. Correlation of operating parameters on turbine shaft vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Harsh Kumar; Rajora, Rajeev

    2016-05-01

    The new generation of condition monitoring and diagnostics system plays an important role in efficient functioning of power plants. In most of the rotating machine, defects can be detected by such a system much before dangerous situation occurs. It allows the efficient use of stationary on-line continuous monitoring system for condition monitoring and diagnostics as well. Condition monitoring of turbine shaft can not only reduce expenses of maintenance of turbo generator of power plants but also prevents likely shutdown of plant, thereby increases plant load factor. Turbo visionary parameters are essential part of health diagnosis system of turbo generator. Particularly steam pressure, steam temperature and lube oil temperature are important parameters to monitor because they are having much influence on turbine shaft vibration and also governing systems are available for change values of those parameters. This paper includes influence of turbo visionary parameters i.e., steam temperature, steam pressure, lube oil temperature, turbine speed and load on turbine shaft vibration at turbo generator at 195 MW unit-6,Kota Super Thermal Power Station by measuring vibration amplitude and analyze them in MATLAB.

  19. Cracked shaft detection on large vertical nuclear reactor coolant pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, L. S.

    1985-01-01

    Due to difficulty and radiation exposure associated with examination of the internals of large commercial nuclear reactor coolant pumps, it is necessary to be able to diagnose the cause of an excessive vibration problem quickly without resorting to extensive trial and error efforts. Consequently, it is necessary to make maximum use of all available data to develop a consistent theory which locates the problem area in the machine. This type of approach was taken at Three Mile Island, Unit #1, in February 1984 to identify and locate the cause of a continuously climbing vibration level of the pump shaft. The data gathered necessitated some in-depth knowledge of the pump internals to provide proper interpretation and avoid misleading conclusions. Therefore, the raw data included more than just the vibration characteristics. Pertinent details of the data gathered is shown and is necessary and sufficient to show that the cause of the observed vibration problem could logically only be a cracked pump shaft in the shaft overhang below the pump bearing.

  20. A New Radiographic Classification for Distal Shaft Fifth Metatarsal Fractures.

    PubMed

    Soave, Ronald L; Bleazey, Scott; Rudowsky, Asher; Clarke, Roxann V; Avino, Attilio; Kuchar, David J

    2016-01-01

    In the present report, a new radiographic classification for distal shaft fractures of the fifth metatarsal is presented. The classification system is based on a review of 79 spiral oblique fractures of the distal shaft of the fifth metatarsal. The sample was grouped into "grades" of deformity according to the configuration of the fracture and the amount of displacement observed for each injury. Four distinct fracture configurations emerged as a result of our radiographic analysis, and these were categorized as grades I, IIA, IIB, and III. Grade II fractures were most prevalent and accounted for 49% of the cases reviewed. Grade I and III fractures accounted for 29% and 22% of the distal fifth metatarsal fractures, respectively. To our knowledge, a classification system for fractures of the distal shaft of the fifth metatarsal has not been previously reported. The radiographic classification that we have proposed is intended to aid surgeons treating and discussing fractures localized to the distal portion of the fifth metatarsal. PMID:27079304

  1. Optical coherent tomography: promising in vivo measurement of hair shaft cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Bartels, Natalie; Stieler, Karola; Richter, Heike; Patzelt, Alexa; Lademann, Jürgen; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2011-09-01

    Variations in hair shaft morphology reflect ethnical diversity, but may also indicate internal diseases, nutritional deficiency, or hair and scalp disorders. The measurement and the follow-up of the hair shaft thickness over a defined period of time would be a valuable diagnostic tool in clinical practice. Standard light microscopy (LM) measurements require the epilation of hair shafts and frequently yield inaccurate values caused by the elliptic geometry of human hair shafts. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive investigation method based on the principles of Michelson interferometry with a detection depth of approximately 1 mm in human skin. Two-dimensional images of the cross sections of tissue samples at a resolution of approximately 10 μm are produced, which allows convenient calculation of hair shaft thickness. To evaluate this new methodology for hair shaft thickness measurements, hair shafts taken from 28 healthy volunteers were analyzed by in vivo OCT and compared to standard in vitro LM measurements of hair shaft thickness. OCT yielded highly reproducible measurements of hair shaft thickness with a distinctly reduced variation compared to standard LM. This technique offers a unique opportunity for in vivo measurement and a follow-up of the kinetics of hair shaft thickness in humans during medical therapy.

  2. Buoyancy and Pressure Induced Flow of Hot Gases in Vertical Shafts with Natural and Forced Ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaluria, Yogesh; Tamm, Gunnar Olavi

    2014-11-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to study buoyancy and pressure induced flow of hot gases in vertical shafts to model smoke propagation in elevator and ventilation shafts of high rise building fires. Various configurations were tested with regard to natural and forced ventilation imposed at the upper and lower surfaces of the vertical shaft. The aspect ratio was taken at a typical value of 6. From a lower vent, the inlet conditions for smoke and hot gases were varied in terms of the Reynolds and Grashof numbers. The forced ventilation at the upper or lower boundary was of the same order as the bulk shaft flow. Measurements were taken within the shaft to allow a detailed study of the steady state flow and thermal fields established for various shaft configurations and inlet conditions, from which optimal means for smoke alleviation in high rise building fires may be developed. Results indicated a wall plume as the primary transport mechanism for smoke propagating from the inlet towards the exhaust region. Recirculation and entrainment dominated at high inlet Grashof number flows, while increased inlet Reynolds numbers allowed greater mixing in the shaft. The development and stability of these flow patterns and their effects on the smoke behavior were assessed for several shaft configurations with different inlet conditions. The comparisons indicated that the fastest smoke removal and lowest overall shaft temperatures occur for a configuration with natural ventilation at the top surface and forced ventilation up from the shaft bottom.

  3. Emerging Technologies Look Deeper into the Eyes to Catch Signs of Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eyes to catch signs of disease Emerging technologies look deeper into the eyes to catch signs ... using adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscope fluorescein angiography.” Biomedical Optics Express, August 2013. DOI: 10.1364/BOE. ...

  4. Nonlinear dynamic modeling for a diesel engine propeller shafting used in large marines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qinglei; Duan, Jianguo; Zhang, Suohuai; Fu, Yumin

    2014-09-01

    Longitudinal vibration, torsional vibration and their coupled vibration are the main vibration modes of the crankshaft-sliding bearing system. However, these vibrations of the propeller-crankshaft-sliding bearing system generated by the fluid exciting force on the propeller are much more complex. Currently, the torsional and longitudinal vibrations have been studied separately while the research on their coupled vibration is few, and the influence of the propeller structure to dynamic characteristics of a crankshaft has not been studied yet. In order to describe the dynamic properties of a crankshaft accurately, a nonlinear dynamic model is proposed taking the effect of torsional-longitudinal coupling and the variable inertia of propeller, connecting rod and piston into account. Numerical simulation cases are carried out to calculate the response data of the system in time and frequency domains under the working speed and over-speed, respectively. Results of vibration analysis of the propeller and crankshaft system coupled in torsional and longitudinal direction indicate that the system dynamic behaviors are relatively complicated especially in the components of the frequency response. For example, the 4 times of an exciting frequency acting on the propeller by fluid appears at 130 r/min, while not yield at 105 r/min. While the possible abnormal vibration at over-speed just needs to be vigilant. So when designing the propeller shafting used in marine diesel engines, strength calculation and vibration analysis based only on linear model may cause great errors and the proposed research provides some references to design diesel engine propeller shafting used in large marines.

  5. Great Lakes: Chemical Monitoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delfino, Joseph J.

    1976-01-01

    The Tenth Great Lakes Regional Meeting of the American Chemical Society met to assess current Chemical Research activity in the Great Lakes Basin, and addressed to the various aspects of the theme, Chemistry of the Great Lakes. Research areas reviewed included watershed studies, atmospheric and aquatic studies, and sediment studies. (BT)

  6. Outcome of humeral shaft fractures treated by functional cast brace

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Jitendra Nath; Biswas, Prahas; Roy, Avik; Hazra, Sunit; Mahato, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    Background: Functional brace application for isolated humeral shaft fracture persistently yields good results. Nonunion though uncommon involves usually the proximal third shaft fractures. Instead of polyethylene bivalve functional brace four plaster sleeves wrapped and molded with little more proximal extension expected to prevent nonunion of proximal third fractures. Periodic compressibility of the cast is likely to yield a better result. This can be applied on the 1st day of the presentation as an outpatient basis. Comprehensive objective scoring system befitting for fracture humeral shaft is a need. Materials and Methods: Sixty six (male = 40, female = 26) unilateral humeral shaft fractures of mean age 34.4 years (range 11–75 years) involving 38 left and 28 right hands were included in this study during April 2008 to December 2012. Fractures involved proximal (n = 18), mid (n = 35) and distal (n = 13) of humerus. Transverse, oblique, comminuted and spiral orientations in 18, 35 and 13 patients respectively. One had segmental fracture and three had a pathological fracture with cystic bone lesion. Mechanisms of injuries as identified in this study were road traffic accidents 57.6% (n = 38), fall 37.9% (n = 25). 12.1% (n = 8) had radial nerve palsy 7.6% (n = 5) had Type I open fracture. Four plaster strips of 12 layers and 5–7.5 cm broad depending on the girth of arm were prepared. Arm was then wrapped with single layer compressed cotton. Lateral and medial strips were applied and then after molding anterior and posterior strips were applied in such a way that permits full elbow range of motion and partial abduction of the shoulder. Care was taken to prevent adherence of one strip with other except in the proximal end. Limb was then put in loose collar and cuff sling intermittently allowing active motion of the elbow ROM and pendular movement of the shoulder. Weekly tightening of the cast by fresh layers of bandage over the existing cast brace continued

  7. Hollow shaft integrated health monitoring system for railroad wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankenstein, B.; Hentschel, D.; Pridoehl, E.; Schubert, F.

    2005-05-01

    The economic efficiency and competitiveness of environment-friendly rail transportation depends on safety, availability and maintenance of single highly loaded structure components. Until now these components have been changed in fixed maintenance intervals irrespective of any usage related conditions. With the knowledge and evaluation of the component conditions, life cycle costs can be reduced by means of optimized maintenance and/or "fit for purpose" design. For example, rail-bound vehicle wheel sets are among the most highly stressed travelling gear components of the bogie. if such a component fails, a serious accident may occur. For this reason, a health monitoring system based on the interpretation of ultrasonic sound signatures has been developed. First, the ultrasonic waves generated by an artificial defect on the outer wheel tread of a railroad wheel towards an acoustic sensor, placed inside the hollow shaft of the railroad axis were simulated with a EFIT (Elastodynamic Finite Integration Technique). The results achieved proved that relevant signals can be found in a frequency range up to 300 kHz. Based on this a diagnostic unit was designed and built for application under rotation conditions, which consists of a piezo-electric sensor, primary electronics, an analog-to-digital converter, a digital signal processor, a trigger unit, and a telemetric transmitter. This diagnostic unit was integrated in the hollow shaft of a railroad wheel axis, a component of a special laboratory test rig. Algorithms which allow for the rotation-synchronized processing of acoustic signals were implemented into the rotating diagnostic unit. After successfully completing a campaign for this test rig, a second test was performed inside the wheel/railroad simulation test rig of the Deutsche Bahn AG under railroad-like conditions. The data generated inside the hollow shaft of the railroad wheel axis by the diagnostic unit were telemetrically transmitted to an industrial computer

  8. Atlas of Great Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoyan, Ronald; Dunlop, Storm

    2015-01-01

    Foreword; Using this book; Part I. Introduction: Cometary beliefs and fears; Comets in art; Comets in literature and poetry; Comets in science; Cometary science today; Great comets in antiquity; Great comets of the Middle Ages; Part II. The 30 Greatest Comets of Modern Times: The Great Comet of 1471; Comet Halley 1531; The Great Comet of 1556; The Great Comet of 1577; Comet Halley, 1607; The Great Comet of 1618; The Great Comet of 1664; Comet Kirch, 1680; Comet Halley, 1682; The Great Comet of 1744; Comet Halley, 1759; Comet Messier, 1769; Comet Flaugergues, 1811; Comet Halley, 1835; The Great March Comet of 1843; Comet Donati, 1858; Comet Tebbutt, 1861; The Great September Comet of 1882; The Great January Comet of 1910; Comet Halley, 1910; Comet Arend-Roland, 1956; Comet Ikeya-Seki, 1965; Comet Bennett, 1970; Comet Kohoutek, 1973-4; Comet West, 1976; Comet Halley, 1986; Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9, 1994; Comet Hyakutake, 1996; Comet Hale-Bopp, 1997; Comet McNaught, 2007; Part III. Appendices; Table of comet data; Glossary; References; Photo credits; Index.

  9. Systematic Classifier OF Manufacturing Processes For Medium Size Shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychagin, D. V.; Lasukov, A. A.; Walter, A. V.; Arkhipova, D. A.

    2016-04-01

    The article considers some issues of increasing efficiency of manufacturing preparation as a part of manufacturing processes design at a machine building enterprise. A tree of routing manufacturing processes for machining shafts of medium size is described as an example of clustering parts according to their structural and technological characteristics. Processing route for a certain part included into a certain group is developed through choosing machining operations for elementary surfaces of a part from the process route developed for a template representative of the group.

  10. Final Reclamation Report: Basalt Waste Isolation Project exploratory shaft site

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, C.A.; Rickard, W.H. Jr.

    1990-06-01

    The restoration of areas disturbed by activities of the Basalt Waste Isolation Project (BWIP) constitutes a unique operation at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site, both from the standpoint of restoration objectives and the time frame for accomplishing these objectives. The BWIP reclamation program comprises three separate projects: borehole reclamation, Near Surface Test Facility (NSTF) reclamation, and Exploratory Shaft Facility (ESF) reclamation. The main focus of this report is on determining the success of the revegetation effort 1 year after work was completed. This report also provides a brief overview of the ESF reclamation program. 21 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  11. Rare case of recurrent angiokeratoma of Fordyce on penile shaft.

    PubMed

    Pianezza, Michael L; Singh, Dharm; Van der Kwast, Theodore; Jarvi, Keith

    2006-10-01

    Angiokeratomas are benign cutaneous vascular lesions characterized by dilated thin-walled blood vessels lying in the upper part of the dermis, mostly associated with an epidermal reaction such as acanthosis and/or hyperkeratosis. Angiokeratomas of Fordyce are predominantly located on the scrotum and are only rarely found on the penis and then usually on the glans penis. We report a rare case of angiokeratoma of Fordyce located on the shaft of the penis and associated with two recurrences after appropriate surgical excision. PMID:17070385

  12. On-the-shaft data systems for rotating engine components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesco, D. J.; Sturman, J. C.; Nieberding, W. C.

    1972-01-01

    Two rotating data systems for engine component testing which demonstrate the techniques of on-the-shaft microelectronic signal conditioning and rotary transformer power- and data-transfer are described. (1) A digital data system provides 69 channels of 1100 C maximum thermocouple data with less than 0.5 percent error from a turbine test rig rotating at speeds up to 9000 rpm. (2) An analog data system amplifies and transfers 72 channels of dynamic strain data with less than 5 percent error from a compressor rig at speeds above 14,000 rpm.

  13. 40. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON THE MAIN POWER SHAFT/CAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING SOUTH ON THE MAIN POWER SHAFT/CAM LEVEL. THE STAMP BATTERIES ARE TOWARD THE LEFT OF THE IMAGE. NOTE THE CAMS THAT ARE USED TO LIFT AND RELEASE THE STAMPS. THE MAIN POWER SHAFT IS TOWARD THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE IMAGE. THE MAIN DRIVE WHEEL THAT IS CONNECTED TO THE POWER SOURCE IS THE LARGE WHEEL IN THE EXTREME BACKGROUND ALONG THE SHAFT. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  14. A low-energy femoral shaft fracture from performing a yoga posture.

    PubMed

    Moriarity, Andrew; Ellanti, Prasad; Hogan, Niall

    2015-01-01

    The femoral shaft is rarely the site of a low-energy fracture in a healthy individual. The vast majority of these fractures are due to major trauma such as motor vehicle accidents. Although low-energy femoral shaft fractures do occur, they are typically in patients with osteoporotic bone, or prosthesis related. In this case report, we present a man in his late 30s who was practising a specific yoga stance when he experienced a femoral shaft fracture. PMID:26452743

  15. Approaches to Suppressing Shaft Voltage in Brushless DC Motor Driven by PWM Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iimori, Kenichi; Shinohara, Katsuji; Yamamoto, Kichiro; Morigami, Atsushi

    This paper describes the approaches to suppressing the shaft voltage and bearing current by electrostatic shielding the stator end windings of the brushless DC motor driven by PWM inverter. At first, measured shaft voltage and bearing current are compared with those calculated waveforms to verify the common mode equivalent circuit of the brushless DC motor. Next, relationship between shaft voltage and stator winding to rotor capacitance is calculated using the common mode equivalent circuit. Finally, the electrostatic shielding of the stator end windings is evaluated to reduce the shaft voltage by experiments and calculations.

  16. A fiber optic sensor for noncontact measurement of shaft speed, torque, and power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madzsar, George C.

    1990-01-01

    A fiber optic sensor which enables noncontact measurement of the speed, torque and power of a rotating shaft was fabricated and tested. The sensor provides a direct measurement of shaft rotational speed and shaft angular twist, from which torque and power can be determined. Angles of twist between 0.005 and 10 degrees were measured. Sensor resolution is limited by the sampling rate of the analog to digital converter, while accuracy is dependent on the spot size of the focused beam on the shaft. Increasing the sampling rate improves measurement resolution, and decreasing the focused spot size increases accuracy. Digital processing allows for enhancement of an electronically or optically degraded signal.

  17. a Modified Approach Based on Influence Coefficient Method for Balancing Crank-Shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KANG, Y.; CHANG, Y.-P.; TSENG, M.-H.; TANG, P.-H.; CHANG, Y.-F.

    2000-07-01

    The conventional balancing machines utilize two-plane separation for the determination of equivalent imbalances. However, the imbalance masses of a crank-shaft cannot be corrected at arbitrary locations of the balancing planes. This study has presented a modified method for balancing crank-shafts by using the soft-pedestal machines. The modified influence coefficient method for asymmetrical rotor-bearing systems has been applied to balance crank-shafts. Also, the decomposition method for irremovable masses has been replaced by an iteration method based on an influence coefficient approach. Furthermore, the validity and accuracy of the modified approach are verified in balancing practical crank-shafts.

  18. Digital holographic interferometry for simultaneous orthogonal radial vibration measurements along rotating shafts

    SciTech Connect

    Tatar, Kourosh; Gren, Per; Lycksam, Henrik

    2008-06-20

    A digital holographic interferometry setup used to measure radial vibrations along a rotating shaft is presented. A continuous Nd:YAG laser and a high-speed digital camera are used for recording the holograms. The shaft was polished optically smooth to avoid speckle noise from the rotating surface. The light reflected from the shaft was directed onto a diffuser which in turn was imaged by the holographic system. Simultaneous measurements with a laser vibrometer were performed at one point and comparisons between the signals showed good agreement. It is shown that different vibration components of a rotating shaft can be simultaneously measured with this technique.

  19. Hair shafts in trichoscopy: clues for diagnosis of hair and scalp diseases.

    PubMed

    Rudnicka, Lidia; Rakowska, Adriana; Kerzeja, Marta; Olszewska, Małgorzata

    2013-10-01

    Trichoscopy (hair and scalp dermoscopy) analyzes the structure and size of growing hair shafts, providing diagnostic clues for inherited and acquired causes of hair loss. Types of hair shaft abnormalities observed include exclamation mark hairs (alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia), Pohl-Pinkus constrictions (alopecia areata, chemotherapy-induced alopecia, blood loss, malnutrition), comma hairs (tinea capitis), corkscrew hairs (tinea capitis), coiled hairs (trichotillomania), flame hairs (trichotillomania), and tulip hairs (in trichotillomania, alopecia areata). Trichoscopy allows differential diagnosis of most genetic hair shaft disorders. This article proposes a classification of hair shaft abnormalities observed by trichoscopy. PMID:24075554

  20. A fiber optic sensor for noncontact measurement of shaft speed, torque and power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madzsar, George C.

    1990-01-01

    A fiber optic sensor which enables noncontact measurement of the speed, torque and power of a rotating shaft was fabricated and tested. The sensor provides a direct measurement of shaft rotational speed and shaft angular twist, from which torque and power can be determined. Angles of twist between 0.005 and 10 degrees were measured. Sensor resolution is limited by the sampling rate of the analog to digital converter, while accuracy is dependent on the spot size of the focused beam on the shaft. Increasing the sampling rate improves measurement resolution, and decreasing the focused spot size increases accuracy. Digital processing allows for enhancement of an electronically or optically degraded signal.

  1. Coke Reactivity in Simulated Blast Furnace Shaft Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapakangas, Juho; Suopajärvi, Hannu; Iljana, Mikko; Kemppainen, Antti; Mattila, Olli; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Samuelsson, Caisa; Fabritius, Timo

    2016-08-01

    Despite the fact that H2 and H2O are always present in the gas atmosphere of a blast furnace shaft, their role in the solution-loss reactions of coke has not been thoroughly examined. This study focuses on how H2 and H2O affect the reaction behavior and whether a strong correlation can be found between reactivity in the conditions of the CRI test (Coke Reactivity Index) and various simulated blast furnace shaft gas atmospheres. Partial replacement of CO/CO2 with H2/H2O was found to significantly increase the reactivity of all seven coke grades at 1373 K (1100 °C). H2 and H2O, however, did not have a significant effect on the threshold temperature of gasification. The reactivity increasing effect was found to be temperature dependent and clearly at its highest at 1373 K (1100 °C). Mathematical models were used to calculate activation energies for the gasification, which were notably lower for H2O gasification compared to CO2 indicating the higher reactivity of H2O. The reactivity results in gas atmospheres with CO2 as the sole gasifying component did not directly correlate with reactivity results in gases also including H2O, which suggests that the widely used CRI test is not entirely accurate for estimating coke reactivity in the blast furnace.

  2. Yucca Mountain Project Site characterization and exploratory shaft program

    SciTech Connect

    Gertz, C.P.

    1989-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project site characterization phase officially began May 28, 1986, when President Reagan recommended Yucca Mountain be studied as a potential site for a high-level nuclear repository. Site characterization activities are defined in the NWPA as those research activities, whether in the field or in the laboratory, that are undertaken to establish the geologic condition and the range of parameters relevant to an evaluation of the suitability of a candidate site. In December 1988, a major program milestone was achieved when the statutory site characterization plan (SCP) was released on schedule to the NRC, State of Nevada, and the public. The SCP describes the studies necessary to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain for isolating high-level nuclear waste. The site characterization testing program includes activities to establish the geologic conditions and history of the site. New site characterization activities include surface-based tests and exploratory shaft tests. Tests conducted in the exploratory shaft facility (ESF) will study the processes and phenomena contributing to waste isolation performance and the effects of ESF construction and underground conditions at the ESF location. The surface-based tests will extend the results of the ESF test to the entire site area.

  3. Support for transmission shaft and hydraulic servo drum

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, K.; Sumiya, K.; Taga, Y.; Watanabe, K.

    1987-09-15

    In a support for use in an automatic transmission apparatus of the type having a transmission shaft for transmitting power, an annular hydraulic servo drum and a piston fitted in the hydraulic servo drum for engaging and disengaging a friction engaging means is described, wherein the support has an axially extending tubular supporting portion having an inner peripheral surface for supporting the transmission shaft, an outer peripheral surface for supporting an inner cylindrical portion of the hydraulic servo drum, and working oil passages formed and adapted for supplying and discharging a working oil to and from the hydraulic servo drum. The improvement consists of: a support body made of light material having a first radially extending oil passage leading from an oil pressure controller for supplying and discharging a working oil and communicating with the inner peripheral surface of the tubular supporting portion; an inner sleeve of a heavier material than the support body fitting on the inner peripheral surface of the tubular supporting portion to cover the inner axially extending oil groove thereby forming an oil passage for working oil; and an outer sleeve of a heavier material than the support body fitting on the outer peripheral surface of the tubular supporting portion.

  4. Hydrodynamically Lubricated Rotary Shaft Having Twist Resistant Geometry

    DOEpatents

    Dietle, Lannie; Gobeli, Jeffrey D.

    1993-07-27

    A hydrodynamically lubricated squeeze packing type rotary shaft with a cross-sectional geometry suitable for pressurized lubricant retention is provided which, in the preferred embodiment, incorporates a protuberant static sealing interface that, compared to prior art, dramatically improves the exclusionary action of the dynamic sealing interface in low pressure and unpressurized applications by achieving symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. In abrasive environments, the improved exclusionary action results in a dramatic reduction of seal and shaft wear, compared to prior art, and provides a significant increase in seal life. The invention also increases seal life by making higher levels of initial compression possible, compared to prior art, without compromising hydrodynamic lubrication; this added compression makes the seal more tolerant of compression set, abrasive wear, mechanical misalignment, dynamic runout, and manufacturing tolerances, and also makes hydrodynamic seals with smaller cross-sections more practical. In alternate embodiments, the benefits enumerated above are achieved by cooperative configurations of the seal and the gland which achieve symmetrical deformation of the seal at the static and dynamic sealing interfaces. The seal may also be configured such that predetermined radial compression deforms it to a desired operative configuration, even through symmetrical deformation is lacking.

  5. Coke Reactivity in Simulated Blast Furnace Shaft Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haapakangas, Juho; Suopajärvi, Hannu; Iljana, Mikko; Kemppainen, Antti; Mattila, Olli; Heikkinen, Eetu-Pekka; Samuelsson, Caisa; Fabritius, Timo

    2016-04-01

    Despite the fact that H2 and H2O are always present in the gas atmosphere of a blast furnace shaft, their role in the solution-loss reactions of coke has not been thoroughly examined. This study focuses on how H2 and H2O affect the reaction behavior and whether a strong correlation can be found between reactivity in the conditions of the CRI test (Coke Reactivity Index) and various simulated blast furnace shaft gas atmospheres. Partial replacement of CO/CO2 with H2/H2O was found to significantly increase the reactivity of all seven coke grades at 1373 K (1100 °C). H2 and H2O, however, did not have a significant effect on the threshold temperature of gasification. The reactivity increasing effect was found to be temperature dependent and clearly at its highest at 1373 K (1100 °C). Mathematical models were used to calculate activation energies for the gasification, which were notably lower for H2O gasification compared to CO2 indicating the higher reactivity of H2O. The reactivity results in gas atmospheres with CO2 as the sole gasifying component did not directly correlate with reactivity results in gases also including H2O, which suggests that the widely used CRI test is not entirely accurate for estimating coke reactivity in the blast furnace.

  6. Which displaced spiral tibial shaft fractures can be managed conservatively?

    PubMed

    Toivanen, J A; Kyrö, A; Heiskanen, T; Koivisto, A M; Mattila, P; Järvinen, M J

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish a threshold for the initial displacement of a spiral tibial shaft fracture beyond which its retention in an acceptable position cannot be guaranteed by plaster immobilization. We reviewed the records and radiographs of 131 plaster cast-treated patients with spiral tibial shaft fracture, initially displaced 50% or less, for patients whose fracture had either lost its acceptable retention or consolidated in an unacceptable position. The fractures were classified, according to the true initial displacement as measured on the first radiographs, into four pairs of categories using cut-off points of 10, 20, 30 and 40% of the diameter of the tibial diaphysis. Comparison was then made of the proportions of failed treatments between each of these pairs. Plaster cast treatments failed in 28% when the true initial displacement was 30% or less, and in 46% when the true initial displacement was more than 30%. The risk of failed plaster cast treatment increased when true initial displacement exceeded 30%. In all patients whose plaster cast treatment was interrupted the true initial displacement was more than 30%. We therefore conclude that diaphyseal fractures of the tibia for which the initial displacement exceeds 30% are not suitable for plaster cast treatment. PMID:10990386

  7. Air intake shaft performance tests (Shaft 5): In situ data report (May 1988--July 1995). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Thermal/Structural Interactions Program

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E.; Hoag, D.L.; Ball, J.R.

    1995-07-01

    Data are presented from the Air Intake Shaft Test, an in situ test fielded at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The construction of this shaft, well after the initial three access shafts, presented an unusual opportunity to obtain valuable detailed data on the mechanical response of a shaft for application to seal design. These data include selected fielding information, test configuration, instrumentation activities, and comprehensive results from a large number of gages. Construction of the test began in December 1987; gage data in this report cover the period from May 1988 through July 1995, with the bulk of the data obtained after obtaining access in November, 1989 and from the heavily instrumented period after remote gage installation between May, 1990, and October, 1991.

  8. The Next Great Generation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownstein, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses ideas from a new book, "Millennials Rising: The Next Great Generation," (by Neil Howe and William Strauss) suggesting that youth culture is on the cusp of a radical shift with the generation beginning with this year's college freshmen who are typically team oriented, optimistic, and poised for greatness on a global scale. Includes a…

  9. GREAT LAKES LIMNOLOGY MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Lakes National Program Office (GLNPO) of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has primary responsibility within the U.S. for conducting surveillance monitoring of the offshore waters of the Great Lakes. This monitoring is intended to fulfill provis...

  10. Great Lakes Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Ron

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reservoirs of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. They are also a magnificent resource for the teachers of Ontario. Study of the Great Lakes can bring to life the factors that shape the ecology…

  11. Great Lakes Literacy Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortner, Rosanne W.; Manzo, Lyndsey

    2011-03-01

    Lakes Superior, Huron, Michigan, Ontario, and Erie together form North America's Great Lakes, a region that contains 20% of the world's fresh surface water and is home to roughly one quarter of the U.S. population (Figure 1). Supporting a $4 billion sport fishing industry, plus $16 billion annually in boating, 1.5 million U.S. jobs, and $62 billion in annual wages directly, the Great Lakes form the backbone of a regional economy that is vital to the United States as a whole (see http://www.miseagrant.umich.edu/downloads/economy/11-708-Great-Lakes-Jobs.pdf). Yet the grandeur and importance of this freshwater resource are little understood, not only by people in the rest of the country but also by many in the region itself. To help address this lack of knowledge, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) Great Lakes, supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, developed literacy principles for the Great Lakes to serve as a guide for education of students and the public. These “Great Lakes Literacy Principles” represent an understanding of the Great Lakes' influences on society and society's influences on the Great Lakes.

  12. Status of the amphipod Diporeia ssp. in coastal waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diporeia has historically been the dominant benthic macroinvertebrate in deeper waters of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and its abundance has been proposed as an indicator of ecological condition. In 2010, the USEPA incorporated the Great Lakes into the National Coastal Condition A...

  13. Exploratory Shaft Seismic Design Basis Working Group report; Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, C.V.; King, J.L.; Perkins, D.M.; Mudd, R.W.; Richardson, A.M.; Calovini, J.C.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Emerson, D.O.

    1990-08-01

    This report was prepared for the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), which is managed by the US Department of Energy. The participants in the YMP are investigating the suitability of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for construction of a repository for high-level radioactive waste. An exploratory shaft facility (ESF) will be constructed to permit site characterization. The major components of the ESF are two shafts that will be used to provide access to the underground test areas for men, utilities, and ventilation. If a repository is constructed at the site, the exploratory shafts will be converted for use as intake ventilation shafts. In the context of both underground nuclear explosions (conducted at the nearby Nevada Test Site) and earthquakes, the report contains discussions of faulting potential at the site, control motions at depth, material properties of the different rock layers relevant to seismic design, the strain tensor for each of the waveforms along the shaft liners, and the method for combining the different strain components along the shaft liners. The report also describes analytic methods, assumptions used to ensure conservatism, and uncertainties in the data. The analyses show that none of the shafts` structures, systems, or components are important to public radiological safety; therefore, the shafts need only be designed to ensure worker safety, and the report recommends seismic design parameters appropriate for this purpose. 31 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. 30 CFR 77.1900 - Slopes and shafts; approval of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... description of the construction work and methods to be used in the construction of the slope or shaft, and... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND... to those employed in the initial or subsequent development of any such slope or shaft, and the...

  15. 30 CFR 77.1900 - Slopes and shafts; approval of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... description of the construction work and methods to be used in the construction of the slope or shaft, and... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND... to those employed in the initial or subsequent development of any such slope or shaft, and the...

  16. 30 CFR 77.1900 - Slopes and shafts; approval of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... description of the construction work and methods to be used in the construction of the slope or shaft, and... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND... to those employed in the initial or subsequent development of any such slope or shaft, and the...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1900 - Slopes and shafts; approval of plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... description of the construction work and methods to be used in the construction of the slope or shaft, and... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND... to those employed in the initial or subsequent development of any such slope or shaft, and the...

  18. Fatigue damage of steam turbine shaft at asynchronous connections of turbine generator to electrical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bovsunovsky, A. P.

    2015-07-01

    The investigations of cracks growth in the fractured turbine rotors point out at theirs fatigue nature. The main reason of turbine shafts fatigue damage is theirs periodical startups which are typical for steam turbines. Each startup of a turbine is accompanied by the connection of turbine generator to electrical network. During the connection because of the phase shift between the vector of electromotive force of turbine generator and the vector of supply-line voltage the short-term but powerful reactive shaft torque arises. This torque causes torsional vibrations and fatigue damage of turbine shafts of different intensity. Based on the 3D finite element model of turbine shaft of the steam turbine K-200-130 and the mechanical properties of rotor steel there was estimated the fatigue damage of the shaft at its torsional vibrations arising as a result of connection of turbine generator to electric network.

  19. Influence of bearing support structures on shaft vibration of large hydraulic pump/turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Pistner, C.A.; Greenplate, B.S.; Waddell, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    Start-up transient loads from pump/turbine impellers can cause excessive vibration problems in the shaft system. If the radial guide bearing supports are structurally soft or loose, or if the bearings are worn, the resulting radial shaft movement causes abnormal wear. The wear normally occurs at the impeller sealing surfaces, main shaft seals, motor/generator components, piping, brackets, foundation connections, etc. This paper explores the critical factors causing shaft system vibration problems at the Tennessee Valley Authority`s Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Plant, as well as the unique modifications which were implemented to strengthen and improve the units. The solution involved extensive three-dimensional finite element structural and thermal transient analyses of the original and re-designed turbine shoe bearing, bearing housings, and support structures. The conclusion compares the calculated and measured shaft system response to transient loads of the original and modified system.

  20. a New Golf-Swing Robot Model Utilizing Shaft Elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, S.; Inooka, H.

    1998-10-01

    The performance of golf clubs and balls is generally evaluated by using golf-swing robots that conventionally have two or three joints with completely interrelated motion. This interrelation allows the user of this robot to specify only the initial posture and swing velocity of the robot and therefore the swing motion of this type of robot cannot be subtly adjusted to the specific characteristics of individual golf clubs. Consequently, golf-swing robots cannot accurately emulate advanced golfers, and this causes serious problems for the evaluation of golf club performance. In this study, a new golf-swing robot that can adjust its motion to both a specified value of swing velocity and the specific characteristics of individual golf clubs was analytically investigated. This robot utilizes the dynamic interference force produced by its swing motion and by shaft vibration and can therefore emulate advanced golfers and perform highly reliable evaluations of golf clubs.

  1. Abandoned mine shafts and levels in the British coalfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Christopher S.

    1988-07-01

    Industrial dereliction is a concern to all societies. In the United Kingdom the British government is trying to make its abandoned coalfields more attractive to new industry through a combination of land reclamation and job incentive programs. The most ambitious of these projects occurs in the South Wales Coalfield, which records 200 years of land defilement and the highest unemployment amplitudes in mainland Britain. In returning this area to a semblance of its previous state, problems arise over how best to fill and cap the many derelict pit shafts and abandoned shallow mines that riddle this region. This analysis reports on the methods of treatment used to achieve this end, along with the procedures used to minimize ground subsidence, water pollution, noxious gas emission, and the potential for physical injury. These environmental controls have application to the United States and Western Europe, where pockets of industrial blight are also symptomatic of a troubled local economy.

  2. On dynamic loads in parallel shaft transmissions. 2: Parameter study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Edward Hsiang-Hsi; Huston, Ronald L.; Coy, John J.

    1987-01-01

    Solutions to the governing equations of a spur gear transmission model, developed in NASA TM-100180 (AVSCOM TM-87-C-2), are presented. Factors affecting the dynamic load are identified. It is found that the dynamic load increases with operating speed up to a system natural frequency. At operating speeds beyond the natural frequency the dynamic load decreases dramatically. Also. it is found that the applied load and shaft inertia have little effect on the dynamic load. Damping and friction decrease the dynamic load. Finally, tooth stiffness has a significant effect on dynamic loading; the higher the stiffness, the lower the dynamic loading. Also, the higher the stiffness the higher the rotating speed required for dynamic response.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of tibial shaft fracture repair.

    PubMed

    Laasonen, E M; Kyrö, A; Korhola, O; Böstman, O

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of normal fracture repair was evaluated in six randomly chosen adult patients with solitary, closed fractures of the tibial shaft by obtaining serial MRI scans until union of the fracture. The mean time to union was 14.3 weeks. Ultralow-field 0.02-Tesla magnet equipment was used. The MRI scans showed a characteristic pattern of events common for all the patients studied and compatible with the recognized histomorphology of fracture repair. The intramedullary cavity demonstrated a marked decrease in the signal intensity. In the soft tissues surrounding the fracture the initially evenly high signal intensity gradually developed a granular appearance with embedded low-intensity nodules. These nodules corresponded to the first areas to become mineralized, as could be seen on plain radiographs several weeks later. The question of whether MRI renders it possible to predict delayed union calls for continued investigations. PMID:2913981

  4. Temperature field study of hot water circulation pump shaft system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y. Y.; Kong, F. Y.; Daun, X. H.; Zhao, R. J.; Hu, Q. L.

    2016-05-01

    In the process of engineering application under the condition of hot water circulation pump, problems of stress concentration caused by the temperature rise may happen. In order to study the temperature field in bearing and electric motor chamber of the hot water circulation pump and optimize the structure, in present paper, the model of the shaft system is created through CREO. The model is analyzed by ANSYS workbench, in which the thermal boundary conditions are applied to calculate, which include the calorific values from the bearings, the thermal loss from electric motor and the temperature from the transporting medium. From the result, the finite element model can reflect the distribution of thermal field in hot water circulation pump. Further, the results show that the maximum temperature locates in the bearing chamber.The theoretical guidance for the electric motor heat dissipation design of the hot water circulation pump can be achieved.

  5. Pityriasis versicolor on penile shaft in a renal transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Han-Won; Cho, Jae-We; Lee, Kyu-Suk

    2012-08-01

    Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum, which is caused by the Malassezia species. Tge Malassezia species consist of 12 subspecies, including M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. symphodialis and M. globasa. The Malassezia species are classified as a normal flora, particularly in the sebum rich areas of the skin, and they convert from saprophytic yeast to parasitic mycelial morpholgic form to cause clinical disease. But majorities of their distributions are in the upper back, the neck, the thighs, and the forearm, and not in the penis. It is well known that the renal transplant patients, who take immunosuppressive agents, have impairment in the protective cell mediated immunity. Thus, they are more susceptible to infectious diseases, such as a fungal infection. Therefore, clinical manifestations show higher incidence of disease, but they mostly occur in an expected distribution. We here report a case of pityriasis versicolor in a renal transplant recipient on penile shaft, which is an unusual area. PMID:22879720

  6. Providing Greater Opportunities for Deeper Learning in NCLB Waivers. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The eleven state applications approved by the federal government for waivers under the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act vary in the degree to which "deeper learning" skills are reflected in the standards, accountability systems, professional development, and teacher evaluations, according to a new policy brief written by the Alliance for Excellent…

  7. Promoting Effective Dialogue between Business and Education around the Need for Deeper Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business-Higher Education Forum, 2013

    2013-01-01

    As employers scan the current workforce and anticipate future workforce needs, they frequently find that employees are not well-equipped with core content knowledge and 21st century workplace competencies, the combination of which the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation defines as "deeper learning." The cumulative effect of these…

  8. Now I Get It! Differentiate, Engage, and Read for Deeper Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunner, Judy Tilton

    2012-01-01

    Literacy, differentiated instruction, student engagement and academic achievement continue to be hot topics for educators, parents, legislators, and government officials. "Now I Get It! Differentiate, Engage, and Read for Deeper Meaning" is a practical, easy to use resource for classroom teachers, literacy coaches, school administrators and post…

  9. Different personal propensities among scientists relate to deeper vs. broader knowledge contributions

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, Thomas S.; Hess, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific journal publications, and their contributions to knowledge, can be described by their depth (specialized, domain-specific knowledge extensions) and breadth (topical scope, including spanning multiple knowledge domains). Toward generating hypotheses about how scientists’ personal dispositions would uniquely predict deeper vs. broader contributions to the literature, we assumed that conducting broader studies is generally viewed as less attractive (e.g., riskier) than conducting deeper studies. Study 1 then supported our assumptions: the scientists surveyed considered a hypothetical broader study, compared with an otherwise-comparable deeper study, to be riskier, a less-significant opportunity, and of lower potential importance; they further reported being less likely to pursue it and, in a forced choice, most chose to work on the deeper study. In Study 2, questionnaire measures of medical researchers’ personal dispositions and 10 y of PubMed data indicating their publications’ topical coverage revealed how dispositions differentially predict depth vs. breadth. Competitiveness predicted depth positively, whereas conscientiousness predicted breadth negatively. Performance goal orientation predicted depth but not breadth, and learning goal orientation contrastingly predicted breadth but not depth. Openness to experience positively predicted both depth and breadth. Exploratory work behavior (the converse of applying and exploiting one’s current knowledge) predicted breadth positively and depth negatively. Thus, this research distinguishes depth and breadth of published knowledge contributions, and provides new insights into how scientists’ personal dispositions influence research processes and products. PMID:25733900

  10. Methodological Complications of Matching Designs under Real World Constraints: Lessons from a Study of Deeper Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeiser, Kristina; Rickles, Jordan; Garet, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    To help researchers understand potential issues one can encounter when conducting propensity matching studies in complex settings, this paper describes methodological complications faced when studying schools using deeper learning practices to improve college and career readiness. The study uses data from high schools located in six districts…

  11. Digging deeper: Fine root responses to rising atmospheric [CO2] in forested ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, Colleen M

    2010-01-01

    Experimental evidence from a diverse set of forested ecosystems indicates that CO2 enrichment may lead to deeper rooting distributions. While the causes of greater root production at deeper soil depths under elevated CO2 concentration ([CO2]) require further investigation, altered rooting distributions are expected to affect important ecosystem processes. The depth at which fine roots are produced may influence root chemistry, physiological function, and mycorrhizal infection, leading to altered nitrogen (N) uptake rates and slower turnover. Also, soil processes such as microbial decomposition are slowed at depth in the soil, potentially affecting the rate at which root detritus becomes incorporated into soil organic matter. Deeper rooting distributions under elevated [CO2] provide exciting opportunities to use novel sensors and chemical analyses throughout the soil profile to track the effects of root proliferation on carbon (C) and N cycling. Models do not currently incorporate information on root turnover and C and N cycling at depth in the soil, and modification is necessary to accurately represent processes associated with altered rooting depth distributions. Progress in understanding and modeling the interface between deeper rooting distributions under elevated [CO2] and soil C and N cycling will be critical in projecting the sustainability of forest responses to rising atmospheric [CO2].

  12. Different personal propensities among scientists relate to deeper vs. broader knowledge contributions.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Thomas S; Hess, Andrew M

    2015-03-24

    Scientific journal publications, and their contributions to knowledge, can be described by their depth (specialized, domain-specific knowledge extensions) and breadth (topical scope, including spanning multiple knowledge domains). Toward generating hypotheses about how scientists' personal dispositions would uniquely predict deeper vs. broader contributions to the literature, we assumed that conducting broader studies is generally viewed as less attractive (e.g., riskier) than conducting deeper studies. Study 1 then supported our assumptions: the scientists surveyed considered a hypothetical broader study, compared with an otherwise-comparable deeper study, to be riskier, a less-significant opportunity, and of lower potential importance; they further reported being less likely to pursue it and, in a forced choice, most chose to work on the deeper study. In Study 2, questionnaire measures of medical researchers' personal dispositions and 10 y of PubMed data indicating their publications' topical coverage revealed how dispositions differentially predict depth vs. breadth. Competitiveness predicted depth positively, whereas conscientiousness predicted breadth negatively. Performance goal orientation predicted depth but not breadth, and learning goal orientation contrastingly predicted breadth but not depth. Openness to experience positively predicted both depth and breadth. Exploratory work behavior (the converse of applying and exploiting one's current knowledge) predicted breadth positively and depth negatively. Thus, this research distinguishes depth and breadth of published knowledge contributions, and provides new insights into how scientists' personal dispositions influence research processes and products. PMID:25733900

  13. SHABERTH - ANALYSIS OF A SHAFT BEARING SYSTEM (CRAY VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, H. H.

    1994-01-01

    The SHABERTH computer program was developed to predict operating characteristics of bearings in a multibearing load support system. Lubricated and non-lubricated bearings can be modeled. SHABERTH calculates the loads, torques, temperatures, and fatigue life for ball and/or roller bearings on a single shaft. The program also allows for an analysis of the system reaction to the termination of lubricant supply to the bearings and other lubricated mechanical elements. SHABERTH has proven to be a valuable tool in the design and analysis of shaft bearing systems. The SHABERTH program is structured with four nested calculation schemes. The thermal scheme performs steady state and transient temperature calculations which predict system temperatures for a given operating state. The bearing dimensional equilibrium scheme uses the bearing temperatures, predicted by the temperature mapping subprograms, and the rolling element raceway load distribution, predicted by the bearing subprogram, to calculate bearing diametral clearance for a given operating state. The shaft-bearing system load equilibrium scheme calculates bearing inner ring positions relative to the respective outer rings such that the external loading applied to the shaft is brought into equilibrium by the rolling element loads which develop at each bearing inner ring for a given operating state. The bearing rolling element and cage load equilibrium scheme calculates the rolling element and cage equilibrium positions and rotational speeds based on the relative inner-outer ring positions, inertia effects, and friction conditions. The ball bearing subprograms in the current SHABERTH program have several model enhancements over similar programs. These enhancements include an elastohydrodynamic (EHD) film thickness model that accounts for thermal heating in the contact area and lubricant film starvation; a new model for traction combined with an asperity load sharing model; a model for the hydrodynamic rolling and

  14. Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This view of Jupiter's Great Red Spot is a mosaic of two images taken by the Galileo spacecraft. The image was created using two filters, violet and near-infrared, at each of two camera positions. The Great Red Spot is a storm in Jupiter's atmosphere and is at least 300 years-old. Winds blow counterclockwise around the Great Red Spot at about 400 kilometers per hour (250 miles per hour). The size of the storm is more than one Earth diameter (13,000 kilometers or 8,000 miles) in the north-south direction and more than two Earth diameters in the east-west direction. In this oblique view, where the Great Red Spot is shown on the planet's limb, it appears longer in the north-south direction. The image was taken on June 26, 1996.

    The Galileo mission is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  15. THE GREAT RIVERS NEWSLETTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Great Rivers Newsletter is a periodic publication of the EPA's Mid-Continent Ecology Division. It is designed to disseminate timely information about the EMAP-GRE project among EPA investigators; state, federal, and tribal collaborators; and other stakeholders.

  16. [Internal fixation of radial shaft fractures: Anatomical and biomechanical principles].

    PubMed

    Bartoníček, J; Naňka, O; Tuček, M

    2015-10-01

    Radius is a critical bone for functioning of the forearm and therefore its reconstruction following fracture of its shaft must be anatomical in all planes and along all axes. The method of choice is plate fixation. However, it is still associated with a number of unnecessary complications that were not resolved even by introduction of locking plates, but rather the opposite. All the more it is surprising that discussions about anatomical and biomechanical principles of plate fixation have been reduced to minimum or even neglected in the current literature. This applies primarily to the choice of the surgical approach, type of plate, site of its placement and contouring, its working length, number of screws and their distribution in the plate. At the same time it has to be taken into account that a plate used to fix radius is exposed to both bending and torsion stress. Based on our 30-year experience and analysis of literature we present our opinions on plate fixation of radial shaft fractures:We always prefer the volar Henry approach as it allows expose almost the whole of radius, with a minimal risk of injury to the deep branch of the radial nerve.The available studies have not so far found any substantial advantage of LCP plates as compared to 3.5mm DCP or 3.5mm LC DCP plates, quite the contrary. The reason is high rigidity of the locking plates, a determined trajectory of locking screws which is often unsuitable, mainly in plates placed on the anterior surface of the shaft, and failure to respect the physiological curvature of the radius. Therefore based on our experience we prefer "classical" 3.5mm DCP plates.Volar placement of the plate, LCP in particular, is associated with a number of problems. The volar surface covered almost entirely by muscles, must be fully exposed which negatively affects blood supply to the bone. A straight plate, if longer, either lies with its central part partially off the bone and overlaps the interosseous border, or its ends

  17. Study of the turbocharger shaft motion by means of infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, J. R.; Guardiola, C.; Dolz, V.; López, M. A.; Bouffaud, F.

    2015-05-01

    This work describes a technique for measuring the precession movement of the shaft of small automotive turbochargers. The main novelty is that the technique is based on infrared light diode sensors. With presented technique it is possible to perform secure mounting of electronics and also to measure, with good accuracy, far enough from the turbocharger shaft. Both advantages allow applying it even in critical lubrication conditions and when blade contact occurs. The technique's main difficulties arise from the small size of the turbocharger shaft and the high precession movement in critical conditions. In order to generate the optimum albedo reflection for infrared measurement, a special cylindrical nut with larger diameter than the original one is assembled at the shaft tip in the compressor side. Following, shaft balancing, the calibration of the sensors and the compensation of errors from different sources are needed steps before the method is able to identify the main frequencies of shaft motion. Once synchronous and sub-synchronous frequencies have been obtained it is possible to reconstruct the instantaneous position of the shaft to determine its precession movement.

  18. The influence of golf club shaft stiffness on clubhead kinematics at ball impact.

    PubMed

    Worobets, Jay; Stefanyshyn, Darren

    2012-06-01

    The role of shaft stiffness on the golf swing is not well understood. Studies in which golfers hit balls with clubs of varying shaft flex have reported changes in ball distance. The results of mathematical models suggest that shaft stiffness affects only the orientation of the clubhead at impact, not the speed of the clubhead, but there are no experimental results validating these findings. The purpose of this study was therefore to experimentally examine the influence of shaft stiffness on clubhead kinematics at ball impact. Forty golfers hit 10 balls with each of five drivers varying in shaft stiffness from 'Ladies' to 'Extra-Stiff', in a double-blind study design. The motions of three reflective markers attached to the clubhead were captured with a high-speed motion analysis system. At ball impact, shaft stiffness had a statistically significant influence on clubhead speed for 27 subjects, on loft angle for 11 subjects, and on lie angle for all 40 subjects. No effect was observed on face angle, in to out path angle, or attack angle. These results show that shaft stiffness can affect ball launch conditions by altering clubhead speed and/or loft angle. PMID:22900404

  19. Assessing seal performance and parameter sensitivity with a full-shaft model

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, M.; Fryar, D.G.; Statham, W.H.; Knowles, M.K.

    1998-05-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a planned geologic repository for permanent disposal of transuranic waste generated by US government defense programs. Located near Carlsbad in southeastern New Mexico, the facility`s disposal regions are mined from the bedded salt of the Salado Formation at a depth of approximately 652 m. Four shafts service the operational needs of the facility for air intake, exhaust, waste handling and salt handling. These shafts range in diameter from 3.5 to 6.1 m and extend from the ground surface to the repository. During repository closure, following an operational life of approximately 50 years, these shafts will be sealed in accordance with an acceptable design. Under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Repository Isolation Systems Department (RISD) of Sandia National Laboratories has developed a design for the WIPP shaft sealing system. This design has been reviewed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as part of the 1996 WIPP Compliance Certification Application (CCA). An effective shaft sealing system for the WIPP will limit liquid and gas flows, and permanently prevent the migration of radiological or other hazardous constituents through the sealed shafts from repository to accessible environment. Because of these performance objectives, a significant effort has been directed toward evaluation of the seal design. Whereas RISD (1996) provides a comprehensive discussion, this paper focuses on only one aspect of the evaluation effort, namely a full shaft, fluid flow model.

  20. Countermeasures Planned for Reducing Water Inflow into Deep Shafts at the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuji, Masayoshi; Sato, Toshinori; Mikake, Shinichiro; Hara, Nasato; Minamide, Masashi; Sugihara, Kozo

    The Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU) is currently being constructed. The MIU design consists of two 1,000 m-deep shafts with several research galleries. The goals of the MIU project are to establish techniques for investigation, analysis and assessment of deep geological environments, and to develop a range of engineering expertise for application in deep underground excavations in crystalline rocks such as granite. The diameter of the Main and the Ventilation Shafts are 6.5 m and 4.5 m, respectively. Horizontal tunnels to connect the shafts will be excavated at 100 m depth intervals. The Middle Stage, at about 500 m in depth, and the Main Stage, at about 1,000 m in depth, will be the main locations for scientific investigations. The Main and the Ventilation Shafts were 180 m and 191 m deep, respectively, in November 2006. During construction, water inflow into the shafts has been increasing and affecting the project progress. In order to reduce the water inflow into the shafts, pre- and post-excavation grouting has been planned. A post-excavation grouting test has been undertaken in the Ventilation Shaft and the applicability of several techniques has been evaluated. This paper describes an outline of the MIU project, its work plan and the results of the post-excavation grouting test.

  1. Purification of nuclear DNA from single hair shafts for DNA analysis in forensic sciences.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, H; Yamamoto, T; Uchihi, R; Yoshimoto, T; Tamaki, K; Hayashi, S; Ozawa, T; Katsumata, Y

    1999-04-01

    The typing of nuclear DNA from hair shafts has often been unsuccessful to date. We tried to type one of the nuclear DNA loci, HLA-DQA1, from hair shafts, using an efficient cetyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) precipitation for DNA purification and a sensitive semi-nested PCR. After thorough washing with ethanol and water, hair shafts were digested by proteinase K in the presence of dithiothreitol, followed by a purification step including CTAB-DNA precipitation. The specific region of HLA-DQA1 gene was amplified by the semi-nested PCR, and the amplified products were cloned and sequenced. The HLA-DQA1 genotype was determined by comparing the sequence to the known sequence of each allele. All genotypes of HLA-DQA1 were successfully typed with hair shafts from six known heterozygotes, although one of them showed the predominant appearance of one allele. For correct typing, a template DNA equivalent to a hair shaft of 5 or 10 cm in length was necessary. Without the CTAB-DNA precipitation step, DNA extract from such hair shafts inevitably contains enough melanin to inhibit PCR. The present results suggest that hair shafts can be used for the typing of nuclear DNA loci. PMID:12935496

  2. Measurement of short shaft power based on a digital speckle correlation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zi, Xinyun; Geng, Shuai; Zhao, Shufan; Shu, Fang

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a new method of using a camera to monitor changes in short shaft power. First, the camera is used to collect a sequence of images of the shaft surface without torque in advance as reference images. Then strain patterns of the shaft surface under the action of torque are collected and displacements between two adjacent frames are calculated to get the rotation speed by a digital speckle correlation method; a gradient algorithm is used to measure sub-pixel displacements between two ends of the strain images, and the torque is obtained. Finally, shaft power is obtained from rotational speed and torque. To verify the accuracy of measurement, bench experiments using different rotational speeds and torques are done, which are compared with standard sensor measurement. The measurement errors of speed, torque and shaft power are 0.1%-0.11%, 7.79%-10.91% and 7.7%-10.82%, respectively. Results show that the measurement system of shaft power based on a digital industrial camera has high precision. In comparison to the state-of-the-art methods, the proposed method has overcome the shortcomings of traditional methods whose installation is complex and whose signals easily interfere. It is characterized by simple construction, and applied to monitor dynamic short shaft power online.

  3. The Great Ice Age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Louis L.

    1992-01-01

    The Great Ice Age, a recent chapter in the Earth's history, was a period of recurring widespread glaciations. During the Pleistocene Epoch of the geologic time scale, which began about a million or more years ago, mountain glaciers formed on all continents, the icecaps of Antarctica and Greenland were more extensive and thicker than today, and vast glaciers, in places as much as several thousand feet thick, spread across northern North America and Eurasia. So extensive were these glaciers that almost a third of the present land surface of the Earth was intermittently covered by ice. Even today remnants of the great glaciers cover almost a tenth of the land, indicating that conditions somewhat similar to those which produced the Great Ice Age are still operating in polar and subpolar climates.

  4. Elastomer damper performance - A comparison with a squeeze film for a supercritical power transmission shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorzi, E. S.; Burgess, G.; Cunningham, R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of an elastomer damper on a super-critical power transmission shaft. The elastomers were designed to provide acceptable operation through the fourth bending mode and to control synchronous as well as nonsynchronous vibration throughout the operating range. The design of the elastomer was such that it could be incorporated into the system as a replacement for a squeeze-film damper without a reassembly, which could have altered the imbalance of the shaft. This provided a direct comparison of the elastomer and squeeze-film dampers without having to assess the effect of shaft imbalance changes.

  5. Design and application of a test rig for super-critical power transmission shafts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darlow, M.; Smalley, A.

    1979-01-01

    The design, assembly, operational check-out and application of a test facility for testing supercritical power transmission shafts under realistic conditions of size, speed and torque are described. Alternative balancing methods and alternative damping mechanisms are demonstrated and compared. The influence of torque upon the unbalance distribution is studied, and its effect on synchronous vibrations is investigated. The feasibility of operating supercritical power transmission shafting is demonstrated, but the need for careful control, by balancing and damping, of synchronous and nonsynchronous vibrations is made clear. The facility was demonstrated to be valuable for shaft system development programs and studies for both advanced and current-production hardware.

  6. Mechanical analysis of photo-electricity measure equipment shafting in mobile-platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Weiwei; Hu, Hongyi; Tan, Yi; Liu, Ruzhen

    2015-02-01

    Along with the development of technology, photo-electricity measure equipment has been from ground-fixed to mobile-platform borne, So it is need to mechanical analysis of shafting for adapt movement environment of mobile-platform. First listed three kinds of shafting form, then analysis mechanical station of the foremost component bearing in vertical load, radial load, swing load station, last work out the formulas, which was the theory for the shafting design in mobile-platforms photo-electricity equipment.

  7. Correlation of theoretical calculations and experimental measurements of damage around a shaft in salt

    SciTech Connect

    Munson, D.E.; Holcomb, D.J.; DeVries, K.L.; Brodsky, N.S.

    1994-12-31

    Cross-hole ultrasonic measurements were made in the immediate wall of the Air Intake Shaft of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant facility. These measurements show that compressional wave speed markedly decreases at the shaft wall and then increases with radial distance from the shaft to eventually become that of solid or undamaged salt. This behavior is indicative of deformation damage or microfractures in the salt. These in situ data are compared to both laboratory measurements of wave speed as a function of volume dilatancy and to calculations based on the Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture model, with reasonable agreement.

  8. Dynamic stability analysis of torsional vibrations of a shaft system connected by a Hooke's joint through a continuous system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulut, Gökhan

    2014-08-01

    Stability of parametrically excited torsional vibrations of a shaft system composed of two torsionally elastic shafts interconnected through a Hooke's joint is studied. The shafts are considered to be continuous (distributed-parameter) systems and an approximate discrete model for the torsional vibrations of the shaft system is derived via a finite element scheme. The stability of the solutions of the linearized equations of motion, consisting of a set of Mathieu-Hill type equations, is examined by means of a monodromy matrix method and the results are presented in the form of a Strutt-Ince diagram visualizing the effects of the system parameters on the stability of the shaft system.

  9. Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A better than average view of the Great Barrier Reef was captured by SeaWiFS on a recent overpass. There is sunglint northeast of the reef and there appears to be some sort of filamentous bloom in the Capricorn Channel.

  10. Great Expectations. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Kelley

    Based on Charles Dickens' novel "Great Expectations," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand the differences between totalitarianism and democracy; and a that a writer of a story considers theme, plot, characters, setting, and point of view. The main activity of the lesson involves students working in groups to…

  11. The Great Poetry Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitcher, Sharon M.

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that parent involvement improves academic achievement, but in the busy world in which we live it is often difficult to promote. Many researchers suggest that successful programs value parents' limited time constraints, diversity of literacy skills, and availability of materials. The Great Poetry Race provides an easy vehicle to…

  12. The Great Lakes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seasons, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Great Lakes are one of the world's greatest reserviors of fresh water, the foundation of Ontario's economic development, a primary force in ecological systems, and a base for pleasure and recreation. These lakes and their relationship with people of Canada and the United States can be useful as a subject for teaching the impact of human…

  13. 1 Great Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nethery, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an ideal question that can take an art teacher and his or her students through all the levels of thought in Bloom's taxonomy--perfect for modeling the think-aloud process: "How many people is the artist inviting into this picture?" This great question always helps the students look beyond the obvious and dig…

  14. The Great Mathematician Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Sabrina R.

    2013-01-01

    The Great Mathematician Project (GMP) introduces both mathematically sophisticated and struggling students to the history of mathematics. The rationale for the GMP is twofold: first, mathematics is a uniquely people-centered discipline that is used to make sense of the world; and second, students often express curiosity about the history of…

  15. Availability of lake trout reproductive habitat in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Kennedy, Gregory W.

    1995-01-01

    A decades-long program to reestablish self-sustaining stocks of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in the four lower Great Lakes produced excellent fisheries supported by stocked fish. These fish spawned widely and small numbers of their offspring were collected intermittently from Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario, but no self-sustaining stocks were established. Irt this paper we address habitat sufficiency as a factor in the failure of stocked lake trout to established self-sustaining populations in the four lower Great Lakes. We present the previously unpublished results of lake trout spawning habitat surveys conducted at seven sites in the Great Lakes since 1987 and we compare them with the published results of similar surveys conducted at 24 other sites in the four lower lakes since 1981. Our evaluation indicates all but two of these sites can support the production of viable fry from spawnings by the shallow-water strains of lake trout that are stocked in the Great Lakes. However, some of the best spawning, egg, and fry habitat in the lower Great Lakes seems to be at deeper offshore sites that may be unattractive to these shallow-water strains. Thus, we suggest also stocking the lower four lakes with strains from Lake Superior that might more fully exploit the best spawning habitat at these deeper, offshore sites.

  16. What great managers do.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Marcus

    2005-03-01

    Much has been written about the qualities that make a great manager, but most of the literature overlooks a fundamental question: What does a great manager actually do? While there are countless management styles, one thing underpins the behavior of all great managers. Above all, an exceptional manager comes to know and value the particular quirks and abilities of her employees. She figures out how to capitalize on her staffers' strengths and tweaks her environment to meet her larger goals. Such a specialized approach may seem like a lot of work. But in fact, capitalizing on each person's uniqueness can save time. Rather than encourage employees to conform to strict job descriptions that may include tasks they don't enjoy and aren't good at, a manager who develops positions for his staff members based on their unique abilities will be rewarded with behaviors that are far more efficient and effective than they would be otherwise. This focus on individuals also makes employees more accountable. Because staffers are evaluated on their particular strengths and weaknesses, they are challenged to take responsibility for their abilities and to hone them. Capitalizing on a person's uniqueness also builds a stronger sense of team. By taking the time to understand what makes each employee tick, a great manager shows that he sees his people for who they are. This personal investment not only motivates individuals but also galvanizes the entire team. Finally, this approach shakes up existing hierarchies, which leads to more creative thinking. To take great managing from theory to practice, the author says, you must know three things about a person: her strengths, the triggers that activate those strengths, and how she learns. By asking the right questions, squeezing the right triggers, and becoming aware of your employees' learning styles, you will discover what motivates each person to excel. PMID:15768677

  17. Pressure Actuated Leaf Seals for Improved Turbine Shaft Sealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grondahl, Clayton

    2006-01-01

    This presentation introduces a shaft seal in which leaf seal elements are constructed from slotted shim material formed and layered into a frusto-conical assembly. Limited elastic deflection of seal leaves with increasing system pressure close large startup clearance to a small, non-contacting, steady state running clearance. At shutdown seal elements resiliently retract as differential seal pressure diminishes. Large seal clearance during startup and shutdown provides a mechanism for rub avoidance. Minimum operating clearance improves performance and non-contacting operation promises long seal life. Design features of this seal, sample calculations at differential pressures up to 2400 psid and benefit comparison with brush and labyrinth seals is documented in paper, AIAA 2005 3985, presented at the Advanced Seal Technology session of the Joint Propulsion Conference in Tucson this past July. In this presentation use of bimetallic leaf material will be discussed. Frictional heating of bimetallic leaf seals during a seal rub can relieve the rub condition to some extent with a change in seal shape. Improved leaf seal rub tolerance is expected with bimetallic material.

  18. Mylodon darwinii DNA sequences from ancient fecal hair shafts.

    PubMed

    Clack, Andrew A; MacPhee, Ross D E; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2012-01-20

    Preserved hair has been increasingly used as an ancient DNA source in high throughput sequencing endeavors, and it may actually offer several advantages compared to more traditional ancient DNA substrates like bone. However, cold environments have yielded the most informative ancient hair specimens, while its preservation, and thus utility, in temperate regions is not well documented. Coprolites could represent a previously underutilized preservation substrate for hairs, which, if present therein, represent macroscopic packages of specific cells that are relatively simple to separate, clean and process. In this pilot study, we report amplicons 147-152 base pairs in length (w/primers) from hair shafts preserved in a south Chilean coprolite attributed to Darwin's extinct ground sloth, Mylodon darwinii. Our results suggest that hairs preserved in coprolites from temperate cave environments can serve as an effective source of ancient DNA. This bodes well for potential molecular-based population and phylogeographic studies on sloths, several species of which have been understudied despite leaving numerous coprolites in caves across of the Americas. PMID:21640569

  19. Flexural stiffness of feather shafts: geometry rules over material properties.

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Thomas; Emmerlich, Jens; Baumgartner, Werner; Schneider, Jochen M; Wagner, Hermann

    2012-02-01

    Flight feathers of birds interact with the flow field during flight. They bend and twist under aerodynamic loads. Two parameters are mainly responsible for flexibility in feathers: the elastic modulus (Young's modulus, E) of the material (keratin) and the geometry of the rachises, more precisely the second moment of area (I). Two independent methods were employed to determine Young's modulus of feather rachis keratin. Moreover, the second moment of area and the bending stiffness of feather shafts from fifth primaries of barn owls (Tyto alba) and pigeons (Columba livia) were calculated. These species of birds are of comparable body mass but differ in wing size and flight style. Whether their feather material (keratin) underwent an adaptation in stiffness was previously unknown. This study shows that no significant variation in Young's modulus between the two species exists. However, differences in Young's modulus between proximal and distal feather regions were found in both species. Cross-sections of pigeon rachises were particularly well developed and rich in structural elements, exemplified by dorsal ridges and a well-pronounced transversal septum. In contrast, cross-sections of barn owl rachises were less profiled but had a higher second moment of area. Consequently, the calculated bending stiffness (EI) was higher in barn owls as well. The results show that flexural stiffness is predominantly influenced by the geometry of the feathers rather than by local material properties. PMID:22246249

  20. Cooling system for vertical shaft V-type engine

    SciTech Connect

    Tamba, S.; Fukui, N.; Miguchi, A.

    1988-07-12

    A cooling system in a V-type engine is described having a crankcase with cylinders arranged horizontally and so as to form a V therebetween, a bottom wall attached to the crankcase at a level lower than the cylinders, and a vertically arranged crankshaft substantially at the junction of the V. The cooling system consists of: a coolant pump having a pump shaft arranged parallel to the crankshaft, within the V spaced from the junction, and spaced from the cylinders vertically in axial direction of the crankshaft; the coolant pump being joined to a first face of the bottom wall of the crankcase and having outlet passages extending orthogonal to the crankshaft and ending at the first face of the bottom wall, separate cooling jackets mounted at the cylinders and having therein separate inlets at a second face of the bottom wall of the crankcase, and intermediate coolant passages provided within the bottom wall between the first and second faces and joining the outlet passages to the inlets of the cooling jackets.

  1. WIPP shaft seal system parameters recommended to support compliance calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Hurtado, L.D.; Knowles, M.K.; Kelley, V.A.; Jones, T.L.; Ogintz, J.B.; Pfeifle, T.W.

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy plans to dispose of transuranic waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), which is sited in southeastern New Mexico. The WIPP disposal facility is located approximately 2,150 feet (650 m) below surface in the bedded halite of the Salado Formation. Prior to initiation of disposal activities, the Department of Energy must demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with all regulatory requirements. Applicable regulations require that contaminant releases from the WIPP remain below specified levels for a period of 10,000 years. To demonstrate that the WIPP will comply with these regulations, the Department of Energy has requested that Sandia National Laboratories develop and implement a comprehensive performance assessment of the WIPP repository for the regulatory period. This document presents the conceptual model of the shaft sealing system to be implemented in performance assessment calculations conducted in support of the Compliance Certification Application for the WIPP. The model was developed for use in repository-scale calculations and includes the seal system geometry and materials to be used in grid development as well as all parameters needed to describe the seal materials. These calculations predict the hydrologic behavior of the system. Hence conceptual model development is limited to those processes that could impact the fluid flow through the seal system.

  2. Fast integrated multiparameter detecting system for shaft parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Meirong; Lin, Yuchi

    2000-10-01

    The principle and method of realizing fast and integrated detection for the geometrical parameters of shaft part are discussed in this paper. Several sensors controlled by a computer are used to detect the measured work-piece in photoelectric scanning non-contact mode in this system. Multi parameters of axial and radial directions could be acquired simultaneously during one scanning process. To achieve fast detection of two dimensions, a scanning signal sensor composed of diode laser and photoelectric component and a grating transducer are adopted in the axial measurement, and a laser displacement transducer based on photoelectric triangulation method is utilized in radial measurement. The normal detecting velocity of the system is 2 seconds per piece; the axial measuring accuracy is less than 0.01mm and the radial one is less than 0.04mm. The structure, the principle and the relations among each part of the system are analyzed and the results of practical measurement are provided in this paper.

  3. Predictive analysis of shaft station radon concentrations in underground uranium mine: A case study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guoyan; Hong, Changshou; Li, Xiangyang; Lin, Chunping; Hu, Penghua

    2016-07-01

    This paper presented a method for predicting shaft station radon concentrations in a uranium mine of China through theoretical analysis, mathematical derivation and Monte-Carlo simulation. Based upon the queuing model for tramcars, the average waiting time of tramcars and average number of waiting tramcars were determined, which were further used in developing the predictive model for calculating shaft station radon concentrations. The results exhibit that the extent of variation of shaft station radon concentration in the case study mine is not significantly affected by the queuing process of tramcars, and is always within the allowable limit of 200 Bq m(-3). Thus, the empirical limit of 100,000 T annual ore-hoisting yields has no value in ensuring radiation safety for this mine. Moreover, the developed model has been validated and proved useful in assessing shaft station radon levels for any uranium mine with similar situations. PMID:27100335

  4. On the role of oil-film bearings in promoting shaft instability: Some experimental observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R.

    1980-01-01

    The occurrence of oil whirl instability in rigid and flexible rotor systems was investigated. The effect of various bearing parameters on the oil whirl frequency and amplitude of rigid and flexible shafts supported on fluid film bearings was also studied.

  5. Skill Analysis of the Wrist Release in the Golf Swings Utilizing Shaft Elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Soichiro; Hoshino, Yohei; Kobayashi, Yukinori

    This study analyzes the skill component of the wrist release in the golf swing by employing a three-dimensional dynamic model considering vibration of the club shaft. It is observed that professional and expert golfers relax their wrists in the swing motion as a "natural" or "late" release. Thus, the relationship between the timing of the wrist release and the shaft vibration is examined in this study. First, it is demonstrated that "natural release" at the zero-crossing point of the bending vibration of the shaft efficiently increases the head speed at impact. In the next step, the "late hitting" condition is imposed upon the model. It is demonstrated that "late hitting" could further improve the efficiency of the swing motion. Finally, the skill component in the wrist release for the long drive is experimentally verified by measuring the movement of the wrist and the dynamic deformation of the shaft during the downswing.

  6. View of compartment D16, passing room; shaft and universal joints ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of compartment D-16, passing room; shaft and universal joints at top of photograph transmit control forces to steering unit in compartment d-23. (p62) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 30 CFR 77.1904 - Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be audible to the hoistman. Signal codes used in any communication system shall be posted conspicuously at each slope and shaft. (b) Signaling systems used for communication between slopes and...

  8. 20. SAME VIEW AS PR27A19 WITH MAIN SHAFT AND SPROCKET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. SAME VIEW AS PR-27-A-19 WITH MAIN SHAFT AND SPROCKET AREA SPECIALLY LIT TO SHOW DETAILS - Hacienda Cafetalera Santa Clara, Coffee Mill, KM 19, PR Route 372, Hacienda La Juanita, Yauco Municipio, PR

  9. Documentation and verification of the SHAFT code; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect

    St.John, C.M.

    1991-12-01

    The SHAFT code incorporates equations to compute stresses in a shaft liner when the rock through which a shaft passes is subject to known three-dimensional states of stress or strain. The deformation modes considered are hoop deformation, axial deformation, and shear on a plane normal to the shaft axis. Interaction between the liner and the soil and rock is considered, and it is assumed that the liner is in place before loading is applied. This code is intended to be used interactively but creates a permanent record complete with necessary quality assurance information. The code has been carefully verified for the case of generalized plane strain, in which an arbitrary axial strain can be defined. It may also be used for plane stress analysis. Output is given in the form of stresses at selected sample points in the linear and the rock and a simple graphical representation of the distribution of stress through the liner. 12 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Comparative lubrication studies of OH-58A tail rotor drive shaft bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, M. W.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    Comparative lubrication tests were run with OH-58A helicopter tail rotor drive shaft bearings. The tests were run in an outdoor environment with ambient temperatures ranging from 10 to 75 F. Dust was periodically applied to the bearings to simulate field conditions. The cause of bearing failure was associated with dust penetration. Rotor shaft failure was found to be caused by the shaft rotating in the standard rubber collar due to seizure of the bearings. Bearings with a positive rubbing seal having a MIL-G-81322 grease produced lives greater than with bearings having labyrinth seals and a mineral oil paste lubricant. An elongated collar prevented failure of the rotor shaft during bearing seizure. In a limited test, installation of tail boom shrouds over the bearings which excluded dust and water resulted in bearing lives in excess of 1800 hours or 1200 hours greater than the current 600 hours TBO, regardless of the lubricant-bearing combination used.

  11. Low-frequency band gap mechanism of torsional vibration of lightweight elastic metamaterial shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lixia; Cai, Anjiang

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the low-frequency band gap mechanism of torsional vibration is investigated for a kind of light elastic metamaterial (EM) shafts architecture comprised of a radial double-period element periodically as locally resonant oscillators with low frequency property. The dispersion relations are calculated by a method combining the transfer matrix and a lumped-mass method. The theoretical results agree well with finite method simulations, independent of the density of the hard material ring. The effects of the material parameters on the band gaps are further explored numerically. Our results show that in contrast to the traditional EM shaft, the weight of our proposed EM shaft can be reduced by 27% in the same band gap range while the vibration attenuation is kept unchanged, which is very convenient to instruct the potential engineering applications. Finally, the band edge frequencies of the lower band gaps for this light EM shaft are expressed analytically using physical heuristic models.

  12. Multistep Optimization of Composite Drive Shaft Subject to Strength, Buckling, Vibration and Manufacturing Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniaev, Aleksandr; Komarov, Valeriy

    2014-09-01

    Composite drive shafts are extensively used in automotive and aeronautical applications due to lightweight combined with exceptional strength and stiffness. Complexity of the drive shaft design problem associated with the need to determine rational values for multiple parameters characterizing composite material (fiber orientation angles, stacking sequence and ply thicknesses), as well as with the fact that multiple conflicting design constraints should be considered simultaneously. In this paper we approach this problem considering carbon/epoxy drive shaft design as a multistep optimization process. It includes the following steps: 1) determination of fiber orientation angles and laminate stacking sequence based on analysis of loading conditions and analytical expressions predicting buckling load and minimal natural frequency of idealized drive shaft; 2) finding rational ply thicknesses using formal optimization procedure utilizing response surface approximations and gradient-based optimization algorithm; and 3) verification analysis of the optimized configuration with the use of nonlinear buckling analysis to ensure satisfaction of stability constraint.

  13. Multistep Optimization of Composite Drive Shaft Subject to Strength, Buckling, Vibration and Manufacturing Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniaev, Aleksandr; Komarov, Valeriy

    2015-10-01

    Composite drive shafts are extensively used in automotive and aeronautical applications due to lightweight combined with exceptional strength and stiffness. Complexity of the drive shaft design problem associated with the need to determine rational values for multiple parameters characterizing composite material (fiber orientation angles, stacking sequence and ply thicknesses), as well as with the fact that multiple conflicting design constraints should be considered simultaneously. In this paper we approach this problem considering carbon/epoxy drive shaft design as a multistep optimization process. It includes the following steps: 1) determination of fiber orientation angles and laminate stacking sequence based on analysis of loading conditions and analytical expressions predicting buckling load and minimal natural frequency of idealized drive shaft; 2) finding rational ply thicknesses using formal optimization procedure utilizing response surface approximations and gradient-based optimization algorithm; and 3) verification analysis of the optimized configuration with the use of nonlinear buckling analysis to ensure satisfaction of stability constraint.

  14. Empirical mode decomposition, an adaptive approach for interpreting shaft vibratory signals of large rotating machinery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenxian; Tavner, P. J.

    2009-04-01

    The Fourier transform (FT) has been the most popular method for analyzing large rotating machine shaft vibration problems, but it assumes that these vibration signals are linear and stationary. However, in reality this is not always true. Nonlinear and non-stationary shaft vibration signals are often encountered during the start-up and shut-down processes of the machines. Additionally, mechanical faults, for example rotor-to-stator rubbing, fluid excitation, part-loosening, and shaft cracking, are nonlinear. Owing to these reasons, an accurate analysis of shaft vibration cannot always be achieved by using the FT. An alternative tool, the wavelet transform (WT), is now being used to improve the situation. But the efficiency is a problem especially when applying the WT to the accurate analysis of a large-scale, lengthy data. In view of the powerful capability of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) to process nonlinear/non-stationary signals, its algorithm efficiency and its satisfactory performance in minimizing energy leakage, the EMD is used in this paper to analyze the problem, the signals investigated are adaptively decomposed into a finite number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). The principal IMFs, identified using an energy-distribution threshold, dominate the signals' oscillation. So, 'purified' shaft vibration signals can be reconstructed from these principal IMFs. To remove interference present in principal IMFs, an adaptive band-pass filter is designed, whose central frequency is automatically set to the frequency dominating the IMF being investigated. To facilitate the observation of transient shaft vibration, a transient shaft orbit (TSO) is constructed by introducing timescale into the orbit drawing process. Nine mathematical criteria are also proposed to evaluate the shaft vibrations exhibited in the IMFs and TSOs. The novelty of this approach is that the EMD provides an adaptive, effective, and efficient way to obtain 'purified' shaft vibration

  15. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, "September of My Years;" "Early Bird," the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  16. Not so Great Lakes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In 1965, Frank Sinatra won the Grammy Award for his album, “September of My Years” “Early Bird,” the first commercial communications satellite, was launched; and Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was arrested in Selma, Alabama, during demonstrations against voter-registration rules.The year 1965 was also the last time water levels in the U.S. Great Lakes were as low as they are now.

  17. Great Lakes Energy Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J. Iwan

    2012-11-18

    The vision of the Great Lakes Energy Institute is to enable the transition to advanced, sustainable energy generation, storage, distribution and utilization through coordinated research, development, and education. The Institute will place emphasis on translating leading edge research into next generation energy technology. The Institute’s research thrusts focus on coordinated research in decentralized power generation devices (e.g. fuel cells, wind turbines, solar photovoltaic devices), management of electrical power transmission and distribution, energy storage, and energy efficiency.

  18. The great intimidators.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Roderick M

    2006-02-01

    After Disney's Michael Eisner, Miramax's Harvey Weinstein, and Hewlett-Packard's Carly Fiorina fell from their heights of power, the business media quickly proclaimed thatthe reign of abrasive, intimidating leaders was over. However, it's premature to proclaim their extinction. Many great intimidators have done fine for a long time and continue to thrive. Their modus operandi runs counter to a lot of preconceptions about what it takes to be a good leader. They're rough, loud, and in your face. Their tactics include invading others' personal space, staging tantrums, keeping people guessing, and possessing an indisputable command of facts. But make no mistake--great intimidators are not your typical bullies. They're driven by vision, not by sheer ego or malice. Beneath their tough exteriors and sharp edges are some genuine, deep insights into human motivation and organizational behavior. Indeed, these leaders possess political intelligence, which can make the difference between paralysis and successful--if sometimes wrenching--organizational change. Like socially intelligent leaders, politically intelligent leaders are adept at sizing up others, but they notice different things. Those with social intelligence assess people's strengths and figure out how to leverage them; those with political intelligence exploit people's weaknesses and insecurities. Despite all the obvious drawbacks of working under them, great intimidators often attract the best and brightest. And their appeal goes beyond their ability to inspire high performance. Many accomplished professionals who gravitate toward these leaders want to cultivate a little "inner intimidator" of their own. In the author's research, quite a few individuals reported having positive relationships with intimidating leaders. In fact, some described these relationships as profoundly educational and even transformational. So before we throw out all the great intimidators, the author argues, we should stop to consider what

  19. Great Basin Paleontological Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Zhang, Ning; Hofstra, Albert H.; Morrow, Jared R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This work was conceived as a derivative product for 'The Metallogeny of the Great Basin' project of the Mineral Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the course of preparing a fossil database for the Great Basin that could be accessed from the Internet, it was determined that a comprehensive paleontological bibliography must first be compiled, something that had not previously been done. This bibliography includes published papers and abstracts as well as unpublished theses and dissertations on fossils and stratigraphy in Nevada and adjoining portions of California and Utah. This bibliography is broken into first-order headings by geologic age, secondary headings by taxonomic group, followed by ancillary topics of interest to both paleontologists and stratigraphers; paleoecology, stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, paleogeography, tectonics, and petroleum potential. References were derived from usage of Georef, consultation with numerous paleontologists and geologists working in the Great Basin, and literature currently on hand with the authors. As this is a Web-accessible bibliography, we hope to periodically update it with new citations or older references that we have missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the readers think should be added. As a final note, we gratefully acknowledge the helpful reviews provided by A. Elizabeth J. Crafford (Anchorage, Alaska) and William R. Page (USGS, Denver, Colorado).

  20. Decontamination of the Shaft no.1 and cleaning container of 2. block NPP Paks

    SciTech Connect

    Bolcha, Jan; Mala, Zuzana; Tilky, Peter

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Meanwhile cleaning fuel assemblies on Paks NPP Unit 2. in 2003 year, the fuel assemblies were damaged, followed by contamination of cleaning container and operating shaft No. 1., in which was the container. As a part of the task - to restore operation NPP Paks, Unit 2, VUJE and.. realized decontamination of the wall of shaft prior to withdrawal of the defected fuel, decontamination of cleaning tank and in consequence decontamination of full shaft No. 1. Solution rest at finished conceptual decontamination proposal, fabrication of special purpose furnished, necessary documentation according to national legislative exigency. Real facilities on decontamination were examined on the stand and on shaft No. 1 in real conditions. This paper describes access method decontaminating procedure, applied facilities assigned on decontamination and present achievement results from decontamination shaft No. 1 realized in August 2006 and February 2007, respectively. Decontamination procedures were chosen on the base of experiments realized in laboratories VUJE and in Paks NPP. Laboratory experiments were realized on the sample of tube used for measurement of neutron flow, from NPP Paks, located in the shaft No.1 in time of event (INES-3). In NPP Paks were realized experiments on cover of cleaning container, which was in time of event situated on cleaning container. To compare decontaminated factors, the chemical and electrochemical procedures for decontamination were tested, and most effective practices were selected. Equipment ROS-740 can be used for the top part of the shaft decontamination. It allows high-pressure admission, rinse and chemical decontamination. Manipulator MAOS-170 is assigned for high-pressure admission of central part of the shaft. (authors)

  1. Effects of drilling small diameter exhaust shafts in a gassy longwall operation

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, T.; Maloney, W.

    1999-07-01

    As the title indicates, this paper deals with the ventilation of a gassy longwall mine through the use of small diameter exhaust shafts. Extensive background information is provided to show the evolution of the mine's ventilation system to correspond with changes in longwall mining techniques, particularly increases in face width. A description of the blind drilled shaft techniques, which proved to be the most economical ventilation choice for US Steel No. 50 Mine, is also included.

  2. Curvature analysis of femoral shaft in total knee arthroplasty patient and control group.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ki Seon; Oh, Wang Kyun; Shin, Ji Yun; Cho, Byung Ki; Lee, Tae Soo

    2013-01-01

    For some patients with joint illnesses such as rheumarthritis or varus deformity, the total knee arthroplasty (TKA) procedures are performed. However, when inserting metal cutting guide for the procedures, due to the femoral shaft bowing, complications such as the cortex of the femoral shaft damages or secondary fractures can be caused. If the central coordinate value of the femoral shaft is known, the metal cutting guide could be inserted into the anatomical center, so such complications can be prevented. In this study, CT images of femoral shafts of 10 individuals in the experiment group who are in need of receiving the total knee arthroplasty procedures and those of 10 individuals in the control group without illness in the femoral shaft have been utilized to locate the 3-dimensional coordinate values. Then, Matlab was utilized to identify the central coordinate value in order to obtain a graph reflecting the anatomical shapes as well as to acquire the 3-dimensional curvature values by section. As a result, the average curvature range of femoral shafts of the experiment group was determined to be 631.2 mm whereas the average curvature range of femoral shafts of the control group was determined to be 1430.4 mm. The statistical significant of the measured results was verified through ANOVA analysis. Based on these results, it was verified that the level of curvature of the femoral shaft of the experiment group was higher. If the anatomical central points are located and analyzed using this methodology, it would be helpful in performing orthopedic operations such as the total knee arthroplasty. PMID:24110202

  3. Main-coolant-pump shaft-seal guidelines. Volume 3. Specification guidelines. Final report. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Fair, C.E.; Greer, A.O.

    1983-03-01

    This report presents a set of guidelines and criteria to aid in the generation of procurement specifications for Main Coolant Pump Shaft Seals. The noted guidelines are developed from EPRI sponsored nuclear power plant seal operating experience studies, a review of pump and shaft seal literature and discussions with pump and seal designers. This report is preliminary in nature and could be expanded and finalized subsequent to completion of further design, test and evaluation efforts.

  4. Main-coolant-pump shaft-seal guidelines. Volume 2. Operational guidelines. Final report. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Fair, C.E.; Greer, A.O.

    1983-03-01

    This report presents a set of guidelines and criteria for improving main coolant pump shaft seal operational reliability. The noted guidelines are developed from EPRI sponsored nuclear power plant seal operating experience studies. Usage procedures/practices and operational environment influence on seal life and reliability from the most recent such survey are summarized. The shaft seal and its auxiliary supporting systems are discussed both from technical and operational related viewpoints.

  5. On dynamic loads in parallel shaft transmissions. 1: Modelling and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Edward Hsiang-Hsi; Huston, Ronald L.; Coy, John J.

    1987-01-01

    A model of a simple parallel-shaft, spur-gear transmission is presented. The model is developed to simulate dynamic loads in power transmissions. Factors affecting these loads are identified. Included are shaft stiffness, local compliance due to contact stress, load sharing, and friction. Governing differential equations are developed and a solution procedure is outlined. A parameter study of the solutions is presented in NASA TM-100181 (AVSCOM TM-87-C-3).

  6. Parametric stability of continuous shafts, connected to mechanisms with position-dependent inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turhan, O.; Koser, K.

    2004-10-01

    Stability of the parametrically excited torsional vibrations of shafts connected to mechanisms with position-dependent inertia is studied via a version of Bolotin's method. The shafts are considered to be torsionally elastic, distributed parameter systems and discretized through a finite element scheme. The mechanisms are modelled by a linearized Eksergian equation of motion. A general method of analysis is described and applied to examples with slider-crank and Scotch-yoke mechanisms.

  7. Measuring Deeper Learning through Cognitively Demanding Test Items: Results from the Analysis of Six National and International Exams. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Kun; Le, Vi-Nhuan

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation's Education Program has established the Deeper Learning Initiative, which focuses on students' development of deeper learning skills (i.e., the mastery of core academic content, critical-thinking, problem-solving, collaboration, communication, and "learn-how-to-learn" skills). Two test…

  8. Site study plan for exploratory shaft monitoring wells, Deaf Smith County Site, Texas: Preliminary Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    As part of site characterization studies, two exploratory shafts will be constructed at the Deaf Smith County site, Texas. Twelve wells at five locations have been proposed to monitor potential impacts of shaft construction on water-bearing zones in the Ogallala Formation and the Dockum Group. In addition, tests have been proposed to determine the hydraulic properties of the water-bearing zones for use in design and construction of the shafts. Samples of the Blackwater Draw Formation, Ogallala Formation, and Dockum Group will be obtained during construction of these wells. Visual indentification, laboratory testing, and in situ testing will yield data necessary for Exploratory Shaft Facility design and construction. This activity provides the earliest data on the Blackwater Drew Formation, Ogallala Formation, and Dockum Group near the exploratory shaft locations. Drilling and hydrologic testing are scheduled prior to other subsurface activity at the Exploratory Shaft Facility to establish ground-water baseline conditions. The Technical Field Services Contractor is responsible for conducting the field program of drilling and testing. Samples and data will be handled and reported in accordance with established Salt Repository Project procedures. A quality assurance program will be utilized to assure that activities affecting quality are performed correctly and that the appropriate documentation is maintained. 45 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Hydromechanical transmission with two planetary assemblies that are clutchable to both the input and output shafts

    DOEpatents

    Orshansky, Jr., deceased, Elias; Weseloh, William E.

    1979-01-01

    A power transmission having two planetary assemblies, each having its own carrier and its own planet, sun, and ring gears. A speed-varying module is connected in driving relation to the input shaft and in driving relationship to the two sun gears, which are connected together. The speed-varying means may comprise a pair of hydraulic units hydraulically interconnected so that one serves as a pump while the other serves as a motor and vice versa, one of the units having a variable stroke and being connected in driving relation to the input shaft, the other unit, which may have a fixed stroke, being connected in driving relation to the sun gears. A brake grounds the first carrier in the first range and in reverse and causes drive to be delivered to the output shaft through the first ring gear in a hydrostatic mode, the first ring gear being rigidly connected to the output shaft. The input shaft also is clutchable to either the carrier or the ring gear of the second planetary assembly. The output shaft is also clutchable to the carrier of the second planetary assembly when the input is clutched to the ring gear of the second planetary assembly, and is clutchable to the ring gear of the second planetary assembly when the input is clutched to the carrier thereof.

  10. Thermal/structural analysis of the shaft-disk region of a fan drive system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Peyton B.; Holland, Anne D.

    1990-01-01

    In January 1989, a mishap occurred in the National Transonic Facility wind tunnel at NASA-Langley. It is believed that the failure of an insulation retainer holding foam insulation around the exterior of the fan drive shaft resulted in the subsequent damage to other components in the tunnel. The effect was determined of removing the external thermal insulation on the shaft would have on the stresses on the shaft, disk and bolts holding the two together. To accomplish this, a detailed thermal/structural finite element analysis of the shaft-disk interface was performed. The maximum stresses on the three components were determined for several configurations and conditions with and without the external thermal insulation, and then these results were compared to the original analyses to access the effect of removing the external thermal insulation on the proposed future operation of the shaft/disk structures of the fan drive system. Although the stresses were higher without the external insulation, the stresses did meet all stress criteria. In addition, all stresses were within the infinite life regime of the Modified Goodman diagram. Therefore, it was determined that the structural integrity of the shaft-disk region is not compromised if the external insulation is removed.

  11. Process and shaft kiln for the burning of lime or similar bulk materials

    SciTech Connect

    Von Z. H.

    1981-09-01

    A proces is disclosed for the burning of lime, cement or other lumpy bulk materials in a shaft kiln using coal. Coal dust or particulated dry coal is continuously fed into a gasification chamber positioned in the center of the shaft kiln and is therein partially or fully gasified by the addition of air in substoichiometric proportions. The partially or fully gasified fuel is mixed with air at an elevated temperature. Such mixture is then burned in the burning zone of the shaft kiln. The flow of the heating medium, i.e., the burnt fuel, and the flow of the kiln charge are co-current within the kiln. The shaft kiln has a centrally positioned gasification chamber which is mounted on radial supports which are positioned in the shaft kiln in such a way as to produce a space below the supports. The space is substantially free from kiln charge. Uniform distribution of the gases is guaranteed across the cross section of the shaft kiln by the space.

  12. Scanning Electron Microscopy Study of Hair Shaft Damage Secondary to Cosmetic Treatments of the Hair

    PubMed Central

    Kaliyadan, Feroze; Gosai, BB; Al Melhim, Walid Naief; Feroze, Kaberi; Qureshi, Habib Ahmad; Ibrahim, Sayed; Kuruvilla, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and Background: Cosmetic procedures for hair, such as bleaching, dyeing, and straightening, are commonly used around the world. It has been suggested that excessive use of such procedures can cause damage to the hair shaft. We aimed to assess hair shaft changes using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in female volunteers who frequently use hair treatment procedures such as bleaching, dyeing, or straightening. Methods: A cross-sectional, controlled study in a sample of 25 female volunteers (19 study group and 6 controls) in the age group of 18–45 years. The study group was composed of volunteers who regularly used different cosmetic hair treatment procedures such as bleaching, dyeing, and straightening (any one of these or a combination). The control group had never used any specific hair treatment procedure. The hair shaft damage as seen on SEM was assessed using a standardized scoring system and compared among the two groups statistically. The hair shafts were also examined clinically and with light microscopy. Results: No significant differences were seen between the test and control groups with regard to normal clinical examination and light microscopy findings. A higher degree of hair shaft damage was evident under SEM in the study group as compared to the control group. This difference was statistically significant. Conclusions: Regular use of procedures such as bleaching, dyeing, or straightening can lead to subtle changes in the hair shaft which can be detected early by SEM. PMID:27601867

  13. Prognosis and Management of Congenital Hair Shaft Disorders with Fragility-Part I.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gaurav; Miteva, Mariya

    2016-09-01

    Hair shaft disorders are characterized by congenital or acquired abnormalities of the hair shaft. The objective was to review the literature regarding the prognosis and treatment options of hair shaft disorders. We used keywords in the search engines PubMed and Medline to identify all publications in the English language related to the prognosis and management of hair shaft disorders. Data were extracted from 96 articles that met search criteria. Findings were limited to case reports and small case series, as no studies were found. Disorders that improve in childhood include pili torti, trichorrhexis invaginata, wooly hair, and pili trianguli et canaliculi. Others, such as trichorrhexis nodosa, monilethrix, pili annulati, and pili bifurcati improve with minoxidil. Oral retinoids have improved hair abnormalities in trichorrhexis invaginata and monilethrix. There is no specific treatment for congenital hair shaft abnormalities. Gentle hair care is the mainstay of care for hair shaft disorders associated with fragility. Practices for gentle care include no brushing, backcombing, chemical products, tight braids, heat exposure, or mechanical grooming. Any inherited or congenital disorder requires genetic counseling as part of management. PMID:27292719

  14. Prognosis and Management of Congenital Hair Shaft Disorders without Fragility-Part II.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gaurav; Miteva, Mariya

    2016-09-01

    Hair shaft disorders are characterized by congenital or acquired abnormalities of the hair shaft. The objective of this study was to review the literature regarding the prognosis and treatment options for hair shaft disorders. We used keywords in the search engines PubMed and Medline to identify all publications in English related to the prognosis and management of hair shaft disorders. Data were extracted from 96 articles that met search criteria. Findings were limited to case reports and small case series, as no studies were found. Disorders that improve in childhood include pili torti, trichorrhexis invaginata, woolly hair, and pili trianguli et canaliculi. Others, such as trichorrhexis nodosa, monilethrix, pili annulati, and pili bifurcati, improve with minoxidil. Oral retinoids have been found to improve hair abnormalities in trichorrhexis invaginata and monilethrix. There is no specific treatment for congenital hair shaft abnormalities. Gentle hair care is the mainstay of care for hair shaft disorders associated with fragility. Practices for gentle care include no brushing, backcombing, chemical products, tight braids, heat exposure, or mechanical grooming. Furthermore, any inherited or congenital disorder requires genetic counseling as part of management. PMID:27293153

  15. Detection of fatigue crack on a rotating steel shaft using air-coupled nonlinear ultrasonic modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Byeongju; Park, Byeongjin; Sohn, Hoon; Lim, Cheol-Woo; Park, Jae-Roung

    2015-04-01

    Rotating shafts in drop lifts of manufacturing facilities are susceptible to fatigue cracks as they are under repetitive heavy loading and high speed spins. However, it is challenging to use conventional contact transducers to monitor these shafts as they are continuously spinning with a high speed. In this study, a noncontact crack detection technique for a rotating shaft is proposed using air-coupled transducers (ACTs). (1) Low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) sinusoidal inputs are simultaneously applied to a shaft using two ACTs, respectively. A fatigue crack can provide a mechanism for nonlinear ultrasonic modulation and create spectral sidebands at the modulation frequencies, which are the sum and difference of the two input frequencies Then LF and HF inputs are independently applied to the shaft using each ACT. These three ultrasonic responses are measured using another ACT. (2) The damage index (DI) is defined as the energy of the first sideband components, which corresponding to the frequency sum and difference between HF and LF inputs. (3) Steps 1 and 2 are repeated with various combinations of HF and LF inputs. Crack existence is detected through an outlier analysis of the DIs. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is investigated using a steel shaft with a real fatigue crack.

  16. Understanding Radionuclide Migration from the D1225 Shaft, Dounreay, Caithness, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, D.; Watson, C.; Wilson, J.; Bond, A.; Jones, W.; Metcalfe, R.; Milodowski, A.; Munro, C.; Penfold, J.; Watson, S.

    2009-04-01

    A vertical shaft was sunk at Dounreay in the 1950s to build a tunnel for the discharge of radioactive effluent from the various nuclear facilities then under construction. The Shaft has an average diameter of 4.6 m and a total height of 65.4 m, with the lower 52 m being unlined and in direct contact with micaceous flagstones of the Devonian Dounreay Shore Formation. In 1959, the Shaft was licensed as a disposal facility for radioactive wastes and was routinely used for the disposal of unconditioned intermediate level waste (ILW) until 1970. All material consignments to the Shaft ceased in 1977 following an explosion in the head-space above the waste column. In 1998, it was decided to retrieve the waste for treatment and surface storage. The first phase of decommissioning is hydraulic isolation, creating a containment barrier between the waste in the Shaft and the groundwater that flows through the surrounding rock. This has involved drilling approximately 400 boreholes and injecting very fine cement grout under pressure in a 10 m wide band of rock around the Shaft. This process was completed in Spring 2008. Despite the operation of a hydraulic containment scheme around the Shaft, some radioactivity from the wastes disposed to the Shaft is known to have leaked into the surrounding rocks. Detailed logging, together with mineralogical and radiochemical analysis of drillcore from the dense network of boreholes around the Shaft has revealed four distinct bedding-parallel zones of contamination. The most extensive zones of contamination are associated with hydraulically transmissive layers and while most of the contamination is located around the Shaft itself, it is clear that a small amount of contamination has travelled approximately 100 m from the Shaft. The data show that Sr-90 dominates the bulk beta/gamma contamination signal, whereas other radionuclides such as Cs-137 and Pu-248/249 are found only to be weakly mobile in the geosphere, leading to very low

  17. Outcome of locking compression plates in humeral shaft nonunions

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Malhar N; Ravindranath, V Pratap; Ravishankar, MR

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nonunion of diaphyseal fractures of the humerus are frequently seen in clinical practice (incidence of up to 15% in certain studies) and osteosynthesis using dynamic compression plates, intra medullary nails and Ilizarov fixators have been reported previously. Locking compression plates (LCP) are useful in the presence of disuse osteoporosis, segmental bone loss and cortical defects that preclude strong fixation. We report a prospective followup study of the outcome of the use of LCP for humeral nonunion following failed internal fixation in which implants other than LCP had been used. Materials and Methods: Twenty four patients with nonunion of humeral shaft fractures following failed internal fixation were included in the study. The mean followup period was 3.4 years (range: 2.4 to 5.7 years) and the minimum followup period was 2 years. Mean age of the patients was 41.04 years (range: 24 to 57 years). All 24 patients underwent osteosynthesis using LCP and autologous bone grafting (cortico-cancellous iliac crest graft combined with or without fibular strut graft). Main outcome measurements included radiographic assessment of fracture union and pre and postoperative functional evaluation using the modified Constant and Murley scoring system. Results: 23 out of 24 fractures united following osteosynthesis. Average time to union was 16 weeks (range: 10 to 28 weeks). Complications included delayed union (n = 2), transient radial nerve palsy (n = 2) and persistent nonunion (n = 1). Functional evaluation using the Constant and Murley score showed excellent results in 11, good in 10, fair in two and poor outcome in one patient. Conclusions: Locking compression plating and cancellous bone grafting is a reliable option for achieving union in humeral diaphyseal nonunion with failed previous internal fixation and results in good functional outcome in patients with higher physiological demands. PMID:23682176

  18. Great Galactic Buddies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 8.15 Billion Lightyears8.59 Billion Lightyears8.98 Billion Lightyears 9.09 Billion Lightyears

    Like great friends, galaxies stick together. Astronomers using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope have spotted a handful of great galactic pals bonding back when the universe was a mere 4.6 billion years old. The universe is believed to be 13.7 billion years old.

    Collectively, these great galactic buddies are called galaxy clusters. A typical galaxy cluster can contain hundreds of galaxies and trillions of stars.

    In this false-color composite, some of the oldest galaxy clusters in the universe pose for Spitzer's infrared array camera. The individual galaxies that make up the distant clusters are shown as red dots in all four images.

    The green blobs are Milky Way stars along the line of sight, and the blue specks are faint galaxies at various distances along the line of sight. The green and blue data are from a visible-light, ground-based telescope.

    The cluster at 9.1 billion light-years away (lower right panel) is currently the most distant galaxy cluster ever detected.

    These images are three-color composites, in which blue represents visible light with a wavelength of 0.4 microns, and green indicates visible light of 0.8 microns. The visible data were captured by the ground-based Mosaic I camera at the Kitt Peak National Observatory in Tucson, Ariz. Red represents infrared light of 4.5 microns, captured by Spitzer's infrared array camera.

  19. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  20. Great cities look small.

    PubMed

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2015-08-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  1. Great cities look small

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Aaron; Yaliraki, Sophia N.; Barahona, Mauricio; Stumpf, Michael P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Great cities connect people; failed cities isolate people. Despite the fundamental importance of physical, face-to-face social ties in the functioning of cities, these connectivity networks are not explicitly observed in their entirety. Attempts at estimating them often rely on unrealistic over-simplifications such as the assumption of spatial homogeneity. Here we propose a mathematical model of human interactions in terms of a local strategy of maximizing the number of beneficial connections attainable under the constraint of limited individual travelling-time budgets. By incorporating census and openly available online multi-modal transport data, we are able to characterize the connectivity of geometrically and topologically complex cities. Beyond providing a candidate measure of greatness, this model allows one to quantify and assess the impact of transport developments, population growth, and other infrastructure and demographic changes on a city. Supported by validations of gross domestic product and human immunodeficiency virus infection rates across US metropolitan areas, we illustrate the effect of changes in local and city-wide connectivities by considering the economic impact of two contemporary inter- and intra-city transport developments in the UK: High Speed 2 and London Crossrail. This derivation of the model suggests that the scaling of different urban indicators with population size has an explicitly mechanistic origin. PMID:26179988

  2. Missing Great Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hough, S. E.; Martin, S.

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence of three earthquakes with Mw greater than 8.8, and six earthquakes larger than Mw8.5, since 2004 has raised interest in the long-term rate of great earthquakes. Past studies have focused on rates since 1900, which roughly marks the start of the instrumental era. Yet substantial information is available for earthquakes prior to 1900. A re-examination of the catalog of global historical earthquakes reveals a paucity of Mw ≥ 8.5 events during the 18th and 19th centuries compared to the rate during the instrumental era (Hough, 2013, JGR), suggesting that the magnitudes of some documented historical earthquakes have been underestimated, with approximately half of all Mw≥8.5 earthquakes missing or underestimated in the 19th century. Very large (Mw≥8.5) magnitudes have traditionally been estimated for historical earthquakes only from tsunami observations given a tautological assumption that all such earthquakes generate significant tsunamis. Magnitudes would therefore tend to be underestimated for deep megathrust earthquakes that generated relatively small tsunamis, deep earthquakes within continental collision zones, earthquakes that produced tsunamis that were not documented, outer rise events, and strike-slip earthquakes such as the 11 April 2012 Sumatra event. We further show that, where magnitudes of historical earthquakes are estimated from earthquake intensities using the Bakun and Wentworth (1997, BSSA) method, magnitudes of great earthquakes can be significantly underestimated. Candidate 'missing' great 19th century earthquakes include the 1843 Lesser Antilles earthquake, which recent studies suggest was significantly larger than initial estimates (Feuillet et al., 2012, JGR; Hough, 2013), and an 1841 Kamchatka event, for which Mw9 was estimated by Gusev and Shumilina (2004, Izv. Phys. Solid Ear.). We consider cumulative moment release rates during the 19th century compared to that during the 20th and 21st centuries, using both the Hough

  3. Geologic mapping of the air intake shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W. )

    1990-12-01

    The air intake shaft (AS) was geologically mapped from the surface to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility horizon. The entire shaft section including the Mescalero Caliche, Gatuna Formation, Santa Rosa Formation, Dewey Lake Redbeds, Rustler Formation, and Salado Formation was geologically described. The air intake shaft (AS) at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site was constructed to provide a pathway for fresh air into the underground repository and maintain the desired pressure balances for proper underground ventilation. It was up-reamed to minimize construction-related damage to the wall rock. The upper portion of the shaft was lined with slip-formed concrete, while the lower part of the shaft, from approximately 903 ft below top of concrete at the surface, was unlined. As part of WIPP site characterization activities, the AS was geologically mapped. The shaft construction method, up-reaming, created a nearly ideal surface for geologic description. Small-scale textures usually best seen on slabbed core were easily distinguished on the shaft wall, while larger scale textures not generally revealed in core were well displayed. During the mapping, newly recognized textures were interpreted in order to refine depositional and post-depositional models of the units mapped. The objectives of the geologic mapping were to: (1) provide confirmation and documentation of strata overlying the WIPP facility horizon; (2) provide detailed information of the geologic conditions in strata critical to repository sealing and operations; (3) provide technical basis for field adjustments and modification of key and aquifer seal design, based upon the observed geology; (4) provide geological data for the selection of instrument borehole locations; (5) and characterize the geology at geomechanical instrument locations to assist in data interpretation. 40 refs., 27 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Angola: a great future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The companies represented in Angola and their concessions by area are tabulated, including offshore leases. The government of this only recently independent country puts great emphasis on petroleum development and welcomes foreign companies. The major portion of the production comes from the fields in the Cabinda area. In the future, the reserves in the Congo basin will become more important. Exploration activity is intense and concentrated on the near offshore area of the country. The gas reserves are still not entirely known; present production serves only the needs of petroleum production, including a gas injection project in the Cabinda area and the production of LPG. A map of the offshore concession blocks also is shown.

  5. Jupiter's Great Red spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This color composite made from Voyager 2 narrow-angle camera frames shows the Great Red Spot during the late Jovian afternoon. North of the Red Spot lies a curious darker section of the South Equatorial Belt (SEB), the belt in which the Red Spot is located. A bright eruption of material passing from the SEB northward into the diffuse equatorial clouds has been observed on all occasions when this feature passes north of the Red Spot. The remnants of one such eruption are apparent in this photograph. To the lower left of the Red Spot lies one of the three long-lived White Ovals. This photograph was taken on June 29, 1979, when Voyager 2 was over 9 million kilometers (nearly 6 million miles) from Jupiter. The smallest features visible are over 170 kilometers (106 miles) across.

  6. Ending the great drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riordan, Michael

    2008-10-01

    With the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) springing to life at the CERN laboratory near Geneva, the great data drought in elementary particle physics is finally about to end. Not since the second phase of CERN's Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) began operations in 1996 has the field been able to probe virgin territory and measure truly new and exotic phenomena. And that machine merely doubled the energy reach of electron-positron colliders into regions that had already been partially explored using the Tevatron at Fermilab in the US. Researchers at these colliders - the world's most powerful for over a decade - could only chip away at the outer fringes of the unknown. But the LHC, built by installing thousands of superconducting magnets in the LEP tunnel, will permit physicists to strike deep into its dark heart. There they will almost certainly discover something distinctively different.

  7. The Great Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meadows, Jack

    1989-11-01

    This lively history of the development of science and its relationship to society combines vivid biographies of twelve pivotal scientists, commentary on the social and historical events of their time, and over four hundred illustrations, including many in color. The biographies span from classical times to the Atomic Age, covering Aristotle, Galileo, Harvey, Newton, Lavoisier, Humboldt, Faraday, Darwin, Pasteur, Curie, Freud, and Einstein. Through the biographies and a wealth of other material, the volume reveals how social forces have influenced the course of science. Along with the highly informative color illustrations, it contains much archival material never before published, ranging from medieval woodcuts, etchings from Renaissance anatomy texts, and pages from Harvey's journal, to modern false-color x-rays and infrared photographs of solar flares. A beautifully-designed, fact-filled, stimulating work, The Great Scientists will fascinate anyone with an interest in science and how history can influence scientific discovery.

  8. Europa's Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, B. E.; Blankenship, D. D.; Patterson, G. W.; Schenk, P. M.

    2012-04-01

    Unique to the surface of Europa, chaos terrain is diagnostic of the properties and dynamics of its icy shell. While models have suggested that partial melt within a thick shell or melt-through of a thin shell may form chaos, neither model has been able to definitively explain all observations of chaos terrain. However, we present a new model that suggests large melt lenses form within the shell and that water-ice interactions above and within these lenses drive the production of chaos. Our analysis of the geomorphology of Conamara Chaos and Thera Macula, was used to infer and test a four-stage lens-collapse chaos formation model: 1) Thermal plumes of warm, pure ice ascend through the shell melting the impure brittle ice above, producing a lake of briny water and surface down draw due to volume reduction. 2) Surface deflection and driving force from the plume below hydraulically seals the water in place. 3) Extension of the brittle ice lid generates fractures from below, allowing brines to enter and fluidize the ice matrix. 4) As the lens and now brash matrix refreeze, thermal expansion creates domes and raises the chaos feature above the background terrain. This new "lense-collapse" model indicates that chaos features form in the presence of a great deal of liquid water, and that large liquid water bodies exist within 3km of Europa's surface comparable in volume to the North American Great Lakes. The detection of shallow subsurface "lakes" implies that the ice shell is recycling rapidly and that Europa may be currently active. In this presentation, we will explore environments on Europa and their analogs on Earth, from collapsing Antarctic ice shelves to to subglacial volcanos in Iceland. I will present these new analyses, and describe how this new perspective informs the debate about Europa's habitability and future exploration.

  9. Identification of the Shaft Orbit for Rotating Machines Using Wavelet Modulus Maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PENG, Z.; HE, Y.; CHEN, Z.; CHU, F.

    2002-07-01

    In this paper, a novel approach for the identification of the shaft centre orbits is proposed, which is based on wavelet modulus maxima. For this approach, continuous wavelet transform is utilised upon the Θ-S diagram of the shaft centre orbits, and then, maxima lines are extracted and Lipschitz exponents α of every maxima line are calculated by non-linear least-squares method. The number of maxima lines with positive α, the mean of the positive α, the number of maxima lines with negative α and the mean of the negative α are used as features of the shaft orbits. In succession, the four features are used as the inputs of the back-propagation network to classify the shaft orbits for the fault diagnosis for the rotating machines. The experimental data of four classes of faults (rub-impact, oil whirl, coupling misalignment and unbalance) are used to test the performance of the proposed method. The test result indicates that the proposed method is very effective with the advantages of fewer features used and faster training of the network, and can fulfil classification of the shaft centre orbit with satisfactory accuracy.

  10. Computer Simulation Usage For Verification Of Deepened Shaft Artificial Bottom Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gospodarczyk, Piotr

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents the design verification methodology for so called artificial bottom of the mining shaft using computer simulation. Artificial bottom serves as the protection of the lower part of the shaft, in which works related to shaft deepening are carried out, against falling to the bottom of the shaft elements transported in its upper, active part. Model describing the phenomenon of artificial bottom stress is complex. In presented case it is a process of collision between object with a mass of 18 Mg model, falling into the shaft from a height of 800 m, and artificial bottom construction and inducted phenomenon of stress and strain wave propagation in various elements of construction. In this case load receiving elements are heavily deformed and many of them has to be destroyed. Therefore for construction verification computer simulation method has been chosen, conducted on the basis of subsequent crash tests, using the LS-DYNA program. The object of the research was an innovative solution of artificial bottom, developed by Central Mining Institute. A series of falling mass impact tests were performed, which had to prove the usefulness of applied solutions, as well as determine the influence of selected construction geometric parameters to effectiveness of transferring the impact load. This way, using the successive approximations method, the assumptions about the number of artificial bottom platforms and plate thickness used for additional coverage of one of the platforms were verified.

  11. Mechanism of magnetic liquid flowing in the magnetic liquid seal gap of reciprocating shaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Decai; Xu, Haiping; He, Xinzhi; Lan, Huiqing

    2005-03-01

    In order to solve the problems that exist in the magnetic liquid seal of reciprocating shaft, we have set up an experimental facility, which composes a camera, microscope, step-by-step motor, pin roller screw, reciprocating motion shaft, pole pieces, permanent magnet and the magnetic liquid in the seal gap. Through the optical technology and image process of the experimental facility, we have studied the magnetic liquid flow in the seal gap when the reciprocating shaft moves with different velocities and strokes. This study specially concentrates on: (1) the regular pattern of such flow; (2) the loss quantity of magnetic liquid caused by the reciprocating motion shaft; (3) the failure reasons of this magnetic liquid seal; and (4) the design of a new structure for the magnetic liquid seal of reciprocating shaft. The application indicates that the new structure is very effective in some occasions. The new structure was accepted as the state patent in 2001 and authenticated as the achievement in the scientific research in 2002.

  12. Effects of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth in hair follicle cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Ouji, Yukiteru . E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp; Yoshikawa, Masahide; Moriya, Kei; Ishizaka, Shigeaki

    2007-08-03

    Wnts are deeply involved in the proliferation and differentiation of skin epithelial cells. We previously reported the differentiation of cultured primary skin epithelial cells toward hair shaft and inner root sheath (IRS) of the hair follicle via {beta}-catenin stabilization caused by Wnt-10b, however, the effects of Wnt-10b on cultured hair follicles have not been reported. In the present study, we examined the effects of Wnt-10b on shaft growth using organ cultures of whisker hair follicles in serum-free conditions. No hair shaft growth was observed in the absence of Wnt-10b, whereas its addition to the culture promoted elongation of the hair shaft, intensive incorporation of BrdU in matrix cells flanking the dermal papilla (DP), and {beta}-catenin stabilization in DP and IRS cells. These results suggest a promoting effect of Wnt-10b on hair shaft growth that is involved with stimulation of the DP via Wnt-10b/{beta}-catenin signalling, proliferation of matrix cells next to the DP, and differentiation of IRS cells by Wnt-10b.

  13. Are smokers a risk group for delayed healing of tibial shaft fractures?

    PubMed

    Kyrö, A; Usenius, J P; Aarnio, M; Kunnamo, I; Avikainen, V

    1993-01-01

    A total of 135 patients with a fresh tibial shaft fracture and with no other significant injuries underwent primary conservative treatment. Data on their smoking habits were obtained from hospital records and by questionnaire. Although the smokers had better prospects for healing of the fracture at the outset than non-smokers (lower mean age and less fractures caused by high-energy injuries), the smokers were found to have a significantly longer mean time to clinical union and a higher incidence of delayed union. According to a crude calculation, smokers had a 4.1-fold risk of tibial shaft fracture caused by low-energy injury, compared with non-smokers. An accelerated failure time model showed that the more comminuted or open the fracture, the higher the number of cigarettes smoked and the older the patient, the longer was the time to clinical union of the tibial shaft fracture. Female sex appeared to be a further risk factor for delayed healing. A logit model indicated that comminution of the fracture, smoking and female sex were associated with delayed union and non-union. If a patient has a markedly raised probability of delayed union of tibial shaft fracture because of many risk factors as reported in the previous literature or in this study, operative treatment should be considered as the primary alternative instead of conservative treatment. Stopping smoking during healing of tibial shaft fracture could also promote the union of the fracture. PMID:8122874

  14. Great Wall of China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This ASTER sub-image covers a 12 x 12 km area in northern Shanxi Province, China, and was acquired January 9, 2001. The low sun angle, and light snow cover highlight a section of the Great Wall, visible as a black line running diagonally through the image from lower left to upper right. The Great Wall is over 2000 years old and was built over a period of 1000 years. Stretching 4500 miles from Korea to the Gobi Desert it was first built to protect China from marauders from the north.

    This image is located at 40.2 degrees north latitude and 112.8 degrees east longitude.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats, monitoring potentially active volcanoes, identifying crop stress, determining cloud morphology and physical properties, wetlands Evaluation, thermal pollution monitoring, coral reef degradation, surface temperature mapping of soils and geology, and

  15. Intrinsically safe laser-based system for continuous measurement of low-frequency vibration of mine shaft installations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szade, Adam; Passia, Henryk; Lipowczan, Adam; Bochenek, Wojciech

    1998-06-01

    Proper condition of the mine shaft equipment is of vital importance both in view of production and safety. In some cases, this state can be adversely by the changing geological conditions in the shaft surroundings so that special precautions are necessary for reliable operation of the shaft. In the paper, an intrinsically-safe measuring system, approved for gassy mine use, based on the laser vibration sensor has been presented including its construction and operational characteristics. Examples of application have also been given related to measurements of low-frequency vibration events and of displacements both in the surface and underground parts of the shafts.

  16. Gravity drives Great Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Gordon; Forster, Marnie

    2010-05-01

    The most violent of Great Earthquakes are driven by ruptures on giant megathrusts adjacent to actively forming mountain belts. Current theory suggests that the seismic rupture harvests (and thus releases) elastic energy that has been previously stored in locked segments of the megathrust. The general belief, however, is that this energy was accumulated as the result of relative motion of the adjacent stiff elastic tectonic plates. This mechanism fails to explain many first order aspects of large earthquakes, however. The energy source for strain accumulation must also include gravitational collapse of orogenic crust and/or in the foundering (or roll-back) of an adjacent subducting lithospheric slab. Therefore we have conducted an analysis of the geometry of aftershocks, and report that this allows distinction of two types of failure on giant megathrusts. Mode I failure involves horizontal shortening, and is consistent with the classic view that megathrusts fail in compression, with motion analogous to that expected if accretion takes place against a rigid (or elastic) backstop. Mode II failure involves horizontal extension, and requires the over-riding plate to stretch during an earthquake. This process is likely to continue during the subsequent period of afterslip, and therefore will again be evident in aftershock patterns. Mode I behaviour may well have applied to the southern segment of the Sumatran megathrust, from whence emanated the rupture that drove the 2004 Great Earthquake. Mode II behaviour appears to apply to the northern segment of the same rupture, however. The geometry of aftershocks beneath the Andaman Sea suggest that the crust above the initial rupture failed in an extensional mode. The edge of the Indian plate is foundering, with slab-hinge roll-back in a direction orthogonal to its motion vector. The only possible cause for this extension therefore is westward roll-back of the subducting Indian plate, and the consequent gravity-driven movement

  17. A Deeper Look into the Thermodynamic Perfection of the Debye Equation of State for Helium-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yonghua

    A new form of a state equation for helium-3 in wide range of temperature and pressure, based on a conceptual extrapolation from the Debye equation for specific heat of solid materials was previously developed. A deeper look into the performance of the state equation was recently considered necessary and valuable, due to some feedback from cryogenic applications. The evaluation of has been conducted with the Grüneisen parameter along isobar and isotherms, cubic sound velocity - pressure linearity, enthalpy and entropy at low pressures, and the virial coefficients as the benchmarks. Some similar analysis was applied to helium-4 for the sake of analogizing the common behavior of these isotopes, particularly in the critical region. The results confirmed the good thermodynamic perfection of the Debye state equation for helium-3 in most areas on the phase diagram as declared before.

  18. Thermal and trophic stability of deeper Maine lakes in granite waterhsheds implacted by acid deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, R.E.; Wittchen, B.D. )

    1990-09-01

    Acid deposition can lead to lake and watershed acidification, increases in lake transparency, and reduction in thermal stability and hypolimnetic oxygen deficits. On the basis of lake surveys during August-September 1985, we determined to what extent the deeper (maximum depth z{sub m}{gt}17 m) Maine lakes in acid-sensitive granitic watersheds have registered changes in temperature and oxygen stratification, as compared to 1938-1942, when G.P. Cooper performed the earliest scientific surveys of the state's lakes. After correcting for small but geographically consistent interannual differences in summer hypolimnetic temperatures related to spring turnover, and weather-dependent differences in mixed layer depth, there has been no significant change in thermal stratification in these Maine lakes over approximately 43 years. On the basis of specific historical contrasts in the late summer metalimnetic, hypolimnetic, and bathylimnetic oxygen concentrations there has been no significant change in lake trophic state or transparency.

  19. Control of root system architecture by DEEPER ROOTING 1 increases rice yield under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Uga, Yusaku; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Satoshi; Rane, Jagadish; Ishitani, Manabu; Hara, Naho; Kitomi, Yuka; Inukai, Yoshiaki; Ono, Kazuko; Kanno, Noriko; Inoue, Haruhiko; Takehisa, Hinako; Motoyama, Ritsuko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takai, Toshiyuki; Okuno, Kazutoshi; Yano, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    The genetic improvement of drought resistance is essential for stable and adequate crop production in drought-prone areas. Here we demonstrate that alteration of root system architecture improves drought avoidance through the cloning and characterization of DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1), a rice quantitative trait locus controlling root growth angle. DRO1 is negatively regulated by auxin and is involved in cell elongation in the root tip that causes asymmetric root growth and downward bending of the root in response to gravity. Higher expression of DRO1 increases the root growth angle, whereby roots grow in a more downward direction. Introducing DRO1 into a shallow-rooting rice cultivar by backcrossing enabled the resulting line to avoid drought by increasing deep rooting, which maintained high yield performance under drought conditions relative to the recipient cultivar. Our experiments suggest that control of root system architecture will contribute to drought avoidance in crops. PMID:23913002

  20. Designing for deeper learning in a blended computer science course for middle school students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Shuchi; Pea, Roy; Cooper, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The focus of this research was to create and test an introductory computer science course for middle school. Titled "Foundations for Advancing Computational Thinking" (FACT), the course aims to prepare and motivate middle school learners for future engagement with algorithmic problem solving. FACT was also piloted as a seven-week course on Stanford's OpenEdX MOOC platform for blended in-class learning. Unique aspects of FACT include balanced pedagogical designs that address the cognitive, interpersonal, and intrapersonal aspects of "deeper learning"; a focus on pedagogical strategies for mediating and assessing for transfer from block-based to text-based programming; curricular materials for remedying misperceptions of computing; and "systems of assessments" (including formative and summative quizzes and tests, directed as well as open-ended programming assignments, and a transfer test) to get a comprehensive picture of students' deeper computational learning. Empirical investigations, accomplished over two iterations of a design-based research effort with students (aged 11-14 years) in a public school, sought to examine student understanding of algorithmic constructs, and how well students transferred this learning from Scratch to text-based languages. Changes in student perceptions of computing as a discipline were measured. Results and mixed-method analyses revealed that students in both studies (1) achieved substantial learning gains in algorithmic thinking skills, (2) were able to transfer their learning from Scratch to a text-based programming context, and (3) achieved significant growth toward a more mature understanding of computing as a discipline. Factor analyses of prior computing experience, multivariate regression analyses, and qualitative analyses of student projects and artifact-based interviews were conducted to better understand the factors affecting learning outcomes. Prior computing experiences (as measured by a pretest) and math ability were

  1. Australia's Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Great Barrier Reef extends for 2,000 kilometers along the northeastern coast of Australia. It is not a single reef, but a vast maze of reefs, passages, and coral cays (islands that are part of the reef). This nadir true-color image was acquired by the MISR instrument on August 26, 2000 (Terra orbit 3679), and shows part of the southern portion of the reef adjacent to the central Queensland coast. The width of the MISR swath is approximately 380 kilometers, with the reef clearly visible up to approximately 200 kilometers from the coast. It may be difficult to see the myriad details in the browse image, but if you retrieve the higher resolution version, a zoomed display reveals the spectacular structure of the many reefs.

    The more northerly coastal area in this image shows the vast extent of sugar cane cultivation, this being the largest sugar producing area in Australia, centered on the city of Mackay. Other industries in the area include coal, cattle, dairying, timber, grain, seafood, and fruit. The large island off the most northerly part of the coast visible in this image is Whitsunday Island, with smaller islands and reefs extending southeast, parallel to the coast. These include some of the better known resort islands such as Hayman, Lindeman, Hamilton, and Brampton Islands.

    Further south, just inland of the small semicircular bay near the right of the image, is Rockhampton, the largest city along the central Queensland coast, and the regional center for much of central Queensland. Rockhampton is just north of the Tropic of Capricorn. Its hinterland is a rich pastoral, agricultural, and mining region.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  2. Iatrogenic brachial artery injury during anterolateral plating of humeral shaft fracture.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vishal; Behera, Prateek; Aggarwal, Sameer; Meena, Umesh Kumar

    2013-01-01

    There are several well defined indications for surgical management of humeral shaft fractures. Operative procedures on the humerus are associated with their own complications. Iatrogenic brachial artery injury as a complication of humeral shaft plating has not been reported previously. We report a case of a 48 years old female, who received operation at a district hospital and was referred to us when the surgeon could not palpate the pulse. CT angiogram showed that there was segmental non-opacification of the brachial artery. There was distal reformation and the thrombosis was decided to be managed conservatively. We believe that the arterial injury was a result of improper surgical technique and the segmental block might be due to improper use of plate holding forceps. This case report makes us aware of a rare complication of operative management of humeral shaft fractures and that basic principles of surgery must be always followed to prevent such injuries. PMID:24295587

  3. Shaft flexibility effects on the forced response of a bladed-disk assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khader, N.; Loewy, R. G.

    1990-01-01

    A model analysis approach is used to study the forced response of an actual flexible bladed-disk-shaft system. Both in-plane and out-of-plane flexible deformations of the bladed-disk assembly are considered, in addition to its rigid-body translations and rotations, resulting from the bending of the supporting flexible shaft in two orthogonal planes. The effects of Coriolis forces and structural coupling between flexible and rigid disk motions on the system's response are investigated. Aerodynamic loads acting on the rotating and vibrating bladed-disk assembly are accounted for through a simple quasi-steady representation, to evaluate their influence, combined with shaft flexibility and Coriolis effects.

  4. Humeral shaft fracture treatment in the elite throwing athlete: a unique application of flexible intramedullary nailing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher S; Davis, Shane M; Ho, Hoang-Anh; Fronek, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Humeral shaft stress fractures are being increasingly recognized as injuries that can significantly impact throwing mechanics if residual malalignment exists. While minimally displaced and angulated injuries are treated nonoperatively in a fracture brace, the management of significantly displaced humeral shaft fractures in the throwing athlete is less clear. Currently described techniques such as open reduction and internal fixation with plate osteosynthesis and rigid antegrade/retrograde locked intramedullary nailing have significant morbidity due to soft tissue dissection and damage. We present a case report of a high-level baseball pitcher whose significantly displaced humeral shaft stress fracture failed to be nonoperatively managed and was subsequently treated successfully with unlocked, retrograde flexible intramedullary nailing. The athlete was able to return to pitching baseball in one year and is currently pitching in Major League Baseball. We were able to recently collect 10-year follow-up data. PMID:24369515

  5. Method for Providing a Jewel Bearing for Supporting a Pump Rotor Shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Methods for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term high-speed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the shaft to support high speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

  6. The Next Great Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, K. V.

    2007-12-01

    value of systems-level thinking, and it makes good sense to make this the essential mantra of Earth science undergraduate and graduate programs of the future. We must emphasize that Earth science plays a central role in understanding processes that have shaped our planet since the origin of our species, processes that have thus influenced the rise and fall of human societies. By studying the co-evolution of Earth and human societies, we lay a critical part of the foundation for future environmental policymaking. If we can make this point persuasively, Earth science might just be the "next great science".

  7. Transposition of the great vessels

    MedlinePlus

    Transposition of the great vessels is a heart defect that occurs from birth (congenital). The two major vessels that carry blood ... nutrition) Rubella or other viral illness during pregnancy ... the great vessels is a cyanotic heart defect. This means there ...

  8. Weight and power savings shaft encoder interfacing techniques for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breslow, Donald H.

    1986-01-01

    Many aerospace applications for shaft angle digitizers such as optical shaft encoders require special features that are not usually required on commercial products. Among the most important user considerations are the lowest possible weight and power consumption. A variety of mechanical and electrical interface techniques that have large potential weight and power savings are described. The principles to be presented apply to a wide variety of encoders, ranging from 16 to 22 bit resolution and with diameters from 152 to 380 mm (6 to 15 in.).

  9. Measuring anteversion and femoral neck-shaft angle in cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Miller, F; Liang, Y; Merlo, M; Harcke, H T

    1997-02-01

    Femoral anteversion was measured by computed tomography (CT) in 40 children with cerebral palsy, however an accurate measurement was possible in only 59 of the 80 hips. Flat-surface measurement of anteversion was possible in 72 of 80 hips by CT, and in 36 of 40 hips by ultrasound. A high neck-shaft angle correlated with an inability to measure anteversion by CT. Measuring by ultrasound allowed subjects to be positioned in internal rotation and in this way accurate measurements of neck-shaft angles were obtained. PMID:9062426

  10. Stability and transient dynamics of a propeller-shaft system as induced by nonlinear friction acting on bearing-shaft contact interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenguo; Zhang, Zhiyi; Huang, Xiuchang; Hua, Hongxing

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates the friction-induced instability and the resulting self-excited vibration of a propeller-shaft system supported by water-lubricated rubber bearing. The system under consideration is modeled with an analytical approach by involving the nonlinear interaction among torsional vibrations of the continuous shaft, tangential vibrations of the rubber bearing and the nonlinear friction acting on the bearing-shaft contact interface. A degenerative two-degree-of-freedom analytical model is also reasonably developed to characterize system dynamics. The stability and vibrational characteristics are then determined by the complex eigenvalues analysis together with the quantitative analysis based on the method of multiple scales. A parametric study is conducted to clarify the roles of friction parameters and different vibration modes on instabilities; both the graphic and analytical expressions of instability boundaries are obtained. To capture the nature of self-excited vibrations and validate the stability analysis, the nonlinear formulations are numerically solved to calculate the transient dynamics in time and frequency domains. Analytical and numerical results reveal that the nonlinear coupling significantly affects the system responses and the bearing vibration plays a dominant role in the dynamic behavior of the present system.

  11. Dreissenid mussels from the Great Lakes contain elevated thiaminase activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillitt, D.E.; Riley, S.C.; Evans, A.N.; Nichols, S.J.; Zajicek, J.L.; Rinchard, J.; Richter, C.A.; Krueger, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    We examined thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at different depths and seasons, and from various locations in Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron. Here we present evidence that two dreissenid mussel species (Dreissena bugensis and D. polymorpha) contain thiaminase activity that is 5-100 fold greater than observed in Great Lakes fishes. Thiaminase activity in zebra mussels ranged from 10,600 to 47,900??pmol g- 1??min- 1 and activities in quagga mussels ranged from 19,500 to 223,800??pmol g- 1??min- 1. Activity in the mussels was greatest in spring, less in summer, and least in fall. Additionally, we observed greater thiaminase activity in dreissenid mussels collected at shallow depths compared to mussels collected at deeper depths. Dreissenids constitute a significant and previously unknown pool of thiaminase in the Great Lakes food web compared to other known sources of this thiamine (vitamin B1)-degrading enzyme. Thiaminase in forage fish of the Great Lakes has been causally linked to thiamine deficiency in salmonines. We currently do not know whether linkages exist between thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids and the thiaminase activities in higher trophic levels of the Great Lakes food web. However, the extreme thiaminase activities observed in dreissenids from the Great Lakes may represent a serious unanticipated negative effect of these exotic species on Great Lakes ecosystems.

  12. 9C continued: results from a deeper radio-source survey at 15 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldram, E. M.; Pooley, G. G.; Davies, M. L.; Grainge, K. J. B.; Scott, P. F.

    2010-05-01

    The 9C survey of radio sources with the Ryle Telescope at 15.2 GHz was set up to survey the fields observed with the cosmic microwave background telescope, the Very Small Array. In our first paper, we described three regions of the survey, constituting a total area of 520 deg2 to a completeness limit of ~25mJy. Here we report on a series of deeper regions, amounting to an area of 115 deg2 complete to ~10mJy and of 29 deg2 complete to ~5.5mJy. We have investigated the source counts and the distributions of the 1.4 to 15.2 GHz spectral indices (α15.21.4) for these deeper samples. The whole catalogue of 643 sources is available online. Down to our lower limit of 5.5mJy, we detect no evidence for any change in the differential source count from the earlier fitted count above 25mJy, n(S) = 51(S/Jy)-2.15Jy-1 sr-1. We have matched both our new and earlier catalogues with the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) catalogue at 1.4 GHz and selected flux-limited samples at both 15 and 1.4 GHz. As expected, we find that the proportions of sources with flat and rising spectra in the samples selected at 15 GHz are significantly higher than those in the samples selected at 1.4 GHz. In addition, for 15-GHz samples selected in three flux density ranges, we detect a significant shift in the median value of α15.21.4: the higher the flux densities the higher the proportions of sources with flat and rising spectra. In our area complete to ~10mJy, we find five sources between 10 and 15mJy at 15 GHz, amounting to 4.3 per cent of sources in this range, with no counterpart in the NVSS catalogue. This implies that, had we relied on NVSS for locating our sources, we could have missed a significant proportion of them at low flux densities. Our results illustrate the problems inherent in using a low-frequency catalogue to characterize the source population at a much higher frequency and emphasize the value of our blind 15.2-GHz survey.

  13. Control of the low-frequency vibrations of elastic metamaterial shafts with discretized arc-rubber layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lixia, Li; Anjiang, Cai

    2016-06-01

    We propose a new kind of elastic metamaterial (EM) shaft with discretized arc-shaped rubber layers, which shows excellent low-frequency vibration properties. The band gaps of the shaft structure were analyzed by employing the finite element method. The proposed EM shaft exhibits much lower band gaps than the corresponding structures with the whole rubber ring. Furthermore, the band gaps can be modulated by tuning the arc angle and the number of the arc-shaped rubbers. Additionally, we observed that the first complete band gap tends to disappear when the arc angle of each arc-shaped rubber section is decreased but the arc number remains fixed because the arc angle more strongly affects the rotational stiffness than the transverse stiffness of the rubber layers. This new type of EM shafts could find potential application as a means to control the low-frequency vibrations of rotor shafts in mechanical engineering.

  14. Acorns containing deeper plumule survive better: how white oaks counter embryo excision by rodents

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingming; Dong, Zhong; Yi, Xianfeng; Bartlow, Andrew W

    2014-01-01

    Several squirrel species excise the embryo of acorns of most white oak species to arrest germination for long-term storage. However, it is not clear how these acorns counter embryo excision and survive in the arms race of coevolution. In this study, we simulated the embryo excision behavior of squirrels by removing 4 mm of cotyledon from the apical end of white oak acorns differing in embryo depths to investigate the effects of embryo excision on acorn germination and seedling performance of white oak species. The embryo depth in the cotyledons was significantly different among white oak acorns, with Quercus mongolica containing the embryo most deeply in the acorns. We found that artificial embryo excision significantly decreased acorn germination rates of Quercus variabilis, Quercus acutissima, Quercus aliena, Quercus aliena var. acutiserrata, Quercus serrata. var. brevipetiolata but not Q. mongolica. Artificial embryo excision exerted significant negative impacts on seedling performance of all oak species except Quercus aliena. Our study demonstrates the role of embryo depth of acorns in countering embryo excision by squirrels and may explain the fact that squirrels do not perform embryo excision in acorns of Q. mongolica with deeper embryos. This apparent adaptation of acorns sheds light on the coevolutionary dynamics between oaks and their seed predators. PMID:24455161

  15. Active Learning Approaches by Visualizing ICT Devices with Milliseconds Resolution for Deeper Understanding in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Akizo; Okiharu, Fumiko

    2010-07-01

    We are developing various modularized materials in physics education to overcome students' misconceptions by use of ICT, i.e. video analysis software and ultra-high-speed digital movies, motion detector, force sensors, current and voltage probes, temperature sensors etc. Furthermore, we also present some new modules of active learning approaches on electric circuit using high speed camera and voltage probes with milliseconds resolution. We are now especially trying to improve conceptual understanding by use of ICT devices with milliseconds resolution in various areas of physics education We give some modules of mass measurements by video analysis of collision phenomena by using high speed cameras—Casio EX-F1(1200 fps), EX-FH20(1000 fps) and EX-FC100/150(1000 fps). We present several new modules on collision phenomena to establish deeper understanding of conservation laws of momentum. We discuss some effective results of trial on a physics education training courses for science educators, and those for science teachers during the renewal years of teacher's license after every ten years in Japan. Finally, we discuss on some typical results of pre-test and post-test in our active learning approaches based on ICT, i.e. some evidence on improvements of physics education (increasing ratio of correct answer are 50%-level).

  16. Deep rooting conferred by DEEPER ROOTING 1 enhances rice yield in paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Arai-Sanoh, Yumiko; Takai, Toshiyuki; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Nakano, Hiroshi; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kondo, Motohiko; Uga, Yusaku

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the effect of deep rooting on grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.) in an irrigated paddy field with or without fertilizer, we used the shallow-rooting IR64 and the deep-rooting Dro1-NIL (a near-isogenic line homozygous for the Kinandang Patong allele of DEEPER ROOTING 1 (DRO1) in the IR64 genetic background). Although total root length was similar in both lines, more roots were distributed within the lower soil layer of the paddy field in Dro1-NIL than in IR64, irrespective of fertilizer treatment. At maturity, Dro1-NIL showed approximately 10% higher grain yield than IR64, irrespective of fertilizer treatment. Higher grain yield of Dro1-NIL was mainly due to the increased 1000-kernel weight and increased percentage of ripened grains, which resulted in a higher harvest index. After heading, the uptake of nitrogen from soil and leaf nitrogen concentration were higher in Dro1-NIL than in IR64. At the mid-grain-filling stage, Dro1-NIL maintained higher cytokinin fluxes from roots to shoots than IR64. These results suggest that deep rooting by DRO1 enhances nitrogen uptake and cytokinin fluxes at late stages, resulting in better grain filling in Dro1-NIL in a paddy field in this study. PMID:24988911

  17. Experimental system to displace radioisotopes from upper to deeper soil layers: chemical research

    PubMed Central

    Cazzola, Pietro; Cena, Agostino; Ghignone, Stefano; Abete, Maria C; Andruetto, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Background Radioisotopes are introduced into the environment following nuclear power plant accidents or nuclear weapons tests. The immobility of these radioactive elements in uppermost soil layers represents a problem for human health, since they can easily be incorporated in the food chain. Preventing their assimilation by plants may be a first step towards the total recovery of contaminated areas. Methods The possibility of displacing radionuclides from the most superficial soil layers and their subsequent stabilisation at lower levels were investigated in laboratory trials. An experimental system reproducing the environmental conditions of contaminated areas was designed in plastic columns. A radiopolluted soil sample was treated with solutions containing ions normally used in fertilisation (NO3-, NH4+, PO4--- and K+). Results Contaminated soils treated with an acid solution of ions NO3-, PO4--- and K+, undergo a reduction of radioactivity up to 35%, after a series of washes which simulate one year's rainfall. The capacity of the deepest soil layers to immobilize the radionuclides percolated from the superficial layers was also confirmed. Conclusion The migration of radionuclides towards deeper soil layers, following chemical treatments, and their subsequent stabilization reduces bioavailability in the uppermost soil horizon, preventing at the same time their transfer into the water-bearing stratum. PMID:15132749

  18. A Deeper Look at the “Neural Correlate of Consciousness”

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Sascha Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    A main goal of the neuroscience of consciousness is: find the neural correlate to conscious experiences (NCC). When have we achieved this goal? The answer depends on our operationalization of “NCC.” Chalmers (2000) shaped the widely accepted operationalization according to which an NCC is a neural system with a state which is minimally sufficient (but not necessary) for an experience. A deeper look at this operationalization reveals why it might be unsatisfactory: (i) it is not an operationalization of a correlate for occurring experiences, but of the capacity to experience; (ii) it is unhelpful for certain cases which are used to motivate a search for neural correlates of consciousness; (iii) it does not mirror the usage of “NCC” by scientists who seek for unique correlates; (iv) it hardly allows for a form of comparative testing of hypotheses, namely experimenta crucis. Because of these problems (i–iv), we ought to amend or improve on Chalmers's operationalization. Here, I present an alternative which avoids these problems. This “NCC2.0” also retains some benefits of Chalmers's operationalization, namely being compatible with contributions from extended, embedded, enacted, or embodied accounts (4E-accounts) and allowing for the possibility of non-biological or artificial experiencers. PMID:27507950

  19. Deeper Penetration of Erythrocytes into the Endothelial Glycocalyx Is Associated with Impaired Microvascular Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae Hyun; Dane, Martijn J. C.; van den Berg, Bernard M.; Boels, Margien G. S.; van Teeffelen, Jurgen W.; de Mutsert, Renée; den Heijer, Martin; Rosendaal, Frits R.; van der Vlag, Johan; van Zonneveld, Anton Jan; Vink, Hans; Rabelink, Ton J.

    2014-01-01

    Changes in endothelial glycocalyx are one of the earliest changes in development of cardiovascular disease. The endothelial glycocalyx is both an important biological modifier of interactions between flowing blood and the vessel wall, and a determinant of organ perfusion. We hypothesize that deeper penetration of erythrocytes into the glycocalyx is associated with reduced microvascular perfusion. The population-based prospective cohort study (the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity [NEO] study) includes 6,673 middle-aged individuals (oversampling of overweight and obese individuals). Within this cohort, we have imaged the sublingual microvasculature of 915 participants using sidestream darkfield (SDF) imaging together with a recently developed automated acquisition and analysis approach. Presence of RBC (as a marker of microvascular perfusion) and perfused boundary region (PBR), a marker for endothelial glycocalyx barrier properties for RBC accessibility, were assessed in vessels between 5 and 25 µm RBC column width. A wide range of variability in PBR measurements, with a mean PBR of 2.14 µm (range: 1.43–2.86 µm), was observed. Linear regression analysis showed a marked association between PBR and microvascular perfusion, reflected by RBC filling percentage (regression coefficient β: −0.034; 95% confidence interval: −0.037 to −0.031). We conclude that microvascular beds with a thick (“healthy”) glycocalyx (low PBR), reflects efficient perfusion of the microvascular bed. In contrast, a thin (“risk”) glycocalyx (high PBR) is associated with a less efficient and defective microvascular perfusion. PMID:24816787

  20. From 20cm to 1.5m: Is Digging Deeper Necessary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fissore, C.; Nater, E. A.; Dalzell, B. J.; Kolka, R.; Perry, C.

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of belowground carbon (C) currently stored in forest ecosystems is far from complete, especially for deeper soil horizons. Given logistical difficulties of sampling deep soils over large areas, much attention has been given to estimate deep SOC stocks indirectly. It is unknown whether C content in the top 20 cm of the mineral soil is an effective index for deep soil C storage across broad ranges of climate, forest type, and soil characteristics. The US Forest Service has a large record of aboveground and belowground (up to 20 cm depth) C data that could potentially be used to quantify deep SOC stocks if a suitable indirect estimation method can be developed. We followed and extended USDA FS Forest Inventory Analysis protocols to sample forest sites in the Midwest U.S. to determine C content up to 1.5m depth over a range of forest and soil types. Preliminary results show that, at hardwood sites, C percent in the top 20 cm of the mineral soil predicted only 28% of deep soil C in sandy soils and 20% in loamy soils. On a mass basis (mg C/cm3), such relationship was even weaker, suggesting that a number of biophysical variables affect SOC storage along the soil profile. Ongoing analyses will identify whether including additional factors such as forest type and soil chemical-physical characteristics will strengthen this relationship. The use of fractionation techniques and stable and radioactive isotopes will help illustrate SOC stabilization mechanisms.

  1. 10C continued: a deeper radio survey at 15.7 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittam, I. H.; Riley, J. M.; Green, D. A.; Davies, M. L.; Franzen, T. M. O.; Rumsey, C.; Schammel, M. P.; Waldram, E. M.

    2016-04-01

    We present deep 15.7 GHz observations made with the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager Large Array in two fields previously observed as part of the Tenth Cambridge (10C) survey. These observations allow the source counts to be calculated down to 0.1 mJy, a factor of 5 deeper than achieved by the 10C survey. The new source counts are consistent with the extrapolated fit to the 10C source count, and display no evidence for either steepening or flattening of the counts. There is thus no evidence for the emergence of a significant new population of sources (e.g. star forming) at 15.7 GHz flux densities above 0.1 mJy, the flux density level at which we expect star-forming galaxies to begin to contribute. Comparisons with the de Zotti et al. model and the SKADS Simulated Sky show that they both underestimate the observed number of sources by a factor of 2 at this flux density level. We suggest that this is due to the flat-spectrum cores of radio galaxies contributing more significantly to the counts than predicted by the models.

  2. Two-shaft Tornado tested at 6340 kW and 31. 6% efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, R.

    1982-07-01

    As of mid-June 1982, a two-shaft version of this new Ruston engine on factory test had logged some 20 hr of running and 200 fired starts - achieving full load on both gas and distillate fuels. The 6-MW Tornado is designed for cogeneration of heat and electric power at industrial sites.

  3. Computations of the fluid annulus surrounding a pump shaft in synchronous vibration. Final report. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, L.M.; Gross, M.B.; Yeung, W.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the fluid forces that arise from the fluid annulus surrounding a pump shaft in synchronous vibration. The computational method for determining the fluid forces is based on the two-dimensional, incompressible implicit version of the STEALTH 2D code. Using this computational tool, this study analyzes pump-shaft synchronous vibrations both in the low-Reynolds-number laminar-flow regime and the high-Reynolds-number turbulent-flow regime. Moreover, the study was able to investigate both infinitesimal (perturbation) shaft displacements as well as finite (substantial) shaft displacements. The new numerical results predict forces from the fluid annulus which are substantially greater than the forces computed by extrapolating a perturbation analysis to finite displacements. The new forces are substantially greater because the two-dimensional calculations are much stiffer than the perturbation analysis, which neglects the radial-velocity component of the flow. The numerical results for the fluid forces are summarized by simple analytic formulas.

  4. 45. MACHINE SHOP NORTH/NORTHEAST INCLUDING OVERHEAD LINE SHAFTING. MOSTLY BELT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. MACHINE SHOP NORTH/NORTHEAST INCLUDING OVERHEAD LINE SHAFTING. MOSTLY BELT DRIVEN WITH ONE ROPE DRIVEN LATHE IN MIDDLE GROUND. POWER COMES FROM KNIGHT TURBINE ON FAR WALL SHOWN IN K-77, 78 (42') - Knight Foundry, 13 Eureka Street, Sutter Creek, Amador County, CA

  5. Performance of a shaft seal system for the LE-7 rocket engine oxidizer turbopump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oike, Mamoru; Nosaka, Masataka; Kikuchi, Masataka; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    An experimental study on a rotating-shaft seal system for a high-pressure liquid oxygen (LOX) turbopump has been conducted to develop the LE-7 engine for the Japanese H-II launch vehicle. The LOX turbopump rotating-shaft seal system, which prevents LOX (4.9 MPa) and the high-pressure turbine-drive gas (16.6 MPa, 970 K) from mixing during high-speed operations (18,000 to 20,000 rpm), consists of the following seals: an LOX seal comprising a floating-ring and a wear-ring, a turbine gas seal comprising two floating-rings, and a helium purge seal comprising two segmented circumferential seal-rings. This report describes experimental and observational results concerning the rotating-shaft seal system obtained in the LOX turbopump operations and the seal tests. Based on comparisons between the measurements and the analytical results, sealing characteristics of the seal system are discussed. Inspections of the sealing surfaces after the engine firing tests demonstrated that the LOX turbopump rotating-shaft seal system has sufficient durability for use in the LE-7 engine for the H-II launch vehicle.

  6. Fault Diagnostics for Turbo-Shaft Engine Sensors Based on a Simplified On-Board Model

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Feng; Huang, Jinquan; Xing, Yaodong

    2012-01-01

    Combining a simplified on-board turbo-shaft model with sensor fault diagnostic logic, a model-based sensor fault diagnosis method is proposed. The existing fault diagnosis method for turbo-shaft engine key sensors is mainly based on a double redundancies technique, and this can't be satisfied in some occasions as lack of judgment. The simplified on-board model provides the analytical third channel against which the dual channel measurements are compared, while the hardware redundancy will increase the structure complexity and weight. The simplified turbo-shaft model contains the gas generator model and the power turbine model with loads, this is built up via dynamic parameters method. Sensor fault detection, diagnosis (FDD) logic is designed, and two types of sensor failures, such as the step faults and the drift faults, are simulated. When the discrepancy among the triplex channels exceeds a tolerance level, the fault diagnosis logic determines the cause of the difference. Through this approach, the sensor fault diagnosis system achieves the objectives of anomaly detection, sensor fault diagnosis and redundancy recovery. Finally, experiments on this method are carried out on a turbo-shaft engine, and two types of faults under different channel combinations are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnostics is efficient. PMID:23112645

  7. Balancing of a power-transmission shaft with the application of axial torque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorzi, E. S.; Flemming, D.

    1980-01-01

    Evaluation of power transmission shafting for high-speed balancing has shown that when axial torque is applied, the imbalance response is altered. An increase in synchronous excitation always occurs if the axial torque level is altered from the value used during balancing; this was the case even when the shaft was balanced with torque applied. The twisting of the long slender shaft produces a change in the imbalance distribution sufficient to disrupt the balanced state. This paper presents a review of the analytic development of a weighted least squares approach to influence coefficient balancing and a review of experimental results. The analytic approach takes advantage of the fact that the past testing has shown that the influence coefficients are not significantly affected by the application of axial torque. The 3.60-m (12-ft) long aluminum shaft, 7.62 cm (3 in.) in diameter was run through the first flexural critical speed at torque levels ranging from zero-torque to 903.8 N-M (8000 lb-in.) in 112.9 N-M (1000 lb-in.) increments. Good comparison was achieved between predicted and experimental results.

  8. Automatic detection system of shaft part surface defect based on machine vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lixing; Sun, Kuoyuan; Zhao, Fulai; Hao, Xiangyang

    2015-05-01

    Surface physical damage detection is an important part of the shaft parts quality inspection and the traditional detecting methods are mostly human eye identification which has many disadvantages such as low efficiency, bad reliability. In order to improve the automation level of the quality detection of shaft parts and establish its relevant industry quality standard, a machine vision inspection system connected with MCU was designed to realize the surface detection of shaft parts. The system adopt the monochrome line-scan digital camera and use the dark-field and forward illumination technology to acquire images with high contrast; the images were segmented to Bi-value images through maximum between-cluster variance method after image filtering and image enhancing algorithms; then the mainly contours were extracted based on the evaluation criterion of the aspect ratio and the area; then calculate the coordinates of the centre of gravity of defects area, namely locating point coordinates; At last, location of the defects area were marked by the coding pen communicated with MCU. Experiment show that no defect was omitted and false alarm error rate was lower than 5%, which showed that the designed system met the demand of shaft part on-line real-time detection.

  9. [Treatment strategy for posttraumatic complex deformity : After bilateral femoral shaft fractures].

    PubMed

    Ahrend, M; Ateschrang, A; Stöckle, U; Schröter, S

    2016-02-01

    A case of complex posttraumatic deformity after bilateral femoral shaft fractures is reported. Different possibilities for correction in cases of valgus malalignment combined with internal rotation deformity as well as shortening combined with external rotation deformity are presented. Oblique osteotomy and a motorized femoral extension nail were used. PMID:26187430

  10. 30 CFR 77.1904 - Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Communications between slope and shaft bottoms and hoist operators. 77.1904 Section 77.1904 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL...

  11. Fault diagnostics for turbo-shaft engine sensors based on a simplified on-board model.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feng; Huang, Jinquan; Xing, Yaodong

    2012-01-01

    Combining a simplified on-board turbo-shaft model with sensor fault diagnostic logic, a model-based sensor fault diagnosis method is proposed. The existing fault diagnosis method for turbo-shaft engine key sensors is mainly based on a double redundancies technique, and this can't be satisfied in some occasions as lack of judgment. The simplified on-board model provides the analytical third channel against which the dual channel measurements are compared, while the hardware redundancy will increase the structure complexity and weight. The simplified turbo-shaft model contains the gas generator model and the power turbine model with loads, this is built up via dynamic parameters method. Sensor fault detection, diagnosis (FDD) logic is designed, and two types of sensor failures, such as the step faults and the drift faults, are simulated. When the discrepancy among the triplex channels exceeds a tolerance level, the fault diagnosis logic determines the cause of the difference. Through this approach, the sensor fault diagnosis system achieves the objectives of anomaly detection, sensor fault diagnosis and redundancy recovery. Finally, experiments on this method are carried out on a turbo-shaft engine, and two types of faults under different channel combinations are presented. The experimental results show that the proposed method for sensor fault diagnostics is efficient. PMID:23112645

  12. The functional results of tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nail compressed by proximal tube.

    PubMed

    Karaarslan, Ahmet Adnan; Acar, Nihat; Aycan, Hakan; Sesli, Erhan

    2016-04-01

    Nailing of tibial shaft fractures is considered the gold standard surgical method by many surgeons. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate and compare the clinical outcome of tibial shaft fractures treated with intramedullary nails compressed by proximal tube and conventional intramedullary interlocking nails. Fifty-seven patients with tibial shaft fractures, treated with intramedullary nails compressed by proximal tube (n = 32) and the conventional interlocking nails (n = 25), were reviewed. All fractures except for one were united without any additional surgical intervention in the proximal compression tube nail group, whereas in the conventional interlocking nail group, six patients needed dynamization surgery (p = 0.005) and three cases of nonunion were recorded. In the proximal compression tube nail group, faster union occurred in 20 ± 2 (16-24) weeks (mean ± SD; range) without failure of locking screws and proximal nail migration, whereas in the conventional interlocking nail group, union occurred in 22 ± 2.5 (17-27) weeks (p = 0.001) with two failures of locking screws and two proximal nail migration. The proximal compression tube nail system is safer than the conventional nailing methods for the treatment for transverse and oblique tibial shaft fractures with a less rate of nonunion, proximal locking screw failure and proximal nail migration. PMID:26837377

  13. Postural control and torque of the knee joint after healed tibial shaft fracture.

    PubMed

    Karladani, A H; Svantesson, U; Granhed, H; Styf, J

    2001-01-01

    Muscular atrophy occurs as a consequence of trauma and immobilisation. This cohort comparison study was conducted to evaluate the limb function after healed tibial shaft fractures, which were treated by casting versus nailing. Balance (as centre of pressure) and muscle strength (as torque of the knee joint during knee extension) have been measured in 27 patients with tibial shaft fractures with a mean age of 39 (19-73) years, 1 year after fracture healing. Fourteen patients were treated by intramedullary nailing 'nailed group' and 13 by plaster cast with or without minimal internal fixation 'casted group'. Centre of pressure was measured on a force platform. Knee extension torque was measured during isometric and concentric muscle actions by an isokinetic dynamometer. Centre of pressure tended to be more towards the uninjured leg in patients who had been treated by plaster cast (P<0.05). Side-to-side differences for isometric torque were significantly higher within the casted group (P<0.05). Patients with tibial shaft fractures treated by intramedullary nailing showed better postural control, one-leg standing test, and side-to-side differences for isometric muscle strength compared with patients treated by cast. Therefore, we recommend intramedullary nailing as a better method of treatment for tibial shaft fractures, with regard to recovery of muscle function. PMID:11164404

  14. Treatment of Humeral Shaft Fractures: Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis Versus Open Reduction and Internal Fixation

    PubMed Central

    Esmailiejah, Ali Akbar; Abbasian, Mohammad Reza; Safdari, Farshad; Ashoori, Keyqobad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The optimal technique for operative fixation of humeral shaft fractures remains controversial and warrants research. Objectives: The purpose of the current study was to compare the functional and clinical outcomes of conventional open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) in patients with fractures in two-third distal humeral shaft. Patients and Methods: In the current prospective case-control study, 65 patients with humeral shaft fractures were treated using ORIF (33 patients) or MIPO (32 patients). Time of surgery, time of union, incidence of varus deformity and complications were compared between the two groups. Also, the university of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) shoulder rating scale and Mayo Elbow performance score (MEPS) were used to compare the functional outcomes between the two groups. Results: The median of union time was shorter in the MIPO group (4 months versus 5 months). The time of surgery and functional outcomes based on the UCLA and MEPS scores were the same. The incidence of varus deformity was more than 5° and was higher and the incidence of nonunion, infection and iatrogenic radial nerve injury were lower in the MIPO group; however, the differences were not significant. Conclusions: Due to the shorter union time, to some extent less complication rate and comparable functional and clinical results, the authors recommend to use the MIPO technique in treating the mid-distal humeral shaft fracture. PMID:26543844

  15. Experimental study of heat transfer from shaft in cooled radial bearing of GNT-25 gas turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rukhlinskiy, V. V.; Usayev, I. D.; Yermolenko, A. V.

    1984-02-01

    The heat transfer from the shaft in a cooled radial bearing design was studied experimentally in a GTN-25 gas turbine. The basic dimensions of the bearing were 315 mm inside diameter and 140 mm width. This split bearing had two oil feed orifices in the plane of separation and its housing was cooled with oil fed through an annular chamber. Heating of the shaft neck and the bearing housing under operating conditions was simulated. The experimental data have been processed according to methods of similarity and dimensional analysis, the results yielding semiempirical relations for the temperature and the thermal flux at the rubbing surface during laminar and transitional flow. Relations have also been obtained from these data for the hot spot temperature and the friction coefficient at the rubbing surface. The former characterizes the cooling system design and performance, the latter characterizes the bearing efficiency and economy. The results confirm that the effect of energy dissipation in the lubricant on the intensity of heat transfer from the shaft depends largely on the size and the shape of the shaft bearing clearance.

  16. 30 CFR 77.1900-1 - Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sinking plans. 77.1900-1 Section 77.1900-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE... and shaft sinking plans. Upon approval by the Coal Mine Health and Safety District Manager of a...

  17. 30 CFR 77.1900-1 - Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sinking plans. 77.1900-1 Section 77.1900-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE... and shaft sinking plans. Upon approval by the Coal Mine Health and Safety District Manager of a...

  18. 30 CFR 77.1900-1 - Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sinking plans. 77.1900-1 Section 77.1900-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE... and shaft sinking plans. Upon approval by the Coal Mine Health and Safety District Manager of a...

  19. 30 CFR 77.1900-1 - Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sinking plans. 77.1900-1 Section 77.1900-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE... and shaft sinking plans. Upon approval by the Coal Mine Health and Safety District Manager of a...

  20. 30 CFR 77.1900-1 - Compliance with approved slope and shaft sinking plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sinking plans. 77.1900-1 Section 77.1900-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE... and shaft sinking plans. Upon approval by the Coal Mine Health and Safety District Manager of a...

  1. Radon dispersion modeling and dose assessment for uranium mine ventilation shaft exhausts under neutral atmospheric stability.

    PubMed

    Xie, Dong; Wang, Hanqing; Kearfott, Kimberlee J; Liu, Zehua; Mo, Shunquan

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, the roles of atmospheric wind profiles in the neutral atmosphere and surface roughness parameters in a complex terrain were examined to determine their impacts on radon ((222)Rn) dispersion from an actual uranium mine ventilation shaft. Simulations were completed on (222)Rn dispersion extending from the shaft to a vulnerable distance, near the location of an occupied farmhouse. The eight dispersion scenarios for the ventilation shaft source included four downwind velocities (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 m s(-1)) and two underlying surface roughness characteristics (0.1 m and 1.0 m). (222)Rn distributions and elevated pollution regions were identified. Effective dose estimation methods involving a historical weighting of wind speeds in the direction of interest coupled to the complex dispersion model were proposed. Using this approach, the radiation effects on the residents assumed to be outside at the location of the farm house 250 m downwind from the ventilation shaft outlet were computed. The maximum effective dose rate calculated for the residents at the outside of the farm house was 2.2 mSv y(-1), which is less than the low limit action level of 3-10 mSv y(-1) recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) occupational exposure action level for radon. PMID:24378730

  2. An evaluation of spindle-shaft seizure accident sequences for the Schenck Dynamic Balancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bott, T.F.; Fischer, S.R.

    1998-11-01

    This study was conducted at the request of the USDOE/AL Dynamic Balancer Project Team to develop a set of representative accident sequences initiated by rapid seizure of the spindle shaft of the Schenck dynamic balancing machine used in the mass properties testing activities in Bay 12-60 at the Pantex Plant. This Balancer is used for balancing reentry vehicles. In addition, the study identified potential causes of possible spindle-shaft seizure leading to a rapid deceleration of the rotating assembly. These accident sequences extend to the point that the reentry vehicle either remains in stable condition on the balancing machine or leaves the machine with some translational and rotational motion. Fault-tree analysis was used to identify possible causes of spindle-shaft seizure, and failure modes and effects analysis identified the results of shearing of different machine components. Cause-consequence diagrams were used to help develop accident sequences resulting from the possible effects of spindle-shaft seizure. To make these accident sequences physically reasonable, the analysts used idealized models of the dynamics of rotating masses. Idealized physical modeling also was used to provide approximate values of accident parameters that lead to branching down different accident progression paths. The exacerbating conditions of balancing machine over-speed and improper assembly of the fixture to the face plate are also addressed.

  3. EVALUATION OF DEEP SHAFT BIOLOGICAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PROCESS AT ITHACA, NEW YORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The major objectives of this study were to demonstrate the feasibility of the Deep Shaft biological treatment process and to evaluate its application for the treatment of municipal wastewater. A 757-cu m day (0.2-mgd) pilot plant facility was constructed at the existing wastewate...

  4. Numerical modelling of heat transfer in plasma shaft electric furnace at utilization of anthropogenic waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliferov, A. I.; Anshakov, A. S.; Sinitsyn, V. A.

    2009-03-01

    The mathematical model of heat transfer between the counter flows of gas and porous batch of anthropogenic wastes in the working area of a shaft furnace is presented. This model considers chemical transformations in separate batch components and radiation heat transfer between the gas and solid phases. Results of calculations are presented.

  5. "U.S.R.S., Grand Valley Project, Colo. Sprocket, shaft and chain for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    "U.S.R.S., Grand Valley Project, Colo. Sprocket, shaft and chain for 70 ft. roller hoist. May 14, 1915." Note that on this and other working drawings of the roller gates, the German manufacturer/patent holder is not acknowledged - Grand Valley Diversion Dam, Half a mile north of intersection of I-70 & Colorado State Route 65, Cameo, Mesa County, CO

  6. COMPARISON OF RELATIVE EMISSIONS FROM DOUBLE MECHANICAL PUMP SEALS TO OTHER TYPES OF PUMP SHAFT SEALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a comparison of pump seal data from nine petroleum refineries, to evaluate emissions from double mechanical pump seals versus those from other types of pump shaft seals. Light- and heavy-liquid service seals were compared separately. Non-methane leak r...

  7. Roller to separator contact forces and cage to shaft speed ratios in roller bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nypan, L. J.

    1978-01-01

    Cage to roller force measurements, cage to shaft speed ratios are reported for 115- and 118-mm bore roller bearings operating at speeds of 4000, 8000, and 12,000 rpm under loads ranging from 360 to 6670 N (80 to 1500 lb).

  8. 30 CFR 57.19110 - Overhead protection for shaft deepening work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. 57.19110 Section 57.19110 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL...

  9. 30 CFR 56.19110 - Overhead protection for shaft deepening work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead protection for shaft deepening work. 56.19110 Section 56.19110 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND...

  10. A new gasification and melting incineration process of MSW with co-current shaft furnace.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Qi; Zou, Zongshu; Liu, Haixiao; Zheng, Hongxia; Zhang, Lei

    2009-01-01

    In all the municipal solid waste (MSW) disposal technology, incineration with gasification and melting has been taken as a environmentally sound and zero emission technology owing to avoiding second-pollution of heavy metals and dioxin. In this background, a new direct gasification and melting incineration process with co-current shaft furnace is put forward. In this process, MSW and combustion-supporting air are co-current from top to bottom in a shaft furnace. Fuel gas from pyrolysis and gasification burns completely in the bottom in order to offer energy for slag melting. The simulation experiment of the co-current shaft furnace has been done. The results of simulation experiment show that the temperature on the condition of co-current is much higher than on the condition of countercurrent at the bottom of reaction tube and so is the CO2 quantity discharged from reaction tube. It can be concluded that the co-current shaft furnace is more suitable for direct gasification and melting incineration process. PMID:25084404

  11. Winter Lake Breezes near the Great Salt Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosman, Erik T.; Horel, John D.

    2016-05-01

    Case studies of lake breezes during wintertime cold air pools in Utah's Salt Lake Valley are examined. While summer breezes originating from the Great Salt Lake are typically deeper, of longer duration, and have higher wind speeds than winter breezes, the rate of inland penetration and cross-frontal temperature differences can be higher during the winter. The characteristics of winter breezes and the forcing mechanisms controlling them (e.g., snow cover, background flow, vertical stability profile, clouds, lake temperature, lake sheltering, and drainage pooling) are more complex and variable than those evident in summer. During the afternoon in the Salt Lake Valley, these lake breezes can lead to elevated pollution levels due to the transport of fine particle pollutants from over the Great Salt Lake, decreased vertical mixing depth, and increased vertical stability.

  12. Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This detailed view of the Great Barrier Reef, Queensland, Australia (19.5S, 149.5E) shows several small patch reefs within the overall reef system. The Great Barrier Reef, largest in the world, comprises thousands of individual reefs of great variety and are closely monitored by marine ecologists. These reefs are about 6000 years old and sit on top of much older reefs. The most rapid coral growth occurs on the landward side of the reefs.

  13. Visible and Near-IR Imaging of Giant Planets: Outer Manifestations of Deeper Secrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammel, Heidi B.

    1996-09-01

    Visible and near-infrared imaging of the giant planets -- Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune -- probes the outermost layers of clouds in these gaseous atmospheres. Not only are the images beautiful and striking in their color and diversity of detail, they also provide quantitative clues to the dynamical and chemical processes taking place both at the cloud tops and deeper in the interior: zonal wind profiles can be extracted; wavelength-dependent center-to-limb brightness variations yield valuable data for modeling vertical aerosol structure; the presence of planetary-scale atmospheric waves can sometimes be deduced; variations of cloud color and brightness with latitude provide insight into the underlying mechanisms driving circulation; development and evolution of discrete atmospheric features trace both exogenic and endogenic events. During the 1980's, our understanding of the giant planets was revolutionized by detailed visible-wavelength images taken by the Voyager spacecraft of these planets' atmospheres. However, those images were static: brief snapshots in time of four complex and dynamic atmospheric systems. In short, those images no longer represent the current appearance of these planets. Recently, our knowledge of the atmospheres of the gas giant planets has undergone major new advances, due in part to the excellent imaging capability and longer-term temporal sampling of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and the Galileo Mission to Jupiter. In this talk, I provide an update on our current understanding of the gas giants based on recent visible and near-infrared imaging, highlighting results from the collision of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter, Saturn's White Spots, intriguing changes in the atmosphere of Uranus, and Neptune's peripatetic clouds.

  14. Do high school chemistry examinations inhibit deeper level understanding of dynamic reversible chemical reactions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeldon, R.; Atkinson, R.; Dawes, A.; Levinson, R.

    2012-07-01

    unable to use kinetic sub-micro level ideas which will support the building of deeper energetic conceptions at university.

  15. Nitrate Reduction Functional Genes and Nitrate Reduction Potentials Persist in Deeper Estuarine Sediments. Why?

    PubMed Central

    Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Smith, Cindy J.; Dong, Liang F.; Whitby, Corinne; Dumbrell, Alex J.; Nedwell, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are processes occurring simultaneously under oxygen-limited or anaerobic conditions, where both compete for nitrate and organic carbon. Despite their ecological importance, there has been little investigation of how denitrification and DNRA potentials and related functional genes vary vertically with sediment depth. Nitrate reduction potentials measured in sediment depth profiles along the Colne estuary were in the upper range of nitrate reduction rates reported from other sediments and showed the existence of strong decreasing trends both with increasing depth and along the estuary. Denitrification potential decreased along the estuary, decreasing more rapidly with depth towards the estuary mouth. In contrast, DNRA potential increased along the estuary. Significant decreases in copy numbers of 16S rRNA and nitrate reducing genes were observed along the estuary and from surface to deeper sediments. Both metabolic potentials and functional genes persisted at sediment depths where porewater nitrate was absent. Transport of nitrate by bioturbation, based on macrofauna distributions, could only account for the upper 10 cm depth of sediment. A several fold higher combined freeze-lysable KCl-extractable nitrate pool compared to porewater nitrate was detected. We hypothesised that his could be attributed to intracellular nitrate pools from nitrate accumulating microorganisms like Thioploca or Beggiatoa. However, pyrosequencing analysis did not detect any such organisms, leaving other bacteria, microbenthic algae, or foraminiferans which have also been shown to accumulate nitrate, as possible candidates. The importance and bioavailability of a KCl-extractable nitrate sediment pool remains to be tested. The significant variation in the vertical pattern and abundance of the various nitrate reducing genes phylotypes reasonably suggests differences in their activity throughout the sediment column. This

  16. Diving deeper into individual foraging specializations of a large marine predator, the southern sea lion.

    PubMed

    Baylis, A M M; Orben, R A; Arnould, J P Y; Peters, K; Knox, T; Costa, D P; Staniland, I J

    2015-12-01

    Despite global declines in the abundance of marine predators, knowledge of foraging ecology, necessary to predict the ecological consequences of large changes in marine predator abundance, remains enigmatic for many species. Given that populations suffering severe declines are of conservation concern, we examined the foraging ecology of southern sea lions (SSL) (Otaria flavescens)-one of the least studied otariids (fur seal and sea lions)-which have declined by over 90% at the Falkland Islands since the 1930s. Using a combination of biologging devices and stable isotope analysis of vibrissae, we redress major gaps in the knowledge of SSL ecology and quantify patterns of individual specialization. Specifically, we revealed two discrete foraging strategies, these being inshore (coastal) and offshore (outer Patagonian Shelf). The majority of adult female SSL (72% or n = 21 of 29 SSL) foraged offshore. Adult female SSL that foraged offshore travelled further (92 ± 20 vs. 10 ± 4 km) and dived deeper (75 ± 23 vs. 21 ± 8 m) when compared to those that foraged inshore. Stable isotope analysis revealed long-term fidelity (years) to these discrete foraging habitats. In addition, we found further specialization within the offshore group, with adult female SSL separated into two clusters on the basis of benthic or mixed (benthic and pelagic) dive behavior (benthic dive proportion was 76 ± 9 vs. 51 ± 8%, respectively). We suggest that foraging specialization in depleted populations such as SSL breeding at the Falkland Islands, are influenced by foraging site fidelity, and could be independent of intraspecific competition. Finally, the behavioral differences we describe are crucial to understanding population-level dynamics, impediments to population recovery, and threats to population persistence. PMID:26323982

  17. Green Infrastructure Research Promotes Students' Deeper Interest in Core Courses of a Water Resources Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerk, W.; Montalto, F. A.; Foti, R.

    2015-12-01

    As one of most innovative among low impact development technologies, Green Infrastructure (GI) is a new technology that presents a range of potential research opportunities. Inherently linked to sustainability, urban quality of life, resilience, and other such topics, GI also represents a unique opportunity to highlight the social relevance of practical STEM research to undergraduate students. The nature of research on urban GI, in fact, as well as the accessibility of the GI sites, allows students to combine hands-on experience with theoretical work. Furthermore, the range of scales of the projects is such that they can be managed within a single term, but does not preclude longer engagement. The Sustainable Water Resource Engineering lab at Drexel University is engaged in two types of GI research outside the classroom. One type is a research co-op research internship. The second is a selective university-wide faculty-mentored summer scholarship STAR (Students Tackling Advanced Research) specifically designed for freshmen. The research projects we developed for those curricula can be accomplished by undergraduate students, but also address a larger research need in this emerging field. The research tasks have included identifying and calibrating affordable instruments, designing and building experimental setups, and monitoring and evaluating performance of GI sites. The work also promoted deeper understanding of the hydrological processes and initiated learning beyond the students' current curricula. The practice of the Lab's research being embedded into the educational process receives positive feedback from the students and achieves meaningful and long-lasting learning objectives. The experience helps students to students acquire hands-on experience, improves their metacognition and evidence-based inquiring into real-world problems, and further advances decision-making and communication skills.

  18. Helping medical students to acquire a deeper understanding of truth-telling

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Samia A.; Baroffio, Anne; Ummel, Marinette; Burn, Carine Layat

    2015-01-01

    Problem Truth-telling is an important component of respect for patients’ self-determination, but in the context of breaking bad news, it is also a distressing and difficult task. Intervention We investigated the long-term influence of a simulated patient-based teaching intervention, integrating learning objectives in communication skills and ethics into students’ attitudes and concerns regarding truth-telling. We followed two cohorts of medical students from the preclinical third year to their clinical rotations (fifth year). Open-ended responses were analysed to explore medical students’ reported difficulties in breaking bad news. Context This intervention was implemented during the last preclinical year of a problem-based medical curriculum, in collaboration between the doctor–patient communication and ethics programs. Outcome Over time, concerns such as empathy and truthfulness shifted from a personal to a relational focus. Whereas ‘truthfulness’ was a concern for the content of the message, ‘truth-telling’ included concerns on how information was communicated and how realistically it was received. Truth-telling required empathy, adaptation to the patient, and appropriate management of emotions, both for the patient's welfare and for a realistic understanding of the situation. Lessons learned Our study confirms that an intervention confronting students with a realistic situation succeeds in making them more aware of the real issues of truth-telling. Medical students deepened their reflection over time, acquiring a deeper understanding of the relational dimension of values such as truth-telling, and honing their view of empathy. PMID:26563958

  19. Hydrocarbon-Induced Diagenetic Aureoles (HIDA): Indicators of deeper leaky reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Shaieb, Z.; Cairns, J.; Puckette, J.

    1995-06-01

    The Permian redbeds that overlie some giant oil fields in southwestern and south-central Oklahoma have undergone extensive mineralogical and chemical diagenesis. The diagenetic minerals occur within a distinctly zoned aureole that delineates the position of the oil field. The geometries of the aureoles strongly reflect the major structural elements that controlled emplacement of hydrocarbons in the underlying rocks . Calcite, ferroan calcite, manganese-rich calcite, dolomite, ankerite, pyrite and native sulfur are the major diagenetic minerals. The innermost zone of the aureole (zone 1) is characterized by abundant carbonate cementation and generally coincides with a major fault system. Zone 2 is composed of altered (bleached) redbeds with minimal calcite cement. Pyrite cement (zone 3) is commonly associated with the carbonate-cemented zones and is disseminated in some bleached sandstones. Zone 4 represents the unaltered red beds. {delta}C{sup 13} values of carbonate cements indicate 3 major sources of carbon: (1) an organic source with {delta}C{sup 13} values approximately -32 {per_thousand} vs. PDB, (2) a freshwater source with an average {delta}C{sup 13} value of -8.0 {+-} 3 {per_thousand}, and (3) a hybrid source (freshwater and organic). {delta}S{sup 34} values of pyrite average 6.1{per_thousand} and range from -9 {per_thousand} to +16 {per_thousand}. Leakage from deeper hydrocarbon-bearing reservoirs formed shallow petroleum accumulations and contributed to the alteration of the redbeds. Faults were the likely conduits that carried leaked hydrocarbons to the shallow rocks. The development of the oil fields with alteration halos indicate that the HIDA can be used to identify potential shallow oil and deep gas accumulations. Therefore, the HIDA concept can be used in the exploration for oil and gas, especially in faulted structural settings.

  20. Progress report 3 of cooperative program for design, fabrication, and testing of high modulus composite helicopter shafting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, C. C.; Baker, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the third phase of work, the objective of which was to overcome the excessive brittleness of the previously developed UH-1 helicopter tail rotor drive shaft design which demonstrated a shaft train weight savings of 53.1% over the current 2024-T3 aluminum shaft train. A materials impact program demonstrated exceptionally noteworthy performance of two woven constructions containing E-glass and PRD 49-III (designation later changed to KEVLAR 49) fibers in an epoxy resin matrix. Thermoplastic matrices and PRD 49-III fiber provided impact resistance at low weight which was superior to composites having the same fiber in a thermoset resin matrix. A design, fabrication, and test program showed that shaft impact resistance could be improved over the previously developed graphite composite design at a cost in shaft train rate savings. The shaft train weight savings of the most impact tolerant construction was 4.0% over the current aluminum shaft train. Alternating plies of graphite and glass appear to provide substantially greater tube impact durability than that provided by hybridization of the two fibers into one tape wound to a ply design equivalent in strength and stiffness to that of the alternating ply design. Recommendations were made to continue research work to exploit the potential for more impact-durable structures through the use of KEVLAR 49 fiber, woven structures, thermoplastic matrices and THORNEL 50-S/KEVLAR 49 blends with thermoset matrices.

  1. Study of the performance of sealing systems for access shafts in a high-level waste repository

    SciTech Connect

    Saotome, A.; Hara, K.; Okamoto, J.

    1993-12-31

    Shaft sealing in a high-level waste (HLW) disposal system functions to minimize the water flow passage, and retard the radionuclide transport from the repository to the accessible environment. It is important to estimate the radionuclide migration along the sealed shaft from the viewpoint of the design and the performance assessment of the sealing system. This study presents the results of sensitivity analyses on the radionuclide migration in the vicinity of the access shaft of a repository in order to evaluate the effects of the length of a plug, as well as the number of plugs, and curtain grouts. In this study, the upward hydraulic gradient of the groundwater flow along shafts was used, based on transient coupled thermo-hydraulic analyses around a repository. Hydraulic conductivities of the backfill material and the disturbed zones around the shaft tunnels were also assumed to be one order and two orders of magnitude higher than that of the host rock, respectively. The results show that the velocity of the groundwater within the shaft and the disturbed zone is reduced by a factor of one third by installing a few plugs into the shaft filled with backfill material. The curtain grouts have the effect of retarding the radionuclide migration from the repository to the ground surface at a factor of approximately five. A few plug installations have the same effect. The sealing system properly constituted with backfill, plugs, and grouts can provide the same performance, as the original host rock.

  2. [Great moments in renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Ghossain, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    A selective review of some great moments in renal transplantation experienced or witnessed with some of the great architects of this epic. The path was strewn with hazards, sometimes halts or changes of attitude that harmed or helped some patients. PMID:26591188

  3. Great Explorers to the East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rosalie F., Ed.; Baker, Charles F. III, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This issue of "Calliope," a world history magazine for young people is devoted to "Great Explorers of the East" and features articles on famous explorers of the eastern hemisphere. The following articles are included: "Ancient Egyptian Mariners"; "Alexander: The Great Reconciler"; "Marco Polo: Describing the World"; "By Water to India";…

  4. The Great Lakes Food Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Marjane L.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a play for students in grades four to nine that incorporates the scientific names, physical characteristics, feeding habits, interactions, and interdependence of the plants and animals that make up the Great Lakes food web to facilitate the learning of this complex system. Includes a Great Lakes food web chart. (AIM)

  5. GREAT LAKES CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sediments are a significant problem in the Great Lakes basin. Although discharges of toxic substances to the Great Lakes have been reduced in the last 20 years, persistent high concentrations of contaminants in the bottom sediments of rivers and harbors have raised...

  6. What Caused the Great Depression?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Jean; O'Driscoll, Timothy G.

    2007-01-01

    Economists and historians have struggled for almost 80 years to account for the American Great Depression, which began in 1929 and lasted until the early years of World War II. In this article, the authors discuss three major schools of thought on the causes of the Great Depression and the long failure of the American economy to return to full…

  7. Michigan: The Great Lakes State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Sandra Lee; La Luzerne-Oi, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Although Michigan is often called the "Wolverine State," its more common nickname is the "Great Lakes State." This name comes from the fact that Michigan is the only state in the United States that borders four of the five Great Lakes. Also referred to as the "Water Wonderland," Michigan has 11,000 additional lakes, 36,000 miles of streams, and…

  8. Leaping the College-Ready Gap: What Can Be Learned from Schools That Focus on Deeper Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Monica; McGrath, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Learners of all types can see achievement gains when schools remake themselves as centers of deeper learning. This article highlights eight schools that may be pointing the way to how the nation can finally close the gaps for Latino and black students in beginning and finishing college degrees: (1) King Middle School (Portland, Maine); (2)…

  9. Molecular Technique to Reduce PCR Bias for Deeper Understanding of Microbial Diversity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaishampayan, Parag A.; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J.

    2012-01-01

    previously "shadowed" less abundant species available for PCR amplification. These PCR products obtained with and without PMA treatment will then be subjected to downstream diversity analyses such as sequencing and DNA microarray. It is expected that PMA-coupled PCR will amplify the "minority population" and help in understanding microbial diversity spectrum of an environmental sample at a much deeper level. This new protocol aims to overcome the major potential biases faced when analyzing microbial 16S rRNA gene diversity. This study will lead to a technological advancement and a commercial product that will aid microbial ecologists in understanding microbial diversity from various environmental niches. Implementation of this technique may lead to discoveries of novel microbes and their functions in sustenance of the ecosystem.

  10. Deformation Processes In SE Tibet: How Coupled Are The Surface And The Deeper Lithosphere? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitler, P. K.; Meltzer, A.

    2010-12-01

    topography, and the degree to which feedbacks might exist between the surface and the deeper lithosphere.

  11. Observing deeper magmatic cycles from shallow seismic and infrasonic events, Villarrica Volcano, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. P.; Waite, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    infrasonic event and background levels. We then compared our lava lake time series with the frequency of the background infrasonic tremor; high lava lake levels corresponded to higher frequency infrasonic tremor. We attribute the variation in frequency to the changing size of an infrasonic resonator consisting of the entire upper crater, approximated by a Bessel horn. The lava lake levels estimated with our infrasonic resonator match those of the seismic-acoustic delay times. We show that by using a range of seismic and infrasonic attributes, the shallow strombolian activity can be used to infer deeper long-term cycles in Villarrica volcano.

  12. Digging Deeper: controls and response of decomposition in the full soil profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torn, M. S.; Pries, C.; Zhu, B.; Castanha, C.; Curtis, J. B.; Brodie, E.; Jansson, J.; Nico, P. S.

    2013-12-01

    and deeper soils. We are using vertically installed heating cables to warm the soil profile to 4°C above ambient while maintaining its natural temperature gradient. Highly 13C-enriched root litter and DOC will be added to the soil at three depths in Fall 2013 in heated and unheated plots. A comprehensive suite of measurements will be used to quantify the effect of warming and carbon inputs on native soil C cycling in collaboration with development of depth-resolved models. This in situ experiment and concurrent model development will help us predict the response of the whole soil profile to a warming climate.

  13. Estimation of stiffening effect of shaft and housing material outside projected area of a rolling element bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, C. M.

    1977-01-01

    In the analysis of distortions occurring in rolling-element bearings, it is common to neglect the stiffening effect of shafting outside the bearing region. The magnitude of such an effect will be dependent primarily on the bearing width-to-bore ratio, the shaft geometry, and the location of the bearing on the shaft. An estimate is given of the stiffening effect for a wide range of these variables. In addition, brief consideration is given to the parallel situation existing at the outer ring housing.

  14. Cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepods of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Reid, Janet W.; Lesko, Lynn T.; Selgeby, James H.

    1998-01-01

    Historical collections of cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepod crustaceans in the Great Lakes have mainly been based on samples taken with plankton nets in deeper waters (>5 m). Of the non-calanoid copepod species known from the Great Lakes, 58 or 64 live primarily on or in the sediments and rarely are collected in plankton samples. Because of their small size, they are rarely retained in the coarse sieves used to concentrate samples of benthic invertebrates. Thus, the abundance and distribution of most species of these two groups of copepods have never been adequately documented in the Great Lakes. We examined the stomach contents of small, bottom-feeding fishes such as slimy sculpin which feed on benthic copepods that live in deep, inaccessible rocky areas of the Great Lakes to collect some of the material. We also collected in shallow nearshore habitats, including wetlands. We present an annotated checklist of cyclopoid and harpacticoid copepods based on published records and our recent collections in the Great Lakes. We have added 14 species of cyclopoid copepods to the Great Lakes record, increasing the total to 30. Because we probably have accounted for most of the cyclopoid species, we provide a key to the identification of this group. We have added 19 species of harpacticoid copepods to the 15 previously known to the Great Lakes, and suspect that additional species remain to be discovered. In individual lakes, there were approximately as many species of cyclopoids as harpacticoids; the total number of species per lake ranged from 35 to 57. The most speciose genera were Bryocamptus (7), Canthocamptus (5), and Moraria (5) in the Harpacticoida, and Diacyclops (6) and Acanthocyclops (5) in the Cyclopoida. The origin of introduced species, our ability to classify copepod habitat, and the ecological significance of copepods are discussed.

  15. Non-Linear Fuzzy Logic Control for Forced Large Motions of Spinning Shafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LEI, SHULIANG; PALAZZOLO, ALAN; NA, UHNJOO; KASCAK, ALBERT

    2000-08-01

    A unique control approach is developed for prescribed large motion control using magnetic bearings in a proposed active stall control test rig. A finite element based, flexible shaft is modeled in a closed loop system with PD controllers that generate the control signals to support and to shake the rotor shaft. A linearized force model of the stall rig with 16 magnetic poles (4 opposing C-cores) yields stability and frequency responses. The non-linear model retains the non-linearities in Ampere's law, Faraday's law and the Maxwell stress tensor. A fuzzy logic control system is then designed to show the advantages over the conventional controllers with the fully non-linear model.

  16. Flexible Intramedullary Nailing of Unstable and/or Open Tibia Shaft Fractures in the Pediatric Population.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Nirav K

    2016-06-01

    Tibial shaft fractures are common injuries in the pediatric population, and can be treated conservatively the vast majority of the time. Yet, it is important to recognize that open and/or unstable tibial shaft fractures represent a different entity. Rigid intramedullary devices are generally contraindicated because of the skeletal immaturity of these patients, and external fixation is associated with a high complication rate. As a result, flexible nailing is being utilized with increasing frequency. It is essential for the clinician to understand the pearls and pitfalls associated with the utilization of these flexible nails; particularly in regards to their immediate use in the context of open fractures and the risk of compartment syndrome postoperatively after fixation. PMID:27078231

  17. [Clinical experiences in the treatment of humeral shaft fractures with the Sarmiento brace].

    PubMed

    Kulenkampff, H A; Rustemeier, M

    1988-08-01

    13 humeral shaft fractures were treated by Sarmiento-brace. Fracture-bracing is a special conservative traumatological management, that permits early remedial gymnastics. Light weight, optimal cosmetic results and quickly rehabilitation of the injured arm are favorable. Cooperation in gymnastics and controls within short times by the doctor are necessary. All our patients of ages under 45 years achieved nearly normal articular function, that increases 95% in comparison to the opposite arm. External rotation and abduction of the shoulder decreased in elder persons. Loss of function could not be avoided completely in critical cases (upper and lower part of the humeral shaft). Side effects were swelling, angulation deficiencies up to 16 degrees and skin lesions. The rate of pseudarthrosis seems very small. In advanced cases of malignomas pathologic fractures were treated by bracing palliatively. Open fractures, vascular damage, nerve palsy, fractures that cannot be controlled by non operative means and multiple injured patients should be treated by operation. PMID:3176188

  18. Influence coefficients on rotor having thick shaft elements and resilient bearings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Oh Sung

    2004-05-01

    Timoshenko beam theory is introduced for modelling the behavior of shaft. Complex variables are used to represent the displacement, slope, moment and shear force, and the complex transfer matrix between the variables at both ends of the shaft element is derived and the influence coefficients are analytically derived for the general flexible rotor having two resilient bearings at both ends. Modelling and derivation of the influence coefficients are based on the transfer matrix method. Simulated influence coefficients are compared to the results using the finite element method based on Timoshenko beam theory. Simulation of the influence coefficients could suggest the guideline for determining the positions of the balancing and measuring planes and the running speed.

  19. Calibration of positional consistency between mechanical shaft and electronic boresight for radar antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Li; Wang, Dong-wei; Liu, Yong; Chen, Xiao-hui; Liu, Yue-dong

    2015-02-01

    By fixing a glass cubic prism facing an antenna, the positional relation between the coordinates of the cubic prism and the mechanical shaft was measured in a lab for the antenna, and the positional relation between the coordinates of the cubic prism and the wave was measured in a microwave anechoic chamber. The positional relation between the antenna and the wave was used to calibrate the positional consistency between the mechanical shaft and the electronic boresight. The calibration uncertainty was calibrated by analyzing the measurement data collected in the lab and the microwave anechoic chamber. Experimental results indicated that the proposed method could be used to calibrate the positional consistency between the antenna and the electronic boresight of a radar system, and the calibration results are within the accuracy limits for radar antennas.

  20. A New Turbo-shaft Engine Control Law during Variable Rotor Speed Transient Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Wei; Miao, Lizhen; Zhang, Haibo; Huang, Jinquan

    2015-12-01

    A closed-loop control law employing compressor guided vanes is firstly investigated to solve unacceptable fuel flow dynamic change in single fuel control for turbo-shaft engine here, especially for rotorcraft in variable rotor speed process. Based on an Augmented Linear Quadratic Regulator (ALQR) algorithm, a dual-input, single-output robust control scheme is proposed for a turbo-shaft engine, involving not only the closed loop adjustment of fuel flow but also that of compressor guided vanes. Furthermore, compared to single fuel control, some digital simulation cases using this new scheme about variable rotor speed have been implemented on the basis of an integrated system of helicopter and engine model. The results depict that the command tracking performance to the free turbine rotor speed can be asymptotically realized. Moreover, the fuel flow transient process has been significantly improved, and the fuel consumption has been dramatically cut down by more than 2% while keeping the helicopter level fight unchanged.