These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Green Algae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Color photomicrographs of several species of green algae with brief descriptions of their chief characteristics and habitat. Scroll to the bottom of the page to links to bacteria, and more protists including diatoms, desmids and rotifers.

Van Egmond, Wim

2010-01-01

2

Reevaluating the green contribution to diatom genomes.  

PubMed

Photosynthetic diatom plastids have long been suggested to have originated by the secondary endosymbiosis of a red alga. However, recent phylogenomic studies report a high number of diatom nuclear genes phylogenetically related to green algal and green plant genes. These were interpreted as endosymbiotic gene transfers (EGT) from a cryptic green algal endosymbiosis. We reanalyzed this issue using a larger set of red algal genomic data. We show that previous studies suffer from a taxonomic sampling bias and point out that a majority of gene phylogenies are either poorly resolved or do not describe EGT events. We finally show that genes having a complete descent from cyanobacteria to diatoms through primary and secondary EGTs have been mostly transferred via a red alga. We conclude that, even if some diatom genes still support a putative green algal origin, these are not sufficient to argue for a cryptic green algal secondary endosymbiosis. PMID:22684208

Deschamps, Philippe; Moreira, David

2012-01-01

3

Green-Algae  

E-print Network

Chloroplasts evolved through multiple endosymbioses Endosymbiosis has been a fundamental process in evolution, giving rise to cell organelles including chloroplasts (the center for photosynthesis in plants and algae). Primary chloroplasts in green algae and land plants resulted from an ancient endosymbiotic association with photosynthetic bacteria. Subsequent secondary endosymbioses spread chloroplasts of green and red algae across the tree of life (Fig. 1) [1]. Some algae have undergone even more recent, tertiary endosymbioses, while others contain klepto-chloroplasts (temporary chloroplasts acquired from prey) [2]. The algae Dinophysis has klepto-chloroplasts stolen from photosynthetic prey

Jennifer H. Wisecaver

4

Red and Green Algal Origin of Diatom Membrane Transporters: Insights into Environmental Adaptation and Cell Evolution  

PubMed Central

Membrane transporters (MTs) facilitate the movement of molecules between cellular compartments. The evolutionary history of these key components of eukaryote genomes remains unclear. Many photosynthetic microbial eukaryotes (e.g., diatoms, haptophytes, and dinoflagellates) appear to have undergone serial endosymbiosis and thereby recruited foreign genes through endosymbiotic/horizontal gene transfer (E/HGT). Here we used the diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum as models to examine the evolutionary origin of MTs in this important group of marine primary producers. Using phylogenomics, we used 1,014 diatom MTs as query against a broadly sampled protein sequence database that includes novel genome data from the mesophilic red algae Porphyridium cruentum and Calliarthron tuberculosum, and the stramenopile Ectocarpus siliculosus. Our conservative approach resulted in 879 maximum likelihood trees of which 399 genes show a non-lineal history between diatoms and other eukaryotes and prokaryotes (at the bootstrap value ?70%). Of the eukaryote-derived MTs, 172 (ca. 25% of 697 examined phylogenies) have members of both red/green algae as sister groups, with 103 putatively arising from green algae, 19 from red algae, and 50 have an unresolved affiliation to red and/or green algae. We used topology tests to analyze the most convincing cases of non-lineal gene history in which red and/or green algae were nested within stramenopiles. This analysis showed that ca. 6% of all trees (our most conservative estimate) support an algal origin of MTs in stramenopiles with the majority derived from green algae. Our findings demonstrate the complex evolutionary history of photosynthetic eukaryotes and indicate a reticulate origin of MT genes in diatoms. We postulate that the algal-derived MTs acquired via E/HGT provided diatoms and other related microbial eukaryotes the ability to persist under conditions of fluctuating ocean chemistry, likely contributing to their great success in marine environments. PMID:22195008

Chan, Cheong Xin; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Bhattacharya, Debashish

2011-01-01

5

Allelopathy of filamentous green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allelopathy of filamentous green algae (FGA) has been less studied than that of macrophytes. Little Budworth Pool, Cheshire, UK is a small, shallow, clear-water lake with high TP concentrations, very high NO3-N concentrations, only moderate phytoplankton density, high FGA growth (mainly Spirogyra sp.) and no submerged plants. Experiments were carried out to test the possible allelopathic effects of Spirogyra on

Brian Moss

2005-01-01

6

Introduction to the Green Algae  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interesting site on "Green Algae" (a paraphyletic group excluding Plantae) is maintained by the University of California's Museum of Paleontology, and is a central resource for algal information with links to associated resources. Four sections make up the heart of the site: Fossil Record, Life History & Ecology, Systematics, and More on Morphology. Additionally, this well-designed site contains many links to illustrated definitions and additional facts.

Speer, Brian R.

1998-01-01

7

Hierarchical Silica Nanostructures Inspired by Diatom Algae Yield Superior Deformability, Toughness, and Strength  

E-print Network

Hierarchical Silica Nanostructures Inspired by Diatom Algae Yield Superior Deformability, Toughness algae that is mainly composed of amorphous silica, which features a hierarchical structure that ranges in diatom algae as a basis to study a bioinspired nanoporous material implemented in crystalline silica. We

Buehler, Markus J.

8

Hierarchical and size dependent mechanical properties of silica and silicon nanostructures inspired by diatom algae  

E-print Network

Biology implements fundamental principles that allow for attractive mechanical properties, as observed in biomineralized structures. For example, diatom algae contain nanoporous hierarchical silicified shells that provide ...

García, Andre Phillipé

2010-01-01

9

How-to-Do-It: Diatoms: The Ignored Alga in High School Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides historical background, descriptions, uses and basis for identification of diatoms. Explains collection, dry-mount cleaning, and preparation procedures of the algae. Cites additional resources. (RT)

Hungerford, James J.

1988-01-01

10

PPR proteins of green algae  

PubMed Central

Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage: MRL1 is a stabilization factor for the rbcL mRNA, while HCF152 binds in plants to the psbH-petB intergenic region. MCA1 (the stabilization factor for petA) and PPR7 (a short PPR also acting on chloroplast mRNAs) are conserved across the entire Chlorophyta. The other PPRs are clade-specific, with evidence for gene losses, duplications, and horizontal transfer. In some PPR proteins, an additional domain found at the C terminus provides clues as to possible functions. PPR19 and PPR26 possess a methyltransferase_4 domain suggesting involvement in RNA guanosine methylation. PPR18 contains a C-terminal CBS domain, similar to the CBSPPR1 protein found in nucleoids. PPR16, PPR29, PPR37, and PPR38 harbor a SmR (MutS-related) domain similar to that found in land plants pTAC2, GUN1, and SVR7. The PPR-cyclins PPR3, PPR4, and PPR6, in addition, contain a cyclin domain C-terminal to their SmR domain. PPR31 is an unusual PPR-cyclin containing at its N terminus an OctotricoPeptide Repeat (OPR) and a RAP domain. We consider the possibility that PPR proteins with a SmR domain can introduce single-stranded nicks in the plastid chromosome. PMID:24021981

Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

2013-01-01

11

Underwater fertilization dynamics of marine green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the fertilization dynamics of marine green algae with both analytical methods and numerical simulations. In this study, we focused on a new factor, gametic investment per unit volume of the space in which gametes searched for their partners, and compared the numbers of zygotes formed at lower investments with those at higher investments. As a function of the

Tatsuya Togashi; Paul Alan Cox; John L. Bartelt

2007-01-01

12

Intracellular invasion of green algae in a salamander host  

E-print Network

Intracellular invasion of green algae in a salamander host Ryan Kerneya,1 , Eunsoo Kimb , Roger P) and green algae ("Oophila amblystomatis" Lamber ex Printz) has been considered an ectosymbiotic mutu- alism tracts, consistent with oviductal transmission of algae from one salamander generation to the next

13

The Ecological Significance of Sexual Reproduction by Tropical Green Algae  

E-print Network

, herbivory on fertile algae, the nature and timing of gamete release, fertilization success, and zygoteThe Ecological Significance of Sexual Reproduction by Tropical Green Algae Kenneth E. Clifton on numerous fronts, however, the basic ecology of many important groups, includ- ing the tropical green algae

Clifton, Ken

14

Blue-green algae toxicosis in cattle.  

PubMed

Twenty-four of 175 heifers died after ingesting water from a stock pond containing blue-green algae (genus Microcystis) in southern Colorado. Affected cattle were found dead or had signs of nervousness, and were recumbent, weak, anorectic, and hypersensitive to noise when first examined. All cattle died within 3 days after the onset of signs. At necropsy, the rumen contained blue-green algae, and the liver was larger than normal, friable, and dark red. The most important histologic lesion was hepatocyte degeneration and necrosis. Intraperitoneal administration of lyophilized cell material from the bloom caused hepatic necrosis and death in mice, and water from the pond had clumps of cells surrounded by a clear calyx, consistent with the appearance of organisms of the genus Microcystis. Samples of pond water were examined by means of high-pressure liquid chromatography; microcystin-LR, one of the hepatotoxins produced by Microcystis spp, was found. Chromatography may be useful in the diagnosis of blue-green algae toxicosis. PMID:9838962

Puschner, B; Galey, F D; Johnson, B; Dickie, C W; Vondy, M; Francis, T; Holstege, D M

1998-12-01

15

Heterotrimeric G-proteins in green algae  

PubMed Central

Heterotrimeric G-proteins (G-proteins, hereafter) are important signaling components in all eukaryotes. The absence of these proteins in the sequenced genomes of Chlorophycean green algae has raised questions about their evolutionary origin and prevalence in the plant lineage. The existence of G-proteins has often been correlated with the acquisition of embryophytic life-cycle and/or terrestrial habitats of plants which occurred around 450 million years ago. Our discovery of functional G-proteins in Chara braunii, a representative of the Charophycean green algae, establishes the existence of this conserved signaling pathway in the most basal plants and dates it even further back to 1–1.5 billion years ago. We have now identified the sequence homologs of G-proteins in additional algal families and propose that green algae represent a model system for one of the most basal forms of G-protein signaling known to exist to date. Given the possible differences that exist between plant and metazoan G-protein signaling mechanisms, such basal organisms will serve as important resources to trace the evolutionary origin of proposed mechanistic differences between the systems as well as their plant-specific functions. PMID:24614119

Hackenberg, Dieter; Pandey, Sona

2014-01-01

16

Acetylene reduction by nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Known nitrogen-fixing species of blue-green algae are capable of reducing acetylene to ethylene, but acetylene is not reduced by Anacystis nidulans, which does not fix nitrogen. Cycad root nodules which contain blue-green algae as endophytes reduce acetylene. Acetylene reduction is inhibited by carbon monoxide. Nitrate or ammonium-nitrogen has no immediate effect on algae reducing acetylene, but algae grown on nitrate-nitrogen

W. D. P. Stewart; G. P. Fitzgerald; R. H. Burris

1968-01-01

17

Heterotrophic Growth of Blue-Green Algae in Dim Light  

PubMed Central

A unicellular blue-green alga, Agmenellum quadruplicatum, and a filamentous blue-green alga, Lyngbya lagerheimíi, were grown heterotrophically in dim light with glucose as major source of carbon and possibly energy. The dim-light conditions did not support autotrophic growth. The two blue-green algae appeared to have the same metabolic block, namely an incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle, as has been found in other obligately phototrophic blue-green algae. Under dim-light conditions, glucose made a greater contribution to cell constituents (amino acids) of A. quadruplicatum and L. lagerheimii than under high-light conditions. PMID:4994034

Van Baalen, Chase; Hoare, Derek S.; Brandt, Ellen

1971-01-01

18

Steroids from green alga Chaetomorpha basiretorsa Setchell  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Six steroids have been isolated from ethanolic extract of green alga Chaetomorpha basiretorsa Setchell by a combination of repeated normal phase silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 gel column chromatography as well as recrystallization. Using spectroscopic methods including MS and NMR, their structures were determined as ?-lawsaritol (1), saringosterol (2), 24-hydroperoxy-24-vinyl-cholesterol (3), ?-stigmasterol (4), stigmast-4-en-3?, 6?-diol (5), 29-hydroxystigmasta-5, 24 (28)-dien-3?-ol (6). All these compounds were obtained from this genus for the first time and they were inactive (IC50>10 ?g /ml) against KB, Bel-7402, PC-3M, Ketr 3 and MCF-7 cell lines.

Shi, Dayong; Fan, Xiao; Sun, Jie; Han, Lijun; Shi, Jiangong

2008-11-01

19

Photosystem I reduction in diatoms: as complex as the green lineage systems but less efficient.  

PubMed

Diatoms occupy a key branch in the evolutionary tree of oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms. Here, the electron transfer reaction mechanism from cytochrome c? to photosystem I from the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has been analyzed by laser-flash absorption spectroscopy. Kinetic traces of photosystem I reduction fit to biphasic curves, the analysis of the observed rate constants indicating that electron transfer occurs in a cytochrome c?/photosystem I transient complex, which undergoes a reorganization process from the initial encounter complex to the optimized final configuration. The mild ionic strength dependence of the rate constants makes evident the relatively weak electrostatically attractive nature of the interaction. Taken together, these results indicate that the "red" Phaeodactylum system is less efficient than "green" systems, both in the formation of the properly arranged (cytochrome c?/photosystem I) complex and in the electron transfer itself. The results obtained from cross-reactions with cytochrome c? and photosystem I from cyanobacteria, green algae, and plants shed light on the different evolutionary pathway of the electron transfer to photosystem I in diatoms with regard to the way that it evolved in higher plants. PMID:24180741

Bernal-Bayard, Pilar; Molina-Heredia, Fernando P; Hervás, Manuel; Navarro, José A

2013-12-01

20

Parachloroidium gen. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a novel genus of coccoid green algae from subaerial corticolous biofilms  

E-print Network

Parachloroidium gen. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a novel genus of coccoid green algae. Parachloroidium gen. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a novel genus of coccoid green algae from subaerial the Parachloroidium strains from other similar green algae. However, ultrastructural characteristics and molecular

21

The presence and localization of thioredoxins in diatoms, unicellular algae of secondary endosymbiotic origin.  

PubMed

Diatoms are unicellular algae of great ecological importance. So far, very little is known about the regulation of carbon fixation in these algae; however, there are strong indications that in diatom plastids, the ferredoxin/thioredoxin system might play a minor role in redox regulation of the photosynthetic reactions compared to land plants. Until now, it is unknown whether there are fewer or other target enzymes of thioredoxins in diatoms. Only a single potential target enzyme for thioredoxin, the plastidic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, has yet been identified. Nevertheless, during the annotation of the genome of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, we identified several genes encoding different thioredoxins. Utilizing in vivo expression of GFP:presequence fusion proteins in P. tricornutum, we were able to show that these thioredoxins are targeted either into plastids, mitochondria, or remain in the cytosol. Surprisingly, two of the three usually cytosolic thioredoxin h proteins are apparently plastid associated and, together with a thioredoxin reductase, putatively located in the periplastidic compartment. This is one of the few indications for so far unknown enzymatic reactions in the space between the two pairs of diatom plastid envelope membranes. PMID:19825630

Weber, Till; Gruber, Ansgar; Kroth, Peter G

2009-05-01

22

Blue-Green Algae: Why They Become Dominant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The injection of carbon dioxide and the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus to a lake population dominated by blue-green algae results in a rapid shift to dominance by green algae. The basis for the change and its implications are discussed.

Joseph Shapiro

1973-01-01

23

Phylogeny and Molecular Evolution of the Green Algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green lineage (Viridiplantae) comprises the green algae and their descendants the land plants, and is one of the major groups of oxygenic photosynthetic eukaryotes. Current hypotheses posit the early divergence of two discrete clades from an ancestral green flagellate. One clade, the Chlorophyta, comprises the early diverging prasinophytes, which gave rise to the core chlorophytes. The other clade, the

Frederik Leliaert; David R. Smith; Hervé Moreau; Matthew D. Herron; Heroen Verbruggen; Charles F. Delwiche; Olivier De Clerck

2012-01-01

24

Green Autofluorescence in Dinoflagellates, Diatoms, and Other Microalgae and Its Implications for Vital Staining and Morphological Studies? †  

PubMed Central

Green autofluorescence (GAF) has been described in the short flagellum of golden and brown algae, the stigma of Euglenophyceae, and cytoplasm of different life stages of dinoflagellates and is considered by some researchers a valuable taxonomic feature for dinoflagellates. In addition, green fluorescence staining has been widely proposed or adopted to measure cell viability (or physiological state) in areas such as apoptosis of phytoplankton, pollutant stresses on algae, metabolic activity of algae, and testing treatment technologies for ships' ballast water. This paper reports our epifluorescence microscopic observations and quantitative spectrometric measurements of GAF in a broad phylogenetic range of microalgae. Our results demonstrate GAF is a common feature of dinoflagellates, diatoms, green algae, cyanobacteria, and raphidophytes, occurs in the cytoplasm and particularly in eyespots, accumulation bodies, spines, and aerotopes, and is caused by molecules other than chlorophyll. GAF intensity increased with time after cell death or fixation and with excitation by blue or UV light and was affected by pH. GAF of microalgae may be only of limited value in taxonomy. It can be strong enough to interfere with the results of green fluorescence staining, particularly when stained samples are observed microscopically. GAF is useful, however, for microscopic study of algal morphology, especially to visualize cellular components such as eyespots, nucleus, aerotopes, spines, and chloroplasts. Furthermore, GAF can be used to visualize and enumerate dinoflagellate cysts in marine and estuarine sediments in the context of anticipating and monitoring harmful algal blooms and in tracking potentially harmful dinoflagellates transported in ships' ballast tanks. PMID:17277199

Tang, Ying Zhong; Dobbs, Fred C.

2007-01-01

25

Phosphorus-Limited Growth of a Green Alga and a Blue-Green Alga  

PubMed Central

The phosphorus-limited growth kinetics of the chlorophyte Scenedesmus quadricauda and the cyanophyte Synechococcus Nägeli were studied by using batch and continuous culturing techniques. The steady-state phosphate transport capability and the phosphorus storage capacity is higher in S. Nägeli than in S. quadricauda. Synechococcus Nägeli can also deplete phosphate to much lower levels than can S. quadricauda. These results, along with their morphological characteristics, were used to construct partial physiological profiles for each organism. The profiles indicate that this unicellular cyanophyte (cyanobacterium) is better suited for growth in phosphorus-limited oligotrophic niches than is this chlorophyte (green alga). PMID:16345896

Lang, Douglas S.; Brown, Edward J.

1981-01-01

26

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Origin of land plants: Do conjugating green algae  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Origin of land plants: Do conjugating green algae hold the key? Sabina (embryophytes) evolved from streptophyte algae, also referred to as charophycean algae. The streptophyte algae are a paraphyletic group of green algae, ranging from unicellular flagellates to morphologically complex forms

27

Properties of phosphatases from green alga Scenedesmus incrassatulus Bahlin and blue-green alga Synechococcus aeruginosus Nag  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies on phosphatases (acid and alkaline) inSynechococcus aeruginosus, a prokaryotic blue-green alga, andScenedesmus incrassatulus, an eukaryotic green alga under different conditions revealed that the acid phosphatase exhibited maximum activity to pH\\u000a 4·7 and 37°C in both the algae while alkaline phosphatase displayed greatest activity at 37·5°C and 10 pH inSynechococcus aeruginosus and at 10·6 pH and 37·5°C inScenedesmus incrassatulus. TheK

T R K Reddy; R Lakshminarayana

1988-01-01

28

[Competition of two marine diatom algae for urea and nitrate nitrogen under three levels of irradiance].  

PubMed

Biomass dynamics of the plankton diatoms Thalassiosira weissflogii and Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima were analyzed in batch mono- and mixed cultures grown on media with urea or nitrate as the sources of nitrogen, under irradiance 13, 38, and 115 microE/(m(2) x s). At the initial enrichment, nitrogen concentration was 0.18 mmol, and the nitrogen : phosphorus ratio was 5 : 1. The mechanisms of competition for the limiting resource satisfactorily described the interactions between the algae grown on urea. Competitive ability of algae was characterised according to the value of competitive eddect (CE), which was calculated as the ratio of growth rate and accumulated biomass decrease in mixed culture to that in monoculture CE of algae grown on urea increased with the increasing of irradiance and was lower than that of algae grown on nitrate. CE of P. delicatissima was higher than that T. weissflogii, independently of the source of nigrogen and the level of irradiance. At 38 and 115 microE/(m(2) x s) the growth of T. weissflogii ceased earlier than that of P. delicatissima, independently of the source o nitrogen. At 13 microE/(m(2) x s) the growth of P. delicatissima ceased earlier than of T. weissflogii in on cultures grown urea, but the growth of T. weissflogii was the first to cease on nitrate. The competition revealed in experimental communities for the nitrogen of urea between plankton algae gives reasons to suggest that in natural communities plankton algae also compere under inorganic nitrogen deficiency and organic nitrogen abundance. PMID:17205793

Il'iash, L V; Zapara, E V

2006-01-01

29

Photobiological hydrogen production in green algae and photosynthetic bacteria  

SciTech Connect

We have shown that, under appropriate physiological conditions, certain freshwater and marine green algae are capable of splitting water to molecular hydrogen and oxygen in a sustained steady-state reaction. In these algae, the gaseous-fuel-producing reaction can be driven by light throughout the visible portion of the solar emission spectrum, including the long wavelength (red) 700-nm region. No external energy sources are required.

Greenbaum, E.

1986-01-01

30

Chemical composition of the green alga Codium Divaricatum Holmes.  

PubMed

A new sterol, 24-R-stigmasta-4,25-diene-3?,6?-diol (1), along with three known compounds (2-3), was isolated from the green alga Codium divaricatum Holmes, a traditional Chinese medicine, which is efficacious against cancer. All structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and comparison with related known compounds. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography allowed us to confirm the structure of 1. To our knowledge, the compound 1 is reported as the first from natural source, and compounds 2, 4 have not been isolated from green algae before. PMID:20655992

He, Zhizhou; Zhang, Anjiang; Ding, Lisheng; Lei, Xinxiang; Sun, Jianzhang; Zhang, Lixue

2010-12-01

31

Carbon Partitioning in Green Algae (Chlorophyta) and the Enolase Enzyme  

PubMed Central

The exact mechanisms underlying the distribution of fixed carbon within photoautotrophic cells, also referred to as carbon partitioning, and the subcellular localization of many enzymes involved in carbon metabolism are still unknown. In contrast to the majority of investigated green algae, higher plants have multiple isoforms of the glycolytic enolase enzyme, which are differentially regulated in higher plants. Here we report on the number of gene copies coding for the enolase in several genomes of species spanning the major classes of green algae. Our genomic analysis of several green algae revealed the presence of only one gene coding for a glycolytic enolase [EC 4.2.1.11]. Our predicted cytosolic localization would require export of organic carbon from the plastid to provide substrate for the enolase and subsequent re-import of organic carbon back into the plastids. Further, our comparative sequence study of the enolase and its 3D-structure prediction may suggest that the N-terminal extension found in green algal enolases could be involved in regulation of the enolase activity. In summary, we propose that the enolase represents one of the crucial regulatory bottlenecks in carbon partitioning in green algae. PMID:25093929

Polle, Jurgen E. W.; Neofotis, Peter; Huang, Andy; Chang, William; Sury, Kiran; Wiech, Eliza M.

2014-01-01

32

Carbon partitioning in green algae (chlorophyta) and the enolase enzyme.  

PubMed

The exact mechanisms underlying the distribution of fixed carbon within photoautotrophic cells, also referred to as carbon partitioning, and the subcellular localization of many enzymes involved in carbon metabolism are still unknown. In contrast to the majority of investigated green algae, higher plants have multiple isoforms of the glycolytic enolase enzyme, which are differentially regulated in higher plants. Here we report on the number of gene copies coding for the enolase in several genomes of species spanning the major classes of green algae. Our genomic analysis of several green algae revealed the presence of only one gene coding for a glycolytic enolase [EC 4.2.1.11]. Our predicted cytosolic localization would require export of organic carbon from the plastid to provide substrate for the enolase and subsequent re-import of organic carbon back into the plastids. Further, our comparative sequence study of the enolase and its 3D-structure prediction may suggest that the N-terminal extension found in green algal enolases could be involved in regulation of the enolase activity. In summary, we propose that the enolase represents one of the crucial regulatory bottlenecks in carbon partitioning in green algae. PMID:25093929

Polle, Jürgen E W; Neofotis, Peter; Huang, Andy; Chang, William; Sury, Kiran; Wiech, Eliza M

2014-01-01

33

The Future is Green: On the Biotechnological Potential of Green Algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a There are two main players that form the basis of nearly all global ecosystems in converting solar energy to biomass: algae\\u000a and plants. While plants are omnipresent in public discussions dealing with such topics as climate change, bioreactors, biofuels\\u000a and green biotechnology, the role and potential of algae is usually known only to experts. However, algae are present as primary

Werner Reisser

34

Development of Green Fuels From Algae - The University of Tulsa  

SciTech Connect

The general public has become increasingly aware of the pitfalls encountered with the continued reliance on fossil fuels in the industrialized world. In response, the scientific community is in the process of developing non-fossil fuel technologies that can supply adequate energy while also being environmentally friendly. In this project, we concentrate on â??green fuelsâ?ť which we define as those capable of being produced from renewable and sustainable resources in a way that is compatible with the current transportation fuel infrastructure. One route to green fuels that has received relatively little attention begins with algae as a feedstock. Algae are a diverse group of aquatic, photosynthetic organisms, generally categorized as either macroalgae (i.e. seaweed) or microalgae. Microalgae constitute a spectacularly diverse group of prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular organisms and account for approximately 50% of global organic carbon fixation. The PIâ??s have subdivided the proposed research program into three main research areas, all of which are essential to the development of commercially viable algae fuels compatible with current energy infrastructure. In the fuel development focus, catalytic cracking reactions of algae oils is optimized. In the species development project, genetic engineering is used to create microalgae strains that are capable of high-level hydrocarbon production. For the modeling effort, the construction of multi-scaled models of algae production was prioritized, including integrating small-scale hydrodynamic models of algae production and reactor design and large-scale design optimization models.

Crunkleton, Daniel; Price, Geoffrey; Johannes, Tyler; Cremaschi, Selen

2012-12-03

35

Energy transfer from carotenoids to chlorophyll in blue-green, red and green algae and greening bean leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

From fluorescence action spectra, fluorescence spectra and absorption spectra measured at room temperature and at 77 °K of light petroleum (b.p. 40–60°)-treated and normal chloroplasts, it is concluded that: \\u000a\\u000a1. 1. In blue-green and red algae energy transfer from ?-carotene to chlorophyll occurs in Photosystem I exclusively.\\u000a\\u000a2. 2. In green algae and greening bean leaves energy transfer from ?-carotene

J. C. Goedheer

1969-01-01

36

Ecophysiological performance of an urban strain of the aeroterrestrial green alga Klebsormidium sp. (Klebsormidiales, Klebsormidiophyceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aeroterrestrial green algae are among the most ubiquitous members of the microbial flora colonizing aerial surfaces. Filamentous green algae, in particular, produce large populations in several natural and artificial habitats. In recent years it has been shown that the bases of the walls of urban environments are frequently colonized by filamentous green algae. However, information concerning the physiology of these

Ulf Karsten; Fabio Rindi

2010-01-01

37

Xylochloris irregularis gen. et sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a novel subaerial coccoid green alga  

E-print Network

green alga JIR I´ NEUSTUPA 1 *, MAREK ELIA´ S1 , PAVEL SKALOUD 1 , YVONNE NE MCOVA´ 1 AND LENKA irregularis gen. et sp. nov. (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta), a novel subaerial coccoid green alga. Phycologia 50: 57­66. DOI: 10.2216/08-64.1 The phylogenetic diversity of subaerial coccoid green algae remains

38

Photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable chemical feed stock and energy carrier is presented. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective.

E. Greenbaum; J. W. Lee

1997-01-01

39

Biosorption of reactive dyes on the green alga Chlorella vulgaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biosorption of three vinyl sulphone type reactive dyes (Remazol Black B (RB), Remazol Red RR (RR) and Remazol Golden Yellow RNL (RGY)) onto dried Chlorella vulgaris, a green alga was investigated in a batch system. The algal biomass exhibited the highest dye uptake capacity at the initial pH value of 2.0 for all dyes. The effect of temperature on equilibrium

Zümriye Aksu; Sevilay Tezer

2005-01-01

40

A green Paramecium strain with abnormal growth of symbiotic algae.  

PubMed

Some hundred cells of Chlorella-like green algae are naturally enclosed within the cytoplasm of a single cell of green paramecia (Paramecium bursaria). Therefore, P. bursaria serves as an experimental model for studying the nature of endo-symbiosis made up through chemical communication between the symbiotic partners. For studying the mechanism of symbiotic regulations, the materials showing successful symbiosis are widely used. Apart from such successful model materials, some models for symbiotic distortion would be of great interest in order to understand the nature of successful symbiosis. Here, we describe a case of unsuccessful symbiosis causing unregulated growth of algae inside the hosting ciliates. Recently, we have screened some cell lines, from the mass of P. bursaria cells survived after paraquat treatment. The resultant cell lines (designated as KMZ series) show novel and unusual morphological features with heavily darker green colour distinguishable from the original pale green-coloured paramecia. In this type of isolates, endo-symbiotic algae are restricted within one or two dense spherical structures located at the center of the host cells' cytoplasm. Interestingly, this isolate maintains the host cells' circadian mating response which is known as an alga-dependent behaviour in the host cells. In contrast, we discuss that KMZ lacks the host-dependent regulation of algal growth, thus the algal complex often over-grows obviously exceeding the original size of the normal hosting ciliates. Additionally, possible use of this isolate as a novel model for symbiotic cell-to-cell communication is discussed. PMID:21319710

Irie, Kanami; Furukawa, Shunsuke; Kadono, Takashi; Kawano, Tomonori

2010-01-01

41

Signal transduction during fertilization in the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual reproduction in the green alga, Chlamydomonas, is regulated by environmental conditions and by cell–cell interactions. After gametogenesis, flagellar adhesion between gametes triggers gamete activation, leading to cell fusion and zygote formation. Recent studies have identified new molecular events that underlie signal transduction during Chlamydomonas fertilization, including expression of a sex-determining protein, phosphorylation of a homeodomain protein, activity of a

Junmin Pan; William J Snell

2000-01-01

42

Carnets de Gologie / Notebooks on Geology -Article 2006/03 (CG2006_A03) Are the green algae (phylum Viridiplantae)  

E-print Network

Carnets de GĂ©ologie / Notebooks on Geology - Article 2006/03 (CG2006_A03) 1 Are the green algae planet, A.H. KNOLL states that the first documented fossils of green algae date back 750 Ma. However" and of a primitive clade of green algae, the Pyramimonadales. A paraphyletic group of unicellular green algae, named

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

43

Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics  

E-print Network

In the past decade the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular $Chlamydomonas$ to multicellular $Volvox$, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 $\\mu$m to several millimetres), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms.

Raymond E. Goldstein

2014-09-08

44

Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics  

E-print Network

In the past decade the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular $Chlamydomonas$ to multicellular $Volvox$, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 $\\mu$m to several millimetres), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these re...

Goldstein, Raymond E

2014-01-01

45

Antioxidant role of astaxanthin in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The green unicellular alga, Haematococcus pluvialis has two antioxidative mechanisms against environmental oxidative stress: antioxidative enzymes in vegetative cells and the\\u000a antioxidative ketocarotenoid, astaxanthin, in cyst cells. We added a reagent that generates superoxide anion radicals (O2\\u000a ?), methyl viologen, to mature and immature cysts of H. pluvialis. Tolerance to methyl viologen was higher in mature than in immature cysts.

M. Kobayashi; T. Kakizono; N. Nishio; S. Nagai; Y. Kurimura; Y. Tsuji

1997-01-01

46

Production of carbonate sediments by a unicellular green alga  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the ability of the unicellular green alga Nannochloris atomusto precipitate CaCO3, quantifies mineral precipitation rates, estimates sediment production in a N. atomus bloom, and discusses the implications of microbial calcification for carbonate sediment deposition. A series of N. atomus cultures, isolated from Lake Reeve, Australia, were incubated at various pH and calcium concentrations to determine environmental pa-

KIMBERLY K. YATES; LISA L. ROBBINS

1998-01-01

47

The problems of Prochloron. [evolution of green algae  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prokaryotic green algae (prochlorophytes), which contain chlorophylls a and b but no bilin pigments, may be phylogenetically related to ancestral chloroplasts if symbiogenesis occurred. They may be otherwise related to eukaryotic chlorophytes. They could have evolved from cyanophytes by loss of phycobilin and gain of chlorophyll b synthesis. These possibilities are briefly discussed. Relevant evidence from biochemical studies in many collaborative laboratories is now becoming available for the resolution of such questions.

Lewin, R. A.

1983-01-01

48

Green algae in tundra soils affected by coal mine pollutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green algal communities were investigated in clean and pollution-impacted tundra soils around the large coal mine industrial\\u000a complex of Vorkuta in the E. European Russian tundra. Samples were collected in three zones of open-cast coal mining with\\u000a different degrees of pollution-impacted soil transformation. A total of 42 species of algae were found in all zones. The species\\u000a richness decreased from

Elena N. Patova; Marina F. Dorokhova

2008-01-01

49

Hierarchical Silica Nanostructures Inspired by Diatom Algae Yield Superior Deformability, Toughness, and Strength  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A universal design paradigm in biology is the use of hierarchies, which is evident in the structure of proteins, cells, tissues, and organisms, as well as outside the material realm in the design of signaling networks in complex organs such as the brain. A fascinating example of a biological structure is that of diatoms, a microscopic mineralized algae that is mainly composed of amorphous silica, which features a hierarchical structure that ranges from the nano- to the macroscale. Here, we use the porous structure found at submicron length scales in diatom algae as a basis to study a bioinspired nanoporous material implemented in crystalline silica. We consider the mechanical performance of two nanoscale levels of hierarchy, studying an array of thin-walled foil silica structures and a hierarchical arrangement of foil elements into a porous silica mesh structure. By comparing their elastic, plastic, and failure mechanisms under tensile deformation, we elucidate the impact of hierarchies and the wall width of constituting silica foils on the mechanical properties, by carrying out a series of large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with the first principles based reactive force field ReaxFF. We find that by controlling the wall width and by increasing the level of hierarchy of the nanostructure from a foil to a mesh, it is possible to significantly enhance the mechanical response of the material, creating a highly deformable, strong, and extremely tough material that can be stretched in excess of 100 pct strain, in stark contrast to the characteristic brittle performance of bulk silica. We find that concurrent mechanisms of shearing and crack arrest lead to an enhanced toughness and are enabled through the hierarchical assembly of foil elements into a mesh structure, which could not be achieved in foil structures alone. Our results demonstrate that including higher levels of hierarchy are beneficial in improving the mechanical properties and deformability of intrinsically brittle materials. The findings reported here provide insight into general material design approaches that may enable us to transform a brittle material such as silicon or silica into a ductile, yet strong and tough material, solely through alterations of its structural arrangement at the nanoscale.

Garcia, Andre P.; Sen, Dipanjan; Buehler, Markus J.

2011-12-01

50

Intracellular invasion of green algae in a salamander host.  

PubMed

The association between embryos of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and green algae ("Oophila amblystomatis" Lamber ex Printz) has been considered an ectosymbiotic mutualism. We show here, however, that this symbiosis is more intimate than previously reported. A combination of imaging and algal 18S rDNA amplification reveals algal invasion of embryonic salamander tissues and cells during development. Algal cells are detectable from embryonic and larval Stages 26-44 through chlorophyll autofluorescence and algal 18S rDNA amplification. Algal cell ultrastructure indicates both degradation and putative encystment during the process of tissue and cellular invasion. Fewer algal cells were detected in later-stage larvae through FISH, suggesting that the decline in autofluorescent cells is primarily due to algal cell death within the host. However, early embryonic egg capsules also contained encysted algal cells on the inner capsule wall, and algal 18S rDNA was amplified from adult reproductive tracts, consistent with oviductal transmission of algae from one salamander generation to the next. The invasion of algae into salamander host tissues and cells represents a unique association between a vertebrate and a eukaryotic alga, with implications for research into cell-cell recognition, possible exchange of metabolites or DNA, and potential congruence between host and symbiont population structures. PMID:21464324

Kerney, Ryan; Kim, Eunsoo; Hangarter, Roger P; Heiss, Aaron A; Bishop, Cory D; Hall, Brian K

2011-04-19

51

Intracellular invasion of green algae in a salamander host  

PubMed Central

The association between embryos of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and green algae (“Oophila amblystomatis” Lamber ex Printz) has been considered an ectosymbiotic mutualism. We show here, however, that this symbiosis is more intimate than previously reported. A combination of imaging and algal 18S rDNA amplification reveals algal invasion of embryonic salamander tissues and cells during development. Algal cells are detectable from embryonic and larval Stages 26–44 through chlorophyll autofluorescence and algal 18S rDNA amplification. Algal cell ultrastructure indicates both degradation and putative encystment during the process of tissue and cellular invasion. Fewer algal cells were detected in later-stage larvae through FISH, suggesting that the decline in autofluorescent cells is primarily due to algal cell death within the host. However, early embryonic egg capsules also contained encysted algal cells on the inner capsule wall, and algal 18S rDNA was amplified from adult reproductive tracts, consistent with oviductal transmission of algae from one salamander generation to the next. The invasion of algae into salamander host tissues and cells represents a unique association between a vertebrate and a eukaryotic alga, with implications for research into cell–cell recognition, possible exchange of metabolites or DNA, and potential congruence between host and symbiont population structures. PMID:21464324

Kerney, Ryan; Kim, Eunsoo; Hangarter, Roger P.; Heiss, Aaron A.; Bishop, Cory D.; Hall, Brian K.

2011-01-01

52

Phytotoxicity, bioaccumulation and degradation of isoproturon in green algae.  

PubMed

Isoproturon (IPU) is a pesticide used for protection of land crops from weed or pathogen attack. Recent survey shows that IPU has been detected as a contaminant in aquatic systems and may have negative impact on aquatic organisms. To understand the phytotoxicity and potential accumulation and degradation of IPU in algae, a comprehensive study was performed with the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Algae exposed to 5-50 ?g L(-1) IPU for 3d displayed progressive inhibition of cell growth and reduced chlorophyll fluorescence. Time-course experiments with 25 ?g L(-1) IPU for 6d showed similar growth responses. The 72 h EC50 value for IPU was 43.25 ?g L(-1), NOEC was 5 ?g L(-1) and LOEC was 15 ?g L(-1). Treatment with IPU induced oxidative stress. This was validated by a group of antioxidant enzymes, whose activities were promoted by IPU exposure. The up-regulation of several genes coding for the enzymes confirmed the observation. IPU was shown to be readily accumulated by C. reinhardtii. However, the alga showed a weak ability to degrade IPU accumulated in its cells, which was best presented at the lower concentration (5 ?g L(-1)) of IPU in the medium. The imbalance of accumulation and degradation of IPU may be the cause that resulted in the detrimental growth and cellular damage. PMID:23131497

Bi, Yan Fang; Miao, Shan Shan; Lu, Yi Chen; Qiu, Chong Bin; Zhou, You; Yang, Hong

2012-12-01

53

Interaction of organic solvents with the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa  

SciTech Connect

Solvents are often a component of bioassay systems when water-insoluble toxicants are being tested. These solvents must also be considered as xenobiotics and therefore, as potential toxicants in the bioassay. However, the effects of solvents on the organisms being tested and their possible interaction with the test compound are often overlooked by researchers. The purpose of the present study was to compare the inhibitory effects of six solvents commonly used in pesticide bioassays towards growth of the common green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and to examine the occurrence of solvent-pesticide interactions with this organism.

Stratton, G.W.; Smith, T.M. (Nova Scotia Agricultural College, Truro (Canada))

1988-06-01

54

Photosynthetic Hydrogen and Oxygen Production by Green Algae  

SciTech Connect

Photosynthesis research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is focused on hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable fuel and chemical feed stock. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective. From a scientific and technical point of view, current research is focused on optimizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiencies represented by the Gibbs Free Energy of molecular hydrogen. The key research questions of maximizing hydrogen and oxygen production by light-activated water splitting in green algae are: (1) removing the oxygen sensitivity of algal hydrogenases; (2) linearizing the light saturation curves of hotosynthesis throughout the entire range of terrestrial solar irradiance-including the role of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide in optimization of photosynthetic electron transpor;t and (3) constructing real-world bioreactors, including the generation of hydrogen and oxygen against workable back pressures of the photoproduced gases.

Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

1999-08-22

55

Photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae  

SciTech Connect

An overview of photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable chemical feed stock and energy carrier is presented. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective. From a scientific and technical point of view, current research is focused on optimizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiencies represented by the Gibbs Free Energy of molecular hydrogen. The key research questions of maximizing hydrogen and oxygen production by light-activated water splitting in green algae are (1) removing the oxygen sensitivity of algal hydrogenases; (2) linearizing the light saturation curves of photosynthesis throughout the entire range of terrestrial solar irradiance--including the role of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide in optimization of photosynthetic electron transport and (3) the minimum number of light reactions that are required to split water to elemental hydrogen and oxygen. Each of these research topics is being actively addressed by the photobiological hydrogen research community.

Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

1997-12-31

56

Ingestion, assimilation, survival, and reproduction by Daphnia pulex fed seven species of blue-green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daphnia p&x (Crustacea, Cladocera) was fed the blue-green algae (Cyanophyceae) Anacystis nidulans, Synechococcus elongata, S. cedrorum, Merismopedia sp., Anabaena flos- aquae, Synechocystis sp., and Gloeocapsa alpicola. The green algae ( Chlorophyceae) Ankis- trodesmus falcatus and Chlorella uulgaris were used for comparison. Direct observations were made of D. pulex feeding in depression slides filled with the test food. Food labeled with

DEAN E. ARNOLD

1971-01-01

57

A multi-locus time-calibrated phylogeny of the siphonous green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The siphonous green algae are an assemblage of seaweeds that consist of a single giant cell. They comprise two sister orders, the Bryopsidales and Dasycladales. We infer the phylogenetic relationships among the siphonous green algae based on a five-locus data matrix and analyze temporal aspects of their diversification using relaxed molecular clock methods calibrated with the fossil record. The multi-locus

Heroen Verbruggen; Matt Ashworth; Steven T. LoDuca; Caroline Vlaeminck; Ellen Cocquyt; Thomas Sauvage; Frederick W. Zechman; Diane S. Littler; Mark M. Littler; Frederik Leliaert; Olivier De Clerck

2009-01-01

58

J. Phycol. 35, 2434 (1999) THE PHENOLOGY OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION BY GREEN ALGAE (BRYOPSIDALES) ON  

E-print Network

24 J. Phycol. 35, 24­34 (1999) THE PHENOLOGY OF SEXUAL REPRODUCTION BY GREEN ALGAE (BRYOPSIDALES-specific patterns of synchronous gamete release by tropical green algae (Bryopsida- les) invite a variety of future, and color changes asso- ciated with fertility, data on gamete size and behav- ior, and descriptions

Clifton, Ken

59

Biochemical and morphological characterization of sulfur-deprived and H 2 -producing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (green alga)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfur deprivation in green algae causes reversible inhibition of photosynthetic activity. In the absence of S, rates of photosynthetic O2 evolution drop below those of O2 consumption by respiration. As a consequence, sealed cultures of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii become anaerobic in the light, induce the \\

Liping Zhang; Thomas Happe; Anastasios Melis

2002-01-01

60

Rôle of blue-green algae and different methods of partial soil sterilization on rice yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Results of experiments during three consecutive seasons on the rôle of blue-green algae in combination with partial soil sterilization\\u000a and chemical nutrients indicate high responses to algae inoculation and a fertility build-up of the soil. It is also seen\\u000a that blue-green algae tend to produce better response in soils which are poor.

R. Subrahmanyan; L. L. Relwani; G. B. Manna

1964-01-01

61

Cultivation of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae on ammonia-depleted effluents from sewage oxidation ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The data presented represent an initial, limited attempt on a small scale to cultivate nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae on both chemically defined media and low nitrogen sewage pond effluents. The rates of blue-green algal biomass production were low compared to those of green algae. Nevertheless, it appears that cultivation of nitrogen-fixing blue-green algae is possible on sewage effluents where these algae

J. C. Weissman; D. M. Eisenberg; J. R. Benemann

1978-01-01

62

Molecular Characterization of Epiphytic Bacterial Communities on Charophycean Green Algae  

PubMed Central

Epiphytic bacterial communities within the sheath material of three filamentous green algae, Desmidium grevillii, Hyalotheca dissiliens, and Spondylosium pulchrum (class Charophyceae, order Zygnematales), collected from a Sphagnum bog were characterized by PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA. A total of 20 partial sequences and nine different sequence types were obtained, and one sequence type was recovered from the bacterial communities on all three algae. By phylogenetic analysis, the cloned sequences were placed into several major lineages of the Bacteria domain: the Flexibacter/Cytophaga/Bacteroides phylum and the ?, ?, and ? subdivisions of the phylum Proteobacteria. Analysis at the subphylum level revealed that the majority of our sequences were not closely affiliated with those of known, cultured taxa, although the estimated evolutionary distances between our sequences and their nearest neighbors were always less than 0.1 (i.e., greater than 90% similar). This result suggests that the majority of sequences obtained in this study represent as yet phenotypically undescribed bacterial species and that the range of bacterial-algal interactions that occur in nature has not yet been fully described. PMID:9797295

Fisher, Madeline M.; Wilcox, Lee W.; Graham, Linda E.

1998-01-01

63

AIDS-antiviral sulfolipids from cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).  

PubMed

A recently developed tetrazolium-based microculture assay was used to screen extracts of cultured cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) for inhibition of the cytopathic effects of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), which is implicated as a causative agent of AIDS. A number of extracts were found to be remarkably active against the AIDS virus. A new class of HIV-1-inhibitory compounds, the sulfonic acid-containing glycolipids, was discovered through the use of the microculture assay to guide the fractionation and purification process. The pure compounds were active against HIV-1 in cultured human lymphoblastoid CEM, MT-2, LDV-7, and C3-44 cell lines in the tetrazolium assay as well as in p24 viral protein and syncytium formation assays. PMID:2502635

Gustafson, K R; Cardellina, J H; Fuller, R W; Weislow, O S; Kiser, R F; Snader, K M; Patterson, G M; Boyd, M R

1989-08-16

64

Enhanced Genetic Tools for Engineering Multigene Traits into Green Algae  

PubMed Central

Transgenic microalgae have the potential to impact many diverse biotechnological industries including energy, human and animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, health and beauty, and specialty chemicals. However, major obstacles to sophisticated genetic and metabolic engineering in algae have been the lack of well-characterized transformation vectors to direct engineered gene products to specific subcellular locations, and the inability to robustly express multiple nuclear-encoded transgenes within a single cell. Here we validate a set of genetic tools that enable protein targeting to distinct subcellular locations, and present two complementary methods for multigene engineering in the eukaryotic green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The tools described here will enable advanced metabolic and genetic engineering to promote microalgae biotechnology and product commercialization. PMID:24710110

Rasala, Beth A.; Chao, Syh-Shiuan; Pier, Matthew; Barrera, Daniel J.; Mayfield, Stephen P.

2014-01-01

65

Distinct responses of chloroplasts to blue and green laser microbeam irradiations in the centric diatom Pleurosira laevis.  

PubMed

The centric diatom Pleurosira laevis is a large unicellular alga, in which ca 200 chloroplasts migrate toward the nuclear cytoplasm through the transvacuolar cytoplasmic strands in response to blue-light irradiation and, on the contrary, toward the cortical cytoplasm in response to green-light irradiation. We analyzed these light-induced chloroplast migrations using a scanning laser microbeam provided by a confocal microscope for intracellular irradiation. Spot irradiation of a blue laser microbeam induced rapid assemblage of chroloplasts into the nuclear cytoplasm regardless of the spot position and spot number. On the other hand, one or two spots of green laser microbeam induced chloroplast accumulation at the spots, although increasing spot numbers suppressed chloroplast accumulation at each spot. In our experimental condition, ca 1 min of blue-light irradiation was sufficient to stimulate movement, whereas green-light irradiation required uninterrupted and longer irradiation time (ca 15 min). Chloroplast assemblage induced by blue-light required extracellular Ca2+, and was inhibited by Ca2+ channel antagonists. Furthermore, higher efficiencies of chloroplast migration were obtained when a single beam spot was fragmented and scattered over wider area of plasma membrane. These observations suggested that blue-light induced a response at the plasma membrane, which subsequently activated Ca2+ permeable channels. This sequence of physiological events is identical to what was previously observed with chloroplast movement in response to mechanical stimulation. Furthermore, experiments with the cytoskeleton-disrupting agents, colchicine and cytochalasin D, indicated that blue-light-induced chloroplast movement required microtubules whereas the green-light-induced response to beam spot required actin filaments. PMID:17880505

Shihira-Ishikawa, Ikuko; Nakamura, Takanori; Higashi, Sho-ichi; Watanabe, Masakatsu

2007-01-01

66

The Cell Walls of Green Algae: A Journey through Evolution and Diversity  

PubMed Central

The green algae represent a large group of morphologically diverse photosynthetic eukaryotes that occupy virtually every photic habitat on the planet. The extracellular coverings of green algae including cell walls are also diverse. A recent surge of research in green algal cell walls fueled by new emerging technologies has revealed new and critical insight concerning these coverings. For example, the late divergent taxa of the Charophycean green algae possess cell walls containing assemblages of polymers with notable similarity to the cellulose, pectins, hemicelluloses, arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), extensin, and lignin present in embryophyte walls. Ulvophycean seaweeds have cell wall components whose most abundant fibrillar constituents may change from cellulose to ?-mannans to ?-xylans and during different life cycle phases. Likewise, these algae produce complex sulfated polysaccharides, AGPs, and extensin. Chlorophycean green algae produce a wide array of walls ranging from cellulose–pectin complexes to ones made of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Larger and more detailed surveys of the green algal taxa including incorporation of emerging genomic and transcriptomic data are required in order to more fully resolve evolutionary trends within the green algae and in relationship with higher plants as well as potential applications of wall components in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:22639667

Domozych, David S.; Ciancia, Marina; Fangel, Jonatan U.; Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Ulvskov, Peter; Willats, William G. T.

2012-01-01

67

The potential for using cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and algae in the biological control of plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and eukaryote algae occur in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial (soil) habitats. In fact, these microorganisms comprise most of the world's biomass. Although the cyanobacteria are mostly photoautotrophic, some are facultative heterotrophs, capable of growing on certain substrates in darkness. Also, some are non-phototrophic and hence, are obligate heterotrophs. A number of cyanobacteria and eukaryote algae, particularly macroalgae,

Martin M. Kulik

1995-01-01

68

Green Pacific Biologicals Rapid & stable nuclear genetic engineering of eukaryotic algae  

E-print Network

to Investors · Rapid & stable nuclear genetic engineering of eukaryotic algae · WW exclusive license Max Planck's competitive advantage? Rapid & stable algae nuclear genetic engineering Wild-typeWild-typeWild-type GPBStrainGPBStrainGPBStrain #12;Green Pacific Biologicals Organism with high levels of oils Powerful genetic engineering GPB [no

69

Sulfated Oligosaccharides Mediate the Interaction between a Marine Red Alga and Its Green Algal Pathogenic Endophyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

The endophytic green alga Acrochaete operculata completely colonizes the sporophytes of the red alga Chondrus cris- pus ; however, it does not penetrate beyond the outer cell layers of the gametophytes. Given that the life cycle phases of C. crispus differ in the sulfation pattern of their extracellular matrix carrageenans, we investigated whether carra- geenan fragments could modulate parasite virulence.

Kamal Bouarab; Philippe Potin; Juan Correa; Bernard Kloareg

1999-01-01

70

Water purification and recovery of fertilizer materials by blue green algae (Cyanobacteria). Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The object of this research project was to compare the water purification and recovery of fertilizer materials by blue green algae (Cyanobacteria) under thermal and non-thermal or ambient conditions. The thermal tests were conducted in a solar algae growth tank, in which a solar heat exchanger provided thermal conditions of 60 C during daytime hours. 6 figures, 1 table.

2008-01-01

71

Facts about Cyanobacteria (Blue-green Algae) and Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms  

E-print Network

) and Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Blooms (CyanoHABs) Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) Cyanobacteria are bacteria smell bad. #12;2 Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) CyanoHABs are algae blooms, including North and South America, Africa, Australia, Europe, Scandinavia, and China. Cyanobacterial blooms

72

Copper Susceptibility of Three Growth Stages of the Green Alga 'Haematococcus'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three growth stages of the green alga, Haematococcus, were examined to determine their survival and recovery following a 12-hour exposure to copper. Copper uptake of flagellate cells, palmelloid cells, and akinetes was measured by atomic absorption spectr...

N. L. Pearlmutter, M. A. Buchheim

1983-01-01

73

Aluminum bioavailability to the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa in acidified synthetic soft water  

SciTech Connect

A unicellular green alga, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, was exposed to inorganic Al under controlled experimental conditions to determine whether the biological response elicited by the dissolved metal could be predicted from the free-metal ion concentration, [Al[sup 3+

Parent, L.; Campbell, P.G.C. (Univ. du Quebec, Ste-Foy (Canada))

1994-04-01

74

JENUFA GEN. NOV.: A NEW GENUS OF COCCOID GREEN ALGAE (CHLOROPHYCEAE, INCERTAE SEDIS) PREVIOUSLY RECORDED BY ENVIRONMENTAL SEQUENCING1  

E-print Network

JENUFA GEN. NOV.: A NEW GENUS OF COCCOID GREEN ALGAE (CHLOROPHYCEAE, INCERTAE SEDIS) PREVIOUSLY of unicellular green algae from algal biofilms growing on tree bark in a Southeast Asian tropical rainforest: AU, approximately unbiased; BBM, Bold basal medium; CAUP, Culture Collection of algae at Charles

75

Biochemical Basis ofObligate Autotrophy in Blue-Green Algae andThiobacilli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential rates ofincorporation ofsugars,organic acids, andaminoacids during autotrophic growth ofseveral blue-green algae andthiobacilli havebeendetermined. Inobligate autotrophs (both blue-green algae andthiobacilli), exogenously fur- nished organic compounds makea verysmallcontribution tocellular carbon; ace- tate, themostreadily incorporated compound ofthose studied, contributes about 10% ofnewlysynthesized cellular carbon. InThiobacillus intermedius, a facultative chemoautotroph, acetate contributes over40%ofnewly synthesized cellular carbon, andsuccinate andglutamate almost 90%.Intheobligate autotrophs, carbon from

ARNOLD J. SMITH; ROGER Y. STANIER

1967-01-01

76

Bioelectricity generation and microcystins removal in a blue-green algae powered microbial fuel cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioelectricity production from blue-green algae was examined in a single chamber tubular microbial fuel cell (MFC). The blue-green algae powered MFC produced a maximum power density of 114mW\\/m2 at a current density of 0.55mA\\/m2. Coupled with the bioenergy generation, high removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen were also achieved in MFCs. Over 78.9% of total chemical oxygen

Yong Yuan; Qing Chen; Shungui Zhou; Li Zhuang; Pei Hu

2011-01-01

77

Isolation and characterization of phycocyanins from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two main biliproteins c-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin were identified and characterized in the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis. The specific absorbance, fluorescence maxima, sub-unit make-up and amino acid composition of the biliproteins in Spirulina platensis resemble those reported for other blue-green algae. However, the minimum molecular weights (44,000 for c-phycocyanin and 38,000 for the allophycocyanin) and the specific extinction coefficients (73, and

Samy Boussiba; Amos E. Richmond

1979-01-01

78

Production of carbonate sediments by a unicellular green alga  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study investigates the ability of the unicellular green alga Natmochloris atoimis to precipitate CaCO3, quantifies mineral precipitation rates, estimates sediment production in a N. atomiis bloom, and discusses the implications of microbial calcification for carbonate sediment deposition. A series of N. atomus cultures, isolated from Lake Reeve, Australia, were incubated at various pH and calcium concentrations to determine environmental parameters for calcification. Rates of calcification were calculated from initial and postincubation alkalinity, pH, and calcium measurements. Replicate experiments and controls consisting of non-calcifying cultures, uninoculated media, and dead cell cultures were performed using environmental culture parameters determined in series cultures. Average calcification rates from replicate experiments were used to predict daily sediment production rates in a small bloom of N. atomus. N. atomus precipitates 0.138 g/L of calcite in approximately 4 h when incubated at pH 8.5, 14.24 mM calcium concentration, 33 ??C, 100 ??E/m2/s light intensity, and a cell population density of 107 cells/mL. Assuming continuous precipitation, this corresponds to a maximum estimated sediment production rate of 1.6 ?? 106 kg of CaCO3, per 12 h day in a single bloom of 3.2 ?? 109 L. Our results suggest that microbial calcification contributes significantly to the carbonate sediment budget.

Yates, K. K.; Robbins, L. L.

1998-01-01

79

Intracellular ?-Carbonic Anhydrase of the Unicellular Green Alga Coccomyxa1  

PubMed Central

Carbonic anhydrase (CA) (EC 4.2.1.1) enzymes catalyze the reversible hydration of CO2, a reaction that is important in many physiological processes. We have cloned and sequenced a full-length cDNA encoding an intracellular ?-CA from the unicellular green alga Coccomyxa. Nucleotide sequence data show that the isolated cDNA contains an open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 227 amino acids. The predicted polypeptide is similar to ?-type CAs from Escherichia coli and higher plants, with an identity of 26% to 30%. The Coccomyxa cDNA was overexpressed in E. coli, and the enzyme was purified and biochemically characterized. The mature protein is a homotetramer with an estimated molecular mass of 100 kD. The CO2-hydration activity of the Coccomyxa enzyme is comparable with that of the pea homolog. However, the activity of Coccomyxa CA is largely insensitive to oxidative conditions, in contrast to similar enzymes from most higher plants. Fractionation studies further showed that Coccomyxa CA is extrachloroplastic. PMID:9701590

Hiltonen, Thomas; Bjorkbacka, Harry; Forsman, Cecilia; Clarke, Adrian K.; Samuelsson, Goran

1998-01-01

80

Phylogenetic and molecular analysis of hydrogen-producing green algae  

PubMed Central

A select set of microalgae are reported to be able to catalyse photobiological H2 production from water. Based on the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a method was developed for the screening of naturally occurring H2-producing microalgae. By purging algal cultures with N2 in the dark and subsequent illumination, it is possible to rapidly induce photobiological H2 evolution. Using NMR spectroscopy for metabolic profiling in C. reinhardtii, acetate, formate, and ethanol were found to be key compounds contributing to metabolic variance during the assay. This procedure can be used to test algal species existing as axenic or mixed cultures for their ability to produce H2. Using this system, five algal isolates capable of H2 production were identified in various aquatic systems. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using ribosomal sequence data of green unicellular algae to determine if there were taxonomic patterns of H2 production. H2-producing algal species were seen to be dispersed amongst most clades, indicating an H2-producing capacity preceded evolution of the phylum Chlorophyta. PMID:19342428

Timmins, Matthew; Thomas-Hall, Skye R.; Darling, Aaron; Zhang, Eugene; Hankamer, Ben; Marx, Ute C.; Schenk, Peer M.

2009-01-01

81

Toxicity Assessment of Expired Pesticides to Green Algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata  

PubMed Central

In order to investigate the effect of expired pesticides on the yield and growth rate of green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, a study was conducted as per the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline number 201. Fifteen expired pesticide formulations, most commonly used in Indian agriculture, were tested in comparison with their unexpired counterparts. The expired pesticide formulations studied belonged to various class and functional groups: organophosphate, pyrethroid-based insecticides; azole-based fungicides; acetamide, propionate, acetic acid-based herbicides; fungicides mixtures containing two actives—azole and dithiocarbamate. The toxicity endpoints of yield (EyC50: 0–72 h) and growth rate (ErC50: 0–72 h) of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata for each pesticide formulation (both expired and unexpired pesticides) were determined statistically using TOXSTAT 3.5 version software. The results pointed out that some expired pesticide formulations exhibited higher toxicity to tested algal species, as compared to the corresponding unexpired pesticides. These data thus stress the need for greater care to dispose expired pesticides to water bodies, to avoid the effects on aquatic ecospecies tested. PMID:23762633

Satyavani, G.; Chandrasehar, G.; Varma, K. Krishna; Goparaju, A.; Ayyappan, S.; Reddy, P. Neelakanta; Murthy, P. Balakrishna

2012-01-01

82

Toxicity of propargylic alcohols on green alga--Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.  

PubMed

The present study evaluates the toxicity of 34 propargylic alcohols, including primary, primary homo-, secondary, and tertiary alcohols, based on their effects on phytoplankton. A closed-system algal toxicity test was applied because the closed-system technique presents more realistic concentration-response relationships for the above compounds than the conventional batch tests. The green alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, was the test organism and final yield and growth rate were chosen as the test endpoints. Among all the propargylic alcohols tested, 1-pentyn-3-ol is the most toxic compound with its EC50 equal to 0.50 mg L(-1), which can be classified as a "R50" compound (very toxic to aquatic organisms, EC50/LC50 < 1 mg L(-1)), following the current practice for classification of chemicals in the European Union (EU). There are several other compounds including 2-decyn-1-ol, 3-decyn-1-ol, 1-hexyn-3-ol, 3-butyn-2-ol, and 3-hexyne-2,5-diol, which deserve more attention for their possible adverse impact on the aquatic environment, because these alcohols can be classified as "R51" compounds (toxic to aquatic organisms, EC50/LC50 between 1 and 10 mg L(-1)). Compared to the base-line toxicity relationship (narcosis QSAR) derived previously, tertiary propargylic alcohols can be identified as nonpolar narcotic chemicals, while secondary alcohols and primary alcohols with low molecular weight generally exhibit obvious excess toxicity in relation to the base-line toxicity. Finally, quantitative structure-activity relationships were established for deriving a preliminary estimation of the toxicity of other propargylic alcohols. PMID:22105539

Chen, Chung Yuan; Kuo, Kwan-Liang; Fan, Je-Wei

2012-01-01

83

Trails of green alga hydrogen research - from hans gaffron to new frontiers.  

PubMed

This paper summarizes aspects of the history of photosynthetic hydrogen research, from the pioneering discovery of Hans Gaffron over 60 years ago to the potential exploitation of green algae in commercial H(2)-production. The trail started as a mere scientific curiosity, but promises to be a most important discovery, one that leads photosynthesis research to important commercial applications. Progress achieved in the field of photosynthetic hydrogen production by green algae includes elucidation of the mechanism, the ability to modify photosynthesis by physiological means and to produce bulk amounts of H(2) gas, and cloning of the [Fe]-hydrogenase genes in several green algal species. PMID:16328836

Melis, Anastasios; Happe, Thomas

2004-01-01

84

Genomic footprints of a cryptic plastid endosymbiosis in diatoms.  

PubMed

Diatoms and other chromalveolates are among the dominant phytoplankters in the world's oceans. Endosymbiosis was essential to the success of chromalveolates, and it appears that the ancestral plastid in this group had a red algal origin via an ancient secondary endosymbiosis. However, recent analyses have turned up a handful of nuclear genes in chromalveolates that are of green algal derivation. Using a genome-wide approach to estimate the "green" contribution to diatoms, we identified >1700 green gene transfers, constituting 16% of the diatom nuclear coding potential. These genes were probably introduced into diatoms and other chromalveolates from a cryptic endosymbiont related to prasinophyte-like green algae. Chromalveolates appear to have recruited genes from the two major existing algal groups to forge a highly successful, species-rich protist lineage. PMID:19556510

Moustafa, Ahmed; Beszteri, Bánk; Maier, Uwe G; Bowler, Chris; Valentin, Klaus; Bhattacharya, Debashish

2009-06-26

85

Tracing floating green algae blooms in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea using Lagrangian transport simulations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lagrangian particle tracking experiments were conducted to understand the pathway of the floating green algae patches observed in the Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea (ECS) in summer 2011. The numerical simulation results indicated that dominant southerly winds during June and July 2011 were related to offshore movement of the floating green algae, especially their eastward extension in the YS/ECS. An infrequent and unusual event occurred in June 2011: a severe Tropical Strom MEARI, caused the green algae to detach from the coast and initiated movement to the east. After the typhoon event, sea surface temperature recovered rapidly enough to grow the floating green algae, and wind and local current controlled the movement of the massive floating algae patches (coastal accumulation or offshore advection in the area). Analysis of the floating green algae movement using satellite images during passage of Typhoon MAON in July 2011 revealed that the floating green algae patches were significantly controlled by both ocean currents and enhanced winds. These findings suggest that the floating green algae bloom off Qingdao, China and in the middle of the YS and ECS in the summer of 2011 occurred due to the combined effects of recent rapid expansion of seaweed aquaculture, strong winds, and the wind patterns in blooming regions. Our combined approach, using satellite data and numerical simulations, provides a robust estimate for tracing and monitoring changes in green algae blooms on a regional scale.

Park, Young-Gyu; Son, Young Baek; Choi, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Yong Hoon

2014-05-01

86

The biosynthetic pathway of carotenoids in the astaxanthin-producing green alga Chlorella zofingiensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carotenoid composition of the astaxanthin-producing green alga Chlorella zofingiensis was investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography. Astaxanthin, adonixanthin, and zeaxanthin are the major carotenoids\\u000a in this alga. The pigment pattern was characterized during the accumulation period, and in response to diphenylamine (DPA),\\u000a an inhibitor of carotenoid biosynthesis. An increase in zeaxanthin followed by a decrease in xanthophyll was seen after

Yan Wang; Tao Chen

2008-01-01

87

Hyperaccumulation of astaxanthin in a green alga Haematococcus pluvialis at elevated temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary When a green algaHaematococcus pluvialis was cultivated at 30°C, astaxanthin production was 3-fold more increased than at 20°C. With acetate supplementation to 30°C culture, the alga synthesized over 2-fold more carotenoid than without addition. Tiron, a radical scavenger, however, severely blocked the stimulated carotenogenesis, suggesting that endogenously generated active oxygen was responsible for the highly stimulated carotenogenesis. From these

Agus Eko Tjahjono; Yachiyo Hayama; Toshihide Kakizono; Yoshio Terada; Naomichi Nishio; Shiro Nagai

1994-01-01

88

AlgaePath: comprehensive analysis of metabolic pathways using transcript abundance data from next-generation sequencing in green algae  

PubMed Central

Background Algae are important non-vascular plants that have many research applications, including high species diversity, biofuel sources, and adsorption of heavy metals and, following processing, are used as ingredients in health supplements. The increasing availability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) data for algae genomes and transcriptomes has made the development of an integrated resource for retrieving gene expression data and metabolic pathway essential for functional analysis and systems biology. In a currently available resource, gene expression profiles and biological pathways are displayed separately, making it impossible to easily search current databases to identify the cellular response mechanisms. Therefore, in this work the novel AlgaePath database was developed to retrieve transcript abundance profiles efficiently under various conditions in numerous metabolic pathways. Description AlgaePath is a web-based database that integrates gene information, biological pathways, and NGS datasets for the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Neodesmus sp. UTEX 2219–4. Users can search this database to identify transcript abundance profiles and pathway information using five query pages (Gene Search, Pathway Search, Differentially Expressed Genes (DEGs) Search, Gene Group Analysis, and Co-expression Analysis). The transcript abundance data of 45 and four samples from C. reinhardtii and Neodesmus sp. UTEX 2219–4, respectively, can be obtained directly on pathway maps. Genes that are differentially expressed between two conditions can be identified using Folds Search. The Gene Group Analysis page includes a pathway enrichment analysis, and can be used to easily compare the transcript abundance profiles of functionally related genes on a map. Finally, the Co-expression Analysis page can be used to search for co-expressed transcripts of a target gene. The results of the searches will provide a valuable reference for designing further experiments and for elucidating critical mechanisms from high-throughput data. Conclusions AlgaePath is an effective interface that can be used to clarify the transcript response mechanisms in different metabolic pathways under various conditions. Importantly, AlgaePath can be mined to identify critical mechanisms based on high-throughput sequencing. To our knowledge, AlgaePath is the most comprehensive resource for integrating numerous databases and analysis tools in algae. The system can be accessed freely online at http://algaepath.itps.ncku.edu.tw. PMID:24628857

2014-01-01

89

Mosquito control by plankton management: the potential of indigestible green algae.  

PubMed

Most kinds of phytoplankton are good food for mosquito larvae. However, Culex, Aedes and Anopheles larvae fail to develop successfully in water where certain species of closely related green algae in the order Chlorococcales are the main source of food; apparently because the larvae are unable to digest them. Many species of Scenedesmus, Kirchneriella, Dactylococcus, Elakotothrix, Tetrallantos, Coelastrum, Selenastrum and Tetradesmus have this effect. These algae may offer a practical possibility for mosquito control when introduced into mosquito breeding habitats. Introduction of these algae could be assisted by simultaneous introduction of select filter-feeding zooplankton such as Daphnia. PMID:2879045

Marten, G G

1986-10-01

90

The growth and distribution of the green alga Cladophora at Presqu'ile Provincial Park: Implications for management (Ontario)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Green alga genus Caldophora is one of the most abundant kinds of algae worldwide, found in both freshwater and marine environments. It prefers nutrient-rich waters and requires a rocky substrate and water movement for growth. When water temperatures reach 22 to 26 C, the alga dies and washes into shore in large mats. Dead Cladophora produces a terrible odour,

Dolf Craig DeJong

2000-01-01

91

Isolation of plasmid from the blue-green alga Spirulina platensis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CCC plasmid was isolated from an economically important blue-green alga — Spirulina platensis (1.7×106 dalton from the S6 strain and 1.2×106 dalton from the F3 strain) using a rapid method based on ultrasonic disruption of algal cells and alkaline removal of chromosomal DNA. The difference in the molecular weight of the CCC DNAs from the two strains differing in form suggests that plasmid may be related with the differentiation of algal form. This modified method, which does not use any lysozyme, is a quick and effective method of plasmid isolation, especially for filamentous blue-green algae.

Qin, Song; Tong, Shun; Zhang, Peijun; Tseng, C. K.

1993-09-01

92

Chloroplast-mitochondria cross-talk in diatoms.  

PubMed

Diatoms are unicellular, mainly photosynthetic, eukaryotes living within elaborate silicified cell walls and believed to be responsible for around 40% of global primary productivity in the oceans. Their abundance in aquatic ecosystems is such that they have on different occasions been described as the insects, the weeds, or the cancer cells of the ocean. In contrast to higher plants and green algae which derive from a primary endosymbiosis, diatoms are now believed to originate from a serial secondary endosymbiosis involving both green and red algae and a heterotrophic exosymbiont host. As a consequence of their dynamic evolutionary history, they appear to have red algal-derived chloroplasts empowered largely by green algal proteins, working alongside mitochondria derived from the non-photosynthetic exosymbiont. This review will discuss the evidence for such an unusual assemblage of organelles in diatoms, and will present the evidence implying that it has enabled them with unorthodox metabolisms that may have contributed to their profound ecological success. PMID:22268145

Prihoda, Judit; Tanaka, Atsuko; de Paula, Wilson B M; Allen, John F; Tirichine, Leďla; Bowler, Chris

2012-02-01

93

MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ASSIMILATORY NITRATE REDUCTASE GENE AND ITS EXPRESSION IN THE MARINE GREEN ALGA DUNALIELLA  

E-print Network

phototro- phic eukaryotes from freshwater or terrestrial hab- itats. Here, we describe the first NR gene acid level to the NRs from freshwater green algae Chlorella vulgaris (50.6%), Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were much slower than reported in freshwater green algae, which may be related to the size of internal

Ward, Bess

94

[Fe]-hydrogenases in green algae: photo-fermentation and hydrogen evolution under sulfur deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies indicate that [Fe]-hydrogenases and H2 metabolism are widely distributed among green algae. The enzymes are simple structured and catalyze H2 evolution with similar rates than the more complex [Fe]-hydrogenases from bacteria. Different green algal species developed diverse strategies to survive under sulfur deprivation. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii evolves large quantities of hydrogen gas in the absence of sulfur. In a

Martin Winkler; Anja Hemschemeier; Cecilia Gotor; Anastasios Melis; Thomas Happe

2002-01-01

95

The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNAs from a multicellular green alga, Ulva pertusa, and two brown algae, Eisenia bicyclis and Sargassum fulvellum.  

PubMed

The nucleotide sequences of 5S rRNA from a multicellular green alga Ulva pertusa, and multicellular brown algae Eisenia bicyclis and Sargassum fulvellum, have been determined. The 5S rRNA from Ulva is composed of 120 nucleotides, and those from Eisenia and Sargassum have 118 nucleotides. The nucleotide sequence of Ulva 5S rRNA is rather similar to 5S rRNAs from unicellular green algae and higher plants, while those of Eisenia and Sargassum 5S rRNAs are unique. PMID:6835842

Lim, B L; Hori, H; Osawa, S

1983-03-25

96

Genome-Wide Analysis of Tandem Repeats in Plants and Green Algae  

PubMed Central

Tandem repeats (TRs) extensively exist in the genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Based on the sequenced genomes and gene annotations of 31 plant and algal species in Phytozome version 8.0 (http://www.phytozome.net/), we examined TRs in a genome-wide scale, characterized their distributions and motif features, and explored their putative biological functions. Among the 31 species, no significant correlation was detected between the TR density and genome size. Interestingly, green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (42,059 bp/Mbp) and castor bean Ricinus communis (55,454 bp/Mbp) showed much higher TR densities than all other species (13,209 bp/Mbp on average). In the 29 land plants, including 22 dicots, 5 monocots, and 2 bryophytes, 5?-UTR and upstream intergenic 200-nt (UI200) regions had the first and second highest TR densities, whereas in the two green algae (C. reinhardtii and Volvox carteri) the first and second highest densities were found in intron and coding sequence (CDS) regions, respectively. In CDS regions, trinucleotide and hexanucleotide motifs were those most frequently represented in all species. In intron regions, especially in the two green algae, significantly more TRs were detected near the intron–exon junctions. Within intergenic regions in dicots and monocots, more TRs were found near both the 5? and 3? ends of genes. GO annotation in two green algae revealed that the genes with TRs in introns are significantly involved in transcriptional and translational processing. As the first systematic examination of TRs in plant and green algal genomes, our study showed that TRs displayed nonrandom distribution for both intragenic and intergenic regions, suggesting that they have potential roles in transcriptional or translational regulation in plants and green algae. PMID:24192840

Zhao, Zhixin; Guo, Cheng; Sutharzan, Sreeskandarajan; Li, Pei; Echt, Craig S.; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Chun

2013-01-01

97

Genome-wide analysis of tandem repeats in plants and green algae.  

PubMed

Tandem repeats (TRs) extensively exist in the genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Based on the sequenced genomes and gene annotations of 31 plant and algal species in Phytozome version 8.0 (http://www.phytozome.net/), we examined TRs in a genome-wide scale, characterized their distributions and motif features, and explored their putative biological functions. Among the 31 species, no significant correlation was detected between the TR density and genome size. Interestingly, green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (42,059 bp/Mbp) and castor bean Ricinus communis (55,454 bp/Mbp) showed much higher TR densities than all other species (13,209 bp/Mbp on average). In the 29 land plants, including 22 dicots, 5 monocots, and 2 bryophytes, 5'-UTR and upstream intergenic 200-nt (UI200) regions had the first and second highest TR densities, whereas in the two green algae (C. reinhardtii and Volvox carteri) the first and second highest densities were found in intron and coding sequence (CDS) regions, respectively. In CDS regions, trinucleotide and hexanucleotide motifs were those most frequently represented in all species. In intron regions, especially in the two green algae, significantly more TRs were detected near the intron-exon junctions. Within intergenic regions in dicots and monocots, more TRs were found near both the 5' and 3' ends of genes. GO annotation in two green algae revealed that the genes with TRs in introns are significantly involved in transcriptional and translational processing. As the first systematic examination of TRs in plant and green algal genomes, our study showed that TRs displayed nonrandom distribution for both intragenic and intergenic regions, suggesting that they have potential roles in transcriptional or translational regulation in plants and green algae. PMID:24192840

Zhao, Zhixin; Guo, Cheng; Sutharzan, Sreeskandarajan; Li, Pei; Echt, Craig S; Zhang, Jie; Liang, Chun

2014-01-01

98

Extraction and physico-chemical characterization of a versatile biodegradable polysaccharide obtained from green algae.  

PubMed

During the last years, considerable attention has been given to different marine organisms, like algae, as potential sources of valuable materials. The continuous demand for novel materials and technologies is high and research on the underexploited marine green algae, including its polysaccharidic part-ulvan, has increased accordingly. In this research work, a novel method for extraction of ulvan from green algae is proposed and demonstrated successfully. Different characterization techniques were employed to characterize the isolated algal polysaccharide, namely, on what concerns its thermal trace and crystallinity. Upon heating, ulvan behaves as a non-meltable polysaccharide that is thermally stable before degradation at 220°C. Ulvan is semi-crystalline in nature and possesses high hygroscopic features, as revealed in this research work. Due to its properties, ulvan can be considered, pure or modified, as a versatile biodegradable polymer for different applications, including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:20800225

Alves, Anabela; Caridade, Sofia G; Mano, Joăo F; Sousa, Rui A; Reis, Rui L

2010-10-13

99

Effects of p-Cresol on photosynthetic and respiration rates of a filamentous green alga (spirogyra)  

SciTech Connect

The effects of spilled phenols and cresols from coal gasification plants on the green alga SPIROYRA was investigated in experimental streams built by the US EPA near Monticello, Minnesota. P-Cresol at low concentrations inhibited photosynthesis and increased algal respiration rates. (JMT)

Stout, J. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing); Kilham, S.S.

1983-01-01

100

Fatty acid composition and physiological properties of some filamentous blue-green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fatty acids of 32 axenic strains of filamentous blue-green algae have been analyzed. As an aid to the interpretation of the results, the strains have been assigned to provisional typological groups based upon their morphology and certain physiological characters. The latter are the ability to grow heterotrophically in the dark with glucose as carbon and energy source, the ability

C. N. Kenyon; R. Rippka; R. Y. Stanier

1972-01-01

101

The influence of phylogenetic relatedness on species interactions among freshwater green algae  

E-print Network

measured its invasion success when introduced into a steady-state population of another resident species distance separating two interacting species and the success of invasion, nor the prevalence or strengthThe influence of phylogenetic relatedness on species interactions among freshwater green algae

Cardinale, Bradley J.

102

THE EFFECTS OF ISOPROPYL N-PHENYL CARBAMATE ON THE GREEN ALGA OEDOGONIUM CARDIACUM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell division in vegetative filaments of the green alga Oedogonium cardiacum is presented as an experimental system. We report on how we have used this system to study the effects of isopropyl N-phenylcarbamat e (IPC) on the mitotic apparatus and on the phycoplast, a planar array of cytokinetic microtubules. Polymerization of microtubules was prevented when filaments, synchronized by a light\\/dark

RONALD A. COSS; JEREMY D. PICKETT-HEAPS

103

Gametic behavior in a marine green alga, Monostroma angicava : an effect of phototaxis on mating efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The role of phototactic behavior of gametes was tested experimentally in the slightly anisogamous marine green alga Monostroma angicava Kjellman, and the effect of phototaxis on mating efficiency was discovered. Both male and female gametes showed positive\\u000a phototaxis in response to a white light source. In contrast, they did not respond to a red light source. Their swimming velocity

Tatsuya Togashi; Taizo Motomura; Terunobu Ichimura; Paul Alan Cox

1999-01-01

104

Original article Fermentation of green alga sea-lettuce (Ulva sp)  

E-print Network

Original article Fermentation of green alga sea-lettuce (Ulva sp) and metabolism of its sulphate). The purpose of this study was to assess the fermentation characteristics and sulphate metabolism of Ulva fermentable polysaccharides, such as algal xylan and resistant starch, though decreasing the ammonia

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

105

Identification and subcellular localization of starch-metabolizing enzymes in the green alga Dunaliella marina  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enzymes of starch synthesis and degradation were identified in crude extracts of the unicellular green alga Dunaliella marina (Volvocales). By polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and specific staining for enzyme activities, 4 multiple forms of starch synthase, 2 amylases, and at least 2 forms of a-glucan phosphorylase were visible. Using specific a-glucans incorporated into the gel before electrophoresis we have tentatively correlated

Erich Kombrink; Günter Wöber

1980-01-01

106

Enzymatic conversion of ?-carotene to astaxanthin by cell-extracts of a green alga Haematococcus pluvialis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astaxanthin was synthesized from ?-carotene by the membrane-bound enzyme fraction prepared from a unicellular green alga Haematococcus\\u000a pluvialis. Zeaxanthin was identified as one of the possible intermediates. NADPH addition and O2 supply were essential for the conversion. A monooxygenase inhibitor, tetcyclacis blocked the astaxanthin formation.

Namthip Chumpolkulwong; Toshihide Kakizono; Hiroko Ishii

1997-01-01

107

Abscisic acid-dependent algal morphogenesis in the unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the physiological role of abscisic acid (ABA) in the unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, we investigated the effect of ABA on both algal morphogenesis and carotenogenesis in liquid and plate cultures. When ABA was added to vegetative cells of H. pluvialis, red mature cyst cells with enhanced carotenogenesis rapidly appeared on agar plates in Petri dishes. We considered

Makio Kobayashi; Nobuhiro Hirai; Yoshiro Kurimura; Hajime Ohigashi; Yasunobu Tsuji

1997-01-01

108

A NOVEL FACULTATIVE MUTUALISTIC RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BUFONID TADPOLES AND FLAGELLATED GREEN ALGAE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variable environments can produce intolerable conditions for certain species. In some cases, survival is assured by fortuitous mutualistic interactions. We show that the critical thermal maximum (CTM) for Bufo tadpoles is increased when the green alga Chlorogonium aggregates on their skins in warm ephemeral pools. The congregation of Chlorogonium may have been a response toward a source of otherwise limiting

RENN TUMLISON; STANLEY E. TRAUTH

2006-01-01

109

Phycobilisomes from blue-green and red algae: isolation criteria and dissociation characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general procedure for the isolation of functionally intact phycobilisomes was devised, based on modifications of previously used procedures. It has been successful with numerous species of red and blue-green algae (Anabaena variabilis, Anacystis nidulans, Agmenellum quadruplicatum, Fremyella diplosiphon, Glaucosphaera vacuolata, Griffithsia pacifica, Nemalion multifidum, Nostoc sp., Phormidium persicinum, Porphyridium cruentum, P. sordidum, P. aerugineum, Rhodosorus marinus). Isolation was carried

E. Gantt; C. A. Lipschultz; J. Grabowski; B. K. Zimmerman

1979-01-01

110

Stt7-dependent Phosphorylation during State Transitions in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas  

E-print Network

photochemical reactions of photosynthesis are catalyzed by the pigment-protein complexes photosystem II (PSII)1Stt7-dependent Phosphorylation during State Transitions in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii organisms are able to adapt to changes in light conditions by balancing the light excitation energy between

Halazonetis, Thanos

111

GUIDE TO THE IDENTIFICATION, ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS AND POLLUTION TOLERANCE OF FRESHWATER BLUE-GREEN ALGAE (CYANOPHYTA)  

EPA Science Inventory

An illustrated key to 42 genera and 161 species of Blue-green algae is provided. Information on the environmental requirements and pollution tolerance of these species was compiled from 430 references and summarized on profile sheets. It is suggested that this information be empl...

112

Evidence for genetic transformation in blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence has been presented that blue-green alga Anacystic nidulans can undergo genetic transformation. DNA from erythromycin-, streptomycin-resistant of filamentous strains has been found to transform appropriate markers to a wild type or some other recipients. Favourable conditions for transformation have been described with respect to the revealing of transformants, the concentration of DNA and the competence of cells.

S. V. Shestakov; Nguyen Than Khyen

1970-01-01

113

Toxicity and binding of copper, zinc, and cadmium by the blue-green alga, Chroococcus paris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxic effects and accumulation of the heavy metals, Cd, Cu, and Zn by the sheath forming blue-green alga Chroococcus paris were investigated. All three of the metals were bound rapidly. Approximately 90% of the total amount of the added metal was bound within 1 min. Further significant binding occurred at a slower rate. The maximum metal binding capacity, as

Albin Les; Robert W. Walker

1984-01-01

114

Final technical report [Molecular genetic analysis of biophotolytic hydrogen production in green algae  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project was to identify genes necessary for biophotolytic hydrogen production in green algae, using Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as an experimental organism. The main strategy was to isolate mutants that are selectively deficient in hydrogen production and to genetically map, physically isolate, and ultimately sequence the affected genes.

Mets, Laurens

2000-12-31

115

Microelement composition of the green alga Ulva fenestrata from Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of heavy metals Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, and Ni were determined in the thalluses of the green alga Ulva fenestrata sampled from different locations in Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan). According to the metal concentrations in Ulva, the degree of pollution of the surveyed areas in Peter the Great Bay decreases in the following series:

S. I. Kozhenkova; E. N. Chernova; V. M. Shulkin

2006-01-01

116

Oleosin of Subcellular Lipid Droplets Evolved in Green Algae1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

In primitive and higher plants, intracellular storage lipid droplets (LDs) of triacylglycerols are stabilized with a surface layer of phospholipids and oleosin. In chlorophytes (green algae), a protein termed major lipid-droplet protein (MLDP) rather than oleosin on LDs was recently reported. We explored whether MLDP was present directly on algal LDs and whether algae had oleosin genes and oleosins. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that MLDP in the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was associated with endoplasmic reticulum subdomains adjacent to but not directly on LDs. In C. reinhardtii, low levels of a transcript encoding an oleosin-like protein (oleolike) in zygotes-tetrads and a transcript encoding oleosin in vegetative cells transferred to an acetate-enriched medium were found in transcriptomes and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The C. reinhardtii LD fraction contained minimal proteins with no detectable oleolike or oleosin. Several charophytes (advanced green algae) possessed low levels of transcripts encoding oleosin but not oleolike. In the charophyte Spirogyra grevilleana, levels of oleosin transcripts increased greatly in cells undergoing conjugation for zygote formation, and the LD fraction from these cells contained minimal proteins, two of which were oleosins identified via proteomics. Because the minimal oleolike and oleosins in algae were difficult to detect, we tested their subcellular locations in Physcomitrella patens transformed with the respective algal genes tagged with a Green Fluorescent Protein gene and localized the algal proteins on P. patens LDs. Overall, oleosin genes having weak and cell/development-specific expression were present in green algae. We present a hypothesis for the evolution of oleosins from algae to plants. PMID:23391579

Huang, Nan-Lan; Huang, Ming-Der; Chen, Tung-Ling L.; Huang, Anthony H.C.

2013-01-01

117

Gain and loss of polyadenylation signals during evolution of green algae  

PubMed Central

Background The Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants) consist of two monophyletic lineages: the Chlorophyta and the Streptophyta. Most green algae belong to the Chlorophyta, while the Streptophyta include all land plants and a small group of freshwater algae known as Charophyceae. Eukaryotes attach a poly-A tail to the 3' ends of most nuclear-encoded mRNAs. In embryophytes, animals and fungi, the signal for polyadenylation contains an A-rich sequence (often AAUAAA or related sequence) 13 to 30 nucleotides upstream from the cleavage site, which is commonly referred to as the near upstream element (NUE). However, it has been reported that the pentanucleotide UGUAA is used as polyadenylation signal for some genes in volvocalean algae. Results We set out to investigate polyadenylation signal differences between streptophytes and chlorophytes that may have emerged shortly after the evolutionary split between Streptophyta and Chlorophyta. We therefore analyzed expressed genes (ESTs) from three streptophyte algae, Mesostigma viride, Klebsormidium subtile and Coleochaete scutata, and from two early-branching chlorophytes, Pyramimonas parkeae and Scherffelia dubia. In addition, to extend the database, our analyses included ESTs from six other chlorophytes (Acetabularia acetabulum, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Helicosporidium sp. ex Simulium jonesii, Prototheca wickerhamii, Scenedesmus obliquus and Ulva linza) and one streptophyte (Closterium peracerosum). Our results indicate that polyadenylation signals in green algae vary widely. The UGUAA motif is confined to late-branching Chlorophyta. Most streptophyte algae do not have an A-rich sequence motif like that in embryophytes, animals and fungi. We observed polyadenylation signals similar to those of Arabidopsis and other land plants only in Mesostigma. Conclusion Polyadenylation signals in green algae show considerable variation. A new NUE (UGUAA) was invented in derived chlorophytes and replaced not only the A-rich NUE but the complete poly(A) signal in all chlorophytes investigated except Scherffelia (only NUE replaced) and Pyramimonas (UGUAA completely missing). The UGUAA element is completely absent from streptophytes. However, the structure of the poly(A) signal was often modified in streptophyte algae. In most species investigated, an A-rich NUE is missing; instead, these species seem to rely mainly on U-rich elements. PMID:17442103

Wodniok, Sabina; Simon, Andreas; Glockner, Gernot; Becker, Burkhard

2007-01-01

118

Origin of land plants: Do conjugating green algae hold the key?  

PubMed Central

Background The terrestrial habitat was colonized by the ancestors of modern land plants about 500 to 470 million years ago. Today it is widely accepted that land plants (embryophytes) evolved from streptophyte algae, also referred to as charophycean algae. The streptophyte algae are a paraphyletic group of green algae, ranging from unicellular flagellates to morphologically complex forms such as the stoneworts (Charales). For a better understanding of the evolution of land plants, it is of prime importance to identify the streptophyte algae that are the sister-group to the embryophytes. The Charales, the Coleochaetales or more recently the Zygnematales have been considered to be the sister group of the embryophytes However, despite many years of phylogenetic studies, this question has not been resolved and remains controversial. Results Here, we use a large data set of nuclear-encoded genes (129 proteins) from 40 green plant taxa (Viridiplantae) including 21 embryophytes and six streptophyte algae, representing all major streptophyte algal lineages, to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of streptophyte algae and embryophytes. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that either the Zygnematales or a clade consisting of the Zygnematales and the Coleochaetales are the sister group to embryophytes. Conclusions Our analyses support the notion that the Charales are not the closest living relatives of embryophytes. Instead, the Zygnematales or a clade consisting of Zygnematales and Coleochaetales are most likely the sister group of embryophytes. Although this result is in agreement with a previously published phylogenetic study of chloroplast genomes, additional data are needed to confirm this conclusion. A Zygnematales/embryophyte sister group relationship has important implications for early land plant evolution. If substantiated, it should allow us to address important questions regarding the primary adaptations of viridiplants during the conquest of land. Clearly, the biology of the Zygnematales will receive renewed interest in the future. PMID:21501468

2011-01-01

119

Characterization of a corrinoid compound in the edible (blue-green) alga, Suizenji-nori.  

PubMed

The edible blue-green alga (cyanobacterium), Suizenji-nori, contained 143.8+/-22.4 microg of vitamin B(12) per 100 g dry weight of the alga (mean+/-SE, n=4). A corrinoid compound was purified from the dried Suizenji-nori, and partially characterized. The silica gel 60 TLC and reversed-phase HPLC patterns of the purified corrinoid compound were not identical to those of true vitamin B(12), but to those of pseudovitamin B(12) which is inactive for humans. PMID:17151457

Watanabe, Fumio; Miyamoto, Emi; Fujita, Tomoyuki; Tanioka, Yuri; Nakano, Yoshihisa

2006-12-01

120

Chemical composition, protein digestibility and heat of combustion of filamentous green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The filamentous green algae investigated (Hormidium sp. strainHindák 1963\\/21,Ulothrix sp. strainHindák 1964\\/2,Uronema gigas\\u000a Visch. strainVischer\\/Bloom. 174,Uronema sp. strainHindák 1963\\/25 andStigeoclonium sp. strainHindák 1964\\/1), contain similar amounts of proteins, lipids, cellulose and ash as the hitherto used production strains of the generaChlorella andScenedesmus. The digestibility of proteins in vitro is about one-third higher in the filamentous algae than in the employed

F. Hindák; S. P?ibil

1968-01-01

121

[Evolutional relationships of endemic green algae Draparnaldioides simplex from Lake Baikal with nonbaicalian taxa of family Chaetoforaceae (Chlorophyta)].  

PubMed

Phylogenetic relationships between the endemic baicalian green algae Draparnaldioides simplex C. meyer et Skabitsch, 1976 and holarctic taxa of green algae were studied using the fragment of 18S rDNA and internal transcribed spacers ITS1 and ITS2 of nuclear DNA. We showed that the baicalian genus Draparnaldioides is a separate taxon. The genetic difference between Draparnaldioides and nonbaicalian taxa of the sister groups of the green algae are small enough to indicate relative youth of the genus Draparnaldioides and its recent radiation from a common ancestor with Draparnaldia and Chaetophora. PMID:23705507

Mincheva, E V; Peretolchina, T E; Izhboldina, L A; Kravtsova, L S; Shcherbakov, D Iu

2013-01-01

122

The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of Nephroselmis olivacea and Pedinomonas minor. Two radically different evolutionary patterns within green algae.  

PubMed Central

Green plants appear to comprise two sister lineages, Chlorophyta (classes Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, and Prasinophyceae) and Streptophyta (Charophyceae and Embryophyta, or land plants). To gain insight into the nature of the ancestral green plant mitochondrial genome, we have sequenced the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Nephroselmis olivacea and Pedinomonas minor. These two green algae are presumptive members of the Prasinophyceae. This class is thought to include descendants of the earliest diverging green algae. We find that Nephroselmis and Pedinomonas mtDNAs differ markedly in size, gene content, and gene organization. Of the green algal mtDNAs sequenced so far, that of Nephroselmis (45,223 bp) is the most ancestral (minimally diverged) and occupies the phylogenetically most basal position within the Chlorophyta. Its repertoire of 69 genes closely resembles that in the mtDNA of Prototheca wickerhamii, a later diverging trebouxiophycean green alga. Three of the Nephroselmis genes (nad10, rpl14, and rnpB) have not been identified in previously sequenced mtDNAs of green algae and land plants. In contrast, the 25,137-bp Pedinomonas mtDNA contains only 22 genes and retains few recognizably ancestral features. In several respects, including gene content and rate of sequence divergence, Pedinomonas mtDNA resembles the reduced mtDNAs of chlamydomonad algae, with which it is robustly affiliated in phylogenetic analyses. Our results confirm the existence of two radically different patterns of mitochondrial genome evolution within the green algae. PMID:10488238

Turmel, M; Lemieux, C; Burger, G; Lang, B F; Otis, C; Plante, I; Gray, M W

1999-01-01

123

MACROALGAL VOLUME: A SURROGATE FOR BIOMASS IN SOME GREEN ALGAE  

EPA Science Inventory

Two green algal morphotypes, filamentous species (e.g., Chaetomorpha spp.) and flattened or tubular (e.g.,Ulva spp. and Enteromorpha spp.) were collected from 63 sites within the Yaquina Bay estuary (Newport, OR) and used to compare an in situ volumetric biomass estimator to the...

124

DELAYED LIGHT PRODUCTION BY BLUE-GREEN ALGAE, RED ALGAE, AND PURPLE BACTERIA*  

E-print Network

Green plants have been shown to emit light for some seconds after they have been illuminated. The action spectrum for the production of the delayed light has been shown to be the same as the action spectrum for photosynthesis (1). The emission spectrum for the delayed light has been shown to be the

B William Arnold; Jane Thompson

125

Effects of DCMU on chlorophyll fluorescence ratio F685/F735 in marine red, brown and green algae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chlorophyll fluorescence ratio F685/F735 in vivo can be a useful indicator for stress detection in higher plants and seaweeds. DCMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea] treatment influences this ratio. The effets of DCMU on F685/F735 of marine red, brown and green algae under excitation light of different wavelengths were investigated. In the brown algae, Laminaria japonica and Undaria pinnatifida, DCMU did not increase this ratio under blue light excitation but increased the ratio slightly under excitation by green light. For the red algae, Halymenia sinensis, DCMU increased the ratio markedly under both blue and green light excitation. The percentage increase could reach 50% (under green light excitation) and was due to unequal enhancement at the two emission maxima by DCMU. A fraction of chlorophyll which contributed to fluorescence in the 735 nm region was less sensitive to DCMU and was likely from photosystem I of red algae. In the green alga, Ulva pertusa, DCMU caused a slight increase in F685/F735 value under blue, green and red light. Green light excitation during DCMU treatment increased the ratio most (16%) but induced the lowest ratio in the control (without DCMU). It is proposed that a considerable fraction of fluorescence from the 735 nm region at room temperature may be emitted by the chlorophyll of photosystem I in red algae.

Wu, Bao-Gan; Zuo, Dong-Mei; Zang, Ru-Bo

1996-03-01

126

Evaluation of Factors Promoting Astaxanthin Production by a Unicellular Green Alga, Haematococcus pluvialis, with Fractional Factorial Design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors affecting the astaxanthin production by a unicellular green alga, Haemato- coccus pluvialis UTEX 16, were evaluated with sequential fractional factorial design. To simulate an actual production mode, a two-stage process was adapted for astaxanthin production: the alga was first cultivated under vegetative growth conditions, and then astaxanthin production was induced by applying various induction methods. A high dose of

Y. E. Choi; Y.-S. Yun; J. M. Park

2002-01-01

127

Distribution and relationships between selected chemical elements in green alga Enteromorpha sp. from the southern Baltic.  

PubMed

The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and Mn) and macroelements (K, Na, Ca and Mg) were determined in green alga Enteromorpha sp. from the coastal zone of the southern Baltic including Gulf of Gda?sk and Vistula Lagoon in 2000-2003. In order to estimate the degree of accumulation of each element by the green alga, concentration and discrimination factors (CFs) with respect to seawater were calculated. The results of factor analysis (FA) and ANOVA clearly indicate geographical differences between concentrations of chemical elements. Enteromorpha sp. from Vistula Lagoon and the southern Baltic exhibited higher levels of Mn and Ni, and Na and K, respectively. Anthropogenic impact of Cu, Pb and Zn, possibly originated from municipal sewage, was identified in alga samples collected in the Gulf of Gda?sk, especially in the vicinity of Gdynia. From comparison our data with those published earlier results that Pb content in Enteromorpha sp. from the Gulf of Gda?sk decreased within 1978-2003 reflecting reducing use of leaded petrol in Baltic countries in this period. The alga Enteromorpha sp. can be used for biomonitoring surveys of metal contaminants in coastal areas of the Baltic Sea. PMID:16458400

Zbikowski, Rados?aw; Szefer, Piotr; Lata?a, Adam

2006-10-01

128

Biosynthesis of phytoquinones. Homogentisic acid: a precursor of plastoquinones, tocopherols and ?-tocopherolquinone in higher plants, green algae and blue-green algae  

PubMed Central

1. By means of 14C tracer experiments and isotope competition experiments the roles of d-tyrosine, p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, phenylacetic acid, homogentisic acid and homoarbutin (2-methylquinol 4-?-d-glucoside) in the biosynthesis of plastoquinones, tocopherols and ?-tocopherolquinone by maize shoots was investigated. It was established that d-tyrosine, p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and homogentisic acid can all be utilized for this purpose, whereas p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, phenylacetic acid and homoarbutin cannot. Studies on the mode of incorporation of d-tyrosine, p-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid and homogentisic acid showed that their nuclear carbon atoms and the side-chain carbon atom adjacent to the nucleus give rise (as a C6-C1 unit) to the p-benzoquinone rings and nuclear methyl groups (one in each case) of plastoquinone-9 and ?-tocopherolquinone and the aromatic nuclei and nuclear methyl groups (one in each case) of ?-tocopherol and ?-tocopherol. 2. By using [14C]-homogentisic acid it has been shown that homogentisic acid is also a precursor of plastoquinone, tocopherols and ?-tocopherolquinone in the higher plants Lactuca sativa and Rumex sanguineus, the green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Euglena gracilis and the blue–green alga Anacystis nidulans. PMID:4986835

Whistance, G. R.; Threlfall, D. R.

1970-01-01

129

Ulvan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide from Green Algae, Activates Plant Immunity through the Jasmonic Acid Signaling Pathway  

PubMed Central

The industrial use of elicitors as alternative tools for disease control needs the identification of abundant sources of them. We report on an elicitor obtained from the green algae Ulva spp. A fraction containing most exclusively the sulfated polysaccharide known as ulvan-induced expression of a GUS gene placed under the control of a lipoxygenase gene promoter. Gene expression profiling was performed upon ulvan treatments on Medicago truncatula and compared to phytohormone effects. Ulvan induced a gene expression signature similar to that observed upon methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA). Involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in ulvan response was confirmed by detecting induction of protease inhibitory activity and by hormonal profiling of JA, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Ulvan activity on the hormonal pathway was further consolidated by using Arabidopsis hormonal mutants. Altogether, our results demonstrate that green algae are a potential reservoir of ulvan elicitor which acts through the JA pathway. PMID:20445752

Jaulneau, Valérie; Lafitte, Claude; Jacquet, Christophe; Fournier, Sylvie; Salamagne, Sylvie; Briand, Xavier; Esquerré-Tugayé, Marie-Thérčse; Dumas, Bernard

2010-01-01

130

Endogenous Dark Respiration of the Blue-Green Alga, Plectonema boryanum  

PubMed Central

Endogenous dark respiration in the blue-green alga Plectonema boryanum is markedly affected by preincubation in the light: it can be increased from a basal rate of 5 nmoles of O2 to 55 nmoles of O2 per mg of cell protein per min after exposure of the cells to light for 8 to 10 hr. Under conditions of enhanced dark respiration, cyanophage multiplication in the dark increases drastically and approaches the cyanophage yields obtained in photosynthesizing Plectonema cells. This implies that the biosynthetic capabilities of the algal cells, at least with respect to viral synthesis, can be similar in the dark to those in the light. The enhanced endogenous respiration rate was found to be dependent on photoassimilation of CO2 and on protein synthesis. The implications of these findings with respect to obligate photoautotrophic metabolism in blue-green algae are discussed. PMID:4994602

Padan, Etana; Raboy, Bilha; Shilo, Moshe

1971-01-01

131

Growth of Legionella pneumophila in association with blue-green algae (Cyanobacteria)  

SciTech Connect

Legionella pneumophila (Legionnaires disease bacterium) of serogroup 1 was isolated from an algal-bacterial mat community growing at 45/sup 0/C in a man-made thermal effluent. This isolate was grown in mineral salts medium at 45/sup 0/C in association with the blue-green alga (cyanobacterium) Fischerella sp. over a pH range of 6.9 to 7.6. L. pneumophila was apparently using algal extracellular products as its carbon and energy sources. These observations indicate that the temperature, pH, and nutritional requirements of L. pneumophila are not as stringent as those previously observed when cultured on complex media. This association between L. pneumophila and certain blue-green algae suggests an explanation for the apparent widespread distribution of the bacterium in nature.

Tison, D.L. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY); Pope, D.H.; Cherry, W.B.; Fliermans, C.B.

1980-02-01

132

COMPLEMENTARY CHROMATIC ADAPTATION IN A FILAMENTOUS BLUE-GREEN ALGA  

PubMed Central

Fluorescent and red light environments generate greatly different patterns of pigmentation and morphology in Fremyella diplosiphon. Most strikingly, red-illuminated cultures contain no measurable C-phycoerythrin and have a mean filament length about 10 times shorter than fluorescent-illuminated cultures. C-phycoerythrin behaves as a photoinducible constituent of this alga. Spectrophotometric and immunochemical procedures were devised so that C-phycoerythrin metabolism could be studied quantitatively with [14C]-phenylalanine pulse-chased cultures. Transfer of red-illuminated cultures to fluorescent light initiates C-phycoerythrin production by essentially de novo synthesis. C-phycoerythrin is not degraded to any significant extent in cultures continuously illuminated with fluorescent light. Transfer of fluorescent-illuminated cultures to red light causes an abrupt cessation of C-phycoerythrin synthesis. The C-phycoerythrin content of cultures adapting to red light decreases and subsequently becomes constant. Loss of C-phycoerythrin is not brought about by metabolic degradation, but rather by a decrease in mean filament length which is effected by transcellular breakage. In this experimental system, light influences intracellular C-phycoerythrin levels by regulating the rate of synthesis of the chromoprotein. PMID:4199659

Bennett, Allen; Bogorad, Lawrence

1973-01-01

133

Nitrogenase activity in the blue-green alga Plectonema boryanum strain 594  

Microsoft Academic Search

The non-heterocystous filamentous blue-green alga, Plectonema boryanum strain 594 reduces acetylene to ethylene, incorporates 15N2 into cell protoplasm, and grows readily in medium free of combined nitrogen, when incubated in a gas phase without added oxygen. Cells grown in the presence of 50 mg\\/l of ammonium-nitrogen do not reduce acetylene, and a concentration of 0.015 atm. CO in the gas

W. D. P. Stewart; M. Lex

1970-01-01

134

Cultivation of Green Algae Chlorella sp. in Different Wastewaters from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of green algae Chlorella sp. on wastewaters sampled from four different points of the treatment process flow of a local municipal wastewater treatment\\u000a plant (MWTP) and how well the algal growth removed nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions from\\u000a the wastewaters. The four wastewaters were wastewater before

Liang Wang; Min Min; Yecong Li; Paul Chen; Yifeng Chen; Yuhuan Liu; Yingkuan Wang; Roger Ruan

2010-01-01

135

Vesicular membrane transfer between endoplasmic reticulum and golgi apparatus of a green alga, Micrasterias americana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Transfer of membranes between endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus of the unicellular green alga,Micrasterias americana, is facilitated by 50–70 nm vesicles that form from part-rough. part-smooth transitional regions of the endoplasmic reticulum.\\u000a In growing cells, the vesicles are present at the normal growth temperature of 23°C. However, at 16°C, vesicle accumulations\\u000a occur. Golgi apparatus of non-growing cells exhibited both larger

Tetsuko Noguchi; D. J. Morré

1991-01-01

136

Trails of Green Alga Hydrogen Research – from Hans Gaffron to New Frontiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarizes aspects of the history of photosynthetic hydrogen research, from the pioneering discovery of Hans Gaffron\\u000a over 60 years ago to the potential exploitation of green algae in commercial H2-production. The trail started as a mere scientific curiosity, but promises to be a most important discovery, one that leads\\u000a photosynthesis research to important commercial applications. Progress achieved in

Anastasios Melis; Thomas Happe

2004-01-01

137

Characterization of the cytochrome b 6 f complex from marine green alga, Bryopsis corticulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pure, active cytochrome b6f was isolated from the chloroplasts of the marine green alga, Bryopsiscorticulans. To investigate and characterize this cytochrome b6f complex, sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE), absorption spectra measurement and HPLC were employed. It was shown that this purified complex contained four large subunits with apparent molecular masses of 34.8, 24, 18.7 and 16.7 kD. The

Binxing Li; Dazhang Mao; Yulong Liu; Liangbi Li; Tingyun Kuang

2005-01-01

138

In vivo antioxidant role of astaxanthin under oxidative stress in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intracellular production of active oxygen in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis was studied by measuring the capacity for in vivo conversion of 2?,7?-dichlorohydrofluorescein diacetate to the fluorescent\\u000a dye dichlorofluorescein in different algal cell types (i.e., vegetative, immature cyst and mature cyst cells). The increase\\u000a in formation of dichlorofluorescein by methyl viologen (superoxide anion radical generator) was linear for 2?h in

M. Kobayashi

2000-01-01

139

Viruses of eukaryotic green algae. Progress report, August 1, 1982-July 1, 1984  

SciTech Connect

The virus, PBCV-1, which infects the eukaryotic, green alga, Chlorella-NC64A has been characterized and we have begun to look at detailed events associated with its growth cycle. In addition, we have recently discovered other dsDNA viruses from natural sources which replicate in Chlorella NC64A. These viruses can be distinguished from PBCV-1 and from each other by plaque morphology, DNA restriction patterns, and by their resistance to certain restriction endonucleases.

Van Etten, J.L.

1984-01-01

140

Viruses of eukaryotic green algae. Final technical report, June 1, 1989--February 1, 1992  

SciTech Connect

We have isolated and partially characterized many large, polyhedral, DNA containing, plaque forming viruses which infect certain unicellular, eukaryotic, chlorella-like green algae. These viruses have several unique features, including the fact that they code for DNA site-specific endonucleases and DNA methyltransferases. The primary objectives of this study were to identify, clone, and characterize some of the virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases and DNA restriction endonucleases in order to understand their biological function.

Van Etten, J.L.

1992-12-31

141

Myriophyllum spicatum-released allelopathic polyphenols inhibiting growth of blue-green algae Microcystis aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A culture solution of macrophyte Myriophyllum spicatum was subjected to algal assay-directed fractionation on the basis of polarity and molecular weight. As the water-soluble fraction below molecular weight 1000 was the only fraction to inhibit the growth of blue-green algae Microcystis aeruginosa, it was analyzed by analytical high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) in

Satoshi Nakai; Yutaka Inoue; Masaaki Hosomi; Akihiko Murakami

2000-01-01

142

Assessment of blue-green algae in substantially reducing nitrogen fertilizer requirements for biomass fuel crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory, mass culture, and field studies are being undertaken in order to assess the potential of using blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) as nitrogen biofertilizers on irrigated ground. Of seven candidate strains, two were chosen for application to replicated field plots sown to field corn and the basis of laboratory-scale soil tray experiments and ease of semi-continuous 8000 l culture. Chosen were

D. B. Anderson; P. M. Molten; B. Metting

1981-01-01

143

The effect of sulfide on the blue-green algae of hot springs II. Yellowstone National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Mammoth Springs (Yellowstone National Park) waters with near neutral pH and soluble sulfide (H2S, HS?, S2?) of over 1–2 mg\\/liter (30–60?M) are characterized by substrate covers of phototrophic bacteria (Chloroflexus and aChlorobium-like unicell) above 50‡C and by a blue-green alga (Spirulina labyrinthiformis) below this temperature.Synechococcus. Mastigocladus, and other blue-green algae typical of most hot springs of western North

Richard W. Castenholz

1977-01-01

144

Algae.  

PubMed

Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what humans consider to be the wrong place. Positive aspects of algae are generally less newsworthy - they are the basis of marine food webs, supporting fisheries and charismatic marine megafauna from albatrosses to whales, as well as consuming carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Here we consider what algae are, their diversity in terms of evolutionary origin, size, shape and life cycles, and their role in the natural environment and in human affairs. PMID:25004359

Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

2014-07-01

145

Cell-cycle regulation in green algae dividing by multiple fission.  

PubMed

Green algae dividing by multiple fission comprise unrelated genera but are connected by one common feature: under optimal growth conditions, they can divide into more than two daughter cells. The number of daughter cells, also known as the division number, is relatively stable for most species and usually ranges from 4 to 16. The number of daughter cells is dictated by growth rate and is modulated by light and temperature. Green algae dividing by multiple fission can thus be used to study coordination of growth and progression of the cell cycle. Algal cultures can be synchronized naturally by alternating light/dark periods so that growth occurs in the light and DNA replication(s) and nuclear and cellular division(s) occur in the dark; synchrony in such cultures is almost 100% and can be maintained indefinitely. Moreover, the pattern of cell-cycle progression can be easily altered by differing growth conditions, allowing for detailed studies of coordination between individual cell-cycle events. Since the 1950s, green algae dividing by multiple fission have been studied as a unique model for cell-cycle regulation. Future sequencing of algal genomes will provide additional, high precision tools for physiological, taxonomic, structural, and molecular studies in these organisms. PMID:24441762

Bišová, Kate?ina; Zachleder, Vilém

2014-06-01

146

Light- and Ca2+-Modulated Heterotrimeric GTPases in the Eyespot Apparatus of a Flagellate Green Alga  

PubMed Central

Abstract Little is known about phototactic signal transduction in flagellate green algae; therefore, eyespot apparatuses, which are the light-sensitive "organelles" involved in photoorientation of these algae, were isolated and analyzed for the presence of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide binding proteins (G proteins) and their coupling to the retinal-based photoreceptor. Specific high-affinity 35S-GTP--S binding and GTPase activity, with sensitivity toward antibodies raised against vertebrate/invertebrate G subunits and fluoroaluminates, were detected. In one- and two-dimensional immunoblot analyses, an antiserum directed against Gi-type subunits exhibited cross-reactivity at 42 kD, whereas a 43-kD protein cross-reacted with antisera directed against Gq subunits. Green light below 1 µE m-2 sec-1 suppressed cholera toxin-dependent ADP ribosylation at these apparent molecular masses and modulated a significant proportion of the GTPase activity in a reversible manner. Antisera against Chlamydomonas rhodopsin and the G subunits completely impaired light modulation. Both light sensitivity and dark recovery of the GTPase were affected by changes in free Ca2+. Dissociation of the putative G subunits from the eyespot membranes was not observed when the membranes were illuminated. Our results emphasize the regulatory potential of G subunits in rhodopsin-based signaling of flagellate green algae.

Calenberg, M.; Brohsonn, U.; Zedlacher, M.; Kreimer, G.

1998-01-01

147

BROWN ALGAE Colpomenia sinuosa  

E-print Network

BROWN ALGAE Colpomenia sinuosa GREEN ALGAE Dictyosphaeria cavernosa Amphiroa fragilissima Gelidiopsis intricata Botryocladia pyriformis RED ALGAE CYANOBACTERIA Oscillitoria acuminata Schizothrix sp. "ALGAE"­ A DIVERSE ASSORTMENT OF LIFE FORMS Photosynthesis is performed by a taxonomically diverse

Sullivan, Matthew B.

148

Toxicity of hexazinone and diquat to green algae, diatoms, cyanobacteria and duckweed  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hexazinone and diquat are two broad-spectrum contact herbicides used in a variety of crop and non-crop applications. Both pesticides are highly water soluble and persistent in the aquatic system. Hexazinone is mobile in soil and, thus, the potential for leaching into ground water and for overland runoff into surface water is high; diquat, however, is rapidly bound by soil and

Hans G. Peterson; Céline Boutin; Kathryn E. Freemark; Pamela A. Martin

1997-01-01

149

Cell wall proteomics of the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae).  

PubMed

The green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis can synthesize and accumulate large amounts of the ketocarotenoid astaxanthin, and undergo profound changes in cell wall composition and architecture during the cell cycle and in response to environmental stresses. In this study, cell wall proteins (CWPs) of H. pluvialis were systematically analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) coupled with peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) and sequence-database analysis. In total, 163 protein bands were analyzed, which resulted in positive identification of 81 protein orthologues. The highly complex and dynamic composition of CWPs is manifested by the fact that the majority of identified CWPs are differentially expressed at specific stages of the cell cycle along with a number of common wall-associated 'housekeeping' proteins. The detection of cellulose synthase orthologue in the vegetative cells suggested that the biosynthesis of cellulose occurred during primary wall formation, in contrast to earlier observations that cellulose was exclusively present in the secondary wall of the organism. A transient accumulation of a putative cytokinin oxidase at the early stage of encystment pointed to a possible role in cytokinin degradation while facilitating secondary wall formation and/or assisting in cell expansion. This work represents the first attempt to use a proteomic approach to investigate CWPs of microalgae. The reference protein map constructed and the specific protein markers obtained from this study provide a framework for future characterization of the expression and physiological functions of the proteins involved in the biogenesis and modifications in the cell wall of Haematococcus and related organisms. PMID:14997492

Wang, Sheng-Bing; Hu, Qiang; Sommerfeld, Milton; Chen, Feng

2004-03-01

150

Evaluation of antigenotoxic effects of carotenoids from green algae Chlorococcum humicola using human lymphocytes  

PubMed Central

Objective To identify the available phytochemicals and carotenoids in the selected green algae and evaluate the potential genotoxic/antigenotoxic effect using lymphocytes. Methods Organic solvent extracts of Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola) were used for the phytochemical analysis. The available carotenoids were assessed by HPLC, and LC-MS analysis. The genotoxicity was induced by the benzo(a)pyrene in the lymphocyte culture, the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of algal carotenoids with and without genotoxic inducer were evaluated by chromosomal aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus assay (MN). Results The results of the analysis showed that the algae were rich in carotenoids and fatty acids. In the total carotenoids lutein, ?-carotene and ?-carotene were found to be present in higher concentration. The frequency of CA and SCE increased by benzo(a)pyrene were significantly decreased by the carotenoids (P<0.05 for CA, P<0.001 for SCE). The MN frequencies of the cells were significantly decreased by the treatment with carotenoids when compared with the positive controls (P<0.05). Conclusions The findings of the present study demonstrate that, the green algae C. humicola is a rich source of bioactive compounds especially carotenoids which effectively fight against environmental genotoxic agents, the carotenoids itself is not a genotoxic substance and should be further considered for its beneficial effects. PMID:23569879

Bhagavathy, S; Sumathi, P

2012-01-01

151

Genomic analysis of organismal complexity in the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of the Volvox carteri genome reveals that this green alga's increased organismal complexity and multicellularity are associated with modifications in protein families shared with its unicellular ancestor, and not with large-scale innovations in protein coding capacity. The multicellular green alga Volvox carteri and its morphologically diverse close relatives (the volvocine algae) are uniquely suited for investigating the evolution of multicellularity and development. We sequenced the 138 Mb genome of V. carteri and compared its {approx}14,500 predicted proteins to those of its unicellular relative, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Despite fundamental differences in organismal complexity and life history, the two species have similar protein-coding potentials, and few species-specific protein-coding gene predictions. Interestingly, volvocine algal-specific proteins are enriched in Volvox, including those associated with an expanded and highly compartmentalized extracellular matrix. Our analysis shows that increases in organismal complexity can be associated with modifications of lineage-specific proteins rather than large-scale invention of protein-coding capacity.

Prochnik, Simon E.; Umen, James; Nedelcu, Aurora; Hallmann, Armin; Miller, Stephen M.; Nishii, Ichiro; Ferris, Patrick; Kuo, Alan; Mitros, Therese; Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K.; Hellsten, Uffe; Chapman, Jarrod; Simakov, Oleg; Rensing, Stefan A.; Terry, Astrid; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Jurka, Jerzy; Salamov, Asaf; Shapiro, Harris; Schmutz, Jeremy; Grimwood, Jane; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Schmitt, Rudiger; Kirk, David; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

2010-07-01

152

Isolation and phylogenetic characterization of bacteria capable of inducing differentiation in the green alga Monostroma oxyspermum.  

PubMed

Many green algae cannot develop normally when they are grown under axenic conditions. Monostroma oxyspermum, for example, proliferates unicellularly in an aseptic culture, but develops into a normal foliaceous gametophyte in the presence of some marine bacteria. More than 1000 bacterial strains were isolated from marine algae and sponges and assayed for their ability to induce the morphogenesis of unicellular M. oxyspermum. Fifty bacterial strains exhibiting morphogenesis-inducing activity against unicellular M. oxyspermum were isolated. The partial gyrB (approximately 1.2 kbp) and 16S rDNA (approximately 1.4 kbp) sequences of about 40 active strains were determined, and their phylogenetic relationships were analysed. All these strains were located within the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) complex, and most of these strains were clustered in a clade comprising Zobellia uliginosa. On the other hand, these bacteria also exhibited morphogenetic activity against germ-free spores of Ulva pertusa, Ulva conglobata and Enteromorpha intestinalis. Moreover, these bacteria induced the release of spores from the leafy young gametophyte of M. oxyspermum. These results indicate that strains belonging to several groups in the CFB complex play an important role in the normal development of green algae in the marine coastal environment. PMID:12542710

Matsuo, Yoshihide; Suzuki, Makoto; Kasai, Hiroaki; Shizuri, Yoshikazu; Harayama, Shigeaki

2003-01-01

153

The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the green alga Oltmannsiellopsis viridis : evolutionary trends of the mitochondrial genome in the Ulvophyceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mitochondrial genome displays a highly plastic architecture in the green algal division comprising the classes Prasinophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Chlorophyceae (Chlorophyta). The compact mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Nephroselmis (Prasinophyceae) and Prototheca (Trebouxiophyceae) encode about 60 genes and have been ascribed an ‘ancestral’ pattern of evolution, whereas those of chlorophycean green algae are much more reduced in gene content and

Jean-François Pombert; Philippe Beauchamp; Christian Otis; Claude Lemieux; Monique Turmel

2006-01-01

154

Studies on the proteins of mass-cultivated, blue-green alga (Spirulina platensis)  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of the protein of fresh-water, mass-cultured Spirulina platensis have been studied. The solubility of this algal protein in water and various aqueous solvents has been estimated. The total protein content of the blue-green algae was approximately 50-55% of which nearly 9.9% was nonprotein nitrogen. About 80% of the total protein nitrogen can be extracted by three successive extractions with water. Ths isoelectric point of this algal protein is found to be 3.0. The total proteins were characterized physicochemically by standard techniques. In the ultracentrifuge total proteins resolve into two major components with S20w values of 2.6 and 4.7 S. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic pattern of the total protein showed seven bands including three prominent ones. The in vitro digestibility of the total protein of fresh algae was found to be 85% when assayed with a pepsin-pancreatin system.

Annusuyadevi, M.; Subbulakshmi, G.; Madhair'devi, K.; Venkalaramein, L.V.

1981-05-01

155

Cardiac inhibitory action of constituents of the marine green alga Ulva pertusa.  

PubMed

As part of a search for substances from marine organisms, which exhibit inotropic effects, the chemical constituents of the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa were investigated. The fractionated extract was tested for inotropic effects on the isolated guinea pig atria. The aqueous layer obtained from the acetone extract of fresh algae was concentrated, and the residue was extracted with methanol. The methanolic extract was fractionated by chromatography using mixtures of aqueous methanol. Elution with 50% aqueous methanol afforded material that had a significant negative inotropic effect. Further purification of this material by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using methanol-water (2:5) afforded crystalline adenosine, which was shown to be the active substance of U. pertusa, causing a negative inotropic action. PMID:6620154

Yamada, K; Shizuri, Y; Ishida, Y; Shibata, S

1983-08-01

156

Effect of pesticides on blue-green algae and nitrogen-fixation.  

PubMed

The effects of the pesticides, amitrol, a derivative of amitrol (viz. 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole), diquat, paraquat, linuron, MCPA, malathion, and monuron, were studied on the nitrogen-fixing algae, Anabaena cylindrica, Aulosira sp., Calothrix elenkenii. Chlorogloeae frischii, Cylindrospermum muscicola, Nostoc sp. from Collema tenax, Nostoc muscorum Tolypothrix tenuis, and Westiellopsis sp. In general, two types of response were discernible; an initial period of depression succeeded by an increased activity and an initial period of depression followed by a distinct decrease on prolonged incubation. The results indicate that some pesticidal compounds can severely limit the nitrogen-fixing capacities of blue-green algae, thereby affecting the overall nitrogen economy of soils in general. PMID:808179

DaSilva, E J; Henriksson, L E; Henriksson, E

1975-01-01

157

Genomic Analysis of Organismal Complexity in the Multicellular Green Alga Volvox carteri  

PubMed Central

The multicellular green alga Volvox carteri and its morphologically diverse close relatives (the volvocine algae) are well suited for the investigation of the evolution of multicellularity and development. We sequenced the 138–mega–base pair genome of V. carteri and compared its ~14,500 predicted proteins to those of its unicellular relative Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Despite fundamental differences in organismal complexity and life history, the two species have similar protein-coding potentials and few species-specific protein-coding gene predictions. Volvox is enriched in volvocine-algal–specific proteins, including those associated with an expanded and highly compartmentalized extracellular matrix. Our analysis shows that increases in organismal complexity can be associated with modifications of lineage-specific proteins rather than large-scale invention of protein-coding capacity. PMID:20616280

Prochnik, Simon E.; Umen, James; Nedelcu, Aurora M.; Hallmann, Armin; Miller, Stephen M.; Nishii, Ichiro; Ferris, Patrick; Kuo, Alan; Mitros, Therese; Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K.; Hellsten, Uffe; Chapman, Jarrod; Simakov, Oleg; Rensing, Stefan A.; Terry, Astrid; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Jurka, Jerzy; Salamov, Asaf; Shapiro, Harris; Schmutz, Jeremy; Grimwood, Jane; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Schmitt, Rudiger; Kirk, David; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

2010-01-01

158

Growth of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under red and blue lasers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Red and blue lasers, holding promise as an electric light source for photosynthetic systems on account of being true monochromatic, high-power, and having high electrical-conversion efficiency, were employed in growing a green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The laser treatments tested included: 655-nm Red; 680-nm Red; 655-nm Red+474-nm Blue and 680-nm Red+474-nm Blue. A white cold cathode lamp with spectral output similar to that of white fluorescent lamp served as control. C. reinhardtii successfully grew and divided under the 655 and 680-nm red lasers as well as under the white-light control. Supplementing either red with blue laser, however, resulted in increased algae cell count that significantly exceeded those under both red lasers and the white-light control on average by 241%.

Kuwahara, Sara S.; Cuello, Joel L.; Myhre, Graham; Pau, Stanley

2011-03-01

159

DNA barcoding of a new record of epi-endophytic green algae Ulvella leptochaete (Ulvellaceae, Chlorophyta) in India.  

PubMed

Epi-endophytic green algae comprise one of the most diverse and phylogenetically primitive groups of green algae and are considered to be ubiquitous in the world's oceans; however, no reports of these algae exist from India. Here we report the serendipitous discovery of Ulvella growing on intertidal green algae Cladophora glomerata and benthic red algae Laurencia obtusa collected from India. DNA barcodes at nuclear ribosomal DNA Internal Transcriber Spacer (nrDNA ITS) 1 and 2 regions for Indian isolates from the west and east coasts have been generated for the first time. Based on morphology and DNA barcoding, isolates were identified as Ulvella leptochaete. Phylogenetic reconstruction of concatenated dataset using Maximum Likelihood method differentiated Indian isolates from other accessions of this alga available in Genbank, albeit with low bootstrap support. Monophyly of Ulvella leptochaete was obvious in both of our phylogenetic analyses. With this first report of epi-endophytic algae from Indian territorial waters, the dire need to catalogue its cryptic diversity is highlighted and avenues of future research are discussed. PMID:25116625

Bast, Felix; Bhushan, Satej; John, Aijaz Ahmad

2014-09-01

160

A Lack of Parasitic Reduction in the Obligate Parasitic Green Alga Helicosporidium  

PubMed Central

The evolution of an obligate parasitic lifestyle is often associated with genomic reduction, in particular with the loss of functions associated with increasing host-dependence. This is evident in many parasites, but perhaps the most extreme transitions are from free-living autotrophic algae to obligate parasites. The best-known examples of this are the apicomplexans such as Plasmodium, which evolved from algae with red secondary plastids. However, an analogous transition also took place independently in the Helicosporidia, where an obligate parasite of animals with an intracellular infection mechanism evolved from algae with green primary plastids. We characterised the nuclear genome of Helicosporidium to compare its transition to parasitism with that of apicomplexans. The Helicosporidium genome is small and compact, even by comparison with the relatively small genomes of the closely related green algae Chlorella and Coccomyxa, but at the functional level we find almost no evidence for reduction. Nearly all ancestral metabolic functions are retained, with the single major exception of photosynthesis, and even here reduction is not complete. The great majority of genes for light-harvesting complexes, photosystems, and pigment biosynthesis have been lost, but those for other photosynthesis-related functions, such as Calvin cycle, are retained. Rather than loss of whole function categories, the predominant reductive force in the Helicosporidium genome is a contraction of gene family complexity, but even here most losses affect families associated with genome maintenance and expression, not functions associated with host-dependence. Other gene families appear to have expanded in response to parasitism, in particular chitinases, including those predicted to digest the chitinous barriers of the insect host or remodel the cell wall of Helicosporidium. Overall, the Helicosporidium genome presents a fascinating picture of the early stages of a transition from free-living autotroph to parasitic heterotroph where host-independence has been unexpectedly preserved. PMID:24809511

Pombert, Jean-Francois; Blouin, Nicolas Achille; Lane, Chris; Boucias, Drion; Keeling, Patrick J.

2014-01-01

161

A lack of parasitic reduction in the obligate parasitic green alga Helicosporidium.  

PubMed

The evolution of an obligate parasitic lifestyle is often associated with genomic reduction, in particular with the loss of functions associated with increasing host-dependence. This is evident in many parasites, but perhaps the most extreme transitions are from free-living autotrophic algae to obligate parasites. The best-known examples of this are the apicomplexans such as Plasmodium, which evolved from algae with red secondary plastids. However, an analogous transition also took place independently in the Helicosporidia, where an obligate parasite of animals with an intracellular infection mechanism evolved from algae with green primary plastids. We characterised the nuclear genome of Helicosporidium to compare its transition to parasitism with that of apicomplexans. The Helicosporidium genome is small and compact, even by comparison with the relatively small genomes of the closely related green algae Chlorella and Coccomyxa, but at the functional level we find almost no evidence for reduction. Nearly all ancestral metabolic functions are retained, with the single major exception of photosynthesis, and even here reduction is not complete. The great majority of genes for light-harvesting complexes, photosystems, and pigment biosynthesis have been lost, but those for other photosynthesis-related functions, such as Calvin cycle, are retained. Rather than loss of whole function categories, the predominant reductive force in the Helicosporidium genome is a contraction of gene family complexity, but even here most losses affect families associated with genome maintenance and expression, not functions associated with host-dependence. Other gene families appear to have expanded in response to parasitism, in particular chitinases, including those predicted to digest the chitinous barriers of the insect host or remodel the cell wall of Helicosporidium. Overall, the Helicosporidium genome presents a fascinating picture of the early stages of a transition from free-living autotroph to parasitic heterotroph where host-independence has been unexpectedly preserved. PMID:24809511

Pombert, Jean-François; Blouin, Nicolas Achille; Lane, Chris; Boucias, Drion; Keeling, Patrick J

2014-05-01

162

A new model for the calcification of the green macro-alga Halimeda opuntia (Lamouroux)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Halimeda opuntia is a cosmopolitan marine calcifying green alga in shallow tropical marine environments. Besides Halimeda's contribution to a diverse habitat, the alga is an important sediment producer. Fallen calcareous segments of Halimeda spp. are a major component of carbonate sediments in many tropical settings and play an important role in reef framework development and carbonate platform buildup. Consequently the calcification of H. opuntia accounts for large portions of the carbonate budget in tropical shallow marine ecosystems. Earlier studies investigating the calcification processes of Halimeda spp. have tended to focus on the microstructure or the physiology of the alga, thus overlooking the interaction of physiological and abiotic processes behind the formation of the skeleton. By analyzing microstructural skeletal features of Halimeda segments with the aid of scanning electron microscopy and relating their occurrence to known physiological processes, we have been able to identify the initiation of calcification within an organic matrix and demonstrate that biologically induced cementation is an important process in calcification. For the first time, we propose a model for the calcification of Halimeda spp. that considers both the alga's physiology and the carbon chemistry of the seawater with respect to the development of different skeletal features. The presence of an organic matrix and earlier detected external carbonic anhydrase activity suggest that Halimeda spp. exhibit biotic precipitation of calcium carbonate, as many other species of marine organisms do. On the other hand, it is the formation of micro-anhedral carbonate through the alga's metabolism that leads to a cementation of living segments. Precisely, this process allows H. opuntia to contribute substantial amounts of carbonate sediments to tropical shallow seas.

Wizemann, André; Meyer, Friedrich W.; Westphal, Hildegard

2014-12-01

163

Diatom genomics: genetic acquisitions and mergers.  

PubMed

Diatom algae arose by two-step endosymbiosis. The complete genome of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana has now been sequenced, allowing us to reconstruct the remarkable intracellular gene transfers that occurred during this convoluted cellular evolution. PMID:15620637

Nisbet, R Ellen R; Kilian, Oliver; McFadden, Geoffrey I

2004-12-29

164

Plastoquinone as a common link between photosynthesis and respiration in a blue-green alga  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of plastoquinone in a thermophilic blue-green alga, Shynechococcus sp., was studied by measuring reduction kinetics of cytochrome 553 which was oxidized with red flash preferentially exciting photosystem I. Sensitivity of the cytochrome reduction to DBMIBAbbreviations: DCMU = 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea; DBMIB = 2,5-dib romo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone; HOQNO = 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide indicates that cytochrome 553 accepts electrons from reduced plastoquinone. Plastoquinone is in turn

Masahiko Hirano; Kazuhiko Satoh; Sakae Katoh

1980-01-01

165

Viruses of eukaryotic green algae. Progress report, August 1, 1984-March 1, 1986  

SciTech Connect

PBCV-1 is a large dsDNA-containing, plaque forming virus that replicates in a unicellular, eukaryotic Chlorella-like green alga strain NC64A. We have discovered that PBCV-1 infection results in the appearance of a restriction and modification system in the host. Furthermore, we have isolated and partially characterized 30 additional large, dsDNA-containing viruses which replicate in the same host. Some, if not all, of these viruses probably induce the synthesis of modification and restriction systems which are different from that induced by PBCV-1. 16 refs.

Van Etten, J.L.

1986-01-01

166

Identification of a copper-sensitive ascorbate peroxidase in the unicellular green alga Selenastrum capricornutum.  

PubMed

Extracts from the unicellular green alga Selenastrum capricornutum exhibit high superoxide dismutase activity, but only traces of catalase activity. The excess hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) generated by the superoxide dismutase in S. capricornutum may be degraded by a unique peroxidase. This peroxidase has a high specificity for ascorbate as its electron donor. The enzyme has an optimum pH at 8, is insensitive to cyanide and is inhibited by oxine. Addition of low concentrations of copper to algal cultures stimulates the peroxidase activity threefold. This enzymatic system could be used as a sensitive bioindicator for copper in fresh water. PMID:9243795

Sauser, K R; Liu, J K; Wong, T Y

1997-07-01

167

Mesonia algae gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel marine bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae isolated from the green alga Acrosiphonia sonderi (Kütz) Kornm.  

PubMed

The taxonomic position of four heterotrophic, aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile and moderately halophilic marine bacteria, isolated from the green alga Acrosiphonia sonderi (Kütz) Kornm, was established. 16S rDNA sequence analysis indicated that the strains studied are members of the family Flavobacteriaceae, in which they form a distinct lineage. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, genotypic and phylogenetic data, the novel bacteria were classified as Mesonia algae gen. nov., sp. nov. The type strain is KMM 3909(T) (=KCTC 12089(T)=CCUG 47092(T)). PMID:14657131

Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Kim, Seung Bum; Han, Suk Kyun; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Rohde, Manfred; Zhukova, Natalia V; Falsen, Enevold; Frolova, Galina M; Mikhailov, Valery V; Bae, Kyung Sook

2003-11-01

168

The Cell Wall as a Barrier to Uptake of Metal Ions in the Unicellular Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Chlorophyceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cell walls of plants, including those of algae, have the capacity to bind metal ions in negatively charged sites. The\\u000a authors had already shown that the wild type (walled) strain of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Dangeard was more tolerant to Cd, Co, Cu, and Ni than a wall-less mutant of the same species. The objective of the

S. M. Macfie; P. M. Welbourn

2000-01-01

169

Volvoxrhodopsin, a light-regulated sensory photoreceptor of the spheroidal green alga Volvox carteri.  

PubMed Central

Somatic cells of the multicellular alga Volvox carteri contain a visual rhodopsin that controls the organism's phototactic behavior via two independent photoreceptor currents. Here, we report the identification of an opsinlike gene, designated as volvoxopsin (vop). The encoded protein exhibits homologies to the opsin of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (chlamyopsin) and to the entire animal opsin family, thus providing new perspectives on opsin evolution. Volvoxopsin accumulates within the eyes of somatic cells. However, the vop transcript is detectable only in the reproductive eyeless gonidia and embryos. vop mRNA levels increase 400-fold during embryogenesis, when embryos develop in darkness, whereas the vop transcript does not accumulate when embryos develop in the light. An antisense transformant, T3, was generated. This transformant produces 10 times less volvoxopsin than does the wild type. In T3, the vop transcript is virtually absent, whereas the antisense transcript is predominant and light regulated. It follows that vop expression is under light-dependent transcriptional control but that volvoxopsin itself is not the regulatory photoreceptor. Transformant T3 is phototactic, but its phototactic sensitivity is reduced 10-fold relative to the parental wild-type strain HK10. Thus, we offer definitive genetic evidence that a rhodopsin serves as the photoreceptor for phototaxis in a green alga. PMID:10449581

Ebnet, E; Fischer, M; Deininger, W; Hegemann, P

1999-01-01

170

(Carbon and hydrogen metabolism of green algae in light and dark)  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this project was the elucidation of anaerobic metabolism in ecuaryotic green algae, chlamydomonas reinhardii. Chlamydomonas is a versatile organism that can grow under disparate conditions such as fresh water lakes and sewage ponds. The cell an photoassimilate CO{sub 2} aerobically and anaerobically, the latter after adaptation'' to a hydrogen metabolism. It can recall the knallgas or oxyhydrogen reaction and utilize hydrogen the simplest of all reducing agents for the dark assimilation of CO{sub 2} by the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. The dark reduction with hydrogen lies on the border line between autotrophic and heterotrophic carbon assimilation. Both autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria are known in which molecular hydrogen can replace either inorganic or organic hydrogen donors. Here the dark reduction of CO{sub 2} acquires a particular importance since it occurs in the same cell that carries on photoreduction and photosynthesis. We will demonstrate here that the alga chloroplast possesses a respiratory capacity. It seems likely that Chlamydomonas may have retained the chloroplastic respiratory pathway because of the selective advantage provided to the algae under a wide range of environmental conditions that the cells experience in nature. The ability to cycle electrons and poise the reduction level of the photosynthetic apparatus under aerobic and microaerobic conditions could allow more efficient CO{sub 2} fixation and enhanced growth under unfavorable conditions or survival under more severe conditions.

Not Available

1990-01-01

171

Requirement of low oxidation-reduction potential for photosynthesis in a blue-green alga (Phormidium sp.).  

PubMed

Photosynthesis in a Phormidium species which forms dense conical-shaped structures in thermal springs is strongly inhibited by aeration but is stimulated by sulfide and other agents (cysteine, thioglycolate, sulfite) which lower the oxidation-reduction potential. The compact structures which this alga forms in nature may restrict oxygen penetration from the enviroment so that the anaerobic or microaerophilic conditions necessary ofr photosynthesis can develop. The alga may be defective in a regulatory mechanism that controls the reoxidation of reduced pyridine nucleotides formed during photosynthesis. It is suggested that other mat-forming and benthic blue-green algae may also prefer anaerobib conditions for growth and photosynthesis. PMID:808187

Weller, D; Doemel, W; Brock, T D

1975-06-20

172

Chemical composition, in vitro protein digestibility and in vitro available iron of blue green alga, Nostoc commune.  

PubMed

Blue-green alga, Nostoc commune, contained moderate amounts of protein and iron. Its in vitro protein digestibility was 43.50%. The soluble and ionic iron from the alga was extractable to some extent at pH 1.5 but was not detectable at pH 8.0. The digestion by protease did not affect the iron detection. Heat processing at 100 and 120 degrees C failed to increase the digestibility and the content of available iron. The dietary fiber in the alga may be responsible for low protein digestion and low iron availability. PMID:2170966

Hori, K; Ueno-Mohri, T; Okita, T; Ishibashi, G

1990-07-01

173

Determination of volatile compounds in four commercial samples of Japanese green algae using solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Green algae are of great economic importance. Seaweed is consumed fresh or as seasoning in Japan. The commercial value is determined by quality, color, and flavor and is also strongly influenced by the production area. Our research, based on solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS), has revealed that volatile compounds differ intensely in the four varieties of commercial green algae. Accordingly, 41 major volatile compounds were identified. Heptadecene was the most abundant compound from Okayama (Ulva prolifera), Tokushima (Ulva prolifera), and Ehime prefecture (Ulva linza). Apocarotenoids, such as ionones, and their derivatives were prominent volatiles in algae from Okayama (Ulva prolifera) and Tokushima prefecture (Ulva prolifera). Volatile, short chained apocarotenoids are among the most potent flavor components and contribute to the flavor of fresh, processed algae, and algae-based products. Benzaldehyde was predominant in seaweed from Shizuoka prefecture (Monostroma nitidum). Multivariant statistical analysis (PCA) enabled simple discrimination of the samples based on their volatile profiles. This work shows the potential of SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariant analysis to discriminate between samples of different geographical and botanical origins and form the basis for development of authentication methods of green algae products, including seasonings. PMID:24592162

Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Baldermann, Susanne; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Akira; Mase, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Naoharu

2014-01-01

174

Determination of Volatile Compounds in Four Commercial Samples of Japanese Green Algae Using Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Green algae are of great economic importance. Seaweed is consumed fresh or as seasoning in Japan. The commercial value is determined by quality, color, and flavor and is also strongly influenced by the production area. Our research, based on solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS), has revealed that volatile compounds differ intensely in the four varieties of commercial green algae. Accordingly, 41 major volatile compounds were identified. Heptadecene was the most abundant compound from Okayama (Ulva prolifera), Tokushima (Ulva prolifera), and Ehime prefecture (Ulva linza). Apocarotenoids, such as ionones, and their derivatives were prominent volatiles in algae from Okayama (Ulva prolifera) and Tokushima prefecture (Ulva prolifera). Volatile, short chained apocarotenoids are among the most potent flavor components and contribute to the flavor of fresh, processed algae, and algae-based products. Benzaldehyde was predominant in seaweed from Shizuoka prefecture (Monostroma nitidum). Multivariant statistical analysis (PCA) enabled simple discrimination of the samples based on their volatile profiles. This work shows the potential of SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariant analysis to discriminate between samples of different geographical and botanical origins and form the basis for development of authentication methods of green algae products, including seasonings. PMID:24592162

Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Akira; Mase, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Naoharu

2014-01-01

175

In Vivo Characterization of the Electrochemical Proton Gradient Generated in Darkness in Green Algae and Its Kinetic Effects on Cytochrome b6f Turnover  

E-print Network

Algae and Its Kinetic Effects on Cytochrome b6f Turnover Giovanni Finazzi*, and Fabrice Rappaport CNRSV) fits well with estimations based on the ATP/ADP ratio measured in green algae under the same conditions dark incubation of algae, the electrochemical transmembrane potential is determined only

176

Hemagglutination method for detection of freshwater cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) toxins.  

PubMed Central

Strains of the freshwater cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) Anabaena flosaquae and Microcystis aeruginosa produced toxins that caused intermittent but repeated cases of livestock, waterfowl, and other animal deaths. They also caused illness, especially gastrointestinal, in humans. The most common group of toxins produced by these two species were peptide toxins termed microcystin, M. Aeruginosa type c, and anatoxin-c. A method was found to detect the toxins which utilizes their ability to cause agglutination of isolated blood cells from mice, rats, and humans. The method could detect the toxin in samples from natural algal blooms, laboratory cultures, and toxin extracts. The method consists of: (i) washing lyophilized cyanobacteria cells with physiological saline (0.9% NaCl), (ii) centrifuging the suspension and then mixing portions of the cell-free supernatant with equal volumes of saline-washed erythrocytes in V-shaped microtiter plates, (iii) allowing the mixture to stand for 3 to 4 h, and (iv) scoring the presence of the toxin as indicated by blood cell agglutination. Nontoxic strains, as determined by intraperitoneal mouse bioassay of cyanobacteria or green algae, did not produce an agglutination response. Images PMID:6787984

Carmichael, W W; Bent, P E

1981-01-01

177

Phagotrophy by the picoeukaryotic green alga Micromonas: implications for Arctic Oceans.  

PubMed

Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPE) are recognized as major primary producers and contributors to phytoplankton biomass in oceanic and coastal environments. Molecular surveys indicate a large phylogenetic diversity in the picoeukaryotes, with members of the Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyseae tending to be more common in open ocean waters and Prasinophyceae dominating coastal and Arctic waters. In addition to their role as primary producers, PPE have been identified in several studies as mixotrophic and major predators of prokaryotes. Mixotrophy, the combination of photosynthesis and phagotrophy in a single organism, is well established for most photosynthetic lineages. However, green algae, including prasinophytes, were widely considered as a purely photosynthetic group. The prasinophyte Micromonas is perhaps the most common picoeukaryote in coastal and Arctic waters and is one of the relatively few cultured representatives of the picoeukaryotes available for physiological investigations. In this study, we demonstrate phagotrophy by a strain of Micromonas (CCMP2099) isolated from Arctic waters and show that environmental factors (light and nutrient concentration) affect ingestion rates in this mixotroph. In addition, we show size-selective feeding with a preference for smaller particles, and determine P vs I (photosynthesis vs irradiance) responses in different nutrient conditions. If other strains have mixotrophic abilities similar to Micromonas CCMP2099, the widespread distribution and frequently high abundances of Micromonas suggest that these green algae may have significant impact on prokaryote populations in several oceanic regimes. PMID:24553471

McKie-Krisberg, Zaid M; Sanders, Robert W

2014-10-01

178

A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa.  

PubMed

Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Gal?/?1-6Gal?1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Gal?1-6Gal?1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria. PMID:25157808

Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Ito, Makoto

2014-10-01

179

Cell death in the unicellular green alga Micrasterias upon H2O2 induction  

PubMed Central

In the present study we investigate whether the unicellular green alga Micrasterias denticulata is capable of executing programmed cell death (PCD) upon experimental induction and by which morphological, molecular and physiological hallmarks it is characterized. This is particularly interesting as unicellular fresh water green algae growing in shallow bog ponds are exposed to extreme environmental conditions and the capability to perform PCD may provide an important strategy to guarantee survival of the population. The theoretically “immortal” alga Micrasterias is an ideal object for such investigations as it has served as a cell biological model system since many years and details on its growth properties, physiology and ultrastructure throughout the cell cycle are well known. Treatment with low concentrations of H2O2 known to induce PCD in other organisms resulted in severe ultrastructural changes of organelles as observed in TEM. These include deformation and partly disintegration of mitochondria, abnormal dilatation of cisternal rims of dictyosomes, the occurrence of multivesicular bodies, an increase in the number of ER compartments and slight condensation of chromatin. Additionally, a statistically significant increase in caspase-3-like activity could be detected which was abrogated by a caspase-3 inhibitor. Photosynthetic activity measured by fast chlorophyll fluorescence decreased as a consequence of H2O2 exposure whereas pigment composition, except of a reduction in carotenoids, was the same as in untreated controls. TUNEL positive staining and ladder-like degradation of DNA, both frequently regarded as PCD hallmark in higher plants could only be detected in dead Micrasterias cells. PMID:18950431

Darehshouri, Anza; Affenzeller, Matthias; Lutz-Meindl, Ursula

2010-01-01

180

Sterols in red and green algae: quantification, phylogeny, and relevance for the interpretation of geologic steranes.  

PubMed

Steroids, a class of triterpenoid lipids with high preservation potential, are widely distributed in sedimentary rocks. All eukaryotes have a physiological requirement for these molecules, making steroids important biomarkers for aiding our understanding of eukaryote molecular evolution and geologic history. C(26)-C(30) sterols are the molecules most commonly incorporated or synthesized by eukaryotes, and correspond to C(26)-C(30) steranes ubiquitously and abundantly preserved in petroleums and sedimentary bitumens. Because these sterols occur in evolutionarily diverse taxa, it can be difficult to associate any particular compound with a single group of organisms. Nevertheless, geochemists have still been able to draw parallels between the empirical patterns in geologic sterane abundances and the age of petroleum source rocks. Paleobiologists have also used sterane data, in particular the patterns in C(29) and C(28) steranes, to support fossil evidence of an early radiation of green algae in latest Proterozoic and Paleozoic and the succession of the major modern phytoplankton groups in the Mesozoic. Although C(29) sterols are found in many eukaryotes, organisms that produce them in proportional abundances comparable to those preserved in Proterozoic and Paleozoic rocks are limited. Based on a large, phylogenetically based survey of sterol profiles from the kingdom Plantae, we conclude that modern ulvophyte and early diverging prasinophyte green algae produce high abundances of C(29) relative to C(27) and C(28) sterols most consistent with the sterane profiles observed in Paleozoic rocks. Our analysis also suggests that ancestral stem groups among the Plantae, including the glaucocystophytes and early divergent red algae are also plausible candidates. PMID:18624688

Kodner, R B; Pearson, A; Summons, R E; Knoll, A H

2008-08-01

181

Estrogenic activity in extracts and exudates of cyanobacteria and green algae.  

PubMed

Here is presented some of the first information on interactions of compounds produced by cyanobacteria and green algae with estrogen receptor signaling. Estrogenic potency of aqueous extracts and exudates (culture spent media with extracellular products) of seven species of cyanobacteria (10 different laboratory strains) and two algal species were assessed by use of in vitro trans-activation assays. Compounds produced by cyanobacteria and algae, and in particular those excreted from the cells, were estrogenic. Most exudates were estrogenic with potencies expressed at 50% of the maximum response under control of the estrogen receptor ranging from 0.2 to 7.2 ng 17?-estradiol (E(2)) equivalents (EEQ)/L. The greatest estrogenic potency was observed for exudates of Microcystis aerigunosa, a common species that forms water blooms. Aqueous extracts of both green algae, but only one species of cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon gracile) elicited significant estrogenicity with EEQ ranging from 15 to 280 ng 17?-estradiol (E(2))/g dry weight. Scenedesmus quadricauda exudates and extracts of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae were antagonistic to the ER when coexposed to E(2). The EEQ potency was not correlated with concentrations of cyanotoxins, such as microcystin and cylindrospermopsin, which suggests that the EEQ was comprised of other compounds. The study demonstrates some differences between the estrogenic potency of aqueous extracts prepared from the same species, but of different origin, while the effects of exudates were comparable within species. The observed estrogenic potencies are important namely in relation to the possible mass expansion of cyanobacteria and release of the active compounds into surrounding water. PMID:22208753

Sychrová, E; Št?pánková, T; Nováková, K; Bláha, L; Giesy, J P; Hilscherová, K

2012-02-01

182

Iron colloids reduce the bioavailability of phosphorus to the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata.  

PubMed

Phosphorus (P) is a limiting nutrient in many aquatic systems. The bioavailability of P in natural waters strongly depends on its speciation. In this study, structural properties of iron colloids were determined and related to their effect on P sorption and P bioavailability. The freshwater green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata was exposed to media spiked with radiolabelled (33)PO4, and the uptake of (33)P was monitored for 1 h. The media contained various concentrations of synthetic iron colloids with a size between 10 kDa and 0.45 ?m. The iron colloids were stabilised by natural organic matter. EXAFS spectroscopy showed that these colloids predominantly consisted of ferrihydrite with small amounts of organically complexed Fe. In colloid-free treatments, the P uptake flux by the algae obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. In the presence of iron colloids at 9 or 90 ?M Fe, corresponding to molar P:Fe ratios between 0.02 and 0.17, the truly dissolved P (<10 kDa) was between 4 and 60% of the total dissolved P (<0.45 ?m). These colloids reduced the P uptake flux by R. subcapitata compared to colloid-free treatments at the same total dissolved P concentration. However, the P uptake flux from colloid containing solutions equalled that from colloid-free ones when expressed as truly dissolved P. This demonstrates that colloidal P did not contribute to the P uptake flux. It is concluded that, on the short term, phosphate adsorbed to ferrihydrite colloids is not available to the green alga R. subcapitata. PMID:24797616

Baken, Stijn; Nawara, Sophie; Van Moorleghem, Christoff; Smolders, Erik

2014-08-01

183

Green and blue-light-mediated chloroplast migration in the centric diatom Pleurosira laevis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The existence of two photoreceptors regulating chloroplast orientation was found in the centric diatomPleurosira laevis. Chloroplasts migrate through the transvacuolar cytoplasmic strands according to the light conditions. Weak white light of less than 46 µmol\\/m2 · s (10 W\\/m2) induces chloroplast movement to the cortical cytoplasm, which is located next to the plasma membrane (dispersion), while intense white light

T. Furukawa; M. Watanabe; I. Shihira-Ishikawa

1998-01-01

184

Growth and Metabolism of the Green Alga, Chlorella Pyrenoidosa, in Simulated Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effect of microgravity on living organisms during space flight has been a topic of interest for some time, and a substantial body of knowledge on the subject has accumulated. Despite this, comparatively little information is available regarding the influence of microgravity on algae, even though it has been suggested for long duration flight or occupancy in space that plant growth systems, including both higher plants and algae, are likely to be necessary for bioregenerative life support systems. High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating-Wall Vessel or HARV bioreactors developed at Johnson Space Center provide a laboratory-based approach to investigating the effects of microgravity on cellular reactions. In this study, the HARV bioreactor was used to examine the influence of simulated microgravity on the growth and metabolism of the green alga, Chlorella pyrenoidosa. After the first 2 days of culture, cell numbers increased more slowly in simulated microgravity than in the HARV gravity control; after 7 days, growth in simulated microgravity was just over half (58%) that of the gravity control and at 14 days it was less than half (42%). Chlorophyll and protein were also followed as indices of cell competence and function; as with growth, after 2-3 days, protein and chlorophyll levels were reduced in modeled microgravity compared to gravity controls. Photosynthesis is a sensitive biochemical index of the fitness of photosynthetic organisms; thus, CO2-dependent O2 evolution was tested as a measure of photosynthetic capacity of cells grown in simulated microgravity. When data were expressed with respect to cell number, modeled microgravity appeared to have little effect on CO2 fixation. Thus, even though the overall growth rate was lower for cells cultured in microgravity, the photosynthetic capacity of the cells appears to be unaffected. Cells grown in simulated microgravity formed loose clumps or aggregates within about 2 days of culture, with aggregation increasing over time. Presently, the basis for, or significance of, the cell aggregation is unknown. The results from this study suggest that cell growth and morphological characteristics of green algae may be altered by culture in simulated microgravity. The data obtained to date should provide a solid basis for additional experimentation regarding the influence of modeled microgravity on cell morphology, physiological activity, protein production and possibly gene expression in algal and plant cell systems. The final aim of the study is to provide useful information to elucidate the underlying mechanism for the biological effects of microgravity on cells.

Mills, W. Ronald

2003-01-01

185

Survival and reproduction of some blue-green and green algae as affected by sewage water, fertilizer factory effluent, brassica oil, phenol, toluene and benzene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen blue-green and green algae survived for widely different time periods ranging between 22–102 d in control culture\\u000a medium. Irrespective of their long or short survival period in control cultures, their pro- or eukaryotic nature, their different\\u000a morphological types or natural habitats, they all survived for a short time period ranging between 3–8 d in sewage water,\\u000a 5–10 d in

S. C. Agrawal; S. Gupta

2009-01-01

186

Cyanolichens can have both cyanobacteria and green algae in a common layer as major contributors to photosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims Cyanolichens are usually stated to be bipartite (mycobiont plus cyanobacterial photobiont). Analyses revealed green algal carbohydrates in supposedly cyanobacterial lichens (in the genera Pseudocyphellaria, Sticta and Peltigera). Investigations were carried out to determine if both cyanobacteria and green algae were present in these lichens and, if so, what were their roles. Methods The types of photobiont present were determined by light and fluorescence microscopy. Small carbohydrates were analysed to detect the presence of green algal metabolites. Thalli were treated with selected strengths of Zn2+ solutions that stop cyanobacterial but not green algal photosynthesis. CO2 exchange was measured before and after treatment to determine the contribution of each photobiont to total thallus photosynthesis. Heterocyst frequencies were determined to clarify whether the cyanobacteria were modified for increased nitrogen fixation (high heterocyst frequencies) or were normal, vegetative cells. Key Results Several cyanobacterial lichens had green algae present in the photosynthetic layer of the thallus. The presence of the green algal transfer carbohydrate (ribitol) and the incomplete inhibition of thallus photosynthesis upon treatment with Zn2+ solutions showed that both photobionts contributed to the photosynthesis of the lichen thallus. Low heterocyst frequencies showed that, despite the presence of adjacent green algae, the cyanobacteria were not altered to increase nitrogen fixation. Conclusions These cyanobacterial lichens are a tripartite lichen symbiont combination in which the mycobiont has two primarily photosynthetic photobionts, ‘co-primary photobionts’, a cyanobacterium (dominant) and a green alga. This demonstrates high flexibility in photobiont choice by the mycobiont in the Peltigerales. Overall thallus appearance does not change whether one or two photobionts are present in the cyanobacterial thallus. This suggests that, if there is a photobiont effect on thallus structure, it is not specific to one or the other photobiont. PMID:22648879

Henskens, Frieda L.; Green, T. G. Allan; Wilkins, Alistair

2012-01-01

187

Bioaccumulation and toxicity of selenium compounds in the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda  

PubMed Central

Background Selenium is a trace element performing important biological functions in many organisms including humans. It usually affects organisms in a strictly dosage-dependent manner being essential at low and toxic at higher concentrations. The impact of selenium on mammalian and land plant cells has been quite extensively studied. Information about algal cells is rare despite of the fact that they could produce selenium enriched biomass for biotechnology purposes. Results We studied the impact of selenium compounds on the green chlorococcal alga Scenedesmus quadricauda. Both the dose and chemical forms of Se were critical factors in the cellular response. Se toxicity increased in cultures grown under sulfur deficient conditions. We selected three strains of Scenedesmus quadricauda specifically resistant to high concentrations of inorganic selenium added as selenite (Na2SeO3) – strain SeIV, selenate (Na2SeO4) – strain SeVI or both – strain SeIV+VI. The total amount of Se and selenomethionine in biomass increased with increasing concentration of Se in the culturing media. The selenomethionine made up 30–40% of the total Se in biomass. In both the wild type and Se-resistant strains, the activity of thioredoxin reductase, increased rapidly in the presence of the form of selenium for which the given algal strain was not resistant. Conclusion The selenium effect on the green alga Scenedesmus quadricauda was not only dose dependent, but the chemical form of the element was also crucial. With sulfur deficiency, the selenium toxicity increases, indicating interference of Se with sulfur metabolism. The amount of selenium and SeMet in algal biomass was dependent on both the type of compound and its dose. The activity of thioredoxin reductase was affected by selenium treatment in dose-dependent and toxic-dependent manner. The findings implied that the increase in TR activity in algal cells was a stress response to selenium cytotoxicity. Our study provides a new insight into the impact of selenium on green algae, especially with regard to its toxicity and bioaccumulation. PMID:19445666

Umysova, Dasa; Vitova, Milada; Douskova, Irena; Bisova, Katerina; Hlavova, Monika; Cizkova, Maria; Machat, Jiri; Doucha, Jiri; Zachleder, Vilem

2009-01-01

188

Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years  

PubMed Central

Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

2014-01-01

189

Astaxanthin biosynthesis from simultaneous N and P uptake by the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis in primary-treated wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative microalgal system for biological wastewater treatment is proposed for both the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from wastewater and the production of a valuable carotenoid, astaxanthin. The system consists of sequential photoautotrophic cultivation and induction processes using the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis. The Haematococcus process was applied to primary-treated sewage (PTS) and primary-treated piggery wastewater (PTP) with serial

Chang Duk Kang; Jin Young An; Tai Hyun Park; Sang Jun Sim

2006-01-01

190

IDENTIFICATION OF A PSYCHROPHILIC GREEN ALGA FROM LAKE BONNEY ANTARCTICA: CHLAMYDOMONAS RAUDENSIS ETTL. (UWO 241) CHLOROPHYCEAE1  

E-print Network

is positioned to the west of the lake. The lake is unique because of the strong vertical stratification of itsIDENTIFICATION OF A PSYCHROPHILIC GREEN ALGA FROM LAKE BONNEY ANTARCTICA: CHLAMYDOMONAS RAUDENSIS-covered lake, Lake Bonney, Ant- arctica. Here we identify and report the first de- tailed morphological

Priscu, John C.

191

Phylogenetic Species, Reproductive Mode, and Specificity of the Green Alga Trebouxia Forming Lichens with the Fungal Genus Letharia  

E-print Network

, or to Letharia phylogenetically tracking Trebouxia. Allopatric Letharia vulpina has switched to a genetically Lichens with the Fungal Genus Letharia Author(s): Scott Kroken and John W. Taylor Source: The Bryologist of the Green Alga Trebouxia Forming Lichens with the Fungal Genus Letharia SCOTTrrKROKEN1 AND JOHN W. TAYLOR2

California at Berkeley, University of

192

Effects of Nutrient Enrichment on the Growth of the Green Alga Spirogyra in Conesus Lake, N.Y  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spirogyra is a ?lamentous green alga that inhabits the streams and lakes of North America, including Conesus Lake, NY. Two separate experiments were designed to determine if nutrient enhancement had an effect on Spirogyra growth. In one experiment, known quantities of Spirogyra were placed in 12 containers provided with mesh screens. The containers were separated into three groups and held

Pam McKernan; Stacey Juliano

193

Alpha-oxidation of long-chain unsaturated fatty acids in the marine green alga Ulva pertusa.  

PubMed

When long-chain unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acid were incubated with crude enzymes from the marine green alga Ulva pertusa, the corresponding (R)-2-hydroperoxy acids were formed with a high enantiomeric excess (>99%). PMID:11210134

Akakabe, Y; Matsui, K; Kajiwara, T

2000-12-01

194

Basal bodies and associated structures are not required for normal flagellar motion or phototaxis in the green alga Chlorogonium elongatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interphase flagellar apparatus of the green alga Chlorogonium elongatum resembles that of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the possession of microtubular rootlets and striated fibers. However, Chlorogonium, unlike Chlamydomonas, retains functional flagella during cell division. In dividing cells, the basal bodies and associated structures are no longer present at the flagellar bases, but have apparently detached and migrated towards the cell

Harold J. Hoops; George B. Witman

1985-01-01

195

Antifungal cyclic peptides from the terrestrial blue-green alga Anabaena laxa. I. Isolation and biological properties.  

PubMed

Laxaphycins are responsible for the antifungal and cytotoxic activity of crude ethanolic extracts from the cultured blue-green alga Anabaena laxa. These cyclic peptides exhibit an unusual biological synergism when tested for antifungal or cytotoxic effects. The isolation procedure for the peptides, their characterization and biological activities are described here along with experiments demonstrating synergism between the two major laxaphycins. PMID:1429231

Frankmölle, W P; Larsen, L K; Caplan, F R; Patterson, G M; Knübel, G; Levine, I A; Moore, R E

1992-09-01

196

The influence of nitrogen on heterocyst production in blue-green algae  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A series of experiments on heterocyst production in Anabaena variabilis provides some strong indirect evidence for the role of heterocysts in nitrogen fixation. Of the algae tested (Anabaena variabilis, A. inaequalis, A. cylindrica, A. flos-aquae, Tolypothrix distorta, Gloeotrichia echinulata, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Oscillatoria sp., and Microcystis aeruginosa), only those with heterocysts grew in a nitrate-free medium. Growth in the nitrate-free medium was accompanied by an increase in heterocysts. Heterocyst formation in A. variabilis was evident 24 hr after transfer from a nitrate-containing to a nitrate-free medium. The number of heterocysts was altered by changes in the nitrogen source. Numbers were lowest when NH4-N was used as a nitrogen source and highest when nitrogen (N2-N) was derived from the atmosphere. Heterocyst numbers could also be regulated by controlling the concentration of NO3-N in the medium. Heterocyst production depended on the absence of combined nitrogen and the presence of phosphate. Data are presented on the occurrence of blue-green algae (with heterocysts) in Lake Erie and the environmental conditions apparently necessary for them to become dominant.

Ogawa, Roann E.; Carr, John F.

1969-01-01

197

Effect of aluminum and zinc on enzyme activities in the green Alga Selenastrum capricorutum  

SciTech Connect

Acid rain produced by atmospheric pollution may decrease the pH value of water and increase the availability and potential toxicity of metals in water which have detrimental effects on aquatic organism, including algae, the important component of the primary production, and, thus, the entire aquatic food chain. Recent reviews of the effects of acid rain on freshwater ecosystems have emphasized research interest in soluble trivalent aluminum, although Al is rated low among trace metals in biological importance. On the other hand, zinc is an important trace element for the growth of phytoplankton and the cofactor of some enzymes. The growth response and tolerance of different species of algae to Al and Zn have been reported by Whitton who showed that algal growth would be stimulated by lower levels of the metals and totally inhibited by higher levels. These is little information, however, on the effect of Al on biochemical processes in aquatic organisms. This study investigates the influence of aluminum and zinc on several physioclogical processes in S. capricournutum, a common species of green algal in lake water. Algal growth (dry weight), ATP levels and the activities of several enzymes in the algal cells were measured after the treatment with various concentrations of Al and Zn in culture medium. Special attention is given to the relation between the enzymatic response and algal growth. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

Kong, F.X.; Chen, Y. [Nanjing Univ. (China)

1995-11-01

198

The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as an experimental system to study chloroplast RNA metabolism.  

PubMed

Chloroplasts are typical organelles of photoautotrophic eukaryotic cells which drive a variety of functions, including photosynthesis. For many years the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has served as an experimental organism for studying photosynthetic processes. The recent development of molecular tools for this organism together with efficient methods of genetic analysis and the availability of many photosynthesis mutants has now made this alga a powerful model system for the analysis of chloroplast biogenesis. For example, techniques have been developed to transfer recombinant DNA into both the nuclear and the chloroplast genome. This allows both complementation tests and analyses of gene functions in vivo. Moreover, site-specific DNA recombinations in the chloroplast allow targeted gene disruption experiments which enable a "reverse genetics" to be performed. The potential of the algal system for the study of chloroplast biogenesis is illustrated in this review by the description of regulatory systems of gene expression involved in organelle biogenesis. One example concerns the regulation of trans-splicing of chloroplast mRNAs, a process which is controlled by both multiple nuclear- and chloroplast-encoded factors. The second example involves the stabilization of chloroplast mRNAs. The available data lead us predict distinct RNA elements, which interact with trans-acting factors to protect the RNA against nucleolytic attacks. PMID:10798194

Nickelsen, J; Kück, U

2000-03-01

199

Two light-activated conductances in the eye of the green alga Volvox carteri.  

PubMed Central

Photoreceptor currents of the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri were analyzed using a dissolver mutant. The photocurrents are restricted to the eyespot region of somatic cells. Photocurrents are detectable from intact cells and excised eyes. The rhodopsin action spectrum suggests that the currents are induced by Volvox rhodopsin. Flash-induced photocurrents are a composition of a fast Ca2+-carried current (PF) and a slower current (PS), which is carried by H+. PF is a high-intensity response that appears with a delay of less than 50 micros after flash. The stimulus-response curve of its initial rise is fit by a single exponential and parallels the rhodopsin bleaching. These two observations suggest that the responsible channel is closely connected to the rhodopsin, both forming a tight complex. At low flash energies PS is dominating. The current delay increases up to 10 ms, and the PS amplitude saturates when only a few percent of the rhodopsin is bleached. The data are in favor of a second signaling system, which includes a signal transducer mediating between rhodopsin and the channel. We present a model of how different modes of signal transduction are accomplished in this alga under different light conditions. PMID:10049347

Braun, F J; Hegemann, P

1999-01-01

200

Sulfated Oligosaccharides Mediate the Interaction between a Marine Red Alga and Its Green Algal Pathogenic Endophyte.  

PubMed Central

The endophytic green alga Acrochaete operculata completely colonizes the sporophytes of the red alga Chondrus crispus; however, it does not penetrate beyond the outer cell layers of the gametophytes. Given that the life cycle phases of C. crispus differ in the sulfation pattern of their extracellular matrix carrageenans, we investigated whether carra-geenan fragments could modulate parasite virulence. lambda-Carrageenan oligosaccharides induced release of H(2)O(2), stimulated protein synthesis, increased carrageenolytic activity, and induced specific polypeptides in the pathogen, resulting in a marked increase in pathogenicity. In contrast, kappa-carrageenan oligosaccharides did not induce a marked release of H(2)O(2) from A. operculata but hindered amino acid uptake and enhanced their recognition by the host, resulting in a reduced virulence. Moreover, C. crispus life cycle phases were shown to behave differently in their response to challenge with cell-free extracts of A. operculata. Gametophytes exhibited a large burst of H(2)O(2), whereas only low levels were released from the sporophytes. PMID:10488232

Bouarab, K; Potin, P; Correa, J; Kloareg, B

1999-01-01

201

The Unicellular Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as an Experimental System to Study Chloroplast RNA Metabolism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chloroplasts are typical organelles of photoautotrophic eukaryotic cells which drive a variety of functions, including photosynthesis. For many years the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has served as an experimental organism for studying photosynthetic processes. The recent development of molecular tools for this organism together with efficient methods of genetic analysis and the availability of many photosynthesis mutants has now made this alga a powerful model system for the analysis of chloroplast biogenesis. For example, techniques have been developed to transfer recombinant DNA into both the nuclear and the chloroplast genome. This allows both complementation tests and analyses of gene functions in vivo. Moreover, site-specific DNA recombinations in the chloroplast allow targeted gene disruption experiments which enable a "reverse genetics" to be performed. The potential of the algal system for the study of chloroplast biogenesis is illustrated in this review by the description of regulatory systems of gene expression involved in organelle biogenesis. One example concerns the regulation of trans-splicing of chloroplast mRNAs, a process which is controlled by both multiple nuclear- and chloroplast-encoded factors. The second example involves the stabilization of chloroplast mRNAs. The available data lead us predict distinct RNA elements, which interact with trans-acting factors to protect the RNA against nucleolytic attacks.

Nickelsen, J.; Kück, U.

202

Viruses of eukaryotic green algae; Progress report, June 20, 1990--July 1, 1991  

SciTech Connect

Many large polyhedral, dsDNA containing (ca. 330 kb), plaque forming viruses which infect a unicellular, eukaryotic, chlorella-like green alga have been isolated and characterized. The plaque assay, the ability to synchronously infect the host, the short life cycle, and the ability of the viruses to undergo homologous recombination make them excellent model systems for studying many plant cell functions in the manner that bacterial and animal viruses have been used to study bacterial and animal cell functions. These viruses have several unique features including: (1) coding for DNA methyltransferase and site-specific (restriction) endonucleases and (2) unlike other viruses, these viruses appear to code for the enzymes involved in the glycosylation of their glycoproteins.

Van Etten, J.L.

1991-12-31

203

Multidisciplinary research in photosynthesis: A case history based on the green alga Chlamydomonas.  

PubMed

This article examines the contribution of a unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas to progress in photosynthetic research. The objective is to focus on the aspects of Chlamydomonas that have provided an advantage over other photosynthetic organisms in investigating photosynthesis. To do this we discuss several examples that demonstrate the progress from a genetic study to a multidisciplinary approach that probes higher levels of complexity within the organism. These examples include the function and molecular regulation of electron transport components between photosystem II and photosystem I, the molecular genetics of the herbicide binding protein of photosystem II, and several different studies that have derived from a search for rubisco (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) mutants in Chlamydomonas, including chloroplast ribosome function, the regulation of the large subunit of rubisco, and the interaction between photosynthetic electron transport and carbon metabolism. PMID:24435389

Togasaki, R K; Whitmarsh, J

1986-01-01

204

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using polysaccharides extracted from marine macro algae.  

PubMed

Green synthesis of nanoparticles that have environmentally acceptable solvent systems and eco-friendly reducing agents is of great importance. The aim of this work was to synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using water soluble polysaccharides extracted from four marine macro-algae, namely, Pterocladia capillacae (Pc), Jania rubins (Jr), Ulva faciata (Uf), and Colpmenia sinusa (Cs) as reducing agents for silver ions as well as stabilizing agents for the synthesized AgNPs. The formed Ag-NPs have been confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR analysis and TEM. The resultant Ag-NPs colloidal solutions were applied to cotton fabrics in presence and absence of citric acid (CA) or a binder (B). The antimicrobial activity of the treated fabrics was evaluated. The results revealed that the antimicrobial activity depends on type of the fabric treatment, size of the synthesized Ag-NPs and the algal species used for polysaccharides extraction. PMID:23768580

El-Rafie, H M; El-Rafie, M H; Zahran, M K

2013-07-25

205

Seawater-based methane production from blue-green algae biomass by marine bacteria coculture  

SciTech Connect

Marine-enriched culture NKM 004 produced methane from various carbohydrates, but methane production was inhibited by sulfate and acetate accumulated in the medium. On the other hand, marine methanogenic bacterium NKM 006 produced methane from acetate and methyltrophic substrates, and methane production was not inhibited by sulfate. The mixture of NKM 004 and NKM 006 continuously produced methane from marine blue-green algae Dermocarpa species NKBG 102B at 54 ..mu..mol/L medium/h for 200 h and the dry weight of the algal biomass was decreased to 25% of the initial weight in the natural seawater. Conversion of algal carbohydrate (glucose equivalent) to methane was 65%. Results indicate that this system is promising for methane production based on seawater and solar energy.

Matsunaga, T.; Izumida, H.

1984-01-01

206

Assessment of blue-green algae in substantially reducing nitrogen fertilizer requirements for biomass fuel crops  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory, mass culture, and field studies are being undertaken in order to assess the potential of using blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) as nitrogen biofertilizers on irrigated ground. Of seven candidate strains, two were chosen for application to replicated field plots sown to field corn and the basis of laboratory-scale soil tray experiments and ease of semi-continuous 8000 l culture. Chosen were Anabaena BM-165, isolated from a local soil and Tolypothrix tenuis, imported from India. Using the acetylene reduction method, Anabaena is estimated from laboratory soil experiments to be able to fix from 30 to 62 kg N/ha/y, and has been mass cultured to a density of 1527 mg dry wt/l. T. tenuis is estimated from laboratory experiments to be able to fix from 27 to 65 kg N/ha/y, and has been mass cultured to a density of 1630 mg dry wt/l.

Anderson, D.B.; Molten, P.M.; Metting, B.

1981-07-01

207

Hydrogen production by a green alga, chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in an alternating light/dark cycle  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of H2 in the dark period of a light/dark cycle by a green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, was studied with the aim of developing a two-stage biophotolysis system. The algal cells accumulated starch during the growth period in light. When these cells were incubated microaerobically in the dark, hydrogenase activity was induced without an appreciable lag time and thereby H2 evolution was observed for several hours to more than 10 h, depending upon the amount of added O2. The cells harvested in the midlogarithmic growth phase were the most efficient in production of H2 in the dark. H2 evolution was highly dependent on temperature, but rather insensitive to pH values from 5-9. based on these observations, alternating production of O2 and H2 was demonstrated repeatedly in a 12-h light/dark cycle. (Refs. 11).

Miura, Y.; Yagi, K.; Shoga, M.; Miyamoto, K.

1982-07-01

208

Hydrogen production by a Green Alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in an alternating light/dark cycle  

SciTech Connect

The evolution of H/sub 2/ in the dark period of a light/dark cycle by a green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, was studied with the aim of developing a two-stage biophotolysis system. The algal cells accumulated starch during the growth period in light. When these cells were incubated microaerobically in the dark, hydrogenase activity was induced without an appreciable lag time and thereby H/sub 2/ evolution was observed for several hours to more than 10 h, depending upon the amount of added O/sub 2/. The cells harvested in the midlogarithmic growth phase were the most efficient in production of H/sub 2/ in the dark. H/sub 2/ evolution was highly dependent on temperature, but rather insensitive to pH values from 5-9. Based on these observations, alternating production of O/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/ was demonstrated repeatedly in a 12-h light/dark cycle.

Miura, Y.; Miyamoto, K.; Shoga, M.; Yagi, K.

1982-07-01

209

Sensitivity evaluation of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to uranium by pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry.  

PubMed

Although ecotoxicological studies tend to address the toxicity thresholds of uranium in freshwaters, there is a lack of information on the effects of the metal on physiological processes, particularly in aquatic plants. Knowing that uranium alters photosynthesis via impairment of the water photo-oxidation process, we determined whether pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry was a relevant tool for assessing the impact of uranium on the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and investigated how and to what extent uranium hampered photosynthetic performance. Photosynthetic activity and quenching were assessed from fluorescence induction curves generated by PAM fluorometry, after 1 and 5h of uranium exposure in controlled conditions. The oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of PSII was identified as the primary action site of uranium, through alteration of the water photo-oxidation process as revealed by F0/Fv. Limiting re-oxidation of the plastoquinone pool, uranium impaired the electron flux between the photosystems until almost complete inhibition of the PSII quantum efficiency ( [Formula: see text] , EC50=303 ± 64 ?g UL(-1) after 5h of exposure) was observed. Non-photochemical quenching (qN) was identified as the most sensitive fluorescence parameter (EC50=142 ± 98 ?g UL(-1) after 5h of exposure), indicating that light energy not used in photochemistry was dissipated in non-radiative processes. It was shown that parameters which stemmed from fluorescence induction kinetics are valuable indicators for evaluating the impact of uranium on PSII in green algae. PAM fluorometry provided a rapid and reasonably sensitive method for assessing stress response to uranium in microalgae. PMID:23851055

Herlory, Olivier; Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Gilbin, Rodolphe

2013-09-15

210

Transformation of the Green Alga Haematococcus pluvialis with a Phytoene Desaturase for Accelerated Astaxanthin Biosynthesis?  

PubMed Central

Astaxanthin is a high-value carotenoid which is used as a pigmentation source in fish aquaculture. Additionally, a beneficial role of astaxanthin as a food supplement for humans has been suggested. The unicellular alga Haematococcus pluvialis is a suitable biological source for astaxanthin production. In the context of the strong biotechnological relevance of H. pluvialis, we developed a genetic transformation protocol for metabolic engineering of this green alga. First, the gene coding for the carotenoid biosynthesis enzyme phytoene desaturase was isolated from H. pluvialis and modified by site-directed mutagenesis, changing the leucine codon at position 504 to an arginine codon. In an in vitro assay, the modified phytoene desaturase was still active in conversion of phytoene to ?-carotene and exhibited 43-fold-higher resistance to the bleaching herbicide norflurazon. Upon biolistic transformation using the modified phytoene desaturase gene as a reporter and selection with norflurazon, integration into the nuclear genome of H. pluvialis and phytoene desaturase gene and protein expression were demonstrated by Southern, Northern, and Western blotting, respectively, in 11 transformants. Some of the transformants had a higher carotenoid content in the green state, which correlated with increased nonphotochemical quenching. This measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence can be used as a screening procedure for stable transformants. Stress induction of astaxanthin biosynthesis by high light showed that there was accelerated accumulation of astaxanthin in one of the transformants compared to the accumulation in the wild type. Our results strongly indicate that the modified phytoene desaturase gene is a useful tool for genetic engineering of carotenoid biosynthesis in H. pluvialis. PMID:17012596

Steinbrenner, Jens; Sandmann, Gerhard

2006-01-01

211

Pectin metabolism and assembly in the cell wall of the charophyte green alga Penium margaritaceum.  

PubMed

The pectin polymer homogalacturonan (HG) is a major component of land plant cell walls and is especially abundant in the middle lamella. Current models suggest that HG is deposited into the wall as a highly methylesterified polymer, demethylesterified by pectin methylesterase enzymes and cross-linked by calcium ions to form a gel. However, this idea is based largely on indirect evidence and in vitro studies. We took advantage of the wall architecture of the unicellular alga Penium margaritaceum, which forms an elaborate calcium cross-linked HG-rich lattice on its cell surface, to test this model and other aspects of pectin dynamics. Studies of live cells and microscopic imaging of wall domains confirmed that the degree of methylesterification and sufficient levels of calcium are critical for lattice formation in vivo. Pectinase treatments of live cells and immunological studies suggested the presence of another class of pectin polymer, rhamnogalacturonan I, and indicated its colocalization and structural association with HG. Carbohydrate microarray analysis of the walls of P. margaritaceum, Physcomitrella patens, and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) further suggested the conservation of pectin organization and interpolymer associations in the walls of green plants. The individual constituent HG polymers also have a similar size and branched structure to those of embryophytes. The HG-rich lattice of P. margaritaceum, a member of the charophyte green algae, the immediate ancestors of land plants, was shown to be important for cell adhesion. Therefore, the calcium-HG gel at the cell surface may represent an early evolutionary innovation that paved the way for an adhesive middle lamella in multicellular land plants. PMID:24652345

Domozych, David S; Sřrensen, Iben; Popper, Zoë A; Ochs, Julie; Andreas, Amanda; Fangel, Jonatan U; Pielach, Anna; Sacks, Carly; Brechka, Hannah; Ruisi-Besares, Pia; Willats, William G T; Rose, Jocelyn K C

2014-05-01

212

Diatom Communities and Metrics as Indicators of Urbanization Effects on Streams and Potential Moderation by Landscape Green Infrastructure  

EPA Science Inventory

Diatoms are very useful and important indicators of anthropogenic impacts on streams because they are the foundation of primary production and are responsive to nutrients, conductivity, and habitat conditions. We characterized relationships of diatom assemblages with water chemis...

213

The effects of initial population density on the competition for limiting nutrients in two freshwater algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen long-term competition experiments were performed on two freshwater algae, a blue-green alga, Anabaena flos-aquae, and a diatom, Cyclotella sp., under controlled light and temperature conditions and various nutrient limitations. As predicted, Anabaena displaced Cyclotella when nitrate was in short supply to both species, whereas Cyclotella became dominant when both species were phosphate-limited. The two species stably coexisted when phosphate

Shuhua Hu; Da-Yong Zhang

1993-01-01

214

From algae to angiosperms-inferring the phylogeny of green plants (Viridiplantae) from 360 plastid genomes  

PubMed Central

Background Next-generation sequencing has provided a wealth of plastid genome sequence data from an increasingly diverse set of green plants (Viridiplantae). Although these data have helped resolve the phylogeny of numerous clades (e.g., green algae, angiosperms, and gymnosperms), their utility for inferring relationships across all green plants is uncertain. Viridiplantae originated 700-1500 million years ago and may comprise as many as 500,000 species. This clade represents a major source of photosynthetic carbon and contains an immense diversity of life forms, including some of the smallest and largest eukaryotes. Here we explore the limits and challenges of inferring a comprehensive green plant phylogeny from available complete or nearly complete plastid genome sequence data. Results We assembled protein-coding sequence data for 78 genes from 360 diverse green plant taxa with complete or nearly complete plastid genome sequences available from GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses of the plastid data recovered well-supported backbone relationships and strong support for relationships that were not observed in previous analyses of major subclades within Viridiplantae. However, there also is evidence of systematic error in some analyses. In several instances we obtained strongly supported but conflicting topologies from analyses of nucleotides versus amino acid characters, and the considerable variation in GC content among lineages and within single genomes affected the phylogenetic placement of several taxa. Conclusions Analyses of the plastid sequence data recovered a strongly supported framework of relationships for green plants. This framework includes: i) the placement of Zygnematophyceace as sister to land plants (Embryophyta), ii) a clade of extant gymnosperms (Acrogymnospermae) with cycads?+?Ginkgo sister to remaining extant gymnosperms and with gnetophytes (Gnetophyta) sister to non-Pinaceae conifers (Gnecup trees), and iii) within the monilophyte clade (Monilophyta), Equisetales?+?Psilotales are sister to Marattiales?+?leptosporangiate ferns. Our analyses also highlight the challenges of using plastid genome sequences in deep-level phylogenomic analyses, and we provide suggestions for future analyses that will likely incorporate plastid genome sequence data for thousands of species. We particularly emphasize the importance of exploring the effects of different partitioning and character coding strategies. PMID:24533922

2014-01-01

215

Enzymes Related to Lactate Metabolism in Green Algae and Lower Land Plants 1  

PubMed Central

Cell-free extracts of Chlorella pyrenoidosa contained two enzymes capable of oxidizing d-lactate; these were glycolate dehydrogenase and NAD+-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase. The two enzymes could be distinguished by differential centrifugation, glycolate dehydrogenase being largely particulate and NAD+-d-lactate dehydrogenase being soluble. The reduction of pyruvate by NADH proceeded more rapidly than the reverse reaction, and the apparent Michaelis constants for pyruvate and NADH were lower than for d-lactate and NAD+. These data indicated that under physiological conditions, the NAD+-linked d-lactate dehydrogenase probably functions to produce d-lactate from pyruvate. Lactate dehydrogenase activity dependent on NAD+ was found in a number of other green algae and in the green tissues of a few lower land plants. When present in species which contain glycolate oxidase rather than glycolate dehydrogenase, the enzyme was specific for l-lactate rather than d-lactate. A cyclic system revolving around the production and utilization of d-lactate in some species and l-lactate in certain others is proposed. PMID:16658670

Gruber, Peter J.; Frederick, Sue Ellen; Tolbert, N. E.

1974-01-01

216

Composition, uniqueness and variability of the epiphytic bacterial community of the green alga Ulva australis  

PubMed Central

Green Ulvacean marine macroalgae are distributed worldwide in coastal tidal and subtidal ecosystems. As for many living surfaces in the marine environment, little is known concerning the epiphytic bacterial biofilm communities that inhabit algal surfaces. This study reports on the largest published libraries of near full-length 16S rRNA genes from a marine algal surface (5293 sequences from six samples) allowing for an in-depth assessment of the diversity and phylogenetic profile of the bacterial community on a green Ulvacean alga. Large 16S rRNA gene libraries of surrounding seawater were also used to determine the uniqueness of this bacterial community. The surface of Ulva australis is dominated by sequences of Alphaproteobacteria and the Bacteroidetes, especially within the Rhodobacteriaceae, Sphingomonadaceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Sapropiraceae families. Seawater libraries were also dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes sequences, but were shown to be clearly distinct from U. australis libraries through the clustering of sequences into operational taxonomic units and Bray–Curtis similarity analysis. Almost no similarity was observed between these two environments at the species level, and only minor similarity was observed at levels of sequence clustering representing clades of bacteria within family and genus taxonomic groups. Variability between libraries of U. australis was relatively high, and a consistent sub-population of bacterial species was not detected. The competitive lottery model, originally derived to explain diversity in coral reef fishes, may explain the pattern of colonization of this algal surface. PMID:21048801

Burke, Catherine; Thomas, Torsten; Lewis, Matt; Steinberg, Peter; Kjelleberg, Staffan

2011-01-01

217

Marine diatoms in polar and sub-polar environments and their application to Late Pleistocene paleoclimate reconstruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diatoms are one of the major phytoplankton groups in polar and sub-polar marine environments along with green algae and chrysophytes. Diatoms are composed of two components, a two-valve test made of amorphous silica and an organic cell encapsulated into the test. Mucilage covering the test and proteins embedded in the silica lattice of the test completes the organic pool of the diatoms. The preservation of these two components into deep-sea sediments allows for a large set of diatom-based proxies to infer past oceanographic and climatic changes in polar and sub-polar marine environments. Most diatom species in polar and sub-polar marine environments exhibit a narrow range of ecological preferences, especially in terms of sea-surface temperature and sea ice conditions. Preserved diatom assemblages in deep-sea sediments mirror the diatom assemblages in the phytoplankton. It is subsequently possible to extrapolate the relationships between diatom assemblages in surface sediments and modern parameters to down-core fossil assemblages to document past changes in sea-surface temperatures and sea ice conditions. Congruent analysis of biogenic silica and organic carbon and stable isotope ratios (O, Si in the silica matrix and C, N in the diatom-intrinsic organic matter) provides information on siliceous productivity, nutrient cycling and water mass circulation. Measurements of diatom biomarkers give complementary information on sea ice conditions and siliceous productivity.

Crosta, Xavier

2011-05-01

218

Reclaimed Water and Secondary Wastewater as Alternative Growing Media for Green Algae for Biofuel Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microalga Botryococcus braunii is one of many photosynthtic algae species being investigated as renewable feedstocks for production of biofuels. One key advantage of algae as biofuel feedstock, in view of the growing scarcity of fresh water worldwide, is the potential of algae to grow in low-quality water, including in the nutrient-containing effluents from wastewater-treatment plants. Indeed, algae could also

Sara S. Kuwahara; Joel L. Cuello

219

Experimental evidence that evolutionary relatedness does not affect the ecological mechanisms of coexistence in freshwater green algae.  

PubMed

The coexistence of competing species depends on the balance between their fitness differences, which determine their competitive inequalities, and their niche differences, which stabilise their competitive interactions. Darwin proposed that evolution causes species' niches to diverge, but the influence of evolution on relative fitness differences, and the importance of both niche and fitness differences in determining coexistence have not yet been studied together. We tested whether the phylogenetic distances between species of green freshwater algae determined their abilities to coexist in a microcosm experiment. We found that niche differences were more important in explaining coexistence than relative fitness differences, and that phylogenetic distance had no effect on either coexistence or on the sizes of niche and fitness differences. These results were corroborated by an analysis of the frequency of the co-occurrence of 325 pairwise combinations of algal taxa in > 1100 lakes across North America. Phylogenetic distance may not explain the coexistence of freshwater green algae. PMID:24112458

Narwani, Anita; Alexandrou, Markos A; Oakley, Todd H; Carroll, Ian T; Cardinale, Bradley J

2013-11-01

220

Culture observation and molecular phylogenetic analysis on the blooming green alga Chaetomorpha valida (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta) from China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The marine green alga Chaetomorpha valida fouls aquaculture ponds along the coastal cities of Dalian and Rongcheng, China. Unialgal cultures were observed under a microscope to determine the developmental morphological characters of C. valida. Results reveal that gametophytic filaments often produce lateral branches under laboratory culture conditions, suggesting an atypical heteromorphic life cycle of C. valida between unbranched sporophytes and branched gametophytes, which differs from typical isomorphic alternation of Chaetomorpha species. The shape of the basal attachment cell, an important taxonomic character within the genus, was found variable depending on environmental conditions. The 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA regions were used to explore the phylogenetic affinity of the taxa. Inferred trees from 18S rDNA sequences revealed a close relationship between C. valida and Chaetomorpha moniligera. These results would enrich information in general biology and morphological plasticity of C. valida and provided a basis for future identification of green tide forming algae.

Deng, Yunyan; Tang, Xiaorong; Zhan, Zifeng; Teng, Linhong; Ding, Lanping; Huang, Bingxin

2013-05-01

221

Response of the green alga Oophila sp., a salamander endosymbiont, to a PSII-inhibitor under laboratory conditions.  

PubMed

In a rare example of autotroph-vertebrate endosymbiosis, eggs of the yellow-spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) are colonized by a green alga (Oophila sp.) that significantly enhances salamander development. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for impacts to the salamander embryo when growth of the algae is impaired by exposure to herbicides. To further investigate this relationship, the authors characterized the response of the symbiotic algae (Oophila sp.) alone to the photosystem II (PSII) inhibitor atrazine under controlled laboratory conditions. After extraction of the alga from A. maculatum eggs and optimization of culturing conditions, 4 toxicity assays (96 h each) were conducted. Recovery of the algal population was also assessed after a further 96 h in untreated media. Average median effective concentration (EC50) values of 123 µg L(-1) (PSII yield), 169 µg L(-1) (optical density), and 299 µg L(-1) (growth rate) were obtained after the 96-h exposure. Full recovery of exposed algal populations after 96 h in untreated media was observed for all endpoints, except for optical density at the greatest concentration tested (300 µg L(-1) ). Our results show that, under laboratory conditions, Oophila sp. is generally less sensitive to atrazine than standard test species. Although conditions of growth in standard toxicity tests are not identical to those in the natural environment, these results provide an understanding of the tolerance of this alga to PSII inhibitors as compared with other species. PMID:24782078

Baxter, Leilan; Brain, Richard; Rodriguez-Gil, Jose Luis; Hosmer, Alan; Solomon, Keith; Hanson, Mark

2014-08-01

222

Influence of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) produced by two different green unicellular algae on membrane filtration in an algae-based biofuel production process.  

PubMed

In the present study, two strains of green algae named S1 and S2, categorized as the same species of Pseudo-coccomyxa ellipsoidea but showing 99% homology, were cultivated under the same conditions and filtrated with a microfiltration membrane. On the basis of the results of the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) characteristics of these two green algae and the degree of fouling, the influence of these characteristics on the performance of membrane filtration was investigated. There was no difference in the specific growth rate between the S1 and S2 strains; however, large differences were seen in the amount and quality of EPS between S1 and S2. When the S1 and S2 strains were filtered with a membrane, the trend in the increase in transmembrane pressure (TMP) was quite different. The filtration of the S1 strain showed a rapid increase in TMP, whereas the TMP of the filtration of the S2 strain did not increase at all during the operation. This clearly demonstrated that the characteristics of each strain affect the development of membrane fouling. On the basis of the detailed characterization of solved-EPS (s-EPS) and bound-EPS (b-EPS), it was clarified that s-EPS mainly contributed to irreversible fouling for both operations and the biopolymer-like organic matter contained in b-EPS mainly contributed to reversible fouling. PMID:24804668

Matsumoto, Takaki; Yamamura, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Jyunpei; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Harayama, Shigeaki

2014-01-01

223

28. STROMATOLITES WITH COCCOID AND FILAMENTOUS BLUE-GREEN ALGAE OF MESSINIAN AGE FROM SITE 374IONIAN ABYSSAL PLAINi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfossils interpreted as coccoid and filamentous blue-green algae are found within disrupted stromatolitic laminae of Messinian age in Core 17 from Site 374, central Ionian Abyssal Plain, Mediterranean Sea (35°50.87'N; 18°11.78'E, depth 4078 m). The coccoids are morphologically similar to members of the living Aphanocapsa in size and habit while the filaments, though rarer than the coccoids, morphologically resemble empty

224

Distribution of blue-green algae in soils of Chittagong University campus and their nitrogen fixing capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Occurrence of blue-green algae in plain land, pond side, hilly area and dry rice field soils of Chittagong University Campus and N2 fixation of some of them have been studied. Twenty four species under 20 genera were identified and their number varied from 0.11×10 4 \\/g to 2.8×10 4 \\/g soil. Anabaena oryzae, Calothrix sp., Cylindrospermum majus and Hapalosiphon hibernicus

M. A. GAFUR; Soltana Parvin

2008-01-01

225

Culture of the astaxanthin-producing green algaHaematococcus pluvialis 1. Effects of nutrients on growth and cell type  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater green algaHaematococcus pluvialis (Strain Vischer 1923\\/2) grows best at high nitrate concentrations (about 0.5 to 1.0 g 1-1 KNO3), intermediate phosphate concentration (about 0.1 g 1-1 K2HPO4) and over a wide range of Fe concentrations. Low nitrate or high phosphate induce the formation of reddish palmella cells and aplanospores. Mixotrophic growth with acetate improves growth rate and final

Michael A. Borowitzka; John M. Huisman; Ann Osborn

1991-01-01

226

Culture of the astaxanthin-producing green alga Haematococcus pluvialis 1. Effects of nutrients on growth and cell type  

Microsoft Academic Search

The freshwater green algaHaematococcus pluvialis (Strain Vischer 1923\\/2) grows best at high nitrate concentrations (about 0.5 to 1.0 g 1?1 KNO3), intermediate phosphate concentration (about 0.1 g 1?1 K2HPO4) and over a wide range of Fe concentrations. Low nitrate or high phosphate induce the formation of reddish palmella cells\\u000a and aplanospores. Mixotrophic growth with acetate improves growth rate and final

Michael A. Borowitzka; John M. Huisman; Ann Osborn

1991-01-01

227

Strategies for psbA gene expression in cyanobacteria, green algae and higher plants: from transcription to PSII repair.  

PubMed

The Photosystem (PS) II of cyanobacteria, green algae and higher plants is prone to light-induced inactivation, the D1 protein being the primary target of such damage. As a consequence, the D1 protein, encoded by the psbA gene, is degraded and re-synthesized in a multistep process called PSII repair cycle. In cyanobacteria, a small gene family codes for the various, functionally distinct D1 isoforms. In these organisms, the regulation of the psbA gene expression occurs mainly at the level of transcription, but the expression is fine-tuned by regulation of translation elongation. In plants and green algae, the D1 protein is encoded by a single psbA gene located in the chloroplast genome. In chloroplasts of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii the psbA gene expression is strongly regulated by mRNA processing, and particularly at the level of translation initiation. In chloroplasts of higher plants, translation elongation is the prevalent mechanism for regulation of the psbA gene expression. The pre-existing pool of psbA transcripts forms translation initiation complexes in plant chloroplasts even in darkness, while the D1 synthesis can be completed only in the light. Replacement of damaged D1 protein requires also the assistance by a number of auxiliary proteins, which are encoded by the nuclear genome in green algae and higher plants. Nevertheless, many of these chaperones are conserved between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, we describe the specific features and fundamental differences of the psbA gene expression and the regeneration of the PSII reaction center protein D1 in cyanobacteria, green algae and higher plants. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Photosystem II. PMID:21565160

Mulo, Paula; Sakurai, Isamu; Aro, Eva-Mari

2012-01-01

228

Different tolerances and responses to low temperature and darkness between waterbloom forming cyanobacterium Microcystis and a green alga Scenedesmus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of planktonic cyanobacteria in eutrophicated freshwaters play an important role in formation of annual summer\\u000a blooms, yet overwintering mechanisms of these water bloom forming cyanobacteria remain unknown. The responses to darkness\\u000a and low temperature of three strains (unicellular Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905, colonial M. aeruginosa FACHB-938, and a green alga Scenedesmus\\u000a quadricauda FACHB-45) were investigated in the present study. After

Zhongxing Wu; Lirong Song; Renhui Li

2008-01-01

229

Antioxidant properties of a novel phycocyanin extract from the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a fresh water unicellular blue-green alga (cyanophyta) rich in phycocyanin (PC), a photosynthetic pigment with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of a novel natural extract from AFA enriched with PC to protect normal human erythrocytes and plasma samples against oxidative damage in vitro. In red blood cells, oxidative

Serena Benedetti; Francesca Benvenuti; Silvia Pagliarani; Sonia Francogli; Stefano Scoglio; Franco Canestrari

2004-01-01

230

Evidence for chemical defense in tropical green algaCaulerpa ashmeadii (Caulerpaceae: Chlorophyta): Isolation of new bioactive sesquiterpenoids.  

PubMed

Results of field feeding preference studies with 12 species of tropical green algae of the genusCaulerpa showed thatC. ashmeadii was preferred least by herbivorous fishes. Chemical investigations ofC. ashmeadii demonstrated the presence of high concentrations of sesquiterpenoid metabolites. The chemical isolation and structural elucidation of five majorC. ashmeadii metabolites, as well as the results of field feeding preference, antimicrobial, and ichthyotoxicity assays demonstrating the biological activities of these metabolites are reported here. PMID:24302141

Paul, V J; Littler, M M; Littler, D S; Fenical, W

1987-05-01

231

Comparative effects of Azolla and blue-green algae in combination with chemical N fertilizer on rice crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

FreshAzolla pinnata (Bangkok) and dry blue-green algae dominated byAulosira sp. andGloeotrichia sp. were inoculated separately at the rates of 500 and 10 kg\\/ha, 10 and 3 days after transplanting, respectively to evaluate\\u000a their effects in combination with chemical N fertilizer applied at different stages of rice crop. Split application of 30\\u000a kg N\\/ha urea (15 kg basal and 15 kg

A L Singh; P K Singh

1986-01-01

232

SUSTAINED PHOTOBIOLOGICAL HYDROGEN GAS PRODUCTION UPON REVERSIBLE INACTIVATION OF OXYGEN EVOLUTION IN THE GREEN ALGA Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work describes a novel approach for sustained photobiological production of H 2 gas via the reversible hydrogenase pathway in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This single- organism, two-stage H2 production method circumvents the severe O2-sensitivity of the reversible hydrogenase by temporally separating photosynthetic O2 evolution and carbon accumulation from H2 production in the culture. Following application of a stress

Anastasios Melis; Liping Zhang; Marc Forestier; Maria L. Ghirardi; Michael Seibert

1999-01-01

233

Isolation of a novel oil globule protein from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae).  

PubMed

Cytoplasmic oil globules of Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae) were isolated and analyzed for pigments, lipids and proteins. Astaxanthin appeared to be the only pigment deposited in the globules. Triacyglycerols were the main lipids (more than 90% of total fatty acids) in both the cell-free extract and in the oil globules. Lipid profile analysis of the oil globules showed that relative to the cell-free extract, they were enriched with extraplastidial lipids. A fatty acids profile revealed that the major fatty acids in the isolated globules were oleic acid (18:1) and linoleic acid (18:2). Protein extracts from the globules revealed seven enriched protein bands, all of which were possible globule-associated proteins. A major 33-kDa globule protein was partially sequenced by MS/MS analysis, and degenerate DNA primers were prepared and utilized to clone its encoding gene from cDNA extracted from cells grown in a nitrogen depleted medium under high light. The sequence of this 275-amino acid protein, termed the Haematococcus Oil Globule Protein (HOGP), revealed partial homology with a Chlamydomonas reinhardtii oil globule protein and with undefined proteins from other green algae. The HOGP transcript was barely detectable in vegetative cells, but its level increased by more than 100 fold within 12 h of exposure to nitrogen depletion/high light conditions, which induced oil accumulation. HOGP is the first oil-globule-associated protein to be identified in H. pluvialis, and it is a member of a novel gene family that may be unique to green microalgae. PMID:21732215

Peled, Ehud; Leu, Stefan; Zarka, Aliza; Weiss, Meira; Pick, Uri; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Boussiba, Sammy

2011-09-01

234

High yields of hydrogen production induced by meta-substituted dichlorophenols biodegradation from the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus.  

PubMed

Hydrogen is a highly promising energy source with important social and economic implications. The ability of green algae to produce photosynthetic hydrogen under anaerobic conditions has been known for years. However, until today the yield of production has been very low, limiting an industrial scale use. In the present paper, 73 years after the first report on H(2)-production from green algae, we present a combinational biological system where the biodegradation procedure of one meta-substituted dichlorophenol (m-dcp) is the key element for maintaining continuous and high rate H(2)-production (>100 times higher than previously reported) in chloroplasts and mitochondria of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. In particular, we report that reduced m-dcps (biodegradation intermediates) mimic endogenous electron and proton carriers in chloroplasts and mitochondria, inhibit Photosystem II (PSII) activity (and therefore O(2) production) and enhance Photosystem I (PSI) and hydrogenase activity. In addition, we show that there are some indications for hydrogen production from sources other than chloroplasts in Scenedesmus obliquus. The regulation of these multistage and highly evolved redox pathways leads to high yields of hydrogen production and paves the way for an efficient application to industrial scale use, utilizing simple energy sources and one meta-substituted dichlorophenol as regulating elements. PMID:23145057

Papazi, Aikaterini; Andronis, Efthimios; Ioannidis, Nikolaos E; Chaniotakis, Nikolaos; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

2012-01-01

235

High Yields of Hydrogen Production Induced by Meta-Substituted Dichlorophenols Biodegradation from the Green Alga Scenedesmus obliquus  

PubMed Central

Hydrogen is a highly promising energy source with important social and economic implications. The ability of green algae to produce photosynthetic hydrogen under anaerobic conditions has been known for years. However, until today the yield of production has been very low, limiting an industrial scale use. In the present paper, 73 years after the first report on H2-production from green algae, we present a combinational biological system where the biodegradation procedure of one meta-substituted dichlorophenol (m-dcp) is the key element for maintaining continuous and high rate H2-production (>100 times higher than previously reported) in chloroplasts and mitochondria of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. In particular, we report that reduced m-dcps (biodegradation intermediates) mimic endogenous electron and proton carriers in chloroplasts and mitochondria, inhibit Photosystem II (PSII) activity (and therefore O2 production) and enhance Photosystem I (PSI) and hydrogenase activity. In addition, we show that there are some indications for hydrogen production from sources other than chloroplasts in Scenedesmus obliquus. The regulation of these multistage and highly evolved redox pathways leads to high yields of hydrogen production and paves the way for an efficient application to industrial scale use, utilizing simple energy sources and one meta-substituted dichlorophenol as regulating elements. PMID:23145057

Papazi, Aikaterini; Andronis, Efthimios; Ioannidis, Nikolaos E.; Chaniotakis, Nikolaos; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

2012-01-01

236

Tracking the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides.  

PubMed

The spread of nonindigenous species into new habitats is having a drastic effect on natural ecosystems and represents an increasing threat to global biodiversity. In the marine environment, where data on the movement of invasive species is scarce, the spread of alien seaweeds represents a particular problem. We have employed a combination of plastid microsatellite markers and DNA sequence data from three regions of the plastid genome to trace the invasive history of the green alga Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides. Extremely low levels of genetic variation were detected, with only four haplotypes present in the species' native range in Japan and only two of these found in introduced populations. These invasive populations displayed a high level of geographical structuring of haplotypes, with one haplotype localized in the Mediterranean and the other found in Northwest Atlantic, northern European and South Pacific populations. Consequently, we postulate that there have been at least two separate introductions of C. fragile ssp. tomentosoides from its native range in the North Pacific. PMID:15643962

Provan, Jim; Murphy, Susan; Maggs, Christine A

2005-01-01

237

Active hydrocarbon biosynthesis and accumulation in a green alga, Botryococcus braunii (race A).  

PubMed

Among oleaginous microalgae, the colonial green alga Botryococcus braunii accumulates especially large quantities of hydrocarbons. This accumulation may be achieved more by storage of lipids in the extracellular space rather than in the cytoplasm, as is the case for all other examined oleaginous microalgae. The stage of hydrocarbon synthesis during the cell cycle was determined by autoradiography. The cell cycle of B. braunii race A was synchronized by aminouracil treatment, and cells were taken at various stages in the cell cycle and cultured in a medium containing [(14)C]acetate. Incorporation of (14)C into hydrocarbons was detected. The highest labeling occurred just after septum formation, when it was about 2.6 times the rate during interphase. Fluorescent and electron microscopy revealed that new lipid accumulation on the cell surface occurred during at least two different growth stages and sites of cells. Lipid bodies in the cytoplasm were not prominent in interphase cells. These lipid bodies then increased in number, size, and inclusions, reaching maximum values just before the first lipid accumulation on the cell surface at the cell apex. Most of them disappeared from the cytoplasm concomitant with the second new accumulation at the basolateral region, where extracellular lipids continuously accumulated. The rough endoplasmic reticulum near the plasma membrane is prominent in B. braunii, and the endoplasmic reticulum was often in contact with both a chloroplast and lipid bodies in cells with increasing numbers of lipid bodies. We discuss the transport pathway of precursors of extracellular hydrocarbons in race A. PMID:23794509

Hirose, Mana; Mukaida, Fukiko; Okada, Sigeru; Noguchi, Tetsuko

2013-08-01

238

Ca2+ Requirement for Aerobic Nitrogen Fixation by Heterocystous Blue-Green Algae 1  

PubMed Central

The requirement of Ca2+ for growth and nitrogen fixation has been investigated in two strains of heterocystous blue-green algae (Anabaena sp. and Anabaena ATCC 33047). With combined nitrogen (nitrate or ammonium) or with N2 under microaerobic conditions, Ca2+ was not required for growth, at least in concentrations greater than traces. In contrast, Ca2+ was required as a macronutrient for growth and nitrogen fixation with air as the nitrogen source. Addition of Ca2+ to an aerobic culture without Ca2+ promoted, after a lag of several hours, development of nitrogenase activity and cell growth. Provision of air to a microaerobic culture in the absence of Ca2+ promoted a drastic drop in nitrogenase activity, which rapidly recovered its initial level upon restoration of microaerobic conditions. Development of nitrogenase activity in response to either Ca2+ or low oxygen tension was dependent on de novo protein synthesis. The role of Ca2+ seems to be related to protection of nitrogenase from inactivation, by conferring heterocysts resistance to oxygen. PMID:16667401

Rodriguez, Herminia; Rivas, Joaquin; Guerrero, Miguel G.; Losada, Manuel

1990-01-01

239

Oxygen-dependent proton efflux in cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).  

PubMed Central

The oxygen-dependent proton efflux (in the dark) of intact cells of Anabaena variabilis and four other cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) was investigated. In contrast to bacteria and isolated mitochondria, an H+/e ratio (= protons translocated per electron transported) of only 0.23 to 0.35 and a P/e ratio of 0.8 to 1.5 were observed, indicative of respiratory electron transport being localized essentially on the thylakoids, not on the cytoplasmic membrane. Oxygen-induced acidification of the medium was sensitive to cyanide and the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Inhibitors such as 2,6-dinitrophenol and vanadate exhibited a significant decrease in the H+/e ratio. After the oxygen pulse, electron transport started immediately, but proton efflux lagged 40 to 60 s behind, a period also needed before maximum ATP pool levels were attained. We suggest that proton efflux in A. variabilis is due to a proton-translocating ATP hydrolase (ATP-consuming ATPase) rather than to respiratory electron transport located on the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:6327614

Scherer, S; Sturzl, E; Boger, P

1984-01-01

240

Integration of Carbon Assimilation Modes with Photosynthetic Light Capture in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is capable of using organic and inorganic carbon sources simultaneously, which requires the adjustment of photosynthetic activity to the prevailing mode of carbon assimilation. We obtained novel insights into the regulation of light-harvesting at photosystem II (PSII) following altered carbon source availability. In C. reinhardtii, synthesis of PSII-associated light-harvesting proteins (LHCBMs) is controlled by the cytosolic RNA-binding protein NAB1, which represses translation of particular LHCBM isoform transcripts. This mechanism is fine-tuned via regulation of the nuclear NAB1 promoter, which is activated when linear photosynthetic electron flow is restricted by CO2-limitation in a photoheterotrophic context. In the wild-type, accumulation of NAB1 reduces the functional PSII antenna size, thus preventing a harmful overexcited state of PSII, as observed in a NAB1-less mutant. We further demonstrate that translation control as a newly identified long-term response to prolonged CO2-limitation replaces LHCII state transitions as a fast response to PSII over-excitation. Intriguingly, activation of the long-term response is perturbed in state transition mutant stt7, suggesting a regulatory link between the long- and short-term response. We depict a regulatory circuit operating on distinct timescales and in different cellular compartments to fine-tune light-harvesting in photoheterotrophic eukaryotes. PMID:25038233

Berger, Hanna; Blifernez-Klassen, Olga; Ballottari, Matteo; Bassi, Roberto; Wobbe, Lutz; Kruse, Olaf

2014-10-01

241

Palindromic Genes in the Linear Mitochondrial Genome of the Nonphotosynthetic Green Alga Polytomella magna  

PubMed Central

Organelle DNA is no stranger to palindromic repeats. But never has a mitochondrial or plastid genome been described in which every coding region is part of a distinct palindromic unit. While sequencing the mitochondrial DNA of the nonphotosynthetic green alga Polytomella magna, we uncovered precisely this type of genic arrangement. The P. magna mitochondrial genome is linear and made up entirely of palindromes, each containing 1–7 unique coding regions. Consequently, every gene in the genome is duplicated and in an inverted orientation relative to its partner. And when these palindromic genes are folded into putative stem-loops, their predicted translational start sites are often positioned in the apex of the loop. Gel electrophoresis results support the linear, 28-kb monomeric conformation of the P. magna mitochondrial genome. Analyses of other Polytomella taxa suggest that palindromic mitochondrial genes were present in the ancestor of the Polytomella lineage and lost or retained to various degrees in extant species. The possible origins and consequences of this bizarre genomic architecture are discussed. PMID:23940100

Smith, David Roy; Hua, Jimeng; Archibald, John M.; Lee, Robert W.

2013-01-01

242

Isolation of Prasinoviruses of the Green Unicellular Algae Ostreococcus spp. on a Worldwide Geographical Scale? †  

PubMed Central

Ostreococcus spp. are extremely small unicellular eukaryotic green algae found worldwide in marine environments, and they are susceptible to attacks by a diverse group of large DNA viruses. Several biologically distinct species of Ostreococcus are known and differ in the ecological niches that they occupy: while O. tauri (representing clade C strains) is found in marine lagoons and coastal seas, strains belonging to clade A, exemplified by O. lucimarinus, are present in different oceans. We used laboratory cultures of clonal isolates of these two species to assay for the presence of viruses in seawater samples from diverse locations. In keeping with the distributions of their host strains, we found a decline in the abundance of O. tauri viruses from a lagoon in southwest France relative to the Mediterranean Sea, whereas in the ocean, no O. tauri viruses were detected. In contrast, viruses infecting O. lucimarinus were detected from distantly separated oceans. DNA sequencing, phylogenetic analyses using a conserved viral marker gene, and a Mantel test revealed no relationship between geographic and phylogenetic distances in viruses infecting O. lucimarinus. PMID:19897754

Bellec, Laure; Grimsley, Nigel; Desdevises, Yves

2010-01-01

243

Prasinoviruses of the Marine Green Alga Ostreococcus tauri Are Mainly Species Specific  

PubMed Central

Prasinoviruses infecting unicellular green algae in the order Mamiellales (class Mamiellophyceae) are commonly found in coastal marine waters where their host species frequently abound. We tested 40 Ostreococcus tauri viruses on 13 independently isolated wild-type O. tauri strains, 4 wild-type O. lucimarinus strains, 1 Ostreococcus sp. (“Ostreococcus mediterraneus”) clade D strain, and 1 representative species of each of two other related species of Mamiellales, Bathycoccus prasinos and Micromonas pusilla. Thirty-four out of 40 viruses infected only O. tauri, 5 could infect one other species of the Ostreococcus genus, and 1 infected two other Ostreococcus spp., but none of them infected the other genera. We observed that the overall susceptibility pattern of Ostreococcus strains to viruses was related to the size of two host chromosomes known to show intraspecific size variations, that genetically related viruses tended to infect the same host strains, and that viruses carrying inteins were strictly strain specific. Comparison of two complete O. tauri virus proteomes revealed at least three predicted proteins to be candidate viral specificity determinants. PMID:22318150

Clerissi, Camille; Desdevises, Yves

2012-01-01

244

The hepatoprotective activity of blue green algae in Schistosoma mansoni infected mice.  

PubMed

This study aims to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of a natural product, blue green algae (BGA) (100mg/kg BW), alone or combined with praziquantel PZQ (250mg/kg BW) on granulomatous inflammation, liver histopathology, some biochemical and immunological parameters in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Results showed that the diameter and number of egg granuloma were significantly reduced after treatment of S. mansoni-infected mice with BGA, PZQ and their combination. The histopathological alterations observed in the liver of S. mansoni-infected mice were remarkably inhibited after BGA treatments. BGA decreased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as the level of total protein (TP) while the level of albumin was increased. Treatment of infected mice with BGA, PZQ as well as their combination led to significant elevation in the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) as compared with control group. Combination of BGA and PZQ resulted in significant reduction in the level of intercellular adhesion molecules-1 (ICAM-1), vascular adhesion molecules-1 (VCAM-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) when compared to those of the S. mansoni-infected group. Overall, BGA significantly inhibited the liver damage accompanied with schistosomiasis, exhibited a potent antioxidant and immunoprotective activities. This study suggests that BGA can be considered as promising for development a complementary and/or alternative medicine against schistosomiasis. PMID:25016189

Mohamed, Azza H; Osman, Gamalat Y; Salem, Tarek A; Elmalawany, Alshimaa M

2014-10-01

245

Comparison of ESTs from juvenile and adult phases of the giant unicellular green alga Acetabularia acetabulum  

PubMed Central

Background Acetabularia acetabulum is a giant unicellular green alga whose size and complex life cycle make it an attractive model for understanding morphogenesis and subcellular compartmentalization. The life cycle of this marine unicell is composed of several developmental phases. Juvenile and adult phases are temporally sequential but physiologically and morphologically distinct. To identify genes specific to juvenile and adult phases, we created two subtracted cDNA libraries, one adult-specific and one juvenile-specific, and analyzed 941 randomly chosen ESTs from them. Results Clustering analysis suggests virtually no overlap between the two libraries. Preliminary expression data also suggests that we were successful at isolating transcripts differentially expressed between the two developmental phases and that many transcripts are specific to one phase or the other. Comparison of our EST sequences against publicly available sequence databases indicates that ESTs from the adult and the juvenile libraries partition into different functional classes. Three conserved sequence elements were common to several of the ESTs and were also found within the genomic sequence of the carbonic anhydrase1 gene from A. acetabulum. To date, these conserved elements are specific to A. acetabulum. Conclusions Our data provide strong evidence that adult and juvenile phases in A. acetabulum vary significantly in gene expression. We discuss their possible roles in cell growth and morphogenesis as well as in phase change. We also discuss the potential role of the conserved elements found within the EST sequences in post-transcriptional regulation, particularly mRNA localization and/or stability. PMID:15070428

Henry, Isabelle M; Wilkinson, Mark D; Hernandez, J Marcela; Schwarz-Sommer, Zsuzsanna; Grotewold, Erich; Mandoli, Dina F

2004-01-01

246

Growth rate affects the responses of the green alga Tetraselmis suecica to external perturbations.  

PubMed

Acclimation to environmental changes involves a modification of the expressed proteome and metabolome. The reproductive advantage associated with the higher fitness that acclimation provides to the new conditions more than compensates for the costs of acclimation. To exploit such an advantage, however, the duration of the perturbation must be sufficiently long relative to the growth rate. Otherwise, a selective pressure may exist in favour of responses that minimize changes in carbon allocation and resource use and do not require reversal of the acclimation after the perturbation ceases (compositional homeostasis). We hypothesize that the choice between acclimation and homeostasis depends on the duration of the perturbation relative to the length of the cell cycle. To test this hypothesis, we cultured the green alga Tetraselmis suecica at two growth rates and subjected the cultures to three environmental perturbations. Carbon allocation was studied with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy; elemental stoichiometry was investigated by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy. Our data confirmed that growth rate is a crucial factor for C allocation in response to external changes, with a higher degree of compositional homeostasis in cells with lower growth rate. PMID:23927015

Fanesi, Andrea; Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

2014-02-01

247

Health Benefits of Blue-Green Algae: Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

Abstract Blue-green algae (BGA) are among the most primitive life forms on earth and have been consumed as food or medicine by humans for centuries. BGA contain various bioactive components, such as phycocyanin, carotenoids, ?-linolenic acid, fibers, and plant sterols, which can promote optimal health in humans. Studies have demonstrated that several BGA species or their active components have plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride-lowering properties due to their modulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption and hepatic lipogenic gene expression. BGA can also reduce inflammation by inhibiting the nuclear factor ? B activity, consequently reducing the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, BGA inhibit lipid peroxidation and have free radical scavenging activity, which can be beneficial for the protection against oxidative stress. The aforementioned effects of BGA can contribute to the prevention of metabolic and inflammatory diseases. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of the health-promoting functions of BGA against cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which are major health threats in the developed countries. PMID:23402636

Ku, Chai Siah; Yang, Yue; Park, Youngki

2013-01-01

248

Oxygen-dependent proton efflux in cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). [Anabaena variabilis  

SciTech Connect

The oxygen-dependent proton efflux (in the dark) of intact cells of Anabaena variabilis and four other cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) was investigated. In contrast to bacteria and isolated mitochondria, an H/sup +//e ratio (= protons translocated per electron transported) of only 0.23 to 0.35 and a P/e ratio of 0.8 to 1.5 were observed, indicative of respiratory electron transport being localized essentially on the thylakoids, not on the cytoplasmic membrane. Oxygen-induced acidification of the medium was sensitive to cyanide and the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Inhibitors such as 2,6-dinitrophenol and vanadate exhibited a significant decrease in the H/sup +//e ratio. After the oxygen pulse, electron transport started immediately, but proton efflux lagged 40 to 60 s behind, a period also needed before maximum ATP pool levels were attained. The authors suggest that proton efflux in A. variabilis is due to a proton-translocating ATP hydrolase (ATP-consuming ATPase) rather than to respiratory electron transport located on the cytoplasmic membrane.

Scherer, S.; Stuerzl, E.; Boeger, P.

1984-05-01

249

Antimicrobial activity of sub- and supercritical CO2 extracts of the green alga Dunaliella salina.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of carbon dioxide extracts of the unicellular biflagellated green alga Dunaliella salina against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger. The effects of different extraction pressures ranging from 185 to 442 bar and extraction temperatures ranging from 9.8 to 45.2 degrees C on the extracts' composition and consequently on their antimicrobial activities were investigated. The extracts were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in order to identify the compounds responsible for the antimicrobial activity detected. Fourteen different volatile compounds and several fatty acids were identified. The highest antimicrobial activity was obtained using 314 bar and 9.8 degrees C. Under these conditions, the presence of an indolic derivative that had never been reported in D. salina was detected in the extract, together with polyunsaturated fatty acids and compounds related to carotene metabolism, such as beta-ionone and neophytadiene, with known antimicrobial activity. PMID:18939768

Mendiola, Jose A; Santoyo, Susana; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Reglero, Guillermo; Ibáńez, Elena; Seńoráns, F Javier

2008-10-01

250

Biosorptive uptake of methylene blue using Mediterranean green alga Enteromorpha spp.  

PubMed

Batch biosorption experiments were carried out for the removal of methylene blue, a basic dye, from aqueous solution using raw and dried Enteromorpha spp., Mediterranean green alga. A series of assays were undertaken to assess the effect of the system variables, i.e. contact time, solution pH and sorbent amount. The results had showed that sorption capacity was optimal using 6-10 solution pH range (i.e. maximum adsorption capacity of 274 mg/g). The minimum sorbent concentration experimentally found to be sufficient to reach the total removal of the dye molecules from the aqueous solution was 5 g/L. Besides, equilibrium data were fitted using five linearisable isotherm models. The related results showed that the experimental data were very well represented by the Langmuir model for the linear regression analysis and both the Langmuir and Redlich-Peterson isotherm models for the non-linear analysis. In both cases, such modelling behaviour confirms the monolayer coverage of methylene blue molecules onto energetically homogenous Enteromopha surface. In addition, an exhaustive comparative study was done to situate this marine biomass among other proposed sorbents. PMID:19520507

Ncibi, M C; Hamissa, A M Ben; Fathallah, A; Kortas, M H; Baklouti, T; Mahjoub, B; Seffen, M

2009-10-30

251

Genome-Wide Characterization of Genetic Variation in the Unicellular, Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

PubMed Central

Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model system for studying cilia, photosynthesis, and other core features of eukaryotes, and is also an emerging source of biofuels. Despite its importance to basic and applied biological research, the level and pattern of genetic variation in this haploid green alga has yet to be characterized on a genome-wide scale. To improve understanding of C. reinhardtii's genetic variability, we generated low coverage whole genome resequencing data for nearly all of the available isolates of this species, which were sampled from a number of sites in North America over the past ?70 years. Based on the analysis of more than 62,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms, we identified two groups of isolates that represent geographical subpopulations of the species. We also found that measurements of genetic diversity were highly variable throughout the genome, in part due to technical factors. We studied the level and pattern of linkage disequilibrium (LD), and observed one chromosome that exhibits elevated LD. Furthermore, we detected widespread evidence of recombination across the genome, which implies that outcrossing occurs in natural populations of this species. In summary, our study provides multiple insights into the sequence diversity of C. reinhardtii that will be useful to future studies of natural genetic variation in this organism. PMID:22848460

Jang, Hyosik; Ehrenreich, Ian M.

2012-01-01

252

Molecular dynamics of the diatom thylakoid membrane under different light conditions.  

PubMed

During the last years significant progress was achieved in unraveling molecular characteristics of the thylakoid membrane of different diatoms. With the present review it is intended to summarize the current knowledge about the structural and functional changes within the thylakoid membrane of diatoms acclimated to different light conditions. This aspect is addressed on the level of the organization and regulation of light-harvesting proteins, the dissipation of excessively absorbed light energy by the process of non-photochemical quenching, and the lipid composition of diatom thylakoid membranes. Finally, a working hypothesis of the domain formation of the diatom thylakoid membrane is presented to highlight the most prominent differences of heterokontic thylakoids in comparison to vascular plants and green algae during the acclimation to low and high light conditions. PMID:21327535

Lepetit, Bernard; Goss, Reimund; Jakob, Torsten; Wilhelm, Christian

2012-03-01

253

Acid water interferes with salamander-green algae symbiosis during early embryonic development.  

PubMed

The inner egg capsule of embryos of the yellow-spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) are routinely colonized by green algae, such as Oophila amblystomatis, that supply O(2) in the presence of light and may consume nitrogenous wastes, forming what has been proposed to be a mutualistic relationship. Given that A. maculatum have been reported to breed in acidic (pH <5.0) and neutral lakes, we hypothesized that low water pH would negatively affect these symbiotic organisms and alter the gradients within the jelly mass. Oxygen gradients were detected within jelly masses measured directly in a natural breeding pond (pH 4.5-4.8) at midday in full sunlight. In the lab, embryo jelly masses reared continuously at pH 4.5 had lower P(O)?and higher ammonia levels relative to jelly masses held at pH 8.0 (control). Ammonia and lactate concentrations in embryonic tissues were approximately 37%-93% higher, respectively, in embryos reared at water pH 4.5 compared with pH 8.0. Mass was also reduced in embryos reared at pH 4.5 versus pH 8.0. In addition, light conditions (24 h light, 12L : 12D, or 24 h dark) and embryonic position (periphery vs. center) in the jelly mass affected P(O)?but not ammonia gradients, suggesting that algal symbionts generate O(2) but do not significantly impact local ammonia concentrations, regardless of the pH of the water. We conclude that chronic exposure to acidic breeding ponds had a profound effect on the microenvironment of developing A. maculatum embryos, which in turn resulted in an elevation of potentially harmful metabolic end products and inhibited growth. Under acidic conditions, the expected benefit provided by the algae to the salamander embryo (i.e., high O(2) and low ammonia microenvironment) is compromised, suggesting that the A. maculatum-algal mutualism is beneficial to salamanders only at higher water pH values. PMID:22902375

Bianchini, Kristin; Tattersall, Glenn J; Sashaw, Jessica; Porteus, Cosima S; Wright, Patricia A

2012-01-01

254

New chemical constituents from Oryza sativa straw and their algicidal activities against blue-green algae.  

PubMed

Five new constituents, 5,4'-dihydroxy-7,3'-dimethoxyflavone-4'-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a?1b)-2a-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b?1c)-2b-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-2c-octadecanoate (1), 5,4'-dihydroxy-7,3'-dimethoxyflavone-4'-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a?1b)-2a-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b?1c)-2b-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2c?1d)-2c-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-2d-octadecanoate (2), kaempferol-3-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a?1b)-2a-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b?1c)-2b-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2c?1d)-2c-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-2d-hexadecanoate (3), methyl salicylate-2-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a?1b)-2a-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b?1c)-2b-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2c?1d)-2c-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2d?1e)-2d-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2e?1f)-2e-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2f?1g)-2f-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-(2g?1h)-2g-O-?-D-xylopyranosyl-2h-geranilan-8',10'-dioic acid-1'-oate (4), and oleioyl-?-D-arabinoside (5), along with eight known compounds, were isolated from a methanol extract of Oryza sativa straw. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopies in combination with IR, ESI/MS, and HR-ESI/FTMS. In bioassays with blue-green algae, the efficacies of the algicidal activities of the five new compounds (1-5) were evaluated at concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 mg/L. Compound 5 had the highest growth inhibition (92.6 ± 0.3%) for Microcystis aeruginosa UTEX 2388 at a concentration of 100 ppm (mg/L). Compound 5 has high potential for the ecofriendly control of weeds and algae harmful to water-logged rice. PMID:23889328

Ahmad, Ateeque; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Ali, Mohd; Park, Inmyoung; Kim, Jin-Seog; Kim, Eun-Hye; Lim, Ju-Jin; Kim, Seul-Ki; Chung, Ill-Min

2013-08-28

255

Evolution and metabolic significance of the urea cycle in photosynthetic diatoms.  

PubMed

Diatoms dominate the biomass of phytoplankton in nutrient-rich conditions and form the basis of some of the world's most productive marine food webs. The diatom nuclear genome contains genes with bacterial and plastid origins as well as genes of the secondary endosymbiotic host (the exosymbiont), yet little is known about the relative contribution of each gene group to diatom metabolism. Here we show that the exosymbiont-derived ornithine-urea cycle, which is similar to that of metazoans but is absent in green algae and plants, facilitates rapid recovery from prolonged nitrogen limitation. RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of a mitochondrial carbamoyl phosphate synthase impairs the response of nitrogen-limited diatoms to nitrogen addition. Metabolomic analyses indicate that intermediates in the ornithine-urea cycle are particularly depleted and that both the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase cycles are linked directly with the ornithine-urea cycle. Several other depleted metabolites are generated from ornithine-urea cycle intermediates by the products of genes laterally acquired from bacteria. This metabolic coupling of bacterial- and exosymbiont-derived proteins seems to be fundamental to diatom physiology because the compounds affected include the major diatom osmolyte proline and the precursors for long-chain polyamines required for silica precipitation during cell wall formation. So far, the ornithine-urea cycle is only known for its essential role in the removal of fixed nitrogen in metazoans. In diatoms, this cycle serves as a distribution and repackaging hub for inorganic carbon and nitrogen and contributes significantly to the metabolic response of diatoms to episodic nitrogen availability. The diatom ornithine-urea cycle therefore represents a key pathway for anaplerotic carbon fixation into nitrogenous compounds that are essential for diatom growth and for the contribution of diatoms to marine productivity. PMID:21562560

Allen, Andrew E; Dupont, Christopher L; Oborník, Miroslav; Horák, Aleš; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano; McCrow, John P; Zheng, Hong; Johnson, Daniel A; Hu, Hanhua; Fernie, Alisdair R; Bowler, Chris

2011-05-12

256

Comparison of green algae Cladophora sp. and Enteromorpha sp. as potential biomonitors of chemical elements in the southern Baltic.  

PubMed

The contents of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mn, K, Na, Ca and Mg were determined in the green algae Cladophora sp. from coastal and lagoonal waters of the southern Baltic. Factor analysis demonstrated spatial differences between concentration of chemical elements. The algae from the southern Baltic contained more Na and K while the anthropogenic impact of Cu, Pb and Zn was observed in the case of Cladophora sp. and Enteromorpha sp. from the Gulf of Gdansk at the vicinity of Gdynia. This area is exposed to emission of heavy metals from municipal and industrial sources with the main contribution of shipbuilding industry and seaport. The statistical evaluation of data has demonstrated that there exists a correlation between concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn in both green algae collected at the same time and sampling sites of the Gulf of Gdansk. Our results show that in the case of absence of one species in the investigated area it is still possible to continue successfully the biomonitoring studies with its replacing by second one, i.e. Cladophora sp. by Enteromorpha sp. and vice versa; in consequence reliable results may be obtained. PMID:17719620

Zbikowski, Rados?aw; Szefer, Piotr; Lata?a, Adam

2007-11-15

257

Evidence of Coexistence of C3 and C4 Photosynthetic Pathways in a Green-Tide-Forming Alga, Ulva prolifera  

PubMed Central

Ulva prolifera, a typical green-tide-forming alga, can accumulate a large biomass in a relatively short time period, suggesting that photosynthesis in this organism, particularly its carbon fixation pathway, must be very efficient. Green algae are known to generally perform C3 photosynthesis, but recent metabolic labeling and genome sequencing data suggest that they may also perform C4 photosynthesis, so C4 photosynthesis might be more wide-spread than previously anticipated. Both C3 and C4 photosynthesis genes were found in U. prolifera by transcriptome sequencing. We also discovered the key enzymes of C4 metabolism based on functional analysis, such as pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK). To investigate whether the alga operates a C4-like pathway, the expression of rbcL and PPDK and their enzyme activities were measured under various forms and intensities of stress (differing levels of salinity, light intensity, and temperature). The expression of rbcL and PPDK and their enzyme activities were higher under adverse circumstances. However, under conditions of desiccation, the expression of rbcL and ribulose-1, 5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) activity was lower, whereas that of PPDK was higher. These results suggest that elevated PPDK activity may alter carbon metabolism and lead to a partial operation of C4-type carbon metabolism in U. prolifera, probably contributing to its wide distribution and massive, repeated blooms in the Yellow Sea. PMID:22616009

Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong; Mou, Shanli; Cao, Shaona; Zheng, Zhou; Miao, Jinlai; Ye, Naihao

2012-01-01

258

Colony Organization in the Green Alga Botryococcus braunii is Specified by a Complex Extracellular Matrix  

SciTech Connect

Botryococcus braunii is a colonial green alga whose cells associate via a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) and produce prodigious amounts of liquid hydrocarbons that can be readily converted into conventional combustion engine fuels. We used quickfreeze deep-etch electron microscopy and biochemical/histochemical analysis to elucidate many new features of B. braunii cell/ colony organization and composition. Intracellular lipid bodies associate with the chloroplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but show no evidence of being secreted. The ER displays striking fenestrations and forms a continuous subcortical system in direct contact with the cell membrane. The ECM has three distinct components. (i) Each cell is surrounded by a fibrous ?-1, 4- and/or ?-1, 3-glucan-containing cell wall. (ii) The intracolonial ECM space is filled with a cross-linked hydrocarbon network permeated with liquid hydrocarbons. (iii) Colonies are enclosed in a retaining wall festooned with a fibrillar sheath dominated by arabinose-galactose polysaccharides, which sequesters ECM liquid hydrocarbons. Each cell apex associates with the retaining wall and contributes to its synthesis. Retaining-wall domains also form "drapes" between cells, with some folding in on themselves and penetrating the hydrocarbon interior of a mother colony, partitioning it into daughter colonies. We propose that retaining- wall components are synthesized in the apical Golgi apparatus, delivered to apical ER fenestrations, and assembled on the surfaces of apical cell walls, where a proteinaceous granular layer apparently participates in fibril morphogenesis. We further propose that hydrocarbons are produced by the nonapical ER, directly delivered to the contiguous cell membrane, and pass across the nonapical cell wall into the hydrocarbon-based ECM.

Weiss, Taylor [Texas A& M University; Roth, Robyn [Washington University of St. Louis; Goodson, Carrie [Washington University of St. Louis; Vithda, Stanislav [Texas A& M University; Black, Ian [University of Georgia; Azadi, Parastoo [University of Georgia; Rusch, Jannette [Washington University of St. Louis; Holzenburg, Andreas [Texas A& M University; Devarenne, Timothy [Texas A& M University; Goodenough, Ursula [Washington University of St. Louis

2012-01-01

259

De-eutrophication of effluent wastewater from fish aquaculture by using marine green alga Ulva pertusa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The de-eutrophication abilities and characteristics of Ulva pertusa, a marine green alga, were investigated in Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center from spring to summer in 2005 by analyzing the dynamic changes in NH{4/+}, NO{3/-}, NO{2/-} as well as the total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The results show that the effluent wastewater produced by fish aquaculture had typical eutrophication levels with an average of 34.3 ?mol L-1 DIN. This level far exceeded the level IV quality of the national seawater standard and could easily lead to phytoplankton blooms in nature if discarded with no treatment. The de-eutrophication abilities of U. pertusa varied greatly and depended mainly on the original eutrophic level the U. pertusa material was derived from. U. pertusa used to living in low DIN conditions had poor DIN removal abilities, while materials cultured in DIN-enriched seawater showed strong de-eutrophication abilities. In other words, the de-eutrophication ability of U. pertusa was evidently induced by high DIN levels. The de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa seemed to also be light dependent, because it was weaker in darkness than under illumination. However, no further improvement in the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa was observed once the light intensity exceeded 300 ?mol M2 S-1. Results of semi-continuous wastewater replacement experiments showed that U. pertusa permanently absorbed nutrients from eutrophicated wastewater at a mean rate of 299 mg/kg fresh weight per day (126 mg/kg DIN during the night, 173 mg/kg in daytime). Based on the above results, engineered de-eutrophication of wastewater by using a U. pertusa filter system seems feasible. The algal quantity required to purify all the eutrophicated outflow wastewater from the Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center into oligotrophic level I clean seawater was also estimated using the daily discharged wastewater, the average DIN concentration released and the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa.

Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Zengfu; Lin, Wei

2010-03-01

260

Chlorovirus: a genus of Phycodnaviridae that infects certain chlorella-like green algae.  

PubMed

SUMMARY Taxonomy: Chlorella viruses are assigned to the family Phycodnaviridae, genus Chlorovirus, and are divided into three species: Chlorella NC64A viruses, Chlorella Pbi viruses and Hydra viridis Chlorella viruses. Chlorella viruses are large, icosahedral, plaque-forming, dsDNA viruses that infect certain unicellular, chlorella-like green algae. The type member is Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1). Physical properties: Chlorella virus particles are large (molecular weight approximately 1 x 10(9) Da) and complex. The virion of PBCV-1 contains more than 100 different proteins; the major capsid protein, Vp54, comprises approximately 40% of the virus protein. Cryoelectron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction of PBCV-1 virions indicate that the outer glycoprotein-containing capsid shell is icosahedral and surrounds a lipid bilayered membrane. The diameter of the viral capsid ranges from 1650 A along the two- and three-fold axes to 1900 A along the five-fold axis. The virus contains 5040 copies of Vp54, and the triangulation number is 169. The PBCV-1 genome is a linear, 330 744-bp, non-permuted dsDNA with covalently closed hairpin ends. The PBCV-1 genome contains approximately 375 protein-encoding genes and 11 tRNA genes. About 50% of the protein-encoding genes match proteins in the databases. Hosts: Chlorella NC64A and Chlorella Pbi, the hosts for NC64A viruses and Pbi viruses, respectively, are endosymbionts of the protozoan Paramecium bursaria. However, they can be grown in the laboratory free of both the paramecium and the virus. These two chlorella species are hosts to viruses that have been isolated from fresh water collected around the world. The host for hydra chlorella virus, a symbiotic chlorella from Hydra viridis, has not been grown independently of its host; thus the virus can only be obtained from chlorella cells freshly released from hydra. PMID:20565652

Kang, Ming; Dunigan, David D; VAN Etten, James L

2005-05-01

261

In Vitro Reconstitution of Light-harvesting Complexes of Plants and Green Algae.  

PubMed

In plants and green algae, light is captured by the light-harvesting complexes (LHCs), a family of integral membrane proteins that coordinate chlorophylls and carotenoids. In vivo, these proteins are folded with pigments to form complexes which are inserted in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast. The high similarity in the chemical and physical properties of the members of the family, together with the fact that they can easily lose pigments during isolation, makes their purification in a native state challenging. An alternative approach to obtain homogeneous preparations of LHCs was developed by Plumley and Schmidt in 1987(1), who showed that it was possible to reconstitute these complexes in vitro starting from purified pigments and unfolded apoproteins, resulting in complexes with properties very similar to that of native complexes. This opened the way to the use of bacterial expressed recombinant proteins for in vitro reconstitution. The reconstitution method is powerful for various reasons: (1) pure preparations of individual complexes can be obtained, (2) pigment composition can be controlled to assess their contribution to structure and function, (3) recombinant proteins can be mutated to study the functional role of the individual residues (e.g., pigment binding sites) or protein domain (e.g., protein-protein interaction, folding). This method has been optimized in several laboratories and applied to most of the light-harvesting complexes. The protocol described here details the method of reconstituting light-harvesting complexes in vitro currently used in our laboratory, and examples describing applications of the method are provided. PMID:25350712

Natali, Alberto; Roy, Laura M; Croce, Roberta

2014-01-01

262

Assessing potential health risks from microcystin toxins in blue-green algae dietary supplements.  

PubMed Central

The presence of blue-green algae (BGA) toxins in surface waters used for drinking water sources and recreation is receiving increasing attention around the world as a public health concern. However, potential risks from exposure to these toxins in contaminated health food products that contain BGA have been largely ignored. BGA products are commonly consumed in the United States, Canada, and Europe for their putative beneficial effects, including increased energy and elevated mood. Many of these products contain Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, a BGA that is harvested from Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) in southern Oregon, where the growth of a toxic BGA, Microcystis aeruginosa, is a regular occurrence. M. aeruginosa produces compounds called microcystins, which are potent hepatotoxins and probable tumor promoters. Because M. aeruginosa coexists with A. flos-aquae, it can be collected inadvertently during the harvesting process, resulting in microcystin contamination of BGA products. In fall 1996, the Oregon Health Division learned that UKL was experiencing an extensive M. aeruginosa bloom, and an advisory was issued recommending against water contact. The advisory prompted calls from consumers of BGA products, who expressed concern about possible contamination of these products with microcystins. In response, the Oregon Health Division and the Oregon Department of Agriculture established a regulatory limit of 1 microg/g for microcystins in BGA-containing products and tested BGA products for the presence of microcystins. Microcystins were detected in 85 of 87 samples tested, with 63 samples (72%) containing concentrations > 1 microg/g. HPLC and ELISA tentatively identified microcystin-LR, the most toxic microcystin variant, as the predominant congener. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10811570

Gilroy, D J; Kauffman, K W; Hall, R A; Huang, X; Chu, F S

2000-01-01

263

Structural Studies of ?-Carbonic Anhydrase from the Green Alga Coccomyxa: Inhibitor Complexes with Anions and Acetazolamide  

PubMed Central

The ?-class carbonic anhydrases (?-CAs) are widely distributed among lower eukaryotes, prokaryotes, archaea, and plants. Like all CAs, the ?-enzymes catalyze an important physiological reaction, namely the interconversion between carbon dioxide and bicarbonate. In plants the enzyme plays an important role in carbon fixation and metabolism. To further explore the structure-function relationship of ?-CA, we have determined the crystal structures of the photoautotroph unicellular green alga Coccomyxa ?-CA in complex with five different inhibitors: acetazolamide, thiocyanate, azide, iodide, and phosphate ions. The tetrameric Coccomyxa ?-CA structure is similar to other ?-CAs but it has a 15 amino acid extension in the C-terminal end, which stabilizes the tetramer by strengthening the interface. Four of the five inhibitors bind in a manner similar to what is found in complexes with ?-type CAs. Iodide ions, however, make contact to the zinc ion via a zinc-bound water molecule or hydroxide ion — a type of binding mode not previously observed in any CA. Binding of inhibitors to Coccomyxa ?-CA is mediated by side-chain movements of the conserved residue Tyr-88, extending the width of the active site cavity with 1.5-1.8 Ĺ. Structural analysis and comparisons with other ?- and ?-class members suggest a catalytic mechanism in which the movements of Tyr-88 are important for the CO2-HCO3- interconversion, whereas a structurally conserved water molecule that bridges residues Tyr-88 and Gln-38, seems important for proton transfer, linking water molecules from the zinc-bound water to His-92 and buffer molecules. PMID:22162771

Huang, Shenghua; Hainzl, Tobias; Grundstrom, Christin; Forsman, Cecilia; Samuelsson, Goran; Sauer-Eriksson, A. Elisabeth

2011-01-01

264

Active CO sub 2 transport by the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

SciTech Connect

Mass spectrometric measurements of dissolved free {sup 13}CO{sub 2} were used to monitor CO{sub 2} uptake by air grown (low CO{sub 2}) cells and protoplasts from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In the presence of 50 micromolar dissolved inorganic carbon and light, protoplasts which had been washed free of external carbonic anhydrase reduced the {sup 13}CO{sub 2} concentration in the medium to close to zero. Similar results were obtained with low CO{sub 2} cells treated with 50 micromolar acetazolamide. Addition of carbonic anhydrase to protoplasts after the period of rapid CO{sub 2} uptake revealed that the removal of CO{sub 2} from the medium in the light was due to selective and active CO{sub 2} transport rather than uptake of total dissolved inorganic carbon. In the light, low CO{sub 2} cells and protoplasts incubated with carbonic anhydrase took up CO{sub 2} at an apparently low rate which reflected the uptake of total dissolved inorganic carbon. No net CO{sub 2} uptake occurred in the dark. Measurement of chlorophyll a fluorescence yield with low CO{sub 2} cells and washed protoplasts showed that variable fluorescence was mainly influenced by energy quenching which was reciprocally related to photosynthetic activity with its highest value at the CO{sub 2} compensation point. During the linear uptake of CO{sub 2}, low CO{sub 2} cells and protoplasts incubated with carbonic anhydrase showed similar rates of net O{sub 2} evolution.

Sueltemeyer, D.F.; Miller, A.G.; Espie, G.S.; Fock, H.P.; Canvin, D.T. (Queen's Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada) Univ. of Kaiserslautern (West Germany))

1989-04-01

265

Preliminary survey of toxicity of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia introduced into the Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh (Ulvophyceae, Caulerpales) is an alga of tropical origin that was accidentally introduced into the Mediterranean sea in 1984, where this species can reach an abundance that has never been described in tropical endemic regions. It is known that caulerpacean algae can develop an efficient strategy against grazers consisting of the synthesis of repulsive of toxic

R. Lemée; D. Pesando; M. Durand-Clément; A. Dubreuil; A. Meinesz; A. Guerriero; F. Pietra

1993-01-01

266

Complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the red alga Porphyra purpurea. Cyanobacterial introns and shared ancestry of red and green algae.  

PubMed Central

The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Porphyra purpurea, a circular-mapping genome of 36,753 bp, has been completely sequenced. A total of 57 densely packed genes has been identified, including the basic set typically found in animals and fungi, as well as seven genes characteristic of protist and plant mtDNAs and specifying ribosomal proteins and subunits of succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase. The mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene contains two group II introns that are extraordinarily similar to those found in the cyanobacterium Calothrix sp, suggesting a recent lateral intron transfer between a bacterial and a mitochondrial genome. Notable features of P. purpurea mtDNA include the presence of two 291-bp inverted repeats that likely mediate homologous recombination, resulting in genome rearrangement, and of numerous sequence polymorphisms in the coding and intergenic regions. Comparative analysis of red algal mitochondrial genomes from five different, evolutionarily distant orders reveals that rhodophyte mtDNAs are unusually uniform in size and gene order. Finally, phylogenetic analyses provide strong evidence that red algae share a common ancestry with green algae and plants. PMID:10488235

Burger, G; Saint-Louis, D; Gray, M W; Lang, B F

1999-01-01

267

Preferential technological and life cycle environmental performance of chitosan flocculation for harvesting of the green algae Neochloris oleoabundans.  

PubMed

Dewatering of the green algae Neochloris oleoabundans by flocculation was investigated for chitosan biopolymer, ferric sulfate, and alum. Chitosan was found to be most effective flocculant, with an optimum dose of 100mg/L algae broth. Zeta potential measurements suggest the mechanism involves both adsorption and charge neutralization processes. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare the chitosan method to other flocculation methods as well as centrifugation and filtration/chamber press processes. LCA showed that among these techniques, flocculation by chitosan is the least energy intensive and had the lowest impacts across all other categories of environmental impacts. The results are discussed in the overall context of biofuel production from algal biomass. PMID:22853967

Beach, Evan S; Eckelman, Matthew J; Cui, Zheng; Brentner, Laura; Zimmerman, Julie B

2012-10-01

268

Capisterones A and B, which enhance fluconazole activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, from the marine green alga Penicillus capitatus.  

PubMed

A whole-cell-based assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains that overexpress Candida albicans CDR1 and MDR1 efflux pumps has been employed to screen natural product extracts for reversal of fluconazole resistance. The tropical green alga Penicillus capitatus was selected for bioassay-guided isolation, leading to the identification of capisterones A and B (1 and 2), which were recently isolated from this alga and shown to possess antifungal activity against the marine pathogen Lindra thallasiae. Current work has assigned their absolute configurations using electronic circular dichroism and determined their preferred conformations in solution based on detailed NOE analysis. Compounds 1 and 2 significantly enhanced fluconazole activity in S. cerevisiae, but did not show inherent antifungal activity when tested against several opportunistic pathogens or cytotoxicity to several human cancer and noncancerous cell lines (up to 35 microM). These compounds may have a potential for combination therapy of fungal infections caused by clinically relevant azole-resistant strains. PMID:16643022

Li, Xing-Cong; Jacob, Melissa R; Ding, Yuanqing; Agarwal, Ameeta K; Smillie, Troy J; Khan, Shabana I; Nagle, Dale G; Ferreira, Daneel; Clark, Alice M

2006-04-01

269

Lipophilic pigments from cyanobacterial (blue-green algal) and diatom mats in Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lipophilic pigments were examined in microbial mat communities dominated by cyanobacteria in the intertidal zone and by diatoms in the subtidal and sublittoral zones of Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia. These microbial mats have evolutionary significance because of their similarity to lithfied stromatolites from the Proterozoic and Early Paleozoic eras. Fucoxanthin, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls a and c characterized the diatom mats, whereas cyanobacterial mats contained myxoxanthophyll, zeaxanthin, echinenone, beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and, in some cases, sheath pigment. The presence of bacteriochlorophyll a within the mats suggest a close association of photosynthetic bacteria with diatoms and cyanobacteria. The high carotenoids : chlorophyll a ratios (0.84-2.44 wt/wt) in the diatom mats suggest that carotenoids served a photoprotective function in this high light environment. By contrast, cyanobacterial sheath pigment may have largely supplanted the photoprotective role of carotenoids in the intertidal mats.

Palmisano, A. C.; Summons, R. E.; Cronin, S. E.; Des Marais, D. J.

1989-01-01

270

Diatom Plastids Possess a Phosphoribulokinase with an Altered Regulation and No Oxidative Pentose Phosphate Pathway1  

PubMed Central

The chloroplast enzyme phosphoribulokinase (PRK; EC 2.7.1.19) is part of the Calvin cycle (reductive pentose phosphate pathway) responsible for CO2 fixation in photosynthetic organisms. In green algae and vascular plants, this enzyme is light regulated via reversible reduction by reduced thioredoxin. We have sequenced and characterized the gene of the PRK from the marine diatom Odontella sinensis and found that the enzyme has the conserved cysteine residues necessary for thioredoxin-dependent regulation. Analysis of enzymatic activity of partially purified diatom enzyme and of purified protein obtained by native overexpression in Escherichia coli, however, revealed that under natural redox conditions the diatom enzyme is generally active. Treatment of the enzyme with strong oxidants results in inhibition of the enzyme, which is reversible by subsequent incubation with reducing agents. We determined the redox midpoint potentials of the regulatory cysteine in the PRK from O. sinensis in comparison to the respective spinach (Spinacia oleracea) enzyme and found a more positive redox potential for the diatom PRK, indicating that in vivo this enzyme might not be regulated by thioredoxin. We also demonstrate that in protease-treated diatom plastids, activities of enzymes of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway are not detectable, thus reducing the need for a tight regulation of the Calvin cycle in diatoms. We discuss our results in the context of rearrangements of the subcellular compartmentation of metabolic pathways due to the peculiar evolution of diatoms by secondary endocytobiosis. PMID:15734914

Michels, Andreas K.; Wedel, Norbert; Kroth, Peter G.

2005-01-01

271

The occurrence and biosynthesis of gamma-linolenic acid in a blue-green alga, Spirulina platensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acyl-lipid and fatty acid composition of six blue-green algae, namely,Spirulina platensis, Myxosarcina chroococcoides, Chlorogloea fritschii, Anabaena cylindrica, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Mastigocladus\\u000a laminosus is reported.\\u000a \\u000a All contain major proportions of mono-and digalactosyl diglyceride, sulfoquinovosyl diglyceride, and phosphatidyl glycerol,\\u000a but none possess lecithin, phophatidyl ethanolamine, or phosphatidyl inositol. Trans-3-hexadecenoic acid was absent from all\\u000a extracts.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The analyses provide further evidence that

B. W. Nichols; B. J. B. Wood

1968-01-01

272

Occurrence of metallothionein gene smtA in synechococcus Tx-20 and other blue-green algae  

SciTech Connect

Blue-green algae are often abundant at Zn- and Cd-contaminated sites. In order to understand the mechanisms associated with Zn- and Cd-tolerance, we have isolated a metallothionein gene, designated smtA, in Synechococcus Tx-20 (- Pcc 6301 - Anacystis nidulans), a strain apparently obtained from an unpolluted site. The gene was cloned and sequenced, and its expression investigated in a range of heavy-metal-tolerant strains of the same organism obtained by stepwise adaptation. The polymerase chain reaction was used to probe for the possible presence of the homologous gene in a range of other strains (especially Synechococcus) isolated from sites without and with heavy metal contamination.

Robinson, N.J.; Gupta, A.; Huckle, J.W.; Jackson, P.; Whitton, B.A. (Univ. of Durham (England))

1990-06-01

273

GENOMIC DNA ISOLATION FROM GREEN AND BROWN ALGAE (CAULERPALES AND FUCALES) FOR MICROSATELLITE LIBRARY CONSTRUCTION1  

E-print Network

. prolifera, and C. taxifolia) and the brown alga Sargassum muticum. These are introduced, and in- vasive; popula- tion genetics; Sargassum; seaweed The isolation of high-molecular-weight DNA that is suitable

Teixeira, Sara

274

Environmentally modulated phosphoproteome of photosynthetic membranes in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

Mapping of in vivo protein phosphorylation sites in photosynthetic membranes of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii revealed that the major environmentally dependent changes in phosphorylation are clustered at the interface between the photosystem II (PSII) core and its light-harvesting antennae (LHCII). The photosynthetic membranes that were isolated form the algal cells exposed to four distinct environmental conditions affecting photosynthesis: (i) dark aerobic, corresponding to photosynthetic State 1; (ii) dark under nitrogen atmosphere, corresponding to photosynthetic State 2; (iii) moderate light; and (iv) high light. The surface-exposed phosphorylated peptides were cleaved from the membrane by trypsin, methyl-esterified, enriched by immobilized metal affinity chromatography, and sequenced by nanospray-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 19 in vivo phosphorylation sites were mapped in the proteins corresponding to 15 genes in C. reinhardtii. Amino-terminal acetylation of seven proteins was concomitantly determined. Sequenced amino termini of six mature LHCII proteins differed from the predicted ones. The State 1-to-State 2 transition induced phosphorylation of the PSII core components D2 and PsbR and quadruple phosphorylation of a minor LHCII antennae subunit, CP29, as well as phosphorylation of constituents of a major LHCII complex, Lhcbm1 and Lhcbm10. Exposure of the algal cells to either moderate or high light caused additional phosphorylation of the D1 and CP43 proteins of the PSII core. The high light treatment led to specific hyperphosphorylation of CP29 at seven distinct residues, phosphorylation of another minor LHCII constituent, CP26, at a single threonine, and double phosphorylation of additional subunits of a major LHCII complex including Lhcbm4, Lhcbm6, Lhcbm9, and Lhcbm11. Environmentally induced protein phosphorylation at the interface of PSII core and the associated antenna proteins, particularly multiple differential phosphorylations of CP29 linker protein, suggests the mechanisms for control of photosynthetic state transitions and for LHCII uncoupling from PSII under high light stress to allow thermal energy dissipation. PMID:16670252

Turkina, Maria V; Kargul, Joanna; Blanco-Rivero, Amaya; Villarejo, Arsenio; Barber, James; Vener, Alexander V

2006-08-01

275

Metabolite Profiling and Integrative Modeling Reveal Metabolic Constraints for Carbon Partitioning under Nitrogen Starvation in the Green Algae Haematococcus pluvialis.  

PubMed

The green alga Hematococcus pluvialis accumulates large amounts of the antioxidant astaxanthin under inductive stress conditions, such as nitrogen starvation. The response to nitrogen starvation and high light leads to the accumulation of carbohydrates and fatty acids as well as increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Although the behavior of individual pathways has been well investigated, little is known about the systemic effects of the stress response mechanism. Here we present time-resolved metabolite, enzyme activity, and physiological data that capture the metabolic response of H. pluvialis under nitrogen starvation and high light. The data were integrated into a putative genome-scale model of the green alga to in silico test hypotheses of underlying carbon partitioning. The model-based hypothesis testing reinforces the involvement of starch degradation to support fatty acid synthesis in the later stages of the stress response. In addition, our findings support a possible mechanism for the involvement of the increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in carbon repartitioning. Finally, the in vitro experiments and the in silico modeling presented here emphasize the predictive power of large scale integrative approaches to pinpoint metabolic adjustment to changing environments. PMID:25183014

Recht, Lee; Töpfer, Nadine; Batushansky, Albert; Sikron, Noga; Gibon, Yves; Fait, Aaron; Nikoloski, Zoran; Boussiba, Sammy; Zarka, Aliza

2014-10-31

276

Ribosomal protein L10 is encoded in the mitochondrial genome of many land plants and green algae  

PubMed Central

Background The mitochondrial genomes of plants generally encode 30-40 identified protein-coding genes and a large number of lineage-specific ORFs. The lack of wide conservation for most ORFs suggests they are unlikely to be functional. However, an ORF, termed orf-bryo1, was recently found to be conserved among bryophytes suggesting that it might indeed encode a functional mitochondrial protein. Results From a broad survey of land plants, we have found that the orf-bryo1 gene is also conserved in the mitochondria of vascular plants and charophycean green algae. This gene is actively transcribed and RNA edited in many flowering plants. Comparative sequence analysis and distribution of editing suggests that it encodes ribosomal protein L10 of the large subunit of the ribosome. In several lineages, such as crucifers and grasses, where the rpl10 gene has been lost from the mitochondrion, we suggest that a copy of the nucleus-encoded chloroplast-derived rpl10 gene may serve as a functional replacement. Conclusion Despite the fact that there are now over 20 mitochondrial genome sequences for land plants and green algae, this gene has remained unidentified and largely undetected until now because of the unlikely coincidence that most of the earlier sequences were from the few lineages that lack the intact gene. These results illustrate the power of comparative sequencing to identify novel genomic features. PMID:19917118

2009-01-01

277

Different fates of the chloroplast tufA gene following its transfer to the nucleus in green algae.  

PubMed Central

Previous work suggested that the tufA gene, encoding protein synthesis elongation factor Tu, was transferred from the chloroplast to the nucleus within the green algal lineage giving rise to land plants. In this report we investigate the timing and mode of transfer by examining chloroplast and nuclear DNA from the three major classes of green algae, with emphasis on the class Charophyceae, the proposed sister group to land plants. Filter hybridizations reveal a chloroplast tufA gene in all Ulvophyceae and Chlorophyceae and in some but not all Charophyceae. One charophycean alga, Coleochaete orbicularis, is shown to contain an intact but highly divergent chloroplast tufA gene, whose product is predicted to be non-functional in protein synthesis. We propose that a copy of the tufA gene was functionally transferred from the chloroplast to the nucleus early in the evolution of the Charophyceae, with chloroplast copies of varying function being retained in some but not all of the subsequently diverging lineages. This proposal is supported by the demonstration of multiple tufA-like sequences in Coleochaete nuclear DNA and in nuclear DNA from all other Charophyceae examined. Images PMID:2371274

Baldauf, S L; Manhart, J R; Palmer, J D

1990-01-01

278

Antiviral activity of acidic polysaccharides from Coccomyxa gloeobotrydiformi, a green alga, against an in vitro human influenza A virus infection.  

PubMed

The extracts prepared from green algae are reported to possess a variety of biological activities including antioxidant, antitumor and antiviral activities. The acidic polysaccharide fraction from a green alga Coccomyxa gloeobotrydiformi (CmAPS) was isolated and the antiviral action on an in vitro infection of influenza A virus was examined. CmAPS inhibited the growth and yield of all influenza A virus strains tested, such as A/H1N1, A/H2N2, A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 pandemic strains. The 50% inhibitory concentration of CmAPS on the infection of human influenza A virus strains ranged from 26 to 70 µg/mL and the antiviral activity of CmAPS against influenza A/USSR90/77 (H1N1) was the strongest. The antiviral activity of CmAPS was not due to the cytotoxicity against host cells. The antiviral activity of CmAPS required its presence in the inoculation of virus onto MDCK cells. Pretreatment and post-treatment with CmAPS was ineffective for the antiviral activity. CmAPS inhibited influenza A virus-induced erythrocyte hemagglutination and hemolysis. Taken together, CmAPS was suggested to exhibit the anti-influenza virus activity through preventing the interaction of virus and host cells. The detailed antiviral activity of CmAPS is discussed. PMID:22856509

Komatsu, Takayuki; Kido, Nobuo; Sugiyama, Tsuyoshi; Yokochi, Takashi

2013-02-01

279

New "missing link" genus of the colonial volvocine green algae gives insights into the evolution of oogamy  

PubMed Central

Background The evolution of oogamy from isogamy, an important biological event, can be summarized as follows: morphologically similar gametes (isogametes) differentiated into small “male” and large “female” motile gametes during anisogamy, from which immotile female gametes (eggs) evolved. The volvocine green algae represent a model lineage to study this type of sex evolution and show two types of gametic unions: conjugation between isogametes outside the parental colonies (external fertilization during isogamy) and fertilization between small motile gametes (sperm) and large gametes (eggs) inside the female colony (internal fertilization during anisogamy and oogamy). Although recent cultural studies on volvocine algae revealed morphological diversity and molecular genetic data of sexual reproduction, an intermediate type of union between these two gametic unions has not been identified. Results We identified a novel colonial volvocine genus, Colemanosphaera, which produces bundles of spindle-shaped male gametes through successive divisions of colonial cells. Obligately anisogamous conjugation between male and female motile gametes occurred outside the female colony (external fertilization during anisogamy). This new genus contains 16- or 32-celled spheroidal colonies similar to those of the volvocine genera Yamagishiella and Eudorina. However, Colemanosphaera can be clearly distinguished from these two genera based on its sister phylogenetic position to the enigmatic flattened colonial volvocine Platydorina and external fertilization during anisogamy. Two species of Colemanosphaera were found in a Japanese lake; these species are also distributed in European freshwaters based on a published sequence of an Austrian strain and the original description of Pandorina charkowiensis from Ukraine. Conclusions Based on phylogeny and morphological data, this novel genus exhibits a missing link between Platydorina and the typical spheroidal colonial volvocine members such as Pandorina or Yamagishiella. Considering the external obligate anisogamy, oogamy evolution may have been preceded by the transition from external to internal fertilization during anisogamy within the volvocine green algae. PMID:24589311

2014-01-01

280

Three-dimensional ultrastructural study of oil and astaxanthin accumulation during encystment in the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis.  

PubMed

Haematococcus pluvialis is a freshwater species of green algae and is well known for its accumulation of the strong antioxidant astaxanthin, which is used in aquaculture, various pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. High levels of astaxanthin are present in cysts, which rapidly accumulate when the environmental conditions become unfavorable for normal cell growth. It is not understood, however, how accumulation of high levels of astaxanthin, which is soluble in oil, becomes possible during encystment. Here, we performed ultrastructural 3D reconstruction based on over 350 serial sections per cell to visualize the dynamics of astaxanthin accumulation and subcellular changes during the encystment of H. pluvialis. This study showcases the marked changes in subcellular elements, such as chloroplast degeneration, in the transition from green coccoid cells to red cyst cells during encystment. In green coccoid cells, chloroplasts accounted for 41.7% of the total cell volume, whereas the relative volume of astaxanthin was very low (0.2%). In contrast, oil droplets containing astaxanthin predominated in cyst cells (52.2%), in which the total chloroplast volume was markedly decreased (9.7%). Volumetric observations also demonstrated that the relative volumes of the cell wall, starch grains, pyrenoids, mitochondria, the Golgi apparatus, and the nucleus in a cyst cell are smaller than those in green coccid cells. Our data indicated that chloroplasts are degraded, resulting in a net-like morphology, but do not completely disappear, even at the red cyst stage. PMID:23326471

Wayama, Marina; Ota, Shuhei; Matsuura, Hazuki; Nango, Nobuhito; Hirata, Aiko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

2013-01-01

281

Three-Dimensional Ultrastructural Study of Oil and Astaxanthin Accumulation during Encystment in the Green Alga Haematococcus pluvialis  

PubMed Central

Haematococcus pluvialis is a freshwater species of green algae and is well known for its accumulation of the strong antioxidant astaxanthin, which is used in aquaculture, various pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. High levels of astaxanthin are present in cysts, which rapidly accumulate when the environmental conditions become unfavorable for normal cell growth. It is not understood, however, how accumulation of high levels of astaxanthin, which is soluble in oil, becomes possible during encystment. Here, we performed ultrastructural 3D reconstruction based on over 350 serial sections per cell to visualize the dynamics of astaxanthin accumulation and subcellular changes during the encystment of H. pluvialis. This study showcases the marked changes in subcellular elements, such as chloroplast degeneration, in the transition from green coccoid cells to red cyst cells during encystment. In green coccoid cells, chloroplasts accounted for 41.7% of the total cell volume, whereas the relative volume of astaxanthin was very low (0.2%). In contrast, oil droplets containing astaxanthin predominated in cyst cells (52.2%), in which the total chloroplast volume was markedly decreased (9.7%). Volumetric observations also demonstrated that the relative volumes of the cell wall, starch grains, pyrenoids, mitochondria, the Golgi apparatus, and the nucleus in a cyst cell are smaller than those in green coccid cells. Our data indicated that chloroplasts are degraded, resulting in a net-like morphology, but do not completely disappear, even at the red cyst stage. PMID:23326471

Matsuura, Hazuki; Nango, Nobuhito; Hirata, Aiko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

2013-01-01

282

Bacterial diversity in surface water of the Yellow Sea during and after a green alga tide in 2008  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From May to August 2008, a large "green tide", consisting of the alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, occurred in the Yellow Sea, China, affecting the local marine ecosystem and human activities. We investigated the influence of the green tide on the microbial community in the surface seawater, at four sites from July to August 2008, using bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. We sequenced 228 clones of unique patterns identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques. The results show that 228 sequenced clones fell into six bacterial phyla: Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, and Planctomycetes. Alphaproteobacteria (33%), Gammaproteobacteria (25%), Bacteroidetes (23%) and Cyanobacteria (9%) dominated the assemblage. Comparison between samples collected in July (during the tide) and those collected in August (after the tide) showed that, in the microbial community, diversities of Alphaproteobacteria and Cyanobacteria increased after the tide, while those of Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased. These results indicate that the green tide influenced the growth of some bacteria, and provide information for further studies on the interactions and relationships between U. prolifera and the bacterial community. This study suggests that microbial community analysis is a good approach to monitoring green tides.

Guo, Cong; Li, Fuchao; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Zhaopu; Qin, Song

2011-11-01

283

Evolution and diversity of plant cell walls: from algae to flowering plants.  

PubMed

All photosynthetic multicellular Eukaryotes, including land plants and algae, have cells that are surrounded by a dynamic, complex, carbohydrate-rich cell wall. The cell wall exerts considerable biological and biomechanical control over individual cells and organisms, thus playing a key role in their environmental interactions. This has resulted in compositional variation that is dependent on developmental stage, cell type, and season. Further variation is evident that has a phylogenetic basis. Plants and algae have a complex phylogenetic history, including acquisition of genes responsible for carbohydrate synthesis and modification through a series of primary (leading to red algae, green algae, and land plants) and secondary (generating brown algae, diatoms, and dinoflagellates) endosymbiotic events. Therefore, organisms that have the shared features of photosynthesis and possession of a cell wall do not form a monophyletic group. Yet they contain some common wall components that can be explained increasingly by genetic and biochemical evidence. PMID:21351878

Popper, Zoë A; Michel, Gurvan; Hervé, Cécile; Domozych, David S; Willats, William G T; Tuohy, Maria G; Kloareg, Bernard; Stengel, Dagmar B

2011-01-01

284

Induction of Metamorphosis of Larvae of the Green Sea Urchin, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, by Coralline Red Algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coralline red algae, Lithothumnion gla- ciale, Phymatolithon luevigat urn, P. rugulosum, and Cor- allinu ollicinulis, induced >85% of laboratory-reared lar- vae of Strongyloccntrotus droehachiensis to metamor- phose. Larvae must contact live L. glaciale or its spores for metamorphosis to occur: the inducer is not sensed in the water column. However, aqueous extracts of L. gfu- ciule can induce metamorphosis,

CHRISTOPHER M. PEARCE; ROBERT E. SCHEIBLING

1990-01-01

285

Food production and gas exchange system using blue-green alga (Spirulina) for CELSS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to reduce the cultivation area required for the growth of higher plants in space adoption of algae, which have a higher photosynthetic ability, seems very suitable for obtaining oxygen and food as a useful source of high quality protein. The preliminary cultivation experiment for determining optimum cultivation conditions and for obtaining the critical design parameters of the cultivator

Mitsuo Oguchi; Koji Otsubo; Keiji Nitta; Shigeki Hatayama

1987-01-01

286

Effect of aluminum and zinc on enzyme activities in the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain produced by atmospheric pollution may decrease the pH value of water and increase the availability and potential toxicity of metals in water which have detrimental effects on aquatic organisms, including algae, the important component of the primary production, and, thus, the entire aquatic food chain. Recent reviews of the effects of acid rain on freshwater ecosystems have emphasized

F.-X. Kong; Y. Chen

1995-01-01

287

Antiviral activity of the green marine alga Ulva fasciata on the replication of human metapneumovirus.  

PubMed

We evaluated the antiviral activity of the marine alga, Ulva fasciata, collected from Rasa beach and Forno beach, Búzios, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil on the replication of human metapneumovirus (HMPV). The algae extracts were prepared using three different methodologies to compare the activity of different groups of chemical composites obtained through these different methodologies. Four out of the six extracts inhibited nearly 100% of viral replication. The results demonstrated that the majority of the extracts (five out of six) possess virucidal activity and therefore have the ability to interact with the extracellular viral particles and prevent the infection. On the other hand, only two extracts (from Forno beach, obtained by maceration and maceration of the decoction) were able to interact with cell receptors, hindering the viral entry. Finally, only the extract of algae collected at Forno beach, obtained by maceration presented intracellular activity. To our knowledge, this is a pioneer study on antiviral activity of marine algae against HMPV. It is also the first on antiviral activity against HMPV ever done in Brazil. The study also shows the effect of different environment factors and different chemical procedures used to obtain the extract on its biological properties. PMID:20305948

Mendes, Gabriella da Silva; Soares, Angélica Ribeiro; Martins, Fernanda Otaviano; Albuquerque, Maria Carolina Maciel de; Costa, Sonia Soares; Yoneshigue-Valentin, Yocie; Gestinari, Lísia Mônica de Souza; Santos, Norma; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela

2010-01-01

288

Toxic effects of organic solvents on the growth of blue-green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively few reports have been published on the comparative toxicity of solvents towards test organisms, and these deal primarily with fish and aquatic invertebrates. Information for microbial systems are more limited with some data available for algae and slightly more for fungi. Aside from direct toxic effects of their own, solvents can interact synergistically and antagonistically with the toxicant in

Glenn W. Stratton

1987-01-01

289

Transcriptomics of Desiccation Tolerance in the Streptophyte Green Alga Klebsormidium Reveal a Land Plant-Like Defense Reaction  

PubMed Central

Background Water loss has significant effects on physiological performance and survival rates of algae. However, despite the prominent presence of aeroterrestrial algae in terrestrial habitats, hardly anything is known about the molecular events that allow aeroterrestrial algae to survive harsh environmental conditions. We analyzed the transcriptome and physiology of a strain of the alpine aeroterrestrial alga Klebsormidium crenulatum under control and strong desiccation-stress conditions. Principal Findings For comparison we first established a reference transcriptome. The high-coverage reference transcriptome includes about 24,183 sequences (1.5 million reads, 636 million bases). The reference transcriptome encodes for all major pathways (energy, carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, sugars), nearly all deduced pathways are complete or missing only a few transcripts. Upon strong desiccation, more than 7000 transcripts showed changes in their expression levels. Most of the highest up-regulated transcripts do not show similarity to known viridiplant proteins, suggesting the existence of some genus- or species-specific responses to desiccation. In addition, we observed the up-regulation of many transcripts involved in desiccation tolerance in plants (e.g. proteins similar to those that are abundant in late embryogenesis (LEA), or proteins involved in early response to desiccation ERD), and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFO) known to act as osmolytes). Major physiological shifts are the up-regulation of transcripts for photosynthesis, energy production, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, which is supported by elevated cellular glutathione content as revealed by immunoelectron microscopy as well as an increase in total antiradical power. However, the effective quantum yield of Photosystem II and CO2 fixation decreased sharply under the applied desiccation stress. In contrast, transcripts for cell integrative functions such as cell division, DNA replication, cofactor biosynthesis, and amino acid biosynthesis were down-regulated. Significance This is the first study investigating the desiccation transcriptome of a streptophyte green alga. Our results indicate that the cellular response is similar to embryophytes, suggesting that embryophytes inherited a basic cellular desiccation tolerance from their streptophyte predecessors. PMID:25340847

Holzinger, Andreas; Kaplan, Franziska; Blaas, Kathrin; Zechmann, Bernd; Komsic-Buchmann, Karin; Becker, Burkhard

2014-01-01

290

Planktonic blue-green algae: Production, sedimentation, and decomposition in Lake Mendota, Wisconsin  

Microsoft Academic Search

During two annual phytoplankton cycles (1976, 1977), growth, primary production, and sedimentation were measured in Lake Mendota. Blue-green algal blooms developed after lake stratification in a succession of dominant genera. Aphunizomenon and Anabaena nor- mally dominated early populations with Microcystis becoming more important by midsum- mer. Periodic declines in blue-green algal standing crop could be accounted for by a com-

ROBERT D. FALLON; Thomas D. Brockl

1980-01-01

291

Antitumor activity of marine algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Powdered tissue from 46 species of air-dried marine algae (four green, 21 brown and 21 red algae) were screened for antitumor activity. Significant activity against Ehrlich carcinoma was found in the brown algae Scytosiphon lomentaria (69.8% inhibition), Lessonia nigrescens (60.0%), Laminaria japonica (57.6%), Sargassum ringgoldianum (46.5%), the red algae Porphyra yezoensis (53.2%) and Eucheuma gelatinae (52.1%) and the green alga

Hiroyuki Noda; Hideomi Amano; Koichi Arashima; Kazutosi Nisizawa

1990-01-01

292

Effect of green manure and floodwater algae on diurnal fluctuations of floodwater pH and depth of aerobic soil layer under lowland rice conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation was undertaken to elucidate the effect of floodwater algae and green manure on floodwater pH and depth of aerobic soil layer which are mainly responsible for the nitrogen losses in lowland rice production systems. The study was conducted in an environmental chamber using a sandy loam soil. Cylindrical plastic bottles 7 cm in diameter were used and

H. S. Thind; D. L. Rowell

1997-01-01

293

Regulation of Two Carotenoid Biosynthesis Genes Coding for Phytoene Synthase and Carotenoid Hydroxylase during Stress-Induced Astaxanthin Formation in the Green Alga Haematococcus pluvialis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Astaxanthin is a high-value carotenoid used as a pigmentation source in fish aquaculture. In addition, a beneficial role of astaxanthin as a food supplement for humans is becoming evident. The unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis seems to be a suitable source for natural astaxanthin. Astaxanthin accumulation in H. pluvialis occurs in response to environmental stress such as high light and

Jens Steinbrenner; Hartmut Linden

2001-01-01

294

Anti-cancer effects of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, a natural source of bilirubin-like tetrapyrrolic compounds.  

PubMed

Spirulina platensis is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement because of its hypocholesterolemic properties. Among other bioactive substances, it is also rich in tetrapyrrolic compounds closely related to bilirubin molecule, a potent antioxidant and anti-proliferative agent. The aim of our study was to evaluate possible anticancer effects of S. platensis and S. platensis-derived tetrapyrroles using an experimental model of pancreatic cancer. The anti-proliferative effects of S. platensis and its tetrapyrrolic components [phycocyanobilin (PCB) and chlorophyllin, a surrogate molecule for chlorophyll A] were tested on several human pancreatic cancer cell lines and xenotransplanted nude mice. The effects of experimental therapeutics on mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and glutathione redox status were also evaluated. Compared to untreated cells, experimental therapeutics significantly decreased proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro in a dose-dependent manner (from 0.16 g•L-1 [S. platensis], 60 ?M [PCB], and 125 ?M [chlorophyllin], p<0.05). The anti-proliferative effects of S. platensis were also shown in vivo, where inhibition of pancreatic cancer growth was evidenced since the third day of treatment (p < 0.05). All tested compounds decreased generation of mitochondrial ROS and glutathione redox status (p = 0.0006; 0.016; and 0.006 for S. platensis, PCB, and chlorophyllin, respectively). In conclusion, S. platensis and its tetrapyrrolic components substantially decreased the proliferation of experimental pancreatic cancer. These data support a chemopreventive role of this edible alga. Furthermore, it seems that dietary supplementation with this alga might enhance systemic pool of tetrapyrroles, known to be higher in subjects with Gilbert syndrome. PMID:24552870

Koní?ková, Renata; Va?ková, Kate?ina; Vaníková, Jana; Vá?ová, Kate?ina; Muchová, Lucie; Subhanová, Iva; Zadinová, Marie; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Dvo?ák, Aleš; Kolá?, Michal; Strnad, Hynek; Rimpelová, Silvie; Ruml, Tomáš; J Wong, Ronald; Vítek, Libor

2014-01-01

295

Influence of PbS nanoparticle polymer coating on their aggregation behavior and toxicity to the green algae Dunaliella salina.  

PubMed

The potential hazards of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment and to living organisms need to be considered for a safe development of nanotechnology. In the present study, the potential toxic effects of uncoated and gum Arabic-coated lead sulfide nanoparticles (GA-coated PbS NPs) on the growth, lipid peroxidation, reducing capacity and total carotenoid content of the hypersaline unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina were investigated. Coatings of PbS NPs with GA, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, reduced the toxicity of PbS NPs. Uncoated PbS NP toxicity to D. salina was attributed to higher algal cell-NP agglomerate formation, higher lipid peroxidation, lower content of total reducing substances and lower total carotenoid content. Low levels of Pb(2+) in the growth culture media indicate that PbS NP dissolution does not occur in the culture. Also, the addition of 100 ?M Pb(2+) to the culture media had no significant (P>0.05) effect on algal growth. The shading of light (shading effect) by PbS NPs, when simulated using activated charcoal, did not contribute to the overall toxic effect of PbS NPs which was evident by insignificant (P>0.05) reduction in the growth and antioxidant capacity of the algae. When PbS NP aggregation in culture media (without algal cells) was followed for 60 min, uncoated form aggregated rapidly reaching aggregate sizes with hydrodynamic diameter of over 2500 nm within 60 min. Effective particle-particle interaction was reduced in the GA-coated NPs. Aggregates of about 440 nm hydrodynamic diameter were formed within 35 min. Afterwards the aggregate size remained constant. It is concluded that PbS NPs have a negative effect on aquatic algae and their transformation by GA capping affects NPs aggregation properties and toxicity. PMID:24907922

Zamani, Hajar; Moradshahi, Ali; Jahromi, Hamed Dehdashti; Sheikhi, Mohammad Hosein

2014-09-01

296

Feeding strategy of the sacoglossan opisthobranch Oxynoe olivacea on the tropical green alga Caulerpa taxifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding behaviour of the shelled sacoglossan Oxynoe olivacea was investigated to better understand the role and importance of this species in influencing encroachments of the alien alga\\u000a Caulerpa taxifolia in the Mediterranean sea. We tested whether this slug preferred, as preliminary field observations suggested, an aggregative\\u000a feeding behaviour and which part of the algal thallus, phylloid vs rhizoid, it

Paola Gianguzza; Franco Andaloro; Silvano Riggio

297

Feeding strategy of the sacoglossan opisthobranch Oxynoe olivacea on the tropical green alga Caulerpa taxifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feeding behaviour of the shelled sacoglossan Oxynoe olivacea was investigated to better understand the role and importance of this species in influencing encroachments of the alien alga\\u000a Caulerpa taxifolia in the Mediterranean sea. We tested whether this slug preferred, as preliminary field observations suggested, an aggregative\\u000a feeding behaviour and which part of the algal thallus, phylloid vs rhizoid, it

Paola Gianguzza; Franco Andaloro; Silvano Riggio

2007-01-01

298

Genome size differentiates co-occurring populations of the planktonic diatom Ditylum brightwellii (Bacillariophyta)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Diatoms are one of the most species-rich groups of eukaryotic microbes known. Diatoms are also the only group of eukaryotic micro-algae with a diplontic life history, suggesting that the ancestral diatom switched to a life history dominated by a duplicated genome. A key mechanism of speciation among diatoms could be a propensity for additional stable genome duplications. Across eukaryotic

Julie A Koester; Jarred E Swalwell; Peter von Dassow; E Virginia Armbrust

2010-01-01

299

Selenium Accumulation in Unicellular Green Alga Chlorella vulgaris and Its Effects on Antioxidant Enzymes and Content of Photosynthetic Pigments  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate selenite effects in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris as a primary producer and the relationship with intracellular bioaccumulation. The effects of selenite were evaluated by measuring the effect of different selenite concentrations on algal growth during a 144 h exposure period. It was found that lower Se concentrations (?75 mg L?1) positively promoted C. vulgaris growth and acted as antioxidant by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (LPO) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidative effect was associated with an increase in guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and photosynthetic pigments. Meanwhile, significant increase in the cell growth rate and organic Se content was also detected in the algae. In contrast, these changes were opposite in C. vulgaris exposed to Se higher than 100 mg L?1. The antioxidation and toxicity appeared to be correlated to Se bioaccumulation, which suggests the appropriate concentration of Se in the media accumulation of C. vulgaris should be 75 mg L?1. Taken together, C. vulgaris possesses tolerance to Se, and Se-Chlorella could be developed as antioxidative food for aquaculture and human health. PMID:25375113

Sun, Xian; Zhong, Yu; Huang, Zhi; Yang, Yufeng

2014-01-01

300

Hydrogen metabolism of green algae: discovery and early research - a tribute to Hans Gaffron and his coworkers.  

PubMed

The detection of hydrogen metabolism in green algae more than 60 years ago by Hans Gaffron dispelled the widely accepted dogma at that time that this feature was unique to prokaryotic organisms. Research on this unexpected aspect of algal physiology has continued until today because of its evolutionary implications and possible practical significance. This minireview focuses on the work of Gaffron and his collaborators, whose experiments provided most of the information about the mechanism of hydrogen metabolism in algae during the 35 years following its discovery. It is shown that the emergence of our present mechanistic concepts was closely linked to the changing perception of the process of photosynthetic water oxidation. Whereas the mechanism of 'photoreduction,' i.e., the photoassimilation of carbon dioxide with hydrogen as the electron donor, was well understood already by Gaffron's group as being a reaction mediated by Photosystem I only, a clear concept of the mechanism of light-dependent hydrogen production has been more difficult to establish. Gaffron and his collaborators provided ample evidence, however, that 'photohydrogen' evolution can be fueled by reducing equivalents derived from a photolysis of water as well as by an oxidation of internal and external organic molecules. The presently prevailing view embraces this concept of multiple pathways, but the relative contribution of each of them, and the regulatory mechanisms determining it, remain a matter of debate. PMID:16228569

Homann, Peter H

2003-01-01

301

Inhibition of Target of Rapamycin Signaling by Rapamycin in the Unicellular Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1[OA  

PubMed Central

The macrolide rapamycin specifically binds the 12-kD FK506-binding protein (FKBP12), and this complex potently inhibits the target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase. The identification of TOR in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) revealed that TOR is conserved in photosynthetic eukaryotes. However, research on TOR signaling in plants has been hampered by the natural resistance of plants to rapamycin. Here, we report TOR inactivation by rapamycin treatment in a photosynthetic organism. We identified and characterized TOR and FKBP12 homologs in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Whereas growth of wild-type Chlamydomonas cells is sensitive to rapamycin, cells lacking FKBP12 are fully resistant to the drug, indicating that this protein mediates rapamycin action to inhibit cell growth. Unlike its plant homolog, Chlamydomonas FKBP12 exhibits high affinity to rapamycin in vivo, which was increased by mutation of conserved residues in the drug-binding pocket. Furthermore, pull-down assays demonstrated that TOR binds FKBP12 in the presence of rapamycin. Finally, rapamycin treatment resulted in a pronounced increase of vacuole size that resembled autophagic-like processes. Thus, our findings suggest that Chlamydomonas cell growth is positively controlled by a conserved TOR kinase and establish this unicellular alga as a useful model system for studying TOR signaling in photosynthetic eukaryotes. PMID:16299168

Crespo, Jose L.; Diaz-Troya, Sandra; Florencio, Francisco J.

2005-01-01

302

Raman spectroscopic insights into the chemical gradients within the wound plug of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia.  

PubMed

The invasive unicellular green macroalga Caulerpa taxifolia has spread dramatically in the Mediterranean Sea over the last decades. Its success is based on rapid plug formation after wounding, to prevent the loss of cell content. This quick and efficient process involves the rapid transformation of the secondary metabolite caulerpenyne to the reactive 1,4-dialdehyde oxytoxin 2, which acts as a protein crosslinker. The main metabolites of the wound plug were identified as proteins, caulerpenyne derivatives, and sulfated polysaccharides. Because of a methodological deficit, however, the detailed distribution of the compounds within the wound plug of C. taxifolia was unknown. This study demonstrates the suitability of FT-Raman spectroscopy for the noninvasive in vivo determination of caulerpenyne and its derivatives, as well as ?-carotene, from signals with special spectral features within the wound plug and the adjacent intact alga tissue, with a resolution of 100 ?m. FT-Raman spectra allowed four different zones with distinct chemical compositions around the region of wounds to be characterized. Gradients of the investigated metabolites within the wound plug and the alga could be determined. Moreover, various caulerpenyne derivatives could be identified spectroscopically, and this has led to a mechanistic proposal for the internal and the external wound plug formation. PMID:23526760

Weissflog, Ina A; Grosser, Katharina; Bräutigam, Maximilian; Dietzek, Benjamin; Pohnert, Georg; Popp, Juergen

2013-04-15

303

Extractable substances (anionic surfactants) from membrane filters induce morphological changes in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus (Chlorophyceae).  

PubMed

The effect of filtration of medium through different kinds of filters (glass fiber, mixed esters of cellulose and nitrocellulose) on the morphology in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus was examined. Several compounds potentially released from membrane filters were further investigated, and among them, two anionic surfactants were found to be morphologically active. Exposure to the anionic surfactants resulted within 2 d in the transformation of unicellular populations of Scenedesmus in populations dominated by colonies. Growth rates between control and surfactant-exposed populations were identical, and the morphological effect occurred at surfactant concentrations far below the reported no-observed-effect concentration for growth inhibition, stressing the need for inclusion of morphological appearance of Scenedesmus in algal toxicity testing to improve the assessment of ecological risks. PMID:12069305

Lürling, Miquel; Beekman, Wendy

2002-06-01

304

ELISA and LC-MS/MS methods for determining cyanobacterial toxins in blue-green algae food supplements.  

PubMed

The use of natural products as a diet supplement is increasing worldwide but sometimes is not followed by adequate sanitary controls and analyses. Twenty samples of pills and capsules of lyophilised cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), commercialised in Italy as dietary supplements, were found positive at the Vibrio fischeri bioassay. Further analyses with ELISA and LC-MS/MS methods revealed the presence of four microcystin (MC) analogues, MC-LR, -YR, -LA, -RR and two demethylated forms of MC-RR. The highest total microcystin content was 4.5 and 1.4 microg g-1 in pills and capsules, respectively. The ELISA measurements, compared to the LC-MS/MS analyses, showed significantly lower concentrations of microcystins in pills, this confirming a possible ELISA underestimate of mixed microcystins, due to different sensitivities for some toxic analogues. PMID:16753920

Bruno, M; Fiori, M; Mattei, D; Melchiorre, S; Messineo, V; Volpi, F; Bogialli, S; Nazzari, M

2006-07-20

305

Chemical constituents of the aquatic plant Schoenoplectus lacustris: evaluation of phytotoxic effects on the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum.  

PubMed

Forty-nine secondary metabolites were isolated from aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the aquatic plant Shoenoplectus lacustris. All compounds were characterized based on spectroscopic data. Eleven free and glycosylated low-molecular polyphenols, 17 cinnamic acid and dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives, 11 flavonoids, and 10 C13 nor-isoprenoids were identified. The structure of the new compound, 1-benzoyl-glycerol-2-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, was elucidated by 2D NMR experiments (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY). To evaluate potential phytotoxic effects, all compounds were tested on the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum, a unicellular organism commonly used in tests of toxicity as a bioindicator of eutrophic sites. The most active compound was (-)-catechin, showing an inhibition similar to that of the algaecide CuSO4. PMID:16525872

D'Abrosca, Brigida; Dellagreca, Marina; Fiorentino, Antonio; Isidori, Marina; Monaco, Pietro; Pacifico, Severina

2006-01-01

306

Biogeography of Marine Algae  

E-print Network

Biogeography of Marine Algae David J Garbary, St Francis Xavier University, Antigonish, Nova Scotia and vicariance in establishing distributions and as factors associated with speciation. Since eukaryotic algae. There are many species that are virtually cosmopolitan (e.g. the green alga Enteromorpha intestinalis, the red

307

Negative Impact on Growth and Photosynthesis in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the Presence of the Estrogen 17?-Ethynylestradiol  

PubMed Central

It is well known that estrogenic compounds affect development of fertilized eggs of many species of birds, fish and amphibians through disrupted activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA). The most potent activity comes from the most commonly occurring synthetic sterol, 17?-Ethynylestradiol (EE2). Less is known about the responses of aquatic phytoplankton to these compounds. Here we show for the first time that, in comparision to the control, the addition of 7 µM EE2 reduced the growth rate of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by 68% for cells grown at high CO2. When cells were grown in ambient air (low Ci) with a fully activated carbon concentrating mechanism through the induction of CA activity, the growth rates were reduced by as much as 119%. A reduced growth rate could be observed at EE2 concentrations as low as 10 pM. This was accompanied by a reduced maximum capacity for electron transport in photosystem II as determined by a lower FV/FM for low Ci-grown cells, which indicates the involvement of CAH3, a CA specifically located in the thylakoid lumen involved in proton pumping across the thylakoid membranes. These results were in agreement with an observed reduction in the chloroplastic affinity for Ci as shown by a strong increase in the Michaelis-Menten K0.5 for HCO3?. In itself, a lowering of the growth rate of a green alga by addition of the sterol EE2 warrants further investigation into the potential environmental impact by the release of treated waste water. PMID:25310092

Pocock, Tessa; Falk, Stefan

2014-01-01

308

Gas-bacuoles and other viruslike structures in blue-green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The result of electron microscopic investigation of gas-vacuoles in a culture of the benthal algaOscillatoria chalybea was compared with the extensive literature concerning gas-vacuole formation and virus infection in bacteria and animals.\\u000a \\u000a On the basis of 21 features indicating that gas-vacuoles are pathological inclusions it was concluded that they are viruslike\\u000a particles.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Viruslike structures have also been found in our

E. Fjerdingstad

1972-01-01

309

Updated Cost Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen Production from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Green Algae: Milestone Completion Report  

SciTech Connect

This report updates the 1999 economic analysis of NREL's photobiological hydrogen production from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The previous study had looked mainly at incident light intensities, batch cycles and light adsorption without directly attempting to model the saturation effects seen in algal cultures. This study takes a more detailed look at the effects that cell density, light adsorption and light saturation have on algal hydrogen production. Performance estimates based on actual solar data are also included in this study. Based on this analysis, the estimated future selling price of hydrogen produced from algae ranges $0.57/kg to $13.53/kg.

Amos, W. A.

2004-01-01

310

Loliolide in marine algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loliolide content was determined in 13 marine algae including red, brown and green algae collected from the Black Sea, the Dardanelles and the Aegean Sea. Identification and quantification were performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The loliolide content in green alga is 1.76 µg g, ranges from 0.14 to 4.35 µg g in red and from 0.18 to 4.83 µg g

Aline Percot; Ahmet Yalç?n; Veysel Aysel; Hüseyin Erdu?an; Berrin Dural; Kas?m Cemal Güven

2009-01-01

311

Noninvasive measurement of membrane potential modulation in microorganisms: photosynthesis in green algae.  

PubMed

Cell membrane potential (CMP) modulation is a physical measurement to quantitatively probe cell physiology in real time at high specificity. Electrochemical field effect transistors (eFETs) made from graphene and Si nanowire provide strong mechanical and electrical coupling with neurons and muscle cells to noninvasively measure CMP at high sensitivity. To date, there are no noninvasive methods to study electrophysiology of microorganisms because of stiff cell walls and significantly smaller membrane polarizations. An eFET made from the smallest possible nanostructure, a nanoparticle, with sensitivity to a single-electron charge is developed to noninvasively measure CMP modulation in algae. The applicability of the device is demonstrated by measuring CMP modulation due to a light-induced proton gradient inside the chloroplast during photosynthesis. The ?9 mV modulation in CMP in algae is consistent with the absorbance spectrum of chlorophyll, photosynthetic pathway, and inorganic carbon source concentration in the environment. The method can potentially become a routine method to noninvasively study electrophysiology of cells, such as microorganisms for biofuels. PMID:24354302

Lee, Eun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Woo; Saraf, Ravi F

2014-01-28

312

Quantile regression model for a diverse set of chemicals: application to acute toxicity for green algae.  

PubMed

The potential of quantile regression (QR) and quantile support vector machine regression (QSVMR) was analyzed for the definitions of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models associated with a diverse set of chemicals toward a particular endpoint. This study focused on a specific sensitive endpoint (acute toxicity to algae) for which even a narcosis QSAR model is not actually clear. An initial dataset including more than 401 ecotoxicological data for one species of algae (Selenastrum capricornutum) was defined. This set corresponds to a large sample of chemicals ranging from classical organic chemicals to pesticides. From this original data set, the selection of the different subsets was made in terms of the notion of toxic ratio (TR), a parameter based on the ratio between predicted and experimental values. The robustness of QR and QSVMR to outliers was clearly observed, thus demonstrating that this approach represents a major interest for QSAR associated with a diverse set of chemicals. We focused particularly on descriptors related to molecular surface properties. PMID:25431186

Villain, Jonathan; Lozano, Sylvain; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Durrieu, Gilles; Bureau, Ronan

2014-12-01

313

Ecotoxicity tests using the green algae Chlorella vulgaris--a useful tool in hazardous effluents management.  

PubMed

The treatment efficiency of laboratory wastewaters was evaluated and ecotoxicity tests with Chlorella vulgaris were performed on them to assess the safety of their environmental discharge. For chemical oxygen demand wastewaters, chromium (VI), mercury (II) and silver were efficiently removed by chemical treatments. A reduction of ecotoxicity was achieved; nevertheless, an EC50 (effective concentration that causes a 50% inhibition in the algae growth) of 1.5% (v/v) indicated still high level of ecotoxicity. For chloride determination wastewaters, an efficient reduction of chromium and silver was achieved after treatment. Regarding the reduction of ecotoxicity observed, EC50 increased from 0.059% to 0.5%, only a 0.02% concentration in the aquatic environment would guarantee no effects. Wastewaters containing phenanthroline/iron (II) complex were treated by chemical oxidation. Treatment was satisfactory concerning chemical parameters, although an increase in ecotoxicity was observed (EC50 reduced from 0.31% to 0.21%). The wastes from the kinetic study of persulphate and iodide reaction were treated with sodium bisulphite until colour was removed. Although they did not reveal significant ecotoxicity, only over 1% of the untreated waste produced observable effects over algae. Therefore, ecotoxicity tests could be considered a useful tool not only in laboratory effluents treatment, as shown, but also in hazardous wastewaters management. PMID:19185992

Silva, Aurora; Figueiredo, Sónia A; Sales, M Goreti; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

2009-08-15

314

Quantitative analysis of cell-type specific gene expression in the green alga Volvox carteri  

PubMed Central

Background The multicellular alga Volvox carteri possesses only two cell types: mortal, motile somatic cells and potentially immortal, immotile reproductive cells. It is therefore an attractive model system for studying how cell-autonomous cytodifferentiation is programmed within a genome. Moreover, there are ongoing genome projects both in Volvox carteri and in the closely related unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. However, gene sequencing is only the beginning. To identify cell-type specific expression and to determine relative expression rates, we evaluate the potential of real-time RT-PCR for quantifying gene transcript levels. Results Here we analyze a diversified pool of 39 target genes by real-time RT-PCR for each cell type. This gene pool contains previously known genes with unknown localization of cellular expression, 28 novel genes which are described in this study for the first time, and a few known, cell-type specific genes as a control. The respective gene products are, for instance, part of photosynthesis, cellular regulation, stress response, or transport processes. We provide expression data for all these genes. Conclusion The results show that quantitative real-time RT-PCR is a favorable approach to analyze cell-type specific gene expression in Volvox, which can be extended to a much larger number of genes or to developmental or metabolic mutants. Our expression data also provide a basis for a detailed analysis of individual, previously unknown, cell-type specifically expressed genes. PMID:17184518

Nematollahi, Ghazaleh; Kianianmomeni, Arash; Hallmann, Armin

2006-01-01

315

The mTERF protein MOC1 terminates mitochondrial DNA transcription in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

PubMed Central

The molecular function of mTERFs (mitochondrial transcription termination factors) has so far only been described for metazoan members of the protein family and in animals they control mitochondrial replication, transcription and translation. Cells of photosynthetic eukaryotes harbour chloroplasts and mitochondria, which are in an intense cross-talk that is vital for photosynthesis. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga widely used as a model organism for photosynthesis research and green biotechnology. Among the six nuclear C. reinhardtii mTERF genes is mTERF-like gene of Chlamydomonas (MOC1), whose inactivation alters mitorespiration and interestingly also light-acclimation processes in the chloroplast that favour the enhanced production of biohydrogen. We show here from in vitro studies that MOC1 binds specifically to a sequence within the mitochondrial rRNA-coding module S3, and that a knockout of MOC1 in the mutant stm6 increases read-through transcription at this site, indicating that MOC1 acts as a transcription terminator in vivo. Whereas the level of certain antisense RNA species is higher in stm6, the amount of unprocessed mitochondrial sense transcripts is strongly reduced, demonstrating that a loss of MOC1 causes perturbed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) expression. Overall, we provide evidence for the existence of mitochondrial antisense RNAs in C. reinhardtii and show that mTERF-mediated transcription termination is an evolutionary-conserved mechanism occurring in phototrophic protists and metazoans. PMID:23649833

Wobbe, Lutz; Nixon, Peter J.

2013-01-01

316

Intrinsic factors influence the attachment of fragments of the green alga Caulerpa filiformis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asexual reproduction via fragmentation is an integral component of the life history of many marine organisms. In south-eastern Australia the green macroalga Caulerpa filiformis (Suhr) Hering is abundant on many rocky shorelines and fragments are very abundant in the water column. We examined some of the factors that may influence the growth and successful reattachment of fragments of C. filiformis

M. Khou; N. A. Paul; J. T. Wright; P. D. Steinberg

2007-01-01

317

Proteomic analysis of molecular response to oxidative stress by the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapidly growing, green motile flagellates of Haematococcus pluvialis can transform into enlarged red resting cysts (aplanospores) under oxidative stress conditions. However, it is not known what initial molecular defense mechanisms occur in response to oxidative stress, and may ultimately lead to cellular transformation. In this study, global-expression profiling of cellular proteins in response to stress was analyzed by two-dimensional gel

Sheng-Bing Wang; Feng Chen; Milton Sommerfeld; Qiang Hu

2004-01-01

318

Action Spectrum for Developmental Photo-Induction of the Blue-Green Alga Nostoc muscorum.  

PubMed

The dark-grown cyanophyte requires a brief exposure to light from the 650 mmicro region of the spectrum before it can complete its developmental cycle. Induction is reversed by exposure to green light. A blue protein, presumably allophycocyanin (absorption maximum, 650 mmicro) has been demonstrated in aqueous extracts of the cyanophycean cells. PMID:17836542

Lazaroff, N; Schiff, J

1962-08-24

319

Action Spectrum for Developmental PhotoInduction of the Blue-Green Alga Nostoc muscorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dark-grown cyanophyte requires a brief exposure to light from the 650 mmu region of the spectrum before it can complete its developmental cycle. Induction is reversed by exposure to green light. A blue protein, presumably allophycocyanin (absorption maximum, 650 mmu ) has been demonstrated in aqueous extracts of the cyanophycean cells.

Norman Lazaroff; Jerome Schiff

1962-01-01

320

Hydrogen production from salt water by Marine blue green algae and solar radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two marine bluegreen algae, Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7 and Synechococcus sp Miami 041511 have been selected as the result of over 10 years continuous and intensive effort of isolation, growth examination, and the screening of hydrogen photoproduction capability in this laboratory. Both strains photoproduced hydrogen for several days at high rates and a quantity of hydrogen was accumulated in a closed vessel. Overall hydrogen donor substance of the hydrogen photoproduction was found to be salt water. Using strain Miami BG 7, a two step method of hydrogen photoproduction from salt water was successfully developed and this was recycled several times over a one month period using both free cells and immobilized cells in both indoor and outdoor under natural sunlight. According to these experiments, a prototype floating hydrogen production system was designed for further development of the biosolar hydrogen production system.

Mitsui, A.; Rosner, D.; Kumazawa, S.; Barciela, S.; Phlips, E.

1985-01-01

321

Food production and gas exchange system using blue-green alga (Spirulina) for CELSS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to reduce the cultivation area required for the growth of higher plants in space adoption of algae, which have a higher photosynthetic ability, seems very suitable for obtaining oxygen and food as a useful source of high quality protein. The preliminary cultivation experiment for determining optimum cultivation conditions and for obtaining the critical design parameters of the cultivator itself has been conducted. Spirulina was cultivated in the 6-liter medium containing a sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and a cultivation temperature controlled using a thermostat. Generated oxygen gas was separated using a polypropyrene porous hollow fiber membrane module. Through this experiment, oxygen gas (at a concentration of more than 46%) at a rate of 100 ~ 150 ml per minute could be obtained.

Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Hatayama, Shigeki

322

Seasonal variation of antibacterial activities in the green alga Ulva pertusa Kjellman.  

PubMed

The present study was performed to screen out the extracts of algae and assess the seasonal variation in antimicrobial activity of Ulva pertusa against Gardnerella vaginalis. Seasonal variation in antibacterial activity was observed, with the extracts showing no activity during summer and autumn, and showing antibacterial activity from early winter (December) to middle spring (April). The maximum value of antimicrobial activity (6.5 mm inhibition zone at 5 mg disk(-1)) of U. pertusa against G. vaginalis was observed in April. Otherwise, for both chlorophyll a and b, the highest content (2.87 mg g(-1) and 1.37 mg g(-1)) was observed in March 2009. These results may reflect variation in cellular chemical compositions such as secondary metabolite(s) rather than chlorophyll and biological activities according to season. PMID:24665759

Choi, Jae-Suk; Ha, Yu-Mi; Lee, Bo-Bae; Moon, Hye Eun; Cho, Kwang Keun; Choi, In Soon

2014-03-01

323

Salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) inhibition of the dissolved inorganic carbon concentrating process in unicellular green algae  

SciTech Connect

Rates of photosynthetic O{sub 2} evolution, for measuring K{sub 0.5}(CO{sub 2} + HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) at pH 7, upon addition of 50 micromolar HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} to air-adapted Chlamydomonas, Dunaliella, or Scenedesmus cells, were inhibited up to 90% by the addition of 1.5 to 4.0 millimolar salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) to the aqueous medium. The apparent K{sub i}(SHAM) for Chlamydomonas cells was about 2.5 millimolar, but due to low solubility in water effective concentrations would be lower. Salicylhydroxamic acid did not inhibit oxygen evolution or accumulation of bicarbonate by Scenedesmus cells between pH 8 to 11 or by isolated intact chloroplasts from Dunaliella. Thus, salicylhydroxamic acid appears to inhibit CO{sub 2} uptake, whereas previous results indicate that vanadate inhibits bicarbonate uptake. These conclusions were confirmed by three test procedures with three air-adapted algae at pH 7. Salicylhydroxamic acid inhibited the cellular accumulation of dissolved inorganic carbon, the rate of photosynthetic O{sub 2} evolution dependent on low levels of dissolved inorganic carbon (50 micromolar NaHCO{sub 3}), and the rate of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} fixation with 100 micromolar ({sup 14}C)HCO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}. Salicylhydroxamic acid inhibition of O{sub 2} evolution and {sup 14}CO{sub 2}-fixation was reversed by higher levels of NaHCO{sub 3}. Thus, salicylhydroxamic acid inhibition was apparently not affecting steps of photosynthesis other than CO{sub 2} accumulation. Although salicylhydroxamic acid is an inhibitor of alternative respiration in algae, it is not known whether the two processes are related.

Goyal, A.; Tolbert, N.E. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1990-03-01

324

Green energy from marine algae: biogas production and composition from the anaerobic digestion of Irish seaweed species.  

PubMed

Marine algae have emerged as an alternative feedstock for the production of a number of renewable fuels, including biogas. In addition to energy potential, other characteristics make them attractive as an energy source, including their ability to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2), higher productivity rates than land-based crops and the lack of water use or land competition. For Ireland, biofuels from marine algae can play an important role by reducing imports of fossil fuels as well as providing the necessary energy in rural communities. In this study, five potential seaweed species common in Irish waters, Saccorhiza polyschides, Ulva sp., Laminaria digitata, Fucus serratus and Saccharina latissima, were co-digested individually with bovine slurry. Batch reactors of 120ml and 1000ml were set up and incubated at 35 degrees C to investigate their suitability for production of biogas. Digesters fed with S. latissima produced the maximum methane yield (335 ml g volatile solids(-1) (g(VS)(-1) followed by S. polyschides with 255 ml g(VS)(-1). L. digitata produced 246ml g(VS)(-1) and the lowest yields were from the green seaweed Ulva sp. 191ml g(VS)(-1). The methane and CO2 percentages ranged between 50-72% and 10-45%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the seaweed species investigated are good feedstocks candidates for the production of biogas and methane as a source of energy. Their use on a large-scale process will require further investigation to increase yields and reduce production costs. PMID:24350482

Vanegas, C H; Bartlett, J

2013-01-01

325

The chloroplast genome of the diatom Seminavis robusta: New features introduced through multiple mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer.  

PubMed

The chloroplasts of heterokont algae such as diatoms are the result of a secondary endosymbiosis event, in which a red alga was engulfed by a non-photosynthetic eukaryote. The diatom chloroplast genomes sequenced to date show a high degree of similarity, but some examples of gene replacement or introduction of genes through horizontal gene transfer are known. The evolutionary origin of the gene transfers is unclear. We have sequenced and characterised the complete chloroplast genome and a putatively chloroplast-associated plasmid of the pennate diatom Seminavis robusta. The chloroplast genome contains two introns, a feature that has not previously been found in diatoms. The group II intron of atpB appears to be recently transferred from a Volvox-like green alga. The S. robusta chloroplast genome (150,905bp) is the largest diatom chloroplast genome characterised to date, mainly due to the presence of four large gene-poor regions. Open reading frames (ORFs) encoded by the gene-poor regions show similarity to putative proteins encoded by the chloroplast genomes of different heterokonts, as well as the plasmids pCf1 and pCf2 found in the diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis. A tyrosine recombinase and a serine recombinase are encoded by the S. robusta chloroplast genome, indicating a possible mechanism for the introduction of novel genes. A plasmid with similarity to pCf2 was also identified. Phylogenetic analyses of three ORFs identified on pCf2 suggest that two of them are part of an operon-like gene cluster conserved in bacteria. Several genetic elements have moved through horizontal gene transfer between the chloroplast genomes of different heterokonts. Two recombinases are likely to promote such gene insertion events, and the plasmid identified may act as vectors in this process. The copy number of the plasmid was similar to that of the plastid genome indicating a plastid localization. PMID:24365712

Brembu, Tore; Winge, Per; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Nederbragt, Alexander J; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Bones, Atle M

2014-08-01

326

A clade uniting the green algae Mesostigma viride and Chlorokybus atmophyticus represents the deepest branch of the Streptophyta in chloroplast genome-based phylogenies  

PubMed Central

Background The Viridiplantae comprise two major phyla: the Streptophyta, containing the charophycean green algae and all land plants, and the Chlorophyta, containing the remaining green algae. Despite recent progress in unravelling phylogenetic relationships among major green plant lineages, problematic nodes still remain in the green tree of life. One of the major issues concerns the scaly biflagellate Mesostigma viride, which is either regarded as representing the earliest divergence of the Streptophyta or a separate lineage that diverged before the Chlorophyta and Streptophyta. Phylogenies based on chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes support the latter view. Because some green plant lineages are not represented in these phylogenies, sparse taxon sampling has been suspected to yield misleading topologies. Here, we describe the complete chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequence of the early-diverging charophycean alga Chlorokybus atmophyticus and present chloroplast genome-based phylogenies with an expanded taxon sampling. Results The 152,254 bp Chlorokybus cpDNA closely resembles its Mesostigma homologue at the gene content and gene order levels. Using various methods of phylogenetic inference, we analyzed amino acid and nucleotide data sets that were derived from 45 protein-coding genes common to the cpDNAs of 37 green algal/land plant taxa and eight non-green algae. Unexpectedly, all best trees recovered a robust clade uniting Chlorokybus and Mesostigma. In protein trees, this clade was sister to all streptophytes and chlorophytes and this placement received moderate support. In contrast, gene trees provided unequivocal support to the notion that the Mesostigma + Chlorokybus clade represents the earliest-diverging branch of the Streptophyta. Independent analyses of structural data (gene content and/or gene order) and of subsets of amino acid data progressively enriched in slow-evolving sites led us to conclude that the latter topology reflects the true organismal relationships. Conclusion In disclosing a sister relationship between the Mesostigmatales and Chlorokybales, our study resolves the long-standing debate about the nature of the unicellular flagellated ancestors of land plants and alters significantly our concepts regarding the evolution of streptophyte algae. Moreover, in predicting a richer chloroplast gene repertoire than previously inferred for the common ancestor of all streptophytes, our study has contributed to a better understanding of chloroplast genome evolution in the Viridiplantae. PMID:17222354

Lemieux, Claude; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique

2007-01-01

327

Proteomic analysis of molecular response to oxidative stress by the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis (Chlorophyceae).  

PubMed

Rapidly growing, green motile flagellates of Haematococcus pluvialis can transform into enlarged red resting cysts (aplanospores) under oxidative stress conditions. However, it is not known what initial molecular defense mechanisms occur in response to oxidative stress, and may ultimately lead to cellular transformation. In this study, global-expression profiling of cellular proteins in response to stress was analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, image analysis, and peptide mass fingerprinting. Oxidative stress was induced in cultures of green flagellates by addition of acetate and Fe2+, and exposure to excess light intensity. Overall, 70 proteins were identified with altered expression patterns following stress induction. Some key proteins involved in photosynthesis and nitrogen assimilation were down-regulated, whereas some mitochondrial respiratory proteins were transiently up-regulated after the onset of stress. Most of the identified proteins, particularly those from the families of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase, were transiently up-regulated, but reverted to down-regulation during the 6 days of stress. On the other hand, cellular accumulation of the antioxidant astaxanthin occurred well after initiation of oxidative stress and reached its maximum cellular level after six or more days of stress. It appears that the early stress response involves multiple enzymatic defense processes that play a critical role upon onset of stress and also during the early transition of green vegetative cells to red cysts. As cyst development continues, the intensive, enzyme-mediated initial responses were largely replaced in mature red cysts by accumulation of the molecular antioxidant astaxanthin. This study provides the first direct evidence for a massive, and concerted up-regulation of multiple antioxidative defense mechanisms, both spatially and temporarily, to protect H. pluvialis cells against oxidative stress. PMID:15258760

Wang, Sheng-Bing; Chen, Feng; Sommerfeld, Milton; Hu, Qiang

2004-11-01

328

Effects of snail grazing and nutrient release on growth of the macrophytes Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea canadensis and the filamentous green alga Cladophora sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of snail (Lymnaea (Galba) turricula) nutrient release and grazing on young macrophytes and filamentous green algae were examined in a laboratory experiment. Snails released an average of 24.2 µg PO4-P and 48.9 µg NH4-N g-1 snail FW d-1. Snails consumed Cladophora sp. at the highest rate (45 mg g-1 snail FW d-1), Elodea canadensis at a lower rate

Agnieszka Pinowska

2002-01-01

329

RuBP limitation of photosynthetic carbon fixation during NH sub 3 assimilation: Interactions between photosynthesis, respiration, and ammonium assimilation in N-limited green algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ammonium assimilation on photosynthetic carbon fixation and Oâ exchange were examined in two species of N-limited green algae, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Selenastrum minutum. Under light-saturating conditions, ammonium assimilation resulted in a suppression of photosynthetic carbon fixation by S. minutum but not by C. pyrenoidosa. These different responses are due to different relationships between cellular ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP)

I. R. Elrifi; J. J. Holmes; H. G. Weger; W. P. Mayo; D. H. Turpin

1988-01-01

330

The effects of light quality and intensity on the synthesis of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and its mRNAs in the green alga Chlorogonium elongatum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the green alga Chlorogonium elongatum the promoting effect of light on the synthesis of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase\\/oxygenase (RuBPCase) is mainly caused by blue light of wavelengths between 430 nm and 510 nm, with a maximum effect at about 460 nm. Blue light also causes an increase in the amounts of the mRNAs for the large and the small subunits

E. Roscher; K. Zetsche

1986-01-01

331

Biosorption of Cr 3+, Cd 2+ and Cu 2+ ions by blue–green algae Spirulina sp.: kinetics, equilibrium and the mechanism of the process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of biosorption of heavy metal ions (Cr3+, Cd2+, Cu2+) by blue–green algae Spirulina sp. is discussed in this paper. Spirulina sp. was found to be a very efficient biosorbent. The aim of the present study was to investigate quantitatively the potential binding sites present at the surface of Spirulina sp., using both potentiometric titrations and adsorption isotherms. The

Katarzyna Chojnacka; Andrzej Chojnacki; Helena Górecka

2005-01-01

332

Complete Nucleotide Sequence of the Chloroplast Genome from the Green Alga Chlorella vulgaris: The Existence of Genes Possibly Involved in Chloroplast Division  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast genome (150,613 bp) from the unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris C-27 has been determined. The genome contains no large inverted repeat and has one copy of rRNA gene cluster consisting of 16S, 23S, and 5S rRNA genes. It contains 31 tRNA genes, of which the tRNALeu(GAG) gene has not been found in land

Tatsuya Wakasugi; Toshiyuki Nagai; Meenu Kapoor; Mamoru Sugita; Mari Ito; Shiho Ito; Junko Tsudzuki; Keiko Nakashima; Takahiko Tsudzuki; Yasuhiko Suzuki; Akira Hamada; Tutomu Ohta; Atsushi Inamura; Koichi Yoshinaga; Masahiro Sugiura

1997-01-01

333

The stoichiometry and antenna size of the two photosystems in marine green algae, Bryopsis maxima and Ulva pertusa, in relation to the light environment of their natural habitat.  

PubMed

The stoichiometry and antenna sizes of the two photosystems in two marine green algae, Bryopsis maxima and Ulva pertusa, were investigated to examine whether the photosynthetic apparatus of the algae can be related to the light environment of their natural habitat. Bryopsis maxima and Ulva pertusa had chlorophyll (Chl) a/b ratios of 1.5 and 1.8, respectively, indicating large levels of Chl b, which absorbs blue-green light, relative to Chl a. The level of photosystem (PS) II was equivalent to that of PS I in Bryopsis maxima but lower than that of PS I in Ulva pertusa. Analysis of Q(A) photoreduction and P-700 photo-oxidation with green light revealed that >50% of PS II centres are non-functional in electron transport. Thus, the ratio of the functional PS II to PS I is only 0.46 in Bryopsis maxima and 0.35 in Ulva pertusa. Light-response curves of electron transport also provided evidence that PS I had a larger light-harvesting capacity than did the functional PS II. Thus, there was a large imbalance in the light absorption between the two photosystems, with PS I showing a larger total light-harvesting capacity than PS II. Furthermore, as judged from the measurements of low temperature fluorescence spectra, the light energy absorbed by Chl b was efficiently transferred to PS I in both algae. Based on the above results, it is hypothesized that marine green algae require a higher ATP:NADPH ratio than do terrestrial plants to grow and survive under a coastal environment. PMID:15797939

Yamazaki, Jun-Ya; Suzuki, Takahisa; Maruta, Emiko; Kamimura, Yasumaro

2005-06-01

334

A Large Scale Structural Analysis of cDNAs in a Unicellular Green Alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. I. Generation of 3433 Non-redundant Expressed Sequence Tags  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand genetic information carried in a unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, normalized and size-selected cDNA libraries were constructed from cells at photoautotrophic growth, and a total of 11,571 5'-end sequence tags were established. These sequences were grouped into 3433 independent EST species. Similarity search against the public non-redundant protein database indicated that 817 groups showed significant similarity to registered

Erika ASAMIZU; Yasukazu NAKAMURA; Shusei SATO; Hideya FUKUZAWA; Satoshi TABATA

1999-01-01

335

Marine green algae Codium iyengarii as a good bio-sorbent for elimination of reactive black 5 from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The green seaweeds Codium iyengarii (C. iyengarii) was used to prepare as an adsorbent surface for the deletion of Reactive Black 5 (RB 5) from aqueous solution via adsorption. The batch technique was adopted under the optimal condition of amount of adsorbent, agitation time, concentration of dye, and at neutral and low pH. The depletion in concentration of the dye was monitored by Schimadzo 180 AUV/Visible spectrophotometer. It was initially monolayer adsorption, which showed multilayered formation later on with the passage of time at low and neutral pH. The Results displayed that adsorptive ability of C. iyengarii was 1.95-3.82mg/g with an elevation in primary application of dye contents (50ppm-70 ppm). The elimination data were well stable into the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm equations. The Langmuir (R2=0.9848) and Freundlich (R2=0.9441) constants for biosorption of RB 5 on green algae were determined. The coefficient relation values suggested that the Langmuir isotherm was well fitted. It explained the interaction of surface molecules, which helps in well organization of dye molecules in a monolayer formation initially on algal biomass. The pseudo first and second order rate equations were applied to link the investigational statistics and found that the second order rate expression was found to be more suitable for both the models. The absorption spectrum of RB 5 before and after adsorption with respect to time was monitored which clearly indicate that C. iyengarii was much effective surface at very low quantity. PMID:25176238

Azmat, Rafia

2014-09-01

336

The genome of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana: Ecology,evolution, and metabolism  

SciTech Connect

Diatoms are unicellular algae with plastids acquired by secondary endosymbiosis. They are responsible for {approx}20% of global carbon fixation. We report the 34 Mbp draft nuclear genome of the marine diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana and its 129 Kbp plastid and 44 Kbp mitochondrial genomes. Sequence and optical restriction mapping revealed 24 diploid nuclear chromosomes. We identified novel genes for silicic acid transport and formation of silica-based cell walls, high-affinity iron uptake, biosynthetic enzymes for several types of polyunsaturated fatty acids, utilization of a range of nitrogenous compounds and a complete urea cycle, all attributes that allow diatoms to prosper in the marine environment. Diatoms are unicellular, photosynthetic, eukaryotic algae found throughout the world's oceans and freshwater systems. They form the base of short, energetically-efficient food webs that support large-scale coastal fisheries. Photosynthesis by marine diatoms generates as much as 40% of the 45-50 billion tonnes of organic carbon produced each year in the sea (1), and their role in global carbon cycling is predicted to be comparable to that of all terrestrial rainforests combined (2, 3). Over geological time, diatoms may have influenced global climate by changing the flux of atmospheric carbon dioxide into the oceans (4). A defining feature of diatoms is their ornately patterned silicified cell wall or frustule, which displays species-specific nano-structures of such fine detail that diatoms have long been used to test the resolution of optical microscopes. Recent attention has focused on biosynthesis of these nano-structures as a paradigm for future silica nanotechnology (5). The long history (over 180 million years) and dominance of diatoms in the oceans is reflected by their contributions to vast deposits of diatomite, most cherts and a significant fraction of current petroleum reserves (6). As photosynthetic heterokonts, diatoms reflect a fundamentally different evolutionary history from the higher plants that dominate photosynthesis on land. Higher plants and green, red and glaucophyte algae are derived from a primary endosymbiotic event in which a non-photosynthetic eukaryote acquired a chloroplast by engulfing (or being invaded by) a prokaryotic cyanobacterium. In contrast, dominant bloom-forming eukaryotic phytoplankton in the ocean, such as diatoms and haptophytes, were derived by secondary endosymbiosis whereby a non-photosynthetic eukaryote acquired a chloroplast by engulfing a photosynthetic eukaryote, probably a red algal endosymbiont (Fig. 1). Each endosymbiotic event led to new combinations of genes derived from the hosts and endosymbionts (7). Prior to this project, relatively few diatom genes had been sequenced, few chromosome numbers were known, and genetic maps did not exist (8). The ecological and evolutionary importance of diatoms motivated our sequencing and analysis of the nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes of the marine centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

Ambrust, E.V.; Berges, J.; Bowler, C.; Green, B.; Martinez, D.; Putnam, N.; Zhou, S.; Allen, A.; Apt, K.; Bechner, M.; Brzezinski, M.; Chaal, B.; Chiovitti, A.; Davis, A.; Goodstein, D.; Hadi, M.; Hellsten,U.; Hildebrand, M.; Jenkins, B.; Jurka, J.; Kapitonov, V.; Kroger, N.; Lau, W.; Lane, T.; Larimer, F.; Lippmeier, J.; Lucas, S.; Medina, M.; Montsant, A.; Obornik, M.; Parker, M. Schnitzler; Palenik, B.; Pazour,G.; Richardson, P.; Rynearson, T.; Saito, M.; Schwartz, D.; Thamatrakoln,K.; Valentin, K.; Vardi, A.; Wilkerson, F.; Rokhsar, D.; Vardi, A.; Wilkerson, F.P.; Rokhsar, D.S.

2004-09-01

337

The Genome of the Diatom Thalassiosira Pseudonana: Ecology, Evolution and Metabolism  

SciTech Connect

Diatoms are unicellular algae with plastids acquired by secondary endosymbiosis. They are responsible for {approx}20% of global carbon fixation. We report the 34 Mbp draft nuclear genome of the marine diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana and its 129 Kbp plastid and 44 Kbp mitochondrial genomes. Sequence and optical restriction mapping revealed 24 diploid nuclear chromosomes. We identified novel genes for silicic acid transport and formation of silica-based cell walls, high-affinity iron uptake, biosynthetic enzymes for several types of polyunsaturated fatty acids, utilization of a range of nitrogenous compounds and a complete urea cycle, all attributes that allow diatoms to prosper in the marine environment. Diatoms are unicellular, photosynthetic, eukaryotic algae found throughout the world's oceans and freshwater systems. They form the base of short, energetically-efficient food webs that support large-scale coastal fisheries. Photosynthesis by marine diatoms generates as much as 40% of the 45-50 billion tonnes of organic carbon produced each year in the sea (1), and their role in global carbon cycling is predicted to be comparable to that of all terrestrial rainforests combined (2, 3). Over geological time, diatoms may have influenced global climate by changing the flux of atmospheric carbon dioxide into the oceans (4). A defining feature of diatoms is their ornately patterned silicified cell wall or frustule, which displays species-specific nano-structures of such fine detail that diatoms have long been used to test the resolution of optical microscopes. Recent attention has focused on biosynthesis of these nano-structures as a paradigm for future silica nanotechnology (5). The long history (over 180 million years) and dominance of diatoms in the oceans is reflected by their contributions to vast deposits of diatomite, most cherts and a significant fraction of current petroleum reserves (6). As photosynthetic heterokonts, diatoms reflect a fundamentally different evolutionary history from the higher plants that dominate photosynthesis on land. Higher plants and green, red and glaucophyte algae are derived from a primary endosymbiotic event in which a non-photosynthetic eukaryote acquired a chloroplast by engulfing (or being invaded by) a prokaryotic cyanobacterium. In contrast, dominant bloom-forming eukaryotic phytoplankton in the ocean, such as diatoms and haptophytes, were derived by secondary endosymbiosis whereby a non-photosynthetic eukaryote acquired a chloroplast by engulfing a photosynthetic eukaryote, probably a red algal endosymbiont (Fig. 1). Each endosymbiotic event led to new combinations of genes derived from the hosts and endosymbionts (7). Prior to this project, relatively few diatom genes had been sequenced, few chromosome numbers were known, and genetic maps did not exist (8). The ecological and evolutionary importance of diatoms motivated our sequencing and analysis of the nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes of the marine centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

Armbrust, E V; Berges, J A; Bowler, C; Green, B R; Martinez, D; Putnam, N H; Zhou, S; Allen, A E; Apt, K E; Bechner, M; Brzezinski, M A; Chaal, B K; Chiovitti, A; Davis, A K; Demarest, M S; Detter, J C; del Rio, T G; Goodstein, D; Hadi, M Z; Hellsten, U; Hildebrand, M; Jenkins, B D; Jurka, J; Kapitonov, V V; Kroger, N; Lau, W Y; Lane, T W; Larimer, F W; Lippmeier, J C; Lucas, S; Medina, M; Montsant, A; Obornik, M; Parker, M S; Palenik, B; Pazour, G J; Richardson, P M; Rynearson, T A; Saito, M A; Schwartz, D C; Thamatrakoln, K; Valentin, K; Vardi, A; Wilkerson, F P; Rokhsar, D S

2005-11-14

338

Transcriptional analysis of cell growth and morphogenesis in the unicellular green alga Micrasterias (Streptophyta), with emphasis on the role of expansin  

PubMed Central

Background Streptophyte green algae share several characteristics of cell growth and cell wall formation with their relatives, the embryophytic land plants. The multilobed cell wall of Micrasterias denticulata that rebuilds symmetrically after cell division and consists of pectin and cellulose, makes this unicellular streptophyte alga an interesting model system to study the molecular controls on cell shape and cell wall formation in green plants. Results Genome-wide transcript expression profiling of synchronously growing cells identified 107 genes of which the expression correlated with the growth phase. Four transcripts showed high similarity to expansins that had not been examined previously in green algae. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that these genes are most closely related to the plant EXPANSIN A family, although their domain organization is very divergent. A GFP-tagged version of the expansin-resembling protein MdEXP2 localized to the cell wall and in Golgi-derived vesicles. Overexpression phenotypes ranged from lobe elongation to loss of growth polarity and planarity. These results indicate that MdEXP2 can alter the cell wall structure and, thus, might have a function related to that of land plant expansins during cell morphogenesis. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the potential of M. denticulata as a unicellular model system, in which cell growth mechanisms have been discovered similar to those in land plants. Additionally, evidence is provided that the evolutionary origins of many cell wall components and regulatory genes in embryophytes precede the colonization of land. PMID:21943227

2011-01-01

339

Fouling coverage of a green tide alga, Ulva pertusa on some antifouling test surfaces exposed to Ayagin harbor waters, east coast of South Korea.  

PubMed

Toxic antifouling chemicals released into the seawaters leads to marine environmental degradation. In order to identify a nontoxic antifoulant, an assessment of antifouling (AF) efficacy of some AF candidates was made at Ayagin harbor, east coast of South Korea. In this static panel study conducted during October 2000-March 2001, some commercial antifoulants, seaweed and seagrass extracts were screened. On panel surfaces coated with a seaweed extract, Ishige okamurae exhibited effective AF activity. Ulva pertusa was encountered as a 'monospecific' fouler with fairly high fouling coverage on many of the test panel surfaces. In recent years the increased influx of inorganic pollutants in the coastal waters causes exorbitant growth of fouling marine algae found all along the Korean peninsula. Especially, a cosmopolitan ship fouling alga U. pertusa occur with high abundance. It was largely suggested that the proposed international ban on the toxic antifoulant tributyltin (TBT) had significant effect on the 'green tide' phenomenon occurring in different parts of the world. However, it appears that Korean scenario of 'green tide' is a localized. Antifouling efficacy of some AF coatings and fouling coverage of a green tide alga, U. pertusa are discussed. PMID:15303702

Sidharthan, M; Shin, Hyun Woung; Joo, Jin Hyung

2004-01-01

340

The effect of different polychlorinated biphenyls on two aquatic models, the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the haemocytes from the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to determine the toxicity of different polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the green algae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the haemocytes from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Using the algal growth inhibition test, the green algae median Effective Concentration (EC50) values ranged from 0.34?M for PCB28 to more than 100?M for PCBs 101 and 153. Considering the MTT viability test, the abalone EC50 values ranged from 1.67?M for PCB153 to 89?M for PCB28. Our results in contrast to previous observation in vertebrates did not show significant differences between the dioxin like- and non dioxin like-PCBs toxicities regardless of the model used. However, our results demonstrated that the toxicities of PCBs were species dependent. For example, PCB28 was the most toxic compound for P. subcapitata whereas PCBs 1, 180 and 153 were less toxic for that species. On the contrary, PCB153 was reported as the most toxic for H. tuberculata haemocytes and PCB28 the least toxic. To investigate the mode of action of these compounds, we used an in silico method. Our results suggested that PCBs have a non-specific mode of action (e.g., narcosis) on green algae, and another mode of action, probably more specific than narcosis, was reported for PCBs on the abalone haemocytes. PMID:24630249

Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Abbaszadeh Fard, Elham; Latire, Thomas; Ferard, Jean-François; Costil, Katherine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Bureau, Ronan; Serpentini, Antoine

2014-09-01

341

Purification and biochemical characterisation of a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from the psychrophilic green alga Koliella antarctica.  

PubMed

Psychrophilic organisms have evolved a number of modifications of cellular structures to survive in the cold environment; among them it is worth noting an increased efficiency of enzymes at lower temperatures. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH; EC 1.1.1.49) was purified and characterised from the psychrophilic green alga Koliella antarctica (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) from the Ross Sea (Antarctica). It was possible to isolate a single G6PDH using biochemical strategies; its maximum activity was measured at 35 °C, and the enzyme showed an E (a) of 39.6 kJ mol(-1). This protein reacted with antibodies raised against higher plants plastidic isoforms. KaG6PDH showed peculiar kinetic properties, with a K (iNADPH) value lower than [Formula: see text]. Notably, catalytic activity was inactivated in vitro by DTT and chloroplastic thioredoxin f. These biochemical properties of G6PDH are discussed with respect to higher plant G6PDHs and the adaptation of K. antarctica to polar low-temperature environment. PMID:23117891

Ferrara, Myriam; Guerriero, Gea; Cardi, Manuela; Esposito, Sergio

2013-01-01

342

Toxicant Induced Changes on Delayed Fluorescence Decay Kinetics of Cyanobacteria and Green Algae: A Rapid and Sensitive Biotest  

PubMed Central

Algal tests have developed into routine tools for testing toxicity of pollutants in aquatic environments. Meanwhile, in addition to algal growth rates, an increasing number of fluorescence based methods are used for rapid and sensitive toxicity measures. The present study stresses the suitability of delayed fluorescence (DF) as a promising parameter for biotests. DF is based on the recombination fluorescence at the reaction centre of photosystem II, which is emitted only by photosynthetically active cells. We analyzed the effects of three chemicals (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), 3,5 Dichlorophenol (3,5 DCP) and copper) on the shape of the DF decay kinetics for potential use in phytoplankton toxicity tests. The short incubation tests were done with four phytoplankton species, with special emphasis on the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. All species exhibited a high sensitivity to DCMU, but cyanobacteria were more affected by copper and less by 3,5 DCP than the tested green algae. Analyses of changes in the DF decay curve in response to the added chemicals indicated the feasibility of the DF decay approach as a rapid and sensitive testing tool. PMID:23646185

Leunert, Franziska; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Gerhardt, Volkmar; Eckert, Werner

2013-01-01

343

Chlorophyll triplet states associated with Photosystem I and Photosystem II in thylakoids of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

The analysis of FDMR spectra, recorded at multiple emission wavelengths, by a global decomposition technique, has allowed us to characterise the triplet populations associated with Photosystem I and Photosystem II of thylakoids in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Three triplet populations are observed at fluorescence emissions characteristic of Photosystem II, and their zero field splitting parameters have been determined. These are similar to the zero field parameters for the three Photosystem II triplets previously reported for spinach thylakoids, suggesting that they have a widespread occurrence in nature. None of these triplets have the zero field splitting parameters characteristic of the Photosystem II recombination triplet observed only under reducing conditions. Because these triplets are generated under non-reducing redox conditions, when the recombination triplet is undetectable, it is suggested that they may be involved in the photoinhibition of Photosystem II. At emission wavelengths characteristic of Photosystem I, three triplet populations are observed, two of which are attributed to the P(700) recombination triplet frozen in two different conformations, based on the microwave-induced fluorescence emission spectra and the triplet minus singlet difference spectra. The third triplet population detected at Photosystem I emission wavelengths, which was previously unresolved, is proposed to originate from the antenna chlorophyll of the core or the unusually blue-shifted outer antenna complexes of this organism. PMID:17161376

Santabarbara, Stefano; Agostini, Giancarlo; Casazza, Anna Paola; Syme, Christopher D; Heathcote, P; Böhles, Felix; Evans, Michael C W; Jennings, Robert C; Carbonera, Donatella

2007-01-01

344

Polymer coating of copper oxide nanoparticles increases nanoparticles uptake and toxicity in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) are frequently used in a polymer-coated form, to be included in paints or fabrics for antimicrobial properties. Their application in antifouling paints may lead to the contamination of aquatic ecosystems. However, the toxicological risk of NPs in the environment is hard to evaluate due to a lack of knowledge on the mechanisms of NP interaction with biological systems. In this study, we investigated the effect of polymer coating on CuO NP toxicity in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by comparing bare and polymer-coated CuO NPs prepared from the same CuO nanopowder. Both CuO NP suspensions were toxic to C. reinhardtii after 6 h treatment to concentrations of 0.005-0.04 g L(-1). Bare and polymer-coated CuO NPs induced a decrease of Photosystem II activity and the formation of reactive oxygen species. Polymer-coated CuO NP was found to be more toxic than the uncoated CuO NP. The higher toxicity of CS-CuO NP was mainly associated with the increased capacity of polymer-coated CuO NP to penetrate the cell compared to bare CuO NPs. These results indicates that the high toxicity of polymer-coated CuO NPs in algal cells results of intracellular interactions between NPs and the cellular system. PMID:22445953

Perreault, François; Oukarroum, Abdallah; Melegari, Silvia Pedroso; Matias, William Gerson; Popovic, Radovan

2012-06-01

345

Comparative study of aluminum and copper transport and toxicity in an acid-tolerant freshwater green alga  

SciTech Connect

A comparative study of the transport and toxicity of one nonessential metal (aluminum), and one essential metal (copper), has been performed with the acid-tolerant green alga Chlorella saccarophila. This organism was isolated from a naturally acidified lake and grows well in laboratory cultures at pH 3.0. Our results show that the fast-exchange ions Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, and Na/sup +/ offer some protection against both Al/sup 3 +/ and Cu/sup 2 +/ toxicity whereas K/sup +/ protects against Al/sup 3 +/ toxicity but enhances Cu/sup 2 +/ toxicity. Plasma emission spectroscopy shows that complexation of Al/sup 3 +/ and Fe/sup 3 +/ to cell surfaces is important in preventing toxic cytoplasmic levels of these metals, both in culture media and in acid mine water. The aqueous ion chemistry for toxic metal uptake is simplified considerably in acidic conditions, where competing hydrolysis and precipitation reactions are eliminated. Therefore, simple competitive experiments can be performed quantitatively. 12 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

Folsom, B.R.; Popescu, N.A.; Wood, J.M.

1986-06-01

346

Quality evaluation of the edible blue-green alga Nostoc flagelliforme using a chlorophyll fluorescence parameter and several biochemical markers.  

PubMed

Nostoc flagelliforme is an edible blue-green alga with herbal and dietary values. Due to the diminishing supply of natural N. flagelliforme and the large investment on the development of its cultivation technology, it is anticipated that artificially cultured N. flagelliforme will soon sustain the market supply. Once this change occurs, the storage-associated quality problem will become the focus of attention for future trade. In this paper, we used a chlorophyll fluorescence parameter, maximum quantum efficiency of Photosystem II (Fv/Fm), and several biomarkers to evaluate the quality of several N. flagelliforme samples. It was found that longer storage times resulted in darker coloured solutions (released pigments) and decreased amounts of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and water-soluble sugars (WSS). Additionally, a higher Fv/Fm value suggests better physiological recovery and quality. In actual application, determination of Fv/Fm would be the first step for evaluating the quality of N. flagelliforme, and the biochemical indexes would serve as good secondary markers. PMID:24054244

Gao, Xiang; Yang, Yiwen; Ai, Yufeng; Luo, Hongyi; Qiu, Baosheng

2014-01-15

347

Electrochemical Potential Gradients of H+, K+, Ca2+, and Cl- across the Tonoplast of the Green Alga Eremosphaera Viridis.  

PubMed Central

Using ion-selective microelectrodes, we measured the activity of H+, K+, Ca2+, and Cl- and the electrical potential both in the vacuole and in the cytoplasm of the unicellular green alga Eremosphaera viridis to obtain comparable values of the named parameters from the same object under identical conditions. The cytosol had a pH of 7.3, and activities of the other ions were 130 mM K+, 160 nM Ca2+, and 2.2 mM Cl-. We observed only small and transient light-dependent changes of the cytosolic Ca2+ activity. The vacuolar K+ activity did not differ significantly from the cytosolic one. The Ca2+ activity inside the vacuole was approximately 200 [mu]M, the pH was 5.0, and the Cl- activity was 6.2 mM. The concentrations of K+, Ca2+, and Cl- in cell extracts were measured by induction-coupled plasma spectroscopy and anion chromatography. This confirmed the vacuolar activities for K+ and Cl- obtained with ion-selective microelectrodes and indicated that approximately 60% of the vacuolar Ca2+ was buffered. The tonoplast potential was vanishingly low ([less than or equal to][plus or minus]2 mV). There was no detectable electrochemical potential gradient for K+ across the tonoplast, but there was, however, an obvious electrochemical potential gradient for Cl- (-26 mV), indicating an active accumulation of Cl- inside the vacuole. PMID:12228672

Bethmann, B.; Thaler, M.; Simonis, W.; Schonknecht, G.

1995-01-01

348

Uranium complexation and uptake by a green alga in relation to chemical speciation: the importance of the free uranyl ion.  

PubMed

The bioavailability and toxicity of dissolved metals are closely linked to the metals' chemical speciation in solution. Normally the complexation of a metal by a ligand would be expected to decrease its bioavailability. The aqueous speciation of uranium (U) undergoes tremendous changes in the presence of ligands commonly found in natural waters (carbonate, phosphate, hydroxide, and natural organic matter). In the present project, links between speciation, medium composition, and bioavailability of uranium toward Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, were investigated. Short-term metal uptake rates were determined in simple inorganic media at constant low pH (5.0) and hardness with particular emphasis on the differentiation between adsorbed and intracellular metal. While intracellular uptake was fairly linear over 1 h, partly reversible adsorption reached steady-state within minutes. Both adsorption and absorption were saturable processes (with a half-saturation constant Km of 0.51 microM). Addition of phosphate, citrate, or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as ligands decreased uranium bioavailability. No evidence indicating the transport of intact uranyl complexes was found (i.e., facilitated diffusion of metal bound to an assimilable ligand such as uranium-phosphate complexes). Within these experimental conditions, uranium uptake was correlated with the free uranyl ion concentration as predicted by the free-ion activity model (FIAM) and biotic ligand model (BLM). PMID:15095894

Fortin, Claude; Dutel, Laurent; Garnier-Laplace, Jacqueline

2004-04-01

349

On the selective adsorption of cations in the cell wall of the green alga Valonia utricularis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The selective adsorption of the cations Na+, K+, Mg++ and Ca++ by the cell wall of the Mediterranean alga Valonia utricularis (Siphonocladales, Chlorophyceae) from sea water of 40 %. S was investigated by extraction of cell-wall preparations, eluted before in 1.1 mol methanol (adjusted to pH 8) with 0.1 n formic acid in a Soxhlet apparatus. Na+ and K+ were determined by flame photometry, Mg++ and Ca++ by complexometric titration with EDTA. From calculation of the dry weight:fresh weight ratios and the chloride determinations in the eluates, the Donnan free-space fraction of the total cell-wall volume was calculated to about 35 %, and the analytical results of the cation concentrations in the extracts expressed as ?Val cm-3 DFS. This calculation is based on the assumption that the acidic groups of the noncellulosic matrix material, carrying negative charges by dissociation at the reaction of sea water (ph about 8) are responsible for the adsorption of cations by exhibition of a Donnan effect. The results obtained show clearly that besides the divalent cations Mg++ and Ca++, which according to the physico-chemical laws of the Donnan distribution must be relatively accumulated to the second power of the monovalent ones, potassium is also enriched by selective adsorption, and the K+:Na+ ratio increased significantly compared with that in sea water. This seems to indicate that the strength of attraction between the cations and the negative sites is dependent on the radii of the ions and the state of hydration and/or polarisation of the ions and binding sites.

Kesseler, H.

1980-06-01

350

Alkaloids in marine algae  

E-print Network

Abstract: This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids.

Kas?m Cemal Güven; Aline Percot; Ekrem Sezik

351

[Chloroplast ultrastructure in some diatoms from different classes].  

PubMed

Diatoms significantly differ from other groups of heterokont algae in the diversity of chloroplast forms, their number, and location in a cell and in the structure of pyrenoids. The information on the fine structure of chloroplast is recognized to be important for taxonomic and phylogenetic studies of diatoms. Six species of diatoms belonging to different classes have been examined using transmission electron microscopy. New data on the structure of chloroplast have been obtained and characteristics of pyrenoid ultrastructure of diatoms belonging to different phylogenetic clades have been specified. The results enlarge the data obtained earlier and specify a set of features of chloroplast ultrastructure for different phylogenetic clades of diatoms. PMID:19505053

Bedoshvili, E D; Popkova, T P; Likhoshva?, E V

2009-01-01

352

De novo transcriptomic analysis of hydrogen production in the green alga Chlamydomonas moewusii through RNA-Seq  

PubMed Central

Background Microalgae can make a significant contribution towards meeting global renewable energy needs in both carbon-based and hydrogen (H2) biofuel. The development of energy-related products from algae could be accelerated with improvements in systems biology tools, and recent advances in sequencing technology provide a platform for enhanced transcriptomic analyses. However, these techniques are still heavily reliant upon available genomic sequence data. Chlamydomonas moewusii is a unicellular green alga capable of evolving molecular H2 under both dark and light anaerobic conditions, and has high hydrogenase activity that can be rapidly induced. However, to date, there is no systematic investigation of transcriptomic profiling during induction of H2 photoproduction in this organism. Results In this work, RNA-Seq was applied to investigate transcriptomic profiles during the dark anaerobic induction of H2 photoproduction. 156 million reads generated from 7 samples were then used for de novo assembly after data trimming. BlastX results against NCBI database and Blast2GO results were used to interpret the functions of the assembled 34,136 contigs, which were then used as the reference contigs for RNA-Seq analysis. Our results indicated that more contigs were differentially expressed during the period of early and higher H2 photoproduction, and fewer contigs were differentially expressed when H2-photoproduction rates decreased. In addition, C. moewusii and C. reinhardtii share core functional pathways, and transcripts for H2 photoproduction and anaerobic metabolite production were identified in both organisms. C. moewusii also possesses similar metabolic flexibility as C. reinhardtii, and the difference between C. moewusii and C. reinhardtii on hydrogenase expression and anaerobic fermentative pathways involved in redox balancing may explain their different profiles of hydrogenase activity and secreted anaerobic metabolites. Conclusions Herein, we have described a workflow using commercial software to analyze RNA-Seq data without reference genome sequence information, which can be applied to other unsequenced microorganisms. This study provided biological insights into the anaerobic fermentation and H2 photoproduction of C. moewusii, and the first transcriptomic RNA-Seq dataset of C. moewusii generated in this study also offer baseline data for further investigation (e.g. regulatory proteins related to fermentative pathway discussed in this study) of this organism as a H2-photoproduction strain. PMID:23971877

2013-01-01

353

Response of benthic algae to environmental gradients in an agriculturally dominated landscape  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Benthic algal communities were assessed in an agriculturally dominated landscape in the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington, to determine which environmental variables best explained species distributions, and whether algae species optima models were useful in predicting specific water-quality parameters. Land uses in the study area included forest, range, urban, and agriculture. Most of the streams in this region can be characterized as open-channel systems influenced by intensive dryland (nonirrigated) and irrigated agriculture. Algal communities in forested streams were dominated by blue-green algae, with communities in urban and range streams dominated by diatoms. The predominance of either blue-greens or diatoms in agricultural streams varied greatly depending on the specific site. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated a strong gradient effect of several key environmental variables on benthic algal community composition. Conductivity and % agriculture were the dominant explanatory variables when all sites (n = 24) were included in the CCA; water velocity replaced conductivity when the CCA included only agricultural and urban sites. Other significant explanatory variables included dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), orthophosphate (OP), discharge, and precipitation. Regression and calibration models accurately predicted conductivity based on benthic algal communities, with OP having slightly lower predictability. The model for DIN was poor, and therefore may be less useful in this system. Thirty-four algal taxa were identified as potential indicators of conductivity and nutrient conditions, with most indicators being diatoms except for the blue-greens Anabaena sp. and Lyngbya sp.

Munn, M. D.; Black, R. W.; Gruber, S. J.

2002-01-01

354

Integration of TiO2 into the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii during frustule synthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nature has inspired the design of complex hierarchical structures in the field of material science. Diatoms, unicellular algae with a hallmark intricate siliceous cell wall, have provided such a stimulus. Altering the chemistry of the diatom frustule has been explored to expand on the potential application of diatoms. The ability to modify the diatom in vivo opens the possibility to tailor the diatom to the end application. Herein, we report the chemical modification of the living diatom T. weissflogii using a titania precursor, titanium (IV) bis-(ammonium lactato)-dihydroxide (TiBALDH). Incorporation of Ti into the diatom is achieved via repeated treatment of cultures with non-toxic concentrations of TiBALDH. The characteristic architectural features of the diatom are unaltered following chemical modification. Transformation of the living diatom provides opportunity to confer novel structural, chemical or functional properties upon the diatom. We report on a photocatalytic ability imparted upon the TiBALDH-modified diatom.

Lang, Yvonne; Monte, Francisco Del; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Dockery, Peter; Finn, David P.; Pandit, Abhay

2013-11-01

355

Integration of TiO2 into the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii during frustule synthesis  

PubMed Central

Nature has inspired the design of complex hierarchical structures in the field of material science. Diatoms, unicellular algae with a hallmark intricate siliceous cell wall, have provided such a stimulus. Altering the chemistry of the diatom frustule has been explored to expand on the potential application of diatoms. The ability to modify the diatom in vivo opens the possibility to tailor the diatom to the end application. Herein, we report the chemical modification of the living diatom T. weissflogii using a titania precursor, titanium (IV) bis-(ammonium lactato)-dihydroxide (TiBALDH). Incorporation of Ti into the diatom is achieved via repeated treatment of cultures with non-toxic concentrations of TiBALDH. The characteristic architectural features of the diatom are unaltered following chemical modification. Transformation of the living diatom provides opportunity to confer novel structural, chemical or functional properties upon the diatom. We report on a photocatalytic ability imparted upon the TiBALDH-modified diatom. PMID:24220344

Lang, Yvonne; Monte, Francisco del; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Dockery, Peter; Finn, David P.; Pandit, Abhay

2013-01-01

356

Phytohormones as regulators of heavy metal biosorption and toxicity in green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyceae).  

PubMed

The present study was undertaken to test the influence of exogenously applied phytohormones: auxins (IAA, IBA, NAA, PAA), cytokinins (BA, CPPU, DPU, 2iP, Kin, TDZ, Z), gibberellin (GA(3)), jasmonic acid (JA) as well as polyamine - spermidine (Spd) upon the growth and metabolism of green microalga Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyceae) exposed to heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Pb) stress. The inhibitory effect of heavy metals on algal growth, metabolite accumulation and enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant system was arranged in the following order: Cd > Pb > Cu. Exogenously applied phytohormones modify the phytotoxicity of heavy metals. Auxins, cytokinins, gibberellin and spermidine (Spd) can alleviate stress symptoms by inhibiting heavy metal biosorption, restoring algal growth and primary metabolite level. Moreover, these phytohormones and polyamine stimulate antioxidant enzymes' (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase) activities and ascorbate as well as glutathione accumulation by producing increased antioxidant capacity in cells growing under abiotic stress. Increased activity of antioxidant enzymes reduced oxidative stress expressed by lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide level. In contrast JA enhanced heavy metal toxicity leading to increase in metal biosorption and ROS generation. The decrease in cell number, chlorophylls, carotenoids, monosaccharides, soluble proteins, ascorbate and glutathione content as well as antioxidant enzyme activity was also obtained in response to JA and heavy metals. Determining the stress markers (lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide) and antioxidants' level as well as antioxidant enzyme activity in cells is important for understanding the metal-specific mechanisms of toxicity and that these associated novel endpoints may be useful metrics for accurately predicting toxicity. The data suggest that phytohormones and polyamine play an important role in the C. vulgaris responding to abiotic stressor and algal adaptation ability to metal contamination of aquatic environment. PMID:22305067

Piotrowska-Niczyporuk, Alicja; Bajguz, Andrzej; Zambrzycka, El?bieta; Godlewska-?y?kiewicz, Beata

2012-03-01

357

Colony Organization in the Green Alga Botryococcus braunii (Race B) Is Specified by a Complex Extracellular Matrix  

PubMed Central

Botryococcus braunii is a colonial green alga whose cells associate via a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) and produce prodigious amounts of liquid hydrocarbons that can be readily converted into conventional combustion engine fuels. We used quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy and biochemical/histochemical analysis to elucidate many new features of B. braunii cell/colony organization and composition. Intracellular lipid bodies associate with the chloroplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but show no evidence of being secreted. The ER displays striking fenestrations and forms a continuous subcortical system in direct contact with the cell membrane. The ECM has three distinct components. (i) Each cell is surrounded by a fibrous ?-1, 4- and/or ?-1, 3-glucan-containing cell wall. (ii) The intracolonial ECM space is filled with a cross-linked hydrocarbon network permeated with liquid hydrocarbons. (iii) Colonies are enclosed in a retaining wall festooned with a fibrillar sheath dominated by arabinose-galactose polysaccharides, which sequesters ECM liquid hydrocarbons. Each cell apex associates with the retaining wall and contributes to its synthesis. Retaining-wall domains also form “drapes” between cells, with some folding in on themselves and penetrating the hydrocarbon interior of a mother colony, partitioning it into daughter colonies. We propose that retaining-wall components are synthesized in the apical Golgi apparatus, delivered to apical ER fenestrations, and assembled on the surfaces of apical cell walls, where a proteinaceous granular layer apparently participates in fibril morphogenesis. We further propose that hydrocarbons are produced by the nonapical ER, directly delivered to the contiguous cell membrane, and pass across the nonapical cell wall into the hydrocarbon-based ECM. PMID:22941913

Weiss, Taylor L.; Roth, Robyn; Goodson, Carrie; Vitha, Stanislav; Black, Ian; Azadi, Parastoo; Rusch, Jannette; Holzenburg, Andreas

2012-01-01

358

State Transitions in the Green Alga Scenedesmus Obliquus Probed by Time-Resolved Chlorophyll Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Global Data Analysis  

PubMed Central

Decay-associated fluorescence spectra of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus have been measured by single-photon timing with picosecond resolution in various states of light adaptation. The data have been analyzed by applying a global data analysis procedure. The amplitudes of the decay-associated spectra allow a determination of the relative antenna sizes of the photosystems. We arrive at the following conclusions: (a) The fluorescence kinetics of algal cells with open PS II centers (F0 level) have to be described by a sum of three exponential components. These decay components are attributed to photosystem (PS) I (? ? 85 ps, ?maxem ? 695-700 nm), open PS II ?-centers (? ? 300 ps, ?maxem = 685 nm), and open PS II ?-centers (? ? 600 ps, ?maxem = 685 nm). A fourth component of very low amplitude (? ? 2.2-2.3 ns, ?maxem = 685 nm) derives from dead chlorophyll. (b) At the Fmax level of fluorescence there are also three decay components. They originate from PS I with properties identical to those at the F0 level, from closed PS II ?-centers (? ? 2.2 ns, ?maxem = 685 nm) and from closed PS ?-centers (? ? 1.2 ns, ?maxem = 685 nm). (c) The major effect of light-induced state transitions on the fluorescence kinetics involves a change in the relative antenna size of ?- and ?-units brought about by the reversible migration of light-harvesting complexes between ?-centers and ?-centers. (d) A transition to state II does not measurably increase the direct absorption cross-section (antenna size) of PS I. Our data can be rationalized in terms of a model of the antenna organization that relates the effects of state transitions and light-harvesting complex phosphorylation with the concepts of PS II ?,?-heterogeneity. We discuss why our results are in disagreement with those of a recent lifetime study of Chlorella by M. Hodges and I. Moya (1986, Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 849:193-202). PMID:19431709

Wendler, Joachim; Holzwarth, Alfred R.

1987-01-01

359

Consequences of state transitions on the structural and functional organization of photosystem I in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

State transitions represent a photoacclimation process that regulates the light-driven photosynthetic reactions in response to changes in light quality/quantity. It balances the excitation between photosystem I (PSI) and II (PSII) by shuttling LHCII, the main light-harvesting complex of green algae and plants, between them. This process is particularly important in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in which it is suggested to induce a large reorganization in the thylakoid membrane. Phosphorylation has been shown to be necessary for state transitions and the LHCII kinase has been identified. However, the consequences of state transitions on the structural organization and the functionality of the photosystems have not yet been elucidated. This situation is mainly because the purification of the supercomplexes has proved to be particularly difficult, thus preventing structural and functional studies. Here, we have purified and analysed PSI and PSII supercomplexes of C. reinhardtii in states 1 and 2, and have studied them using biochemical, spectroscopic and structural methods. It is shown that PSI in state 2 is able to bind two LHCII trimers that contain all four LHCII types, and one monomer, most likely CP29, in addition to its nine Lhcas. This structure is the largest PSI complex ever observed, having an antenna size of 340 Chls/P700. Moreover, all PSI-bound Lhcs are efficient in transferring energy to PSI. A projection map at 20 Ĺ resolution reveals the structural organization of the complex. Surprisingly, only LHCII type I, II and IV are phosphorylated when associated with PSI, while LHCII type III and CP29 are not, but CP29 is phosphorylated when associated with PSII in state2. PMID:24506306

Drop, Bartlomiej; Yadav K N, Sathish; Boekema, Egbert J; Croce, Roberta

2014-04-01

360

Colony organization in the green alga Botryococcus braunii (Race B) is specified by a complex extracellular matrix.  

PubMed

Botryococcus braunii is a colonial green alga whose cells associate via a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) and produce prodigious amounts of liquid hydrocarbons that can be readily converted into conventional combustion engine fuels. We used quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy and biochemical/histochemical analysis to elucidate many new features of B. braunii cell/colony organization and composition. Intracellular lipid bodies associate with the chloroplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but show no evidence of being secreted. The ER displays striking fenestrations and forms a continuous subcortical system in direct contact with the cell membrane. The ECM has three distinct components. (i) Each cell is surrounded by a fibrous ?-1, 4- and/or ?-1, 3-glucan-containing cell wall. (ii) The intracolonial ECM space is filled with a cross-linked hydrocarbon network permeated with liquid hydrocarbons. (iii) Colonies are enclosed in a retaining wall festooned with a fibrillar sheath dominated by arabinose-galactose polysaccharides, which sequesters ECM liquid hydrocarbons. Each cell apex associates with the retaining wall and contributes to its synthesis. Retaining-wall domains also form "drapes" between cells, with some folding in on themselves and penetrating the hydrocarbon interior of a mother colony, partitioning it into daughter colonies. We propose that retaining-wall components are synthesized in the apical Golgi apparatus, delivered to apical ER fenestrations, and assembled on the surfaces of apical cell walls, where a proteinaceous granular layer apparently participates in fibril morphogenesis. We further propose that hydrocarbons are produced by the nonapical ER, directly delivered to the contiguous cell membrane, and pass across the nonapical cell wall into the hydrocarbon-based ECM. PMID:22941913

Weiss, Taylor L; Roth, Robyn; Goodson, Carrie; Vitha, Stanislav; Black, Ian; Azadi, Parastoo; Rusch, Jannette; Holzenburg, Andreas; Devarenne, Timothy P; Goodenough, Ursula

2012-12-01

361

Addressing unknown constants and metabolic network behaviors through petascale computing: understanding H2 production in green algae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Genomics Revolution has resulted in a massive and growing quantity of whole-genome DNA sequences, which encode the metabolic catalysts necessary for life. However, gene annotations can rarely be complete, and measurement of the kinetic constants associated with the encoded enzymes can not possibly keep pace, necessitating the use of careful modeling to explore plausible network behaviors. Key challenges are (1) quantitatively formulating kinetic laws governing each transformation in a fixed model network; (2) characterizing the stable solution (if any) of the associated ordinary differential equations (ODEs); (3) fitting the latter to metabolomics data as it becomes available; and, (4) optimizing a model output against the possible space of kinetic parameters, with respect to properties such as robustness of network response, or maximum consumption/production. This SciDAC-2 project addresses this large-scale uncertainty in the genome-scale metabolic network of the water-splitting, H2-producing green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Each metabolic transformation is formulated as an irreversible steady-state process, such that the vast literature on known enzyme mechanisms may be incorporated directly. To start, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and basic fermentation pathways have been encoded in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) with careful annotation and consistency with the KEGG database, yielding a model with 3 compartments, 95 species, 38 reactions, and 109 kinetic constants. To study and optimize such models with a view toward larger models, we have developed a system which takes as input an SBML model, and automatically produces C code that when compiled and executed optimizes the model's kinetic parameters according to test criteria. We describe the system and present numerical results. Further development, including overlaying of a parallel multistart algorithm, will allow optimization of thousands of parameters on high-performance systems ranging from distributed grids to unified petascale architectures.

Chang, Christopher; Alber, David; Graf, Peter; Kim, Kwiseon; Seibert, Michael

2007-07-01

362

Addressing Unknown Constants and Metabolic Network Behaviors Through Petascale Computing: Understanding H2 Production in Green Algae  

SciTech Connect

The Genomics Revolution has resulted in a massive and growing quantity of whole-genome DNA sequences, which encode the metabolic catalysts necessary for life. However, gene annotations can rarely be complete, and measurement of the kinetic constants associated with the encoded enzymes can not possibly keep pace, necessitating the use of careful modeling to explore plausible network behaviors. Key challenges are (1) quantitatively formulating kinetic laws governing each transformation in a fixed model network; (2) characterizing the stable solution (if any) of the associated ordinary differential equations (ODEs); (3) fitting the latter to metabolomics data as it becomes available; and, (4) optimizing a model output against the possible space of kinetic parameters, with respect to properties such as robustness of network response, or maximum consumption/production. This SciDAC-2 project addresses this large-scale uncertainty in the genome-scale metabolic network of the water-splitting, H{sub 2}-producing green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Each metabolic transformation is formulated as an irreversible steady-state process, such that the vast literature on known enzyme mechanisms may be incorporated directly. To start, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and basic fermentation pathways have been encoded in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) with careful annotation and consistency with the KEGG database, yielding a model with 3 compartments, 95 species, 38 reactions, and 109 kinetic constants. To study and optimize such models with a view toward larger models, we have developed a system which takes as input an SBML model, and automatically produces C code that when compiled and executed optimizes the model's kinetic parameters according to test criteria. We describe the system and present numerical results. Further development, including overlaying of a parallel multistart algorithm, will allow optimization of thousands of parameters on high-performance systems ranging from distributed grids to unified petascale architectures.

Chang, C.; Alber, D.; Graf, P.; Seibert, M.

2007-01-01

363

Laboratory Assessment of Altered Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide on Filamentous Green Algae Phenolic Content and Caddisfly Growth and Survival  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test global change effects on lentic ecosystems, we examined I) if algae phenolic content was influenced by CO treatments, and 2) if algivores fed CO-treated algae were impacted. Four common Chlorophytes (Cladophora glomerata, Spirogyra grevilleana, Ulothrix, fimbriata, and Zygnema sp.) were grown under three atmospheric carbon dioxide environments (200, 360, and 3000 mg\\/L). Algivore (the microcaddisfly Hydroptila waubesiana [Trichoptera:

A. K. Swanson; S. Hrinda; J. B. Keiper

2007-01-01

364

Accumulation of 241Am by suspended matter, diatoms and aquatic weeds of the Yenisei River  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we experimentally estimated the capacities of the key components of the Yenisei River (Russia): particulate suspended matter (seston), diatom microalgae, and submerged macrophytes for accumulating 241Am from water. In our experiments large particles of seston (>8?m), comparable in size with diatoms, took up most of americium from water. The accumulation of americium by isolated diatom algae (Asterionella

T. A. Zotina; A. Ya. Bolsunovsky; L. G. Bondareva

2010-01-01

365

Fact Sheet on Toxic Blue-green Algae Carole A. Lembi Department of Botany and Plant Pathology  

E-print Network

infestations (blooms) of blue-greens are stimulated by inputs of phosphorus and nitrogen. Runoff of fertilizers. The mat-forming blue-greens form dark green or black slimy mats. These mats start growth on the bottom

366

Characterization of chlorophyll-protein complexes isolated from two marine green algae, Bryopsis maxima and Ulva pertusa, growing in the intertidal zone.  

PubMed

Three Chl-protein complexes were isolated from thylakoid membranes of Bryopsis maxima and Ulva pertusa, marine green algae that inhabit the intertidal zone of the Pacific Ocean off the eastern coast of Japan by dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The slowest-moving fractions showed low Chl a/b and Chl/P-700 ratios, indicating that this fraction corresponds to complexes in PS I, which is large in both algae. The intermediate and fastest-moving fractions showed the traits of PS II complexes, with some associated Chl a/b-protein complexes and LHC II, respectively. The spectral properties of the separated Chl-proteins were also determined. The absorption spectra showed a shallow shoulder at 540 nm derived from siphonaxanthin in Bryopsis maxima, but not in Ulva pertusa. The 77 K emission spectra showed a single peak in Bryopsis maxima and two peaks in Ulva pertusa. Besides the excitation spectra indicated that the excitation energy transfer to the PS I complexes differed quite a lot higher plants. This suggested that the mechanisms of energy transfer in both of these algae differ from those of higher plants. Considering the light environment of this coastal area, the large size of the antennae of PS I complexes implies that the antennae are arranged so as to balance light absorption between the two photosystems. In addition, we discuss the relationships among the photosystem stoichiometry, the energy transfer, and the distribution between the two photosystems. PMID:16729200

Yamazaki, Jun-ya; Kozu, Arisu; Fukunaga, Yuko

2006-07-01

367

Use of chlorophyll a fluorescence to detect the effect of microcystins on photosynthesis and photosystem II energy fluxes of green algae.  

PubMed

The phenomenon of cyanobacteria bloom occurs widely in lakes, reservoirs, ponds and slow flowing rivers. Those blooms can have important repercussions, at once on recreational and commercial activities but also on the health of animals and human beings. Indeed, many species are known to produce toxins which are released in water mainly at cellular death. The cyanotoxin most frequently encountered is the microcystin (MC), a hepatotoxin which counts more than 70 variants. The use of fast tests for the detection of this toxin is thus a necessity for the protection of the ecosystems and the human health. A promising method for their detection is a bioassay based on the chlorophyll a fluorescence of algae. Many studies have shown that algae are sensible to diverse pollutants, but were almost never used for cyanotoxins. Therefore, our goals were to evaluate the effect of microcystin on the fluorescence of different species of algae and how it can affect the flow of energy through photosystem II. To reach these objectives, we exposed four green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus CPCC5, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC125, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata CPCC37 and Chlorella vulgaris CPCC111) to microcystin standards (variants MC-LF, LR, RR, YR) and to microcystin extracted from Microcystis aeruginosa (CPCC299), which is known to produce mainly MC-LR. Chlorophyll a fluorescence was measured by PEA (Plant Efficiency Analyzer) and LuminoTox. The results of our experiment showed that microcystins affect the photosynthetic efficiency and the flow of energy through photosystem II from 0.01 ?g/mL, within only 15 min. From exposure to standard of microcystin, we showed that MC-LF was the most potent variant, followed by MC-YR, LR and RR. Moreover, green algae used in this study demonstrated different sensitivity to MCs, S. obliquus being the more sensitive. We finally demonstrated that LuminoTox was more sensitive to MCs than parameters measured with PEA, although the latter brings indication on the mode of action of MCs at the photosynthetic apparatus level. This is the first report showing a photosynthetic response within 15 min of exposure. Our results suggest that bioassay based on chlorophyll fluorescence can be used as a rapid and sensitive tool to detect microcystin. PMID:22234271

Perron, Marie-Claude; Qiu, Baosheng; Boucher, Nathalie; Bellemare, François; Juneau, Philippe

2012-04-01

368

Acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 accumulates high amount of lipid droplets under a nitrogen-depleted condition at a low-pH.  

PubMed

Microalgal storage lipids are considered to be a promising source for next-generation biofuel feedstock. However, microalgal biodiesel is not yet economically feasible due to the high cost of production. One of the reasons for this is that the use of a low-cost open pond system is currently limited because of the unavoidable contamination with undesirable organisms. Extremophiles have an advantage in culturing in an open pond system because they grow in extreme environments toxic to other organisms. In this study, we isolated the acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 from sulfuric acid mine drainage in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. The vegetative cells of YKT1 display the morphological characteristics of Trebouxiophyceae and molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated it to be most closely related to Pseudochlorella pringsheimii. The optimal pH and temperature for the growth of YKT1 are pH 3.0-5.0 and a temperature 20-25°C, respectively. Further, YKT1 is able to grow at pH 2.0 and at 32°C, which corresponds to the usual water temperature in the outdoors in summer in many countries. YKT1 accumulates a large amount of storage lipids (?30% of dry weigh) under a nitrogen-depleted condition at low-pH (pH 3.0). These results show that acidophilic green algae will be useful for industrial applications by acidic open culture systems. PMID:25221913

Hirooka, Shunsuke; Higuchi, Sumio; Uzuka, Akihiro; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

2014-01-01

369

Response of the blood clotting system of the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, to a novel form of lipopolysaccharide from a green alga.  

PubMed

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) is a component of Gram-negative bacteria and is the principal indicator to the innate immune systems of higher animals of a Gram-negative bacterial invasion. LPS activates the blood clotting system of the American horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. By stimulating blood cell degranulation, LPS triggers the release of the proteins of the clotting system from the cells, and by activating a protease cascade that converts coagulogen, a soluble zymogen, to coagulin, the structural protein of the clot, LPS triggers the production of the fibrillar coagulin blood clot. Although originally thought to be restricted to the Gram-negative bacteria and the cyanobacteria, LPS, or a very similar molecule, has recently been described from a eukaryotic green alga, Chlorella. Here we show that, like LPS from Gram-negative bacteria, the algal molecule stimulates exocytosis of the Limulus blood cell and the clotting of coagulin. The coagulin clot efficiently entraps the cells of Chlorella in a network of fibrils. Invasion and erosion of the carapace by green algae is an important cause of mortality of Limulus, and it is suggested that the cellular response to aLPS may contribute to defense against this pathogen. PMID:16707269

Conrad, Mara L; Pardy, R L; Wainwright, Norman; Child, Alice; Armstrong, Peter B

2006-08-01

370

A golden opportunity: Researchers making progress in understanding toxic algae  

E-print Network

tx H2O | pg. 20 cientists at three Texas universities investigating golden algae, its explosive growth, and its deadly toxins have dis- covered an apparent competition between golden algae and blue green algae in certain Texas lakes... chemical warfare between golden algae and blue green algae. Only when golden algae wins this chemical warfare is it able to bloom.? Roelke, along with Dr. Bryan Brooks of Baylor University and Dr. James Grover of the University of Texas at Arlington...

Wythe, Kathy

2008-01-01

371

The Effect of Light on the Developmental Cycle of Nostoc muscorum, a Filamentous Blue-Green Alga  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The Allison strain of Nostoc muscorum, when cultivated in complete darkness, differs morphologically from the forms which prevail in the light. When cultivated in the dark with glucose as energy and carbon source, the alga grows very slowly as a mass of large undifferentiated cells (the aseriate stage). Exposure to small amounts of light or the addition of aqueous

N. LAZAROFF; W. VISHNIAC

1961-01-01

372

Low energy method of manufacturing high-grade protein using blue-green algae of the genus Spirulina  

SciTech Connect

Algae are well suited to replace many conventional sources of protein because of their efficient use of energy, land, and raw materials. The most promising genus, Spirulina, is compared with conventional protein sources on the bases of energy efficiency, land usage, and production costs.

Leesley, M.E.; Newsom, T.M.; Burleson, J.D.

1981-01-01

373

How 5000 independent rowers coordinate their strokes in order to row into the sunlight: Phototaxis in the multicellular green alga Volvox  

PubMed Central

Background The evolution of multicellular motile organisms from unicellular ancestors required the utilization of previously evolved tactic behavior in a multicellular context. Volvocine green algae are uniquely suited for studying tactic responses during the transition to multicellularity because they range in complexity from unicellular to multicellular genera. Phototactic responses are essential for these flagellates because they need to orientate themselves to receive sufficient light for photosynthesis, but how does a multicellular organism accomplish phototaxis without any known direct communication among cells? Several aspects of the photoresponse have previously been analyzed in volvocine algae, particularly in the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas. Results In this study, the phototactic behavior in the spheroidal, multicellular volvocine green alga Volvox rousseletii (Volvocales, Chlorophyta) was analyzed. In response to light stimuli, not only did the flagella waveform and beat frequency change, but the effective stroke was reversed. Moreover, there was a photoresponse gradient from the anterior to the posterior pole of the spheroid, and only cells of the anterior hemisphere showed an effective response. The latter caused a reverse of the fluid flow that was confined to the anterior hemisphere. The responsiveness to light is consistent with an anterior-to-posterior size gradient of eyespots. At the posterior pole, the eyespots are tiny or absent, making the corresponding cells appear to be blind. Pulsed light stimulation of an immobilized spheroid was used to simulate the light fluctuation experienced by a rotating spheroid during phototaxis. The results demonstrated that in free-swimming spheroids, only those cells of the anterior hemisphere that face toward the light source reverse the beating direction in the presence of illumination; this behavior results in phototactic turning. Moreover, positive phototaxis is facilitated by gravitational forces. Under our conditions, V. rousseletii spheroids showed no negative phototaxis. Conclusions On the basis of our results, we developed a mechanistic model that predicts the phototactic behavior in V. rousseletii. The model involves photoresponses, periodically changing light conditions, morphological polarity, rotation of the spheroid, two modes of flagellar beating, and the impact of gravity. Our results also indicate how recently evolved multicellular organisms adapted the phototactic capabilities of their unicellular ancestors to multicellular life. PMID:20663212

2010-01-01

374

Pre-treating algae-laden raw water by silver carp during Microcystis-dominated and non-Microcystis-dominated periods.  

PubMed

Performance of pre-treating algae-laden raw water by silver carp during a non-Microcystis-dominated period (period I) and a Microcystis-dominated period (period II) was investigated in terms of algae cell concentration, total phosphorus content, chlorophyll a and phytoplankton species structure. During period I the ineffective filter-feeding for small green algae resulted in the increase of small single algae, which led to the negative removal of chlorophyll a, and when the biomass was higher, the negative was more significant. However, due to the effective filter-feeding of silver carp for Microcystis flos-aquae, the average removal efficiency exceeded 50% at all stocking biomass levels (20-120 g/m(3)) used in experiments during period II. Total phosphorus removal efficiencies could exceed 50% at silver carp biomass stocking levels of 60-80 g/m(3) during both period I and period II. The experimental results indicated that silver carp stocking contributed to the removal of colony-forming cyanobacteria, but led to the increase of single-cell algae (mainly green algae and diatoms) during both period I and period II. The initial phytoplankton community structure and the control of nutrient level were important factors in the choice of silver carp stocking biomass when used to purify algae-loaded water. PMID:22466592

Ma, Hua; Cui, Fuyi; Liu, Zhiquan; Zhao, Zhiwei

2012-01-01

375

Biocide activity of diatom-silver nanocomposite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diatom-nAg composites containing 1wt.% of metallic silver nanoparticles (?20nm) have been obtained by a colloidal route and chemical reduction. This nanostructured powder has proved to be a selective green inorganic biocide which reduces the starting concentrations of Escherichia coli and Micrococcus luteus cultures by at least 5 orders of magnitude, while completely inactive against yeast. Diatom-nAg can be considered as

M. Suárez; L. Esteban-Tejeda; F. Malpartida; A. Fernández; J. S. Moya

2010-01-01

376

Hyaluronan Synthesis in Virus PBCV-1-Infected Chlorella-like Green Algae1 Michael V. Graves,* Dwight E. Burbank,* Robyn Roth, John Heuser, Paul L. DeAngelis, and James L. Van Etten*,2  

E-print Network

Hyaluronan Synthesis in Virus PBCV-1-Infected Chlorella-like Green Algae1 Michael V. Graves previously reported that the chlorella virus PBCV-1 genome encodes an authentic, membrane-associated glycosyl as hyaluronan-lyase sensitive, hair-like fibers on the outside of the chlorella cell wall by 15­30 min

Graves, Michael V.

377

Development of a nuclear transformation system for Oleaginous Green Alga Lobosphaera (Parietochloris) incisa and genetic complementation of a mutant strain, deficient in arachidonic acid biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Microalgae are considered a promising source for various high value products, such as carotenoids, ?-3 and ?-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The unicellular green alga Lobosphaera (Parietochloris) incisa is an outstanding candidate for the efficient phototrophic production of arachidonic acid (AA), an essential ?-6 PUFA for infant brain development and a widely used ingredient in the baby formula industry. Although phototrophic production of such algal products has not yet been established, estimated costs are considered to be 2-5 times higher than competing heterotrophic production costs. This alga accumulates unprecedented amounts of AA within triacylglycerols and the molecular pathway of AA biosynthesis in L. incisa has been previously elucidated. Thus, progress in transformation and metabolic engineering of this high value alga could be exploited for increasing the efficient production of AA at competitive prices. We describe here the first successful transformation of L. incisa using the ble gene as a selection marker, under the control of the endogenous RBCS promoter. Furthermore, we have succeeded in the functional complementation of the L. incisa mutant strain P127, containing a mutated, inactive version of the delta-5 (?5) fatty acid desaturase gene. A copy of the functional ?5 desaturase gene, linked to the ble selection marker, was transformed into the P127 mutant. The resulting transformants selected for zeocine resistant, had AA biosynthesis partially restored, indicating the functional complementation of the mutant strain with the wild-type gene. The results of this study present a platform for the successful genetic engineering of L. incisa and its long-chain PUFA metabolism. PMID:25133787

Zorin, Boris; Grundman, Omer; Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Leu, Stefan; Shapira, Michal; Kaye, Yuval; Tourasse, Nicolas; Vallon, Olivier; Boussiba, Sammy

2014-01-01

378

Diatom Community Response to Global Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diatoms are ubiquitous components of marine and freshwater environments and are responsible for nearly a quarter of the world's primary production. These microscopic algae are excellent indicators of environmental change and are routinely used as indicators of water quality. Diatom frustules have also been used to infer past climate change. With anticipated increases in atmospheric CO2 and eutrophication, understanding the contribution by diatoms as sinks for carbon in the world's oceans and estuaries is crucial. Benthic diatoms are especially significant in this respect due to their interactions with both atmospheric and sedimentary carbon cycling. We investigated changes in marsh sediment diatom community structure in response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen input. Twenty plots of brackish marsh were enclosed in environmental chambers and exposed to two levels of atmospheric CO2 (ambient and elevated) crossed with a nitrogen-addition treatment (2 x 2 factorial) beginning in May 2006. DNA was extracted from sediment samples obtained from environmentally controlled marsh plots in June, 2008. Using diatom-specific primers, the diatom community was amplified by PCR and evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The diatom community composition was then compared across the four treatments (Amb, Amb+N, Elev, Elev+N) using multivariate statistical methods. Multidimensional scaling plots revealed clear grouping of samples according to treatment. A global analysis of similarity test was significant, as were all pairwise comparisons of treatments. The greatest changes in community structure occurred in the elevated CO2 group. In contrast, Amb+N was more similar to Elev+N, suggesting that nitrogen effects may mask elevated CO2 effects on diatom community structure in these plots.

Hook, W. F.; Rose, J.; Langley, J. A.; Coyne, K. J.

2008-12-01

379

Organophosphorous insecticides as herbicide synergists on the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the aquatic plant Lemna minor.  

PubMed

Models proposed for risk assessment of chemical mixtures assume no interactions between the chemicals. There are, however, studies indicating that some organophosporous insecticides can inhibit the detoxification of other chemicals in plants thereby enhancing their effect. The present study investigates whether interactions between selected organophosporous insecticides and herbicides can take place in the aquatic algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the aquatic macrophyte Lemna minor. For both species binary mixtures of the organophosphate insecticides: malathion, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos were tested together with the herbicides metsulfuron-methyl, terbutylazine and bentazone. For mixtures with malathion on algae, dose-response surfaces were made and the results tested against the model of concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA). The Lemna minor tests showed no indication of synergy for any of the combinations, on the contrary, significant antagonism was found for several of the mixtures. The response surface analysis showed antagonism in relation to both concentration addition and independent action for mixtures between malathion and metsulfuron-methyl and terbuthylazine, while the mixtures with bentazone could be explained with CA. The study shows no indications of synergistic interactions between the tested pesticides, confirming the applicability of CA as a reference model predicting mixture effects of pesticides for aquatic plants and algae. PMID:17940868

Munkegaard, Mads; Abbaspoor, Majid; Cedergreen, Nina

2008-01-01

380

Genetic engineering of the green alga Chlorella zofingiensis: a modified norflurazon-resistant phytoene desaturase gene as a dominant selectable marker.  

PubMed

The unicellular green alga Chlorella zofingiensis has been proposed as a promising producer of natural astaxanthin, a commercially important ketocarotenoid. But the genetic toolbox for this alga is not available. In the present study, an efficient transformation system was established for C. zofingiensis. The transformation system utilized a modified norflurazon-resistant phytoene desaturase (PDS-L516F, with an leucine-phenylalanine change at position 516) as the selectable marker. Three promoters from endogenous PDS, nitrate reductase (NIT), and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase small subunit (RBCS) genes were tested, with the RBCS promoter demonstrating the highest transformation efficiency. Inclusion of the first intron of the PDS gene further enhanced the efficiency by 91 %. Both particle bombardment and electroporation methods were examined, and the latter gave a fourfold higher transformation efficiency. The introduction of PDS-L516F, which exhibited a 33 % higher desaturation activity than the unaltered enzyme, enabled C. zofingiensis to produce 32.1 % more total carotenoids (TCs) and 54.1 % more astaxanthin. The enhanced accumulation of astaxanthin in transformants was revealed to be related to the increase in the transcripts of PDS, ?-carotenoid ketolase (BKT), and hydroxylase (CHYb) genes. Our study clearly shows that the modified PDS gene is a dominant selectable marker for the transformation of C. zofingiensis and possibly for the genetic engineering of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. In addition, the engineered C. zofingiensis might serve as an improved source of natural astaxanthin. PMID:24584513

Liu, Jin; Sun, Zheng; Gerken, Henri; Huang, Junchao; Jiang, Yue; Chen, Feng

2014-06-01

381

Experimental Substantiation of the Possibility of Developing Selenium- and Iodine-Containing Pharmaceuticals Based on Blue-Green Algae Spirulina Platensis  

E-print Network

The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using -reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in Spirulina platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loding of the above elements was characterised. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed.

Mosulishvili, L M; Belokobylsky, A I; Khisanishvili, L A; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, C C; Gundorina, S F

2001-01-01

382

Management of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato by root-dip treatment in culture filtrate of the blue-green alga, Microcoleus vaginatus.  

PubMed

The nematicidal potential of culture filtrates of the blue-green alga, Microcoleus vaginatus (Cyanobacterium) was tested against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato in pots under greenhouse conditions. Prior to the transplantation of tomato seedling, roots were dipped in different concentrations (0.2%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 10%, 50% and 100%) of culture filtrate of M. vaginatus for 30 min. Root-dip treatment reduced the root galling and final population of M. incognita and increased vegetative growth of plants and root-mass production compared with the control. The beneficial effect of root-dip treatment increased with the increase in the concentration of culture filtrate. Root galling and final nematode populations were reduced by 65.9% and 97.5%, respectively when treated at the highest concentration. PMID:15792580

Khan, Z; Park, S D; Shin, S Y; Bae, S G; Yeon, I K; Seo, Y J

2005-08-01

383

Experimental substantiation of the possibility of developing selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals based on blue-green algae Spirulina platensis.  

PubMed

The great potential of using blue-green algae Spirulina platensis as a matrix for the production of selenium- and iodine-containing pharmaceuticals is shown experimentally. The background levels of 31 major, minor and trace elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni (using (n,p) reaction), As, Br, Zn, Rb, Mo, Ag, Sb, I, Ba, Sm, Tb, Tm, Hf, Ta, W, Au, Hg, Th) in S. platensis biomass were determined by means of epithermal neutron activation analysis. The dependence of selenium and iodine accumulation in spirulina biomass on a nutrient medium loading of the above elements was characterized. To demonstrate the possibilities of determining toxic element intake by spirulina biomass, mercury was selected. The technological parameters for production of iodinated treatment-and-prophylactic pills are developed. PMID:12151068

Mosulishvili, L M; Kirkesali, E I; Belokobylsky, A I; Khizanishvili, A I; Frontasyeva, M V; Pavlov, S S; Gundorina, S F

2002-08-22

384

The origin of red algae and the evolution of chloroplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chloroplast structure and genome analyses support the hypothesis that three groups of organisms originated from the primary photosynthetic endosymbiosis between a cyanobacterium and a eukaryotic host: green plants (green algae + land plants), red algae and glaucophytes (for example, Cyanophora). Although phylogenies based on several mitochondrial genes support a specific green plants\\/red algae relationship, the phylogenetic analysis of nucleus-encoded genes

David Moreira; Hervé Le Guyader; Hervé Philippe

2000-01-01

385

The Central Carbon and Energy Metabolism of Marine Diatoms  

PubMed Central

Diatoms are heterokont algae derived from a secondary symbiotic event in which a eukaryotic host cell acquired an eukaryotic red alga as plastid. The multiple endosymbiosis and horizontal gene transfer processes provide diatoms unusual opportunities for gene mixing to establish distinctive biosynthetic pathways and metabolic control structures. Diatoms are also known to have significant impact on global ecosystems as one of the most dominant phytoplankton species in the contemporary ocean. As such their metabolism and growth regulating factors have been of particular interest for many years. The publication of the genomic sequences of two independent species of diatoms and the advent of an enhanced experimental toolbox for molecular biological investigations have afforded far greater opportunities than were previously apparent for these species and re-invigorated studies regarding the central carbon metabolism of diatoms. In this review we discuss distinctive features of the central carbon metabolism of diatoms and its response to forthcoming environmental changes and recent advances facilitating the possibility of industrial use of diatoms for oil production. Although the operation and importance of several key pathways of diatom metabolism have already been demonstrated and determined, we will also highlight other potentially important pathways wherein this has yet to be achieved. PMID:24957995

Obata, Toshihiro; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano

2013-01-01

386

The central carbon and energy metabolism of marine diatoms.  

PubMed

Diatoms are heterokont algae derived from a secondary symbiotic event in which a eukaryotic host cell acquired an eukaryotic red alga as plastid. The multiple endosymbiosis and horizontal gene transfer processes provide diatoms unusual opportunities for gene mixing to establish distinctive biosynthetic pathways and metabolic control structures. Diatoms are also known to have significant impact on global ecosystems as one of the most dominant phytoplankton species in the contemporary ocean. As such their metabolism and growth regulating factors have been of particular interest for many years. The publication of the genomic sequences of two independent species of diatoms and the advent of an enhanced experimental toolbox for molecular biological investigations have afforded far greater opportunities than were previously apparent for these species and re-invigorated studies regarding the central carbon metabolism of diatoms. In this review we discuss distinctive features of the central carbon metabolism of diatoms and its response to forthcoming environmental changes and recent advances facilitating the possibility of industrial use of diatoms for oil production. Although the operation and importance of several key pathways of diatom metabolism have already been demonstrated and determined, we will also highlight other potentially important pathways wherein this has yet to be achieved. PMID:24957995

Obata, Toshihiro; Fernie, Alisdair R; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano

2013-01-01

387

Comparative Analysis of the Chemical Composition of Mixed and Pure Cultures of Green Algae and Their Decomposed Residues by 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

PubMed Central

It is known that macromolecular organic matter in aquatic environments, i.e., humic substances, is highly aliphatic. These aliphatic macromolecules, predominantly paraffinic in structure, are prevalent in marine and lacustrine sediments and are believed to originate from algae or bacteria. A comparative study of mixed and pure cultures of green algae and their decomposed residues was performed by using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as the primary analytical method. Results obtained in this study confirm the presence of components that are chemically refractory and that are defined as alghumin and hydrolyzed alghumin. These were detected in heterogeneous, homogeneous, and axenic biomasses composed of several genera of Chlorophyta. Although the chemical composition of algal biomass varied with culture conditions, the chemical structure of the alghumin and hydrolyzed alghumin, demonstrated by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy appeared to be constant for members of the Chlorophyta examined in this study. The alghumin was dominated by carbohydrate-carbon, with minor amounts of amide or carboxyl carbon and paraffinic carbon, the latter surviving strong hydrolysis by 6 N HCI (hydrolyzed alghumin). Bacterial decomposition of heterogeneous algal biomass labeled with 13C was conducted under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions to determine chemical structure and stability of the refractory material. The refractory fraction ranged from 33% in aerobic to 44% in anaerobic cultures. The refractory fraction recovered from either aerobic or anaerobic degradation comprised 40% alghumin, which represented an enrichment by 10% relative to the proportion of alghumin derived from whole cells of algae. The paraffinic component in the hydrolyzed alghumin of whole algal cells was found to be 1.8% and increased to 5.1 and 6.9% after aerobic and anaerobic bacterial degradation, respectively. It is concluded that members of the Chlorophyta contain a common insoluble structure composed of paraffinic carbon that is resistant to chemical and bacterial degradation under conditions used in this study. The paraffinic structure is identical to those constituting humin of aquatic origin. Thus, alga-derived macromolecular compounds deposited in aquatic environments (alghumin) probably contribute to sedimentary humic substances. PMID:16347601

Zelibor, J. L.; Romankiw, L.; Hatcher, P. G.; Colwell, R. R.

1988-01-01

388

Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of mixed and pure cultures of green algae and their decomposed residues by C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  

PubMed

It is known that macromolecular organic matter in aquatic environments, i.e., humic substances, is highly aliphatic. These aliphatic macromolecules, predominantly paraffinic in structure, are prevalent in marine and lacustrine sediments and are believed to originate from algae or bacteria. A comparative study of mixed and pure cultures of green algae and their decomposed residues was performed by using solid-state C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as the primary analytical method. Results obtained in this study confirm the presence of components that are chemically refractory and that are defined as alghumin and hydrolyzed alghumin. These were detected in heterogeneous, homogeneous, and axenic biomasses composed of several genera of Chlorophyta. Although the chemical composition of algal biomass varied with culture conditions, the chemical structure of the alghumin and hydrolyzed alghumin, demonstrated by C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy appeared to be constant for members of the Chlorophyta examined in this study. The alghumin was dominated by carbohydrate-carbon, with minor amounts of amide or carboxyl carbon and paraffinic carbon, the latter surviving strong hydrolysis by 6 N HCI (hydrolyzed alghumin). Bacterial decomposition of heterogeneous algal biomass labeled with C was conducted under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions to determine chemical structure and stability of the refractory material. The refractory fraction ranged from 33% in aerobic to 44% in anaerobic cultures. The refractory fraction recovered from either aerobic or anaerobic degradation comprised 40% alghumin, which represented an enrichment by 10% relative to the proportion of alghumin derived from whole cells of algae. The paraffinic component in the hydrolyzed alghumin of whole algal cells was found to be 1.8% and increased to 5.1 and 6.9% after aerobic and anaerobic bacterial degradation, respectively. It is concluded that members of the Chlorophyta contain a common insoluble structure composed of paraffinic carbon that is resistant to chemical and bacterial degradation under conditions used in this study. The paraffinic structure is identical to those constituting humin of aquatic origin. Thus, alga-derived macromolecular compounds deposited in aquatic environments (alghumin) probably contribute to sedimentary humic substances. PMID:16347601

Zelibor, J L; Romankiw, L; Hatcher, P G; Colwell, R R

1988-04-01

389

RNA-Mediated Silencing in Algae: Biological Roles and Tools for Analysis of Gene Function ?  

PubMed Central

Algae are a large group of aquatic, typically photosynthetic, eukaryotes that include species from very diverse phylogenetic lineages, from those similar to land plants to those related to protist parasites. The recent sequencing of several algal genomes has provided insights into the great complexity of these organisms. Genomic information has also emphasized our lack of knowledge of the functions of many predicted genes, as well as the gene regulatory mechanisms in algae. Core components of the machinery for RNA-mediated silencing show widespread distribution among algal lineages, but they also seem to have been lost entirely from several species with relatively small nuclear genomes. Complex sets of endogenous small RNAs, including candidate microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, have now been identified by high-throughput sequencing in green, red, and brown algae. However, the natural roles of RNA-mediated silencing in algal biology remain poorly understood. Limited evidence suggests that small RNAs may function, in different algae, in defense mechanisms against transposon mobilization, in responses to nutrient deprivation and, possibly, in the regulation of recently evolved developmental processes. From a practical perspective, RNA interference (RNAi) is becoming a promising tool for assessing gene function by sequence-specific knockdown. Transient gene silencing, triggered with exogenously synthesized nucleic acids, and/or stable gene repression, involving genome-integrated transgenes, have been achieved in green algae, diatoms, yellow-green algae, and euglenoids. The development of RNAi technology in conjunction with system level “omics” approaches may provide the tools needed to advance our understanding of algal physiological and metabolic processes. PMID:21803865

Cerutti, Heriberto; Ma, Xinrong; Msanne, Joseph; Repas, Timothy

2011-01-01

390

Evolution and functional diversification of fructose bisphosphate aldolase genes in photosynthetic marine diatoms.  

PubMed

Diatoms and other chlorophyll-c containing, or chromalveolate, algae are among the most productive and diverse phytoplankton in the ocean. Evolutionarily, chlorophyll-c algae are linked through common, although not necessarily monophyletic, acquisition of plastid endosymbionts of red as well as most likely green algal origin. There is also strong evidence for a relatively high level of lineage-specific bacterial gene acquisition within chromalveolates. Therefore, analyses of gene content and derivation in chromalveolate taxa have indicated particularly diverse origins of their overall gene repertoire. As a single group of functionally related enzymes spanning two distinct gene families, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases (FBAs) illustrate the influence on core biochemical pathways of specific evolutionary associations among diatoms and other chromalveolates with various plastid-bearing and bacterial endosymbionts. Protein localization and activity, gene expression, and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum contains five FBA genes with very little overall functional overlap. Three P. tricornutum FBAs, one class I and two class II, are plastid localized, and each appears to have a distinct evolutionary origin as well as function. Class I plastid FBA appears to have been acquired by chromalveolates from a red algal endosymbiont, whereas one copy of class II plastid FBA is likely to have originated from an ancient green algal endosymbiont. The other copy appears to be the result of a chromalveolate-specific gene duplication. Plastid FBA I and chromalveolate-specific class II plastid FBA are localized in the pyrenoid region of the chloroplast where they are associated with ?-carbonic anhydrase, which is known to play a significant role in regulation of the diatom carbon concentrating mechanism. The two pyrenoid-associated FBAs are distinguished by contrasting gene expression profiles under nutrient limiting compared with optimal CO2 fixation conditions, suggestive of a distinct specialized function for each. Cytosolically localized FBAs in P. tricornutum likely play a role in glycolysis and cytoskeleton function and seem to have originated from the stramenopile host cell and from diatom-specific bacterial gene transfer, respectively. PMID:21903677

Allen, Andrew E; Moustafa, Ahmed; Montsant, Anton; Eckert, Angelika; Kroth, Peter G; Bowler, Chris

2012-01-01

391

Antiproliferative activity of methanolic extracts from two green algae, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Rizoclonium riparium on HeLa cells  

PubMed Central

Background Natural compounds can be alternative sources for finding new lead anti-cancer molecules. Marine algae have been a traditional source for bioactive compounds. Enteromorpha intestinalis and Rhizoclonium riparium are two well distributed saline/brackish water algae from Sundarbans. There’s no previous report of these two for their anti-proliferative activities. Methods Cytotoxicity of the algal methanolic extracts (AMEs) on HeLa cells were assayed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. Morphological examinations were done by Haematoxylin, Hoechst 33258 and Acridine orange staining. DNA fragmentation was checked. Gene expressions of Cysteine aspartate protease (Caspase) 3, Tumor protein (TP) 53, Bcl-2 associated protein X (Bax) were studied by Reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) keeping Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as internal control. Protein expressions were studied for Caspase 3, phospho-p53, Bax, Microtubule associated proteins-1/ light chain B (MAP1/LC3B) by western blot. Results The AMEs were found to be cytotoxic with Inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) values 309.048?±?3.083 ?g/ml and 506.081?±?3.714 ?g/ml for E. intestinalis and R. riparium extracts respectively. Treated cells became round with blebbings with condensed nuclei. Acidic lysosomal vacuoles formation occurred in treated cells. Expression of apoptotic genes in both mRNA and protein level was lowered. Expression of LC3B-II suggested occurrence of autophagy in treated cells. Conclusions These two algae can be potent candidates for isolating new lead anticancer molecules. So they need further characterization at both molecular and structural levels. PMID:24355313

2013-01-01

392

Aureochrome 1a Is Involved in the Photoacclimation of the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum  

PubMed Central

Aureochromes constitute a family of blue light (BL) receptors which are found exclusively in heterokont algae such as diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) and yellow-green algae (Xanthophyceae). Previous studies on the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum indicate that the formation of a high light acclimated phenotype is mediated by the absorption of BL and that aureochromes might play an important role in this process. P. tricornutum possesses four genes encoding aureochromes. In this study we confirm the nuclear localisation of the PtAUREO1a, 1b and 2 proteins. Furthermore we studied the physiology of light quality acclimation in genetically transformed P. tricornutum cell lines with reduced expression of the aureochrome 1a gene. The results demonstrate that the AUREO1a protein has a distinct function in light acclimation. However, rather unexpectedly AUREO1a seems to repress high light acclimation which resulted in a state of ‘hyper’ high light acclimation in aureo1a silenced strains. This was indicated by characteristic changes of several photosynthetic parameters, including increased maximum photosynthesis rates, decreased chlorophyll a contents per cell and increased values of non-photochemical quenching in AUREO1a silenced strains compared to wild type cultures. Strikingly, AUREO1a silenced strains exhibited phenotypic differences compared to wild type cells during cultivation under BL as well as under red light (RL) conditions. Therefore, AUREO1a might influence the RL signalling process, suggesting an interaction of AUREO1a with RL perception pathways. PMID:24073211

Jungandreas, Anne; Bartulos, Carolina Rio; Gruber, Ansgar; Jakob, Torsten; Kroth, Peter G.; Wilhelm, Christian

2013-01-01

393

Diatom frustule photonic crystal geometric and optical characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diatom algae are single-celled, photosynthetic organisms with a cell wall called a frustule—a periodically patterned nano-structure made of silica. Throughout the last decade, diatom frustules have been studied for their potential uses as photonic crystals and biomimetic templates for artificially developed metamaterials. A MATLAB program characterizing their pore structure as a function of angle was developed, potentially giving insight into how their geometric characteristics determine their optical properties.

Mishler, Jonathan; Blake, Phillip; Alverson, Andrew J.; Roper, D. K.; Herzog, Joseph B.

2014-08-01

394

Proteome turnover in the green alga Ostreococcus tauri by time course 15N metabolic labeling mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Protein synthesis and degradation determine the cellular levels of proteins, and their control hence enables organisms to respond to environmental change. Experimentally, these are little known proteome parameters; however, recently, SILAC-based mass spectrometry studies have begun to quantify turnover in the proteomes of cell lines, yeast, and animals. Here, we present a proteome-scale method to quantify turnover and calculate synthesis and degradation rate constants of individual proteins in autotrophic organisms such as algae and plants. The workflow is based on the automated analysis of partial stable isotope incorporation with (15)N. We applied it in a study of the unicellular pico-alga Ostreococcus tauri and observed high relative turnover in chloroplast-encoded ATPases (0.42-0.58% h(-1)), core photosystem II proteins (0.34-0.51% h(-1)), and RbcL (0.47% h(-1)), while nuclear-encoded RbcS2 is more stable (0.23% h(-1)). Mitochondrial targeted ATPases (0.14-0.16% h(-1)), photosystem antennae (0.09-0.14% h(-1)), and histones (0.07-0.1% h(-1)) were comparatively stable. The calculation of degradation and synthesis rate constants k(deg) and k(syn) confirms RbcL as the bulk contributor to overall protein turnover. This study performed over 144 h of incorporation reveals dynamics of protein complex subunits as well as isoforms targeted to different organelles. PMID:22077659

Martin, Sarah F; Munagapati, Vijaya S; Salvo-Chirnside, Eliane; Kerr, Lorraine E; Le Bihan, Thierry

2012-01-01

395

Enhanced photosynthetic assimilation ratios in Antarctic Polar Front (convergence) diatoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diatom populations from the Antarctic Polar Front (convergence) in the Drake Passage area exhibited relatively high photosynthesis : chlorophyll a ratios at light saturation. The permanent water column instability and the adverse meteorological conditions observed in the central Drake Passage area seem to product a light-color stress on the physiology of convergence diatoms that are restricted to a blue-green light

ENRIQUE F. MANDELLI

1967-01-01

396

Star Trek replicators and diatom nanotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diatoms are single celled algae, the 105–106 species of which create a wide variety of three-dimensional amorphous silica shells. If we could get them to produce useful structures, perhaps by compustat selection experiments (i.e. forced evolution of development or evodevo), their exponential growth in suspension cultures could compete with the lithography techniques of present day nanotechnology, which have limited 3D

Ryan W. Drum; Richard Gordon

2003-01-01

397

Bacterial community composition associated with freshwater algae: species specificity vs. dependency on environmental conditions and source community.  

PubMed

We studied bacterial associations with the green alga Desmodesmus armatus and the diatom Stephanodiscus minutulus under changing environmental conditions and bacterial source communities, to evaluate whether bacteria-algae associations are species-specific or more generalized and determined by external factors. Axenic and xenic algae were incubated in situ with and without allelopathically active macrophytes, and in the laboratory with sterile and nonsterile lake water and an allelochemical, tannic acid (TA). Bacterial community composition (BCC) of algae-associated bacteria was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), nonmetric multidimensional scaling, cluster analyses, and sequencing of DGGE bands. BCC of xenic algal cultures of both species were not significantly affected by changes in their environment or bacterial source community, except in the case of TA additions. Species-specific interactions therefore appear to overrule the effects of environmental conditions and source communities. The BCC of xenic and axenic D. armatus cultures subjected to in situ bacterial colonization, however, had lower similarities (ca. 55%), indicating that bacterial precolonization is a strong factor for bacteria-algae associations irrespective of environmental conditions and source community. Our findings emphasize the ecological importance of species-specific bacteria-algae associations with important repercussions for other processes, such as the remineralization of nutrients, and organic matter dynamics. PMID:23030046

Eigemann, Falk; Hilt, Sabine; Salka, Ivette; Grossart, Hans-Peter

2013-03-01

398

Testing Prospects for Reliable Diatom Nanotechnology in Microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The worldwide effort to grow nanotechnology, rather than use lithography, focuses on diatoms, single cell eukaryotic algae with ornate silica shells, which can be replaced by oxides and ceramics, or reduced to elemental silicon, to create complex nanostructures with compositions of industrial and electronics importance. Diatoms produce an enormous variety of structures, some of which are microtubule dependent and perhaps sensitive to microgravity. The NASA Single Loop for Cell Culture (SLCC) for culturing and observing microorganisms permits inexpensive, low labor in-space experiments. We propose to send up to the International Space Station diatom cultures of the three diatom species whose genomes are being sequenced, plus the giant diatoms of Antarctica (up to 2 mm diameter for a single cell) and the unique colonial diatom, Bacillaria paradoxa. Bacillaria cells move against each other in partial synchrony, like a sliding deck of cards, by a microfluidics mechanism. Will normal diatoms have aberrant pattern and shape or motility compared to ground controls? The generation time is typically one day, so that many generations may be examined from one flight. Rapid, directed evolution may be possible running the SLCC as a compustat. The shell shapes and patterns are preserved in hard silica, so that the progress of normal and aberrant morphogenesis may be followed by drying samples on a moving filter paper "diatom tape recorder". With a biodiversity of 100,000 distinct species, diatom nanotechnology may offer a compact and portable nanotechnology toolkit for exploration anywhere.

Gordon, Richard; Hoover, Richard B.; Tuszynski, Jack A.; deLuis, Javier; Camp, Philip J.; Tiffany, Mary Ann; Nagy, Stephen S.; Lerner, Beatriz E.

2007-01-01

399

Identification and characterization of a ferritin gene and its product from the multicellular green alga Ulva pertusa.  

PubMed

Iron is an essential element for virtually all kingdoms of life, and especially for primary producers in ocean ecosystems. To date, the molecular mechanism of iron utilization by macroalgae remains largely unknown. To elucidate the strategy of iron acquisition and storage in macroalgae, we focused on the function of the iron storage protein ferritin in the sea lettuce, Ulva pertusa, which has abundant iron content. Judging from the primary structure, U. pertusa ferritin (UpFer) can be classified as a land-plant-type ferritin, which is usually found in plastids. The gene of UpFer was expressed in the peripheral, central and rhizoid parts. Western blot analysis showed that UpFER was present and functioned in processed 26- and 22-kDa forms. Furthermore, recombinant UpFER had iron incorporation activity comparable to other ferritins. These results suggest that ferritin also functions as an iron storage protein as in unicellular algae and land plants. PMID:23047107

Morimoto, Shin-Ichiro; Masuda, Taro; Sugihara, Itaru; Toyohara, Haruhiko

2012-01-01

400

Copepod Population-Specific Response to a Toxic Diatom Diet  

PubMed Central

Diatoms are key phytoplankton organisms and one of the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. However, many diatom species produce a series of secondary metabolites, collectively termed oxylipins, that disrupt development in the offspring of grazers, such as copepods, that feed on these unicellular algae. We hypothesized that different populations of copepods may deal differently with the same oxylipin-producing diatom diet. Here we provide comparative studies of expression level analyses of selected genes of interest for three Calanus helgolandicus populations (North Sea, Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea) exposed to the same strain of the oxylipin-producing diatom Skeletonema marinoi using as control algae the flagellate Rhodomonas baltica. Expression levels of detoxification enzymes and stress proteins (e.g. glutathione S-transferase, glutathione synthase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, aldehyde dehydrogenases and heat shock proteins) and proteins involved in apoptosis regulation and cell cycle progression were analyzed in copepods after both 24 and 48 hours of feeding on the diatom or on a control diet. Strong differences occurred among copepod populations, with the Mediterranean population of C. helgolandicus being more susceptible to the toxic diet compared to the others. This study opens new perspectives for understanding copepod population-specific responses to diatom toxins and may help in underpinning the cellular mechanisms underlying copepod toxicity during diatom blooms. PMID:23056617

Lauritano, Chiara; Carotenuto, Ylenia; Miralto, Antonio; Procaccini, Gabriele; Ianora, Adrianna

2012-01-01

401

When adapted to high zinc concentrations the periphytic green alga Stigeoclonium tenue produces high amounts of novel phytochelatin-related peptides.  

PubMed

Two ecotypes of the green alga Stigeoclonium tenue Kütz. coming from polluted or unpolluted freshwaters and showing various Zn-tolerance were compared for their production of non-proteinaceous thiols in response to Zn. In short-term (17 h) exposures to 15 microM Zn they did not reveal any significant difference in levels of glutathione, phytochelatins and some unknown thiols. However, after prolonged metal exposure (48 h) the Zn-tolerant S. tenue (T) isolated from Zn-polluted mining water, produced at the expense of GSH besides phytochelatins (PC(2)-PC(4)) much higher amounts of novel, phytochelatin-related peptides. After a 6-week exposure to 30 microM Zn, phytochelatins (approximately 6 micromol SH per g D.W.) and the novel thiol peptides (approximately 31 micromol SH per g D.W.), only in the surviving Zn-tolerant alga, were produced. HPLC analysis suggested that the novel peptides (P1-P3) differ from each other by one gammaGlu-Cys unit. ESI/MS analysis of the purified, most abundant peptides P2 and P3, of m/z values 643 and 875, respectively, suggested that they contain one cysteine residue more than PC(2) and PC(3). A 22-fold higher concentration of these peptides in Zn-tolerant S. tenue (T) than in Zn-sensitive S. tenue (S) was also observed in response to Pb exposure. Biosynthesis of the large amounts of the novel thiol peptides, which contain more SH-groups than phytochelatins, detected in the Zn-tolerant organism after long Zn exposure, and lack of such a response in the Zn-sensitive ecotype S. tenue (S), isolated from unpolluted water, suggest that they are essential in the adaptation of S. tenue (T) to increased heavy metal concentrations. PMID:12505382

Pawlik-Skowro?ska, Barbara

2003-01-24

402

The Genome of the Diatom Thalassiosira Pseudonana: Ecology, Evolution and Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diatoms are unicellular algae with plastids acquired by secondary endosymbiosis. They are responsible for â20% of global carbon fixation. We report the 34 Mbp draft nuclear genome of the marine diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana and its 129 Kbp plastid and 44 Kbp mitochondrial genomes. Sequence and optical restriction mapping revealed 24 diploid nuclear chromosomes. We identified novel genes for silicic acid

E V Armbrust; J A Berges; C Bowler; B R Green; D Martinez; N H Putnam; S Zhou; A E Allen; K E Apt; M Bechner; M A Brzezinski; B K Chaal; A Chiovitti; A K Davis; M S Demarest; J C Detter; T G del Rio; D Goodstein; M Z Hadi; U Hellsten; M Hildebrand; B D Jenkins; J Jurka; V V Kapitonov; N Kroger; W Y Lau; F W Larimer; J C Lippmeier; S Lucas; M Medina; A Montsant; M Obornik; M S Parker; B Palenik; G J Pazour; P M Richardson; T A Rynearson; M A Saito; D C Schwartz; K Thamatrakoln; K Valentin; A Vardi; F P Wilkerson; D S Rokhsar

2005-01-01

403

Vulnerability of marine habitats to the invasive green alga Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea within a marine protected area.  

PubMed

The relative vulnerability of various habitat types to Caulerpa racemosa var. cylindracea invasion was investigated in the National Marine Park of Zakynthos (Ionian Sea, Greece). The density of C. racemosa fronds was modelled with generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS), based on an information theory approach. The species was present in as much as 33% of 748 randomly placed quadrats, which documents its aggressive establishment in the area. The probability of presence of the alga within randomly placed 20 x 20 cm quadrats was 83% on 'matte morte' (zones of fibrous remnants of a former Posidonia oceanica bed), 69% on rocky bottoms, 86% along the margins of P. oceanica meadows, 10% on sandy/muddy substrates, and 6% within P. oceanica meadows. The high frond density on 'matte morte' and rocky bottoms indicates their high vulnerability. The lowest frond density was observed within P. oceanica meadows. However, on the margins of P. oceanica meadows and within gaps in fragmented meadows relative high C. racemosa densities were observed. Such gaps within meadows represent spots of high vulnerability to C. racemosa invasion. PMID:20621771

Katsanevakis, Stelios; Issaris, Yiannis; Poursanidis, Dimitris; Thessalou-Legaki, Maria

2010-08-01

404

Lipid content and fatty acid composition of green algae Scenedesmus obliquus grown in a constant cell density apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lipids of alga Scenedesmus obliquus grown under controlled conditions were separated and fractionated by column and thin-layer chromatography, and fatty acid composition of each lipid component was studied by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). Total lipids were 11.17%, and neutral lipid, glycolipid and phospholipid fractions were 7.24%, 2.45% and 1.48% on a dry weight basis, respectively. The major neutral lipids were diglycerides, triglycerides, free sterols, hydrocarbons and sterol esters. The glycolipids were: monogalactosyl diglyceride, digalactosyl diglyceride, esterified sterol glycoside, and sterol glycoside. The phospholipids included: phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl glycerol and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Fourteen fatty acids were identified in the four lipid fractions by GLC. The main fatty acids were C18:2, C16:0, C18:3(alpha), C18:1, C16:3, C16:1, and C16:4. Total unsaturated fatty acid and essential fatty acid compositions of the total algal lipids were 80% and 38%, respectively.

Choi, K. J.; Nakhost, Z.; Barzana, E.; Karel, M.

1987-01-01

405

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine algae Caulerpa racemosa and their antibacterial activity against some human pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using Caulerpa racemosa, a marine algae. Fresh C. racemosa was collected from the Gulf of Mannar, Southeast coast of India. The seaweed extract was used for the synthesis of AgNO3 at room temperature. UV-visible spectrometry study revealed surface plasmon resonance at 413 nm. The characterization of silver nanoparticle was carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). FT-IR measurements revealed the possible functional groups responsible for reduction and stabilization of the nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry.TEM micrograph has shown the formation of silver nanoparticles with the size in the range of 5-25 nm. The synthesized AgNPs have shown the best antibacterial activity against human pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis. The above eco-friendly synthesis procedure of AgNPs could be easily scaled up in future for the industrial and therapeutic needs.

Kathiraven, T.; Sundaramanickam, A.; Shanmugam, N.; Balasubramanian, T.

2014-08-01

406

Evidence for a light-induced H(+) conductance in the eye of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed Central

Rhodopsin-mediated photoreceptor currents, I(P), of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were studied under neutral and acidic conditions. We characterized the kinetically overlapping components of the first, flash-induced inward current recorded from the eye, I(P1), as a low- and high-intensity component, I(P1a) and I(P1b), respectively. They peak between 1 and 10 ms after the light-flash and are both likely to be carried by Ca(2+). I(P1a) and I(P1b) exhibit half-maximal photon flux densities, Q(1/2), of approximately 0.14 and 58 microE m(-2), and maximal amplitudes of approximately 4.9 and 38 pA, respectively. At acidic extracellular pH values (pH 3-5), both I(P1) currents are followed by distinct H(+) currents, I(P2a) and I(P2b), with maxima after approximately 5 and 100 ms, respectively. Because the Q(1/2) values of I(P1b) and I(P2b) virtually coincide with Q(1/2) of rhodopsin bleaching, we suggest that the respective conductances G(1b) and G(2b) are closely coupled to the rhodopsin, whereas the low light-saturating conductances G(1a) and G(2a) reflect transducer-activated states of a second rhodopsin photoreceptor system. PMID:11806916

Ehlenbeck, Sabine; Gradmann, Dietrich; Braun, Franz-Josef; Hegemann, Peter

2002-01-01

407

Light-harvesting complex II pigments and proteins in association with Cbr, a homolog of higher-plant early light-inducible proteins in the unicellular green alga Dunaliella  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  ?Like higher plants, unicellular green algae of the genus Dunaliella respond to light stress by enhanced de-epoxidation of violaxanthin and accumulation of Cbr, a protein homologous to early\\u000a light-inducible proteins (Elips) in plants. Earlier studies indicated that Cbr was associated with the light-harvesting complex\\u000a of photosystem II (LHCII) and suggested it acted as a zeaxanthin-binding protein and fulfilled a photo-protective

Gabi Banet; Uri Pick; Ada Zamir

2000-01-01

408

RNAi knock-down of LHCBM1, 2 and 3 increases photosynthetic H2 production efficiency of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

Single cell green algae (microalgae) are rapidly emerging as a platform for the production of sustainable fuels. Solar-driven H2 production from H2O theoretically provides the highest-efficiency route to fuel production in microalgae. This is because the H2-producing hydrogenase (HYDA) is directly coupled to the photosynthetic electron transport chain, thereby eliminating downstream energetic losses associated with the synthesis of carbohydrate and oils (feedstocks for methane, ethanol and oil-based fuels). Here we report the simultaneous knock-down of three light-harvesting complex proteins (LHCMB1, 2 and 3) in the high H2-producing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant Stm6Glc4 using an RNAi triple knock-down strategy. The resultant Stm6Glc4L01 mutant exhibited a light green phenotype, reduced expression of LHCBM1 (20.6% ±0.27%), LHCBM2 (81.2% ±0.037%) and LHCBM3 (41.4% ±0.05%) compared to 100% control levels, and improved light to H2 (180%) and biomass (165%) conversion efficiencies. The improved H2 production efficiency was achieved at increased solar flux densities (450 instead of ?100 µE m(-2) s(-1)) and high cell densities which are best suited for microalgae production as light is ideally the limiting factor. Our data suggests that the overall improved photon-to-H2 conversion efficiency is due to: 1) reduced loss of absorbed energy by non-photochemical quenching (fluorescence and heat losses) near the photobioreactor surface; 2) improved light distribution in the reactor; 3) reduced photoinhibition; 4) early onset of HYDA expression and 5) reduction of O2-induced inhibition of HYDA. The Stm6Glc4L01 phenotype therefore provides important insights for the development of high-efficiency photobiological H2 production systems. PMID:23613840

Oey, Melanie; Ross, Ian L; Stephens, Evan; Steinbeck, Janina; Wolf, Juliane; Radzun, Khairul Adzfa; Kügler, Johannes; Ringsmuth, Andrew K; Kruse, Olaf; Hankamer, Ben

2013-01-01

409

Seeing Toxic Algae Before it Blooms By Steve Ress  

E-print Network

Seeing Toxic Algae Before it Blooms By Steve Ress Researchers at the University of Nebraska of toxic blue-green algae before the bacteria that produce it can grow into a full-scale bloom. Now UNL and monitor in real-time, the water-borne agents that can cause toxic blue- green algae to flourish and become

Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

410

Disruption of the microtubule network alters cellulose deposition and causes major changes in pectin distribution in the cell wall of the green alga, Penium margaritaceum  

PubMed Central

Application of the dintroaniline compound, oryzalin, which inhibits microtubule formation, to the unicellular green alga Penium margaritaceum caused major perturbations to its cell morphology, such as swelling at the wall expansion zone in the central isthmus region. Cell wall structure was also notably altered, including a thinning of the inner cellulosic wall layer and a major disruption of the homogalacturonan (HG)-rich outer wall layer lattice. Polysaccharide microarray analysis indicated that the oryzalin treatment resulted in an increase in HG abundance in treated cells but a decrease in other cell wall components, specifically the pectin rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) and arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs). The ring of microtubules that characterizes the cortical area of the cell isthmus zone was significantly disrupted by oryzalin, as was the extensive perip