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Sample records for green algae diatoms

  1. Recovery of photosynthesis and growth rate in green, blue-green, and diatom algae after exposure to atrazine.

    PubMed

    Brain, Richard A; Arnie, Joshua R; Porch, John R; Hosmer, Alan J

    2012-11-01

    We evaluated the recovery of photosynthesis and growth rate in green (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), blue-green (Anabaena flos-aquae), and diatom (Navicula pelliculosa) algae after pulsed exposure to atrazine. Subsequent to a grow-up period of 24 to 72 h to establish requisite cell density for adequate signal strength to measure photosystem II (PSII) quantum yield, algae were exposed to a pulse of atrazine for 48 h followed by a 48-h recovery period in control media. Photosynthesis was measured at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h of the exposure and recovery phases using pulse amplitude modulation fluorometry; growth rate and cell density were also concomitantly measured at these time points. Exposure to atrazine resulted in immediate, but temporary, inhibition of photosynthesis and growth; however, these effects were transient and fully reversible in the tested species of algae. For all three algal species, no statistically significant reductions (p ? 0.05) in growth rate or PSII quantum yield were detected at any of the treatment concentrations 48 h after atrazine was removed from the test system. Effects at test levels up to the highest tested exposure levels were consequently determined to be algistatic (reversible). Both biochemically and physiologically, recovery of photosynthesis and growth rate occur immediately, reaching control levels within hours following exposure. Therefore, pulsed exposure profiles of atrazine typically measured in Midwestern U.S. streams are unlikely to result in biologically meaningful changes in primary production given that the effects of atrazine are temporary and fully reversible in species representative of native populations. PMID:22903862

  2. The influence of extracellular compounds produced by selected Baltic cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates on growth of green algae Chlorella vulgaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żak, Adam; Kosakowska, Alicja

    2015-12-01

    Secondary metabolites produced by bacteria, fungi, algae and plants could affect the growth and development of biological and agricultural systems. This natural process that occurs worldwide is known as allelopathy. The main goal of this work was to investigate the influence of metabolites obtained from phytoplankton monocultures on the growth of green algae Chlorella vulgaris. We selected 6 species occurring in the Baltic Sea from 3 different taxonomic groups: cyanobacteria (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae; Planktothrix agardhii), diatoms (Thalassiosira pseudonana; Chaetoceros wighamii) and dinoflagellates (Alexandrium ostenfeldii; Prorocentrum minimum). In this study we have demonstrated that some of selected organisms caused allelopathic effects against microalgae. Both the negative and positive effects of collected cell-free filtrates on C. vulgaris growth, chlorophyll a concentration and fluorescence parameters (OJIP, QY, NPQ) have been observed. No evidence has been found for the impact on morphology and viability of C. vulgaris cells.

  3. A comparison of the character of algal extracellular versus cellular organic matter produced by cyanobacterium, diatom and green alga.

    PubMed

    Pivokonsky, Martin; Safarikova, Jana; Baresova, Magdalena; Pivokonska, Lenka; Kopecka, Ivana

    2014-03-15

    This study investigated characteristics of algal organic matter (AOM) derived from three species (cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa, diatom Fragilaria crotonensis and green alga Chlamydomonas geitleri) which dominate phytoplanktonic populations in reservoirs supplying drinking water treatment plants. Algal growth was monitored by cell counting, optical density and dissolved organic carbon concentration measurements. Extracellular organic matter (EOM) released at exponential and stationary growth phases and cellular organic matter (COM) were characterised in terms of specific UV absorbance (SUVA), peptide/protein and non-peptide content, hydrophobicity and molecular weight (MW). It was found that both EOM and COM were predominantly hydrophilic with low SUVA. COM was richer in peptides/proteins, more hydrophilic (with about 89% of hydrophilic fraction for all three species) and had lower SUVA than EOM. MW fractionation showed that both EOM and COM of all three species contain large portions of low-MW (<1kDa) compounds and high-MW (>100kDa) polysaccharides. Peptides/proteins exhibited narrower MW distribution than non-peptide fraction and it widened as the cultures grew. The highest amount of peptides/proteins with a significant portion of high-MW ones (22%) was observed in COM of M. aeruginosa. The results imply that the knowledge of AOM composition and characteristics predetermine which processes would be effective in the treatment of AOM laden water. PMID:24388829

  4. Blue-green algae

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Blue-green algae might slow blood clotting. Taking blue-green algae along with medications that ...

  5. The Response of Diatom Central Carbon Metabolism to Nitrogen Starvation Is Different from That of Green Algae and Higher Plants1[W

    PubMed Central

    Hockin, Nicola Louise; Mock, Thomas; Mulholland, Francis; Kopriva, Stanislav; Malin, Gill

    2012-01-01

    The availability of nitrogen varies greatly in the ocean and limits primary productivity over large areas. Diatoms, a group of phytoplankton that are responsible for about 20% of global carbon fixation, respond rapidly to influxes of nitrate and are highly successful in upwelling regions. Although recent diatom genome projects have highlighted clues to the success of this group, very little is known about their adaptive response to changing environmental conditions. Here, we compare the proteome of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana (CCMP 1335) at the onset of nitrogen starvation with that of nitrogen-replete cells using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In total, 3,310 protein spots were distinguishable, and we identified 42 proteins increasing and 23 decreasing in abundance (greater than 1.5-fold change; P < 0.005). Proteins involved in the metabolism of nitrogen, amino acids, proteins, and carbohydrates, photosynthesis, and chlorophyll biosynthesis were represented. Comparison of our proteomics data with the transcriptome response of this species under similar growth conditions showed good correlation and provided insight into different levels of response. The T. pseudonana response to nitrogen starvation was also compared with that of the higher plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus. We have found that the response of diatom carbon metabolism to nitrogen starvation is different from that of other photosynthetic eukaryotes and bears closer resemblance to the response of cyanobacteria. PMID:22065419

  6. Evaluation of disinfection by-product formation potential (DBPFP) during chlorination of two algae species--Blue-green Microcystis aeruginosa and diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaobin; Liu, Jinjin; Yang, Mingli; Ma, Hongfang; Yuan, Baoling; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-11-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa (blue-green alga) commonly blooms in summer and Cyclotella meneghiniana (diatom) outbreaks in fall in the reservoirs that serve as drinking water sources in Southeast China. Herein, an evaluation of disinfection by-product formation potential (DBPFP) from them during chlorination should be conducted. Five DBPs including trichloromethane (TCM), trichloronitromethane (TCNM), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), 1,1-dichloropropanone (1,1-DCP) and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone (1,1,1-TCP) were monitored. The formation potential of TCM and TCNM was enhanced with the increase of reaction time and chlorine dosage, whereas that of DCAN, 1,1-DCP and 1,1,1-TCP increased first and then fell with continuing reaction time. M. aeruginosa showed higher DBPFP than C. meneghiniana, the yield of DBPs varied with components of algal cells. The DBPFP order from components of M. aeruginosa was cell suspension (CS) ? intracellular organic matter (IOM) > extracellular organic matter (EOM) > cell debris (CD), which indicated that IOM was the main DBP precursors for M. aeruginosa. The yields of DBPs from components of C. meneghiniana were in the order of CS>IOM? CD ? EOM, suggesting that three components made similar contributions to the total DBP formation. The amount of IOM with higher DBPFP leaked from both algae species increased with the chlorine dosage, indicating that chlorine dosage should be considered carefully in the treatment of eutrophic water for less destroying of the cell integrity. Though fluorescence substances contained in both algae species varied significantly, the soluble microbial products (SMPs) and aromatic protein-like substances were the main cellular components that contributed to DBP formation for both algae. PMID:26100733

  7. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic green algae.

    PubMed

    Ghirardi, Maria L

    2006-08-01

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria, green algae and diatoms are capable of absorbing light and storing up to 10-13% of its energy into the H-H bond of hydrogen gas. This process, which takes advantage of the photosynthetic apparatus of these organisms to convert sunlight into chemical energy, could conceivably be harnessed for production of significant amounts of energy from a renewable resource, water. The harnessed energy could then be coupled to a fuel cell for electricity generation and recycling of water molecules. In this review, current biochemical understanding of this reaction in green algae, and some of the major challenges facing the development of future commercial algal photobiological systems for H2 production have been discussed. PMID:17133763

  8. Diatoms

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Diatoms are algae that reflect the biotic condition of streams, lakes and estuaries. Diatoms are important indicator organisms because they are sensitive to natural and human impacts, and monitoring their condition provides information about ecosystem health....

  9. Biomimetic Photonic Crystals based on Diatom Algae Frustules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishler, Jonathan; Alverson, Andrew; Herzog, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    Diatom algae are unicellular, photosynthetic microorganisms with a unique external shell known as a frustule. Frustules, which are composed of amorphous silica, exhibit a unique periodic nano-patterning, distinguishing diatoms from other types of phytoplankton. Diatoms have been studied for their distinctive optical properties due to their resemblance of photonic crystals. In this regard, diatoms are not only considered for their applications as photonic crystals, but also for their use as biomimetic templates for artificially fabricated photonic crystals. Through the examination and measurement of the physical characteristics of many scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of diatom frustules, a biomimetic photonic crystal derived from diatom frustules can be recreated and modeled with the finite element method. In this approach, the average geometries of the diatom frustules are used to recreate a 2-dimensional photonic crystal, after which the electric field distribution and optical transmission through the photonic crystal are both measured. The optical transmission is then compared to the transmission spectra of a regular hexagonal photonic crystal, revealing the effects of diatom geometry on their optical properties. Finally, the dimensions of the photonic crystal are parametrically swept, allowing for further control over the transmission of light through the photonic crystal.

  10. Green Alga (Chlamydomonas reinhardtii).

    PubMed

    Rajam, Manchikatla V; Kumar, S Vinod

    2006-01-01

    This protocol describes the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated nuclear transformation of a microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, using a gene construct carrying the genes coding for beta-glucuronidase (gus), green fluorescent protein (gfp), and hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt). The transformation frequency with this protocol as revealed by hygromycin resistance was many fold higher (about 50-fold) than that of the commonly used glass bead method of transformation. The simplicity of Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer and the high transformation frequency as well as the precision of T-DNA integration will enable further molecular dissection of this important model organism as well as other algal systems to understand basic plant metabolic processes as well as to exploit the systems for biotechnological applications. PMID:17033083

  11. Red and Green Algal Origin of Diatom Membrane Transporters: Insights into Environmental Adaptation and Cell Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cheong Xin; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2011-01-01

    Membrane transporters (MTs) facilitate the movement of molecules between cellular compartments. The evolutionary history of these key components of eukaryote genomes remains unclear. Many photosynthetic microbial eukaryotes (e.g., diatoms, haptophytes, and dinoflagellates) appear to have undergone serial endosymbiosis and thereby recruited foreign genes through endosymbiotic/horizontal gene transfer (E/HGT). Here we used the diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum as models to examine the evolutionary origin of MTs in this important group of marine primary producers. Using phylogenomics, we used 1,014 diatom MTs as query against a broadly sampled protein sequence database that includes novel genome data from the mesophilic red algae Porphyridium cruentum and Calliarthron tuberculosum, and the stramenopile Ectocarpus siliculosus. Our conservative approach resulted in 879 maximum likelihood trees of which 399 genes show a non-lineal history between diatoms and other eukaryotes and prokaryotes (at the bootstrap value ≥70%). Of the eukaryote-derived MTs, 172 (ca. 25% of 697 examined phylogenies) have members of both red/green algae as sister groups, with 103 putatively arising from green algae, 19 from red algae, and 50 have an unresolved affiliation to red and/or green algae. We used topology tests to analyze the most convincing cases of non-lineal gene history in which red and/or green algae were nested within stramenopiles. This analysis showed that ca. 6% of all trees (our most conservative estimate) support an algal origin of MTs in stramenopiles with the majority derived from green algae. Our findings demonstrate the complex evolutionary history of photosynthetic eukaryotes and indicate a reticulate origin of MT genes in diatoms. We postulate that the algal-derived MTs acquired via E/HGT provided diatoms and other related microbial eukaryotes the ability to persist under conditions of fluctuating ocean chemistry, likely contributing to their great success in marine environments. PMID:22195008

  12. Red and green algal origin of diatom membrane transporters: insights into environmental adaptation and cell evolution.

    PubMed

    Chan, Cheong Xin; Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2011-01-01

    Membrane transporters (MTs) facilitate the movement of molecules between cellular compartments. The evolutionary history of these key components of eukaryote genomes remains unclear. Many photosynthetic microbial eukaryotes (e.g., diatoms, haptophytes, and dinoflagellates) appear to have undergone serial endosymbiosis and thereby recruited foreign genes through endosymbiotic/horizontal gene transfer (E/HGT). Here we used the diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum as models to examine the evolutionary origin of MTs in this important group of marine primary producers. Using phylogenomics, we used 1,014 diatom MTs as query against a broadly sampled protein sequence database that includes novel genome data from the mesophilic red algae Porphyridium cruentum and Calliarthron tuberculosum, and the stramenopile Ectocarpus siliculosus. Our conservative approach resulted in 879 maximum likelihood trees of which 399 genes show a non-lineal history between diatoms and other eukaryotes and prokaryotes (at the bootstrap value ?70%). Of the eukaryote-derived MTs, 172 (ca. 25% of 697 examined phylogenies) have members of both red/green algae as sister groups, with 103 putatively arising from green algae, 19 from red algae, and 50 have an unresolved affiliation to red and/or green algae. We used topology tests to analyze the most convincing cases of non-lineal gene history in which red and/or green algae were nested within stramenopiles. This analysis showed that ca. 6% of all trees (our most conservative estimate) support an algal origin of MTs in stramenopiles with the majority derived from green algae. Our findings demonstrate the complex evolutionary history of photosynthetic eukaryotes and indicate a reticulate origin of MT genes in diatoms. We postulate that the algal-derived MTs acquired via E/HGT provided diatoms and other related microbial eukaryotes the ability to persist under conditions of fluctuating ocean chemistry, likely contributing to their great success in marine environments. PMID:22195008

  13. Use of biofuel by-product from the green algae Desmochloris sp. and diatom Nanofrustulum sp. meal in diets for nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Algal by-product meals from the Hawaiian biofuels industry were evaluated as protein ingredients in diets for juveniles of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 40% protein and were made with fish meal, soybean meal, whole diatom (Nanofrustulum sp.)...

  14. Diatoms

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Diatoms are algae that reflect the biotic condition of streams, lakes and estuaries. Diatoms are important indicator organisms because they are sensitive to natural and human impacts, and monitoring their condition provides information about ecosystem health. Diatoms can live in permanently ice-cove...

  15. How-to-Do-It: Diatoms: The Ignored Alga in High School Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, James J.

    1988-01-01

    Provides historical background, descriptions, uses and basis for identification of diatoms. Explains collection, dry-mount cleaning, and preparation procedures of the algae. Cites additional resources. (RT)

  16. PPR proteins of green algae.

    PubMed

    Tourasse, Nicolas J; Choquet, Yves; Vallon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Using the repeat finding algorithm FT-Rep, we have identified 154 pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins in nine fully sequenced genomes from green algae (with a total of 1201 repeats) and grouped them in 47 orthologous groups. All data are available in a database, PPRdb, accessible online at http://giavap-genomes.ibpc.fr/ppr. Based on phylogenetic trees generated from the repeats, we propose evolutionary scenarios for PPR proteins. Two PPRs are clearly conserved in the entire green lineage: MRL1 is a stabilization factor for the rbcL mRNA, while HCF152 binds in plants to the psbH-petB intergenic region. MCA1 (the stabilization factor for petA) and PPR7 (a short PPR also acting on chloroplast mRNAs) are conserved across the entire Chlorophyta. The other PPRs are clade-specific, with evidence for gene losses, duplications, and horizontal transfer. In some PPR proteins, an additional domain found at the C terminus provides clues as to possible functions. PPR19 and PPR26 possess a methyltransferase_4 domain suggesting involvement in RNA guanosine methylation. PPR18 contains a C-terminal CBS domain, similar to the CBSPPR1 protein found in nucleoids. PPR16, PPR29, PPR37, and PPR38 harbor a SmR (MutS-related) domain similar to that found in land plants pTAC2, GUN1, and SVR7. The PPR-cyclins PPR3, PPR4, and PPR6, in addition, contain a cyclin domain C-terminal to their SmR domain. PPR31 is an unusual PPR-cyclin containing at its N terminus an OctotricoPeptide Repeat (OPR) and a RAP domain. We consider the possibility that PPR proteins with a SmR domain can introduce single-stranded nicks in the plastid chromosome. PMID:24021981

  17. Diatoms

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Diatoms are algae that reflect the biotic condition of streams, lakes and estuaries. Diatoms are important indicator organisms because they are sensitive to natural and human impacts, and monitoring their condition provides information about ecosystem health. A scanning electron micrograph (SEM) sho...

  18. Diatoms

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Diatoms are algae that reflect the biotic condition of streams, lakes and estuaries. Diatoms are important indicator organisms because they are sensitive to natural and human impacts, and monitoring their condition provides information about ecosystem health. A large, living Pleurosira laevis cell h...

  19. Diatoms

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Diatoms are algae that reflect the biotic condition of streams, lakes and estuaries. Diatoms are important indicator organisms because they are sensitive to natural and human impacts, and monitoring their condition provides information about ecosystem health. Shown here is a live cell of Didymosphen...

  20. Photooxidative death in blue-green algae.

    PubMed

    Abeliovich, A; Shilo, M

    1972-09-01

    When incubated in the light under 100% oxygen, wild-type blue-green algae (Anacystis nidulans, Synechococcus cedrorum) die out rapidly at temperatures of 4 to 15 C, and at 35 C (or at 26 C in the case of S. cedrorum) in the absence of CO(2). Photosynthesis is impaired in these cells long before they die. Blocking of photosystem II at high temperatures in the presence of CO(2) sensitizes the algae to photooxidative death. Photooxidative death and bleaching of photosynthetic pigments are separable phenomena. Photooxidative conditions were demonstrated in Israeli fish ponds using A. nidulans as the test organism during dense summer blooms, when dissolved CO(2) is low, and in winter, when water temperatures generally drop below 15 C. This finding suggests that photooxidative death may be responsible for the sudden decomposition of blue-green blooms in summer, and may be a factor in the absence of blue-green blooms in winter. PMID:4626540

  1. Heterotrimeric G-proteins in green algae

    PubMed Central

    Hackenberg, Dieter; Pandey, Sona

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins (G-proteins, hereafter) are important signaling components in all eukaryotes. The absence of these proteins in the sequenced genomes of Chlorophycean green algae has raised questions about their evolutionary origin and prevalence in the plant lineage. The existence of G-proteins has often been correlated with the acquisition of embryophytic life-cycle and/or terrestrial habitats of plants which occurred around 450 million years ago. Our discovery of functional G-proteins in Chara braunii, a representative of the Charophycean green algae, establishes the existence of this conserved signaling pathway in the most basal plants and dates it even further back to 1–1.5 billion years ago. We have now identified the sequence homologs of G-proteins in additional algal families and propose that green algae represent a model system for one of the most basal forms of G-protein signaling known to exist to date. Given the possible differences that exist between plant and metazoan G-protein signaling mechanisms, such basal organisms will serve as important resources to trace the evolutionary origin of proposed mechanistic differences between the systems as well as their plant-specific functions. PMID:24614119

  2. [Allelopathic effect of artemisinin on green algae].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ye-Kuan; Yuan, Ling; Huang, Jian-Guo; Li, Long-Yun

    2013-05-01

    To study the growth effects of differing concentrations of artemisinin on green algae and to evaluate the ecological risk. The effects of artemisinin on the growth and the content change of chlorophyll, protein, oxygen, conductivity, SOD, CAT, MDA in Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus oblique were studied through 96 h toxicity tests. Artemisinin accelerated the growth of algae at a lower concentration ( <40 microg . L-1) with content increase of chlorophyll or protein and so on, and it inhibited the growth of algae at higher concentration ( >80 microg . L-1). The content of chlorophyll or protein in algae cells reduced with the increasing concentration of artemisinin, exhibiting the good concentration-effect relationship. SOD and CAT activity was stimulated at low concentrations ( <40 microg . L-1 ) and inhibited at high concentrations ( >80 microg . L- 1). However, MDA content increased significantly with the increase of concentration. According to the seven kinds of indicators changes, the time-response and dose-response suggested that the surfactant first hurt in Ch. pyrenoidosa was damaging membrane by changing membrane lipid molecules soluble. And primary mechanism on Chlorophyta cells might be related to the oxidation damage of lipid and other biological large molecules caused by artemisinin. The large-scale intensive planting of Artemisia annua may reduce the surrounding water productivity. PMID:23944067

  3. Chloroplast Phylogenomic Inference of Green Algae Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Linhua; Fang, Ling; Zhang, Zhenhua; Chang, Xin; Penny, David; Zhong, Bojian

    2016-01-01

    The green algal phylum Chlorophyta has six diverse classes, but the phylogenetic relationship of the classes within Chlorophyta remains uncertain. In order to better understand the ancient Chlorophyta evolution, we have applied a site pattern sorting method to study compositional heterogeneity and the model fit in the green algal chloroplast genomic data. We show that the fastest-evolving sites are significantly correlated with among-site compositional heterogeneity, and these sites have a much poorer fit to the evolutionary model. Our phylogenomic analyses suggest that the class Chlorophyceae is a monophyletic group, and the classes Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Prasinophyceae are non-monophyletic groups. Our proposed phylogenetic tree of Chlorophyta will offer new insights to investigate ancient green algae evolution, and our analytical framework will provide a useful approach for evaluating and mitigating the potential errors of phylogenomic inferences. PMID:26846729

  4. Chloroplast Phylogenomic Inference of Green Algae Relationships.

    PubMed

    Sun, Linhua; Fang, Ling; Zhang, Zhenhua; Chang, Xin; Penny, David; Zhong, Bojian

    2016-01-01

    The green algal phylum Chlorophyta has six diverse classes, but the phylogenetic relationship of the classes within Chlorophyta remains uncertain. In order to better understand the ancient Chlorophyta evolution, we have applied a site pattern sorting method to study compositional heterogeneity and the model fit in the green algal chloroplast genomic data. We show that the fastest-evolving sites are significantly correlated with among-site compositional heterogeneity, and these sites have a much poorer fit to the evolutionary model. Our phylogenomic analyses suggest that the class Chlorophyceae is a monophyletic group, and the classes Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae and Prasinophyceae are non-monophyletic groups. Our proposed phylogenetic tree of Chlorophyta will offer new insights to investigate ancient green algae evolution, and our analytical framework will provide a useful approach for evaluating and mitigating the potential errors of phylogenomic inferences. PMID:26846729

  5. Steroids from green alga Chaetomorpha basiretorsa Setchell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Dayong; Fan, Xiao; Sun, Jie; Han, Lijun; Shi, Jiangong

    2008-11-01

    Six steroids have been isolated from ethanolic extract of green alga Chaetomorpha basiretorsa Setchell by a combination of repeated normal phase silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 gel column chromatography as well as recrystallization. Using spectroscopic methods including MS and NMR, their structures were determined as β-lawsaritol (1), saringosterol (2), 24-hydroperoxy-24-vinyl-cholesterol (3), β-stigmasterol (4), stigmast-4-en-3α, 6β-diol (5), 29-hydroxystigmasta-5, 24 (28)-dien-3β-ol (6). All these compounds were obtained from this genus for the first time and they were inactive (IC50>10 μg /ml) against KB, Bel-7402, PC-3M, Ketr 3 and MCF-7 cell lines.

  6. Photosystem I reduction in diatoms: as complex as the green lineage systems but less efficient.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Bayard, Pilar; Molina-Heredia, Fernando P; Hervs, Manuel; Navarro, Jos A

    2013-12-01

    Diatoms occupy a key branch in the evolutionary tree of oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms. Here, the electron transfer reaction mechanism from cytochrome c? to photosystem I from the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has been analyzed by laser-flash absorption spectroscopy. Kinetic traces of photosystem I reduction fit to biphasic curves, the analysis of the observed rate constants indicating that electron transfer occurs in a cytochrome c?/photosystem I transient complex, which undergoes a reorganization process from the initial encounter complex to the optimized final configuration. The mild ionic strength dependence of the rate constants makes evident the relatively weak electrostatically attractive nature of the interaction. Taken together, these results indicate that the "red" Phaeodactylum system is less efficient than "green" systems, both in the formation of the properly arranged (cytochrome c?/photosystem I) complex and in the electron transfer itself. The results obtained from cross-reactions with cytochrome c? and photosystem I from cyanobacteria, green algae, and plants shed light on the different evolutionary pathway of the electron transfer to photosystem I in diatoms with regard to the way that it evolved in higher plants. PMID:24180741

  7. Diatom/copepod interactions in plankton: the indirect chemical defense of unicellular algae.

    PubMed

    Pohnert, Georg

    2005-06-01

    Numerous coexisting species can be observed in the open oceans. This includes the complex community of the plankton, which comprises all free floating organisms in the sea. Traditionally, nutrient limitation, competition, predation, and abiotic factors have been assumed to shape the community structure in this environment. Only in recent years has the idea arisen that chemical signals and chemical defense can influence species interactions in the plankton as well. Key players at the base of the marine food web are diatoms (unicellular algae with silicified cell walls) and their main predators, the herbivorous copepods. It was assumed that diatoms represent a generally good food source for the grazers but recent work indicates that some species use chemical defenses. Secondary metabolites, released by these algae immediately after wounding, are targeted not against the predators themselves but rather at interfering with their reproductive success. This strategy allows diatoms to reduce the grazer population, thereby influencing the marine food web. This review addresses the chemical ecology of the defensive oxylipins formed by diatoms and the question of how these metabolites can act in such a dilute environment. Aspects of biosynthesis, bioassays, and the possible implications of such a chemical defense for the plankton community structure are also discussed. PMID:15883976

  8. Viable green algae and cyanobacteria within terrestrial permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A.; Vorobyova, Elena A.; Gilichinsky, David A.

    2002-11-01

    Viable permafrost algae have preserved their morphological characteristics and photosynthetic apparatus for the longest documented period of time on Earth. Unicellular green algae of the order Chlorococcales and filamentous cyanobacteria of the orders Oscillatoriales and Nostocales were isolated from deep subsurface permafrost sediments. Both were discovered within Siberian permafrost from the Holocene up to the Early Pleistocene age. However, green algae were found to be predominant and also able to survive inside colder Antarctic sediments. These findings will have an important impact on astrobiology and the study of organisms that exist in extreme environments.

  9. Green Autofluorescence in Dinoflagellates, Diatoms, and Other Microalgae and Its Implications for Vital Staining and Morphological Studies?

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ying Zhong; Dobbs, Fred C.

    2007-01-01

    Green autofluorescence (GAF) has been described in the short flagellum of golden and brown algae, the stigma of Euglenophyceae, and cytoplasm of different life stages of dinoflagellates and is considered by some researchers a valuable taxonomic feature for dinoflagellates. In addition, green fluorescence staining has been widely proposed or adopted to measure cell viability (or physiological state) in areas such as apoptosis of phytoplankton, pollutant stresses on algae, metabolic activity of algae, and testing treatment technologies for ships' ballast water. This paper reports our epifluorescence microscopic observations and quantitative spectrometric measurements of GAF in a broad phylogenetic range of microalgae. Our results demonstrate GAF is a common feature of dinoflagellates, diatoms, green algae, cyanobacteria, and raphidophytes, occurs in the cytoplasm and particularly in eyespots, accumulation bodies, spines, and aerotopes, and is caused by molecules other than chlorophyll. GAF intensity increased with time after cell death or fixation and with excitation by blue or UV light and was affected by pH. GAF of microalgae may be only of limited value in taxonomy. It can be strong enough to interfere with the results of green fluorescence staining, particularly when stained samples are observed microscopically. GAF is useful, however, for microscopic study of algal morphology, especially to visualize cellular components such as eyespots, nucleus, aerotopes, spines, and chloroplasts. Furthermore, GAF can be used to visualize and enumerate dinoflagellate cysts in marine and estuarine sediments in the context of anticipating and monitoring harmful algal blooms and in tracking potentially harmful dinoflagellates transported in ships' ballast tanks. PMID:17277199

  10. Plastid proteome prediction for diatoms and other algae with secondary plastids of the red lineage

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Ansgar; Rocap, Gabrielle; Kroth, Peter G; Armbrust, E Virginia; Mock, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The plastids of ecologically and economically important algae from phyla such as stramenopiles, dinoflagellates and cryptophytes were acquired via a secondary endosymbiosis and are surrounded by three or four membranes. Nuclear-encoded plastid-localized proteins contain N-terminal bipartite targeting peptides with the conserved amino acid sequence motif ASAFAP. Here we identify the plastid proteomes of two diatoms, Thalassiosirapseudonana and Phaeodactylumtricornutum, using a customized prediction tool (ASAFind) that identifies nuclear-encoded plastid proteins in algae with secondary plastids of the red lineage based on the output of SignalP and the identification of conserved ASAFAP motifs and transit peptides. We tested ASAFind against a large reference dataset of diatom proteins with experimentally confirmed subcellular localization and found that the tool accurately identified plastid-localized proteins with both high sensitivity and high specificity. To identify nucleus-encoded plastid proteins of T.pseudonana and P.tricornutum we generated optimized sets of gene models for both whole genomes, to increase the percentage of full-length proteins compared with previous assembly model sets. ASAFind applied to these optimized sets revealed that about 8% of the proteins encoded in their nuclear genomes were predicted to be plastid localized and therefore represent the putative plastid proteomes of these algae. PMID:25438865

  11. Plastid proteome prediction for diatoms and other algae with secondary plastids of the red lineage.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Ansgar; Rocap, Gabrielle; Kroth, Peter G; Armbrust, E Virginia; Mock, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    The plastids of ecologically and economically important algae from phyla such as stramenopiles, dinoflagellates and cryptophytes were acquired via a secondary endosymbiosis and are surrounded by three or four membranes. Nuclear-encoded plastid-localized proteins contain N-terminal bipartite targeting peptides with the conserved amino acid sequence motif 'ASAFAP'. Here we identify the plastid proteomes of two diatoms, Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, using a customized prediction tool (ASAFind) that identifies nuclear-encoded plastid proteins in algae with secondary plastids of the red lineage based on the output of SignalP and the identification of conserved 'ASAFAP' motifs and transit peptides. We tested ASAFind against a large reference dataset of diatom proteins with experimentally confirmed subcellular localization and found that the tool accurately identified plastid-localized proteins with both high sensitivity and high specificity. To identify nucleus-encoded plastid proteins of T. pseudonana and P. tricornutum we generated optimized sets of gene models for both whole genomes, to increase the percentage of full-length proteins compared with previous assembly model sets. ASAFind applied to these optimized sets revealed that about 8% of the proteins encoded in their nuclear genomes were predicted to be plastid localized and therefore represent the putative plastid proteomes of these algae. PMID:25438865

  12. Chemical composition of the green alga Codium Divaricatum Holmes.

    PubMed

    He, Zhizhou; Zhang, Anjiang; Ding, Lisheng; Lei, Xinxiang; Sun, Jianzhang; Zhang, Lixue

    2010-12-01

    A new sterol, 24-R-stigmasta-4,25-diene-3?,6?-diol (1), along with three known compounds (2-3), was isolated from the green alga Codium divaricatum Holmes, a traditional Chinese medicine, which is efficacious against cancer. All structures were determined by spectroscopic methods and comparison with related known compounds. Single-crystal X-ray crystallography allowed us to confirm the structure of 1. To our knowledge, the compound 1 is reported as the first from natural source, and compounds 2, 4 have not been isolated from green algae before. PMID:20655992

  13. Development of Green Fuels From Algae - The University of Tulsa

    SciTech Connect

    Crunkleton, Daniel; Price, Geoffrey; Johannes, Tyler; Cremaschi, Selen

    2012-12-03

    The general public has become increasingly aware of the pitfalls encountered with the continued reliance on fossil fuels in the industrialized world. In response, the scientific community is in the process of developing non-fossil fuel technologies that can supply adequate energy while also being environmentally friendly. In this project, we concentrate on “green fuels” which we define as those capable of being produced from renewable and sustainable resources in a way that is compatible with the current transportation fuel infrastructure. One route to green fuels that has received relatively little attention begins with algae as a feedstock. Algae are a diverse group of aquatic, photosynthetic organisms, generally categorized as either macroalgae (i.e. seaweed) or microalgae. Microalgae constitute a spectacularly diverse group of prokaryotic and eukaryotic unicellular organisms and account for approximately 50% of global organic carbon fixation. The PI’s have subdivided the proposed research program into three main research areas, all of which are essential to the development of commercially viable algae fuels compatible with current energy infrastructure. In the fuel development focus, catalytic cracking reactions of algae oils is optimized. In the species development project, genetic engineering is used to create microalgae strains that are capable of high-level hydrocarbon production. For the modeling effort, the construction of multi-scaled models of algae production was prioritized, including integrating small-scale hydrodynamic models of algae production and reactor design and large-scale design optimization models.

  14. Photosynthetic H2 metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular green algae).

    PubMed

    Melis, Anastasios

    2007-10-01

    Unicellular green algae have the ability to operate in two distinctly different environments (aerobic and anaerobic), and to photosynthetically generate molecular hydrogen (H2). A recently developed metabolic protocol in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii permitted separation of photosynthetic O2-evolution and carbon accumulation from anaerobic consumption of cellular metabolites and concomitant photosynthetic H2-evolution. The H2 evolution process was induced upon sulfate nutrient deprivation of the cells, which reversibly inhibits photosystem-II and O2-evolution in their chloroplast. In the absence of O2, and in order to generate ATP, green algae resorted to anaerobic photosynthetic metabolism, evolved H2 in the light and consumed endogenous substrate. This study summarizes recent advances on green algal hydrogen metabolism and discusses avenues of research for the further development of this method. Included is the mechanism of a substantial tenfold starch accumulation in the cells, observed promptly upon S-deprivation, and the regulated starch and protein catabolism during the subsequent H2-evolution. Also discussed is the function of a chloroplast envelope-localized sulfate permease, and the photosynthesis-respiration relationship in green algae as potential tools by which to stabilize and enhance H2 metabolism. In addition to potential practical applications of H2, approaches discussed in this work are beginning to address the biochemistry of anaerobic H2 photoproduction, its genes, proteins, regulation, and communication with other metabolic pathways in microalgae. Photosynthetic H2 production by green algae may hold the promise of generating a renewable fuel from nature's most plentiful resources, sunlight and water. The process potentially concerns global warming and the question of energy supply and demand. PMID:17721788

  15. A green Paramecium strain with abnormal growth of symbiotic algae.

    PubMed

    Irie, Kanami; Furukawa, Shunsuke; Kadono, Takashi; Kawano, Tomonori

    2010-01-01

    Some hundred cells of Chlorella-like green algae are naturally enclosed within the cytoplasm of a single cell of green paramecia (Paramecium bursaria). Therefore, P. bursaria serves as an experimental model for studying the nature of endo-symbiosis made up through chemical communication between the symbiotic partners. For studying the mechanism of symbiotic regulations, the materials showing successful symbiosis are widely used. Apart from such successful model materials, some models for symbiotic distortion would be of great interest in order to understand the nature of successful symbiosis. Here, we describe a case of unsuccessful symbiosis causing unregulated growth of algae inside the hosting ciliates. Recently, we have screened some cell lines, from the mass of P. bursaria cells survived after paraquat treatment. The resultant cell lines (designated as KMZ series) show novel and unusual morphological features with heavily darker green colour distinguishable from the original pale green-coloured paramecia. In this type of isolates, endo-symbiotic algae are restricted within one or two dense spherical structures located at the center of the host cells' cytoplasm. Interestingly, this isolate maintains the host cells' circadian mating response which is known as an alga-dependent behaviour in the host cells. In contrast, we discuss that KMZ lacks the host-dependent regulation of algal growth, thus the algal complex often over-grows obviously exceeding the original size of the normal hosting ciliates. Additionally, possible use of this isolate as a novel model for symbiotic cell-to-cell communication is discussed. PMID:21319710

  16. Fatty acid amides from freshwater green alga Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum.

    PubMed

    Dembitsky, V M; Shkrob, I; Rozentsvet, O A

    2000-08-01

    Freshwater green algae Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum growing in the Ural Mountains were examined for their fatty acid amides using capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eight fatty acid amides were identified by GC-MS. (Z)-9-octadecenamide was found to be the major component (2.26%). PMID:11014298

  17. Oleosin of subcellular lipid droplets evolved in green algae.

    PubMed

    Huang, Nan-Lan; Huang, Ming-Der; Chen, Tung-Ling L; Huang, Anthony H C

    2013-04-01

    In primitive and higher plants, intracellular storage lipid droplets (LDs) of triacylglycerols are stabilized with a surface layer of phospholipids and oleosin. In chlorophytes (green algae), a protein termed major lipid-droplet protein (MLDP) rather than oleosin on LDs was recently reported. We explored whether MLDP was present directly on algal LDs and whether algae had oleosin genes and oleosins. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that MLDP in the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was associated with endoplasmic reticulum subdomains adjacent to but not directly on LDs. In C. reinhardtii, low levels of a transcript encoding an oleosin-like protein (oleolike) in zygotes-tetrads and a transcript encoding oleosin in vegetative cells transferred to an acetate-enriched medium were found in transcriptomes and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The C. reinhardtii LD fraction contained minimal proteins with no detectable oleolike or oleosin. Several charophytes (advanced green algae) possessed low levels of transcripts encoding oleosin but not oleolike. In the charophyte Spirogyra grevilleana, levels of oleosin transcripts increased greatly in cells undergoing conjugation for zygote formation, and the LD fraction from these cells contained minimal proteins, two of which were oleosins identified via proteomics. Because the minimal oleolike and oleosins in algae were difficult to detect, we tested their subcellular locations in Physcomitrella patens transformed with the respective algal genes tagged with a Green Fluorescent Protein gene and localized the algal proteins on P. patens LDs. Overall, oleosin genes having weak and cell/development-specific expression were present in green algae. We present a hypothesis for the evolution of oleosins from algae to plants. PMID:23391579

  18. Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 ?m to several millimeters), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured, and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms.

  19. Green Algae as Model Organisms for Biological Fluid Dynamics*

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Raymond E.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade the volvocine green algae, spanning from the unicellular Chlamydomonas to multicellular Volvox, have emerged as model organisms for a number of problems in biological fluid dynamics. These include flagellar propulsion, nutrient uptake by swimming organisms, hydrodynamic interactions mediated by walls, collective dynamics and transport within suspensions of microswimmers, the mechanism of phototaxis, and the stochastic dynamics of flagellar synchronization. Green algae are well suited to the study of such problems because of their range of sizes (from 10 μm to several millimetres), their geometric regularity, the ease with which they can be cultured and the availability of many mutants that allow for connections between molecular details and organism-level behavior. This review summarizes these recent developments and highlights promising future directions in the study of biological fluid dynamics, especially in the context of evolutionary biology, that can take advantage of these remarkable organisms. PMID:26594068

  20. [Toxicity of Coptis chinensis Rhizome Extracts to Green Algae].

    PubMed

    Chen, Ya-nan; Yuan, Ling

    2015-05-01

    Coptis chinensis contains antiseptic alkaloids and thus its rhizomes and preparations are widely used for the treatment of.fish diseases. In order to realize the risk of water ecosystems produced by this medical herb and preparations used in aquaculture, the present experiment was carried out to study the toxicity of Coptis chinensis rhizome extract (CRE) to Scenedesmus oblique and Chlorella pyrenoidosa grown in culture solution with 0.00 (CK), 0.088 (Tl), 0.44 (T2) and 1.76 mg L(-1) (T3) of CRE, respectively. The results show that low concentration of CRE (T1) inhibited the growth rate of the alga and high CRE (T2 and T3) ceased growth and reproductions. CRE also decreased the chlorophyll and proteins in alga cells, indicating the inhibition of photosynthesis and protein biosynthesis, which could be direct reasons for the low growth rate and death of green alga. The efflux of protons and substances from alga cells led to pH reduction and conductivity increment in culture solution with CRE. Furthermore, the activity of superoxide dismutase in alga increased at the beginning of CRE in T1 and T2 treatments but decreased as time prolonged which was in contrast to high CRE treatment. And the long exposure to low CRE treatment behaved otherwise. This suggests that the low concentration of CRE could induce the resistant reactions in alga at initial time but high CRE concentration or long exposure even at low CRE concentration could inhibit the enzyme synthesis. Similarly, malondialdehyde in alga increased as CRE concentrations increased in culture solutions, implying the damage and high permeability of cell membrane. In general, Chlorella pyrenoidosa was more sensitive to CRE. The abuse of rhizomes and preparations in aquaculture and intensive cultivation of Coptis chinensis plants in a large scale might produce ecological risks to primary productivity of water ecosystems. PMID:26314112

  1. The problems of Prochloron. [evolution of green algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewin, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Prokaryotic green algae (prochlorophytes), which contain chlorophylls a and b but no bilin pigments, may be phylogenetically related to ancestral chloroplasts if symbiogenesis occurred. They may be otherwise related to eukaryotic chlorophytes. They could have evolved from cyanophytes by loss of phycobilin and gain of chlorophyll b synthesis. These possibilities are briefly discussed. Relevant evidence from biochemical studies in many collaborative laboratories is now becoming available for the resolution of such questions.

  2. Bioaccumulation and catabolism of prometryne in green algae.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhen Peng; Luo, Kai; Zhang, Shuang; Zheng, Qi; Yang, Hong

    2012-04-01

    Investigation on organic xenobiotics bioaccumulation/biodegradation in green algae is of great importance from environmental point of view because widespread distribution of these compounds in agricultural areas has become one of the major problems in aquatic ecosystem. Also, new technology needs to be developed for environmental detection and re-usage of the compounds as bioresources. Prometryne as a herbicide is widely used for killing annual grasses in China and other developing countries. However, overuse of the pesticide results in high risks to contamination to aquatic environments. In this study, we focused on analysis of bioaccumulation and degradation of prometryne in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a green alga, along with its adaptive response to prometryne toxicity. C. reinhardtii treated with prometryne at 2.5-12.5 ?g L(-1) for 4 d or 7.5 ?g L(-1) for 1-6 d accumulated a large quantity of prometryne, with more than 2 mg kg(-1) fresh weight in cells exposed to 10 ?g L(-1) prometryne. Moreover, it showed a great ability to degrade simultaneously the cell-accumulated prometryne. Such uptake and catabolism of prometryne led to the rapid removal of prometryne from media. Physiological and molecular analysis revealed that toxicology was associated with accumulation of prometryne in the cells. The biological processes of degradation can be interpreted as an internal tolerance mechanism. These results suggest that the green alga is useful in bioremediation of prometryne-contaminated aquatic ecosystems. PMID:22273183

  3. Multicellularity in green algae: upsizing in a walled complex

    PubMed Central

    Domozych, David S.; Domozych, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Modern green algae constitute a large and diverse taxonomic assemblage that encompasses many multicellular phenotypes including colonial, filamentous, and parenchymatous forms. In all multicellular green algae, each cell is surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM), most often in the form of a cell wall. Volvocalean taxa like Volvox have an elaborate, gel-like, hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein covering that contains the cells of the colony. In ulvophytes, uronic acid-rich and sulfated polysaccharides are the likely adhesion agents that maintain the multicellular habit. Charophytes also produce polysaccharide-rich cell walls and in late divergent taxa, pectin plays a critical role in cell adhesion in the multicellular complex. Cell walls are products of coordinated interaction of membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal dynamics and the cells signal transduction machinery responding both to precise internal clocks and external environmental cues. Most often, these activities must be synchronized with the secretion, deposition and remodeling of the polymers of the ECM. Rapid advances in molecular genetics, cell biology and cell wall biochemistry of green algae will soon provide new insights into the evolution and subcellular processes leading to multicellularity. PMID:25477895

  4. Intracellular invasion of green algae in a salamander host.

    PubMed

    Kerney, Ryan; Kim, Eunsoo; Hangarter, Roger P; Heiss, Aaron A; Bishop, Cory D; Hall, Brian K

    2011-04-19

    The association between embryos of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and green algae ("Oophila amblystomatis" Lamber ex Printz) has been considered an ectosymbiotic mutualism. We show here, however, that this symbiosis is more intimate than previously reported. A combination of imaging and algal 18S rDNA amplification reveals algal invasion of embryonic salamander tissues and cells during development. Algal cells are detectable from embryonic and larval Stages 26-44 through chlorophyll autofluorescence and algal 18S rDNA amplification. Algal cell ultrastructure indicates both degradation and putative encystment during the process of tissue and cellular invasion. Fewer algal cells were detected in later-stage larvae through FISH, suggesting that the decline in autofluorescent cells is primarily due to algal cell death within the host. However, early embryonic egg capsules also contained encysted algal cells on the inner capsule wall, and algal 18S rDNA was amplified from adult reproductive tracts, consistent with oviductal transmission of algae from one salamander generation to the next. The invasion of algae into salamander host tissues and cells represents a unique association between a vertebrate and a eukaryotic alga, with implications for research into cell-cell recognition, possible exchange of metabolites or DNA, and potential congruence between host and symbiont population structures. PMID:21464324

  5. Intracellular invasion of green algae in a salamander host

    PubMed Central

    Kerney, Ryan; Kim, Eunsoo; Hangarter, Roger P.; Heiss, Aaron A.; Bishop, Cory D.; Hall, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    The association between embryos of the spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) and green algae (Oophila amblystomatis Lamber ex Printz) has been considered an ectosymbiotic mutualism. We show here, however, that this symbiosis is more intimate than previously reported. A combination of imaging and algal 18S rDNA amplification reveals algal invasion of embryonic salamander tissues and cells during development. Algal cells are detectable from embryonic and larval Stages 2644 through chlorophyll autofluorescence and algal 18S rDNA amplification. Algal cell ultrastructure indicates both degradation and putative encystment during the process of tissue and cellular invasion. Fewer algal cells were detected in later-stage larvae through FISH, suggesting that the decline in autofluorescent cells is primarily due to algal cell death within the host. However, early embryonic egg capsules also contained encysted algal cells on the inner capsule wall, and algal 18S rDNA was amplified from adult reproductive tracts, consistent with oviductal transmission of algae from one salamander generation to the next. The invasion of algae into salamander host tissues and cells represents a unique association between a vertebrate and a eukaryotic alga, with implications for research into cellcell recognition, possible exchange of metabolites or DNA, and potential congruence between host and symbiont population structures. PMID:21464324

  6. The effects of graphene oxide on green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, P F M; Nakabayashi, D; Zucolotto, V

    2015-09-01

    Graphene represents a new class of nanomaterials that has attracted great interest due to its unique electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. Once disposed in the environment, graphene can interact with biological systems and is expected to exhibit toxicological effects. The ecotoxicity of graphene and its derivatives, viz.: graphene oxide (GO) depends on their physicochemical properties, including purity, diameter, length, surface charge, functionalization and aggregation state. In this study we evaluated the effects of graphene oxide (GO) on green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata. The algae were exposed to different concentrations of GO pre-equilibrated for 24h with oligotrophic freshwater medium (20ml) during incubation in a growth chamber under controlled conditions: 120?Em(-2)s(-1) illumination; 12:12h light dark cycle and constant temperature of 222C. Algal growth was monitored daily for 96h by direct cell counting. Reactive oxygen species level (ROS), membrane damage (cell viability) and autofluorescence (chl-a fluorescence) were evaluated using fluorescent staining and further analyzed by flow cytometry. The toxic effects from GO, as observed in algal density and autofluorescence, started at concentrations from 20 and 10?gmL(-1), respectively. Such toxicity is probably the result of ROS generation and membrane damage (cell viability). The shading effect caused by GO agglomeration in culture medium may also contribute to reduce algal density. The results reported here provide knowledge regarding the GO toxicity on green algae, contributing to a better understanding of its environmental behavior and impacts. PMID:26204245

  7. Hierarchical Silica Nanostructures Inspired by Diatom Algae Yield Superior Deformability, Toughness, and Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Andre P.; Sen, Dipanjan; Buehler, Markus J.

    2011-12-01

    A universal design paradigm in biology is the use of hierarchies, which is evident in the structure of proteins, cells, tissues, and organisms, as well as outside the material realm in the design of signaling networks in complex organs such as the brain. A fascinating example of a biological structure is that of diatoms, a microscopic mineralized algae that is mainly composed of amorphous silica, which features a hierarchical structure that ranges from the nano- to the macroscale. Here, we use the porous structure found at submicron length scales in diatom algae as a basis to study a bioinspired nanoporous material implemented in crystalline silica. We consider the mechanical performance of two nanoscale levels of hierarchy, studying an array of thin-walled foil silica structures and a hierarchical arrangement of foil elements into a porous silica mesh structure. By comparing their elastic, plastic, and failure mechanisms under tensile deformation, we elucidate the impact of hierarchies and the wall width of constituting silica foils on the mechanical properties, by carrying out a series of large-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with the first principles based reactive force field ReaxFF. We find that by controlling the wall width and by increasing the level of hierarchy of the nanostructure from a foil to a mesh, it is possible to significantly enhance the mechanical response of the material, creating a highly deformable, strong, and extremely tough material that can be stretched in excess of 100 pct strain, in stark contrast to the characteristic brittle performance of bulk silica. We find that concurrent mechanisms of shearing and crack arrest lead to an enhanced toughness and are enabled through the hierarchical assembly of foil elements into a mesh structure, which could not be achieved in foil structures alone. Our results demonstrate that including higher levels of hierarchy are beneficial in improving the mechanical properties and deformability of intrinsically brittle materials. The findings reported here provide insight into general material design approaches that may enable us to transform a brittle material such as silicon or silica into a ductile, yet strong and tough material, solely through alterations of its structural arrangement at the nanoscale.

  8. Green algae as a platform to express therapeutic proteins.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yang; Oyler, George A

    2009-06-01

    Proteins produced by DNA recombinant technology have been playing important roles in modern medicine ever since the first such protein drug was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration about three decades ago. However the inherent high cost of producing recombinant proteins, particularly those produced from mammalian cells, has hampered their broad application. Other protein expression systems that can reduce the cost yet still maintain the high-level therapeutic activities of the recombinant proteins are a top R&D priority. Eukaryotic unicellular green algae cells may provide a good solution to this long-standing challenge. PMID:19772839

  9. Interaction of organic solvents with the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, G.W.; Smith, T.M. )

    1988-06-01

    Solvents are often a component of bioassay systems when water-insoluble toxicants are being tested. These solvents must also be considered as xenobiotics and therefore, as potential toxicants in the bioassay. However, the effects of solvents on the organisms being tested and their possible interaction with the test compound are often overlooked by researchers. The purpose of the present study was to compare the inhibitory effects of six solvents commonly used in pesticide bioassays towards growth of the common green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa, and to examine the occurrence of solvent-pesticide interactions with this organism.

  10. Properties of a Lipoxygenase in Green Algae (Oscillatoria sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Beneytout, Jean-Louis; Andrianarison, Rivo-Hery; Rakotoarisoa, Zafisolo; Tixier, Marie

    1989-01-01

    A lipoxygenase preparation was obtained from green algae Oscillatoria sp. and was shown to differ from previous described lipoxygenases in the positional specificity and pH characteristics of the dioxygenation reaction. The enzyme had a pH optimum at 8.8 and was inactive at pH 6. Oscillatoria lipoxygenase converted linoleic acid into two products: 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid (52%) and 9-hydroperoxylinoleic acid (48%). The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated at 124,000. Esculetin was found to be the best inhibitor of the enzyme activity. PMID:16667027

  11. The presence of diatom algae in a tracheal wash from a German Wirehaired Pointer with aspiration pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Benson, Catherine J; Edlund, Mark B; Gray, Sarah; Powell, Lisa; Paulin-Curlee, Geisa; Armien, Anibal; Overmann, Jed A

    2013-06-01

    A 7-year-old spayed female German Wirehaired Pointer was presented with difficulty breathing after being found seizing in a water-filled drainage ditch while out hunting. Aspirates from a tracheal wash contained numerous degenerate neutrophils, fewer macrophages, some of which contained basophilic debris, low numbers of extracellular diatoms, and a single intracellular short bacterial rod. As the dog continued to clinically decline and could not be weaned from oxygen support, the owners chose euthanasia. The major necropsy finding was a severe granulomatous bronchopneumonia that was likely due to aspiration of foreign material based on the microscopic presence of plant-like material, bi-refringent crystalline material, non-cellular debris, and occasional fungal structures. Diatoms are a class of algae that live primarily in water. Diatom analysis has been used, with some controversy, in human forensics to assist in documenting drowning as the cause of death. In this case, given the clinical history, the presence of diatoms and inflammation in the tracheal wash were interpreted as a likely result of the aspiration of surface water. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of diatoms observed in a cytologic specimen in a nonhuman mammal with aspiration pneumonia. PMID:23647227

  12. Gain and loss of elongation factor genes in green algae

    PubMed Central

    Cocquyt, Ellen; Verbruggen, Heroen; Leliaert, Frederik; Zechman, Frederick W; Sabbe, Koen; De Clerck, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    Background Two key genes of the translational apparatus, elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1?) and elongation factor-like (EFL) have an almost mutually exclusive distribution in eukaryotes. In the green plant lineage, the Chlorophyta encode EFL except Acetabularia where EF-1? is found, and the Streptophyta possess EF-1? except Mesostigma, which has EFL. These results raise questions about evolutionary patterns of gain and loss of EF-1? and EFL. A previous study launched the hypothesis that EF-1? was the primitive state and that EFL was gained once in the ancestor of the green plants, followed by differential loss of EF-1? or EFL in the principal clades of the Viridiplantae. In order to gain more insight in the distribution of EF-1? and EFL in green plants and test this hypothesis we screened the presence of the genes in a large sample of green algae and analyzed their gain-loss dynamics in a maximum likelihood framework using continuous-time Markov models. Results Within the Chlorophyta, EF-1? is shown to be present in three ulvophycean orders (i.e., Dasycladales, Bryopsidales, Siphonocladales) and the genus Ignatius. Models describing gene gain-loss dynamics revealed that the presence of EF-1?, EFL or both genes along the backbone of the green plant phylogeny is highly uncertain due to sensitivity to branch lengths and lack of prior knowledge about ancestral states or rates of gene gain and loss. Model refinements based on insights gained from the EF-1? phylogeny reduce uncertainty but still imply several equally likely possibilities: a primitive EF-1? state with multiple independent EFL gains or coexistence of both genes in the ancestor of the Viridiplantae or Chlorophyta followed by differential loss of one or the other gene in the various lineages. Conclusion EF-1? is much more common among green algae than previously thought. The mutually exclusive distribution of EF-1? and EFL is confirmed in a large sample of green plants. Hypotheses about the gain-loss dynamics of elongation factor genes are hard to test analytically due to a relatively flat likelihood surface, even if prior knowledge is incorporated. Phylogenetic analysis of EFL genes indicates misinterpretations in the recent literature due to uncertainty regarding the root position. PMID:19216746

  13. Photosynthetic Hydrogen and Oxygen Production by Green Algae

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

    1999-08-22

    Photosynthesis research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is focused on hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable fuel and chemical feed stock. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective. From a scientific and technical point of view, current research is focused on optimizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiencies represented by the Gibbs Free Energy of molecular hydrogen. The key research questions of maximizing hydrogen and oxygen production by light-activated water splitting in green algae are: (1) removing the oxygen sensitivity of algal hydrogenases; (2) linearizing the light saturation curves of hotosynthesis throughout the entire range of terrestrial solar irradiance-including the role of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide in optimization of photosynthetic electron transpor;t and (3) constructing real-world bioreactors, including the generation of hydrogen and oxygen against workable back pressures of the photoproduced gases.

  14. Photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    An overview of photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production by green algae in the context of its potential as a renewable chemical feed stock and energy carrier is presented. Beginning with its discovery by Gaffron and Rubin in 1942, motivated by curiosity-driven laboratory research, studies were initiated in the early 1970s that focused on photosynthetic hydrogen production from an applied perspective. From a scientific and technical point of view, current research is focused on optimizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiencies represented by the Gibbs Free Energy of molecular hydrogen. The key research questions of maximizing hydrogen and oxygen production by light-activated water splitting in green algae are (1) removing the oxygen sensitivity of algal hydrogenases; (2) linearizing the light saturation curves of photosynthesis throughout the entire range of terrestrial solar irradiance--including the role of bicarbonate and carbon dioxide in optimization of photosynthetic electron transport and (3) the minimum number of light reactions that are required to split water to elemental hydrogen and oxygen. Each of these research topics is being actively addressed by the photobiological hydrogen research community.

  15. Solar-driven hydrogen production in green algae.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Steven J; Tamburic, Bojan; Zemichael, Fessehaye; Hellgardt, Klaus; Nixon, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    The twin problems of energy security and global warming make hydrogen an attractive alternative to traditional fossil fuels with its combustion resulting only in the release of water vapor. Biological hydrogen production represents a renewable source of the gas and can be performed by a diverse range of microorganisms from strict anaerobic bacteria to eukaryotic green algae. Compared to conventional methods for generating H(2), biological systems can operate at ambient temperatures and pressures without the need for rare metals and could potentially be coupled to a variety of biotechnological processes ranging from desalination and waste water treatment to pharmaceutical production. Photobiological hydrogen production by microalgae is particularly attractive as the main inputs for the process (water and solar energy) are plentiful. This chapter focuses on recent developments in solar-driven H(2) production in green algae with emphasis on the model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We review the current methods used to achieve sustained H(2) evolution and discuss possible approaches to improve H(2) yields, including the optimization of culturing conditions, reducing light-harvesting antennae and targeting auxiliary electron transport and fermentative pathways that compete with the hydrogenase for reductant. Finally, industrial scale-up is discussed in the context of photobioreactor design and the future prospects of the field are considered within the broader context of a biorefinery concept. PMID:21807246

  16. Codon Usage in Higher Plants, Green Algae, and Cyanobacteria 1

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Wilbur H.; Gowri, G.

    1990-01-01

    Codon usage is the selective and nonrandom use of synonymous codons by an organism to encode the amino acids in the genes for its proteins. During the last few years, a large number of plant genes have been cloned and sequenced, which now permits a meaningful comparison of codon usage in higher plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. For the nuclear and organellar genes of these organisms, a small set of preferred codons are used for encoding proteins. Codon usage is different for each genome type with the variation mainly occurring in choices between codons ending in cytidine (C) or guanosine (G) versus those ending in adenosine (A) or uridine (U). For organellar genomes, chloroplastic and mitochrondrial proteins are encoded mainly with codons ending in A or U. In most cyanobacteria and the nuclei of green algae, proteins are encoded preferentially with codons ending in C or G. Although only a few nuclear genes of higher plants have been sequenced, a clear distinction between Magnoliopsida (dicot) and Liliopsida (monocot) codon usage is evident. Dicot genes use a set of 44 preferred codons with a slight preference for codons ending in A or U. Monocot codon usage is more restricted with an average of 38 codons preferred, which are predominantly those ending in C or G. But two classes of genes can be recognized in monocots. One set of monocot genes uses codons similar to those in dicots, while the other genes are highly biased toward codons ending in C or G with a pattern similar to nuclear genes of green algae. Codon usage is discussed in relation to evolution of plants and prospects for intergenic transfer of particular genes. PMID:16667228

  17. Analytical approaches to photobiological hydrogen production in unicellular green algae.

    PubMed

    Hemschemeier, Anja; Melis, Anastasios; Happe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Several species of unicellular green algae, such as the model green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, can operate under either aerobic photosynthesis or anaerobic metabolism conditions. A particularly interesting metabolic condition is that of "anaerobic oxygenic photosynthesis", whereby photosynthetically generated oxygen is consumed by the cell's own respiration, causing anaerobiosis in the culture in the light, and induction of the cellular "hydrogen metabolism" process. The latter entails an alternative photosynthetic electron transport pathway, through the oxygen-sensitive FeFe-hydrogenase, leading to the light-dependent generation of molecular hydrogen in the chloroplast. The FeFe-hydrogenase is coupled to the reducing site of photosystem-I via ferredoxin and is employed as an electron-pressure valve, through which electrons are dissipated, thus permitting a sustained electron transport in the thylakoid membrane of photosynthesis. This hydrogen gas generating process in the cells offers testimony to the unique photosynthetic metabolism that can be found in many species of green microalgae. Moreover, it has attracted interest by the biotechnology and bioenergy sectors, as it promises utilization of green microalgae and the process of photosynthesis in renewable energy production. This article provides an overview of the principles of photobiological hydrogen production in microalgae and addresses in detail the process of induction and analysis of the hydrogen metabolism in the cells. Furthermore, methods are discussed by which the interaction of photosynthesis, respiration, cellular metabolism, and H(2) production in Chlamydomonas can be monitored and regulated. PMID:19291418

  18. Antiprotozoal, antimycobacterial and cytotoxic potential of some british green algae.

    PubMed

    Spavieri, Jasmine; Kaiser, Marcel; Casey, Rosalyn; Hingley-Wilson, Suzie; Lalvani, Ajit; Blunden, Gerald; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2010-07-01

    In the continuation of our search for natural sources for antiprotozoal and antitubercular molecules, we have screened the crude extracts of four green marine algae (Cladophora rupestris, Codium fragile ssp. tomentosoides, Ulva intestinalis and Ulva lactuca) collected from the Dorset area of England. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Leishmania donovani and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were used as test organisms in the in vitro assays. The selective toxicity of the extracts was also determined toward mammalian skeletal myoblast (L6) cells. The crude seaweed extracts had no activity against M. tuberculosis, but showed antiprotozoal activity against at least two protozoan species. All algal extracts were active against T. brucei rhodesiense, with C. rupestris being the most potent one (IC(50) value 3.7 microg/ml), whilst only C. rupestris and U. lactuca had moderate trypanocidal activity against T. cruzi (IC(50) values 80.8 and 34.9 microg/ml). Again, all four extracts showed leishmanicidal activity with IC(50) values ranging between 12.0 and 20.2 microg/ml. None of the extracts showed cytotoxicity toward L6 cells, indicating that their antiprotozoal activity is specific. This is the first study reporting antiprotozoal and antimycobacterial activity of British marine algae. PMID:19960429

  19. Enhanced Genetic Tools for Engineering Multigene Traits into Green Algae

    PubMed Central

    Rasala, Beth A.; Chao, Syh-Shiuan; Pier, Matthew; Barrera, Daniel J.; Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic microalgae have the potential to impact many diverse biotechnological industries including energy, human and animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, health and beauty, and specialty chemicals. However, major obstacles to sophisticated genetic and metabolic engineering in algae have been the lack of well-characterized transformation vectors to direct engineered gene products to specific subcellular locations, and the inability to robustly express multiple nuclear-encoded transgenes within a single cell. Here we validate a set of genetic tools that enable protein targeting to distinct subcellular locations, and present two complementary methods for multigene engineering in the eukaryotic green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The tools described here will enable advanced metabolic and genetic engineering to promote microalgae biotechnology and product commercialization. PMID:24710110

  20. Enhanced genetic tools for engineering multigene traits into green algae.

    PubMed

    Rasala, Beth A; Chao, Syh-Shiuan; Pier, Matthew; Barrera, Daniel J; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic microalgae have the potential to impact many diverse biotechnological industries including energy, human and animal nutrition, pharmaceuticals, health and beauty, and specialty chemicals. However, major obstacles to sophisticated genetic and metabolic engineering in algae have been the lack of well-characterized transformation vectors to direct engineered gene products to specific subcellular locations, and the inability to robustly express multiple nuclear-encoded transgenes within a single cell. Here we validate a set of genetic tools that enable protein targeting to distinct subcellular locations, and present two complementary methods for multigene engineering in the eukaryotic green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The tools described here will enable advanced metabolic and genetic engineering to promote microalgae biotechnology and product commercialization. PMID:24710110

  1. Vegetative survival, akinete formation and germination in three blue-green algae and one green alga in relation to light intensity, temperature, heat shock and UV exposure.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S C; Singh, V

    2000-01-01

    The mere vegetative survival was not sufficient but suitable growth conditions were required for akinete formation to occur in the blue-green algae Anabaena iyengarii, Westiellopsis prolifica, Nostochopsis lobatus and in the green alga Pithophora oedogonia. In all algae, akinetes were neither formed nor germinated in darkness, and while dim light of 300 lx was sufficient for most of akinetes to germinate and also to maintain vegetative survival, it was not adequate for optimum akinete formation. Although akinetes of all algae could germinate at 35 degrees C, both the vegetative survival and akinete formation were markedly suppressed at this temperature. Heat or UV shock of any level, whether ineffective or effecting vegetative survival, did not promote akinete formation or germination in any alga tested. Akinetes of all algae under study were relatively tolerant to heat and also to some extent to UV. Both wet and dried akinetes of all algae were equally UV tolerant. In all algae, the viability of both wet and dried akinetes decreased more or less equally with storage time, but the decrease was more drastic when storage temperature was progressively lowered from 20 to 0 degree C. Hence the akinetes can tolerate dryness but not frost. PMID:11347271

  2. Isolation and properties of fungi that lyse blue-green algae.

    PubMed Central

    Redhead, K; Wright, S J

    1978-01-01

    Of 70 pure microbial cultures isolated from aquatic habitats, soil, and air according to the ability to lyse live blue-green algae, 62 were fungi representing the genera Acremonium, Emericellopsis, and Verticillium. Algal-lysing fungi were isolated from all habitat types sampled. The remaining isolates comprised four bacteria and four streptomycetes. All isolates lysed Anabaena flos-aquae and, in most cases, several other filamentous and unicellular blue-green algae. The fungi generally showed greater activity than most other isolates towards a wider range of susceptible algae, including green algae in some cases. Acremonium and Emericellopsis isolates, but not Verticillium, also inhibited the growth of blue-green algae and gram-positive bacteria, but did not lyse the latter. Lysis of blue green algae by Acremonium and Emericellopsis spp. was associated with the formation of diffusible heat-stable extracellular factors which, evidence suggests, could be cephalosporin antibiotic(s). Blue-green algae were also lysed by pure cephalosporin C. The frequent isolation of lytic fungi from algal habitats suggests a possible natural algal-destroying role for such fungi, which might be exploitable for algal bloom control. Images PMID:418740

  3. Green algae and the origins of multicellularity in the plant kingdom.

    PubMed

    Umen, James G

    2014-11-01

    The green lineage of chlorophyte algae and streptophytes form a large and diverse clade with multiple independent transitions to produce multicellular and/or macroscopically complex organization. In this review, I focus on two of the best-studied multicellular groups of green algae: charophytes and volvocines. Charophyte algae are the closest relatives of land plants and encompass the transition from unicellularity to simple multicellularity. Many of the innovations present in land plants have their roots in the cell and developmental biology of charophyte algae. Volvocine algae evolved an independent route to multicellularity that is captured by a graded series of increasing cell-type specialization and developmental complexity. The study of volvocine algae has provided unprecedented insights into the innovations required to achieve multicellularity. PMID:25324214

  4. The Cell Walls of Green Algae: A Journey through Evolution and Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Domozych, David S.; Ciancia, Marina; Fangel, Jonatan U.; Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Ulvskov, Peter; Willats, William G. T.

    2012-01-01

    The green algae represent a large group of morphologically diverse photosynthetic eukaryotes that occupy virtually every photic habitat on the planet. The extracellular coverings of green algae including cell walls are also diverse. A recent surge of research in green algal cell walls fueled by new emerging technologies has revealed new and critical insight concerning these coverings. For example, the late divergent taxa of the Charophycean green algae possess cell walls containing assemblages of polymers with notable similarity to the cellulose, pectins, hemicelluloses, arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), extensin, and lignin present in embryophyte walls. Ulvophycean seaweeds have cell wall components whose most abundant fibrillar constituents may change from cellulose to ?-mannans to ?-xylans and during different life cycle phases. Likewise, these algae produce complex sulfated polysaccharides, AGPs, and extensin. Chlorophycean green algae produce a wide array of walls ranging from cellulosepectin complexes to ones made of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Larger and more detailed surveys of the green algal taxa including incorporation of emerging genomic and transcriptomic data are required in order to more fully resolve evolutionary trends within the green algae and in relationship with higher plants as well as potential applications of wall components in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:22639667

  5. Aluminum bioavailability to the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa in acidified synthetic soft water

    SciTech Connect

    Parent, L.; Campbell, P.G.C. )

    1994-04-01

    A unicellular green alga, Chlorella pyrenoidosa, was exposed to inorganic Al under controlled experimental conditions to determine whether the biological response elicited by the dissolved metal could be predicted from the free-metal ion concentration, [Al[sup 3+

  6. Homogentisate phytyltransferase from the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Glvez-Valdivieso, Gregorio; Cardeosa, Rosa; Pineda, Manuel; Aguilar, Miguel

    2015-09-01

    Homogentisate phytyltransferase (HPT) (EC 2.5.1.-) catalyzes the first committed step of tocopherol biosynthesis in all photosynthetic organisms. This paper presents the molecular characterization and expression analysis of HPT1 gene, and a study on the accumulation of tocopherols under different environmental conditions in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The Chlamydomonas HPT1 protein conserves all the prenylphosphate- and divalent cation-binding sites that are found in polyprenyltransferases and all the amino acids that are essential for its catalytic activity. Its hydrophobicity profile confirms that HPT is a membrane-bound protein. Chlamydomonas genomic DNA analysis suggests that HPT is encoded by a single gene, HPT1, whose promoter region contains multiple motifs related to regulation by jasmonate, abscisic acid, low temperature and light, and an ATCTA motif presents in genes involved in tocopherol biosynthesis and some photosynthesis-related genes. Expression analysis revealed that HPT1 is strongly regulated by dark and low-temperature. Under the same treatments, ?-tocopherol increased in cultures exposed to darkness or heat, whereas ?-tocopherol did it in low temperature. The regulatory expression pattern of HPT1 and the changes of tocopherol abundance support the idea that different tocopherols play specific functions, and suggest a role for ?-tocopherol in the adaptation to growth under low-temperature. PMID:26454640

  7. Production of carbonate sediments by a unicellular green alga

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yates, K.K.; Robbins, L.L.

    1998-01-01

    This study investigates the ability of the unicellular green alga Natmochloris atoimis to precipitate CaCO3, quantifies mineral precipitation rates, estimates sediment production in a N. atomiis bloom, and discusses the implications of microbial calcification for carbonate sediment deposition. A series of N. atomus cultures, isolated from Lake Reeve, Australia, were incubated at various pH and calcium concentrations to determine environmental parameters for calcification. Rates of calcification were calculated from initial and postincubation alkalinity, pH, and calcium measurements. Replicate experiments and controls consisting of non-calcifying cultures, uninoculated media, and dead cell cultures were performed using environmental culture parameters determined in series cultures. Average calcification rates from replicate experiments were used to predict daily sediment production rates in a small bloom of N. atomus. N. atomus precipitates 0.138 g/L of calcite in approximately 4 h when incubated at pH 8.5, 14.24 mM calcium concentration, 33 ??C, 100 ??E/m2/s light intensity, and a cell population density of 107 cells/mL. Assuming continuous precipitation, this corresponds to a maximum estimated sediment production rate of 1.6 ?? 106 kg of CaCO3, per 12 h day in a single bloom of 3.2 ?? 109 L. Our results suggest that microbial calcification contributes significantly to the carbonate sediment budget.

  8. Penicillinase (beta-lactamase) formation by blue-green algae.

    PubMed

    Kushner, D J; Breuil, C

    1977-03-01

    Beta-Lactamase (penicillinase) activity was found in a number of strains of blue-green algea. In some cases, this enzyme permitted algae to overcome the inhibitory effects of penicillin. Production and localization of beta-lactamase were studied in a unicellular species, Coccochloris elabens (strain 7003), and in a filamentous, nitrogen-fixing Anabaena species (strain 7120). When cells were grown in a neutral medium with NaNO3 as N source, the pH rose during growth; at a pH of about 10, most of the enzyme was expressed equally well in intact or disrupted cells. If the pH was kept near neutrality during growth by gassing with CO2 in N2 or by growth under conditions of N2 fixation, the enzyme remained cell-bound and cryptic for most of the growth phase, being measurable only after cells were disrupted. The enzymes from strains 7003 and 7120 had greater activity on benzyl penicillin and other penicillins than on cephalosporins. Some differences were observed in the "substrate proliles" of penicillinases from the two strains against different penicillins. PMID:15530

  9. Phycobilisomes from Blue-Green and Red Algae

    PubMed Central

    Gantt, Elisabeth; Lipschultz, Claudia A.; Grabowski, Joseph; Zimmerman, Burke K.

    1979-01-01

    A general procedure for the isolation of functionally intact phycobilisomes was devised, based on modifications of previously used procedures. It has been successful with numerous species of red and blue-green algae (Anabaena variabilis, Anacystis nidulans, Agmenellum quadruplicatum, Fremyella diplosiphon, Glaucosphaera vacuolata, Griffithsia pacifica, Nemalion multifidum, Nostoc sp., Phormidium persicinum, Porphyridium cruentum, P. sordidum, P. aerugineum, Rhodosorus marinus). Isolation was carried out in 0.75 molar K-phosphate (pH 6.8 to 7.0) at 20 to 23 C on sucrose step gradients. Lower temperature (4 to 10 C) was usually unfavorable resulting in uncoupling of energy transfer and partial dissociation of the phycobilisomes, sometimes with complete loss of allophycocyanin. Intact phycobilisomes were characterized by fluorescence emission peaks of 670 to 675 nanometers at room temperature, and 678 to 685 nanometers at liquid nitrogen temperature. Uncoupling and subsequent dissociation of phycobilisomes, in lowered ionic conditions, varied with the species and the degree of dissociation but occurred preferentially between phycocyanin and allophycocyanin, or between phycocyanin and phycoerythrin. PMID:16660778

  10. Toxicity Assessment of Expired Pesticides to Green Algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata

    PubMed Central

    Satyavani, G.; Chandrasehar, G.; Varma, K. Krishna; Goparaju, A.; Ayyappan, S.; Reddy, P. Neelakanta; Murthy, P. Balakrishna

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of expired pesticides on the yield and growth rate of green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, a study was conducted as per the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guideline number 201. Fifteen expired pesticide formulations, most commonly used in Indian agriculture, were tested in comparison with their unexpired counterparts. The expired pesticide formulations studied belonged to various class and functional groups: organophosphate, pyrethroid-based insecticides; azole-based fungicides; acetamide, propionate, acetic acid-based herbicides; fungicides mixtures containing two actives—azole and dithiocarbamate. The toxicity endpoints of yield (EyC50: 0–72 h) and growth rate (ErC50: 0–72 h) of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata for each pesticide formulation (both expired and unexpired pesticides) were determined statistically using TOXSTAT 3.5 version software. The results pointed out that some expired pesticide formulations exhibited higher toxicity to tested algal species, as compared to the corresponding unexpired pesticides. These data thus stress the need for greater care to dispose expired pesticides to water bodies, to avoid the effects on aquatic ecospecies tested. PMID:23762633

  11. Combined toxicity of pesticide mixtures on green algae and photobacteria.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-Shen; Wang, Cheng-Lin; Zhang, Jin; Zhu, Xiang-Wei; Li, Wei-Ying

    2013-09-01

    Different organisms have diverse responses to the same chemicals or mixtures. In this paper, we selected the green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa (C. pyrenoidosa) and photobacteria Vibrio qinghaiensis sp.-Q67 (V. qinghaiensis) as target organisms and determined the toxicities of six pesticides, including three herbicides (simetryn, bromacil and hexazinone), two fungicides (dodine and metalaxyl) and one insecticide (propoxur), and their mixtures by using the microplate toxicity analysis. The toxicities of three herbicides to C. pyrenoidosa are much higher than those to V. qinghaiensis, and the toxicities of metalaxyl and propoxur to V. qinghaiensis are higher than those to C. pyrenoidosa, while the toxicity of dodine to C. pyrenoidosa is similar to those to V. qinghaiensis. Using the concentration addition as an additive reference model, the binary pesticide mixtures exhibited different toxicity interactions, i.e., displayed antagonism to C. pyrenoidosa but synergism to V. qinghaiensis. However, the toxicities of the multi-component mixtures of more than two components are additive and can be predicted by the concentration addition model. PMID:23816361

  12. Algae as Protein Factories: Expression of a Human Antibody and the Respective Antigen in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Hempel, Franziska; Lau, Julia; Klingl, Andreas; Maier, Uwe G.

    2011-01-01

    Microalgae are thought to offer great potential as expression system for various industrial, therapeutic and diagnostic recombinant proteins as they combine high growth rates with all benefits of eukaryotic expression systems. Moreover, microalgae exhibit a phototrophic lifestyle like land plants, hence protein expression is fuelled by photosynthesis, which is CO2-neutral and involves only low production costs. So far, however, research on algal bioreactors for recombinant protein expression is very rare calling for further investigations in this highly promising field. In this study, we present data on the expression of a monoclonal human IgG antibody against the Hepatitis B surface protein and the respective antigen in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Antibodies are fully-assembled and functional and accumulate to 8.7% of total soluble protein, which complies with 21 mg antibody per gram algal dry weight. The Hepatitis B surface protein is functional as well and is recognized by algae-produced and commercial antibodies. PMID:22164289

  13. How the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii keeps time.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Thomas; Prager, Katja; Dathe, Hannes; Kelm, Juliane; Kiessling, Peter; Mittag, Maria

    2010-08-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has two flagella and a primitive visual system, the eyespot apparatus, which allows the cell to phototax. About 40 years ago, it was shown that the circadian clock controls its phototactic movement. Since then, several circadian rhythms such as chemotaxis, cell division, UV sensitivity, adherence to glass, or starch metabolism have been characterized. The availability of its entire genome sequence along with homology studies and the analysis of several sub-proteomes render C. reinhardtii as an excellent eukaryotic model organism to study its circadian clock at different levels of organization. Previous studies point to several potential photoreceptors that may be involved in forwarding light information to entrain its clock. However, experimental data are still missing toward this end. In the past years, several components have been functionally characterized that are likely to be part of the oscillatory machinery of C. reinhardtii since alterations in their expression levels or insertional mutagenesis of the genes resulted in defects in phase, period, or amplitude of at least two independent measured rhythms. These include several RHYTHM OF CHLOROPLAST (ROC) proteins, a CONSTANS protein (CrCO) that is involved in parallel in photoperiodic control, as well as the two subunits of the circadian RNA-binding protein CHLAMY1. The latter is also tightly connected to circadian output processes. Several candidates including a significant number of ROCs, CrCO, and CASEIN KINASE1 whose alterations of expression affect the circadian clock have in parallel severe effects on the release of daughter cells, flagellar formation, and/or movement, indicating that these processes are interconnected in C. reinhardtii. The challenging task for the future will be to get insights into the clock network and to find out how the clock-related factors are functionally connected. In this respect, system biology approaches will certainly contribute in the future to improve our understanding of the C. reinhardtii clock machinery. PMID:20174954

  14. Bioactive constituents from the green alga Caulerpa racemosa.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Liu, Ding-Quan; Liang, Tong-Jun; Li, Jia; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Liu, Ai-Hong; Guo, Yue-Wei; Mao, Shui-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Three diterpenoids, including a pair of epimers, racemobutenolids A and B (1 and 2), and 4',5'-dehydrodiodictyonema A (3), an ?-tocopheroid, ?-tocoxylenoxy (8), and an 28-oxostigmastane steroid, (23E)-3?-hydroxy-stigmasta-5,23-dien-28-one (11), together with 12 known compounds, were isolated from the green alga Caulerpa racemosa. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by detailed analysis of spectroscopic data, and by comparison with data for related known compounds. The epimers (1 and 2) are two unusual diterpenoid lactones bearing a ?-methyl-?-substituted butenolide moiety, and 3 and 8 represent the first naturally occurring natural products with a hematinic acid ester group and 3,5-dimethylphenoxy functionality, respectively. The enzyme inhibitory activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro against PTP1B and related PTPs (TCPTP, CDC25B, LAR, SHP-1, and SHP-2). Compounds 3, 5, 6, and 9-14 exhibited different levels of PTP1B inhibitory activities with IC50 values ranging from 2.30 to 50.02?M. Of these compounds, 3, 9, and 11 showed the most potent inhibitory activities towards PTP1B with IC50 values of 2.30, 3.85, and 3.80?M, respectively. More importantly, the potent PTP1B inhibitors 3, 9, and 11 also displayed high selectivity over the highly homologous TCPTP and other PTPs. Also, the neuroprotective effects of the isolates against A?25-35-induced cell damage in SH-SY5Y cells were investigated. Compounds 10, 11, and 14 exhibited significant neuroprotective effects against A?25-35-induced SH-SY5Y cell damage with 11.31-15.98% increases in cell viability at 10?M. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were tested against the human cancer cell lines A-549 and HL-60. PMID:25497963

  15. Hidden genetic diversity in the green alga Spirogyra (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The unbranched filamentous green alga Spirogyra (Streptophyta, Zygnemataceae) is easily recognizable based on its vegetative morphology, which shows one to several spiral chloroplasts. This simple structure falsely points to a low genetic diversity: Spirogyra is commonly excluded from phylogenetic analyses because the genus is known as a long-branch taxon caused by a high evolutionary rate. Results We focused on this genetic diversity and sequenced 130 Spirogyra small subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) strands of different origin. The resulting SSU rDNA sequences were used for phylogenetic analyses using complex evolutionary models (posterior probability, maximum likelihood, neighbor joining, and maximum parsimony methods). The sequences were between 1672 and 1779 nucleotides long. Sequence comparisons revealed 53 individual clones, but our results still support monophyly of the genus. Our data set did not contain a single slow-evolving taxon that would have been placed on a shorter branch compared to the remaining sequences. Out of 130 accessions analyzed, 72 showed a secondary loss of the 1506 group I intron, which formed a long-branched group within the genus. The phylogenetic relationship to the genus Spirotaenia was not resolved satisfactorily. The genetic distance within the genus Spirogyra exceeded the distances measured within any other genus of the remaining Zygnemataceae included in this study. Conclusion Overall, we define eight distinct clades of Spirogyra, one of them including the genus Sirogonium. A large number of non-homoplasious synapomorphies (NHS; 114 NHS in total) was found for Spirogyra (41 NHS) and for each clade (totaling 73 NHS). This emphasizes the high genetic diversity of this genus and the distance to the remaining Zygnematophyceae. PMID:22655677

  16. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Entomoparasitic Green Alga Helicosporidium

    PubMed Central

    Pombert, Jean-Franois; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Helicosporidia are achlorophyllous, non-photosynthetic protists that are obligate parasites of invertebrates. Highly specialized, these pathogens feature an unusual cyst stage that dehisces inside the infected organism and releases a filamentous cell displaying surface projections, which will penetrate the host gut wall and eventually reproduce in the hemolymph. Long classified as incertae sedis or as relatives of other parasites such as Apicomplexa or Microsporidia, the Helicosporidia were surprisingly identified through molecular phylogeny as belonging to the Chlorophyta, a phylum of green algae. Most phylogenetic analyses involving Helicosporidia have placed them within the subgroup Trebouxiophyceae and further suggested a close affiliation between the Helicosporidia and the genus Prototheca. Prototheca species are also achlorophyllous and pathogenic, but they infect vertebrate hosts, inducing protothecosis in humans. The complete plastid genome of an Helicosporidium species was recently described and is a model of compaction and reduction. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the same strain, Helicosporidium sp. ATCC 50920 isolated from the black fly Simulium jonesi. Methodology/Principal Findings The circular mapping 49343 bp mitochondrial genome of Helicosporidium closely resembles that of the vertebrate parasite Prototheca wickerhamii. The two genomes share an almost identical gene complement and display a level of synteny that is higher than any other sequenced chlorophyte mitochondrial DNAs. Interestingly, the Helicosporidium mtDNA feature a trans-spliced group I intron, and a second group I intron that contains two open reading frames that appear to be degenerate maturase/endonuclease genes, both rare characteristics for this type of intron. Conclusions/Significance The architecture, genome content, and phylogeny of the Helicosporidium mitochondrial genome are all congruent with its close relationship to Prototheca within the Trebouxiophyceae. The Helicosporidium mitochondrial genome does, however, contain a number of novel features, particularly relating to its introns. PMID:20126458

  17. Selenocystamine improves protein accumulation in chloroplasts of eukaryotic green algae.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Camargo, Livia S; Tran, Miller; Beld, Joris; Burkart, Michael D; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-12-01

    Eukaryotic green algae have become an increasingly popular platform for recombinant proteins production. In particular, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, has garnered increased attention for having the necessary biochemical machinery to produce vaccines, human antibodies and next generation cancer targeting immunotoxins. While it has been shown that chloroplasts contain chaperones, peptidyl prolylisomerases and protein disulfide isomerases that facilitate these complex proteins folding and assembly, little has been done to determine which processes serve as rate-limiting steps for protein accumulation. In other expression systems, as Escherichia coli, Chinese hamster ovary cells, and insect cells, recombinant protein accumulation can be hampered by cell's inability to fold the target polypeptide into the native state, resulting in aggregation and degradation. To determine if chloroplasts' ability to oxidize proteins that require disulfide bonds into a stable conformation is a rate-limiting step of protein accumulation, three recombinant strains, each expressing a different recombinant protein, were analyzed. These recombinant proteins included fluorescent GFP, a reporter containing no disulfide bonds; Gaussia princeps luciferase, a luminescent reporter containing disulfide bonds; and an immunotoxin, an antibody-fusion protein containing disulfide bonds. Each strain was analyzed for its ability to accumulate proteins when supplemented with selenocystamine, a small molecule capable of catalyzing the formation of disulfide bonds. Selenocystamine supplementation led to an increase in luciferase and immunotoxin but not GFP accumulation. These results demonstrated that selenocystamine can increase the accumulation of proteins containing disulfide bonds and suggests that a rate-limiting step in chloroplast protein accumulation is the disulfide bonds formation in recombinant proteins native structure. PMID:26137911

  18. Carotenoid biosynthesis in diatoms.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Martine

    2010-11-01

    Diatoms are ubiquitous and constitute an important group of the phytoplankton community having a major contribution to the total marine primary production. These microalgae exhibit a characteristic golden-brown colour due to a high amount of the xanthophyll fucoxanthin that plays a major role in the light-harvesting complex of photosystems. In the water column, diatoms are exposed to light intensities that vary quickly from lower to higher values. Xanthophyll cycles prevent photodestruction of the cells in excessive light intensities. In diatoms, the diadinoxanthin-diatoxanthin cycle is the most important short-term photoprotective mechanism. If the biosynthetic pathways of chloroplast pigments have been extensively studied in higher plants and green algae, the research on carotenoid biosynthesis in diatoms is still in its infancy. In this study, the data on the biosynthetic pathway of diatom carotenoids are reviewed. The early steps occur through the 2-C-methyl-D: -erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Then a hypothetical pathway is suggested from dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP). Most of the enzymes of the pathway have not been so far isolated from diatoms, but candidate genes for each of them were identified using protein similarity searches of genomic data. PMID:20734232

  19. Dasycladalean green algae and some problematic algae from the Upper Triassic of the Nayband Formation (northeast Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senowbari-Daryan, Baba; Rashidi, Koorosh; Saberzadeh, Behnam

    2011-12-01

    This paper describes the dasycladales green algae from two sections of the Rhaetian Howz-e Khan Member of the Nayband Formation, northwest of the Dig-e Rostam motorway service area (south of the type locality of the Formation near the town Naybandan). Both sections are composed of bedded fine-grained limestones containing partly abundant dasycladales algae associated with foraminifers, which are mainly aulotortid types. Additionally scattered samples were collected from several beds of the Howz-e Khan Member in this area. The following dasycladalean taxa are described: Chinianella carpatica (Bystrick), Griphoporella curvata (Gmbel), Griphoporella lutensis nov. sp., some undetermined dasycladacean taxa, problematic algae like Lithocodium aggregatum Elliott, Bacinella irregularis Radoicic, and Thaumatoporella parvovesiculifera (Raineri). While Chinianella carpatica is not numerous and the other described algae are rare, Griphoporella curvata is extremely abundant in the investigated material. This paper describes Ch. carpatica for the first time from the Triassic of Iran and also includes a discussion of the strong variability of G. curvata. Additionally we include an informal description of a problematic fossil (animal: shell fragment?; plant: alga?).

  20. [Conservative motif CMLD in silicic acid transport proteins of diatom algae].

    PubMed

    Shcherbakova, T A; Masiukova, Iu A; Safonova, T A; Petrova, D P; Vereshchagin, A L; Minaeva, T V; Adel'shin, R V; Tribo?, T I; Stonik, I V; A?zda?cher, N A; Kozlov, M V; Likhoshva?, E V; Grachev, M A

    2005-01-01

    Sequencing of fragments of genes coding for silicic acid transport (SIT) proteins of diatoms of evolutionary distant classes (centric Chaetoceros muelleri Lemmermann, pennate araphid Synedra acus Ktzing, pennate raphid Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin, and pennate with keeled raphe system Cylindrotheca fusiformis Reimann et Lewin), revealed the presence in these proteins of a conservative amino acid motif CMLD. Hydropathy profiles suggest that CMLD occupies a position between two transmembrane strands which do not contain lysine and arginine residues. The two strands are good candidates for the role of the channel along which transport of silicic acid occurs. CMLD is a rare motif. Diatoms are known to need Zn2+ for the incorporation of silica. Presumably, CMLD is the site of Zn2+ binding of SITs. We found that the growth of diatoms is inhibited by a negatively charged alkylating reagent 5-(2-iodoacetamidoethyl)aminonaphtalene-1-sulfonic acid which cannot penetrate through the cell membrane. Cysteine of CMLD can be a target of this reagent. Synthetic peptide NCMLDY forms a complex with Zn2+, as revealed by the fact that the ion considerably reduces the rate of alkylation of the peptide. PMID:15856954

  1. Tracing floating green algae blooms in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea using Lagrangian transport simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Young-Gyu; Son, Young Baek; Choi, Byoung-Ju; Kim, Yong Hoon

    2014-05-01

    Lagrangian particle tracking experiments were conducted to understand the pathway of the floating green algae patches observed in the Yellow Sea (YS) and East China Sea (ECS) in summer 2011. The numerical simulation results indicated that dominant southerly winds during June and July 2011 were related to offshore movement of the floating green algae, especially their eastward extension in the YS/ECS. An infrequent and unusual event occurred in June 2011: a severe Tropical Strom MEARI, caused the green algae to detach from the coast and initiated movement to the east. After the typhoon event, sea surface temperature recovered rapidly enough to grow the floating green algae, and wind and local current controlled the movement of the massive floating algae patches (coastal accumulation or offshore advection in the area). Analysis of the floating green algae movement using satellite images during passage of Typhoon MAON in July 2011 revealed that the floating green algae patches were significantly controlled by both ocean currents and enhanced winds. These findings suggest that the floating green algae bloom off Qingdao, China and in the middle of the YS and ECS in the summer of 2011 occurred due to the combined effects of recent rapid expansion of seaweed aquaculture, strong winds, and the wind patterns in blooming regions. Our combined approach, using satellite data and numerical simulations, provides a robust estimate for tracing and monitoring changes in green algae blooms on a regional scale.

  2. Green algae in alpine biological soil crust communities: acclimation strategies against ultraviolet radiation and dehydration.

    PubMed

    Karsten, Ulf; Holzinger, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Green algae are major components of biological soil crusts in alpine habitats. Together with cyanobacteria, fungi and lichens, green algae form a pioneer community important for the organisms that will succeed them. In their high altitudinal habitat these algae are exposed to harsh and strongly fluctuating environmental conditions, mainly intense irradiation, including ultraviolet radiation, and lack of water leading to desiccation. Therefore, green algae surviving in these environments must have evolved with either avoidance or protective strategies, as well as repair mechanisms for damage. In this review we have highlighted these mechanisms, which include photoprotection, photochemical quenching, and high osmotic values to avoid water loss, and in some groups flexibility of secondary cell walls to maintain turgor pressure even in water-limited situations. These highly specialized green algae will serve as good model organisms to study desiccation tolerance or photoprotective mechanisms, due to their natural capacity to withstand unfavorable conditions. We point out the urgent need for modern phylogenetic approaches in characterizing these organisms, and molecular methods for analyzing the metabolic changes involved in their adaptive strategies. PMID:24954980

  3. Bioelectricity generation and microcystins removal in a blue-green algae powered microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yong; Chen, Qing; Zhou, Shungui; Zhuang, Li; Hu, Pei

    2011-03-15

    Bioelectricity production from blue-green algae was examined in a single chamber tubular microbial fuel cell (MFC). The blue-green algae powered MFC produced a maximum power density of 11 4 mW/m(2) at a current density of 0.55 mA/m(2). Coupled with the bioenergy generation, high removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen were also achieved in MFCs. Over 78.9% of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), 80.0% of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 91.0% of total nitrogen (total-N) and 96.8% ammonium-nitrogen (NH(3)-N) were removed under closed circuit conditions in 12 days, which were much more effective than those under open circuit and anaerobic reactor conditions. Most importantly, the MFC showed great ability to remove microcystins released from blue-green algae. Over 90.7% of MC-RR and 91.1% of MC-LR were removed under closed circuit conditions (500?). This study showed that the MFC could provide a potential means for electricity production from blue-green algae coupling algae toxins removal. PMID:21295401

  4. ASPECTS OF PHOSPHATE UTILIZATION BY BLUE-GREEN ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of various external phosphate concentrations on physiological and cytological aspects of Plectonema boryanum have been studied. P. boryanum was found to tolerate a wide range of phosphate concentrations, from 1 to 1000 mg of phosphate per liter. Growth of the alga in ...

  5. Uptake and Retention of Cs137 by a Blue-Green Alga in Continuous Flow and Batch Culture Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, J.R.

    2003-02-18

    Since routine monitoring data show that blue-green algae concentrate radioactivity from water by factors as great as 10,000, this study was initiated to investigate the uptake and retention patterns of specific radionuclides by the dominant genera of blue-green algae in the reactor effluents. Plectonema purpureum was selected for this study.

  6. The rapid quantitation of the filamentous blue-green alga plectonema boryanum by the luciferase assay for ATP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bush, V. N.

    1974-01-01

    Plectonema boryanum is a filamentous blue green alga. Blue green algae have a procaryotic cellular organization similar to bacteria, but are usually obligate photoautotrophs, obtaining their carbon and energy from photosynthetic mechanism similar to higher plants. This research deals with a comparison of three methods of quantitating filamentous populations: microscopic cell counts, the luciferase assay for ATP and optical density measurements.

  7. Modeling the Role of Zebra Mussels in the Proliferation of Blue-green Algae in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under model assumptions from Saginaw Bay 1991, selective rejection of blue-green algae by zebra mussels appears to be a necessary factor in the enhancement of blue-green algae production in the presence of zebra mussels. Enhancement also appears to depend on the increased sedime...

  8. Resurrection kinetics of photosynthesis in desiccation-tolerant terrestrial green algae (Chlorophyta) on tree bark.

    PubMed

    Lttge, U; Bdel, B

    2010-05-01

    The rough bark of orchard trees (Malus) around Darmstadt is predominantly covered in red to purple-brown layers (biofilms) of epiphytic terrestrial alga of Trentepohlia umbrina. The smooth bark of forest trees (Fagus sylvatica L. and Acer sp.) in the same area is covered by bright green biofilms composed of the green algae Desmococcus, Apatococcus and Trebouxia, with a few cells of Coccomyxa and 'Chlorella' trebouxioides between them. These algae are desiccation tolerant. After samples of bark with the biofilms were kept in dry air in darkness for various periods of time, potential quantum yield of PSII, F(v)/F(m), recovered during rehydration upon rewetting. The kinetics and degree of recovery depended on the length of time that the algae were kept in dry air in the desiccated state. Recovery was better for green biofilm samples, i.e. quite good even after 80 days of desiccation (F(v)/F(m) = ca. 50% of initial value), than the red samples, where recovery was only adequate up to ca. 30-40 days of desiccation (F(v)/F(m) = ca. 20-55% of initial value). It is concluded that the different bark types constitute different ecophysiological niches that can be occupied by the algae and that can be distinguished by their capacity to recover from desiccation after different times in the dry state. PMID:20522179

  9. Differential sensitivity of two green algae, Scenedesmus obliqnus and Chlorella pyrenoidosa, to 12 pesticides.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianyi; Zheng, Rongquan; Xu, Ligen; Wang, Shufeng

    2002-05-01

    Growth-inhibiting tests were carried out for 12 pesticides (including 11 fungicides: fosetyl-aluminum, benomyl, metalaxyl, iprodione, dimetachlone, carbendazim, thiophanate-methyl, bismerthiazol, procymidone, zineb, chlorothalonil, and the acaricide abamectin) in the green algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus obliqnus and the differential sensitivities of the two green algae to those pesticides were compared. The results indicate that the acute toxicity of benomyl to C. pyrenoidosa and S. obliqnus is the highest among all of the pesticides tested and is close to that of the photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides atrazine, simazine, and chlorotoluron. Meanwhile, algal species vary widely in their response to the pesticides. The results demonstrated that there was a differential response to various pesticides by the two species of algae and that the sensitivity of various species of algae exposed to chlorothalonil varied by nearly two orders of magnitude; sensitivity to thiophanate-methyl varied by more than one order. Investigations using different algal species as test organisms have demonstrated that algae vary greatly in their response to chemicals. Differential sensitivity of green species to the compounds could induce species shifts within communities. PMID:12051808

  10. Desiccation stress and tolerance in green algae: consequences for ultrastructure, physiological and molecular mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Holzinger, Andreas; Karsten, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Although most green algae typically occur in aquatic ecosystems, many species also live partly or permanently under aeroterrestrial conditions, where the cells are exposed to the atmosphere and hence regularly experience dehydration. The ability of algal cells to survive in an air-dried state is termed desiccation tolerance. The mechanisms involved in desiccation tolerance of green algae are still poorly understood, and hence the aim of this review is to summarize recent findings on the effects of desiccation and osmotic water loss. Starting from structural changes, physiological, and biochemical consequences of desiccation will be addressed in different green-algal lineages. The available data clearly indicate a range of strategies, which are rather different in streptophycean and non-streptophycean green algae. While members of the Trebouxiophyceae exhibit effective water loss-prevention mechanisms based on the biosynthesis and accumulation of particular organic osmolytes such as polyols, these compounds are so far not reported in representatives of the Streptophyta. In members of the Streptophyta such as Klebsormidium, the most striking observation is the appearance of cross-walls in desiccated samples, which are strongly undulating, suggesting a high degree of mechanical flexibility. This aids in maintaining structural integrity in the dried state and allows the cell to maintain turgor pressure for a prolonged period of time during the dehydration process. Physiological strategies in aeroterrestrial green algae generally include a rapid reduction of photosynthesis during desiccation, but also a rather quick recovery after rewetting, whereas aquatic species are sensitive to drying. The underlying mechanisms such as the affected molecular components of the photosynthetic machinery are poorly understood in green algae. Therefore, modern approaches based on transcriptomics, proteomics, and/or metabolomics are urgently needed to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in desiccation-stress physiology of these organisms. The very limited existing information is described in the present review. PMID:23986769

  11. Hydrogen production by a thermophilic blue-green alga Mastigocladus laminosus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Y.; Yokoyama, H.; Miyamoto, K.; Okazaki, M.; Komemushi, S.

    Light-driven hydrogen evolution by a thermophilic blue-green alga, Mastigocladus laminosus, was demonstrated and characterized under nitrogen-starved conditions. Air-grown cultures of this alga evolved hydrogen under Ar/CO2 at rates up to 2.2 ml/mg chl/hr. The optimum temperature and pH for the hydrogen evolution were 44-49 C and pH 7.0-7.5, respectively. Evolution in light was depressed by N2 gas and inhibited by salicylaldoxime or 2,4-dinitrophenol, indicating that nitrogenase was mainly responsible for the hydrogen evolution. The evolution rate was improved by adding carbon monoxide and acetylene to the gas phase of Ar/CO2. In addition, photobiological production of hydrogen (biophotolysis) by various blue-green algae is briefly reviewed and discussed.

  12. Extraction and physico-chemical characterization of a versatile biodegradable polysaccharide obtained from green algae.

    PubMed

    Alves, Anabela; Caridade, Sofia G; Mano, Joo F; Sousa, Rui A; Reis, Rui L

    2010-10-13

    During the last years, considerable attention has been given to different marine organisms, like algae, as potential sources of valuable materials. The continuous demand for novel materials and technologies is high and research on the underexploited marine green algae, including its polysaccharidic part-ulvan, has increased accordingly. In this research work, a novel method for extraction of ulvan from green algae is proposed and demonstrated successfully. Different characterization techniques were employed to characterize the isolated algal polysaccharide, namely, on what concerns its thermal trace and crystallinity. Upon heating, ulvan behaves as a non-meltable polysaccharide that is thermally stable before degradation at 220C. Ulvan is semi-crystalline in nature and possesses high hygroscopic features, as revealed in this research work. Due to its properties, ulvan can be considered, pure or modified, as a versatile biodegradable polymer for different applications, including tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. PMID:20800225

  13. Harvesting green algae from eutrophic reservoir by electroflocculation and post-use for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Valero, Enrique; Álvarez, Xana; Cancela, Ángeles; Sánchez, Ángel

    2015-01-01

    Each year there are more frequent blooms of green algae and cyanobacteria, representing a serious environmental problem of eutrophication. Electroflocculation (EF) was studied to harvest the algae which are present in reservoirs, as well as different factors which may influence on the effectiveness of the process: the voltage applied to the culture medium, run times, electrodes separation and natural sedimentation. Finally, the viability of its use to obtain biodiesel was studied by direct transesterification. The EF process carried out at 10V for 1min, with an electrode separation of 5.5cm and a height of 4cm in culture vessel, obtained a recovery efficiency greater than 95%, and octadecenoic and palmitic acids were obtained as the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). EF is an effective method to harvest green algae during the blooms, obtaining the greatest amount of biomass for subsequent use as a source of biodiesel. PMID:25863202

  14. Sulfated phenolic acids from Dasycladales siphonous green algae.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Caroline; Welling, Matthew; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-09-01

    Sulfated aromatic acids play a central role as mediators of chemical interactions and physiological processes in marine algae and seagrass. Among others, Dasycladus vermicularis (Scopoli) Krasser 1898 uses a sulfated hydroxylated coumarin derivative as storage metabolite for a protein cross linker that can be activated upon mechanical disruption of the alga. We introduce a comprehensive monitoring technique for sulfated metabolites based on fragmentation patterns in liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and applied it to Dasycladales. This allowed the identification of two new aromatic sulfate esters 4-(sulfooxy)phenylacetic acid and 4-(sulfooxy)benzoic acid. The two metabolites were synthesized to prove the mass spectrometry-based structure elucidation in co-injections. We show that both metabolites are transformed to the corresponding desulfated phenols by sulfatases of bacteria. In biofouling experiments with Escherichia coli and Vibrio natriegens the desulfated forms were more active than the sulfated ones. Sulfatation might thus represent a measure of detoxification that enables the algae to store inactive forms of metabolites that are activated by settling organisms and then act as defense. PMID:26188914

  15. A STATUS REPORT ON PLANKTONIC CYANOBACTERIA (BLUE-GREEN ALGAE) AND THEIR TOXINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) continue to be agents of certain waterbased toxicoses. heir presence is now being acknowledged in many of the world's fresh and brackish waters with eutrophication status of meso to hypereutrophic. ense surface scums called waterblooms will ...

  16. Oleosin of Subcellular Lipid Droplets Evolved in Green Algae1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Nan-Lan; Huang, Ming-Der; Chen, Tung-Ling L.; Huang, Anthony H.C.

    2013-01-01

    In primitive and higher plants, intracellular storage lipid droplets (LDs) of triacylglycerols are stabilized with a surface layer of phospholipids and oleosin. In chlorophytes (green algae), a protein termed major lipid-droplet protein (MLDP) rather than oleosin on LDs was recently reported. We explored whether MLDP was present directly on algal LDs and whether algae had oleosin genes and oleosins. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that MLDP in the chlorophyte Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was associated with endoplasmic reticulum subdomains adjacent to but not directly on LDs. In C. reinhardtii, low levels of a transcript encoding an oleosin-like protein (oleolike) in zygotes-tetrads and a transcript encoding oleosin in vegetative cells transferred to an acetate-enriched medium were found in transcriptomes and by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The C. reinhardtii LD fraction contained minimal proteins with no detectable oleolike or oleosin. Several charophytes (advanced green algae) possessed low levels of transcripts encoding oleosin but not oleolike. In the charophyte Spirogyra grevilleana, levels of oleosin transcripts increased greatly in cells undergoing conjugation for zygote formation, and the LD fraction from these cells contained minimal proteins, two of which were oleosins identified via proteomics. Because the minimal oleolike and oleosins in algae were difficult to detect, we tested their subcellular locations in Physcomitrella patens transformed with the respective algal genes tagged with a Green Fluorescent Protein gene and localized the algal proteins on P. patens LDs. Overall, oleosin genes having weak and cell/development-specific expression were present in green algae. We present a hypothesis for the evolution of oleosins from algae to plants. PMID:23391579

  17. Isoprenoid biosynthesis authenticates the classification of the green alga Mesostigma viride as an ancient streptophyte.

    PubMed

    Grauvogel, Carina; Petersen, Jrn

    2007-07-01

    Land plants harbor two essential and completely different metabolic pathways for isoprenoid synthesis. The cytosolic mevalonate pathway (MVA) is shared with heterotrophic eukaryotes, whereas the plastidial 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway has a cyanobacterial origin and was recruited after primary endosymbiosis. Terrestrial plants and green algae have a common evolutionary ancestry, but biochemical as well as genome analyses indicate that the cytosolic MVA pathway is generally absent from Chlorophyta. We investigated the distribution of genes for both pathways in the green alga Mesostigma viride, a key species at the basis of streptophycean (charophycean green algae, land plant) evolution. Ten of altogether twelve generally weakly expressed genes for isoprenoid biosynthesis, including three for the cytosolic MVA pathway, were amplified using a reverse transcription PCR approach with individually designed degenerate primers. Two full length cDNA clones for the first enzyme of the MVA pathway (HMGS) were additionally established from the charophycean green alga Chara vulgaris by library screening. The presence of the MVA pathway in these advanced green algae indicates a universal distribution among Streptophyta, and our phylogenetic HMGS analyses substantiate the recent classification of Mesostigma basal to charophytes and land plants. We identified each of the five cytosolic MVA genes/cDNAs in the genome of the rhodophyte Galdieria sulphuraria and, furthermore, amplified four of them from the glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa. Our data indicate that the MVA pathway is a characteristic trait of Plantae in general and propose that it was specifically lost in a common ancestor of Chlorophyta. PMID:17433859

  18. Origin of land plants: Do conjugating green algae hold the key?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The terrestrial habitat was colonized by the ancestors of modern land plants about 500 to 470 million years ago. Today it is widely accepted that land plants (embryophytes) evolved from streptophyte algae, also referred to as charophycean algae. The streptophyte algae are a paraphyletic group of green algae, ranging from unicellular flagellates to morphologically complex forms such as the stoneworts (Charales). For a better understanding of the evolution of land plants, it is of prime importance to identify the streptophyte algae that are the sister-group to the embryophytes. The Charales, the Coleochaetales or more recently the Zygnematales have been considered to be the sister group of the embryophytes However, despite many years of phylogenetic studies, this question has not been resolved and remains controversial. Results Here, we use a large data set of nuclear-encoded genes (129 proteins) from 40 green plant taxa (Viridiplantae) including 21 embryophytes and six streptophyte algae, representing all major streptophyte algal lineages, to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of streptophyte algae and embryophytes. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that either the Zygnematales or a clade consisting of the Zygnematales and the Coleochaetales are the sister group to embryophytes. Conclusions Our analyses support the notion that the Charales are not the closest living relatives of embryophytes. Instead, the Zygnematales or a clade consisting of Zygnematales and Coleochaetales are most likely the sister group of embryophytes. Although this result is in agreement with a previously published phylogenetic study of chloroplast genomes, additional data are needed to confirm this conclusion. A Zygnematales/embryophyte sister group relationship has important implications for early land plant evolution. If substantiated, it should allow us to address important questions regarding the primary adaptations of viridiplants during the conquest of land. Clearly, the biology of the Zygnematales will receive renewed interest in the future. PMID:21501468

  19. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa

    SciTech Connect

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Ito, Makoto

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • Alkaline-resistant galactolipid, AEGL, was found in marine algae. • The sugar moiety of AEGL is identical to that of digalactosyldiacylglycerol. • AEGL is the first identified glycolipid that possesses an ether-linked phytol. • AEGL is ubiquitously distributed in green, red and brown marine algae. - Abstract: Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Galα/β1-6Galβ1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Galα1-6Galβ1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria.

  20. MACROALGAL VOLUME: A SURROGATE FOR BIOMASS IN SOME GREEN ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two green algal morphotypes, filamentous species (e.g., Chaetomorpha spp.) and flattened or tubular (e.g.,Ulva spp. and Enteromorpha spp.) were collected from 63 sites within the Yaquina Bay estuary (Newport, OR) and used to compare an in situ volumetric biomass estimator to the...

  1. Regulation of Chlorophyll Synthesis in the Green Alga Golenkinia

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Richard; Spooner, Ted; Yakulis, Robert

    1975-01-01

    Chlorophyll synthesis in Golenkinia is inhibited 10-fold by growth in darkness on acetate or by growth on elevated concentrations of acetate in the light, particularly if the growth medium contains low levels of nitrogen. Glucose has no such inhibitory effect. ?-Aminolevulinic acid, with a maximal effect at 0.01 m, but not its precursors, overrides the inhibitory effect of acetate and darkness, restoring chlorophyll synthesis. Glycine, succinate, and ?-ketoglutarate, the precursors tested, all enter the cell. Cells forming chlorophyll produce significantly more aminolevulinic acid than do cells becoming bleached, further indicating the important regulatory role of this compound. Cyclic AMP has no effect on chlorophyll synthesis. These results are compared with those obtained studying other algae, and a mechanism relating light and acetate to chlorophyll formation is proposed. PMID:16659169

  2. In vitro identification of rhodopsin in the green alga Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, M; Hegemann, P

    1991-04-16

    The unicellular alga Chlamydomonas can detect both intensity and direction of the ambient light and adjust its swimming speed and direction accordingly. On the basis of physiological experiments, the functional photoreceptor for this visual process has recently shown to be a rhodopsin. We here report the in vitro identification of endogenous retinal and a rhodopsin in Chlamydomonas cell extracts and purified membrane preparations. The rhodopsin absorption spectrum has fine structure with the maximum at 495 nm and matches the action spectra for the behavioral light responses. The rhodopsin can be bleached and subsequently reconstituted with exogenous retinal. Labeling with [3H]retinal occurs in the final preparation only with a single protein with a molecular weight of 32,000. We conclude that this protein is the visual photoreceptor in Chlamydomonas. PMID:2015225

  3. The effect of low temperature on Antarctic endolithic green algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, M. A.; Morris, G. J.; Friedmann, E. I.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory experiments show that undercooling to about -5 degrees C occurs in colonized Beacon sandstones of the Ross Desert, Antarctica. High-frequency temperature oscillations between 5 degrees C and -5 degrees C or -10 degrees C (which occur in nature on the rock surface) did not damage Hemichloris antarctica. In a cryomicroscope, H. antarctica appeared to be undamaged after slow or rapid cooling to -50 degrees C. 14CO2 incorporation after freezing to -20 degrees C was unaffected in H. antarctica or in Trebouxia sp. but slightly depressed in Stichococcus sp. (isolated from a less extreme Antarctic habitat). These results suggest that the freezing regime in the Antarctic desert is not injurious to endolithic algae. It is likely that the freezing-point depression inside the rock makes available liquid water for metabolic activity at subzero temperatures. Freezing may occur more frequently on the rock surface and contribute to the abiotic nature of the surface.

  4. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of Nephroselmis olivacea and Pedinomonas minor. Two radically different evolutionary patterns within green algae.

    PubMed Central

    Turmel, M; Lemieux, C; Burger, G; Lang, B F; Otis, C; Plante, I; Gray, M W

    1999-01-01

    Green plants appear to comprise two sister lineages, Chlorophyta (classes Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, and Prasinophyceae) and Streptophyta (Charophyceae and Embryophyta, or land plants). To gain insight into the nature of the ancestral green plant mitochondrial genome, we have sequenced the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Nephroselmis olivacea and Pedinomonas minor. These two green algae are presumptive members of the Prasinophyceae. This class is thought to include descendants of the earliest diverging green algae. We find that Nephroselmis and Pedinomonas mtDNAs differ markedly in size, gene content, and gene organization. Of the green algal mtDNAs sequenced so far, that of Nephroselmis (45,223 bp) is the most ancestral (minimally diverged) and occupies the phylogenetically most basal position within the Chlorophyta. Its repertoire of 69 genes closely resembles that in the mtDNA of Prototheca wickerhamii, a later diverging trebouxiophycean green alga. Three of the Nephroselmis genes (nad10, rpl14, and rnpB) have not been identified in previously sequenced mtDNAs of green algae and land plants. In contrast, the 25,137-bp Pedinomonas mtDNA contains only 22 genes and retains few recognizably ancestral features. In several respects, including gene content and rate of sequence divergence, Pedinomonas mtDNA resembles the reduced mtDNAs of chlamydomonad algae, with which it is robustly affiliated in phylogenetic analyses. Our results confirm the existence of two radically different patterns of mitochondrial genome evolution within the green algae. PMID:10488238

  5. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of Nephroselmis olivacea and Pedinomonas minor. Two radically different evolutionary patterns within green algae.

    PubMed

    Turmel, M; Lemieux, C; Burger, G; Lang, B F; Otis, C; Plante, I; Gray, M W

    1999-09-01

    Green plants appear to comprise two sister lineages, Chlorophyta (classes Chlorophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, and Prasinophyceae) and Streptophyta (Charophyceae and Embryophyta, or land plants). To gain insight into the nature of the ancestral green plant mitochondrial genome, we have sequenced the mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Nephroselmis olivacea and Pedinomonas minor. These two green algae are presumptive members of the Prasinophyceae. This class is thought to include descendants of the earliest diverging green algae. We find that Nephroselmis and Pedinomonas mtDNAs differ markedly in size, gene content, and gene organization. Of the green algal mtDNAs sequenced so far, that of Nephroselmis (45,223 bp) is the most ancestral (minimally diverged) and occupies the phylogenetically most basal position within the Chlorophyta. Its repertoire of 69 genes closely resembles that in the mtDNA of Prototheca wickerhamii, a later diverging trebouxiophycean green alga. Three of the Nephroselmis genes (nad10, rpl14, and rnpB) have not been identified in previously sequenced mtDNAs of green algae and land plants. In contrast, the 25,137-bp Pedinomonas mtDNA contains only 22 genes and retains few recognizably ancestral features. In several respects, including gene content and rate of sequence divergence, Pedinomonas mtDNA resembles the reduced mtDNAs of chlamydomonad algae, with which it is robustly affiliated in phylogenetic analyses. Our results confirm the existence of two radically different patterns of mitochondrial genome evolution within the green algae. PMID:10488238

  6. Asymmetric cell division and its role in cell fate determination in the green alga Tetraselmis indica.

    PubMed

    Arora, Mani; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar; Burgess, Karl; Delany, Jane; Mesbahi, Ehsan

    2015-12-01

    The prasinophytes (early diverging Chlorophyta), consisting of simple unicellular green algae, occupy a critical position at the base of the green algal tree of life, with some of its representatives viewed as the cell form most similar to the first green alga, the 'ancestral green flagellate'. Relatively large-celled unicellular eukaryotic phytoflagellates (such as Tetraselmis and Scherffelia), traditionally placed in Prasinophyceae but now considered as members of Chlorodendrophyceae (core Chlorophyta), have retained some primitive characteristics of prasinophytes. These organisms share several ultrastructural features with the other core chlorophytes (Trebouxiophyceae, Ulvophyceae and Chlorophyceae). However, the role of Chlorodendrophycean algae as the evolutionary link between cellular individuality and cellular cooperation has been largely unstudied. Here, we show that clonal populations of a unicellular chlorophyte, Tetraselmis indica, consist of morphologically and ultrastructurally variant cells which arise through asymmetric cell division. These cells also differ in their physiological properties. The structural and physiological differences in the clonal cell population correlate to a certain extent with the longevity and function of cells. PMID:26648037

  7. Application of a chemically modified green macro alga as a biosorbent for phenol removal.

    PubMed

    Aravindhan, Rathinam; Rao, Jonnalagadda Raghava; Nair, Balachandran Unni

    2009-04-01

    Phenol and substituted phenols are toxic organic pollutants present in tannery waste streams. Environmental legislation defines the maximum discharge limit to be 5-50 ppm of total phenols in sewers. Thus the efforts to develop new efficient methods to remove phenolic compounds from wastewater are of primary concern. The present work aims at the use of a modified green macro alga (Caulerpa scalpelliformis) as a biosorbent for the removal of phenolic compounds from the post-tanning sectional stream. The effects of initial phenol concentration, contact time, temperature and initial pH of the solution on the biosorption potential of macro algal biomass have been investigated. Biosorption of phenol by modified green macro algae is best described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Biosorption kinetics of phenol onto modified green macro algal biomass were best described by a pseudo second order model. The maximum uptake capacity was found to be 20 mg of phenol per gram of green macro algae. A Boyd plot confirmed the external mass transfer as the slowest step involved in the biosorption process. The average effective diffusion coefficient was found to be 1.44 x 10(-9) cm(2)/s. Thermodynamic studies confirmed the biosorption process to be exothermic. PMID:19138816

  8. Phylogenetic and morphological characterisation of the green algae infesting blue mussel Mytilus edulis in the North and South Atlantic oceans.

    PubMed

    Rodrguez, Francisco; Feist, Stephen W; Guillou, Laure; Harkestad, Lisbeth S; Bateman, Kelly; Renault, Tristan; Mortensen, Stein

    2008-09-24

    Blue mussels Mytilus edulis with shell deformations and green pustules containing parasitic algae were collected at 3 coastal sites (Bury, Norway; Bockholm, Denmark; Goose Green, Falkland Islands). A comparative study, including mussel histopathology, algal morphology, ultrastructure and phylogenetic position was performed. Green pustules were mainly located in the posterior portion of the mantle and gonad tissues and the posterior adductor muscle. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of algal cells with similar morphology to Coccomyxa parasitica. Algae were oval shaped with a single nucleus and chloroplast, 1 or 2 mitochondria and a dense granular cytoplasm with a lipid inclusion body, Golgi apparatus and small vesicles. Partial small subunit (SSU) rRNA phylogeny confirmed the inclusion of parasitic algae into the Coccomyxa clade. However, the sequence identity between almost full SSU rRNA sequences of parasitic algae and others in this clade yielded an unexpected result. Green algae from mussels were distant from C. parasitica Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa (CCAP) strain 216/18 (94% identity), but very similar (99% identity) to C. glaronensis (a lichen endosymbiont) and green endophytes from the tree Ginkgo biloba. The CCAP strain 216/18 was a sister sequence to Nannochloris algae, far from the Coccomyxa clade. These results suggest a misidentification or outgrowth of the original CCAP strain 216/18 by a different 'Nannochloris-like' trebouxiophycean organism. In contrast, our sequences directly obtained from infested mussels could represent the true C. parasitica responsible for the green pustules in blue mussels. PMID:18998587

  9. Structure of PSI, PSII and antennae complexes from yellow-green alga Xanthonema debile.

    PubMed

    Gardian, Zdenko; Tich, Josef; Vcha, Frantiek

    2011-05-01

    Photosynthetic carbon fixation by Chromophytes is one of the significant components of a carbon cycle on the Earth. Their photosynthetic apparatus is different in pigment composition from that of green plants and algae. In this work we report structural maps of photosystem I, photosystem II and light harvesting antenna complexes isolated from a soil chromophytic alga Xanthonema debile (class Xanthophyceae). Electron microscopy of negatively stained preparations followed by single particle analysis revealed that the overall structure of Xanthophytes' PSI and PSII complexes is similar to that known from higher plants or algae. Averaged top-view projections of Xanthophytes' light harvesting antenna complexes (XLH) showed two groups of particles. Smaller ones that correspond to a trimeric form of XLH, bigger particles resemble higher oligomeric form of XLH. PMID:21455629

  10. Algae.

    PubMed

    Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Algae frequently get a bad press. Pond slime is a problem in garden pools, algal blooms can produce toxins that incapacitate or kill animals and humans and even the term seaweed is pejorative - a weed being a plant growing in what humans consider to be the wrong place. Positive aspects of algae are generally less newsworthy - they are the basis of marine food webs, supporting fisheries and charismatic marine megafauna from albatrosses to whales, as well as consuming carbon dioxide and producing oxygen. Here we consider what algae are, their diversity in terms of evolutionary origin, size, shape and life cycles, and their role in the natural environment and in human affairs. PMID:25004359

  11. COMPLEMENTARY CHROMATIC ADAPTATION IN A FILAMENTOUS BLUE-GREEN ALGA

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Allen; Bogorad, Lawrence

    1973-01-01

    Fluorescent and red light environments generate greatly different patterns of pigmentation and morphology in Fremyella diplosiphon. Most strikingly, red-illuminated cultures contain no measurable C-phycoerythrin and have a mean filament length about 10 times shorter than fluorescent-illuminated cultures. C-phycoerythrin behaves as a photoinducible constituent of this alga. Spectrophotometric and immunochemical procedures were devised so that C-phycoerythrin metabolism could be studied quantitatively with [14C]-phenylalanine pulse-chased cultures. Transfer of red-illuminated cultures to fluorescent light initiates C-phycoerythrin production by essentially de novo synthesis. C-phycoerythrin is not degraded to any significant extent in cultures continuously illuminated with fluorescent light. Transfer of fluorescent-illuminated cultures to red light causes an abrupt cessation of C-phycoerythrin synthesis. The C-phycoerythrin content of cultures adapting to red light decreases and subsequently becomes constant. Loss of C-phycoerythrin is not brought about by metabolic degradation, but rather by a decrease in mean filament length which is effected by transcellular breakage. In this experimental system, light influences intracellular C-phycoerythrin levels by regulating the rate of synthesis of the chromoprotein. PMID:4199659

  12. Substitution rate calibration of small subunit ribosomal RNA identifies chlorarachniophyte endosymbionts as remnants of green algae.

    PubMed Central

    Van de Peer, Y; Rensing, S A; Maier, U G; De Wachter, R

    1996-01-01

    Chlorarachniophytes are amoeboid algae with chlorophyll a and b containing plastids that are surrounded by four membranes instead of two as in plants and green algae. These extra membranes form important support for the hypothesis that chlorarachniophytes have acquired their plastids by the ingestion of another eukaryotic plastid-containing alga. Chlorarachniophytes also contain a small nucleus-like structure called the nucleomorph situated between the two inner and the two outer membranes surrounding the plastid. This nucleomorph is a remnant of the endosymbiont's nucleus and encodes, among other molecules, small subunit ribosomal RNA. Previous phylogenetic analyses on the basis of this molecule provided unexpected and contradictory evidence for the origin of the chlorarachniophyte endosymbiont. We developed a new method for measuring the substitution rates of the individual nucleotides of small subunit ribosomal RNA. From the resulting substitution rate distribution, we derived an equation that gives a more realistic relationship between sequence dissimilarity and evolutionary distance than equations previously available. Phylogenetic trees constructed on the basis of evolutionary distances computed by this new method clearly situate the chlorarachniophyte nucleomorphs among the green algae. Moreover, this relationship is confirmed by transversion analysis of the Chlorarachnion plastid small subunit ribosomal RNA. PMID:8755544

  13. Strong tolerance of blue-green alga Microcystis flos-aquae to very high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, F.; Nishihira, N.; Hada, Y.; Mori, Y.; Takarabe, K.; Saigusa, M.; Matsushima, Y.; Yamazaki, D.; Ito, E.

    2015-09-01

    It was shown in our previous reports that a few spores of moss Venturiella could tolerate the very high pressure of 20 GPa for 30 min and germinated a protonema to the length of 30 μm. However, these spores did not grow any further, and disappeared at around 30 days of incubation after seeded. On the other hand, colonies of blue-green alga Microcystis flos-aquae came to appear about 76 days after the moss spores were seeded. Many of these colonies appeared at the places where the moss spores had disappeared. These colonies were formed by the algae that had adhered to the spore cases of the moss and survived after exposure to the very high pressure of 20 GPa. Though the appearance of the colonies of high pressure exposed algae was delayed by about 50 days compared with that of the control group which was not exposed to high pressure, there seems no difference in their shape and color from those of the control group. The pressure tolerance of blue-green alga is found to be enormously strong, and it can survive after exposure to the high pressure which corresponds to the depth of about 550-600 km from the surface of the Earth, just above the lower mantle.

  14. The adsorption potential and recovery of thallium using green micro-algae from eutrophic water sources.

    PubMed

    Birungi, Z S; Chirwa, E M N

    2015-12-15

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly volatile and toxic heavy metal regarded to cause pollution even at very low concentrations of several parts per million. Despite the extremely high risk of Tl in the environment, limited information on removal/recovery exists. The study focussed on the use of green algae to determine the sorption potential and recovery of Tl. From the study, removal efficiency was achieved at 100% for lower concentrations of ?150mg/L of Tl. At higher concentrations in a range of 250-500mg/L, the performance of algae was still higher with sorption capacity (qmax) between 830 and 1000mg/g. Generally, Chlorella vulgaris was the best adsorbent with a high qmax and lower affinity of 1000mg/g and 1.11L/g, respectively. When compared to other studies on Tl adsorption, the tested algae showed a better qmax than most adsorbents. The kinetic studies showed better correlation co-efficient of ?0.99 for Pseudo-second order model than the first order model. Recovery was achieved highest for C. vulgaris using nitric acid at 93.3%. The strongest functional groups responsible for Tl binding on the algal cell wall were carboxyl and phenols. Green algae from freshwater bodies showed significant potential for Tl removal/recovery from industrial wastewater. PMID:26093356

  15. Laccase-like enzyme activities from chlorophycean green algae with potential for bioconversion of phenolic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Otto, Benjamin; Beuchel, Carl; Liers, Christiane; Reisser, Werner; Harms, Hauke; Schlosser, Dietmar

    2015-06-01

    In order to explore the abundance and potential environmental functions of green algal laccases, we screened various algae for extracellular laccase-like activities, characterized basic features of these activities in selected species and exemplarily studied the transformation of environmental pollutants and complex natural compounds by the laccase of Tetracystis aeria. Oxidation of the classical laccase substrate ABTS was found to be widespread in chlorophycean algae. The oxidation activity detected in members of the 'Scenedesmus' clade was caused by an unknown thermostable low-molecular-mass compound. In contrast, species of the Moewusinia, including Chlamydomonas moewusii and T. aeria, excreted putative 'true' laccases. Phenolic substrates were oxidized by these enzymes optimally at neutral to alkaline pH. The Tetracystis laccase efficiently transformed bisphenol A, 17α-ethinylestradiol, nonylphenol and triclosan in the presence of ABTS as redox mediator, while anthracene, veratrylalcohol and adlerol were not attacked. Lignosulfonate and humic acid underwent slight (de)polymerization reactions in the presence of the laccase and mediator(s), probably involving the oxidation of phenolic constituents. Possible natural functions of the enzymes, such as the synthesis of complex polymers or detoxification processes, may assist the survival of the algae in adverse environments. In contaminated surface waters, laccase-producing green algae might contribute to the environmental breakdown of phenolic pollutants. PMID:25926529

  16. Ulvan, a sulfated polysaccharide from green algae, activates plant immunity through the jasmonic acid signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Jaulneau, Valrie; Lafitte, Claude; Jacquet, Christophe; Fournier, Sylvie; Salamagne, Sylvie; Briand, Xavier; Esquerr-Tugay, Marie-Thrse; Dumas, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The industrial use of elicitors as alternative tools for disease control needs the identification of abundant sources of them. We report on an elicitor obtained from the green algae Ulva spp. A fraction containing most exclusively the sulfated polysaccharide known as ulvan-induced expression of a GUS gene placed under the control of a lipoxygenase gene promoter. Gene expression profiling was performed upon ulvan treatments on Medicago truncatula and compared to phytohormone effects. Ulvan induced a gene expression signature similar to that observed upon methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA). Involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in ulvan response was confirmed by detecting induction of protease inhibitory activity and by hormonal profiling of JA, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Ulvan activity on the hormonal pathway was further consolidated by using Arabidopsis hormonal mutants. Altogether, our results demonstrate that green algae are a potential reservoir of ulvan elicitor which acts through the JA pathway. PMID:20445752

  17. Ulvan, a Sulfated Polysaccharide from Green Algae, Activates Plant Immunity through the Jasmonic Acid Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jaulneau, Valrie; Lafitte, Claude; Jacquet, Christophe; Fournier, Sylvie; Salamagne, Sylvie; Briand, Xavier; Esquerr-Tugay, Marie-Thrse; Dumas, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The industrial use of elicitors as alternative tools for disease control needs the identification of abundant sources of them. We report on an elicitor obtained from the green algae Ulva spp. A fraction containing most exclusively the sulfated polysaccharide known as ulvan-induced expression of a GUS gene placed under the control of a lipoxygenase gene promoter. Gene expression profiling was performed upon ulvan treatments on Medicago truncatula and compared to phytohormone effects. Ulvan induced a gene expression signature similar to that observed upon methyl jasmonate treatment (MeJA). Involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in ulvan response was confirmed by detecting induction of protease inhibitory activity and by hormonal profiling of JA, salicylic acid (SA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Ulvan activity on the hormonal pathway was further consolidated by using Arabidopsis hormonal mutants. Altogether, our results demonstrate that green algae are a potential reservoir of ulvan elicitor which acts through the JA pathway. PMID:20445752

  18. When the lights go out: the evolutionary fate of free-living colorless green algae.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Martinez, Francisco; Nedelcu, Aurora M; Smith, David R; Adrian, Reyes-Prieto

    2015-05-01

    The endosymbiotic origin of plastids was a launching point for eukaryotic evolution. The autotrophic abilities bestowed by plastids are responsible for much of the eukaryotic diversity we observe today. But despite its many advantages, photosynthesis has been lost numerous times and in disparate lineages throughout eukaryote evolution. For example, among green algae, several groups have lost photosynthesis independently and in response to different selective pressures; these include the parasitic/pathogenic trebouxiophyte genera Helicosporidium and Prototheca, and the free-living chlamydomonadalean genera Polytomella and Polytoma. Here, we examine the published data on colorless green algae and argue that investigations into the different evolutionary routes leading to their current nonphotosynthetic lifestyles provide exceptional opportunities to understand the ecological and genomic factors involved in the loss of photosynthesis. PMID:26042246

  19. Esfenvalerate toxicity to the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia in the presence of green algae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata.

    PubMed

    Brander, Susanne M; Mosser, Christopher M; Geist, Juergen; Hladik, Michelle L; Werner, Inge

    2012-11-01

    The presence of phytoplankton, like other particulate organic matter, can interfere with the effects of hydrophobic contaminants such as pyrethroid pesticides. However, the reduction or elimination of toxicity by algae added as food during testing is not taken into account in standard US EPA whole effluent toxicity (WET) zooplankton tests. On the other hand, WET test conditions may overestimate toxicity of such compounds in highly productive surface waters with high concentrations of detritus and other particulate matter. In addition, WET tests do not measure impaired swimming ability or predator avoidance behavior as an indicator of increased mortality risk. This study used a modified version of the US EPA WET Ceriodaphnia dubia acute test to investigate the effects of phytoplankton on toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticide, esfenvalerate. Animals were exposed simultaneously to different concentrations of esfenvalerate and green algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata). Mortality and predation risk were recorded after 4 and 24 h. Algae at or below concentrations specified in the WET protocol significantly reduced mortality. Regardless, organisms exposed to esfenvalerate were unable to avoid simulated predation in the presence of algae at any concentration. After 12 h, esfenvalerate adsorbed to algae represented 68-99 % of the total amount recovered. The proportion of algae-bound insecticide increased with algal concentration indicating that conclusions drawn from toxicity tests in which algae are added as food must be interpreted with caution as the dissolved fraction of such hydrophobic contaminants is reduced. Additionally, our results strongly suggest that the EPA should consider adding ecologically-relevant endpoints such as swimming behavior to standard WET protocols. PMID:22975895

  20. A Green Algae Mixture of Scenedesmus and Schroederiella Attenuates Obesity-Linked Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C.; Paul, Nicholas A.; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the responses to a green algae mixture of Scenedesmus dimorphus and Schroederiella apiculata (SC) containing protein (46.1% of dry algae), insoluble fibre (19.6% of dry algae), minerals (3.7% of dry algae) and omega-3 fatty acids (2.8% of dry algae) as a dietary intervention in a high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome model in four groups of male Wistar rats. Two groups were fed with a corn starch diet containing 68% carbohydrates as polysaccharides, while the other two groups were fed a diet high in simple carbohydrates (fructose and sucrose in food, 25% fructose in drinking water, total 68%) and fats (saturated and trans fats from beef tallow, total 24%). High carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats showed visceral obesity with hypertension, insulin resistance, cardiovascular remodelling, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. SC supplementation (5% of food) lowered total body and abdominal fat mass, increased lean mass, and attenuated hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, endothelial dysfunction, infiltration of inflammatory cells into heart and liver, fibrosis, increased cardiac stiffness, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the high carbohydrate, high fat diet-fed rats. This study suggests that the insoluble fibre or protein in SC helps reverse diet-induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:25875119

  1. A green algae mixture of Scenedesmus and Schroederiella attenuates obesity-linked metabolic syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Senthil Arun; Magnusson, Marie; Ward, Leigh C; Paul, Nicholas A; Brown, Lindsay

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the responses to a green algae mixture of Scenedesmus dimorphus and Schroederiella apiculata (SC) containing protein (46.1% of dry algae), insoluble fibre (19.6% of dry algae), minerals (3.7% of dry algae) and omega-3 fatty acids (2.8% of dry algae) as a dietary intervention in a high carbohydrate, high fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome model in four groups of male Wistar rats. Two groups were fed with a corn starch diet containing 68% carbohydrates as polysaccharides, while the other two groups were fed a diet high in simple carbohydrates (fructose and sucrose in food, 25% fructose in drinking water, total 68%) and fats (saturated and trans fats from beef tallow, total 24%). High carbohydrate, high fat-fed rats showed visceral obesity with hypertension, insulin resistance, cardiovascular remodelling, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. SC supplementation (5% of food) lowered total body and abdominal fat mass, increased lean mass, and attenuated hypertension, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, endothelial dysfunction, infiltration of inflammatory cells into heart and liver, fibrosis, increased cardiac stiffness, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the high carbohydrate, high fat diet-fed rats. This study suggests that the insoluble fibre or protein in SC helps reverse diet-induced metabolic syndrome. PMID:25875119

  2. Viruses of eukaryotic green algae. Progress report, August 1, 1982-July 1, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Van Etten, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The virus, PBCV-1, which infects the eukaryotic, green alga, Chlorella-NC64A has been characterized and we have begun to look at detailed events associated with its growth cycle. In addition, we have recently discovered other dsDNA viruses from natural sources which replicate in Chlorella NC64A. These viruses can be distinguished from PBCV-1 and from each other by plaque morphology, DNA restriction patterns, and by their resistance to certain restriction endonucleases.

  3. Viruses of eukaryotic green algae. Final technical report, June 1, 1989--February 1, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Van Etten, J.L.

    1992-12-31

    We have isolated and partially characterized many large, polyhedral, DNA containing, plaque forming viruses which infect certain unicellular, eukaryotic, chlorella-like green algae. These viruses have several unique features, including the fact that they code for DNA site-specific endonucleases and DNA methyltransferases. The primary objectives of this study were to identify, clone, and characterize some of the virus-encoded DNA methyltransferases and DNA restriction endonucleases in order to understand their biological function.

  4. Production of Recombinant Proteins in the Chloroplast of the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Guzmn-Zapata, Daniel; Macedo-Osorio, Karla Soledad; Almaraz-Delgado, Alma Lorena; Durn-Figueroa, No; Badillo-Corona, Jesus Agustn

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplast transformation in the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii can be used for the production of valuable recombinant proteins. Here, we describe chloroplast transformation of C. reinhardtii followed by protein detection. Genes of interest integrate stably by homologous recombination into the chloroplast genome following introduction by particle bombardment. Genes are inherited and expressed in lines recovered after selection in the presence of an antibiotic. Recombinant proteins can be detected by conventional techniques like immunoblotting and purified from liquid cultures. PMID:26614282

  5. Calcium oxalate crystals in the aragonite-producing green alga penicillus and related genera.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, E I; Roth, W C; Turner, J B; McEwen, R S

    1972-09-01

    Calcium oxalate crystals occur in the marine green algae Penicillus, Rhipocephalus, and Udotea, known as producers of sedimentary aragonite needles. In contrast to the externally deposited aragonite crystals which are generally < 15 micrometers long, the oxalate crystals are larger (up to 150 micrometers) and are located in the vacuolar system of the plant. No calcium oxalate was found in the related but noncalcifying genera Avrainvillea and Cladocephalus. PMID:17780990

  6. Multiple regulatory mechanisms in the chloroplast of green algae: relation to hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Antal, Taras K; Krendeleva, Tatyana E; Tyystjrvi, Esa

    2015-09-01

    A complex regulatory network in the chloroplast of green algae provides an efficient tool for maintenance of energy and redox balance in the cell under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In this review, we discuss the structural and functional organizations of electron transport pathways in the chloroplast, and regulation of photosynthesis in the green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The focus is on the regulatory mechanisms induced in response to nutrient deficiency stress and anoxia and especially on the role of a hydrogenase-mediated reaction in adaptation to highly reducing conditions and ATP deficiency in the cell. PMID:25986411

  7. Heterotrimeric G proteins in green algae: an early innovation in the evolution of the plant lineage.

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, Dieter; Pandey, Sona

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins (G-proteins, hereafter) are important signaling components in all eukaryotes. The absence of these proteins in the sequenced genomes of Chlorophyaceaen green algae has raised questions about their evolutionary origin and prevalence in the plant lineage. The existence of G-proteins has often been correlated with the acquisition of embryophytic life-cycle and/or terrestrial habitats of plants which occurred around 450 million years ago. Our discovery of functional G-proteins in Chara braunii, a representative of the Charophycean green algae, establishes the existence of this conserved signaling pathway in the most basal plants and dates it even further back to 1-1.5 billion years ago. We have now identified the sequence homologs of G-proteins in additional algal families and propose that green algae represent a model system for one of the most basal forms of G-protein signaling known to exist to date. Given the possible differences that exist between plant and metazoan G-protein signaling mechanisms, such basal organisms will serve as important resources to trace the evolutionary origin of proposed mechanistic differences between the systems as well as their plant-specific functions. PMID:24614119

  8. Phylogenetic analysis identifies the invertebrate pathogen Helicosporidium sp. as a green alga (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Tartar, Aurlien; Boucias, Drion G; Adams, Byron J; Becnel, James J

    2002-01-01

    Historically, the invertebrate pathogens of the genus Helicosporidium were considered to be either protozoa or fungi, but the taxonomic position of this group has not been considered since 1931. Recently, a Helicosporidium sp., isolated from the blackfly Simulium jonesi Stone & Snoddy (Diptera: Simuliidae), has been amplified in the heterologous host Helicoverpa zea. Genomic DNA has been extracted from gradient-purified cysts. The 185, 28S and 5.8S regions of the Helicosporidium rDNA, as well as partial sequences of the actin and beta-tubulin genes, were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Comparative analysis of these nucleotide sequences was performed using neighbour-joining and maximum-parsimony methods. All inferred phylogenetic trees placed Helicosporidium sp. among the green algae (Chlorophyta), and this association was supported by bootstrap and parsimony jackknife values. Phylogenetic analysis focused on the green algae depicted Helicosporidium sp. as a close relative of Prototheca wickerhamii and Prototheca zopfii (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae), two achlorophylous, pathogenic green algae. On the basis of this phylogenetic analysis, Helicosporidium sp. is clearly neither a protist nor a fungus, but appears to be the first described algal invertebrate pathogen. These conclusions lead us to propose the transfer of the genus Helicosporidium to Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae. PMID:11837312

  9. Evolutionary trajectories explain the diversified evolution of isogamy and anisogamy in marine green algae.

    PubMed

    Togashi, Tatsuya; Bartelt, John L; Yoshimura, Jin; Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Cox, Paul Alan

    2012-08-21

    The evolution of anisogamy (the production of gametes of different size) is the first step in the establishment of sexual dimorphism, and it is a fundamental phenomenon underlying sexual selection. It is believed that anisogamy originated from isogamy (production of gametes of equal size), which is considered by most theorists to be the ancestral condition. Although nearly all plant and animal species are anisogamous, extant species of marine green algae exhibit a diversity of mating systems including both isogamy and anisogamy. Isogamy in marine green algae is of two forms: isogamy with extremely small gametes and isogamy with larger gametes. Based on disruptive selection for fertilization success and zygote survival (theory of Parker, Baker, and Smith), we explored how environmental changes can contribute to the evolution of such complex mating systems by analyzing the stochastic process in the invasion simulations of populations of differing gamete sizes. We find that both forms of isogamy can evolve from other isogamous ancestors through anisogamy. The resulting dimensionless analysis accounts for the evolutionary stability of all types of mating systems in marine green algae, even in the same environment. These results imply that evolutionary trajectories as well as the optimality of gametes/zygotes played an important role in the evolution of gamete size. PMID:22869736

  10. Acute toxicity of live and decomposing green alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera to abalone Haliotis discus hannai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Yu, Rencheng; Zhou, Mingjiang

    2011-05-01

    From 2007 to 2009, large-scale blooms of green algae (the so-called "green tides") occurred every summer in the Yellow Sea, China. In June 2008, huge amounts of floating green algae accumulated along the coast of Qingdao and led to mass mortality of cultured abalone and sea cucumber. However, the mechanism for the mass mortality of cultured animals remains undetermined. This study examined the toxic effects of Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, the causative species of green tides in the Yellow Sea during the last three years. The acute toxicity of fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent of U. prolifera to the cultured abalone Haliotis discus hannai were tested. It was found that both fresh culture medium and decomposing algal effluent had toxic effects to abalone, and decomposing algal effluent was more toxic than fresh culture medium. The acute toxicity of decomposing algal effluent could be attributed to the ammonia and sulfide presented in the effluent, as well as the hypoxia caused by the decomposition process.

  11. Development of a UV laser-induced fluorescence lidar for monitoring blue-green algae in Lake Suwa.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yasunori; Takano, Kengo; Kobayashi, Fumitoshi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Park, Ho-Dong

    2014-10-20

    We developed a UV (355nm) laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) lidar for monitoring the real-time status of blue-green algae. Since the fluorescence spectrum of blue-green algae excited by 355nm showed the specific fluorescence at 650nm, the lidar was designed to be able to detect the 650nm fluorescence as a surveillance method for the algae. The usefulness was confirmed by observation at Lake Suwa over four years (2005-2008). The detection limit of the LIF lidar was 16.65mg/L for the blue-green algae, which is the range of concentrations in the safe level set by the World Health Organization. PMID:25402791

  12. Impact of green algae on the measurement of Microcystis aeruginosa populations in lagoon-treated wastewater with an algae online analyser.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thang; Roddick, Felicity A; Fan, Linhua

    2015-01-01

    Tests on the algae online analyser (AOA) showed that there was a strong direct linear correlation between cell density and in vivo Chl-a concentration for M. aeruginosa over the range of interest for a biologically treated effluent at a wastewater treatment plant (25,000-65,000 cells mL(-1), equivalent to a biovolume of 2-6 mm3 L(-1)). However, the AOA can provide an overestimate or underestimate of M. aeruginosa populations when green algae are present in the effluent, depending on their species and relative numbers. The results from this study demonstrated that the green algae (e.g., Euglena gracilis, Chlorella sp.) in the field phytoplankton population should be considered during calibration. In summary, the AOA has potential for use as an alert system for the presence of M. aeruginosa, and thus potentially of cyanobacterial blooms, in wastewater stabilization ponds. PMID:25204421

  13. Bioaccumulation and degradation of pesticide fluroxypyr are associated with toxic tolerance in green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Qiu, Chong Bin; Zhou, You; Jin, Zhen Peng; Yang, Hong

    2011-03-01

    The herbicide fluroxypyr is widely used for controlling weeds and insects but intensive use of fluroxypyr has resulted in its widespread contamination in soils and aquatic ecosystems. To evaluate the eco-toxicity of fluroxypyr to green algae, bioaccumulation and degradation of fluroxypyr in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a model unicellular alga, along with its biological adaptation to fluroxypyr toxicity were investigated. The microalgae were treated with fluroxypyr at 0.05-1.00 mg l(-1) for 2 days or 0.50 mg l(-1) for 1-5 days. The growth of C. reinhardtii was stimulated at low levels of fluroxypyr (0.05-0.5 mg l(-1)) but inhibited at high concentrations (0.75-1.00 mg l(-1)). Fluroxypyr was significantly accumulated by C. reinhardtii. Interestingly, the accumulated fluroxypyr could be rapidly degraded in the cells. On day 5 more than 57% of cellular fluroxypyr was degraded. Our results indicated that accumulation and degradation of fluroxypyr occurred simultaneously. Treatment with 0.05-1.00 mg l(-1) fluroxypyr for 30 min induced significant production of reactive oxygen species and as a consequence resulted in accumulation of peroxides and DNA degradation. Additionally, activities of several major antioxidant enzymes were activated in C. reinhardtii exposed to high levels of fluroxypyr. Overall, the present studies represent the initial comprehensive analyses of the green alga C. reinhardtii in adaptation to the fluroxypyr-contaminated aquatic ecosystems. PMID:21153053

  14. Isolation and phylogenetic characterization of bacteria capable of inducing differentiation in the green alga Monostroma oxyspermum.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yoshihide; Suzuki, Makoto; Kasai, Hiroaki; Shizuri, Yoshikazu; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2003-01-01

    Many green algae cannot develop normally when they are grown under axenic conditions. Monostroma oxyspermum, for example, proliferates unicellularly in an aseptic culture, but develops into a normal foliaceous gametophyte in the presence of some marine bacteria. More than 1000 bacterial strains were isolated from marine algae and sponges and assayed for their ability to induce the morphogenesis of unicellular M. oxyspermum. Fifty bacterial strains exhibiting morphogenesis-inducing activity against unicellular M. oxyspermum were isolated. The partial gyrB (approximately 1.2 kbp) and 16S rDNA (approximately 1.4 kbp) sequences of about 40 active strains were determined, and their phylogenetic relationships were analysed. All these strains were located within the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides (CFB) complex, and most of these strains were clustered in a clade comprising Zobellia uliginosa. On the other hand, these bacteria also exhibited morphogenetic activity against germ-free spores of Ulva pertusa, Ulva conglobata and Enteromorpha intestinalis. Moreover, these bacteria induced the release of spores from the leafy young gametophyte of M. oxyspermum. These results indicate that strains belonging to several groups in the CFB complex play an important role in the normal development of green algae in the marine coastal environment. PMID:12542710

  15. Cell death upon H(2)O(2) induction in the unicellular green alga Micrasterias.

    PubMed

    Darehshouri, A; Affenzeller, M; Ltz-Meindl, U

    2008-11-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether the unicellular green alga Micrasterias denticulata is capable of executing programmed cell death (PCD) upon experimental induction, and which morphological, molecular and physiological hallmarks characterise this. This is particularly interesting as unicellular freshwater green algae growing in shallow bog ponds are exposed to extreme environmental conditions, and the capacity to perform PCD may be an important strategy to guarantee survival of the population. The theoretically 'immortal' alga Micrasterias is an ideal object for such investigations as it has served as a cell biological model system for many years and details on its growth properties, physiology and ultrastructure throughout the cell cycle are well known. Treatments with low concentrations of H(2)O(2) are known to induce PCD in other organisms, resulting in severe ultrastructural changes to organelles, as observed in TEM. These include deformation and part disintegration of mitochondria, abnormal dilatation of cisternal rims of dictyosomes, occurrence of multivesicular bodies, an increase in the number of ER compartments, and slight condensation of chromatin. Additionally, a statistically significant increase in caspase-3-like activity was detected, which was abrogated by a caspase-3 inhibitor. Photosynthetic activity measured by fast chlorophyll fluorescence decreased as a consequence of H(2)O(2) exposure, whereas pigment composition, except for a reduction in carotenoids, was the same as in untreated controls. TUNEL positive staining and ladder-like degradation of DNA, both frequently regarded as a hallmark of PCD in higher plants, could only be detected in dead Micrasterias cells. PMID:18950431

  16. Identification of phytochelatins in the cadmium-stressed conjugating green alga Micrasterias denticulata.

    PubMed

    Volland, Stefanie; Schaumlöffel, Dirk; Dobritzsch, Dirk; Krauss, Gerd-Joachim; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2013-04-01

    Aquatic environments like peat bogs are affected by anthropogenic metal input into the environment. These ecosystems are inhabited by unicellular green algae of the class Zygnematophyceae. In this study the desmid Micrasterias denticulata was stressed with 600 nM Cd, 10 μM Cr and 300 nM Cu for 3 weeks. GSH levels were measured with HPLC and did not differ between the different treatments or the control. According to the metallo-thiolomics concept, mass spectrometry was used as a method for unambiguous thiol peptide identification. PC2, PC3 and PC4 were clearly identified in the Cd stressed sample with UPLC-MS by their MS spectrum and molecular masses. PC2 and PC3 were determined to be the main thiol compounds, while PC4 was only abundant in traces in Micrasterias. In addition, the identity of PC2 and PC3 was confirmed by MS/MS. No PCs were detected in the Cu stressed algae sample. However, in the Cr stressed sample traces of PC2 were indicated by a peak in UPLC-MS at the retention time of the PC2 standard, but the intensity was too low to acquire reliable MS and MS/MS spectra. In this study PCs have been detected for the first time in a green alga of the division Streptophyta, a close relative to higher plants. PMID:23266414

  17. Evaluation of antigenotoxic effects of carotenoids from green algae Chlorococcum humicola using human lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavathy, S; Sumathi, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the available phytochemicals and carotenoids in the selected green algae and evaluate the potential genotoxic/antigenotoxic effect using lymphocytes. Methods Organic solvent extracts of Chlorococcum humicola (C. humicola) were used for the phytochemical analysis. The available carotenoids were assessed by HPLC, and LC-MS analysis. The genotoxicity was induced by the benzo(a)pyrene in the lymphocyte culture, the genotoxic and antigenotoxic effects of algal carotenoids with and without genotoxic inducer were evaluated by chromosomal aberration (CA), sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus assay (MN). Results The results of the analysis showed that the algae were rich in carotenoids and fatty acids. In the total carotenoids lutein, β-carotene and α-carotene were found to be present in higher concentration. The frequency of CA and SCE increased by benzo(a)pyrene were significantly decreased by the carotenoids (P<0.05 for CA, P<0.001 for SCE). The MN frequencies of the cells were significantly decreased by the treatment with carotenoids when compared with the positive controls (P<0.05). Conclusions The findings of the present study demonstrate that, the green algae C. humicola is a rich source of bioactive compounds especially carotenoids which effectively fight against environmental genotoxic agents, the carotenoids itself is not a genotoxic substance and should be further considered for its beneficial effects. PMID:23569879

  18. Genomic analysis of organismal complexity in the multicellular green alga Volvox carteri

    SciTech Connect

    Prochnik, Simon E.; Umen, James; Nedelcu, Aurora; Hallmann, Armin; Miller, Stephen M.; Nishii, Ichiro; Ferris, Patrick; Kuo, Alan; Mitros, Therese; Fritz-Laylin, Lillian K.; Hellsten, Uffe; Chapman, Jarrod; Simakov, Oleg; Rensing, Stefan A.; Terry, Astrid; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Kapitonov, Vladimir; Jurka, Jerzy; Salamov, Asaf; Shapiro, Harris; Schmutz, Jeremy; Grimwood, Jane; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Schmitt, Rudiger; Kirk, David; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2010-07-01

    Analysis of the Volvox carteri genome reveals that this green alga's increased organismal complexity and multicellularity are associated with modifications in protein families shared with its unicellular ancestor, and not with large-scale innovations in protein coding capacity. The multicellular green alga Volvox carteri and its morphologically diverse close relatives (the volvocine algae) are uniquely suited for investigating the evolution of multicellularity and development. We sequenced the 138 Mb genome of V. carteri and compared its {approx}14,500 predicted proteins to those of its unicellular relative, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Despite fundamental differences in organismal complexity and life history, the two species have similar protein-coding potentials, and few species-specific protein-coding gene predictions. Interestingly, volvocine algal-specific proteins are enriched in Volvox, including those associated with an expanded and highly compartmentalized extracellular matrix. Our analysis shows that increases in organismal complexity can be associated with modifications of lineage-specific proteins rather than large-scale invention of protein-coding capacity.

  19. Growth of the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under red and blue lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Sara S.; Cuello, Joel L.; Myhre, Graham; Pau, Stanley

    2011-03-01

    Red and blue lasers, holding promise as an electric light source for photosynthetic systems on account of being true monochromatic, high-power, and having high electrical-conversion efficiency, were employed in growing a green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The laser treatments tested included: 655-nm Red; 680-nm Red; 655-nm Red+474-nm Blue and 680-nm Red+474-nm Blue. A white cold cathode lamp with spectral output similar to that of white fluorescent lamp served as control. C. reinhardtii successfully grew and divided under the 655 and 680-nm red lasers as well as under the white-light control. Supplementing either red with blue laser, however, resulted in increased algae cell count that significantly exceeded those under both red lasers and the white-light control on average by 241%.

  20. A Lack of Parasitic Reduction in the Obligate Parasitic Green Alga Helicosporidium

    PubMed Central

    Pombert, Jean-Franois; Blouin, Nicolas Achille; Lane, Chris; Boucias, Drion; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of an obligate parasitic lifestyle is often associated with genomic reduction, in particular with the loss of functions associated with increasing host-dependence. This is evident in many parasites, but perhaps the most extreme transitions are from free-living autotrophic algae to obligate parasites. The best-known examples of this are the apicomplexans such as Plasmodium, which evolved from algae with red secondary plastids. However, an analogous transition also took place independently in the Helicosporidia, where an obligate parasite of animals with an intracellular infection mechanism evolved from algae with green primary plastids. We characterised the nuclear genome of Helicosporidium to compare its transition to parasitism with that of apicomplexans. The Helicosporidium genome is small and compact, even by comparison with the relatively small genomes of the closely related green algae Chlorella and Coccomyxa, but at the functional level we find almost no evidence for reduction. Nearly all ancestral metabolic functions are retained, with the single major exception of photosynthesis, and even here reduction is not complete. The great majority of genes for light-harvesting complexes, photosystems, and pigment biosynthesis have been lost, but those for other photosynthesis-related functions, such as Calvin cycle, are retained. Rather than loss of whole function categories, the predominant reductive force in the Helicosporidium genome is a contraction of gene family complexity, but even here most losses affect families associated with genome maintenance and expression, not functions associated with host-dependence. Other gene families appear to have expanded in response to parasitism, in particular chitinases, including those predicted to digest the chitinous barriers of the insect host or remodel the cell wall of Helicosporidium. Overall, the Helicosporidium genome presents a fascinating picture of the early stages of a transition from free-living autotroph to parasitic heterotroph where host-independence has been unexpectedly preserved. PMID:24809511

  1. A lack of parasitic reduction in the obligate parasitic green alga Helicosporidium.

    PubMed

    Pombert, Jean-François; Blouin, Nicolas Achille; Lane, Chris; Boucias, Drion; Keeling, Patrick J

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of an obligate parasitic lifestyle is often associated with genomic reduction, in particular with the loss of functions associated with increasing host-dependence. This is evident in many parasites, but perhaps the most extreme transitions are from free-living autotrophic algae to obligate parasites. The best-known examples of this are the apicomplexans such as Plasmodium, which evolved from algae with red secondary plastids. However, an analogous transition also took place independently in the Helicosporidia, where an obligate parasite of animals with an intracellular infection mechanism evolved from algae with green primary plastids. We characterised the nuclear genome of Helicosporidium to compare its transition to parasitism with that of apicomplexans. The Helicosporidium genome is small and compact, even by comparison with the relatively small genomes of the closely related green algae Chlorella and Coccomyxa, but at the functional level we find almost no evidence for reduction. Nearly all ancestral metabolic functions are retained, with the single major exception of photosynthesis, and even here reduction is not complete. The great majority of genes for light-harvesting complexes, photosystems, and pigment biosynthesis have been lost, but those for other photosynthesis-related functions, such as Calvin cycle, are retained. Rather than loss of whole function categories, the predominant reductive force in the Helicosporidium genome is a contraction of gene family complexity, but even here most losses affect families associated with genome maintenance and expression, not functions associated with host-dependence. Other gene families appear to have expanded in response to parasitism, in particular chitinases, including those predicted to digest the chitinous barriers of the insect host or remodel the cell wall of Helicosporidium. Overall, the Helicosporidium genome presents a fascinating picture of the early stages of a transition from free-living autotroph to parasitic heterotroph where host-independence has been unexpectedly preserved. PMID:24809511

  2. A new model for the calcification of the green macro-alga Halimeda opuntia (Lamouroux)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wizemann, Andr; Meyer, Friedrich W.; Westphal, Hildegard

    2014-12-01

    Halimeda opuntia is a cosmopolitan marine calcifying green alga in shallow tropical marine environments. Besides Halimeda's contribution to a diverse habitat, the alga is an important sediment producer. Fallen calcareous segments of Halimeda spp. are a major component of carbonate sediments in many tropical settings and play an important role in reef framework development and carbonate platform buildup. Consequently the calcification of H. opuntia accounts for large portions of the carbonate budget in tropical shallow marine ecosystems. Earlier studies investigating the calcification processes of Halimeda spp. have tended to focus on the microstructure or the physiology of the alga, thus overlooking the interaction of physiological and abiotic processes behind the formation of the skeleton. By analyzing microstructural skeletal features of Halimeda segments with the aid of scanning electron microscopy and relating their occurrence to known physiological processes, we have been able to identify the initiation of calcification within an organic matrix and demonstrate that biologically induced cementation is an important process in calcification. For the first time, we propose a model for the calcification of Halimeda spp. that considers both the alga's physiology and the carbon chemistry of the seawater with respect to the development of different skeletal features. The presence of an organic matrix and earlier detected external carbonic anhydrase activity suggest that Halimeda spp. exhibit biotic precipitation of calcium carbonate, as many other species of marine organisms do. On the other hand, it is the formation of micro-anhedral carbonate through the alga's metabolism that leads to a cementation of living segments. Precisely, this process allows H. opuntia to contribute substantial amounts of carbonate sediments to tropical shallow seas.

  3. The identification of putative RNA polymerase II C-terminal domain associated proteins in red and green algae

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunlin; Hager, Paul W; Stiller, John W

    2014-01-01

    A tandemly repeated C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II is functionally essential and strongly conserved in many organisms, including animal, yeast and plant models. Although present in simple, ancestral red algae, CTD tandem repeats have undergone extensive modifications and degeneration during the evolutionary transition to developmentally complex rhodophytes. In contrast, CTD repeats are conserved in both green algae and their more complex land plant relatives. Understanding the mechanistic differences that underlie these variant patterns of CTD evolution requires knowledge of CTD-associated proteins in these 2 lineages. To provide an initial baseline comparison, we bound potential phospho-CTD associated proteins (PCAPs) to artificially synthesized and phosphorylated CTD repeats from the unicellular red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae and green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Our results indicate that red and green algae share a number of PCAPs, including kinases and proteins involved in mRNA export. There also are important taxon-specific differences, including mRNA splicing-related PCAPs recovered from Chlamydomonas but not Cyanidioschyzon, consistent with the relative intron densities in green and red algae. Our results also offer the first experimental indication that different proteins bind 2 distinct types of repeats in Cyanidioschyzon, suggesting a division of function between the proximal and distal CTD, similar to patterns identified in more developmentally complex model organisms. PMID:25483605

  4. Common Ancestry Is a Poor Predictor of Competitive Traits in Freshwater Green Algae

    PubMed Central

    Narwani, Anita; Alexandrou, Markos A.; Herrin, James; Vouaux, Alaina; Zhou, Charles; Oakley, Todd H.; Cardinale, Bradley J.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton species traits have been used to successfully predict the outcome of competition, but these traits are notoriously laborious to measure. If these traits display a phylogenetic signal, phylogenetic distance (PD) can be used as a proxy for trait variation. We provide the first investigation of the degree of phylogenetic signal in traits related to competition in freshwater green phytoplankton. We measured 17 traits related to competition and tested whether they displayed a phylogenetic signal across a molecular phylogeny of 59 species of green algae. We also assessed the fit of five models of trait evolution to trait variation across the phylogeny. There was no significant phylogenetic signal for 13 out of 17 ecological traits. For 7 traits, a non-phylogenetic model provided the best fit. For another 7 traits, a phylogenetic model was selected, but parameter values indicated that trait variation evolved recently, diminishing the importance of common ancestry. This study suggests that traits related to competition in freshwater green algae are not generally well-predicted by patterns of common ancestry. We discuss the mechanisms by which the link between phylogenetic distance and phenotypic differentiation may be broken. PMID:26348482

  5. Removal of toxic chromium from wastewater using green alga Ulva lactuca and its activated carbon.

    PubMed

    El-Sikaily, Amany; El Nemr, Ahmed; Khaled, Azza; Abdelwehab, Ola

    2007-09-01

    Biosorption of heavy metals can be an effective process for the removal of toxic chromium ions from wastewater. In this study, the batch removal of toxic hexavalent chromium ions from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater using marine dried green alga Ulva lactuca was investigated. Activated carbon prepared from U. lactuca by acid decomposition was also used for the removal of chromium from aqueous solution, saline water and wastewater. The chromium uptake was dependent on the initial pH and the initial chromium concentration, with pH approximately 1.0, being the optimum pH value. Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were fitted well the equilibrium data for both sorbents. The maximum efficiencies of chromium removal were 92 and 98% for U. lactuca and its activated carbon, respectively. The maximum adsorption capacity was found to be 10.61 and 112.36 mg g(-1) for dried green alga and activated carbon developed from it, respectively. The adsorption capacities of U. lactuca and its activated carbon were independent on the type of solution containing toxic chromium and the efficiency of removal was not affected by the replacing of aqueous solution by saline water or wastewater containing the same chromium concentration. Two hours were necessary to reach the sorption equilibrium. The chromium uptake by U. lactuca and its activated carbon form were best described by pseudo second-order rate model. This study verifies the possibility of using inactivated marine green alga U. lactuca and its activated carbon as valuable material for the removal of chromium from aqueous solutions, saline water or wastewater. PMID:17360109

  6. Cloning and sequencing of the ferredoxin gene of blue-green alga Anabaena siamensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shou-Dong; Song, Li-Rong; Liu, Yong-Ding; Zhao, Jin-Dong

    1998-03-01

    The structure gene for ferredoxin, petFI, from Anabaena siamensis has been amplified by polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and cloned into cloning vector pGEM-3zf(+). The nucleotide sequence of petFI has been determined with silver staining sequencing method. There is 96.8% homology between coding region of petFI from A. siamensis and that of petFI from A. sp. 7120. Amino acid sequences of seven strains of blue-green algae are compared.

  7. Viruses of eukaryotic green algae. Progress report, August 1, 1984-March 1, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Van Etten, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    PBCV-1 is a large dsDNA-containing, plaque forming virus that replicates in a unicellular, eukaryotic Chlorella-like green alga strain NC64A. We have discovered that PBCV-1 infection results in the appearance of a restriction and modification system in the host. Furthermore, we have isolated and partially characterized 30 additional large, dsDNA-containing viruses which replicate in the same host. Some, if not all, of these viruses probably induce the synthesis of modification and restriction systems which are different from that induced by PBCV-1. 16 refs.

  8. Inhibitory effects of terpene alcohols and aldehydes on growth of green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    SciTech Connect

    Ikawa, Miyoshi; Mosley, S.P.; Barbero, L.J. )

    1992-10-01

    The growth of the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa was inhibited by terpene alcohols and the terpene aldehyde citral. The strongest activity was shown by citral. Nerol, geraniol, and citronellol also showed pronounced activity. Strong inhibition was linked to acyclic terpenes containing a primary alcohol or aldehyde function. Inhibition appeared to be taking place through the vapor phase rather than by diffusion through the agar medium from the terpene-treated paper disks used in the system. Inhibition through agar diffusion was shown by certain aged samples of terpene hydrocarbons but not by recently purchased samples.

  9. Size-dependent ecotoxicity of barium titanate particles: the case of Chlorella vulgaris green algae.

    PubMed

    Polonini, Hudson C; Brandão, Humberto M; Raposo, Nádia R B; Brandão, Marcos Antônio F; Mouton, Ludovic; Couté, Alain; Yéprémian, Claude; Sivry, Yann; Brayner, Roberta

    2015-05-01

    Studies have been demonstrating that smaller particles can lead to unexpected and diverse ecotoxicological effects when compared to those caused by the bulk material. In this study, the chemical composition, size and shape, state of dispersion, and surface's charge, area and physicochemistry of micro (BT MP) and nano barium titanate (BT NP) were determined. Green algae Chlorella vulgaris grown in Bold's Basal (BB) medium or Seine River water (SRW) was used as biological indicator to assess their aquatic toxicology. Responses such as growth inhibition, cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) content and photosynthetic activity were evaluated. Tetragonal BT (~170 nm, 3.24 m(2) g(-1) surface area) and cubic BT (~60 nm, 16.60 m(2) g(-1)) particles were negative, poorly dispersed, and readily aggregated. BT has a statistically significant effect on C. vulgaris growth since the lower concentration tested (1 ppm), what seems to be mediated by induced oxidative stress caused by the particles (increased SOD activity and decreased photosynthetic efficiency and intracellular ATP content). The toxic effects were more pronounced when the algae was grown in SRW. Size does not seem to be an issue influencing the toxicity in BT particles toxicity since micro- and nano-particles produced significant effects on algae growth. PMID:25763523

  10. Volvoxrhodopsin, a light-regulated sensory photoreceptor of the spheroidal green alga Volvox carteri.

    PubMed Central

    Ebnet, E; Fischer, M; Deininger, W; Hegemann, P

    1999-01-01

    Somatic cells of the multicellular alga Volvox carteri contain a visual rhodopsin that controls the organism's phototactic behavior via two independent photoreceptor currents. Here, we report the identification of an opsinlike gene, designated as volvoxopsin (vop). The encoded protein exhibits homologies to the opsin of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (chlamyopsin) and to the entire animal opsin family, thus providing new perspectives on opsin evolution. Volvoxopsin accumulates within the eyes of somatic cells. However, the vop transcript is detectable only in the reproductive eyeless gonidia and embryos. vop mRNA levels increase 400-fold during embryogenesis, when embryos develop in darkness, whereas the vop transcript does not accumulate when embryos develop in the light. An antisense transformant, T3, was generated. This transformant produces 10 times less volvoxopsin than does the wild type. In T3, the vop transcript is virtually absent, whereas the antisense transcript is predominant and light regulated. It follows that vop expression is under light-dependent transcriptional control but that volvoxopsin itself is not the regulatory photoreceptor. Transformant T3 is phototactic, but its phototactic sensitivity is reduced 10-fold relative to the parental wild-type strain HK10. Thus, we offer definitive genetic evidence that a rhodopsin serves as the photoreceptor for phototaxis in a green alga. PMID:10449581

  11. (Carbon and hydrogen metabolism of green algae in light and dark)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The focus of this project was the elucidation of anaerobic metabolism in ecuaryotic green algae, chlamydomonas reinhardii. Chlamydomonas is a versatile organism that can grow under disparate conditions such as fresh water lakes and sewage ponds. The cell an photoassimilate CO{sub 2} aerobically and anaerobically, the latter after adaptation'' to a hydrogen metabolism. It can recall the knallgas or oxyhydrogen reaction and utilize hydrogen the simplest of all reducing agents for the dark assimilation of CO{sub 2} by the photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle. The dark reduction with hydrogen lies on the border line between autotrophic and heterotrophic carbon assimilation. Both autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria are known in which molecular hydrogen can replace either inorganic or organic hydrogen donors. Here the dark reduction of CO{sub 2} acquires a particular importance since it occurs in the same cell that carries on photoreduction and photosynthesis. We will demonstrate here that the alga chloroplast possesses a respiratory capacity. It seems likely that Chlamydomonas may have retained the chloroplastic respiratory pathway because of the selective advantage provided to the algae under a wide range of environmental conditions that the cells experience in nature. The ability to cycle electrons and poise the reduction level of the photosynthetic apparatus under aerobic and microaerobic conditions could allow more efficient CO{sub 2} fixation and enhanced growth under unfavorable conditions or survival under more severe conditions.

  12. Spectroscopic investigation of ionizing-radiation tolerance of a Chlorophyceae green micro-alga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhi, E.; Rivasseau, C.; Gromova, M.; Compagnon, E.; Marzloff, V.; Ollivier, J.; Boisson, A. M.; Bligny, R.; Natali, F.; Russo, D.; Cout, A.

    2008-03-01

    Micro-organisms living in extreme environments are captivating in the peculiar survival processes they have developed. Deinococcus radiodurans is probably the most famous radio-resistant bacteria. Similarly, a specific ecosystem has grown in a research reactor storage pool, and has selected organisms which may sustain radiative stress. An original green micro-alga which was never studied for its high tolerance to radiations has been isolated. It is the only autotrophic eukaryote that develops in this pool, although contamination possibilities coming from outside are not unusual. Studying what could explain this irradiation tolerance is consequently very interesting. An integrative study of the effects of irradiation on the micro-algae physiology, metabolism, internal dynamics, and genomics was initiated. In the work presented here, micro-algae were stressed with irradiation doses up to 20 kGy (2 Mrad), and studied by means of nuclear magnetic resonance, looking for modifications in the metabolism, and on the IN13 neutron backscattering instrument at the ILL, looking for both dynamics and structural macromolecular changes in the cells.

  13. Determination of Volatile Compounds in Four Commercial Samples of Japanese Green Algae Using Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Akira; Mase, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2014-01-01

    Green algae are of great economic importance. Seaweed is consumed fresh or as seasoning in Japan. The commercial value is determined by quality, color, and flavor and is also strongly influenced by the production area. Our research, based on solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS), has revealed that volatile compounds differ intensely in the four varieties of commercial green algae. Accordingly, 41 major volatile compounds were identified. Heptadecene was the most abundant compound from Okayama (Ulva prolifera), Tokushima (Ulva prolifera), and Ehime prefecture (Ulva linza). Apocarotenoids, such as ionones, and their derivatives were prominent volatiles in algae from Okayama (Ulva prolifera) and Tokushima prefecture (Ulva prolifera). Volatile, short chained apocarotenoids are among the most potent flavor components and contribute to the flavor of fresh, processed algae, and algae-based products. Benzaldehyde was predominant in seaweed from Shizuoka prefecture (Monostroma nitidum). Multivariant statistical analysis (PCA) enabled simple discrimination of the samples based on their volatile profiles. This work shows the potential of SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariant analysis to discriminate between samples of different geographical and botanical origins and form the basis for development of authentication methods of green algae products, including seasonings. PMID:24592162

  14. Determination of volatile compounds in four commercial samples of Japanese green algae using solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Baldermann, Susanne; Yoshikawa, Keisuke; Fujita, Akira; Mase, Nobuyuki; Watanabe, Naoharu

    2014-01-01

    Green algae are of great economic importance. Seaweed is consumed fresh or as seasoning in Japan. The commercial value is determined by quality, color, and flavor and is also strongly influenced by the production area. Our research, based on solid phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS), has revealed that volatile compounds differ intensely in the four varieties of commercial green algae. Accordingly, 41 major volatile compounds were identified. Heptadecene was the most abundant compound from Okayama (Ulva prolifera), Tokushima (Ulva prolifera), and Ehime prefecture (Ulva linza). Apocarotenoids, such as ionones, and their derivatives were prominent volatiles in algae from Okayama (Ulva prolifera) and Tokushima prefecture (Ulva prolifera). Volatile, short chained apocarotenoids are among the most potent flavor components and contribute to the flavor of fresh, processed algae, and algae-based products. Benzaldehyde was predominant in seaweed from Shizuoka prefecture (Monostroma nitidum). Multivariant statistical analysis (PCA) enabled simple discrimination of the samples based on their volatile profiles. This work shows the potential of SPME-GC-MS coupled with multivariant analysis to discriminate between samples of different geographical and botanical origins and form the basis for development of authentication methods of green algae products, including seasonings. PMID:24592162

  15. Evidence for equal size cell divisions during gametogenesis in a marine green alga Monostroma angicava

    PubMed Central

    Togashi, Tatsuya; Horinouchi, Yusuke; Sasaki, Hironobu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-01-01

    In cell divisions, relative size of daughter cells should play fundamental roles in gametogenesis and embryogenesis. Differences in gamete size between the two mating types underlie sexual selection. Size of daughter cells is a key factor to regulate cell divisions during cleavage. In cleavage, the form of cell divisions (equal/unequal in size) determines the developmental fate of each blastomere. However, strict validation of the form of cell divisions is rarely demonstrated. We cannot distinguish between equal and unequal cell divisions by analysing only the mean size of daughter cells, because their means can be the same. In contrast, the dispersion of daughter cell size depends on the forms of cell divisions. Based on this, we show that gametogenesis in the marine green alga, Monostroma angicava, exhibits equal size cell divisions. The variance and the mean of gamete size (volume) of each mating type measured agree closely with the prediction from synchronized equal size cell divisions. Gamete size actually takes only discrete values here. This is a key theoretical assumption made to explain the diversified evolution of isogamy and anisogamy in marine green algae. Our results suggest that germ cells adopt equal size cell divisions during gametogenesis. PMID:26333414

  16. A novel ether-linked phytol-containing digalactosylglycerolipid in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yohei; Nagamatsu, Yusuke; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Matsunaga, Naoyuki; Okino, Nozomu; Yamaguchi, Kuniko; Ito, Makoto

    2014-10-01

    Galactosylglycerolipids (GGLs) and chlorophyll are characteristic components of chloroplast in photosynthetic organisms. Although chlorophyll is anchored to the thylakoid membrane by phytol (tetramethylhexadecenol), this isoprenoid alcohol has never been found as a constituent of GGLs. We here described a novel GGL, in which phytol was linked to the glycerol backbone via an ether linkage. This unique GGL was identified as an Alkaline-resistant and Endogalactosylceramidase (EGALC)-sensitive GlycoLipid (AEGL) in the marine green alga, Ulva pertusa. EGALC is an enzyme that is specific to the R-Gal?/?1-6Gal?1-structure of galactolipids. The structure of U. pertusa AEGL was determined following its purification to 1-O-phytyl-3-O-Gal?1-6Gal?1-sn-glycerol by mass spectrometric and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. AEGLs were ubiquitously distributed in not only green, but also red and brown marine algae; however, they were rarely detected in terrestrial plants, eukaryotic phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria. PMID:25157808

  17. Toxicity assessment of 40 herbicides to the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianyi; Wang, Shufeng; Wang, Pinwei; Ma, Liangjin; Chen, Xiling; Xu, Ruifu

    2006-03-01

    The effects of 40 herbicides with nine modes of action on the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata were studied by 96-h acute toxicity tests. Results showed that the EC50 of the herbicides with respect to the photosynthetic processes of R. subcapitata ranged from 0.0007 to 4.2286 mgL(-1). Photosynthesis was the process of the green alga most sensitive to the tested herbicides. The most toxic herbicides were atrazine, ametryme, simazine, prometryne, cyanazine, isoproturon, chlorotoluron, diuron, methabenzthiazuron, and paraquat. The EC50 of the protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitor oxadiargyl, which was the parameter least sensitive to the herbicides tested in this study, was 42.5 mgL(-1). The descending order of the average acute toxicity to R. subcapitata of herbicides with regard to the nine modes of action was as follows: photosynthetic process>cell division>lipid synthesis, acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase>acetolactate synthase> 5-enolpyruvyl-shikimate-3-phosphate synthase, glutamine synthase, hormone synthesis>protoporphyrinogen oxidase. PMID:16406601

  18. Phagotrophy by the picoeukaryotic green alga Micromonas: implications for Arctic Oceans.

    PubMed

    McKie-Krisberg, Zaid M; Sanders, Robert W

    2014-10-01

    Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPE) are recognized as major primary producers and contributors to phytoplankton biomass in oceanic and coastal environments. Molecular surveys indicate a large phylogenetic diversity in the picoeukaryotes, with members of the Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyseae tending to be more common in open ocean waters and Prasinophyceae dominating coastal and Arctic waters. In addition to their role as primary producers, PPE have been identified in several studies as mixotrophic and major predators of prokaryotes. Mixotrophy, the combination of photosynthesis and phagotrophy in a single organism, is well established for most photosynthetic lineages. However, green algae, including prasinophytes, were widely considered as a purely photosynthetic group. The prasinophyte Micromonas is perhaps the most common picoeukaryote in coastal and Arctic waters and is one of the relatively few cultured representatives of the picoeukaryotes available for physiological investigations. In this study, we demonstrate phagotrophy by a strain of Micromonas (CCMP2099) isolated from Arctic waters and show that environmental factors (light and nutrient concentration) affect ingestion rates in this mixotroph. In addition, we show size-selective feeding with a preference for smaller particles, and determine P vs I (photosynthesis vs irradiance) responses in different nutrient conditions. If other strains have mixotrophic abilities similar to Micromonas CCMP2099, the widespread distribution and frequently high abundances of Micromonas suggest that these green algae may have significant impact on prokaryote populations in several oceanic regimes. PMID:24553471

  19. In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of ulvan, a polysaccharide extracted from green algae.

    PubMed

    Alves, Anabela; Sousa, Rui A; Reis, Rui L

    2013-08-01

    Sustainable exploitation and valorization of natural marine resources represents a highly interesting platform for the development of novel biomaterials, with both economic and environmental benefits. In this context, toxicity data is regarded as a crucial and fundamental knowledge prior to any advances in the application development of natural derived polymers. In the present work, cytotoxicity of ulvan extracted from green algae Ulva lactuca was assessed by means of standard in vitro cytotoxicity assays. Fibroblast-like cells were incubated in the presence of this green algae's polysaccharide, and cell viability was assayed through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium test. In addition, double stranded DNA and total protein were quantified in order to assess cell number. In order to establish ulvan's non-cytotoxic behaviour, the effect of this polysaccharide on cellular metabolic activity and cell number was directly compared to hyaluronic acid (HA), used as a non-cytotoxic control material. In this study, ulvan demonstrated promising results in terms of cytotoxicity, comparable to the currently used HA, which suggests that ulvan can be considered as non-toxic in the range of concentrations studied. PMID:22972627

  20. Multiple metabolic roles for the nonphotosynthetic plastid of the green alga Prototheca wickerhamii.

    PubMed

    Borza, Tudor; Popescu, Cristina E; Lee, Robert W

    2005-02-01

    The presence of plastids in diverse eukaryotic lineages that have lost the capacity for photosynthesis is well documented. The metabolic functions of such organelles, however, are poorly understood except in the case of the apicoplast in the Apicomplexa, a group of intracellular parasites including Plasmodium falciparum, and the plastid of the green alga Helicosporidium sp., a parasite for which the only host-free stage identified in nature so far is represented by cysts. As a first step in the reconstruction of plastid functions in a nonphotosynthetic, predominantly free-living organism, we searched for expressed sequence tags (ESTs) that correspond to nucleus-encoded plastid-targeted polypeptides in the green alga Prototheca wickerhamii. From 3,856 ESTs, we found that 71 unique sequences (235 ESTs) correspond to different nucleus-encoded putatively plastid-targeted polypeptides. The identified proteins predict that carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, tetrapyrrole, and isoprenoid metabolism as well as de novo purine biosynthesis and oxidoreductive processes take place in the plastid of P. wickerhamii. Mg-protoporphyrin accumulation and, therefore, plastid-to-nucleus signaling might also occur in this nonphotosynthetic organism, as we identified a transcript which encodes subunit I of Mg-chelatase, the enzyme which catalyzes the first committed step in chlorophyll synthesis. Our data indicate a far more complex metabolism in P. wickerhamii's plastid compared with the metabolic pathways predicted to be located in the apicoplast of P. falciparum and the plastid of Helicosporidium sp. PMID:15701787

  1. Cell death in the unicellular green alga Micrasterias upon H2O2 induction

    PubMed Central

    Darehshouri, Anza; Affenzeller, Matthias; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    In the present study we investigate whether the unicellular green alga Micrasterias denticulata is capable of executing programmed cell death (PCD) upon experimental induction and by which morphological, molecular and physiological hallmarks it is characterized. This is particularly interesting as unicellular fresh water green algae growing in shallow bog ponds are exposed to extreme environmental conditions and the capability to perform PCD may provide an important strategy to guarantee survival of the population. The theoretically “immortal” alga Micrasterias is an ideal object for such investigations as it has served as a cell biological model system since many years and details on its growth properties, physiology and ultrastructure throughout the cell cycle are well known. Treatment with low concentrations of H2O2 known to induce PCD in other organisms resulted in severe ultrastructural changes of organelles as observed in TEM. These include deformation and partly disintegration of mitochondria, abnormal dilatation of cisternal rims of dictyosomes, the occurrence of multivesicular bodies, an increase in the number of ER compartments and slight condensation of chromatin. Additionally, a statistically significant increase in caspase-3-like activity could be detected which was abrogated by a caspase-3 inhibitor. Photosynthetic activity measured by fast chlorophyll fluorescence decreased as a consequence of H2O2 exposure whereas pigment composition, except of a reduction in carotenoids, was the same as in untreated controls. TUNEL positive staining and ladder-like degradation of DNA, both frequently regarded as PCD hallmark in higher plants could only be detected in dead Micrasterias cells. PMID:18950431

  2. Antioxidant system responses in two co-occurring green-tide algae under stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Zhao, Xinyu; Tang, Xuexi

    2016-01-01

    Green tides have occurred every year from 2007 to 2014 in the Yellow Sea. Ulva prolifera (Müller) J. Agardh has been identified as the bloom-forming alga, co-occurring with U. intestinalis. We observed distinct strategies for both algal species during green tides. U. prolifera exhibited a high abundance initially and then decreased dramatically, while U. intestinalis persisted throughout. The antioxidant system responses of these two macroalgae were compared in the late phase of a green tide (in-situ) and after laboratory acclimation. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system responses differed significantly between the two. Malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide contents increased significantly in-situ in U. prolifera, but not in U. intestinalis. In U. prolifera, we observed a significant decrease in total antioxidant ability (T-AOC), antioxidant enzymes (SOD and Apx), and non-enzyme antioxidants (GSH and AsA) in-situ. U. intestinalis showed the same pattern of T-AOC and SOD, but its Gpx, Apx, and GSH responses did not differ significantly. The results suggest that U. prolifera was more susceptible than U. intestinalis to the harsh environmental changes during the late phase of a Yellow Sea green tide. The boom and bust strategy exhibited by U. prolifera and the persistence of U. intestinalis can be explained by differences in enzyme activity and antioxidant systems.

  3. Antioxidant system responses in two co-occurring green-tide algae under stress conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Zhao, Xinyu; Tang, Xuexi

    2015-07-01

    Green tides have occurred every year from 2007 to 2014 in the Yellow Sea. Ulva prolifera (Mller) J. Agardh has been identified as the bloom-forming alga, co-occurring with U. intestinalis. We observed distinct strategies for both algal species during green tides. U. prolifera exhibited a high abundance initially and then decreased dramatically, while U. intestinalis persisted throughout. The antioxidant system responses of these two macroalgae were compared in the late phase of a green tide (in-situ) and after laboratory acclimation. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant system responses differed significantly between the two. Malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide contents increased significantly in-situ in U. prolifera, but not in U. intestinalis. In U. prolifera, we observed a significant decrease in total antioxidant ability (T-AOC), antioxidant enzymes (SOD and Apx), and non-enzyme antioxidants (GSH and AsA) in-situ. U. intestinalis showed the same pattern of T-AOC and SOD, but its Gpx, Apx, and GSH responses did not differ significantly. The results suggest that U. prolifera was more susceptible than U. intestinalis to the harsh environmental changes during the late phase of a Yellow Sea green tide. The boom and bust strategy exhibited by U. prolifera and the persistence of U. intestinalis can be explained by differences in enzyme activity and antioxidant systems.

  4. Growth and Metabolism of the Green Alga, Chlorella Pyrenoidosa, in Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, W. Ronald

    2003-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on living organisms during space flight has been a topic of interest for some time, and a substantial body of knowledge on the subject has accumulated. Despite this, comparatively little information is available regarding the influence of microgravity on algae, even though it has been suggested for long duration flight or occupancy in space that plant growth systems, including both higher plants and algae, are likely to be necessary for bioregenerative life support systems. High-Aspect-Ratio Rotating-Wall Vessel or HARV bioreactors developed at Johnson Space Center provide a laboratory-based approach to investigating the effects of microgravity on cellular reactions. In this study, the HARV bioreactor was used to examine the influence of simulated microgravity on the growth and metabolism of the green alga, Chlorella pyrenoidosa. After the first 2 days of culture, cell numbers increased more slowly in simulated microgravity than in the HARV gravity control; after 7 days, growth in simulated microgravity was just over half (58%) that of the gravity control and at 14 days it was less than half (42%). Chlorophyll and protein were also followed as indices of cell competence and function; as with growth, after 2-3 days, protein and chlorophyll levels were reduced in modeled microgravity compared to gravity controls. Photosynthesis is a sensitive biochemical index of the fitness of photosynthetic organisms; thus, CO2-dependent O2 evolution was tested as a measure of photosynthetic capacity of cells grown in simulated microgravity. When data were expressed with respect to cell number, modeled microgravity appeared to have little effect on CO2 fixation. Thus, even though the overall growth rate was lower for cells cultured in microgravity, the photosynthetic capacity of the cells appears to be unaffected. Cells grown in simulated microgravity formed loose clumps or aggregates within about 2 days of culture, with aggregation increasing over time. Presently, the basis for, or significance of, the cell aggregation is unknown. The results from this study suggest that cell growth and morphological characteristics of green algae may be altered by culture in simulated microgravity. The data obtained to date should provide a solid basis for additional experimentation regarding the influence of modeled microgravity on cell morphology, physiological activity, protein production and possibly gene expression in algal and plant cell systems. The final aim of the study is to provide useful information to elucidate the underlying mechanism for the biological effects of microgravity on cells.

  5. The vegetative arctic freshwater green alga Zygnema is insensitive to experimental UV exposure.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, Andreas; Roleda, Michael Y; Ltz, Cornelius

    2009-12-01

    The physiological performance and ultrastructural integrity of the vegetative freshwater green alga Zygnema sp., growing under ambient polar day solar radiation and after exposure to experimentally low radiation, but with high UVR:PAR ratio were investigated. In the laboratory, algae were exposed to low photosynthetic active radiation (PAR=P, 400-700 nm, 20 micromol m(-2) s(-1)), PAR + UV-A = PA (320-400 nm, 4.00 W m(-2) = UV-A) and PAR + UV-A + UV-B = PAB (280-320 nm, 0.42 W m(-2) = UV-B) for 24 h at 7 degrees C. Photosynthetic performance and ultrastructure of ambient solar radiation-exposed (field control) and experimentally treated Zygnema samples were assessed using chlorophyll fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). No significant treatment effect was observed in the photosynthesis-irradiance curve parameters. Exclusion of the UV-B spectrum in the laboratory treatment caused significantly lower effective photosynthetic quantum yield compared to samples exposed to the whole radiation spectrum. TEM revealed no obvious differences in the ultrastructure of field control and laboratory P-, PA- and PAB-exposed samples. Substantial amounts of lipid bodies, visualized by Sudan IV staining, were observed in all samples. Chloroplasts contained numerous plastoglobules. Organelles like mitochondria, Golgi bodies and the nucleus remained unaffected by the radiation exposures. Zygnema is well adapted to ambient solar radiation, enabling the alga to cope with experimental UV exposure and it is expected to persist in a scenario with enhanced UV radiation caused by stratospheric ozone depletion. PMID:19660959

  6. Increase of Nitrogenase Activity in the Blue-Green Alga Nostoc muscorum (Cyanobacterium)

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Siegfried; Kerfin, Wolfgang; Bger, Peter

    1980-01-01

    Preincubation of the blue-green alga (cyanobacterium) Nostoc muscorum under hydrogen or argon (nongrowing conditions, neither CO2 nor N2 or bound nitrogen present) in the light resulted in a two- to fourfold increase of light-induced hydrogen evolution and a 30% increase of acetylene reduction. Preincubation under the same gases in the dark led to a decrease of both activities. Cultivation of algae under a hydrogen-containing atmosphere (N2, H2, CO2) increased neither hydrogen nor ethylene evolution by the cells. Formation of both ethylene and hydrogen is due to nitrogenase activity, which apparently was induced by the absence of N2 or bound nitrogen and not by the presence of hydrogen. Inhibitors of protein biosynthesis prevented the increase of nitrogenase activity. Hydrogen uptake by the cells was almost unaffected under all of these conditions. With either ammonia or chloramphenicol present, nitrogenase activity decreased under growing conditions (i.e., an atmosphere of N2 and CO2). The kinetics of decrease were the same with ammonia or chloramphenicol, which was interpreted as being due to rapid protein breakdown with a half-life of approximately 4 h. The decay of nitrogenase activity caused by chloramphenicol could be counteracted by nitrogenase-inducing conditions, i.e., by the absence of N2 or bound nitrogen. A cell-free system from preconditioned algae with an adenosine 5?-triphosphate-generating system exhibited the same increase or decrease of nitrogenase activity as the intact cell filaments, indicating that this effect resided in the nitrogenase complex only. We tentatively assume that not the whole nitrogenase complex, but merely a subunit or a special protein with regulatory function, is susceptible to fast turnover. PMID:6777364

  7. Ocean acidification alters the calcareous microstructure of the green macro-alga Halimeda opuntia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wizemann, André; Meyer, Friedrich W.; Hofmann, Laurie C.; Wild, Christian; Westphal, Hildegard

    2015-09-01

    Decreases in seawater pH and carbonate saturation state ( Ω) following the continuous increase in atmospheric CO2 represent a process termed ocean acidification, which is predicted to become a main threat to marine calcifiers in the near future. Segmented, tropical, marine green macro-algae of the genus Halimeda form a calcareous skeleton that involves biotically initiated and induced calcification processes influenced by cell physiology. As Halimeda is an important habitat provider and major carbonate sediment producer in tropical shallow areas, alterations of these processes due to ocean acidification may cause changes in the skeletal microstructure that have major consequences for the alga and its environment, but related knowledge is scarce. This study used scanning electron microscopy to examine changes of the CaCO3 segment microstructure of Halimeda opuntia specimens that had been exposed to artificially elevated seawater pCO2 of ~650 µatm for 45 d. In spite of elevated seawater pCO2, the calcification of needles, located at the former utricle walls, was not reduced as frequent initiation of new needle-shaped crystals was observed. Abundance of the needles was ~22 % µm-2 higher and needle crystal dimensions ~14 % longer. However, those needles were ~42 % thinner compared with the control treatment. Moreover, lifetime cementation of the segments decreased under elevated seawater pCO2 due to a loss in micro-anhedral carbonate as indicated by significantly thinner calcified rims of central utricles (35-173 % compared with the control treatment). Decreased micro-anhedral carbonate suggests that seawater within the inter-utricular space becomes CaCO3 undersaturated ( Ω < 1) during nighttime under conditions of elevated seawater pCO2, thereby favoring CaCO3 dissolution over micro-anhedral carbonate accretion. Less-cemented segments of H. opuntia may impair the environmental success of the alga, its carbonate sediment contribution, and the temporal storage of atmospheric CO2 within Halimeda-derived sediments.

  8. Cultivation of green algae Chlorella sp. in different wastewaters from municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Min, Min; Li, Yecong; Chen, Paul; Chen, Yifeng; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yingkuan; Ruan, Roger

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of green algae Chlorella sp. on wastewaters sampled from four different points of the treatment process flow of a local municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) and how well the algal growth removed nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions from the wastewaters. The four wastewaters were wastewater before primary settling (#1 wastewater), wastewater after primary settling (#2 wastewater), wastewater after activated sludge tank (#3 wastewater), and centrate (#4 wastewater), which is the wastewater generated in sludge centrifuge. The average specific growth rates in the exponential period were 0.412, 0.429, 0.343, and 0.948 day(-1) for wastewaters #1, #2, #3, and #4, respectively. The removal rates of NH4-N were 82.4%, 74.7%, and 78.3% for wastewaters #1, #2, and #4, respectively. For #3 wastewater, 62.5% of NO3-N, the major inorganic nitrogen form, was removed with 6.3-fold of NO2-N generated. From wastewaters #1, #2, and #4, 83.2%, 90.6%, and 85.6% phosphorus and 50.9%, 56.5%, and 83.0% COD were removed, respectively. Only 4.7% was removed in #3 wastewater and the COD in #3 wastewater increased slightly after algal growth, probably due to the excretion of small photosynthetic organic molecules by algae. Metal ions, especially Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Mn in centrate, were found to be removed very efficiently. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient-rich centrate offers a new option of applying algal process in MWTP to manage the nutrient load for the aeration tank to which the centrate is returned, serving the dual roles of nutrient reduction and valuable biofuel feedstock production. PMID:19937154

  9. Effects of artificial sweeteners on metal bioconcentration and toxicity on a green algae Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongwei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Fan, Yunfei; Zhang, Pengfei; Sun, Hongwen; Gan, Zhiwei; Zhu, Hongkai; Yao, Yiming

    2016-05-01

    The ecotoxicity of heavy metals depends much on their speciation, which is influenced by other co-existing substances having chelating capacity. In the present study, the toxic effects of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) on a green algae Scenedesmus obliquus were examined in the presence of two artificial sweeteners (ASs), acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) by comparing the cell specific growth rate μ and pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) parameters (maximal photosystem II photochemical efficiency Fv/Fm, actual photochemical efficiency Yield, and non-photochemical quenching NPQ) of the algae over a 96-h period. Simultaneously, the bioconcentration of the metals by the algal cells in the presence of the ASs was measured. The presence of ACE enhanced the growth of S. obliquus and promoted the bioconcentration of Cd(2+) in S. obliquus, while the impacts of SUC were not significant. Meanwhile, EC50 values of Cd(2+) on the growth of S. obliquus increased from 0.42 mg/L to 0.54 mg/L and 0.48 mg/L with the addition of 1.0 mg/L ACE and SUC, respectively. As for Cu(2+), EC50 values increased from 0.13 mg/L to 0.17 mg/L and 0.15 mg/L with the addition of 1.0 mg/L ACE and SUC, respectively. In summary, the two ASs reduced the toxicity of the metals on the algae, with ACE showing greater effect than SUC. Although not as sensitive as the cell specific growth rate, PAM parameters could disclose the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity at subcellular levels. This study provides the first evidence for the possible impact of ASs on the ecotoxicity of heavy metals. PMID:26915590

  10. Diatom genomics: genetic acquisitions and mergers.

    PubMed

    Nisbet, R Ellen R; Kilian, Oliver; McFadden, Geoffrey I

    2004-12-29

    Diatom algae arose by two-step endosymbiosis. The complete genome of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana has now been sequenced, allowing us to reconstruct the remarkable intracellular gene transfers that occurred during this convoluted cellular evolution. PMID:15620637

  11. Extraction of Nutraceuticals from Spirulina (Blue-Green Alga): A Bioorganic Chemistry Practice Using Thin-layer Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, Irma; Toledo Marante, Francisco J.; Luna-Freire, Kristerson R.; Mioso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga (cyanobacteria) with high nutritive value. This work provides an innovative and original approach to the consideration of a bioorganic chemistry practice, using Spirulina for the separation of phytochemicals with nutraceutical characteristics via thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The aim is to bring together…

  12. Extraction of Nutraceuticals from Spirulina (Blue-Green Alga): A Bioorganic Chemistry Practice Using Thin-layer Chromatography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, Irma; Toledo Marante, Francisco J.; Luna-Freire, Kristerson R.; Mioso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga (cyanobacteria) with high nutritive value. This work provides an innovative and original approach to the consideration of a bioorganic chemistry practice, using Spirulina for the separation of phytochemicals with nutraceutical characteristics via thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The aim is to bring together

  13. Overview on Biological Activities and Molecular Characteristics of Sulfated Polysaccharides from Marine Green Algae in Recent Years

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingchong; Wang, Xiangyu; Wu, Hao; Liu, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. PMID:25257786

  14. Sub-proteome analysis in the green flagellate alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Volker; Boesger, Jens; Mittag, Maria

    2009-02-01

    In the past years, research on the flagellate unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has entered a new era based on the availability of its complete genome. Since this green alga can be grown relatively easy in a short time-range, sufficient biological material is available to efficiently establish biochemical purification procedures of sub-cellular fractions. Combined with the available genome sequences, this paved the way to perform analysis of specific sub-proteomes by mass spectrometry. In this review, several approaches that provided comprehensive lists of components of certain sub-cellular compartments and their biological relevance will be described. These include proteins of chloroplast ribosomes, of flagella, of the eyespot as well as posttranslational and environmentally modified sub-proteomes. The power of such proteome approaches lies in the identification of novel components and modifications of a given sub-proteome that have not been discovered before. Information is usually gained at a large scale and is very valuable to further understand biological processes of a given cellular sub-compartment. But clearly the arduous task has then to be performed to further analyze the function of specific proteins/genes by RNA interference technology, mutant analyses or methods for identifying the protein interaction network within a sub-proteome. PMID:19253330

  15. The Unicellular Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as an Experimental System to Study Chloroplast RNA Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickelsen, J.; Kück, U.

    Chloroplasts are typical organelles of photoautotrophic eukaryotic cells which drive a variety of functions, including photosynthesis. For many years the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has served as an experimental organism for studying photosynthetic processes. The recent development of molecular tools for this organism together with efficient methods of genetic analysis and the availability of many photosynthesis mutants has now made this alga a powerful model system for the analysis of chloroplast biogenesis. For example, techniques have been developed to transfer recombinant DNA into both the nuclear and the chloroplast genome. This allows both complementation tests and analyses of gene functions in vivo. Moreover, site-specific DNA recombinations in the chloroplast allow targeted gene disruption experiments which enable a "reverse genetics" to be performed. The potential of the algal system for the study of chloroplast biogenesis is illustrated in this review by the description of regulatory systems of gene expression involved in organelle biogenesis. One example concerns the regulation of trans-splicing of chloroplast mRNAs, a process which is controlled by both multiple nuclear- and chloroplast-encoded factors. The second example involves the stabilization of chloroplast mRNAs. The available data lead us predict distinct RNA elements, which interact with trans-acting factors to protect the RNA against nucleolytic attacks.

  16. Ketocarotenoid biosynthesis outside of plastids in the unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Grnewald, K; Hirschberg, J; Hagen, C

    2001-02-23

    The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in algae and plants takes place within plastids. In these organelles, carotenoids occur either in a free form or bound to proteins. Under stress, the unicellular green alga Haematococcus pluvialis accumulates secondary carotenoids, mainly astaxanthin esters, in cytoplasmic lipid vesicles up to 4% of its dry mass. It is therefore one of the favored organisms for the biotechnological production of these antioxidative compounds. We have studied the cellular localization and regulation of the enzyme beta-carotene oxygenase in H. pluvialis that catalyzes the introduction of keto functions at position C-4 of the beta-ionone ring of beta-carotene and zeaxanthin. Using immunogold labeling of ultrathin sections and Western blot analysis of cell fractions, we discovered that under inductive conditions, beta-carotene oxygenase was localized both in the chloroplast and in the cytoplasmic lipid vesicles, which are (according to their lipid composition) derived from cytoplasmic membranes. However, beta-carotene oxygenase activity was confined to the lipid vesicle compartment. Because an early carotenogenic enzyme in the pathway, phytoene desaturase, was found only in the chloroplast (Grnewald, K., Eckert, M., Hirschberg, J., and Hagen, C. (2000) Plant Physiol. 122, 1261-1268), a transport of intermediates from the site of early biosynthetic steps in the chloroplast to the site of oxygenation and accumulation in cytoplasmic lipid vesicles is proposed. PMID:11085982

  17. Sulfated Oligosaccharides Mediate the Interaction between a Marine Red Alga and Its Green Algal Pathogenic Endophyte.

    PubMed Central

    Bouarab, K; Potin, P; Correa, J; Kloareg, B

    1999-01-01

    The endophytic green alga Acrochaete operculata completely colonizes the sporophytes of the red alga Chondrus crispus; however, it does not penetrate beyond the outer cell layers of the gametophytes. Given that the life cycle phases of C. crispus differ in the sulfation pattern of their extracellular matrix carrageenans, we investigated whether carra-geenan fragments could modulate parasite virulence. lambda-Carrageenan oligosaccharides induced release of H(2)O(2), stimulated protein synthesis, increased carrageenolytic activity, and induced specific polypeptides in the pathogen, resulting in a marked increase in pathogenicity. In contrast, kappa-carrageenan oligosaccharides did not induce a marked release of H(2)O(2) from A. operculata but hindered amino acid uptake and enhanced their recognition by the host, resulting in a reduced virulence. Moreover, C. crispus life cycle phases were shown to behave differently in their response to challenge with cell-free extracts of A. operculata. Gametophytes exhibited a large burst of H(2)O(2), whereas only low levels were released from the sporophytes. PMID:10488232

  18. The influence of nitrogen on heterocyst production in blue-green algae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogawa, Roann E.; Carr, John F.

    1969-01-01

    A series of experiments on heterocyst production in Anabaena variabilis provides some strong indirect evidence for the role of heterocysts in nitrogen fixation. Of the algae tested (Anabaena variabilis, A. inaequalis, A. cylindrica, A. flos-aquae, Tolypothrix distorta, Gloeotrichia echinulata, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Oscillatoria sp., and Microcystis aeruginosa), only those with heterocysts grew in a nitrate-free medium. Growth in the nitrate-free medium was accompanied by an increase in heterocysts. Heterocyst formation in A. variabilis was evident 24 hr after transfer from a nitrate-containing to a nitrate-free medium. The number of heterocysts was altered by changes in the nitrogen source. Numbers were lowest when NH4-N was used as a nitrogen source and highest when nitrogen (N2-N) was derived from the atmosphere. Heterocyst numbers could also be regulated by controlling the concentration of NO3-N in the medium. Heterocyst production depended on the absence of combined nitrogen and the presence of phosphate. Data are presented on the occurrence of blue-green algae (with heterocysts) in Lake Erie and the environmental conditions apparently necessary for them to become dominant.

  19. [Cellular response of freshwater green algae to the toxicity of tetracycline antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Xu, Dong-mei; Wang, Yan-hua; Rao, Gui-wei

    2013-09-01

    Tetracycline antibiotics are a group of antibiotics which has been extensively used in most countries and are also the most widely used veterinary drugs and food additives in aquaculture and livestock industries of China. Because the substances are poorly adsorbed in the gut of animals and are only partially eliminated in sewage treatment plants, the antibiotics and their metabolites reach surface water where they may affect the aquatic organisms and human health. Herein, using green algae as test organisms, we studied the effects of tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC) and deoxyteracycline (DC) on the cell permeability and growth inhibition of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus obliquus. After 96 h of antibiotics exposure, the permeability of the cell membranes of both algae was decreased in the entire concentration range of doxycycline and was increased after exposure to a low concentration of tetracycline and chlortetracycline, then was decreased with the increase of the two antibiotics concentrations. The growth inhibiting effects of these three antibiotics on Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Scenedesmus obliquus were in an order of DC > TC > CTC. The ecotoxic response of Scenedesmus obliquus to tetracycline antibiotics was more sensitive than Chlorella pyrenoidosa. PMID:24288980

  20. A diverse assemblage of indole-3-acetic acid producing bacteria associate with unicellular green algae.

    PubMed

    Bagwell, Christopher E; Piskorska, Magdalena; Soule, Tanya; Petelos, Angela; Yeager, Chris M

    2014-08-01

    Microalgae have tremendous potential as a renewable feedstock for the production of liquid transportation fuels. In natural waters, the importance of physical associations and biochemical interactions between microalgae and bacteria is generally well appreciated, but the significance of these interactions to algal biofuels production have not been investigated. Here, we provide a preliminary report on the frequency of co-occurrence between indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)-producing bacteria and green algae in natural and engineered ecosystems. Growth experiments with unicellular algae, Chlorella and Scenedesmus, revealed IAA concentration-dependent responses in chlorophyll content and dry weight. Importantly, discrete concentrations of IAA resulted in cell culture synchronization, suggesting that biochemical priming of cellular metabolism could vastly improve the reliability of high density cultivation. Bacterial interactions may have an important influence on algal growth and development; thus, the preservation or engineered construction of the algal-bacterial assembly could serve as a control point for achieving low input, reliable production of algal biofuels. PMID:24879600

  1. Catalytic pyrolysis of green algae for hydrocarbon production using H+ZSM-5 catalyst.

    PubMed

    Thangalazhy-Gopakumar, Suchithra; Adhikari, Sushil; Chattanathan, Shyamsundar Ayalur; Gupta, Ram B

    2012-08-01

    Microalgae are considered as an intriguing candidate for biofuel production due to their high biomass yield. Studies on bio-oil production through fast pyrolysis and upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels using algal biomass are limited as compared to other terrestrial biomass. Therefore, in this study, a fresh water green alga, Chlorella vulgaris, was taken for pyrolysis study. The average activation energy for pyrolysis zone was found to be 109.1 kJ/mol. Fixed-bed pyrolysis of algae gave a bio-oil yield of 52.7 wt.%, which accounts for 60.7 wt.% carbon yield. In addition, analytical pyrolysis of C. vulgaris was carried out in a Py/GC-MS to identify major compounds present in bio-oil with and without catalyst (H(+)ZSM-5). The study found that in catalytic-pyrolysis, as the catalyst loading increased from zero to nine times of the biomass, the carbon yield of aromatic hydrocarbons increased from 0.9 to 25.8 wt.%. PMID:22705518

  2. Genotoxic effects of commercial formulations of Chlorpyrifos and Tebuconazole on green algae.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Ricardo Santiago; Di Marzio, Walter Daro; Senz, Mara Elena

    2015-01-01

    The alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis assay (comet assay) was used for the study of the genotoxic effects of insecticide Chlorpyrifos and fungicide Tebuconazole (commercial formulations) on two freshwater green algae species, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Nannocloris oculata, after 24h of exposure. The percentage of DNA in tail of migrating nucleoids was taken as an endpoint of DNA impairment. Cell viability was measured by fluorometric detection of chlorophyll "a" in vivo and the determination of cell auto-fluorescence. Only the higher concentration of Chlorpyrifos tested resulted to affect significantly the cell viability of P. subcapitata, whereas cells of N. oculata were not affected. Tebuconazole assayed concentrations (3 and 6mg/l) did not affect cell viability of both species. The results of comet assay on P. subcapitata showed that Chlorpyrifos concentration evaluated (0.8mg/l) exerted a genotoxic effects; while for the other specie a concentration of 10mg/l was needed. Tebuconazole was genotoxic at 3 and 6mg/l for both species. The comet assay evidenced damage at the level of DNA simple strains molecule at pesticide concentrations were cytotoxicity was not evident, demonstrating that algae are models to take into account in ecological risk assessments for aquatic environments. PMID:25230876

  3. Fatty acid profiles of four filamentous green algae under varying culture conditions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Junzhuo; Vanormelingen, Pieter; Vyverman, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Although benthic filamentous algae are interesting targets for wastewater treatment and biotechnology, relatively little is known about their biochemical composition and variation in response to growth conditions. Fatty acid composition of four benthic filamentous green algae was determined in different culture conditions. Although the response was partly species-dependent, increasing culture age, nitrogen deprivation and dark exposure of stationary phase greatly increased both total fatty acid content (TFA) from 12-35 to 40-173mgg(-1) dry weight (DW) and the relative proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) from 21-58% to 55-87% of TFA, with dark exposure having the greatest effect. However, the main variation in fatty acid composition was between species, with Uronema being rich in C16:0 (2.3% of DW), Klebsormidium in C18:2?6 (5.4% of DW) and Stigeoclonium in C18:3?3 (11.1% of DW). This indicates the potential of the latter two species as potential sources of these PUFAs. PMID:26555240

  4. Effect of aluminum and zinc on enzyme activities in the green Alga Selenastrum capricorutum

    SciTech Connect

    Kong, F.X.; Chen, Y.

    1995-11-01

    Acid rain produced by atmospheric pollution may decrease the pH value of water and increase the availability and potential toxicity of metals in water which have detrimental effects on aquatic organism, including algae, the important component of the primary production, and, thus, the entire aquatic food chain. Recent reviews of the effects of acid rain on freshwater ecosystems have emphasized research interest in soluble trivalent aluminum, although Al is rated low among trace metals in biological importance. On the other hand, zinc is an important trace element for the growth of phytoplankton and the cofactor of some enzymes. The growth response and tolerance of different species of algae to Al and Zn have been reported by Whitton who showed that algal growth would be stimulated by lower levels of the metals and totally inhibited by higher levels. These is little information, however, on the effect of Al on biochemical processes in aquatic organisms. This study investigates the influence of aluminum and zinc on several physioclogical processes in S. capricournutum, a common species of green algal in lake water. Algal growth (dry weight), ATP levels and the activities of several enzymes in the algal cells were measured after the treatment with various concentrations of Al and Zn in culture medium. Special attention is given to the relation between the enzymatic response and algal growth. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Assessment of blue-green algae in substantially reducing nitrogen fertilizer requirements for biomass fuel crops

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.B.; Molten, P.M.; Metting, B.

    1981-07-01

    Laboratory, mass culture, and field studies are being undertaken in order to assess the potential of using blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) as nitrogen biofertilizers on irrigated ground. Of seven candidate strains, two were chosen for application to replicated field plots sown to field corn and the basis of laboratory-scale soil tray experiments and ease of semi-continuous 8000 l culture. Chosen were Anabaena BM-165, isolated from a local soil and Tolypothrix tenuis, imported from India. Using the acetylene reduction method, Anabaena is estimated from laboratory soil experiments to be able to fix from 30 to 62 kg N/ha/y, and has been mass cultured to a density of 1527 mg dry wt/l. T. tenuis is estimated from laboratory experiments to be able to fix from 27 to 65 kg N/ha/y, and has been mass cultured to a density of 1630 mg dry wt/l.

  6. Mebamamides A and B, Cyclic Lipopeptides Isolated from the Green Alga Derbesia marina.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Arihiro; Ohno, Osamu; Sumimoto, Shinpei; Matsubara, Teruhiko; Shimada, Satoshi; Sato, Toshinori; Suenaga, Kiyotake

    2015-04-24

    Mebamamides A and B, new lipopeptides with four d-amino acid residues and a 3,8-dihydroxy-9-methyldecanoic acid residue, were isolated from the green alga Derbesia marina. Their gross structures were elucidated by spectroscopic and ESI-ITMS analyses. The absolute configurations except for the two leucines were revealed based on chiral-phase HPLC analyses of the acid hydrolysate and a modified Mosher's method. A distinction between D-Leu and L-Leu in the sequence was established by the application of a dansyl-Edman method to the partial acid hydrolysate. Mebamamide A did not exhibit any growth inhibitory activity against HeLa and HL60 cells at 10 ?M, and mebamamide B did not exhibit any growth inhibitory activity against those cells at 100 ?M. Additionally, it was suggested that mebamamide B induced the differentiation of HL60 cells into macrophage-like cells at 100 ?M. PMID:25768725

  7. Viruses of eukaryotic green algae; Progress report, June 20, 1990--July 1, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Van Etten, J.L.

    1991-12-31

    Many large polyhedral, dsDNA containing (ca. 330 kb), plaque forming viruses which infect a unicellular, eukaryotic, chlorella-like green alga have been isolated and characterized. The plaque assay, the ability to synchronously infect the host, the short life cycle, and the ability of the viruses to undergo homologous recombination make them excellent model systems for studying many plant cell functions in the manner that bacterial and animal viruses have been used to study bacterial and animal cell functions. These viruses have several unique features including: (1) coding for DNA methyltransferase and site-specific (restriction) endonucleases and (2) unlike other viruses, these viruses appear to code for the enzymes involved in the glycosylation of their glycoproteins.

  8. Blue green alga mediated synthesis of gold nanoparticles and its antibacterial efficacy against Gram positive organisms.

    PubMed

    Suganya, K S Uma; Govindaraju, K; Kumar, V Ganesh; Dhas, T Stalin; Karthick, V; Singaravelu, G; Elanchezhiyan, M

    2015-02-01

    Biofunctionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) play an important role in design and development of nanomedicine. Synthesis of AuNPs from biogenic materials is environmentally benign and possesses high bacterial inhibition and bactericidal properties. In the present study, blue green alga Spirulina platensis protein mediated synthesis of AuNPs and its antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria is discussed. AuNPs were characterized using Ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, High Resolution-Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). Stable, well defined AuNPs of smaller and uniform shape with an average size of ~ 5 nm were obtained. The antibacterial efficacy of protein functionalized AuNPs were tested against Gram positive organisms Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:25492207

  9. Spirulan from blue-green algae inhibits fibrin and blood clots: its potent antithrombotic effects.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Hui; Kim, Seung; Kim, Sung-Jun

    2015-05-01

    We investigated in vitro and in vivo fibrinolytic and antithrombotic activity of spirulan and analyzed its partial biochemical properties. Spirulan, a sulfated polysaccharide from the blue-green alga Arthrospira platensis, exhibits antithrombotic potency. Spirulan showed a strong fibrin zymogram lysis band corresponding to its molecular mass. It specifically cleaved A? and B?, the major chains of fibrinogen. Spirulan directly decreased the activity of thrombin and factor X activated (FXa), procoagulant proteins. In vitro assays using human fibrin and mouse blood clots showed fibrinolytic and hemolytic activities of spirulan. Spirulan (2 mg/kg) showed antithrombotic effects in the ferric chloride (FeCl3 )-induced carotid arterial thrombus model and collagen and epinephrine-induced pulmonary thromboembolism mouse model. These results may be attributable to the prevention of thrombus formation and partial lysis of thrombus. Therefore, we suggest that spirulan may be a potential antithrombotic agent for thrombosis-related diseases. PMID:25651404

  10. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using polysaccharides extracted from marine macro algae.

    PubMed

    El-Rafie, H M; El-Rafie, M H; Zahran, M K

    2013-07-25

    Green synthesis of nanoparticles that have environmentally acceptable solvent systems and eco-friendly reducing agents is of great importance. The aim of this work was to synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using water soluble polysaccharides extracted from four marine macro-algae, namely, Pterocladia capillacae (Pc), Jania rubins (Jr), Ulva faciata (Uf), and Colpmenia sinusa (Cs) as reducing agents for silver ions as well as stabilizing agents for the synthesized AgNPs. The formed Ag-NPs have been confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR analysis and TEM. The resultant Ag-NPs colloidal solutions were applied to cotton fabrics in presence and absence of citric acid (CA) or a binder (B). The antimicrobial activity of the treated fabrics was evaluated. The results revealed that the antimicrobial activity depends on type of the fabric treatment, size of the synthesized Ag-NPs and the algal species used for polysaccharides extraction. PMID:23768580

  11. Multi-Level Light Capture Control in Plants and Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Wobbe, Lutz; Bassi, Roberto; Kruse, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    Life on Earth relies on photosynthesis, and the ongoing depletion of fossil carbon fuels has renewed interest in phototrophic light-energy conversion processes as a blueprint for the conversion of atmospheric CO2 into various organic compounds. Light-harvesting systems have evolved in plants and green algae, which are adapted to the light intensity and spectral composition encountered in their habitats. These organisms are constantly challenged by a fluctuating light supply and other environmental cues affecting photosynthetic performance. Excess light can be especially harmful, but plants and microalgae are equipped with different acclimation mechanisms to control the processing of sunlight absorbed at both photosystems. We summarize the current knowledge and discuss the potential for optimization of phototrophic light-energy conversion. PMID:26545578

  12. Synchronization of Green Algae by Light and Dark Regimes for Cell Cycle and Cell Division Studies.

    PubMed

    Hlavov, Monika; Vtov, Milada; Biov, Kate?ina

    2016-01-01

    A synchronous population of cells is one of the prerequisites for studying cell cycle processes such as DNA replication, nuclear and cellular division. Green algae dividing by multiple fission represent a unique single cell system enabling the preparation of highly synchronous cultures by application of a light-dark regime similar to what they experience in nature. This chapter provides detailed protocols for synchronization of different algal species by alternating light-dark cycles; all critical points are discussed extensively. Moreover, detailed information on basic analysis of cell cycle progression in such cultures is presented, including analyses of nuclear, cellular, and chloroplast divisions. Modifications of basic protocols that enable changes in cell cycle progression are also suggested so that nuclear or chloroplast divisions can be followed separately. PMID:26659950

  13. Total lipid production of the green alga Nannochloropsis sp. QII under different nitrogen regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Suen, Yu.; Hubbard, J.S.; Holzer, G.; Tornabene, T.G.

    1987-06-01

    The green alga Nannochloropsis sp. QII was cultivated in media with sufficient and growth-limiting levels of nitrogen (nitrate). Nitrogen deficiency promoted lipid synthesis yielding cells with lipids comprising 55% of the biomass. The major lipids were triacylglycerols (79%), polar lipids (9%) and hydrocarbons (2.5%). The polar lipids consisted of a broad range of phospholipids, glycolipids and sulfolipids. Other lipids identified were pigments, free fatty acids, saponifiable and unsaponifiable sterol derivatives, various glycerides, a family of alkyl-1, 4-dioxane derivatives and a series of alkyl- and hydroxy-alkyl-dimethyl-acetals. Experiments in which /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ was provided at different times in the growth cycle demonstrated that enhanced lipid biosynthesis at low nitrogen levels resulted principally from de novo CO/sub 2/ fixation.

  14. Vesicular trafficking in characean green algae and the possible involvement of a VAMP72-family protein

    PubMed Central

    Hoepflinger, Marion C; Hametner, Christina; Ueda, Takashi; Foissner, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    The RAB5 GTPase ARA6 of Arabidopsis thaliana is known to be involved in endosomal trafficking by targeting vesicles to the plasma membrane. During this process AtARA6 is working in close relationship with the SNARE protein VAMP727 (vesicle associated membrane protein 727). Recently, ARA6 of the characean green algae Chara australis (CaARA6) was shown to have properties similar to AtARA6, pointing to similar trafficking pathways. In order to gain further insight into the vesicle trafficking machinery of Characeae, C. australis was analyzed for homologous proteins of the VAMP72-family. A CaVAMP72 protein was detected and classified by protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses. PMID:24614164

  15. Vesicular trafficking in characean green algae and the possible involvement of a VAMP72-family protein.

    PubMed

    Hoepflinger, Marion; Hametner, Christina; Ueda, Takashi; Foissner, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    The RAB5 GTPase ARA6 (AtARA6) of Arabidopsis thaliana is known to be involved in endosomal trafficking by targeting vesicles to the plasma membrane. During this process AtARA6 is working in close relationship with the SNARE protein VAMP727 (vesicle associated membrane protein 727). Recently, ARA6 of the characean green algae Chara australis (CaARA6) was shown to have properties similar to AtARA6, pointing to similar trafficking pathways. In order to gain further insight into the vesicle trafficking machinery of characeae, C. australis was analyzed for homologous proteins of the VAMP72-family. A CaVAMP72 protein was detected and classified by protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses. PMID:24614164

  16. Vesicular trafficking in characean green algae and the possible involvement of a VAMP72-family protein.

    PubMed

    Hoepflinger, Marion C; Hametner, Christina; Ueda, Takashi; Foissner, Ilse

    2014-01-01

    The RAB5 GTPase ARA6 of Arabidopsis thaliana is known to be involved in endosomal trafficking by targeting vesicles to the plasma membrane. During this process AtARA6 is working in close relationship with the SNARE protein VAMP727 (vesicle associated membrane protein 727). Recently, ARA6 of the characean green algae Chara australis (CaARA6) was shown to have properties similar to AtARA6, pointing to similar trafficking pathways. In order to gain further insight into the vesicle trafficking machinery of Characeae, C. australis was analyzed for homologous proteins of the VAMP72-family. A CaVAMP72 protein was detected and classified by protein sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses. PMID:25764429

  17. Development of suitable photobioreactors for CO2 sequestration addressing global warming using green algae and cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kanhaiya; Dasgupta, Chitralekha Nag; Nayak, Bikram; Lindblad, Peter; Das, Debabrata

    2011-04-01

    CO(2) sequestration by cyanobacteria and green algae are receiving increased attention in alleviating the impact of increasing CO(2) in the atmosphere. They, in addition to CO(2) capture, can produce renewable energy carriers such as carbon free energy hydrogen, bioethanol, biodiesel and other valuable biomolecules. Biological fixation of CO(2) are greatly affected by the characteristics of the microbial strains, their tolerance to temperature and the CO(2) present in the flue gas including SO(X), NO(X). However, there are additional factors like the availability of light, pH, O(2) removal, suitable design of the photobioreactor, culture density and the proper agitation of the reactor that will affect significantly the CO(2) sequestration process. Present paper deals with the photobioreactors of different geometry available for biomass production. It also focuses on the hybrid types of reactors (integrating two reactors) which can be used for overcoming the bottlenecks of a single photobioreactor. PMID:21334885

  18. Mssbauer study of cobalt and iron in the cyanobacterium (blue green alga)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambe, Shizuko

    1990-07-01

    Mssbauer emission and absorption studies have been performed on cobalt and iron in the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga). The Mssbauer spectrum of the cyanobacterium cultivated with57Co is decomposed into two doublets. The parameters of the major doublet are in good agreement with those of cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12) labeled with57Co. The other minor doublet has parameters close to those of Fe(II) coordinated with six nitrogen atoms. These suggest that cobalt is used for the biosynthesis of vitamin B12 or its analogs in the cyanobacterium. The spectra of the cyanobacterium grown with57Fe show that iron is in the high-spin trivalent state and possibly in the form of ferritin, iron storage protein.

  19. The non-photosynthetic, pathogenic green alga Helicosporidium sp. has retained a modified, functional plastid genome.

    PubMed

    Tartar, Aurélien; Boucias, Drion G

    2004-04-01

    A fragment of the Helicosporidium sp. (Chlorophyta: Trebouxiophyceae) plastid genome has been sequenced. The genome architecture was compared to that of both a non-photosynthetic relative (Prototheca wickerhamii) and a photosynthetic relative (Chlorella vulgaris). Comparative genomic analysis indicated that Helicosporidium and Prototheca are closely related genera. The analyses also revealed that the Helicosporidium sp. plastid genome has been rearranged. In particular, two ribosomal protein-encoding genes (rpl19 and rps23) appeared to have been transposed, or lost from the Helicosporidium sp. plastid genome. RT-PCR reactions demonstrated that the retained plastid genes were transcribed, suggesting that, despite rearrangement(s), the Helicosporidium sp. plastid genome has remained functional. The modified plastid genome architecture is a novel apomorphy that indicates that the Helicosporidia are highly derived green algae, more so than Prototheca spp. As such, they represent a promising model to study organellar genome reorganizations in parasitic protists. PMID:15043882

  20. Plastoquinone as a common link between photosynthesis and respiration in a blue-green alga.

    PubMed

    Hirano, M; Satoh, K; Katoh, S

    1980-09-01

    The role of plastoquinone in a thermophilic blue-green alga, Shynechococcus sp., was studied by measuring reduction kinetics of cytochrome 553 which was oxidized with red flash preferentially exciting photosystem I. Sensitivity of the cytochrome reduction to DBMIB Abbreviations: DCMU = 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea; DBMIB = 2,5-dib romo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone; HOQNO = 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide indicates that cytochrome 553 accepts electrons from reduced plastoquinone. Plastoquinone is in turn reduced in cells without electrons from photosystem II, since DCMU Abbreviations: DCMU = 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea; DBMIB = 2,5-dib romo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone; HOQNO = 2-n-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide , which inhibited methyl viologen photoreduction more strongly than DBMIB, failed to affect the cytochrome reduction. Participation of cyclic electron transport around photosystem I in cytochrome reduction in the presence of DCMU was excluded, because methyl viologen and antimycin A had no effect on the cytochrome kinetics. On the other hand, electron donation from endogenous substrates to plastoquinone was suggested from decreases in rate of the cytochrome reduction by dark starvation of cells and also from restoration of fast reduction kinetics by the addition of exogenous substrates to or by reillumination of starved cells.KCN, which completely suppressed respiratory O2-uptake, induced a marked acceleration of the cytochrome reduction in starved cells. The poison was less or not effective in stimulating the cytochrome reduction in more extensively starved or reilluminated cells.Results indicate that plastoquinone is functioning not only in the photosynthetic but also in the respiratory electron transport chain, thereby forming a common link between the two energy conservation systems of the blue-green alga. PMID:24470079

  1. A multidisciplinary study of iron transport and storage in the marine green alga Tetraselmis suecica.

    PubMed

    Hartnett, Andrej; Bttger, Lars H; Matzanke, Berthold F; Carrano, Carl J

    2012-11-01

    The iron uptake and storage systems of terrestrial/higher plants are now reasonably well understood with two basic strategies being distinguished: strategy I involves the induction of a Fe(III)-chelate reductase (ferrireductase) along with Fe(II) or Fe(III) transporter proteins while strategy II plants have evolved sophisticated systems based on high-affinity, iron specific, binding compounds called phytosiderophores. In contrast, there is little knowledge about the corresponding systems in marine, plant-like lineages. Herein we report a study of the iron uptake and storage mechanisms in the green alga Tetraselmis suecica. Short term radio-iron uptake studies indicate that iron is taken up by Tetraselmis in a time and concentration dependent manner consistent with an active transport process. Based on inhibitor and other studies it appears that a reductive-oxidative pathway such as that found in yeast and the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is likely. Upon long term exposure to (57)Fe we have been able, using a combination of Mssbauer and X-ray absorption spectroscopies, to identify three metabolites. The first exhibits Mssbauer parameters typical of a [Fe(4)S(4)](2+) cluster and which accounts for approximately 10% of the total intracellular iron pool. The second displays a spectrum typical of a [Fe(II)O(6)] system accounting for approximately 2% of the total pool. The largest component (ca. 85+%) consists of polymeric iron-oxo mineral species with parameters between that of the crystalline ferrihydrite core of animal ferritins and the amorphous hydrated ferric phosphate of bacterial and plant ferritins. PMID:23041362

  2. Pectin metabolism and assembly in the cell wall of the charophyte green alga Penium margaritaceum.

    PubMed

    Domozych, David S; Sørensen, Iben; Popper, Zoë A; Ochs, Julie; Andreas, Amanda; Fangel, Jonatan U; Pielach, Anna; Sacks, Carly; Brechka, Hannah; Ruisi-Besares, Pia; Willats, William G T; Rose, Jocelyn K C

    2014-05-01

    The pectin polymer homogalacturonan (HG) is a major component of land plant cell walls and is especially abundant in the middle lamella. Current models suggest that HG is deposited into the wall as a highly methylesterified polymer, demethylesterified by pectin methylesterase enzymes and cross-linked by calcium ions to form a gel. However, this idea is based largely on indirect evidence and in vitro studies. We took advantage of the wall architecture of the unicellular alga Penium margaritaceum, which forms an elaborate calcium cross-linked HG-rich lattice on its cell surface, to test this model and other aspects of pectin dynamics. Studies of live cells and microscopic imaging of wall domains confirmed that the degree of methylesterification and sufficient levels of calcium are critical for lattice formation in vivo. Pectinase treatments of live cells and immunological studies suggested the presence of another class of pectin polymer, rhamnogalacturonan I, and indicated its colocalization and structural association with HG. Carbohydrate microarray analysis of the walls of P. margaritaceum, Physcomitrella patens, and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) further suggested the conservation of pectin organization and interpolymer associations in the walls of green plants. The individual constituent HG polymers also have a similar size and branched structure to those of embryophytes. The HG-rich lattice of P. margaritaceum, a member of the charophyte green algae, the immediate ancestors of land plants, was shown to be important for cell adhesion. Therefore, the calcium-HG gel at the cell surface may represent an early evolutionary innovation that paved the way for an adhesive middle lamella in multicellular land plants. PMID:24652345

  3. From algae to angiosperms–inferring the phylogeny of green plants (Viridiplantae) from 360 plastid genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Next-generation sequencing has provided a wealth of plastid genome sequence data from an increasingly diverse set of green plants (Viridiplantae). Although these data have helped resolve the phylogeny of numerous clades (e.g., green algae, angiosperms, and gymnosperms), their utility for inferring relationships across all green plants is uncertain. Viridiplantae originated 700-1500 million years ago and may comprise as many as 500,000 species. This clade represents a major source of photosynthetic carbon and contains an immense diversity of life forms, including some of the smallest and largest eukaryotes. Here we explore the limits and challenges of inferring a comprehensive green plant phylogeny from available complete or nearly complete plastid genome sequence data. Results We assembled protein-coding sequence data for 78 genes from 360 diverse green plant taxa with complete or nearly complete plastid genome sequences available from GenBank. Phylogenetic analyses of the plastid data recovered well-supported backbone relationships and strong support for relationships that were not observed in previous analyses of major subclades within Viridiplantae. However, there also is evidence of systematic error in some analyses. In several instances we obtained strongly supported but conflicting topologies from analyses of nucleotides versus amino acid characters, and the considerable variation in GC content among lineages and within single genomes affected the phylogenetic placement of several taxa. Conclusions Analyses of the plastid sequence data recovered a strongly supported framework of relationships for green plants. This framework includes: i) the placement of Zygnematophyceace as sister to land plants (Embryophyta), ii) a clade of extant gymnosperms (Acrogymnospermae) with cycads + Ginkgo sister to remaining extant gymnosperms and with gnetophytes (Gnetophyta) sister to non-Pinaceae conifers (Gnecup trees), and iii) within the monilophyte clade (Monilophyta), Equisetales + Psilotales are sister to Marattiales + leptosporangiate ferns. Our analyses also highlight the challenges of using plastid genome sequences in deep-level phylogenomic analyses, and we provide suggestions for future analyses that will likely incorporate plastid genome sequence data for thousands of species. We particularly emphasize the importance of exploring the effects of different partitioning and character coding strategies. PMID:24533922

  4. Phylogenetic and morphological characterization of the green alga infesting the horse mussel Modiolus modiolus from Vityaz Bay (Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan).

    PubMed

    Syasina, I G; Kukhlevsky, A D; Kovaleva, A L; Vaschenko, M A

    2012-10-01

    In this work, the ultrastructural features and taxonomic position of the green microalga infesting the horse mussel Modiolus modiolus from the north-western Pacific (Vityaz Bay, Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan) are reported. Mussels were collected monthly from May to September of 2009. In different months, the prevalence of mussels with green tissues was 16.6-62.5% (mean 43%). The most affected organs were the mantle, digestive gland and gonad. Histological analysis revealed severe infiltration of the connective tissue by hemocytes containing the alga cells. Electron microscopy showed that the alga was morphologically similar to the green algae from the genus Coccomyxa (Chlorophyta: Chlorococcales). Two new primers were designed to generate partial small subunit (SSU) rRNA sequences of the green alga from M. modiolus. Phylogenetic analysis based on the comparison of the SSU rRNA sequences of the trebouxiophyceans confirmed an affiliation of the green alga with the genus Coccomyxa. The sequence (1296 bases) of the green alga from M. modiolus was most closely related to the sequence CPCC 508 (AM981206) (identity 100%), obtained from an acid-tolerant, free-living chlorophyte microalga Coccomyxa sp. and to the sequences EU127470 (identity 99.3%) and EU127471 (identity 99.7%) of the green alga, presumably the true Coccomyxa parasitica, infecting the blue mussel Mytilus edulis from the Flensburg Fjord (North Atlantic). PMID:22902969

  5. Complex patterns of plastid 16S rRNA gene evolution in nonphotosynthetic green algae.

    PubMed

    Nedelcu, A M

    2001-12-01

    This study provides a phylogenetic/comparative approach to deciphering the processes underlying the evolution of plastid rRNA genes in genomes under relaxed functional constraints. Nonphotosynthetic green algal taxa that belong to two distinct classes, Chlorophyceae (Polytoma) and Trebouxiophyceae (Prototheca), were investigated. Similar to the situation described previously for plastid 16S rRNA genes in nonphotosynthetic land plants, nucleotide substitution levels, extent of structural variations, and percentage AT values are increased in nonphotosynthetic green algae compared to their closest photosynthetic relatives. However, the mutational processes appear to be different in many respects. First, with the increase in AT content, more transversions are noted in Polytoma and holoparasite angiosperms, while more transitions characterize the evolution of the 16S rDNA sequences in Prototheca. Second, although structural variations do accumulate in both Polytoma and Prototheca (as well as holoparasitic plastid 16S rRNAs), insertions as large as 1.6 kb characterize the plastid 16S rRNA genes in the former, whereas significantly smaller indels (not exceeding 24 bp) seem to be more prevalent in the latter group. The differences in evolutionary rates and patterns within and between lineages might be due to mutations in replication/repair-related genes; slipped-strand mispairing is likely the mechanism responsible for the expansion of insertions in Polytoma plastid 16S rRNA genes. PMID:11677627

  6. Pesticide (hexachlorocyclohexane) inhibition of growth and nitrogen fixation in blue-green algae Anabaenopsis raciborskii and Anabaena aphanizomenoides.

    PubMed

    Das, B; Singh, P K

    1978-01-01

    The effects of the pesticide hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) on the nitrogen fixing blue-green algae Anabaenopsis raciborskii and Anabaena aphanizomenoides commonly found as blooms in fish ponds were studied. These algae were very sensitive to HCH, and a distinct decrease in growth rate was observed on prolonged incubation. Lower concentrations (10 microgram/ml) were algistatic and higher concentrations (60 microgram/ml) were algicidal. The inhibition of nitrogen fixation indicated that the presence of HCH might affect overall nitrogen economy of inland waters. PMID:80890

  7. Screening and isolation of the algicidal compounds from marine green alga Ulva intestinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xue; Jin, Haoliang; Zhang, Lin; Hu, Wei; Li, Yahe; Xu, Nianjun

    2015-07-01

    Twenty species of seaweed were collected from the coast of Zhejiang, China, extracted with ethanol, and screened for algicidal activity against red tide microalgae Heterosigma akashiwo and Prorocentrum micans. Inhibitory effects of fresh and dried tißsues of green alga Ulva intestinalis were assessed and the main algicidal compounds were isolated, purified, and identified. Five seaweed species, U. intestinalis, U. fasciata, Grateloupia romosissima, Chondria crassicaulis, and Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis, were investigated for their algicidal activities. Fresh tissues of 8.0 and 16.0 mg/mL of U. intestinalis dissolved in media significantly inhibited growth of H. akashiwo and P. micans, respectively. Dried tissue and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts of U. intestinalis at greater than 1.2 and 0.04 mg/mL, respectively, were fatal to H. akashiwo, while its water and EtOAc extracts in excess of 0.96 and 0.32 mg/mL, respectively, were lethal to P. micans. Three algicidal compounds in the EtOAc extracts were identified as 15-ethoxy- (6z,9z,12z)-hexadecatrienoic acid (I), (6E,9E,12E)-(2-acetoxy-β-D-glucose)-octadecatrienoic acid ester (II) and hexadecanoic acid (III). Of these, compound II displayed the most potent algicidal activity with IC50 values of 4.9 and 14.1 µg/mL for H. akashiwo and P. micans, respectively. Compound I showed moderate algicidal activity with IC50 values of 13.4 and 24.7 µg/mL for H. akashiwo and P. micans, respectively. These findings suggested that certain macroalgae or products therefrom could be used as effective biological control agents against red tide algae.

  8. Evaluation of toxicity data to green algae and relationship with hydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ling; Li, Jin J; Wang, Yu; Wang, Xiao H; Wen, Yang; Qun, Wei C; Su, Li M; Zhao, Yuan H

    2015-02-01

    The quality of the biological activity data is of great importance for the development of algal quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models. However, a number of algal QSAR models in the literature were developed based on toxicity data without considering the response endpoints, exposure periods and species sensitivity. In this paper, 2323 algal toxicity data (log 1/EC50) in different toxicity response endpoints for 1081 compounds to 26 algal species within different exposure periods (14 and 15 min; 24, 48, 72, 96, 168 and 192 h) were used to evaluate the quality of the toxicity data to green algae. Analysis of 72 h toxicity to algae showed that the closed test had the same sensitivity as the open test for most of the test compounds, but a significant difference was observed for a few compounds. The overall average difference for all compounds ranges from 0.15 to 0.43 log units between toxicity endpoints (yieldgrowth rate). The relationships between exposure periods of 24, 48, 72 and 96 h indicated that 48 h exposure period is the most sensitive for algal growth inhibition test, and its sensitivity is 0.25 log units greater than 72 and 96 h exposure periods, respectively. Interspecies relationships showed that some algal species have very close sensitivity (e.g. Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlorella pyrenoidosa or Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus, respectively), whereas some species have significantly different sensitivity (e.g. P. subcapitata and S. obliquus). Relationships between toxicity and hydrophobicity demonstrated that no difference was observed for non-polar narcotics within different exposure periods (24, 48, 72, and 96 h) or response variables (yield and growth rate). For polar narcotics, in contrast, algal toxicity is dependent on algal species and is related to the response variables and exposure period. We cannot expect significant QSAR models between algal toxicity and descriptors without considering species sensitivity, exposure periods and response endpoints. PMID:25462296

  9. Effect of scenedesmus acuminatus green algae extracts on the development of Candida lipolytic yeast in gas condensate-containing media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilmes, B. I.; Kasymova, G. A.; Runov, V. I.; Karavayeva, N. N.

    1980-01-01

    Data are given of a comparative study of the growth and development as well as the characteristics of the biomass of the C. Lipolytica yeast according to the content of raw protein, protein, lipids, vitamins in the B group, and residual hydrocarbons during growth in media with de-aromatized gas-condensate FNZ as the carbon source with aqueous and alcohol extracts of S. acuminatus as the biostimulants. It is shown that the decoction and aqueous extract of green algae has the most intensive stimulating effect on the yeast growth. When a decoction of algae is added to the medium, the content of residual hydrocarbons in the biomass of C. lipolytica yeast is reduced by 4%; the quantity of protein, lipids, thamine and inositol with replacement of the yeast autolysate by the decoction of algae is altered little.

  10. Acute toxicities of pharmaceuticals toward green algae. mode of action, biopharmaceutical drug disposition classification system and quantile regression models.

    PubMed

    Villain, Jonathan; Minguez, Laetitia; Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Durrieu, Gilles; Bureau, Ronan

    2016-02-01

    The acute toxicities of 36 pharmaceuticals towards green algae were estimated from a set of quantile regression models representing the first global quantitative structure-activity relationships. The selection of these pharmaceuticals was based on their predicted environmental concentrations. An agreement between the estimated values and the observed acute toxicity values was found for several families of pharmaceuticals, in particular, for antidepressants. A recent classification (BDDCS) of drugs based on ADME properties (Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion) was clearly correlated with the acute ecotoxicities towards algae. Over-estimation of toxicity from our QSAR models was observed for classes 2, 3 and 4 whereas our model results were in agreement for the class 1 pharmaceuticals. Clarithromycin, a class 3 antibiotic characterized by weak metabolism and high solubility, was the most toxic to algae (molecular stability and presence in surface water). PMID:26590695

  11. Evidence for land plant cell wall biosynthetic mechanisms in charophyte green algae

    PubMed Central

    Mikkelsen, Maria D.; Harholt, Jesper; Ulvskov, Peter; Johansen, Ida E.; Fangel, Jonatan U.; Doblin, Monika S.; Bacic, Antony; Willats, William G. T.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The charophyte green algae (CGA) are thought to be the closest living relatives to the land plants, and ancestral CGA were unique in giving rise to the land plant lineage. The cell wall has been suggested to be a defining structure that enabled the green algal ancestor to colonize land. These cell walls provide support and protection, are a source of signalling molecules, and provide developmental cues for cell differentiation and elongation. The cell wall of land plants is a highly complex fibre composite, characterized by cellulose cross-linked by non-cellulosic polysaccharides, such as xyloglucan, embedded in a matrix of pectic polysaccharides. How the land plant cell wall evolved is currently unknown: early-divergent chlorophyte and prasinophyte algae genomes contain a low number of glycosyl transferases (GTs), while land plants contain hundreds. The number of GTs in CGA is currently unknown, as no genomes are available, so this study sought to give insight into the evolution of the biosynthetic machinery of CGA through an analysis of available transcriptomes. Methods Available CGA transcriptomes were mined for cell wall biosynthesis GTs and compared with GTs characterized in land plants. In addition, gene cloning was employed in two cases to answer important evolutionary questions. Key Results Genetic evidence was obtained indicating that many of the most important core cell wall polysaccharides have their evolutionary origins in the CGA, including cellulose, mannan, xyloglucan, xylan and pectin, as well as arabino-galactan protein. Moreover, two putative cellulose synthase-like D family genes (CSLDs) from the CGA species Coleochaete orbicularis and a fragment of a putative CSLA/K-like sequence from a CGA Spirogyra species were cloned, providing the first evidence that all the cellulose synthase/-like genes present in early-divergent land plants were already present in CGA. Conclusions The results provide new insights into the evolution of cell walls and support the notion that the CGA were pre-adapted to life on land by virtue of the their cell wall biosynthetic capacity. These findings are highly significant for understanding plant cell wall evolution as they imply that some features of land plant cell walls evolved prior to the transition to land, rather than having evolved as a result of selection pressures inherent in this transition. PMID:25204387

  12. Complex phylogenetic distribution of a non-canonical genetic code in green algae

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A non-canonical nuclear genetic code, in which TAG and TAA have been reassigned from stop codons to glutamine, has evolved independently in several eukaryotic lineages, including the ulvophycean green algal orders Dasycladales and Cladophorales. To study the phylogenetic distribution of the standard and non-canonical genetic codes, we generated sequence data of a representative set of ulvophycean green algae and used a robust green algal phylogeny to evaluate different evolutionary scenarios that may account for the origin of the non-canonical code. Results This study demonstrates that the Dasycladales and Cladophorales share this alternative genetic code with the related order Trentepohliales and the genus Blastophysa, but not with the Bryopsidales, which is sister to the Dasycladales. This complex phylogenetic distribution whereby all but one representative of a single natural lineage possesses an identical deviant genetic code is unique. Conclusions We compare different evolutionary scenarios for the complex phylogenetic distribution of this non-canonical genetic code. A single transition to the non-canonical code followed by a reversal to the canonical code in the Bryopsidales is highly improbable due to the profound genetic changes that coincide with codon reassignment. Multiple independent gains of the non-canonical code, as hypothesized for ciliates, are also unlikely because the same deviant code has evolved in all lineages. Instead we favor a stepwise acquisition model, congruent with the ambiguous intermediate model, whereby the non-canonical code observed in these green algal orders has a single origin. We suggest that the final steps from an ambiguous intermediate situation to a non-canonical code have been completed in the Trentepohliales, Dasycladales, Cladophorales and Blastophysa but not in the Bryopsidales. We hypothesize that in the latter lineage an initial stage characterized by translational ambiguity was not followed by final reassignment of both stop codons to glutamine. Instead the standard code was retained by the disappearance of the ambiguously decoding tRNAs from the genome. We correlate the emergence of a non-canonical genetic code in the Ulvophyceae to their multinucleate nature. PMID:20977766

  13. Influence of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) produced by two different green unicellular algae on membrane filtration in an algae-based biofuel production process.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takaki; Yamamura, Hiroshi; Hayakawa, Jyunpei; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, two strains of green algae named S1 and S2, categorized as the same species of Pseudo-coccomyxa ellipsoidea but showing 99% homology, were cultivated under the same conditions and filtrated with a microfiltration membrane. On the basis of the results of the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) characteristics of these two green algae and the degree of fouling, the influence of these characteristics on the performance of membrane filtration was investigated. There was no difference in the specific growth rate between the S1 and S2 strains; however, large differences were seen in the amount and quality of EPS between S1 and S2. When the S1 and S2 strains were filtered with a membrane, the trend in the increase in transmembrane pressure (TMP) was quite different. The filtration of the S1 strain showed a rapid increase in TMP, whereas the TMP of the filtration of the S2 strain did not increase at all during the operation. This clearly demonstrated that the characteristics of each strain affect the development of membrane fouling. On the basis of the detailed characterization of solved-EPS (s-EPS) and bound-EPS (b-EPS), it was clarified that s-EPS mainly contributed to irreversible fouling for both operations and the biopolymer-like organic matter contained in b-EPS mainly contributed to reversible fouling. PMID:24804668

  14. [Peculiarities of growth of the monocellular green algae culture after the influence of electromagnetic field in deuterated water-containing media].

    PubMed

    Semenov, K T; Aslanian, R R

    2013-01-01

    Exposing the inoculum of monocellular green algae Dunalialla tertiolecta and Tetraselmis viridis to 50 Hz electromagnetic field for several hours resulted in a reduced growth rate in both cultures. It was ascertained that heavy water inhibited growth of algae Dunaliella tertiolecta. The light water activated growth of the culture in the exponential phase only. PMID:23650857

  15. Culture observation and molecular phylogenetic analysis on the blooming green alga Chaetomorpha valida (Cladophorales, Chlorophyta) from China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yunyan; Tang, Xiaorong; Zhan, Zifeng; Teng, Linhong; Ding, Lanping; Huang, Bingxin

    2013-05-01

    The marine green alga Chaetomorpha valida fouls aquaculture ponds along the coastal cities of Dalian and Rongcheng, China. Unialgal cultures were observed under a microscope to determine the developmental morphological characters of C. valida. Results reveal that gametophytic filaments often produce lateral branches under laboratory culture conditions, suggesting an atypical heteromorphic life cycle of C. valida between unbranched sporophytes and branched gametophytes, which differs from typical isomorphic alternation of Chaetomorpha species. The shape of the basal attachment cell, an important taxonomic character within the genus, was found variable depending on environmental conditions. The 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA regions were used to explore the phylogenetic affinity of the taxa. Inferred trees from 18S rDNA sequences revealed a close relationship between C. valida and Chaetomorpha moniligera. These results would enrich information in general biology and morphological plasticity of C. valida and provided a basis for future identification of green tide forming algae.

  16. The cell cycle of symbiotic Chlorella. IV. DNA content of algae slowly increases during host starvation of green hydra.

    PubMed

    McAuley, P J; Muscatine, L

    1986-09-01

    The distribution of DNA content of symbiotic Chlorella algae freshly isolated from green hydra was compared with that of cultured Chlorella of the NC64A strain, using flow cytometry. In nonlogarithmic cultures of NC64A most cells had accumulated in G1 phase, while in logarithmic cultures a peak containing cells in S phase and mitosis could be distinguished from the larger G1 peak. However, symbiotic algae showed a single broad peak in which there was no clear distinction between G1 and S phase/mitosis. When hydra were starved for a prolonged period, inhibiting host cell and algal division, the DNA content of the symbiotic algae slowly increased, and the number of daughter cells produced after a single feeding increased with the length of the preceding period of starvation. This suggests that symbiotic algae are able to cycle slowly through S phase, but unless the host is fed they cannot traverse into mitosis and complete the cell division cycle. No significant difference in cell size was found between algae producing either four or eight daughter cells after 1-day- or 22-day-starved hydra were fed, suggesting that algal cell size did not determine the number of daughter cells produced. Instead, this may be dependent upon the length of time the cell had spent in S phase prior to receiving the, as yet unknown, stimulus to enter into mitosis. PMID:3793797

  17. Molecular Identification of Rickettsial Endosymbionts in the Non-Phagotrophic Volvocalean Green Algae

    PubMed Central

    Kawafune, Kaoru; Hongoh, Yuichi; Hamaji, Takashi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Background The order Rickettsiales comprises Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria (also called rickettsias) that are mainly associated with arthropod hosts. This group is medically important because it contains human-pathogenic species that cause dangerous diseases. Until now, there has been no report of non-phagotrophic photosynthetic eukaryotes, such as green plants, harboring rickettsias. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the bacterial endosymbionts of two freshwater volvocalean green algae: unicellular Carteria cerasiformis and colonial Pleodorina japonica. Epifluorescence microscopy using 4?-6-deamidino-2-phenylindole staining revealed the presence of endosymbionts in all C. cerasiformis NIES-425 cells, and demonstrated a positive correlation between host cell size and the number of endosymbionts. Strains both containing and lacking endosymbionts of C. cerasiformis (NIES-425 and NIES-424) showed a >10-fold increase in cell number and typical sigmoid growth curves over 192 h. A phylogenetic analysis of 16 S ribosomal (r)RNA gene sequences from the endosymbionts of C. cerasiformis and P. japonica demonstrated that they formed a robust clade (hydra group) with endosymbionts of various non-arthropod hosts within the family Rickettsiaceae. There were significantly fewer differences in the 16 S rRNA sequences of the rickettsiacean endosymbionts between C. cerasiformis and P. japonica than in the chloroplast 16 S rRNA or 18 S rRNA of the host volvocalean cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated the existence of the rickettsiacean endosymbionts in the cytoplasm of two volvocalean species. Conclusions/Significance The rickettsiacean endosymbionts are likely not harmful to their volvocalean hosts and may have been recently transmitted from other non-arthropod organisms. Because rickettsias are the closest relatives of mitochondria, incipient stages of mitochondrial endosymbiosis may be deduced using both strains with and without C. cerasiformis endosymbionts. PMID:22363720

  18. In vivo localization of centrin in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Binder, Nayma E; Geimer, Stefan; Melkonian, Michael

    2002-05-01

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been used as a model system to study flagellar assembly, centriole assembly, and cell cycle events. These processes are dynamic. Therefore, protein targeting and protein-protein interactions should be evaluated in vivo. To be able to study dynamic processes in C. reinhardtii in vivo, we have explored the use of the green fluorescent protein (GFP). A construct containing a fusion of centrin and GFP was incorporated into the genome as a single copy. The selected clone shows expression in 25-50% of the cells. Centrin-GFP was targeted in vivo to the nuclear basal body connectors and the distal connecting fibers. At the electron microscopic level, it was also localized to the flagellar transitional regions. EM data of transformants indicate that there are some abnormalities in the centrin-containing structures. The transitional region consists of only the transverse septum or has lesions in the H-piece. The distal connecting fibers are thinner and their characteristic crossbands seem to be incomplete. Deflagellation is not affected since more than 95% of the cells deflagellate. Also basal body segregation is not affected since cells with an abnormal flagellar number were not detected. Functional studies of the centrin-GFP fusion show the characteristic calcium-induced mobility shift in SDS-PAGE. Immunofluorescence revealed that during cell division, centrin-GFP remains associated with the basal bodies. In vivo localization of the fusion protein during cell division shows that in metaphase centrin-GFP appears as two opposing spots located close to the spindle poles. The distance between the spots increases as the cells progress through anaphase and then decreases during telophase. GFP is a useful tool to study dynamic processes in the cytoskeleton of C. reinhardtii. PMID:11977082

  19. Extraction of nutraceuticals from Spirulina (blue-green alga): A bioorganic chemistry practice using thin-layer chromatography.

    PubMed

    Herrera Bravo de Laguna, Irma; Toledo Marante, Francisco J; Luna-Freire, Kristerson R; Mioso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Spirulina is a blue-green alga (cyanobacteria) with high nutritive value. This work provides an innovative and original approach to the consideration of a bioorganic chemistry practice, using Spirulina for the separation of phytochemicals with nutraceutical characteristics via thin-layer chromatography (TLC) plates. The aim is to bring together current research, theory, and practice, and always in accordance with pedagogical ideas. PMID:26331489

  20. Shear-oriented Microfibrils in the Mucilaginous Investments of Two Motile Oscillatoriacean Blue-Green Algae1

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Hayes C.

    1969-01-01

    Trichomes of two oscillatoriacean blue-green algae execute screw-like gliding motion, but the two organisms differ from each other with respect to the screw sense of motion. Electron microscopy of serial longitudinal sections reveals extracellular microfibrils which lie roughly parallel to stream-lines at the surface of each organism. The author proposes that the microfibrils are oriented by shear in a zone just external to the outer unit membrane-like component of the cell wall. Images PMID:5764337

  1. Oxygen-dependent proton efflux in cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). [Anabaena variabilis

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, S.; Stuerzl, E.; Boeger, P.

    1984-05-01

    The oxygen-dependent proton efflux (in the dark) of intact cells of Anabaena variabilis and four other cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) was investigated. In contrast to bacteria and isolated mitochondria, an H/sup +//e ratio (= protons translocated per electron transported) of only 0.23 to 0.35 and a P/e ratio of 0.8 to 1.5 were observed, indicative of respiratory electron transport being localized essentially on the thylakoids, not on the cytoplasmic membrane. Oxygen-induced acidification of the medium was sensitive to cyanide and the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Inhibitors such as 2,6-dinitrophenol and vanadate exhibited a significant decrease in the H/sup +//e ratio. After the oxygen pulse, electron transport started immediately, but proton efflux lagged 40 to 60 s behind, a period also needed before maximum ATP pool levels were attained. The authors suggest that proton efflux in A. variabilis is due to a proton-translocating ATP hydrolase (ATP-consuming ATPase) rather than to respiratory electron transport located on the cytoplasmic membrane.

  2. New α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Triterpenic Acid from Marine Macro Green Alga Codium dwarkense Boergs.

    PubMed

    Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Al-Kharusi, Lubna; Hussain, Javid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    The marine ecosystem has been a key resource for secondary metabolites with promising biological roles. In the current study, bioassay-guided phytochemical investigations were carried out to assess the presence of enzyme inhibitory chemical constituents from the methanolic extract of marine green alga-Codium dwarkense. The bioactive fractions were further subjected to chromatographic separations, which resulted in the isolation of a new triterpenic acid; dwarkenoic acid (1) and the known sterols; androst-5-en-3β-ol (2), stigmasta-5,25-dien-3β,7α-diol (3), ergosta-5,25-dien-3β-ol (4), 7-hydroxystigmasta-4,25-dien-3-one-7-O-β-d-fucopyranoside (5), 7-hydroxystigmasta-4,25-dien-3-one (6), and stigmasta-5,25-dien-3β-ol (7). The structure elucidation of the new compound was carried out by combined mass spectrometry and 1D (1H and 13C) and 2D (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, and NOESY) NMR spectroscopic data. The sub-fractions and pure constituents were assayed for enzymatic inhibition of alpha-glucosidase. Compound 1 showed significant inhibition at all concentrations. Compounds 2, 3, 5, and 7 exhibited a dose-dependent response, whereas compounds 4-6 showed moderate inhibition. Utilizing such marine-derived biological resources could lead to drug discoveries related to anti-diabetics. PMID:26184240

  3. Bioenergetic strategy for the biodegradation of p-cresol by the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Assimakopoulos, Konstantinos; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2012-01-01

    Cultures from the unicellular green alga Scenedesmus obliquus biodegrade the toxic p-cresol (4-methylphenol) and use it as alternative carbon/energy source. The biodegradation procedure of p-cresol seems to be a two-step process. HPLC analyses indicate that the split of the methyl group (first step) that is possibly converted to methanol (increased methanol concentration in the growth medium), leading, according to our previous work, to changes in the molecular structure and function of the photosynthetic apparatus and therefore to microalgal biomass increase. The second step is the fission of the intermediately produced phenol. A higher p-cresol concentration results in a higher p-cresol biodegradation rate and a lower total p-cresol biodegradability. The first biodegradation step seems to be the most decisive for the effectiveness of the process, because methanol offers energy for the further biodegradation reactions. The absence of LHCII from the Scenedesmus mutant wt-lhc stopped the methanol effect and significantly reduced the p-cresol biodegradation (only 9%). The present contribution deals with an energy distribution between microalgal growth and p-cresol biodegradation, activated by p-cresol concentration. The simultaneous biomass increase with the detoxification of a toxic phenolic compound (p-cresol) could be a significant biotechnological aspect for further applications. PMID:23251641

  4. Toxic cell concentrations of three polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in the green alga, Selenastrum capricornutum

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, P. |; Halling-Soerensen, B.; Nyholm, N.; Sijm, D.T.H.M.

    1998-09-01

    Algal growth inhibition tests were performed with the unicellular green alga Selenastrum capricornutum and three {sup 14}C-labeled polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Toxicity was related to external aqueous concentrations and additionally to internal algal bound PCB concentrations. Estimates of the concentrations at 50% effectiveness (EC50s) for the three PCB congeners ranged within a factor of 17 when based on measured aqueous concentrations. When based on internal toxicant concentrations the corresponding range was 6.7 to 14.3 mmol/kg wet weight. Thus, changing the basis from external to internal concentrations reduced the range by almost one order of magnitude. Additional toxic cell concentrations of five monoaromatic compounds and S. capricornutum were calculated from literature data to be in the same order of magnitude as the experimental toxic cell concentrations for the PCBs, whereas EC50 values for all substances ranged by more than four orders of magnitude. The experimental and calculated data indicate that observed differences in the estimated EC50 values were mainly due to differences in bioconcentration behavior rather than to different intrinsic toxicities. These findings are in agreement with the concept of baseline toxicity, meaning that a number of hydrophobic organics exerts their acute toxicity by one relatively nonspecific mode of action.

  5. Two components of photoreceptor potential in phototaxis of the flagellated green alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Sineshchekov, O A; Litvin, F F; Keszthelyi, L

    1990-01-01

    The kinetics of the photoreceptor potential of phototaxis in biflagellated green alga Haematococcus pluvialis in response to a 10-ns laser pulse of three wavelengths (465, 550, and 590 nm) were measured in single cells with 30 mus time resolution. The rise and the decay of photoinduced potential are both at least biphasic. The first component of the rise is very stable and has no measurable (<30 mus) time delay. The second component is triggered after a 120-400-mus lag period, depending on flash intensity. Its appearance is sensitive to the physiological state of the cell and the amplitude can be increased by phototactically ineffective red background illumination. The electrical generators for both components are localized in the same region of the cell membrane (on the stigma-bearing side) and these components have the same depolarizing sign. The results indicate that the photoreceptor potential in phototaxis comprises two components, which could be interpreted as light-induced charge movement within the photoreceptor molecules and changes in ion permeability of the cell membrane. PMID:19431753

  6. Growth rate affects the responses of the green alga Tetraselmis suecica to external perturbations.

    PubMed

    Fanesi, Andrea; Raven, John A; Giordano, Mario

    2014-02-01

    Acclimation to environmental changes involves a modification of the expressed proteome and metabolome. The reproductive advantage associated with the higher fitness that acclimation provides to the new conditions more than compensates for the costs of acclimation. To exploit such an advantage, however, the duration of the perturbation must be sufficiently long relative to the growth rate. Otherwise, a selective pressure may exist in favour of responses that minimize changes in carbon allocation and resource use and do not require reversal of the acclimation after the perturbation ceases (compositional homeostasis). We hypothesize that the choice between acclimation and homeostasis depends on the duration of the perturbation relative to the length of the cell cycle. To test this hypothesis, we cultured the green alga Tetraselmis suecica at two growth rates and subjected the cultures to three environmental perturbations. Carbon allocation was studied with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy; elemental stoichiometry was investigated by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectroscopy. Our data confirmed that growth rate is a crucial factor for C allocation in response to external changes, with a higher degree of compositional homeostasis in cells with lower growth rate. PMID:23927015

  7. A novel alphaproteobacterial ectosymbiont promotes the growth of the hydrocarbon-rich green alga Botryococcus braunii

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Yuuhiko; Okazaki, Yusuke; Yoshida, Masaki; Matsuura, Hiroshi; Kai, Atsushi; Shiratori, Takashi; Ishida, Ken-ichiro; Nakano, Shin-ichi; Watanabe, Makoto M.

    2015-01-01

    Botryococcus braunii is a colony-forming green alga that accumulates large amounts of liquid hydrocarbons within the colony. The utilization of B. braunii for biofuel production is however hindered by its low biomass productivity. Here we describe a novel bacterial ectosymbiont (BOTRYCO-2) that confers higher biomass productivity to B. braunii. 16S rDNA analysis indicated that the sequence of BOTRYCO-2 shows low similarity (<90%) to cultured bacterial species and located BOTRYCO-2 within a phylogenetic lineage consisting of uncultured alphaproteobacterial clones. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) studies and transmission electric microscopy indicated that BOTRYCO-2 is closely associated with B. braunii colonies. Interestingly, FISH analysis of a water bloom sample also found BOTRYCO-2 bacteria in close association with cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa colonies, suggesting that BOTRYCO-2 relatives have high affinity to phytoplankton colonies. A PCR survey of algal bloom samples revealed that the BOTRYCO-2 lineage is commonly found in Microcystis associated blooms. Growth experiments indicated that B. braunii Ba10 can grow faster and has a higher biomass (1.8-fold) and hydrocarbon (1.5-fold) yield in the presence of BOTRYCO-2. Additionally, BOTRYCO-2 conferred a higher biomass yield to BOT-22, one of the fastest growing strains of B. braunii. We propose the species name ‘Candidatus Phycosocius bacilliformis’ for BOTRYCO-2. PMID:26130609

  8. Active Hydrocarbon Biosynthesis and Accumulation in a Green Alga, Botryococcus braunii (Race A)

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Mana; Mukaida, Fukiko; Okada, Sigeru

    2013-01-01

    Among oleaginous microalgae, the colonial green alga Botryococcus braunii accumulates especially large quantities of hydrocarbons. This accumulation may be achieved more by storage of lipids in the extracellular space rather than in the cytoplasm, as is the case for all other examined oleaginous microalgae. The stage of hydrocarbon synthesis during the cell cycle was determined by autoradiography. The cell cycle of B. braunii race A was synchronized by aminouracil treatment, and cells were taken at various stages in the cell cycle and cultured in a medium containing [14C]acetate. Incorporation of 14C into hydrocarbons was detected. The highest labeling occurred just after septum formation, when it was about 2.6 times the rate during interphase. Fluorescent and electron microscopy revealed that new lipid accumulation on the cell surface occurred during at least two different growth stages and sites of cells. Lipid bodies in the cytoplasm were not prominent in interphase cells. These lipid bodies then increased in number, size, and inclusions, reaching maximum values just before the first lipid accumulation on the cell surface at the cell apex. Most of them disappeared from the cytoplasm concomitant with the second new accumulation at the basolateral region, where extracellular lipids continuously accumulated. The rough endoplasmic reticulum near the plasma membrane is prominent in B. braunii, and the endoplasmic reticulum was often in contact with both a chloroplast and lipid bodies in cells with increasing numbers of lipid bodies. We discuss the transport pathway of precursors of extracellular hydrocarbons in race A. PMID:23794509

  9. Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Deng, Junjing; Vine, David J.; Chen, Si; Nashed, Youssef S. G.; Jin, Qiaoling; Phillips, Nicholas W.; Peterka, Tom; Ross, Rob; Vogt, Stefan; Jacobsen, Chris J.

    2015-02-24

    Trace metals play important roles in normal and in disease-causing biological functions. X-ray fluorescence microscopy reveals trace elements with no dependence on binding affinities (unlike with visible light fluorophores) and with improved sensitivity relative to electron probes. However, X-ray fluorescence is not very sensitive for showing the light elements that comprise the majority of cellular material. Here we show that X-ray ptychography can be combined with fluorescence to image both cellular structure and trace element distribution in frozen-hydrated cells at cryogenic temperatures, with high structural and chemical fidelity. Ptychographic reconstruction algorithms deliver phase and absorption contrast images at a resolutionmore » beyond that of the illuminating lens or beam size. Using 5.2-keV X-rays, we have obtained sub–30-nm resolution structural images and ~90-nm–resolution fluorescence images of several elements in frozen-hydrated green algae. This combined approach offers a way to study the role of trace elements in their structural context.« less

  10. Comparison of the Photosynthetic Yield of Cyanobacteria and Green Algae: Different Methods Give Different Answers.

    PubMed

    Schuurmans, R Milou; van Alphen, Pascal; Schuurmans, J Merijn; Matthijs, Hans C P; Hellingwerf, Klaas J

    2015-01-01

    The societal importance of renewable carbon-based commodities and energy carriers has elicited a particular interest for high performance phototrophic microorganisms. Selection of optimal strains is often based on direct comparison under laboratory conditions of maximal growth rate or additional valued features such as lipid content. Instead of reporting growth rate in culture, estimation of photosynthetic efficiency (quantum yield of PSII) by pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorimetry is an often applied alternative method. Here we compared the quantum yield of PSII and the photonic yield on biomass for the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana 211-8K and the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Our data demonstrate that the PAM technique inherently underestimates the photosynthetic efficiency of cyanobacteria by rendering a high F0 and a low FM, specifically after the commonly practiced dark pre-incubation before a yield measurement. Yet when comparing the calculated biomass yield on light in continuous culture experiments, we obtained nearly equal values for both species. Using mutants of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, we analyzed the factors that compromise its PAM-based quantum yield measurements. We will discuss the role of dark respiratory activity, fluorescence emission from the phycobilisomes, and the Mehler-like reaction. Based on the above observations we recommend that PAM measurements in cyanobacteria are interpreted only qualitatively. PMID:26394153

  11. Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Junjing; Vine, David J.; Chen, Si; Nashed, Youssef S. G.; Jin, Qiaoling; Phillips, Nicholas W.; Peterka, Tom; Ross, Rob; Vogt, Stefan; Jacobsen, Chris J.

    2015-01-01

    Trace metals play important roles in normal and in disease-causing biological functions. X-ray fluorescence microscopy reveals trace elements with no dependence on binding affinities (unlike with visible light fluorophores) and with improved sensitivity relative to electron probes. However, X-ray fluorescence is not very sensitive for showing the light elements that comprise the majority of cellular material. Here we show that X-ray ptychography can be combined with fluorescence to image both cellular structure and trace element distribution in frozen-hydrated cells at cryogenic temperatures, with high structural and chemical fidelity. Ptychographic reconstruction algorithms deliver phase and absorption contrast images at a resolution beyond that of the illuminating lens or beam size. Using 5.2-keV X-rays, we have obtained sub30-nm resolution structural images and ?90-nmresolution fluorescence images of several elements in frozen-hydrated green algae. This combined approach offers a way to study the role of trace elements in their structural context. PMID:25675478

  12. Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Junjing; Vine, David J.; Chen, Si; Nashed, Youssef S. G.; Jin, Qiaoling; Phillips, Nicholas W.; Peterka, Tom; Ross, Rob; Vogt, Stefan; Jacobsen, Chris J.

    2015-02-24

    Trace metals play important roles in normal and in disease-causing biological functions. X-ray fluorescence microscopy reveals trace elements with no dependence on binding affinities (unlike with visible light fluorophores) and with improved sensitivity relative to electron probes. However, X-ray fluorescence is not very sensitive for showing the light elements that comprise the majority of cellular material. Here we show that X-ray ptychography can be combined with fluorescence to image both cellular structure and trace element distribution in frozen-hydrated cells at cryogenic temperatures, with high structural and chemical fidelity. Ptychographic reconstruction algorithms deliver phase and absorption contrast images at a resolution beyond that of the illuminating lens or beam size. Using 5.2-keV X-rays, we have obtained sub–30-nm resolution structural images and ~90-nm–resolution fluorescence images of several elements in frozen-hydrated green algae. This combined approach offers a way to study the role of trace elements in their structural context.

  13. Characterization of Hydrogen Metabolism in the Multicellular Green Alga Volvox carteri

    PubMed Central

    Cornish, Adam J.; Green, Robin; Grtner, Katrin; Mason, Saundra; Hegg, Eric L.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen gas functions as a key component in the metabolism of a wide variety of microorganisms, often acting as either a fermentative end-product or an energy source. The number of organisms reported to utilize hydrogen continues to grow, contributing to and expanding our knowledge of biological hydrogen processes. Here we demonstrate that Volvox carteri f. nagariensis, a multicellular green alga with differentiated cells, evolves H2 both when supplied with an abiotic electron donor and under physiological conditions. The genome of Volvox carteri contains two genes encoding putative [FeFe]-hydrogenases (HYDA1 and HYDA2), and the transcripts for these genes accumulate under anaerobic conditions. The HYDA1 and HYDA2 gene products were cloned, expressed, and purified, and both are functional [FeFe]-hydrogenases. Additionally, within the genome the HYDA1 and HYDA2 genes cluster with two putative genes which encode hydrogenase maturation proteins. This gene cluster resembles operon-like structures found within bacterial genomes and may provide further insight into evolutionary relationships between bacterial and algal [FeFe]-hydrogenase genes. PMID:25927230

  14. Kinetic flux profiling dissects nitrogen utilization pathways in the oleaginous green alga Chlorella protothecoides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chao; Xiong, Wei; Dai, Junbiao; Wu, Qingyu

    2016-02-01

    As a promising candidate for biodiesel production, the green alga Chlorella protothecoides can efficiently produce oleaginous biomass and the lipid biosynthesis is greatly influenced by the availability of nitrogen source and corresponding nitrogen assimilation pathways. Based on isotope-assisted kinetic flux profiling (KFP), the fluxes through the nitrogen utilization pathway were quantitatively analyzed. We found that autotrophic C. protothecoides cells absorbed ammonium mainly through glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), and partially through glutamine synthetase (GS), which was the rate-limiting enzyme of nitrogen assimilation process with rare metabolic activity of glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase (GOGAT, also known as glutamate synthase); whereas under heterotrophic conditions, the cells adapted to GS-GOGAT cycle for nitrogen assimilation in which GS reaction rate was associated with GOGAT activity. The fact that C. protothecoides chooses the adenosine triphosphate-free and less ammonium-affinity GDH pathway, or alternatively the energy-consuming GS-GOGAT cycle with high ammonium affinity for nitrogen assimilation, highlights the metabolic adaptability of C. protothecoides exposed to altered nitrogen conditions. PMID:26987093

  15. Oxygen-dependent proton efflux in cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, S; Strzl, E; Bger, P

    1984-01-01

    The oxygen-dependent proton efflux (in the dark) of intact cells of Anabaena variabilis and four other cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) was investigated. In contrast to bacteria and isolated mitochondria, an H+/e ratio (= protons translocated per electron transported) of only 0.23 to 0.35 and a P/e ratio of 0.8 to 1.5 were observed, indicative of respiratory electron transport being localized essentially on the thylakoids, not on the cytoplasmic membrane. Oxygen-induced acidification of the medium was sensitive to cyanide and the uncoupler carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone. Inhibitors such as 2,6-dinitrophenol and vanadate exhibited a significant decrease in the H+/e ratio. After the oxygen pulse, electron transport started immediately, but proton efflux lagged 40 to 60 s behind, a period also needed before maximum ATP pool levels were attained. We suggest that proton efflux in A. variabilis is due to a proton-translocating ATP hydrolase (ATP-consuming ATPase) rather than to respiratory electron transport located on the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:6327614

  16. Flow cytometric determination of the photoinduced toxicity of anthracene to the green alga selenastrum capricornutum

    SciTech Connect

    Gala, W.R.; Giesy, J.P. . Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife)

    1994-05-01

    Certain PAHs are photosensitizers and in the presence of solar radiation can cause toxicity to aquatic plants and animals. The photoinduced toxicity of anthracene to the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum was assessed by the use of flow cytometry to measure cell size, cellular chlorophyll concentration, and cell viability. Anthracene was slightly toxic in the absence of UV-A radiation. The detection of the direct toxicity of anthracene in this study at a concentration of 19 [mu]g/L anthracene resulted from the use of sensitive flow cytometric measures. There was a significant interaction between anthracene and UV-A radiation, which, in combination, caused significant toxic effects on Selenastrum capricornutum. The most sensitive flow cytometric measure of toxicity was the stress index (SI), which was predictive of longer term effects on cell growth. The 28-h EC50 and EC10 and for the SI for Selenastrum capricornutum were 16.1 and 8.3 [mu]g/L anthracene, respectively, at 125 [mu]W/cm[sup 2] UV-A. All combinations for anthracene and UV-A that inhibited algal growth also caused a significantly greater number of nonviable cells. The flow cytometric methods used in this study proved to be sensitive, predictive measures of the direct and photo-induced toxicity of anthracene and UV-A radiation to Selenastrum capricornutum.

  17. Are carbon nanotube effects on green algae caused by shading and agglomeration?

    PubMed

    Schwab, Fabienne; Bucheli, Thomas D; Lukhele, Lungile P; Magrez, Arnaud; Nowack, Bernd; Sigg, Laura; Knauer, Katja

    2011-07-15

    Due to growing production, carbon nanotubes (CNT) may soon be found in a broad range of products and thus in the environment. In this work, an algal growth test was developed to determine effects of pristine and oxidized CNT on the green algae Chlorella vulgaris and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. CNT suspensions were prepared in algal test medium and characterized taking into account the suspension age, the reduced light transmittance of nanoparticle suspensions defined as shading of CNT and quantified by UV/vis spectroscopy, and the agglomeration of the CNT and of the algal cells. Growth inhibition and photosynthetic activity were investigated as end points. Growth of C. vulgaris was inhibited with effect concentrations of 50% (EC(50)) values of 1.8 mg CNT/L and of 24 mg CNT/L in well dispersed and in agglomerated suspensions, respectively, and 20 mg CNT/L and 36 mg CNT/L for P. subcapitata, respectively. However, the photosynthetic activity was not affected. Growth inhibition was highly correlated with the shading of CNT and the agglomeration of algal cells. This suggests that the reduced algal growth might be caused mainly by indirect effects, i.e. by reduced availability of light and different growth conditions caused by the locally elevated algal concentration inside of CNT agglomerates. PMID:21702508

  18. Palindromic Genes in the Linear Mitochondrial Genome of the Nonphotosynthetic Green Alga Polytomella magna

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David Roy; Hua, Jimeng; Archibald, John M.; Lee, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Organelle DNA is no stranger to palindromic repeats. But never has a mitochondrial or plastid genome been described in which every coding region is part of a distinct palindromic unit. While sequencing the mitochondrial DNA of the nonphotosynthetic green alga Polytomella magna, we uncovered precisely this type of genic arrangement. The P. magna mitochondrial genome is linear and made up entirely of palindromes, each containing 17 unique coding regions. Consequently, every gene in the genome is duplicated and in an inverted orientation relative to its partner. And when these palindromic genes are folded into putative stem-loops, their predicted translational start sites are often positioned in the apex of the loop. Gel electrophoresis results support the linear, 28-kb monomeric conformation of the P. magna mitochondrial genome. Analyses of other Polytomella taxa suggest that palindromic mitochondrial genes were present in the ancestor of the Polytomella lineage and lost or retained to various degrees in extant species. The possible origins and consequences of this bizarre genomic architecture are discussed. PMID:23940100

  19. Simultaneous cryo X-ray ptychographic and fluorescence microscopy of green algae.

    PubMed

    Deng, Junjing; Vine, David J; Chen, Si; Nashed, Youssef S G; Jin, Qiaoling; Phillips, Nicholas W; Peterka, Tom; Ross, Rob; Vogt, Stefan; Jacobsen, Chris J

    2015-02-24

    Trace metals play important roles in normal and in disease-causing biological functions. X-ray fluorescence microscopy reveals trace elements with no dependence on binding affinities (unlike with visible light fluorophores) and with improved sensitivity relative to electron probes. However, X-ray fluorescence is not very sensitive for showing the light elements that comprise the majority of cellular material. Here we show that X-ray ptychography can be combined with fluorescence to image both cellular structure and trace element distribution in frozen-hydrated cells at cryogenic temperatures, with high structural and chemical fidelity. Ptychographic reconstruction algorithms deliver phase and absorption contrast images at a resolution beyond that of the illuminating lens or beam size. Using 5.2-keV X-rays, we have obtained sub-30-nm resolution structural images and ?90-nm-resolution fluorescence images of several elements in frozen-hydrated green algae. This combined approach offers a way to study the role of trace elements in their structural context. PMID:25675478

  20. Convoluted Plasma Membrane Domains in the Green Alga Chara are Depleted of Microtubules and Actin Filaments.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Aniela; Hoeftberger, Margit; Hoepflinger, Marion C; Schmalbrock, Sarah; Bulychev, Alexander; Foissner, Ilse

    2015-10-01

    Charasomes are convoluted plasma membrane domains in the green alga Chara australis. They harbor H(+)-ATPases involved in acidification of the medium, which facilitates carbon uptake required for photosynthesis. In this study we investigated the distribution of cortical microtubules and cortical actin filaments in relation to the distribution of charasomes. We found that microtubules and actin filaments were largely lacking beneath the charasomes, suggesting the absence of nucleating and/or anchoring complexes or an inhibitory effect on polymerization. We also investigated the influence of cytoskeleton inhibitors on the light-dependent growth and the darkness-induced degradation of charasomes. Inhibition of cytoplasmic streaming by cytochalasin D significantly inhibited charasome growth and delayed charasome degradation, whereas depolymerization of microtubules by oryzalin or stabilization of microtubules by paclitaxel had no effect. Our data indicate that the membrane at the cytoplasmic surface of charasomes has different properties in comparison with the smooth plasma membrane. We show further that the actin cytoskeleton is necessary for charasome growth and facilitates charasome degradation presumably via trafficking of secretory and endocytic vesicles, respectively. However, microtubules are required neither for charasome growth nor for charasome degradation. PMID:26272553

  1. Rapid surface plasmon resonance immunobiosensor assay for microcystin toxins in blue-green algae food supplements.

    PubMed

    Vinogradova, Tatiana; Danaher, Martin; Baxter, Andrew; Moloney, Mary; Victory, Danielle; Haughey, Simon A

    2011-05-15

    A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) immunobiosensor assay was developed and validated to detect microcystin toxins in Spirulina and Aphanizomenon flos-aquae blue-green algae (BGA) food supplements. A competitive inhibition SPR-biosensor was developed using a monoclonal antibody to detect microcystin (MC) toxins. Powdered BGA samples were extracted with an aqueous methanolic solution, centrifuged and diluted in HBS-EP buffer prior to analysis. The assay was validated in accordance with the performance criteria outlined in EU legislation 2002/657/EC. The limit of detection (LOD) of the assay was calculated from the analysis of 20 known negative BGA samples to be 0.561 mg kg(-1). The detection capability (CCβ) of the assay was determined to be ≤ 0.85 mg kg(-1) for MC-LR. The biosensor assay was successfully applied to detect MC-LR toxins in BGA samples purchased on the Irish retail market. MC-LR was detected in samples at levels ranging from <0.5 to 2.21 mg kg(-1). The biosensor results were in good agreement with an established LC-MS/MS assay. The assay is advantageous because it employs a simple clean-up procedure compared to chemical assays and allows automated unattended analysis of samples unlike ELISA. PMID:21482261

  2. Amylibacter ulvae sp. nov., a new alphaproteobacterium isolated from the Pacific green alga Ulva fenestrata.

    PubMed

    Nedashkovskaya, Olga I; Kukhlevskiy, Andrey D; Zhukova, Natalia V; Kim, Seung Bum

    2016-04-01

    A strictly aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped and non-motile bacterium, designated strain 6Alg 255(T), was isolated from the green alga Ulva fenestrata. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the novel strain affiliated to the family Rhodobacteraceae of the class Alphaproteobacteria being most closely related to Amylibacter marinus LMG 28364(T) with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.2 %. Strain 6Alg 255(T) grew with 0.5-6.0 % NaCl and at 4-33 °C, hydrolysed aesculin, casein, gelatin and urea. The DNA G + C content was 50.4 mol%. The prevalent fatty acids were C18:1 ω7c and C16:0. The polar lipid profile was characterized by the presence of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and unidentified aminolipid. The major respiratory quinone was Q-10. The significant molecular distinctiveness between the novel isolate and its nearest neighbour was strongly supported by the differences in physiological and biochemical tests. Therefore, strain 6Alg 255(T) represents a novel species of the genus Amylibacter, for which the name Amylibacter ulvae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 6Alg 255(T) (=KCTC 32465(T) = KMM 6515(T)). PMID:26762377

  3. Effects of Phosphorus Limitation on Respiratory Metabolism in the Green Alga Selenastrum minutum1

    PubMed Central

    Theodorou, Maria E.; Elrifi, Ivor R.; Turpin, David H.; Plaxton, William C.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of phosphorus nutrition on several physiological and biochemical parameters of the green alga, Selenastrum minutum, have been examined. Algal cells were cultured in chemostats under conditions of either Pi limitation or nutrient sufficiency. Pi limitation resulted in: (a) a 5-fold lower rate of respiration, (b) a 3-fold decline in rates of photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation and oxygen evolution, (c) a 3-fold higher rate of dark carbon dioxide fixation, (d) significant increases in activities of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase and PEP phosphatase (128% and 158% of nutrient sufficient activities, respectively), (e) significant reductions in activities of nonphosphorylating NADP-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and NAD malic enzyme, and (f) no change in levels of ATP:fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, phosphorylating NAD-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, and pyruvate kinase. The intracellular concentrations of Pi, ATP, AMP, soluble protein, and chlorophyll were also significantly reduced in response to Pi limitation. As well, the level of ADP was about 11-fold lower in the Pi-limited cells as compared to the nutrient sufficient controls. It was predicted that because of this low level of ADP, pyruvate kinase catalyzed conversion of PEP to pyruvate may be restricted in Pi-limited cells. During Pi limitation, PEP carboxylase and PEP phosphatase may function to bypass the ADP dependent pyruvate kinase, as well as to recycle Pi for its reassimilation into cellular metabolism. PMID:16668095

  4. Salt stress-induced cell death in the unicellular green alga Micrasterias denticulata

    PubMed Central

    Affenzeller, Matthias Josef; Darehshouri, Anza; Andosch, Ancuela; Lütz, Cornelius; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a key element in normal plant growth and development which may also be induced by various abiotic and biotic stress factors including salt stress. In the present study, morphological, biochemical, and physiological responses of the theoretically immortal unicellular freshwater green alga Micrasterias denticulata were examined after salt (200 mM NaCl or 200 mM KCl) and osmotic stress induced by iso-osmotic sorbitol. KCl caused morphological changes such as cytoplasmic vacuolization, extreme deformation of mitochondria, and ultrastructural changes of Golgi and ER. However, prolonged salt stress (24 h) led to the degradation of organelles by autophagy, a special form of PCD, both in NaCl- and KCl-treated cells. This was indicated by the enclosure of organelles by ER-derived double membranes. DNA of NaCl- and KCl-stressed cells but not of sorbitol-treated cells showed a ladder-like pattern on agarose gel, which means that the ionic rather than the osmotic component of salt stress leads to the activation of the responsible endonuclease. DNA laddering during salt stress could be abrogated by addition of Zn2+. Neither cytochrome c release from mitochondria nor increase in caspase-3-like activity occurred after salt stress. Reactive oxygen species could be detected within 5 min after the onset of salt and osmotic stress. Respiration, photosynthetic activity, and pigment composition indicated an active metabolism which supports programmed rather than necrotic cell death in Micrasterias after salt stress. PMID:19213813

  5. Comparison of the Photosynthetic Yield of Cyanobacteria and Green Algae: Different Methods Give Different Answers

    PubMed Central

    Schuurmans, R. Milou; van Alphen, Pascal; Schuurmans, J. Merijn; Matthijs, Hans C. P.; Hellingwerf, Klaas J.

    2015-01-01

    The societal importance of renewable carbon-based commodities and energy carriers has elicited a particular interest for high performance phototrophic microorganisms. Selection of optimal strains is often based on direct comparison under laboratory conditions of maximal growth rate or additional valued features such as lipid content. Instead of reporting growth rate in culture, estimation of photosynthetic efficiency (quantum yield of PSII) by pulse-amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorimetry is an often applied alternative method. Here we compared the quantum yield of PSII and the photonic yield on biomass for the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana 211-8K and the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Our data demonstrate that the PAM technique inherently underestimates the photosynthetic efficiency of cyanobacteria by rendering a high F0 and a low FM, specifically after the commonly practiced dark pre-incubation before a yield measurement. Yet when comparing the calculated biomass yield on light in continuous culture experiments, we obtained nearly equal values for both species. Using mutants of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, we analyzed the factors that compromise its PAM-based quantum yield measurements. We will discuss the role of dark respiratory activity, fluorescence emission from the phycobilisomes, and the Mehler-like reaction. Based on the above observations we recommend that PAM measurements in cyanobacteria are interpreted only qualitatively. PMID:26394153

  6. Characterization of Hydrogen Metabolism in the Multicellular Green Alga Volvox carteri

    SciTech Connect

    Cornish, Adam J.; Green, Robin; Gärtner, Katrin; Mason, Saundra; Hegg, Eric L.

    2015-04-30

    Hydrogen gas functions as a key component in the metabolism of a wide variety of microorganisms, often acting as either a fermentative end-product or an energy source. The number of organisms reported to utilize hydrogen continues to grow, contributing to and expanding our knowledge of biological hydrogen processes. Here we demonstrate that Volvox carteri f. nagariensis, a multicellular green alga with differentiated cells, evolves H2 both when supplied with an abiotic electron donor and under physiological conditions. The genome of Volvox carteri contains two genes encoding putative [FeFe]-hydrogenases (HYDA1 and HYDA2), and the transcripts for these genes accumulate under anaerobic conditions. The HYDA1 and HYDA2 gene products were cloned, expressed, and purified, and both are functional [FeFe]-hydrogenases. Additionally, within the genome the HYDA1 and HYDA2 genes cluster with two putative genes which encode hydrogenase maturation proteins. This gene cluster resembles operon-like structures found within bacterial genomes and may provide further insight into evolutionary relationships between bacterial and algal [FeFe]-hydrogenase genes.

  7. Chlorophyll a fluorescence lifetime reveals reversible UV-induced photosynthetic activity in the green algae Tetraselmis.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Arne S; Hamre, Børge; Frette, Øyvind; Erga, Svein R

    2016-04-01

    The fluorescence lifetime is a very useful parameter for investigating biological materials on the molecular level as it is mostly independent of the fluorophore concentration. The green alga Tetraselmis blooms in summer, and therefore its response to UV irradiation is of particular interest. In vivo fluorescence lifetimes of chlorophyll a were measured under both normal and UV-stressed conditions of Tetraselmis. Fluorescence was induced by two-photon excitation using a femtosecond laser and laser scanning microscope. The lifetimes were measured in the time domain by time-correlated single-photon counting. Under normal conditions, the fluorescence lifetime was 262 ps, while after 2 h of exposure to UV radiation the lifetime increased to 389 ps, indicating decreased photochemical quenching, likely caused by a damaged and down-regulated photosynthetic apparatus. This was supported by a similar increase in the lifetime to 425 ps when inhibiting photosynthesis chemically using DCMU. Furthermore, the UV-stressed sample was dark-adapted overnight, resulting in a return of the lifetime to 280 ps, revealing that the damage caused by UV radiation is repairable on a relatively short time scale. This reversal of photosynthetic activity was also confirmed by [Formula: see text] measurements. PMID:26538330

  8. Characterization of Hydrogen Metabolism in the Multicellular Green Alga Volvox carteri

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cornish, Adam J.; Green, Robin; Gärtner, Katrin; Mason, Saundra; Hegg, Eric L.

    2015-04-30

    Hydrogen gas functions as a key component in the metabolism of a wide variety of microorganisms, often acting as either a fermentative end-product or an energy source. The number of organisms reported to utilize hydrogen continues to grow, contributing to and expanding our knowledge of biological hydrogen processes. Here we demonstrate that Volvox carteri f. nagariensis, a multicellular green alga with differentiated cells, evolves H2 both when supplied with an abiotic electron donor and under physiological conditions. The genome of Volvox carteri contains two genes encoding putative [FeFe]-hydrogenases (HYDA1 and HYDA2), and the transcripts for these genes accumulate under anaerobicmore » conditions. The HYDA1 and HYDA2 gene products were cloned, expressed, and purified, and both are functional [FeFe]-hydrogenases. Additionally, within the genome the HYDA1 and HYDA2 genes cluster with two putative genes which encode hydrogenase maturation proteins. This gene cluster resembles operon-like structures found within bacterial genomes and may provide further insight into evolutionary relationships between bacterial and algal [FeFe]-hydrogenase genes.« less

  9. Convoluted Plasma Membrane Domains in the Green Alga Chara are Depleted of Microtubules and Actin Filaments

    PubMed Central

    Sommer, Aniela; Hoeftberger, Margit; Hoepflinger, Marion C.; Schmalbrock, Sarah; Bulychev, Alexander; Foissner, Ilse

    2015-01-01

    Charasomes are convoluted plasma membrane domains in the green alga Chara australis. They harbor H+-ATPases involved in acidification of the medium, which facilitates carbon uptake required for photosynthesis. In this study we investigated the distribution of cortical microtubules and cortical actin filaments in relation to the distribution of charasomes. We found that microtubules and actin filaments were largely lacking beneath the charasomes, suggesting the absence of nucleating and/or anchoring complexes or an inhibitory effect on polymerization. We also investigated the influence of cytoskeleton inhibitors on the light-dependent growth and the darkness-induced degradation of charasomes. Inhibition of cytoplasmic streaming by cytochalasin D significantly inhibited charasome growth and delayed charasome degradation, whereas depolymerization of microtubules by oryzalin or stabilization of microtubules by paclitaxel had no effect. Our data indicate that the membrane at the cytoplasmic surface of charasomes has different properties in comparison with the smooth plasma membrane. We show further that the actin cytoskeleton is necessary for charasome growth and facilitates charasome degradation presumably via trafficking of secretory and endocytic vesicles, respectively. However, microtubules are required neither for charasome growth nor for charasome degradation. PMID:26272553

  10. Heterotrimeric G-proteins in green algae. An early innovation in the evolution of the plant lineage.

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, Dieter; Pandey, Sona

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimeric G-proteins (G-proteins, hereafter) are important signaling components in all eukaryotes. The absence of these proteins in the sequenced genomes of Chlorophycean green algae has raised questions about their evolutionary origin and prevalence in the plant lineage. The existence of G-proteins has often been correlated with the acquisition of embryophytic life-cycle and/or terrestrial habitats of plants which occurred around 450 million years ago. Our discovery of functional G-proteins in Chara braunii, a representative of the Charophycean green algae, establishes the existence of this conserved signaling pathway in the most basal plants and dates it even further back to 1-1.5 billion years ago. We have now identified the sequence homologs of G-proteins in additional algal families and propose that green algae represent a model system for one of the most basal forms of G-protein signaling known to exist to date. Given the possible differences that exist between plant and metazoan G-protein signaling mechanisms, such basal organisms will serve as important resources to trace the evolutionary origin of proposed mechanistic differences between the systems as well as their plant-specific functions. PMID:25764428

  11. High Yields of Hydrogen Production Induced by Meta-Substituted Dichlorophenols Biodegradation from the Green Alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    PubMed Central

    Papazi, Aikaterini; Andronis, Efthimios; Ioannidis, Nikolaos E.; Chaniotakis, Nikolaos; Kotzabasis, Kiriakos

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen is a highly promising energy source with important social and economic implications. The ability of green algae to produce photosynthetic hydrogen under anaerobic conditions has been known for years. However, until today the yield of production has been very low, limiting an industrial scale use. In the present paper, 73 years after the first report on H2-production from green algae, we present a combinational biological system where the biodegradation procedure of one meta-substituted dichlorophenol (m-dcp) is the key element for maintaining continuous and high rate H2-production (>100 times higher than previously reported) in chloroplasts and mitochondria of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus. In particular, we report that reduced m-dcps (biodegradation intermediates) mimic endogenous electron and proton carriers in chloroplasts and mitochondria, inhibit Photosystem II (PSII) activity (and therefore O2 production) and enhance Photosystem I (PSI) and hydrogenase activity. In addition, we show that there are some indications for hydrogen production from sources other than chloroplasts in Scenedesmus obliquus. The regulation of these multistage and highly evolved redox pathways leads to high yields of hydrogen production and paves the way for an efficient application to industrial scale use, utilizing simple energy sources and one meta-substituted dichlorophenol as regulating elements. PMID:23145057

  12. Diatom Communities and Metrics as Indicators of Urbanization Effects on Streams and Potential Moderation by Landscape Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diatoms are very useful and important indicators of anthropogenic impacts on streams because they are the foundation of primary production and are responsive to nutrients, conductivity, and habitat conditions. We characterized relationships of diatom assemblages with water chemis...

  13. Biological importance of marine algae

    PubMed Central

    El Gamal, Ali A.

    2009-01-01

    Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. Algae can be classified into two main groups; first one is the microalgae, which includes blue green algae, dinoflagellates, bacillariophyta (diatoms)… etc., and second one is macroalgae (seaweeds) which includes green, brown and red algae. The microalgae phyla have been recognized to provide chemical and pharmacological novelty and diversity. Moreover, microalgae are considered as the actual producers of some highly bioactive compounds found in marine resources. Red algae are considered as the most important source of many biologically active metabolites in comparison to other algal classes. Seaweeds are used for great number of application by man. The principal use of seaweeds as a source of human food and as a source of gums (phycocollides). Phycocolloides like agar agar, alginic acid and carrageenan are primarily constituents of brown and red algal cell walls and are widely used in industry. PMID:23960716

  14. Foreign gene recruitment to the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway in diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Cheong Xin; Baglivi, Francesca L; Jenkins, Christina E; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2013-01-01

    Diatoms are highly successful marine and freshwater algae that contribute up to 20% of global carbon fixation. These species are leading candidates for biofuel production owing to ease of culturing and high fatty acid content. To assist in strain improvement and downstream applications for potential use as a biofuel, it is important to understand the evolution of lipid biosynthesis in diatoms. The evolutionary history of diatoms is however complicated by likely multiple endosymbioses involving the capture of foreign cells and horizontal gene transfer into the host genome. Using a phylogenomic approach, we assessed the evolutionary history of 12 diatom genes putatively encoding functions related to lipid biosynthesis. We found evidence of gene transfer likely from a green algal source for seven of these genes, with the remaining showing either vertical inheritance or evolutionary histories too complicated to interpret given current genome data. The functions of horizontally transferred genes encompass all aspects of lipid biosynthesis (initiation, biosynthesis, and desaturation of fatty acids) as well as fatty acid elongation, and are not restricted to plastid-targeted proteins. Our findings demonstrate that the transfer, duplication, and subfunctionalization of genes were key steps in the evolution of lipid biosynthesis in diatoms and other photosynthetic eukaryotes. This target pathway for biofuel research is highly chimeric and surprisingly, our results suggest that research done on related genes in green algae may have application to diatom models. PMID:24404416

  15. Acid water interferes with salamander-green algae symbiosis during early embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Bianchini, Kristin; Tattersall, Glenn J; Sashaw, Jessica; Porteus, Cosima S; Wright, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    The inner egg capsule of embryos of the yellow-spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) are routinely colonized by green algae, such as Oophila amblystomatis, that supply O(2) in the presence of light and may consume nitrogenous wastes, forming what has been proposed to be a mutualistic relationship. Given that A. maculatum have been reported to breed in acidic (pH <5.0) and neutral lakes, we hypothesized that low water pH would negatively affect these symbiotic organisms and alter the gradients within the jelly mass. Oxygen gradients were detected within jelly masses measured directly in a natural breeding pond (pH 4.5-4.8) at midday in full sunlight. In the lab, embryo jelly masses reared continuously at pH 4.5 had lower P(O)₂and higher ammonia levels relative to jelly masses held at pH 8.0 (control). Ammonia and lactate concentrations in embryonic tissues were approximately 37%-93% higher, respectively, in embryos reared at water pH 4.5 compared with pH 8.0. Mass was also reduced in embryos reared at pH 4.5 versus pH 8.0. In addition, light conditions (24 h light, 12L : 12D, or 24 h dark) and embryonic position (periphery vs. center) in the jelly mass affected P(O)₂but not ammonia gradients, suggesting that algal symbionts generate O(2) but do not significantly impact local ammonia concentrations, regardless of the pH of the water. We conclude that chronic exposure to acidic breeding ponds had a profound effect on the microenvironment of developing A. maculatum embryos, which in turn resulted in an elevation of potentially harmful metabolic end products and inhibited growth. Under acidic conditions, the expected benefit provided by the algae to the salamander embryo (i.e., high O(2) and low ammonia microenvironment) is compromised, suggesting that the A. maculatum-algal mutualism is beneficial to salamanders only at higher water pH values. PMID:22902375

  16. New chemical constituents from Oryza sativa straw and their algicidal activities against blue-green algae.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ateeque; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Ali, Mohd; Park, Inmyoung; Kim, Jin-Seog; Kim, Eun-Hye; Lim, Ju-Jin; Kim, Seul-Ki; Chung, Ill-Min

    2013-08-28

    Five new constituents, 5,4'-dihydroxy-7,3'-dimethoxyflavone-4'-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-2a-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b→1c)-2b-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-2c-octadecanoate (1), 5,4'-dihydroxy-7,3'-dimethoxyflavone-4'-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-2a-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b→1c)-2b-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2c→1d)-2c-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-2d-octadecanoate (2), kaempferol-3-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-2a-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b→1c)-2b-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2c→1d)-2c-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-2d-hexadecanoate (3), methyl salicylate-2-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2a→1b)-2a-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2b→1c)-2b-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2c→1d)-2c-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2d→1e)-2d-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2e→1f)-2e-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2f→1g)-2f-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-(2g→1h)-2g-O-α-D-xylopyranosyl-2h-geranilan-8',10'-dioic acid-1'-oate (4), and oleioyl-β-D-arabinoside (5), along with eight known compounds, were isolated from a methanol extract of Oryza sativa straw. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated using one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopies in combination with IR, ESI/MS, and HR-ESI/FTMS. In bioassays with blue-green algae, the efficacies of the algicidal activities of the five new compounds (1-5) were evaluated at concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 mg/L. Compound 5 had the highest growth inhibition (92.6 ± 0.3%) for Microcystis aeruginosa UTEX 2388 at a concentration of 100 ppm (mg/L). Compound 5 has high potential for the ecofriendly control of weeds and algae harmful to water-logged rice. PMID:23889328

  17. Assessing the combined effects from two kinds of cephalosporins on green alga (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) based on response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ruixin; Xie, Weishu; Chen, Jianqiu

    2015-04-01

    The present work evaluated the combined effects of cefradine and ceftazidime on the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa using response surface methodologies (RSM). After a 48 h-exposure, the population growth rate (PGR), the chlorophyll-a content and the SOD content of the alga increased with increased concentrations of two antibiotics. However, the three responses did not continue to demonstrate significant increases once antibiotic concentrations exceed a moderate level. Three two order polynomial regression equations were obtained to describe well the relationship between the responses of the alga and the two antibiotics' concentration (R(2) = 0.9997, 0.9292 and 0.9039, respectively). Three 3 D-surface graphs and their contour plots showed directly the changing trends of the alga under the combined effects of two antibiotics. This study for the first time employed the RSM in ecotoxicology, which indicated that the RSM should be placed under a feasible and a potential application prospect in toxicity assessment. PMID:25684417

  18. Effect propagation in a toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic model explains delayed effects on the growth of unicellular green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus.

    PubMed

    Vogs, Carolina; Bandow, Nicole; Altenburger, Rolf

    2013-04-01

    Ecotoxicological standard tests assess toxic effects by exposing an organism to high concentrations over defined periods of time. To evaluate toxicity under field conditions such as fluctuating and pulsed exposures, process-based toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic (TK/TD) models may be used for extrapolation from the existing evidence. A TK/TD model was developed that simulates the effect on growth of the green algae Scenedesmus vacuolatus continuously exposed to the model chemicals norflurazon, triclosan, and N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine. A pharmacological time-response model describing the effects of anticancer treatments on cancer cell growth was adapted and modified to model the affected growth of synchronized algae cells. The TK/TD model simulates the temporal effect course by linking the ambient concentration of a chemical to the observable adverse effect via an internal concentration and a sequence of biological events in the organism. The parameters of the toxicodynamic model are related to the growth characteristics of algae cells, a no effect concentration, the chemical efficacy as well as the ability of recovery and repair, and the delay during damage propagation. The TK/TD model fits well to the observed algae growth. The effect propagation through cumulative cell damage explained the observed delayed responses better than just the toxicokinetics. The TK/TD model could facilitate the link between several effect levels within damage propagation, which prospectively may be helpful to model adverse outcome pathways and time-dependent mixture effects. PMID:23359135

  19. Effects of lead on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and production of reactive oxygen species of two freshwater green algae.

    PubMed

    Dao, Ly H T; Beardall, John

    2016-03-01

    In the natural environment, heavy metal contamination can occur as long-term pollution of sites or as pulses of pollutants from wastewater disposal. In this study two freshwater green algae, Chlorella sp. FleB1 and Scenedesmus YaA6, were isolated from lead-polluted water samples and the effects of 24 h vs 4 and 8 d exposure of cultures to lead on growth, photosynthetic physiology and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of these algae were investigated. In Chlorella sp. FleB1, there was agreement between lead impacts on chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and growth in most case. However, in Scenedesmus acutus YaA6 growth was inhibited at lower lead concentrations (0.03-0.87 × 10(-9) M), under which ROS, measured by 2',7' dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorescence, were 4.5 fold higher than in controls but photosynthesis was not affected, implying that ROS had played a role in the growth inhibition that did not involve direct effects on photosynthesis. Effects of short-term (5 h, 24 h) vs long-term (4 d and 8 d) exposure to lead were also compared between the two algae. The results contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms of lead toxicity to algae. PMID:26774308

  20. Effects of chlorpyrifos on the growth and ultrastructure of green algae, Ankistrodesmus gracilis.

    PubMed

    Asselborn, Viviana; Fernndez, Carolina; Zalocar, Yolanda; Parodi, Elisa R

    2015-10-01

    The effect of the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos on the growth, biovolume, and ultrastructure of the green microalga Ankistrodesmus gracilis was evaluated. Concentrations of 9.37, 18.75, 37.5, 75 and 150mgL(-1) of chlorpyrifos were assayed along with a control culture. At the end of the bioassay the ultrastructure of algal cells from control culture and from cultures exposed to 37.5 and 150mgL(-1) was observed under transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After 24 and 48h, treatments with 75 and 150mgL(-1) inhibited the growth of A. gracilis; whereas after 72 and 96h, all the treatments except at 9.37mgL(-1) significantly affected the algae growth. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) after 96h was 22.44mgL(-1) of chlorpyrifos. After the exposure to the insecticide, an increase in the biovolume was observed, with a larger increase in cells exposed to 75 and 150mgL(-1). Radical changes were observed in the ultrastructure of cells exposed to chlorpyrifos. The insecticide affected the cell shape and the distribution of the crests in the wall. At 37.5mgL(-1) electodense bodies were observed along with an increase in the size and number of starch granules. At 150mgL(-1) such bodies occupied almost the whole cytoplasm together with lipids and remains of thylakoids. Autospores formation occurred normally at 37.5mgL(-1) while at 150mgL(-1) karyokinesis occurred, but cell-separation-phase was inhibited. The present study demonstrates that the exposure of phytoplankton to the insecticide chlorpyrifos leads to effects observed at both cellular and population level. PMID:26099464

  1. Assessing potential health risks from microcystin toxins in blue-green algae dietary supplements.

    PubMed Central

    Gilroy, D J; Kauffman, K W; Hall, R A; Huang, X; Chu, F S

    2000-01-01

    The presence of blue-green algae (BGA) toxins in surface waters used for drinking water sources and recreation is receiving increasing attention around the world as a public health concern. However, potential risks from exposure to these toxins in contaminated health food products that contain BGA have been largely ignored. BGA products are commonly consumed in the United States, Canada, and Europe for their putative beneficial effects, including increased energy and elevated mood. Many of these products contain Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, a BGA that is harvested from Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) in southern Oregon, where the growth of a toxic BGA, Microcystis aeruginosa, is a regular occurrence. M. aeruginosa produces compounds called microcystins, which are potent hepatotoxins and probable tumor promoters. Because M. aeruginosa coexists with A. flos-aquae, it can be collected inadvertently during the harvesting process, resulting in microcystin contamination of BGA products. In fall 1996, the Oregon Health Division learned that UKL was experiencing an extensive M. aeruginosa bloom, and an advisory was issued recommending against water contact. The advisory prompted calls from consumers of BGA products, who expressed concern about possible contamination of these products with microcystins. In response, the Oregon Health Division and the Oregon Department of Agriculture established a regulatory limit of 1 microg/g for microcystins in BGA-containing products and tested BGA products for the presence of microcystins. Microcystins were detected in 85 of 87 samples tested, with 63 samples (72%) containing concentrations > 1 microg/g. HPLC and ELISA tentatively identified microcystin-LR, the most toxic microcystin variant, as the predominant congener. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10811570

  2. Optimization of culture conditions and comparison of biomass productivity of three green algae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wonduck; Park, Jang Min; Gim, Geun Ho; Jeong, Sang-Hwa; Kang, Chang Min; Kim, Duk-Jin; Kim, Si Wouk

    2012-01-01

    Culture conditions for the mass production of three green algae, Chlorella sp., Dunaliella salina DCCBC2 and Dunaliella sp., were optimized using a response surface methodology (RSM). A central composite design was applied to investigate the effects of initial pH, nitrogen and phosphate concentrations on the cultivation of microalgae. The optimal growth conditions estimated from the design are as follows: Chlorella sp. (initial pH 7.2, ammonium 17 mM, phosphate 1.2 mM), D. salina DCCBC2 (initial pH 8.0, nitrate 3.3 mM, phosphate 0.0375 mM) and Dunaliella sp. (initial pH 8.0, nitrate 3.7 mM, phosphate 0.17 mM). Culturing the microalgae with the optimized conditions confirmed that the maximum growth rates were attained for these parameters. The optimum CO(2) concentrations of Chlorella sp., D. salina DCCBC2 and Dunaliella sp. were 1.0, 3.0 and 1.0% (v/v), respectively. The specific growth rates (?) of Chlorella sp., D. salina DCCBC2 and Dunaliella sp. were 0.58, 0.78 and 0.56 day(-1), respectively, and the biomass productivities were 0.28, 0.54 and 0.30 g dry cell wt l(-1) day(-1), respectively. The CO(2) fixation rates of Chlorella sp., D. salina DCCBC2 and Dunaliella sp. were 42.8, 90.9 and 45.5 mg l(-1) day(-1), respectively. Mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella sp. with glucose increased biomass productivity from 0.28 to 0.51 g dry cell wt l(-1) day(-1). However, D. salina DCCBC2 and Dunaliella sp. were not stimulated by several organic compounds tested. PMID:21909669

  3. Active CO sub 2 transport by the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Sueltemeyer, D.F.; Miller, A.G.; Espie, G.S.; Fock, H.P.; Canvin, D.T. Univ. of Kaiserslautern )

    1989-04-01

    Mass spectrometric measurements of dissolved free {sup 13}CO{sub 2} were used to monitor CO{sub 2} uptake by air grown (low CO{sub 2}) cells and protoplasts from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In the presence of 50 micromolar dissolved inorganic carbon and light, protoplasts which had been washed free of external carbonic anhydrase reduced the {sup 13}CO{sub 2} concentration in the medium to close to zero. Similar results were obtained with low CO{sub 2} cells treated with 50 micromolar acetazolamide. Addition of carbonic anhydrase to protoplasts after the period of rapid CO{sub 2} uptake revealed that the removal of CO{sub 2} from the medium in the light was due to selective and active CO{sub 2} transport rather than uptake of total dissolved inorganic carbon. In the light, low CO{sub 2} cells and protoplasts incubated with carbonic anhydrase took up CO{sub 2} at an apparently low rate which reflected the uptake of total dissolved inorganic carbon. No net CO{sub 2} uptake occurred in the dark. Measurement of chlorophyll a fluorescence yield with low CO{sub 2} cells and washed protoplasts showed that variable fluorescence was mainly influenced by energy quenching which was reciprocally related to photosynthetic activity with its highest value at the CO{sub 2} compensation point. During the linear uptake of CO{sub 2}, low CO{sub 2} cells and protoplasts incubated with carbonic anhydrase showed similar rates of net O{sub 2} evolution.

  4. De-eutrophication of effluent wastewater from fish aquaculture by using marine green alga Ulva pertusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianguo; Wang, Zengfu; Lin, Wei

    2010-03-01

    The de-eutrophication abilities and characteristics of Ulva pertusa, a marine green alga, were investigated in Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center from spring to summer in 2005 by analyzing the dynamic changes in NH{4/+}, NO{3/-}, NO{2/-} as well as the total dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN). The results show that the effluent wastewater produced by fish aquaculture had typical eutrophication levels with an average of 34.3 ?mol L-1 DIN. This level far exceeded the level IV quality of the national seawater standard and could easily lead to phytoplankton blooms in nature if discarded with no treatment. The de-eutrophication abilities of U. pertusa varied greatly and depended mainly on the original eutrophic level the U. pertusa material was derived from. U. pertusa used to living in low DIN conditions had poor DIN removal abilities, while materials cultured in DIN-enriched seawater showed strong de-eutrophication abilities. In other words, the de-eutrophication ability of U. pertusa was evidently induced by high DIN levels. The de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa seemed to also be light dependent, because it was weaker in darkness than under illumination. However, no further improvement in the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa was observed once the light intensity exceeded 300 ?mol M2 S-1. Results of semi-continuous wastewater replacement experiments showed that U. pertusa permanently absorbed nutrients from eutrophicated wastewater at a mean rate of 299 mg/kg fresh weight per day (126 mg/kg DIN during the night, 173 mg/kg in daytime). Based on the above results, engineered de-eutrophication of wastewater by using a U. pertusa filter system seems feasible. The algal quantity required to purify all the eutrophicated outflow wastewater from the Qingdao Yihai Hatchery Center into oligotrophic level I clean seawater was also estimated using the daily discharged wastewater, the average DIN concentration released and the de-eutrophication capacity of U. pertusa.

  5. Ornithinimicrobium algicola sp. nov., a marine actinobacterium isolated from the green alga of the genus Ulva.

    PubMed

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-staining-positive, non-spore-forming actinobacterium, strain JC311T, isolated from marine green alga of the genus Ulva was studied to examine its taxonomic position. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies, strain JC311T was shown represent a member of the genus Ornithinimicrobium and to be closely related to Ornithinimicrobium pekingense LW6T (98.6 %), Ornithinimicrobium kibberense K22-20T (98.3 %) and Ornithinimicrobium humiphilum HKI 0124T (98.1 %). However, strain JC311T showed less than 22 % DNA reassociation value (based on DNA-DNA hybridization) with O. pekingense JCM14001T, O. kibberense JCM12763T and O. humiphilum KCTC19901T. The predominant menaquinone of strain JC311T was MK-8(H4). The peptidoglycan contained l-ornithine as the diagnostic diamino acid. The polar lipid profile consisted of the lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, glycophospholipid, aminophospholipid, phospholipid and two unidentified lipids. The major fatty acids iso-C16 : 0, iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 1ω9c and iso-C17 : 0 were consistent with the fatty acid patterns reported for members of the genus Ornithinimicrobium. The distinct genomic, morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomic differences from the previously described taxa support the classification of JC311T as a representative of a novel species of the genus Ornithinimicrobium, for which we propose the name Ornithinimicrobium algicola sp. nov., with the type strain JC311T ( = KCTC 39559 T =  LMG 28808T). PMID:26395130

  6. Functional Rearrangement of the Light-Harvesting Antenna upon State Transitions in a Green Alga

    PubMed Central

    Wlodarczyk, LucynaM.; Snellenburg, JorisJ.; Ihalainen, JanneA.; vanGrondelle, Rienk; vanStokkum, IvoH.M.; Dekker, JanP.

    2015-01-01

    State transitions in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii serve to balance excitation energy transfer to photosystem I (PSI) and to photosystem II (PSII) and possibly play a role as a photoprotective mechanism. Thus, light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) can switch between the photosystems consequently transferring more excitation energy to PSII (state 1) or to PSI (state 2) or can end up in LHCII-only domains. In this study, low-temperature (77 K) steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence measured on intact cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii shows that independently of the state excitation energy transfer from LHCII to PSI or to PSII occurs on two main timescales of <15ps and ?100 ps. Moreover, in state 1 almost all LHCIIs are functionally connected to PSII, whereas the transition from state 1 to a state 2 chemically locked by 0.1M sodium fluoride leads to an almost complete functional release of LHCIIs from PSII. About 2/3 of the released LHCIIs transfer energy to PSI and ?1/3 of the released LHCIIs form a component designated X-685 peaking at 685nm that decays with time constants of 0.28 and 5.8ns and does not transfer energy to PSI or to PSII. A less complete state 2 was obtained in cells incubated under anaerobic conditions without chemical locking. In this state about half of all LHCIIs remained functionally connected to PSII, whereas the remaining half became functionally connected to PSI or formed X-685 in similar amounts as with chemical locking. We demonstrate that X-685 originates from LHCII domains not connected to a photosystem and that its presence introduces a change in the interpretation of 77 K steady-state fluorescence emission measured upon state transitions in Chalamydomonas reinhardtii. PMID:25606675

  7. In Vitro Reconstitution of Light-harvesting Complexes of Plants and Green Algae

    PubMed Central

    Natali, Alberto; Roy, Laura M.; Croce, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    In plants and green algae, light is captured by the light-harvesting complexes (LHCs), a family of integral membrane proteins that coordinate chlorophylls and carotenoids. In vivo, these proteins are folded with pigments to form complexes which are inserted in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast. The high similarity in the chemical and physical properties of the members of the family, together with the fact that they can easily lose pigments during isolation, makes their purification in a native state challenging. An alternative approach to obtain homogeneous preparations of LHCs was developed by Plumley and Schmidt in 19871, who showed that it was possible to reconstitute these complexes in vitro starting from purified pigments and unfolded apoproteins, resulting in complexes with properties very similar to that of native complexes. This opened the way to the use of bacterial expressed recombinant proteins for in vitro reconstitution. The reconstitution method is powerful for various reasons: (1) pure preparations of individual complexes can be obtained, (2) pigment composition can be controlled to assess their contribution to structure and function, (3) recombinant proteins can be mutated to study the functional role of the individual residues (e.g., pigment binding sites) or protein domain (e.g., protein-protein interaction, folding). This method has been optimized in several laboratories and applied to most of the light-harvesting complexes. The protocol described here details the method of reconstituting light-harvesting complexes in vitro currently used in our laboratory,and examples describing applications of the method are provided. PMID:25350712

  8. A rapid, modular and marker-free chloroplast expression system for the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Bertalan, Ivo; Munder, Matthias C; Wei, Caroline; Kopf, Judith; Fischer, Dirk; Johanningmeier, Udo

    2015-02-10

    In search of alternative expression platforms heterologous protein production in microalgae has gained increasing importance in the last years. Particularly, the chloroplast of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been adopted to successfully express foreign proteins like vaccines and antibodies. However, when compared with other expression systems, the development of the algal chloroplast to a powerful production platform for recombinant proteins is still in its early stages. In an effort to further improve methods for a reliable and rapid generation of transplastomic Chlamydomonas strains we constructed the key plasmid pMM2 containing the psbA gene and a multiple cloning site for foreign gene insertion. The psbA gene allows a marker-free selection procedure using as a recipient the Fud7 strain of Chlamydomonas, which grows on media containing acetate as a carbon source, but is unable to grow photoautotrophically due to the lack of an intact psbA gene. Biolistic transformation of Fud7 with vectors containing this gene restores photoautotrophic growth and thus permits selection in the light on media without carbon sources and antibiotics. The multiple cloning site with a BsaI recognition sequence allows type IIs restriction enzyme-based modular cloning which rapidly generates new gene constructs without sequences, which could influence the expression and characteristics of the foreign protein. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, a codon optimized version of the gene for the bacterial protein MPT64 has been integrated into the plastome. Several strains with different promoter/UTR combinations show a stable expression of the HA tagged MPT64 protein in Chlamydomonas chloroplasts. PMID:25554634

  9. Increased temperature mitigates the effects of ocean acidification in calcified green algae ( Halimeda spp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Justin E.; Fisch, Jay; Langdon, Chris; Paul, Valerie J.

    2016-03-01

    The singular and interactive effects of ocean acidification and temperature on the physiology of calcified green algae ( Halimeda incrassata, H. opuntia, and H. simulans) were investigated in a fully factorial, 4-week mesocosm experiment. Individual aquaria replicated treatment combinations of two pH levels (7.6 and 8.0) and two temperatures (28 and 31 °C). Rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and calcification were measured for all species both prior to and after treatment exposure. Pre-treatment measurements revealed that H. incrassata displayed higher biomass-normalized rates of photosynthesis and calcification (by 55 and 81 %, respectively) relative to H. simulans and H. opuntia. Furthermore, prior to treatment exposure, photosynthesis was positively correlated to calcification, suggesting that the latter process may be controlled by photosynthetic activity in this group. After treatment exposure, net photosynthesis was unaltered by pH, yet significantly increased with elevated temperature by 58, 38, and 37 % for H. incrassata, H. simulans, and H. opuntia, respectively. Both pH and temperature influenced calcification, but in opposing directions. On average, calcification declined by 41 % in response to pH reduction, but increased by 49 % in response to elevated temperature. Within each pH treatment, elevated temperature increased calcification by 23 % (at pH 8.0) and 74 % (at pH 7.6). Interactions between pH, temperature, and/or species were not observed. This work demonstrates that, in contrast to prior studies, increased temperature may serve to enhance the metabolic performance (photosynthesis and calcification) of some marine calcifiers, despite elevated carbon dioxide concentrations. Thus, in certain cases, ocean warming may mitigate the negative effects of acidification.

  10. Blue-Green Algae Inhibit the Development of Atherosclerotic Lesions in Apolipoprotein E Knockout Mice.

    PubMed

    Ku, Chai Siah; Kim, Bohkyung; Pham, Tho X; Yang, Yue; Wegner, Casey J; Park, Young-Ki; Balunas, Marcy; Lee, Ji-Young

    2015-12-01

    Hyperlipidemia and inflammation contribute to the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Our objective was to determine antiatherogenic effect of edible blue-green algae (BGA) species, that is, Nostoc commune var. sphaeroides Ktzing (NO) and Spirulina platensis (SP), in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice, a well-established mouse model of atherosclerosis. Male ApoE(-/-) mice were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol (HF/HC, 15% fat and 0.2% cholesterol by wt) control diet or a HF/HC diet supplemented with 5% (w/w) of NO or SP powder for 12 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were measured, and livers were analyzed for histology and gene expression. Morphometric analysis for lesions and immunohistochemical analysis for CD68 were conducted in the aorta and the aortic root. NO supplementation significantly decreased plasma TC and TG, and liver TC, compared to control and SP groups. In the livers of NO-fed mice, less lipid droplets were present with a concomitant decrease in fatty acid synthase protein levels than the other groups. There was a significant increase in hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor protein levels in SP-supplemented mice than in control and NO groups. Quantification of aortic lesions by en face analysis demonstrated that both NO and SP decreased aortic lesion development to a similar degree compared with control. While lesions in the aortic root were not significantly different between groups, the CD68-stained area in the aortic root was significantly lowered in BGA-fed mice than controls. In conclusion, both NO and SP supplementation decreased the development of atherosclerotic lesions, suggesting that they may be used as a natural product for atheroprotection. PMID:26566121

  11. Complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the red alga Porphyra purpurea. Cyanobacterial introns and shared ancestry of red and green algae.

    PubMed Central

    Burger, G; Saint-Louis, D; Gray, M W; Lang, B F

    1999-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Porphyra purpurea, a circular-mapping genome of 36,753 bp, has been completely sequenced. A total of 57 densely packed genes has been identified, including the basic set typically found in animals and fungi, as well as seven genes characteristic of protist and plant mtDNAs and specifying ribosomal proteins and subunits of succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase. The mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene contains two group II introns that are extraordinarily similar to those found in the cyanobacterium Calothrix sp, suggesting a recent lateral intron transfer between a bacterial and a mitochondrial genome. Notable features of P. purpurea mtDNA include the presence of two 291-bp inverted repeats that likely mediate homologous recombination, resulting in genome rearrangement, and of numerous sequence polymorphisms in the coding and intergenic regions. Comparative analysis of red algal mitochondrial genomes from five different, evolutionarily distant orders reveals that rhodophyte mtDNAs are unusually uniform in size and gene order. Finally, phylogenetic analyses provide strong evidence that red algae share a common ancestry with green algae and plants. PMID:10488235

  12. Evidence of Coexistence of C3 and C4 Photosynthetic Pathways in a Green-Tide-Forming Alga, Ulva prolifera

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong; Mou, Shanli; Cao, Shaona; Zheng, Zhou; Miao, Jinlai; Ye, Naihao

    2012-01-01

    Ulva prolifera, a typical green-tide-forming alga, can accumulate a large biomass in a relatively short time period, suggesting that photosynthesis in this organism, particularly its carbon fixation pathway, must be very efficient. Green algae are known to generally perform C3 photosynthesis, but recent metabolic labeling and genome sequencing data suggest that they may also perform C4 photosynthesis, so C4 photosynthesis might be more wide-spread than previously anticipated. Both C3 and C4 photosynthesis genes were found in U. prolifera by transcriptome sequencing. We also discovered the key enzymes of C4 metabolism based on functional analysis, such as pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK). To investigate whether the alga operates a C4-like pathway, the expression of rbcL and PPDK and their enzyme activities were measured under various forms and intensities of stress (differing levels of salinity, light intensity, and temperature). The expression of rbcL and PPDK and their enzyme activities were higher under adverse circumstances. However, under conditions of desiccation, the expression of rbcL and ribulose-1, 5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) activity was lower, whereas that of PPDK was higher. These results suggest that elevated PPDK activity may alter carbon metabolism and lead to a partial operation of C4-type carbon metabolism in U. prolifera, probably contributing to its wide distribution and massive, repeated blooms in the Yellow Sea. PMID:22616009

  13. Comparison of green algae Cladophora sp. and Enteromorpha sp. as potential biomonitors of chemical elements in the southern Baltic.

    PubMed

    Zbikowski, Radosław; Szefer, Piotr; Latała, Adam

    2007-11-15

    The contents of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mn, K, Na, Ca and Mg were determined in the green algae Cladophora sp. from coastal and lagoonal waters of the southern Baltic. Factor analysis demonstrated spatial differences between concentration of chemical elements. The algae from the southern Baltic contained more Na and K while the anthropogenic impact of Cu, Pb and Zn was observed in the case of Cladophora sp. and Enteromorpha sp. from the Gulf of Gdansk at the vicinity of Gdynia. This area is exposed to emission of heavy metals from municipal and industrial sources with the main contribution of shipbuilding industry and seaport. The statistical evaluation of data has demonstrated that there exists a correlation between concentrations of Cu, Pb and Zn in both green algae collected at the same time and sampling sites of the Gulf of Gdansk. Our results show that in the case of absence of one species in the investigated area it is still possible to continue successfully the biomonitoring studies with its replacing by second one, i.e. Cladophora sp. by Enteromorpha sp. and vice versa; in consequence reliable results may be obtained. PMID:17719620

  14. Evidence of coexistence of C? and C? photosynthetic pathways in a green-tide-forming alga, Ulva prolifera.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianfang; Fan, Xiao; Zhang, Xiaowen; Xu, Dong; Mou, Shanli; Cao, Shaona; Zheng, Zhou; Miao, Jinlai; Ye, Naihao

    2012-01-01

    Ulva prolifera, a typical green-tide-forming alga, can accumulate a large biomass in a relatively short time period, suggesting that photosynthesis in this organism, particularly its carbon fixation pathway, must be very efficient. Green algae are known to generally perform C? photosynthesis, but recent metabolic labeling and genome sequencing data suggest that they may also perform C? photosynthesis, so C? photosynthesis might be more wide-spread than previously anticipated. Both C? and C? photosynthesis genes were found in U. prolifera by transcriptome sequencing. We also discovered the key enzymes of C? metabolism based on functional analysis, such as pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK). To investigate whether the alga operates a C?-like pathway, the expression of rbcL and PPDK and their enzyme activities were measured under various forms and intensities of stress (differing levels of salinity, light intensity, and temperature). The expression of rbcL and PPDK and their enzyme activities were higher under adverse circumstances. However, under conditions of desiccation, the expression of rbcL and ribulose-1, 5-biphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) activity was lower, whereas that of PPDK was higher. These results suggest that elevated PPDK activity may alter carbon metabolism and lead to a partial operation of C?-type carbon metabolism in U. prolifera, probably contributing to its wide distribution and massive, repeated blooms in the Yellow Sea. PMID:22616009

  15. Artificial microfossils - Experimental studies of permineralization of blue-green algae in silica.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, J. H.; Schopf, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    A technique has been developed to artificially fossilize microscopic algae in crystalline silica under conditions of moderately elevated temperature and pressure. The technique is designed to simulate geochemical processes thought to have resulted in the preservation of organic microfossils in Precambrian bedded cherts. In degree of preservation and mineralogic setting, the artificially permineralized microorganisms are comparable to naturally occurring fossil algae.

  16. Enhanced acetyl-CoA production is associated with increased triglyceride accumulation in the green alga Chlorella desiccata

    PubMed Central

    Avidan, Omri; Brandis, Alexander; Rogachev, Ilana; Pick, Uri

    2015-01-01

    Triglycerides (TAGs) from microalgae can be utilized as food supplements and for biodiesel production, but little is known about the regulation of their biosynthesis. This work aimed to test the relationship between acetyl-CoA (Ac-CoA) levels and TAG biosynthesis in green algae under nitrogen deprivation. A novel, highly sensitive liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technique enabled us to determine the levels of Ac-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and unacetylated (free) CoA in green microalgae. A comparative study of three algal species that differ in TAG accumulation levels shows that during N starvation, Ac-CoA levels rapidly rise, preceding TAG accumulation in all tested species. The levels of Ac-CoA in the high TAG accumulator Chlorella desiccata exceed the levels in the moderate TAG accumulators Dunaliella tertiolecta and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Similarly, malonyl-CoA and free CoA levels also increase, but to lower extents. Calculated cellular concentrations of Ac-CoA are far lower than reported K mAc-CoA values of plastidic Ac-CoA carboxylase (ptACCase) in plants. Transcript level analysis of plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase (ptPDH), the major chloroplastic Ac-CoA producer, revealed rapid induction in parallel with Ac-CoA accumulation in C. desiccata, but not in D. tertiolecta or C. reinhardtii. It is proposed that the capacity to accumulate high TAG levels in green algae critically depends on their ability to divert carbon flow towards Ac-CoA. This requires elevation of the chloroplastic CoA pool level and enhancement of Ac-CoA biosynthesis. These conclusions may have important implications for future genetic manipulation to enhance TAG biosynthesis in green algae. PMID:25922486

  17. Evolutionary relatedness does not predict competition and co-occurrence in natural or experimental communities of green algae.

    PubMed

    Alexandrou, Markos A; Cardinale, Bradley J; Hall, John D; Delwiche, Charles F; Fritschie, Keith; Narwani, Anita; Venail, Patrick A; Bentlage, Bastian; Pankey, M Sabrina; Oakley, Todd H

    2015-01-22

    The competition-relatedness hypothesis (CRH) predicts that the strength of competition is the strongest among closely related species and decreases as species become less related. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that common ancestry causes close relatives to share biological traits that lead to greater ecological similarity. Although intuitively appealing, the extent to which phylogeny can predict competition and co-occurrence among species has only recently been rigorously tested, with mixed results. When studies have failed to support the CRH, critics have pointed out at least three limitations: (i) the use of data poor phylogenies that provide inaccurate estimates of species relatedness, (ii) the use of inappropriate statistical models that fail to detect relationships between relatedness and species interactions amidst nonlinearities and heteroskedastic variances, and (iii) overly simplified laboratory conditions that fail to allow eco-evolutionary relationships to emerge. Here, we address these limitations and find they do not explain why evolutionary relatedness fails to predict the strength of species interactions or probabilities of coexistence among freshwater green algae. First, we construct a new data-rich, transcriptome-based phylogeny of common freshwater green algae that are commonly cultured and used for laboratory experiments. Using this new phylogeny, we re-analyse ecological data from three previously published laboratory experiments. After accounting for the possibility of nonlinearities and heterogeneity of variances across levels of relatedness, we find no relationship between phylogenetic distance and ecological traits. In addition, we show that communities of North American green algae are randomly composed with respect to their evolutionary relationships in 99% of 1077 lakes spanning the continental United States. Together, these analyses result in one of the most comprehensive case studies of how evolutionary history influences species interactions and community assembly in both natural and experimental systems. Our results challenge the generality of the CRH and suggest it may be time to re-evaluate the validity and assumptions of this hypothesis. PMID:25473009

  18. Evolutionary relatedness does not predict competition and co-occurrence in natural or experimental communities of green algae

    PubMed Central

    Alexandrou, Markos A.; Cardinale, Bradley J.; Hall, John D.; Delwiche, Charles F.; Fritschie, Keith; Narwani, Anita; Venail, Patrick A.; Bentlage, Bastian; Pankey, M. Sabrina; Oakley, Todd H.

    2015-01-01

    The competition-relatedness hypothesis (CRH) predicts that the strength of competition is the strongest among closely related species and decreases as species become less related. This hypothesis is based on the assumption that common ancestry causes close relatives to share biological traits that lead to greater ecological similarity. Although intuitively appealing, the extent to which phylogeny can predict competition and co-occurrence among species has only recently been rigorously tested, with mixed results. When studies have failed to support the CRH, critics have pointed out at least three limitations: (i) the use of data poor phylogenies that provide inaccurate estimates of species relatedness, (ii) the use of inappropriate statistical models that fail to detect relationships between relatedness and species interactions amidst nonlinearities and heteroskedastic variances, and (iii) overly simplified laboratory conditions that fail to allow eco-evolutionary relationships to emerge. Here, we address these limitations and find they do not explain why evolutionary relatedness fails to predict the strength of species interactions or probabilities of coexistence among freshwater green algae. First, we construct a new data-rich, transcriptome-based phylogeny of common freshwater green algae that are commonly cultured and used for laboratory experiments. Using this new phylogeny, we re-analyse ecological data from three previously published laboratory experiments. After accounting for the possibility of nonlinearities and heterogeneity of variances across levels of relatedness, we find no relationship between phylogenetic distance and ecological traits. In addition, we show that communities of North American green algae are randomly composed with respect to their evolutionary relationships in 99% of 1077 lakes spanning the continental United States. Together, these analyses result in one of the most comprehensive case studies of how evolutionary history influences species interactions and community assembly in both natural and experimental systems. Our results challenge the generality of the CRH and suggest it may be time to re-evaluate the validity and assumptions of this hypothesis. PMID:25473009

  19. Combined effect of oil, oil products and dispersants on the blue-green algae Synechocystis aquatilis and Anabaena variabilis

    SciTech Connect

    Gapochka, L.D.; Brodskii, L.I.; Kravchenko, M.E.; Fedorov, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    The study of the combined effect of oil, oil products and dispersants on the growth of the blue-green algae Synechocystis aquatilis and Anabaena variabilis has shown that out of 12 studied oil-dispersant pairs 6 revealed a positive relationship, which provides evidence for a decrease in oil and oil products toxic effect in the presence of a dispersant. The positive interaction between oil and oil products was found. The negative oil and oil products effect on all studied indices of A. variabilis culture increases with time.

  20. Blood anticoagulant sulphated polysaccharides of the marine green algae Codium dwarkense (Boergs.) and C. tomentosum (Huds.) Stackh.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, M; Mody, K H; Siddhanta, A K

    2001-04-01

    Cold water extracts of marine green algae Codium dwarkense and C. tomentosum were precipitated with different molar concentrations of KCl and were subjected to anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Both the species yielded sulphated arabinan through bioassay-guided purification and both were chemically identified as a polymer of alpha-L-arabinofuranose. Products were assayed for their blood anticoagulant activity using PT, APFT and TT tests and found that they differed in the potency of activity though they are chemically identical. Bioassay-guided purification of cold water extract of C. tomentosum yielded sulphated arabinan and sulphated arabinogalactan. PMID:11491583

  1. Interactive effects of copper oxide nanoparticles and light to green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Cheloni, Giulia; Marti, Elodie; Slaveykova, Vera I

    2016-01-01

    The present study explores the effect of light with different spectral composition on the stability of CuO-nanoparticle (CuO-NP) dispersions and their effects to green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The results showed that simulated natural light (SNL) and light with enhanced UVB radiation (UVR*) do not affect the dissolution of CuO-NPs as compared to light irradiation conditions typically used in laboratory incubator (INC). Comparable values of ?-potential and hydrodynamic size during 24h were found under all studied conditions. Concentrations of CuO-NPs below 1mgL(-1) do not attenuate the light penetration in the algal suspensions in comparison with NP-free system. Exposure to a combination of 8?gL(-1) or 0.8mgL(-1) CuO-NPs and INC or SNL has no significant effect on the algal growth inhibition, algal fluorescence and membrane integrity under short-term exposure. However, an enhancement of the percentage of cells experiencing oxidative stress was observed upon exposure to 0.8mgL(-1) CuO-NPs and SNL for 4 and 8h. Combination of UVR* and 0.8mgL(-1) CuO-NPs resulted in synergistic effects for all biological endpoints. Despite the photocatalytic properties of CuO-NPs no significant increase in abiotic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production under simulated solar radiation was observed suggesting that the synergistic effect observed might be correlated to other factors than CuO-NP-mediated ROS photoproduction. Tests performed with CuSO4 confirmed the important role of dissolution as toxicity driving force for lower CuO-NP concentration. However, they failed to clarify the contribution of dissolved Cu on the combined effects at 0.8mgL(-1) CuO-NPs. The results point out the necessity of taking into account the possible interactions between ENPs and changing light conditions when evaluating the potential effects of ENPs to phytoplankton in natural waters. PMID:26655656

  2. Fragmented and scrambled mitochondrial ribosomal RNA coding regions among green algae: a model for their origin and evolution.

    PubMed

    Nedelcu, A M

    1997-05-01

    Mitochondrial ribosomal RNA coding regions in the only three green algal taxa investigated to date are fundamentally different in that they are continuous in Prototheca wickerhamii, but highly fragmented and scrambled in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Chlamydomonas eugametos. To gain more insight into the mode of evolution of fragmented and scrambled mitochondrial ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes within the green algal group, this work (1) provides additional information on fragmentation patterns of mitochondrial small- and large-subunit (SSU and LSU) rRNAs that strongly supports the concept of a gradual increase in the extent of discontinuity of mitochondrial rRNAs among chlorophycean green algae and (2) reports the first example of fragmented and scrambled mitochondrial LSU rRNA coding regions in a green algal taxon outside the Chlamydomonas group. The present study (1) suggests that the scrambling of the mitochondrial rRNA coding regions may have occurred early in the evolution of fragmented and scrambled mitochondrial rRNA genes within the chlorophycean green algal group, most likely in parallel with the fragmentation events, (2) proposes recombination as a possible mechanism involved in the evolution of these mitochondrial rRNA genes, and (3) presents a hypothetical pathway for converting continuous mitochondrial rRNA genes into the highly fragmented and scrambled rRNA coding regions of Chlamydomonas through a series of recombinatorial events between short repeated sequences. PMID:9159928

  3. Diatoms in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R.; Hoyle, F.; Wallis, M. K.; Wickramasinghe, N. C.

    1986-01-01

    The fossil record of the microscopic algae classified as diatoms suggests they were injected to earth at the Cretaceous boundary. Not only could diatoms remain viable in the cometary environment, but also many species might replicate in illuminated surface layers or early interior layers of cometary ice. Presumably they reached the solar system on an interstellar comet as an already-evolved assemblage of organisms. Diatoms might cause color changes to comet nuclei while their outgassing decays and revives around highly elliptical orbits. Just as for interstellar absorption, high-resolution IR observations are capable of distinguishing whether the 10-micron feature arises from siliceous diatom material or mineral silicates. The 10-30-micron band and the UV 220-nm region can also provide evidence of biological material.

  4. System Responses to Equal Doses of Photosynthetically Usable Radiation of Blue, Green, and Red Light in the Marine Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Kristin Collier; Nymark, Marianne; Aamot, Inga; Hancke, Kasper; Winge, Per; Andresen, Kjersti; Johnsen, Geir; Brembu, Tore; Bones, Atle M.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the selective attenuation of solar light and the absorption properties of seawater and seawater constituents, free-floating photosynthetic organisms have to cope with rapid and unpredictable changes in both intensity and spectral quality. We have studied the transcriptional, metabolic and photo-physiological responses to light of different spectral quality in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum through time-series studies of cultures exposed to equal doses of photosynthetically usable radiation of blue, green and red light. The experiments showed that short-term differences in gene expression and profiles are mainly light quality-dependent. Transcription of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes was activated mainly through a light quality-independent mechanism likely to rely on chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling. In contrast, genes encoding proteins important for photoprotection and PSII repair were highly dependent on a blue light receptor-mediated signal. Changes in energy transfer efficiency by light-harvesting pigments were spectrally dependent; furthermore, a declining trend in photosynthetic efficiency was observed in red light. The combined results suggest that diatoms possess a light quality-dependent ability to activate photoprotection and efficient repair of photodamaged PSII. In spite of approximately equal numbers of PSII-absorbed quanta in blue, green and red light, the spectral quality of light is important for diatom responses to ambient light conditions. PMID:25470731

  5. System responses to equal doses of photosynthetically usable radiation of blue, green, and red light in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Valle, Kristin Collier; Nymark, Marianne; Aamot, Inga; Hancke, Kasper; Winge, Per; Andresen, Kjersti; Johnsen, Geir; Brembu, Tore; Bones, Atle M

    2014-01-01

    Due to the selective attenuation of solar light and the absorption properties of seawater and seawater constituents, free-floating photosynthetic organisms have to cope with rapid and unpredictable changes in both intensity and spectral quality. We have studied the transcriptional, metabolic and photo-physiological responses to light of different spectral quality in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum through time-series studies of cultures exposed to equal doses of photosynthetically usable radiation of blue, green and red light. The experiments showed that short-term differences in gene expression and profiles are mainly light quality-dependent. Transcription of photosynthesis-associated nuclear genes was activated mainly through a light quality-independent mechanism likely to rely on chloroplast-to-nucleus signaling. In contrast, genes encoding proteins important for photoprotection and PSII repair were highly dependent on a blue light receptor-mediated signal. Changes in energy transfer efficiency by light-harvesting pigments were spectrally dependent; furthermore, a declining trend in photosynthetic efficiency was observed in red light. The combined results suggest that diatoms possess a light quality-dependent ability to activate photoprotection and efficient repair of photodamaged PSII. In spite of approximately equal numbers of PSII-absorbed quanta in blue, green and red light, the spectral quality of light is important for diatom responses to ambient light conditions. PMID:25470731

  6. Alpha-amylase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of Marine Green Algae and its Possible Role in Diabetes Management

    PubMed Central

    Unnikrishnan, P. S.; Suthindhiran, K.; Jayasri, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In the continuing search for safe and efficient antidiabetic drug, marine algae become important source which provide several compounds of immense therapeutic potential. Alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, and antioxidant compounds are known to manage diabetes and have received much attention recently. In the present study, four green algae (Chaetomorpha aerea, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Chlorodesmis, and Cladophora rupestris) were chosen to evaluate alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase inhibitory, and antioxidant activity in vitro. Materials and Methods: The phytochemical constituents of all the extracts were qualitatively determined. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by inhibitory potential of extracts against alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase by spectrophotometric assays. Antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and nitric oxide scavenging assay. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried out to determine the major compound responsible for its antidiabetic action. Results: Among the various extracts screened, chloroform extract of C. aerea (IC50 − 408.9 μg/ml) and methanol extract of Chlorodesmis (IC50 − 147.6 μg/ml) showed effective inhibition against alpha-amylase. The extracts were also evaluated for alpha-glucosidase inhibition, and no observed activity was found. Methanol extract of C. rupestris showed notable free radical scavenging activity (IC50 – 666.3 μg/ml), followed by H2O2 (34%) and nitric oxide (49%). Further, chemical profiling by GC-MS revealed the presence of major bioactive compounds. Phenol, 2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) and z, z-6,28-heptatriactontadien-2-one were predominantly found in the methanol extract of C. rupestris and chloroform extract of C. aerea. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the selected algae exhibit notable alpha-amylase inhibition and antioxidant activity. Therefore, characterization of active compounds and its in vivo assays will be noteworthy. SUMMARY Four green algae were chosen to evaluate alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase inhibitory, and antioxidant activity in vitro C. aerea and Chlorodesmis showed significant inhibition against alpha-amylase, and C. rupestris showed notable free radical scavenging activityNo observed activity was found against alpha-glucosidaseGC-MS analysis of the active extracts reveals the presence of major compounds which gives an insight on the antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of these algae. Abbreviations used: DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, BHT: Butylated hydroxytoluene, GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PMID:27013787

  7. The complete chloroplast DNA sequence of the green alga Nephroselmis olivacea: Insights into the architecture of ancestral chloroplast genomes

    PubMed Central

    Turmel, Monique; Otis, Christian; Lemieux, Claude

    1999-01-01

    Green plants seem to form two sister lineages: Chlorophyta, comprising the green algal classes Prasinophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, and Chlorophyceae, and Streptophyta, comprising the Charophyceae and land plants. We have determined the complete chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequence (200,799 bp) of Nephroselmis olivacea, a member of the class (Prasinophyceae) thought to include descendants of the earliest-diverging green algae. The 127 genes identified in this genome represent the largest gene repertoire among the green algal and land plant cpDNAs completely sequenced to date. Of the Nephroselmis genes, 2 (ycf81 and ftsI, a gene involved in peptidoglycan synthesis) have not been identified in any previously investigated cpDNA; 5 genes [ftsW, rnE, ycf62, rnpB, and trnS(cga)] have been found only in cpDNAs of nongreen algae; and 10 others (ndh genes) have been described only in land plant cpDNAs. Nephroselmis and land plant cpDNAs share the same quadripartite structure—which is characterized by the presence of a large rRNA-encoding inverted repeat and two unequal single-copy regions—and very similar sets of genes in corresponding genomic regions. Given that our phylogenetic analyses place Nephroselmis within the Chlorophyta, these structural characteristics were most likely present in the cpDNA of the common ancestor of chlorophytes and streptophytes. Comparative analyses of chloroplast genomes indicate that the typical quadripartite architecture and gene-partitioning pattern of land plant cpDNAs are ancient features that may have been derived from the genome of the cyanobacterial progenitor of chloroplasts. Our phylogenetic data also offer insight into the chlorophyte ancestor of euglenophyte chloroplasts. PMID:10468594

  8. The GC-Rich Mitochondrial and Plastid Genomes of the Green Alga Coccomyxa Give Insight into the Evolution of Organelle DNA Nucleotide Landscape

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, David Roy; Burki, Fabien; Yamada, Takashi; Grimwood, Jane; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Van Etten, James L.; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2011-05-13

    Most of the available mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences are biased towards adenine and thymine (AT) over guanine and cytosine (GC). Examples of GC-rich organelle DNAs are limited to a small but eclectic list of species, including certain green algae. Here, to gain insight in the evolution of organelle nucleotide landscape, we present the GC-rich mitochondrial and plastid DNAs from the trebouxiophyte green alga Coccomyxa sp. C-169. We compare these sequences with other GC-rich organelle DNAs and argue that the forces biasing them towards G and C are nonadaptive and linked to the metabolic and/or life history features of this species. The Coccomyxa organelle genomes are also used for phylogenetic analyses, which highlight the complexities in trying to resolve the interrelationships among the core chlorophyte green algae, but ultimately favour a sister relationship between the Ulvophyceae and Chlorophyceae, with the Trebouxiophyceae branching at the base of the chlorophyte crown.

  9. The GC-Rich Mitochondrial and Plastid Genomes of the Green Alga Coccomyxa Give Insight into the Evolution of Organelle DNA Nucleotide Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David Roy; Burki, Fabien; Yamada, Takashi; Grimwood, Jane; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Van Etten, James L.; Keeling, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the available mitochondrial and plastid genome sequences are biased towards adenine and thymine (AT) over guanine and cytosine (GC). Examples of GC-rich organelle DNAs are limited to a small but eclectic list of species, including certain green algae. Here, to gain insight in the evolution of organelle nucleotide landscape, we present the GC-rich mitochondrial and plastid DNAs from the trebouxiophyte green alga Coccomyxa sp. C-169. We compare these sequences with other GC-rich organelle DNAs and argue that the forces biasing them towards G and C are nonadaptive and linked to the metabolic and/or life history features of this species. The Coccomyxa organelle genomes are also used for phylogenetic analyses, which highlight the complexities in trying to resolve the interrelationships among the core chlorophyte green algae, but ultimately favour a sister relationship between the Ulvophyceae and Chlorophyceae, with the Trebouxiophyceae branching at the base of the chlorophyte crown. PMID:21887287

  10. Localization and Quantification of Callose in the Streptophyte Green Algae Zygnema and Klebsormidium: Correlation with Desiccation Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Herburger, Klaus; Holzinger, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Freshwater green algae started to colonize terrestrial habitats about 460 million years ago, giving rise to the evolution of land plants. Today, several streptophyte green algae occur in aero-terrestrial habitats with unpredictable fluctuations in water availability, serving as ideal models for investigating desiccation tolerance. We tested the hypothesis that callose, a β-d-1,3-glucan, is incorporated specifically in strained areas of the cell wall due to cellular water loss, implicating a contribution to desiccation tolerance. In the early diverging genus Klebsormidium, callose was drastically increased already after 30 min of desiccation stress. Localization studies demonstrated an increase in callose in the undulating cross cell walls during cellular water loss, allowing a regulated shrinkage and expansion after rehydration. This correlates with a high desiccation tolerance demonstrated by a full recovery of the photosynthetic yield visualized at the subcellular level by Imaging-PAM. Furthermore, abundant callose in terminal cell walls might facilitate cell detachment to release dispersal units. In contrast, in the late diverging Zygnema, the callose content did not change upon desiccation for up to 3.5 h and was primarily localized in the corners between individual cells and at terminal cells. While these callose deposits still imply reduction of mechanical damage, the photosynthetic yield did not recover fully in the investigated young cultures of Zygnema upon rehydration. The abundance and specific localization of callose correlates with the higher desiccation tolerance in Klebsormidium when compared with Zygnema. PMID:26412780

  11. Localization and Quantification of Callose in the Streptophyte Green Algae Zygnema and Klebsormidium: Correlation with Desiccation Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Herburger, Klaus; Holzinger, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Freshwater green algae started to colonize terrestrial habitats about 460 million years ago, giving rise to the evolution of land plants. Today, several streptophyte green algae occur in aero-terrestrial habitats with unpredictable fluctuations in water availability, serving as ideal models for investigating desiccation tolerance. We tested the hypothesis that callose, a β-d-1,3-glucan, is incorporated specifically in strained areas of the cell wall due to cellular water loss, implicating a contribution to desiccation tolerance. In the early diverging genus Klebsormidium, callose was drastically increased already after 30 min of desiccation stress. Localization studies demonstrated an increase in callose in the undulating cross cell walls during cellular water loss, allowing a regulated shrinkage and expansion after rehydration. This correlates with a high desiccation tolerance demonstrated by a full recovery of the photosynthetic yield visualized at the subcellular level by Imaging-PAM. Furthermore, abundant callose in terminal cell walls might facilitate cell detachment to release dispersal units. In contrast, in the late diverging Zygnema, the callose content did not change upon desiccation for up to 3.5 h and was primarily localized in the corners between individual cells and at terminal cells. While these callose deposits still imply reduction of mechanical damage, the photosynthetic yield did not recover fully in the investigated young cultures of Zygnema upon rehydration. The abundance and specific localization of callose correlates with the higher desiccation tolerance in Klebsormidium when compared with Zygnema. PMID:26412780

  12. Metabolite Profiling and Integrative Modeling Reveal Metabolic Constraints for Carbon Partitioning under Nitrogen Starvation in the Green Algae Haematococcus pluvialis*

    PubMed Central

    Recht, Lee; Töpfer, Nadine; Batushansky, Albert; Sikron, Noga; Gibon, Yves; Fait, Aaron; Nikoloski, Zoran; Boussiba, Sammy; Zarka, Aliza

    2014-01-01

    The green alga Hematococcus pluvialis accumulates large amounts of the antioxidant astaxanthin under inductive stress conditions, such as nitrogen starvation. The response to nitrogen starvation and high light leads to the accumulation of carbohydrates and fatty acids as well as increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Although the behavior of individual pathways has been well investigated, little is known about the systemic effects of the stress response mechanism. Here we present time-resolved metabolite, enzyme activity, and physiological data that capture the metabolic response of H. pluvialis under nitrogen starvation and high light. The data were integrated into a putative genome-scale model of the green alga to in silico test hypotheses of underlying carbon partitioning. The model-based hypothesis testing reinforces the involvement of starch degradation to support fatty acid synthesis in the later stages of the stress response. In addition, our findings support a possible mechanism for the involvement of the increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in carbon repartitioning. Finally, the in vitro experiments and the in silico modeling presented here emphasize the predictive power of large scale integrative approaches to pinpoint metabolic adjustment to changing environments. PMID:25183014

  13. Effects of alginate oligosaccharide mixtures on the growth and fatty acid composition of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Yasuhiro; Yokose, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Toru; Kim, Daekyung; Jiang, Zedong; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    Alginate is a natural acidic linear polysaccharide that is produced by brown seaweeds. It is currently used in a broad range of commercial enterprises, such as the food and medical products industries. Recent evidence has demonstrated that alginate oligosaccharides may function as growth promoting agents for certain plant cells, including those of some green algae. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a green alga that is used as a model organism in fundamental molecular biology studies; it is also a producer of biohydrogen. In the present study, we examined effects of two types of alginate oligosaccharide mixtures (AOMs), which were prepared by either enzymatic degradation (ED) or acid hydrolysis (AH), on the growth of C. reinhardtii. Growth was significantly promoted by AOM (ED) in a concentration-dependent manner. The maximum effect was observed on day 4 of treatment. The fatty acid composition of C. reinhardtii was also influenced by AOM (ED); the levels of C16:0, C18:2 cis and C18:3 n-3 increased in treated cells. AOM (AH) and the other saccharides that we tested did not affect the growth of C. reinhardtii. The effects that we identified could promote efficient biomass production by reducing culture times and by changing cellular fatty acid levels. PMID:22018736

  14. Ca(2+)-regulated cyclic electron flow supplies ATP for nitrogen starvation-induced lipid biosynthesis in green alga.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Hu, Jinlu; Qiao, Yaqin; Chen, Weixian; Rong, Junfeng; Zhang, Yunming; He, Chenliu; Wang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that both the linear photosynthetic electron transportation rate and the respiration rate dropped significantly during N starvation-induced neutral lipid accumulation in an oil-producing microalga, Chlorella sorokiniana, and proposed a possible role for cyclic electron flow (CEF) in ATP supply. In this study, we further exploited this hypothesis in both Chlorella sorokiniana C3 and the model green alga Chlamydomonas. We found that both the rate of CEF around photosystem I and the activity of thylakoid membrane-located ATP synthetase increased significantly during N starvation to drive ATP production. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the Chlamydomonas mutant pgrl1, which is deficient in PGRL1-mediated CEF, accumulated less neutral lipids and had reduced rates of CEF under N starvation. Further analysis revealed that Ca(2+) signaling regulates N starvation-induced neutral lipid biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas by increasing calmodulin activity and boosting the expression of the calcium sensor protein that regulates Pgrl1-mediated CEF. Thus, Ca(2+)-regulated CEF supplies ATP for N starvation-induced lipid biosynthesis in green alga. The increased CEF may re-equilibrate the ATP/NADPH balance and recycle excess light energy in photosystems to prevent photooxidative damage, suggesting Ca(2+)-regulated CEF also played a key role in protecting and sustaining photosystems. PMID:26450399

  15. The effects of sub-lethal UV-C irradiation on growth and cell integrity of cyanobacteria and green algae.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yi; Zhang, Xihui; Au, Doris W T; Mao, Xianzhong; Yuan, Kan

    2010-01-01

    The effects of UV-C irradiation on algal growth and cell integrity were investigated to develop a potential method for preventing cyanobacterial blooms. The toxic cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and three common freshwater green algae Chlorella ellipsoidea, Chlorella vulgaris, and Scenedesmus quadricanda were exposed to UV-C irradiation at 0-200mJcm(-2) and subsequently incubated for 9-15 d under normal culture conditions. Cell density and cell integrity were assessed using flow cytometry. The results suggested that UV-C irradiation at 20-200mJcm(-2) can suppress M. aeruginosa growth for 3-13 d in a dose-dependent manner. UV-C irradiation at 20 and 50mJcm(-2) is sub-lethal to M. aeruginosa cells as over 80% of the exposed cells remained intact. However, UV-C irradiation at 100 and 200mJcm(-2) induced severe cell disintegration in more than 70% of the irradiated cells. Neither significant suppression nor disintegration effects on green algae were observed for UV-C irradiation at 20-200mJcm(-2) in this study. Taken together, the sensitivity of M. aeruginosa to UV-C irradiation was significantly higher than that of the non-toxic C. ellipsoidea, C. vulgaris, and S. quadricauda, suggesting the potential application of sub-lethal UV-C irradiation for M. aeruginosa bloom control with a predictable low ecological risk. PMID:20005556

  16. Ca2+-regulated cyclic electron flow supplies ATP for nitrogen starvation-induced lipid biosynthesis in green alga

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Hu, Jinlu; Qiao, Yaqin; Chen, Weixian; Rong, Junfeng; Zhang, Yunming; He, Chenliu; Wang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that both the linear photosynthetic electron transportation rate and the respiration rate dropped significantly during N starvation-induced neutral lipid accumulation in an oil-producing microalga, Chlorella sorokiniana, and proposed a possible role for cyclic electron flow (CEF) in ATP supply. In this study, we further exploited this hypothesis in both Chlorella sorokiniana C3 and the model green alga Chlamydomonas. We found that both the rate of CEF around photosystem I and the activity of thylakoid membrane-located ATP synthetase increased significantly during N starvation to drive ATP production. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the Chlamydomonas mutant pgrl1, which is deficient in PGRL1-mediated CEF, accumulated less neutral lipids and had reduced rates of CEF under N starvation. Further analysis revealed that Ca2+ signaling regulates N starvation-induced neutral lipid biosynthesis in Chlamydomonas by increasing calmodulin activity and boosting the expression of the calcium sensor protein that regulates Pgrl1-mediated CEF. Thus, Ca2+-regulated CEF supplies ATP for N starvation-induced lipid biosynthesis in green alga. The increased CEF may re-equilibrate the ATP/NADPH balance and recycle excess light energy in photosystems to prevent photooxidative damage, suggesting Ca2+-regulated CEF also played a key role in protecting and sustaining photosystems. PMID:26450399

  17. Ribosomal protein L10 is encoded in the mitochondrial genome of many land plants and green algae

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The mitochondrial genomes of plants generally encode 30-40 identified protein-coding genes and a large number of lineage-specific ORFs. The lack of wide conservation for most ORFs suggests they are unlikely to be functional. However, an ORF, termed orf-bryo1, was recently found to be conserved among bryophytes suggesting that it might indeed encode a functional mitochondrial protein. Results From a broad survey of land plants, we have found that the orf-bryo1 gene is also conserved in the mitochondria of vascular plants and charophycean green algae. This gene is actively transcribed and RNA edited in many flowering plants. Comparative sequence analysis and distribution of editing suggests that it encodes ribosomal protein L10 of the large subunit of the ribosome. In several lineages, such as crucifers and grasses, where the rpl10 gene has been lost from the mitochondrion, we suggest that a copy of the nucleus-encoded chloroplast-derived rpl10 gene may serve as a functional replacement. Conclusion Despite the fact that there are now over 20 mitochondrial genome sequences for land plants and green algae, this gene has remained unidentified and largely undetected until now because of the unlikely coincidence that most of the earlier sequences were from the few lineages that lack the intact gene. These results illustrate the power of comparative sequencing to identify novel genomic features. PMID:19917118

  18. Effects of Cylindrospermopsin Producing Cyanobacterium and Its Crude Extracts on a Benthic Green Alga-Competition or Allelopathy?

    PubMed

    B-Bres, Viktria; Vasas, Gbor; Dobronoki, Dalma; Gonda, Sndor; Nagy, Sndor Alex; Bcsi, Istvn

    2015-11-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by filamentous cyanobacteria which could work as an allelopathic substance, although its ecological role in cyanobacterial-algal assemblages is mostly unclear. The competition between the CYN-producing cyanobacterium Chrysosporum (Aphanizomenon) ovalisporum, and the benthic green alga Chlorococcum sp. was investigated in mixed cultures, and the effects of CYN-containing cyanobacterial crude extract on Chlorococcum sp. were tested by treatments with crude extracts containing total cell debris, and with cell debris free crude extracts, modelling the collapse of a cyanobacterial water bloom. The growth inhibition of Chlorococcum sp. increased with the increasing ratio of the cyanobacterium in mixed cultures (inhibition ranged from 26% to 87% compared to control). Interestingly, inhibition of the cyanobacterium growth also occurred in mixed cultures, and it was more pronounced than it was expected. The inhibitory effects of cyanobacterial crude extracts on Chlorococcum cultures were concentration-dependent. The presence of C. ovalisporum in mixed cultures did not cause significant differences in nutrient content compared to Chlorococcum control culture, so the growth inhibition of the green alga could be linked to the presence of CYN and/or other bioactive compounds. PMID:26528991

  19. Metabolite profiling and integrative modeling reveal metabolic constraints for carbon partitioning under nitrogen starvation in the green algae Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Recht, Lee; Tpfer, Nadine; Batushansky, Albert; Sikron, Noga; Gibon, Yves; Fait, Aaron; Nikoloski, Zoran; Boussiba, Sammy; Zarka, Aliza

    2014-10-31

    The green alga Hematococcus pluvialis accumulates large amounts of the antioxidant astaxanthin under inductive stress conditions, such as nitrogen starvation. The response to nitrogen starvation and high light leads to the accumulation of carbohydrates and fatty acids as well as increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Although the behavior of individual pathways has been well investigated, little is known about the systemic effects of the stress response mechanism. Here we present time-resolved metabolite, enzyme activity, and physiological data that capture the metabolic response of H. pluvialis under nitrogen starvation and high light. The data were integrated into a putative genome-scale model of the green alga to in silico test hypotheses of underlying carbon partitioning. The model-based hypothesis testing reinforces the involvement of starch degradation to support fatty acid synthesis in the later stages of the stress response. In addition, our findings support a possible mechanism for the involvement of the increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid cycle in carbon repartitioning. Finally, the in vitro experiments and the in silico modeling presented here emphasize the predictive power of large scale integrative approaches to pinpoint metabolic adjustment to changing environments. PMID:25183014

  20. New missing link genus of the colonial volvocine green algae gives insights into the evolution of oogamy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The evolution of oogamy from isogamy, an important biological event, can be summarized as follows: morphologically similar gametes (isogametes) differentiated into small male and large female motile gametes during anisogamy, from which immotile female gametes (eggs) evolved. The volvocine green algae represent a model lineage to study this type of sex evolution and show two types of gametic unions: conjugation between isogametes outside the parental colonies (external fertilization during isogamy) and fertilization between small motile gametes (sperm) and large gametes (eggs) inside the female colony (internal fertilization during anisogamy and oogamy). Although recent cultural studies on volvocine algae revealed morphological diversity and molecular genetic data of sexual reproduction, an intermediate type of union between these two gametic unions has not been identified. Results We identified a novel colonial volvocine genus, Colemanosphaera, which produces bundles of spindle-shaped male gametes through successive divisions of colonial cells. Obligately anisogamous conjugation between male and female motile gametes occurred outside the female colony (external fertilization during anisogamy). This new genus contains 16- or 32-celled spheroidal colonies similar to those of the volvocine genera Yamagishiella and Eudorina. However, Colemanosphaera can be clearly distinguished from these two genera based on its sister phylogenetic position to the enigmatic flattened colonial volvocine Platydorina and external fertilization during anisogamy. Two species of Colemanosphaera were found in a Japanese lake; these species are also distributed in European freshwaters based on a published sequence of an Austrian strain and the original description of Pandorina charkowiensis from Ukraine. Conclusions Based on phylogeny and morphological data, this novel genus exhibits a missing link between Platydorina and the typical spheroidal colonial volvocine members such as Pandorina or Yamagishiella. Considering the external obligate anisogamy, oogamy evolution may have been preceded by the transition from external to internal fertilization during anisogamy within the volvocine green algae. PMID:24589311

  1. Effects on growth, antioxidant enzyme activity and levels of extracellular proteins in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris exposed to crude cyanobacterial extracts and pure microcystin and cylindrospermopsin.

    PubMed

    Campos, Alexandre; Arajo, Pedro; Pinheiro, Carlos; Azevedo, Joana; Osrio, Hugo; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2013-08-01

    Toxic cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins have been pointed as important players in the control of phytoplankton diversity and species abundance, causing ecological unbalances and contamination of the environment. In vitro experiments have been undertaken to address the impact of toxic cyanobacteria in green algae. In this regard the aim of this work was to compare the toxicity of two cyanobacteria species, Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and Microcystis aeruginosa, to the green alga Chlorella vulgaris by assessing culture growth when exposed for three and seven days to (I) cyanobacterial cell extracts and (II) pure toxins microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and cylindrospermopsin (CYN). The biochemical response of the green alga to pure toxins was also characterized, through the activity of the antioxidant markers glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and the expressed extracellular proteins in seven-day exposed cultures. A. ovalisporum crude extracts were toxic to C. vulgaris. Pure toxins up to 179.0 g/L, on the other hand, stimulated the green alga growth. Growth results suggest that the toxicity of A. ovalisporum extracts is likely due to a synergistic action of CYN and other metabolites produced by the cyanobacterium. Regarding the green alga antioxidant defense mechanism, CYN at 18.4 and 179.0 g/L increased the activity of GPx and GST while MC-LR inhibited the enzymes' activity at a concentration of 179.0 g/L demonstrating a contrasting mode of action. Moreover the identification of F-ATPase subunit, adenylate cyclase, sulfate ABC transporter, putative porin, aspartate aminotransferase, methylene-tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase and chlorophyll a binding proteins in the culture medium of C. vulgaris indicates that biochemical processes involved in the transport of metabolites, photosynthesis and amino acid metabolism are affected by cyanobacterial toxins and may contribute to the regulation of green alga growth. PMID:23726538

  2. Effect of dynamic factors of space flights on the green alga Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Moskvitin, E V; Vaulina, E N

    1974-01-01

    The biological effects of vibrational and linear acceleration on the alga Chlorella vulgaris were studied. Periodic vibration in the frequency range of 4-4000 Hz with vibrational acceleration up to 16 g did not affect the survival and mutability of Chlorella cells and did not modify the effects of acute gamma-radiation. However, random vibration similar to that occurring during launch of spaceships, combined with linear acceleration increased the radiation damage to algae produced by acute gamma-radiation at a dose of 10000 r. This effect is seen only in cells at the beginning of the G1 stage, which precedes DNA synthesis. PMID:12691110

  3. Three-Dimensional Ultrastructural Study of Oil and Astaxanthin Accumulation during Encystment in the Green Alga Haematococcus pluvialis

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Hazuki; Nango, Nobuhito; Hirata, Aiko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2013-01-01

    Haematococcus pluvialis is a freshwater species of green algae and is well known for its accumulation of the strong antioxidant astaxanthin, which is used in aquaculture, various pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. High levels of astaxanthin are present in cysts, which rapidly accumulate when the environmental conditions become unfavorable for normal cell growth. It is not understood, however, how accumulation of high levels of astaxanthin, which is soluble in oil, becomes possible during encystment. Here, we performed ultrastructural 3D reconstruction based on over 350 serial sections per cell to visualize the dynamics of astaxanthin accumulation and subcellular changes during the encystment of H. pluvialis. This study showcases the marked changes in subcellular elements, such as chloroplast degeneration, in the transition from green coccoid cells to red cyst cells during encystment. In green coccoid cells, chloroplasts accounted for 41.7% of the total cell volume, whereas the relative volume of astaxanthin was very low (0.2%). In contrast, oil droplets containing astaxanthin predominated in cyst cells (52.2%), in which the total chloroplast volume was markedly decreased (9.7%). Volumetric observations also demonstrated that the relative volumes of the cell wall, starch grains, pyrenoids, mitochondria, the Golgi apparatus, and the nucleus in a cyst cell are smaller than those in green coccid cells. Our data indicated that chloroplasts are degraded, resulting in a net-like morphology, but do not completely disappear, even at the red cyst stage. PMID:23326471

  4. Bacterial diversity in surface water of the Yellow Sea during and after a green alga tide in 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Cong; Li, Fuchao; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Zhaopu; Qin, Song

    2011-11-01

    From May to August 2008, a large "green tide", consisting of the alga Ulva ( Enteromorpha) prolifera, occurred in the Yellow Sea, China, affecting the local marine ecosystem and human activities. We investigated the influence of the green tide on the microbial community in the surface seawater, at four sites from July to August 2008, using bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. We sequenced 228 clones of unique patterns identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) techniques. The results show that 228 sequenced clones fell into six bacterial phyla: Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, and Planctomycetes. Alphaproteobacteria (33%), Gammaproteobacteria (25%), Bacteroidetes (23%) and Cyanobacteria (9%) dominated the assemblage. Comparison between samples collected in July (during the tide) and those collected in August (after the tide) showed that, in the microbial community, diversities of Alphaproteobacteria and Cyanobacteria increased after the tide, while those of Gammaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes decreased. These results indicate that the green tide influenced the growth of some bacteria, and provide information for further studies on the interactions and relationships between U. prolifera and the bacterial community. This study suggests that microbial community analysis is a good approach to monitoring green tides.

  5. Probing fatty acid metabolism in bacteria, cyanobacteria, green microalgae and diatoms with natural and unnatural fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Beld, Joris; Abbriano, Raffaela; Finzel, Kara; Hildebrand, Mark; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-04-22

    In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fatty acid synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of fatty acids in an iterative process, extending the fatty acid by two carbon units every cycle. Thus, odd numbered fatty acids are rarely found in nature. We tested whether representatives of diverse microbial phyla have the ability to incorporate odd-chain fatty acids as substrates for their fatty acid synthases and their downstream enzymes. We fed various odd and short chain fatty acids to the bacterium Escherichia coli, cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Major differences were observed, specifically in the ability among species to incorporate and elongate short chain fatty acids. We demonstrate that E. coli, C. reinhardtii, and T. pseudonana can produce longer fatty acid products from short chain precursors (C3 and C5), while Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacks this ability. However, Synechocystis can incorporate and elongate longer chain fatty acids due to acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasS) activity, and knockout of this protein eliminates the ability to incorporate these fatty acids. In addition, expression of a characterized AasS from Vibrio harveyii confers a similar capability to E. coli. The ability to desaturate exogenously added fatty acids was only observed in Synechocystis and C. reinhardtii. We further probed fatty acid metabolism of these organisms by feeding desaturase inhibitors to test the specificity of long-chain fatty acid desaturases. In particular, supplementation with thia fatty acids can alter fatty acid profiles based on the location of the sulfur in the chain. We show that coupling sensitive gas chromatography mass spectrometry to supplementation of unnatural fatty acids can reveal major differences between fatty acid metabolism in various organisms. Often unnatural fatty acids have antibacterial or even therapeutic properties. Feeding of short precursors now gives us easy access to these extended molecules. PMID:26886879

  6. Comparative Genomics of the Pennate Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum1[w

    PubMed Central

    Montsant, Anton; Jabbari, Kamel; Maheswari, Uma; Bowler, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Diatoms are one of the most important constituents of phytoplankton communities in aquatic environments, but in spite of this, only recently have large-scale diatom-sequencing projects been undertaken. With the genome of the centric species Thalassiosira pseudonana available since mid-2004, accumulating sequence information for a pennate model species appears a natural subsequent aim. We have generated over 12,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and upon assembly into a nonredundant set, 5,108 sequences were obtained. Significant similarity (E < 1E-04) to entries in the GenBank nonredundant protein database, the COG profile database, and the Pfam protein domains database were detected, respectively, in 45.0%, 21.5%, and 37.1% of the nonredundant collection of sequences. This information was employed to functionally annotate the P. tricornutum nonredundant set and to create an internet-accessible queryable diatom EST database. The nonredundant collection was then compared to the putative complete proteomes of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the red alga Cyanidioschyzon merolae, and the centric diatom T. pseudonana. A number of intriguing differences were identified between the pennate and the centric diatoms concerning activities of relevance for general cell metabolism, e.g. genes involved in carbon-concentrating mechanisms, cytosolic acetyl-Coenzyme A production, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate metabolism. Finally, codon usage and utilization of C and G relative to gene expression (as measured by EST redundance) were studied, and preferences for utilization of C and CpG doublets were noted among the P. tricornutum EST coding sequences. PMID:15665249

  7. Lipophilic pigments from cyanobacterial (blue-green algal) and diatom mats in Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmisano, A. C.; Summons, R. E.; Cronin, S. E.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1989-01-01

    Lipophilic pigments were examined in microbial mat communities dominated by cyanobacteria in the intertidal zone and by diatoms in the subtidal and sublittoral zones of Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Western Australia. These microbial mats have evolutionary significance because of their similarity to lithfied stromatolites from the Proterozoic and Early Paleozoic eras. Fucoxanthin, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, beta-carotene, and chlorophylls a and c characterized the diatom mats, whereas cyanobacterial mats contained myxoxanthophyll, zeaxanthin, echinenone, beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and, in some cases, sheath pigment. The presence of bacteriochlorophyll a within the mats suggest a close association of photosynthetic bacteria with diatoms and cyanobacteria. The high carotenoids : chlorophyll a ratios (0.84-2.44 wt/wt) in the diatom mats suggest that carotenoids served a photoprotective function in this high light environment. By contrast, cyanobacterial sheath pigment may have largely supplanted the photoprotective role of carotenoids in the intertidal mats.

  8. Transcriptomics of Desiccation Tolerance in the Streptophyte Green Alga Klebsormidium Reveal a Land Plant-Like Defense Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Holzinger, Andreas; Kaplan, Franziska; Blaas, Kathrin; Zechmann, Bernd; Komsic-Buchmann, Karin; Becker, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Background Water loss has significant effects on physiological performance and survival rates of algae. However, despite the prominent presence of aeroterrestrial algae in terrestrial habitats, hardly anything is known about the molecular events that allow aeroterrestrial algae to survive harsh environmental conditions. We analyzed the transcriptome and physiology of a strain of the alpine aeroterrestrial alga Klebsormidium crenulatum under control and strong desiccation-stress conditions. Principal Findings For comparison we first established a reference transcriptome. The high-coverage reference transcriptome includes about 24,183 sequences (1.5 million reads, 636 million bases). The reference transcriptome encodes for all major pathways (energy, carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids, sugars), nearly all deduced pathways are complete or missing only a few transcripts. Upon strong desiccation, more than 7000 transcripts showed changes in their expression levels. Most of the highest up-regulated transcripts do not show similarity to known viridiplant proteins, suggesting the existence of some genus- or species-specific responses to desiccation. In addition, we observed the up-regulation of many transcripts involved in desiccation tolerance in plants (e.g. proteins similar to those that are abundant in late embryogenesis (LEA), or proteins involved in early response to desiccation ERD), and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFO) known to act as osmolytes). Major physiological shifts are the up-regulation of transcripts for photosynthesis, energy production, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, which is supported by elevated cellular glutathione content as revealed by immunoelectron microscopy as well as an increase in total antiradical power. However, the effective quantum yield of Photosystem II and CO2 fixation decreased sharply under the applied desiccation stress. In contrast, transcripts for cell integrative functions such as cell division, DNA replication, cofactor biosynthesis, and amino acid biosynthesis were down-regulated. Significance This is the first study investigating the desiccation transcriptome of a streptophyte green alga. Our results indicate that the cellular response is similar to embryophytes, suggesting that embryophytes inherited a basic cellular desiccation tolerance from their streptophyte predecessors. PMID:25340847

  9. Biosynthetic Pathway and Health Benefits of Fucoxanthin, an Algae-Specific Xanthophyll in Brown Seaweeds

    PubMed Central

    Mikami, Koji; Hosokawa, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    Fucoxanthin is the main carotenoid produced in brown algae as a component of the light-harvesting complex for photosynthesis and photoprotection. In contrast to the complete elucidation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathways in red and green algae, the biosynthetic pathway of fucoxanthin in brown algae is not fully understood. Recently, two models for the fucoxanthin biosynthetic pathway have been proposed in unicellular diatoms; however, there is no such information for the pathway in brown seaweeds to date. Here, we propose a biosynthetic pathway for fucoxanthin in the brown seaweed, Ectocarpus siliculosus, derived from comparison of carotenogenic genes in its sequenced genome with those in the genomes of two diatoms, Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Currently, fucoxanthin is receiving attention, due to its potential benefits for human health. Therefore, new knowledge regarding the medical and nutraceutical properties of fucoxanthin from brown seaweeds is also summarized here. PMID:23820585

  10. Biosynthetic pathway and health benefits of fucoxanthin, an algae-specific xanthophyll in brown seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Koji; Hosokawa, Masashi

    2013-01-01

    Fucoxanthin is the main carotenoid produced in brown algae as a component of the light-harvesting complex for photosynthesis and photoprotection. In contrast to the complete elucidation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathways in red and green algae, the biosynthetic pathway of fucoxanthin in brown algae is not fully understood. Recently, two models for the fucoxanthin biosynthetic pathway have been proposed in unicellular diatoms; however, there is no such information for the pathway in brown seaweeds to date. Here, we propose a biosynthetic pathway for fucoxanthin in the brown seaweed, Ectocarpus siliculosus, derived from comparison of carotenogenic genes in its sequenced genome with those in the genomes of two diatoms, Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Currently, fucoxanthin is receiving attention, due to its potential benefits for human health. Therefore, new knowledge regarding the medical and nutraceutical properties of fucoxanthin from brown seaweeds is also summarized here. PMID:23820585

  11. Localization of p210-related proteins in green flagellates and analysis of flagellar assembly in the green alga Dunaliella bioculatawith monoclonal anti-p210.

    PubMed

    Schoppmeier, J; Lechtreck, K-F

    2002-10-01

    Recently, p210 was identified as a component of the flagellar basal apparatus in the green flagellate Spermatozopsis similis. In a search for potential homologues to p210, isolated cytoskeletons of several green flagellates were probed with a monoclonal antibody, BAS4.13, against p210. In Western blots, cross-reacting bands in the molecular-mass range of 210 kDa were detected only in the quadriflagellate Spermatozopsis exsultans. As described earlier for S. similis, the flagellar transition region was decorated in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and several other green flagellates, whereas in the marine alga Dunaliella bioculata the antigen was present in the proximal part of the axoneme. Double immunofluorescence of D. bioculata with an antitubulin antibody further revealed dotlike signals at sites where the probasal bodies are located. Since most of the antigen in D. bioculata was located in the axoneme, deflagellation offered a possibility to study the kinetics of its incorporation during flagellar regeneration. The antigen was only detected after a flagellum reached a length of 3-4 microm and its integration into the growing flagellar proceeded from proximal to distal. A similar delay in the incorporation of the antigen was also observed during flagellar assembly on new basal bodies during cell division. Thus, the antigen of BAS4.13 was incorporated late and from proximal to distal into the growing flagellum. We conclude that the pace and site by which individual proteins are integrated into the flagellum differ greatly. PMID:12417934

  12. Effect of nutrients on growth and lipid accumulation in the green algae Dunaliella tertiolecta.

    PubMed

    Chen, Meng; Tang, Haiying; Ma, Hongzhi; Holland, Thomas C; Ng, K Y Simon; Salley, Steven O

    2011-01-01

    Production of biofuel from algae is dependent on the microalgal biomass production rate and lipid content. Both biomass production and lipid accumulation are limited by several factors, of which nutrients play a key role. In this research, the marine microalgae Dunaliella tertiolecta was used as a model organism and a profile of its nutritional requirements was determined. Inorganic phosphate PO4(3-) and trace elements: cobalt (Co2+), iron (Fe3+), molybdenum (Mo2+) and manganese (Mn2+) were identified as required for algae optimum growth. Inorganic nitrogen in the form of nitrate NO3- instead of ammonium (NH4+) was required for maximal biomass production. Lipids accumulated under nitrogen starvation growth condition and this was time-dependent. Results of this research can be applied to maximize production of microalgal lipids in optimally designed photobioreactors. PMID:20947341

  13. Determination of growth rate depression of some green algae by atrazine

    SciTech Connect

    Hersh, C.M.; Crumpton, W.G.

    1987-12-01

    A common contaminant of surface waters of agricultural regions is the triazine herbicide, atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isoproplyamino-s-triazine). Atrazine effectively inhibits growth and photosynthesis of most plants, including freshwater algae. Both depression of growth rate and reduced yield have been used as parameters in studies of the effects of atrazine on algal growth. Considerable variation exists among algal toxicity methods despite attempts at standardization. Experimental endpoints range from percent inhibitions to EC50s. Algae from two different Iowa springs were the subjects of a study of naturally occurring atrazine tolerance. The authors report here the results of two aspects of that study: development of a quick method of assessing toxin effects on algal growth, and investigation of a ecologically meaningful endpoint for toxin-growth experiments.

  14. Removal of blue-green algae using the hybrid method of hydrodynamic cavitation and ozonation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhilin; Shen, Haifeng; Ondruschka, Bernd; Zhang, Yongchun; Wang, Weimin; Bremner, David H

    2012-10-15

    A suspension of Microcystis aeruginosa (30 μg L(-1)chlorophyll a) was circulated in a hydrodynamic cavitation device and ozone was introduced at the suction side of the pump. The removal of algae over 10 min using hydrodynamic cavitation alone and ozone alone is less than 15% and 35%, respectively. The destruction of algae rises significantly from 24% in the absence of the orifice to 91% with the optimized orifice on 5 min of processing using hydrodynamic cavitation along with ozone (HC/O(3)) and the utilization of ozone increases from 32% to 61%. Interestingly, the suction process is more effective than the extrusion method (positive pressure) and the optimal bulk temperature for algal elimination was found to be 20 °C. Increasing the input concentration of ozone is favorable for the removal of algae but leads to a greater loss of ozone and a decrease in the utilization of ozone. Under the optimal conditions, the algal cells and chlorophyll a are completely destroyed in 10 min by use of the hybrid method. PMID:22883706

  15. Mechanistic approaches for evaluating the toxicity of reactive organochlorines and epoxides in green algae.

    PubMed

    Niederer, Christian; Behra, Renata; Harder, Angela; Schwarzenbach, Ren P; Escher, Beate I

    2004-03-01

    Reactive electrophilic chemicals, such as reactive organochlorine compounds or epoxides, react specifically with a broad spectrum of nucleophilic biomolecules, including proteins and DNA. Conventional toxicity tests for algae, involving the observation of growth inhibition, i.e., the inhibition of cell multiplication, after several days, yield unreliable information for risk assessment because reactive compounds hydrolyze to different extents during the exposure period. The diversity of their modes of toxic action further complicates effect assessment and calls for methods yielding additional information on the mechanisms of toxicity. One of the primary targets of reactive chemicals in cells is the tripeptide glutathione (GSH), which is important for detoxification but can also be regarded as a toxicity sensor because changes in glutathione levels indicate stress. A vital system for algae is the photosynthetic system, which is indirectly affected by reactive chemicals. The test systems developed in this study for the assessment of reactive toxicity toward algae were therefore based not only on nonspecific toxicity indicators like growth inhibition but also on indicators for disturbance of photosynthesis (inhibition of photosystem II quantum yield) and glutathione metabolism. The application of the developed test systems on Scenedesmus vacuolatus after short-term exposure of 2 h showed that these tests can be used as fast screening tests for algal toxicity and in mode-of-action-based test batteries. PMID:15285364

  16. Influence of PbS nanoparticle polymer coating on their aggregation behavior and toxicity to the green algae Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Hajar; Moradshahi, Ali; Jahromi, Hamed Dehdashti; Sheikhi, Mohammad Hosein

    2014-09-01

    The potential hazards of nanoparticles (NPs) to the environment and to living organisms need to be considered for a safe development of nanotechnology. In the present study, the potential toxic effects of uncoated and gum Arabic-coated lead sulfide nanoparticles (GA-coated PbS NPs) on the growth, lipid peroxidation, reducing capacity and total carotenoid content of the hypersaline unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina were investigated. Coatings of PbS NPs with GA, as confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, reduced the toxicity of PbS NPs. Uncoated PbS NP toxicity to D. salina was attributed to higher algal cell-NP agglomerate formation, higher lipid peroxidation, lower content of total reducing substances and lower total carotenoid content. Low levels of Pb(2+) in the growth culture media indicate that PbS NP dissolution does not occur in the culture. Also, the addition of 100 ?M Pb(2+) to the culture media had no significant (P>0.05) effect on algal growth. The shading of light (shading effect) by PbS NPs, when simulated using activated charcoal, did not contribute to the overall toxic effect of PbS NPs which was evident by insignificant (P>0.05) reduction in the growth and antioxidant capacity of the algae. When PbS NP aggregation in culture media (without algal cells) was followed for 60 min, uncoated form aggregated rapidly reaching aggregate sizes with hydrodynamic diameter of over 2500 nm within 60 min. Effective particle-particle interaction was reduced in the GA-coated NPs. Aggregates of about 440 nm hydrodynamic diameter were formed within 35 min. Afterwards the aggregate size remained constant. It is concluded that PbS NPs have a negative effect on aquatic algae and their transformation by GA capping affects NPs aggregation properties and toxicity. PMID:24907922

  17. Promotive effect of se on the growth and antioxidation of a blue-green alga Spirulina maxima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi-Gang, Zhou; Zhi-Li, Liu

    1998-12-01

    Cultures of a blue-green alga Spirulina maxima (Setch. et Gard.) Geitler with various concentrations of Se in Zarrouk's medium showed that not higher than 40 mg/L Se could promote its growth. The present experiments showed that S. maxima grown under normal conditions, has an oxidant stress defence system for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) removal, which is the Halliwell-Asada pathway. When 4 to 20 mg/L Se was added to the algal medium, this pathway was replaced by a so-called Sestressed pathway containing GSH peroxidase (GSH-POD). As a result of the occurrence of both higher activity of GSH-POD and lower levels of hydroxyl radical (OH), the Se-stressed pathway scavenged H2O2 so effectively that the growth of S. maxima was promoted by 4 to 20 mg/L Se. While GSH-POD activity of the alga disappeared at 40 mg/L Se, the recovery of ascorbate peroxidase was observed. The lower levels of ascorbic acid and GSH made the Halliwell-Asada pathway for scavenging H2O2 less effective, while the highest activity of catalase might be responsible in part for the H2O2 removal, causing the level of OH in S. maxima grown at 40 mg/L Se to be much higher than the OH level in this alga grown at 4 to 20 mg/L Se, but lower than that in the control. The OH level changes caused the growth of S. maxima cultured at 40 mg/L Se to increase slightly to close to that of the control.

  18. Anti-cancer effects of blue-green alga Spirulina platensis, a natural source of bilirubin-like tetrapyrrolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Kon?kov, Renata; Va?kov, Kate?ina; Vankov, Jana; V?ov, Kate?ina; Muchov, Lucie; Subhanov, Iva; Zadinov, Marie; Zelenka, Jaroslav; Dvo?k, Ale; Kol?, Michal; Strnad, Hynek; Rimpelov, Silvie; Ruml, Tom; J Wong, Ronald; Vtek, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Spirulina platensis is a blue-green alga used as a dietary supplement because of its hypocholesterolemic properties. Among other bioactive substances, it is also rich in tetrapyrrolic compounds closely related to bilirubin molecule, a potent antioxidant and anti-proliferative agent. The aim of our study was to evaluate possible anticancer effects of S. platensis and S. platensis-derived tetrapyrroles using an experimental model of pancreatic cancer. The anti-proliferative effects of S. platensis and its tetrapyrrolic components [phycocyanobilin (PCB) and chlorophyllin, a surrogate molecule for chlorophyll A] were tested on several human pancreatic cancer cell lines and xenotransplanted nude mice. The effects of experimental therapeutics on mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and glutathione redox status were also evaluated. Compared to untreated cells, experimental therapeutics significantly decreased proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cell lines in vitro in a dose-dependent manner (from 0.16 gL-1 [S. platensis], 60 ?M [PCB], and 125 ?M [chlorophyllin], p<0.05). The anti-proliferative effects of S. platensis were also shown in vivo, where inhibition of pancreatic cancer growth was evidenced since the third day of treatment (p < 0.05). All tested compounds decreased generation of mitochondrial ROS and glutathione redox status (p = 0.0006; 0.016; and 0.006 for S. platensis, PCB, and chlorophyllin, respectively). In conclusion, S. platensis and its tetrapyrrolic components substantially decreased the proliferation of experimental pancreatic cancer. These data support a chemopreventive role of this edible alga. Furthermore, it seems that dietary supplementation with this alga might enhance systemic pool of tetrapyrroles, known to be higher in subjects with Gilbert syndrome. PMID:24552870

  19. Characterization of the heterotrimeric G-protein complex and its regulator from the green alga Chara braunii expands the evolutionary breadth of plant G-protein signaling.

    PubMed

    Hackenberg, Dieter; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Pandey, Sona

    2013-12-01

    The lack of heterotrimeric G-protein homologs in the sequenced genomes of green algae has led to the hypothesis that, in plants, this signaling mechanism coevolved with the embryophytic life cycle and the acquisition of terrestrial habitat. Given the large evolutionary gap that exists between the chlorophyte green algae and most basal land plants, the bryophytes, we evaluated the presence of this signaling complex in a charophyte green alga, Chara braunii, proposed to be the closest living relative of land plants. The C. braunii genome encodes for the entire G-protein complex, the Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, and the REGULATOR OF G-PROTEIN SIGNALING (RGS) protein. The biochemical properties of these proteins and their cross-species functionality show that they are functional homologs of canonical G-proteins. The subunit-specific interactions between CbGα and CbGβ, CbGβ and CbGγ, and CbGα and CbRGS are also conserved, establishing the existence of functional G-protein complex-based signaling mechanisms in green algae. PMID:24179134

  20. Raman spectroscopic insights into the chemical gradients within the wound plug of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia.

    PubMed

    Weissflog, Ina A; Grosser, Katharina; Brutigam, Maximilian; Dietzek, Benjamin; Pohnert, Georg; Popp, Juergen

    2013-04-15

    The invasive unicellular green macroalga Caulerpa taxifolia has spread dramatically in the Mediterranean Sea over the last decades. Its success is based on rapid plug formation after wounding, to prevent the loss of cell content. This quick and efficient process involves the rapid transformation of the secondary metabolite caulerpenyne to the reactive 1,4-dialdehyde oxytoxin 2, which acts as a protein crosslinker. The main metabolites of the wound plug were identified as proteins, caulerpenyne derivatives, and sulfated polysaccharides. Because of a methodological deficit, however, the detailed distribution of the compounds within the wound plug of C. taxifolia was unknown. This study demonstrates the suitability of FT-Raman spectroscopy for the noninvasive in vivo determination of caulerpenyne and its derivatives, as well as ?-carotene, from signals with special spectral features within the wound plug and the adjacent intact alga tissue, with a resolution of 100 ?m. FT-Raman spectra allowed four different zones with distinct chemical compositions around the region of wounds to be characterized. Gradients of the investigated metabolites within the wound plug and the alga could be determined. Moreover, various caulerpenyne derivatives could be identified spectroscopically, and this has led to a mechanistic proposal for the internal and the external wound plug formation. PMID:23526760

  1. Hydrogen peroxide photoproduction by immobilized cells of the blue-green alga Anabaena variabilis: A way to solar energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, I.; La Rosa, F.F. de )

    1992-07-01

    A photosystem for hydrogen peroxide photoproduction formed by immobilized cells of the blue-green alga, Anabaena variabilis and the redox mediator methyl viologen is described. Hydrogen peroxide is produced in a redox catalyst cycle in which methyl viologen is reduced by electrons from water obtained by the photosynthetic apparatus of the algae using solar energy, and reoxidized by the introduction of oxygen into the solution. Hydrogen peroxide is produced during methyl viologen re-oxidation in two steps by means of the formation of superoxide. Experimental conditions for maximum photoproduction (catalyst charge, chlorophyll, and agar final concentration for cell immobilization) have been investigated using a continuous photosystem with immobilized A. variabilis as photocatalyst. Under the determined optimum conditions, the photosystem with immobilized A. variabilis is photocatalyst. Under the determined optimum conditions, the photosystem produces hydrogen peroxide at a rate of 100 {mu}moles/mg Chl{center dot}h, maintaining the production for several hours, and with an energy conversion efficiency of about 2%. Taking into account the use of hydrogen peroxide as fuel, this photosystem can be a useful tool in the storage of solar energy.

  2. Localization of the blue-light receptor phototropin to the flagella of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kaiyao; Kunkel, Tim; Beck, Christoph F

    2004-08-01

    Blue light controls the sexual life cycle of Chlamydomonas, mediated by phototropin, a UV-A/blue-light receptor that plays a prominent role in multiple photoresponses. By using fractionation experiments and immunolocalization studies, this blue-light receptor, in addition to its known localization to the cell bodies, also was detected in flagella. Within the flagella, it was completely associated with the axonemes, in striking contrast to the situation in higher plants and the Chlamydomonas cell body where phototropin was observed in the plasma membrane. Its localization was not perturbed in mutants lacking several prominent structural components of the axoneme. This led to the conclusion that phototropin may be associated with the outer doublet microtubules. Analysis of a mutant (fla10) in which intraflagellar transport is compromised suggested that phototropin is a cargo for intraflagellar transport. The blue-light receptor thus seems to be an integral constituent of the flagella of this green alga, extending the list of organisms that harbor sensory molecules within this organelle to unicellular algae. PMID:15155806

  3. Selenium accumulation in unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris and its effects on antioxidant enzymes and content of photosynthetic pigments.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xian; Zhong, Yu; Huang, Zhi; Yang, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate selenite effects in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris as a primary producer and the relationship with intracellular bioaccumulation. The effects of selenite were evaluated by measuring the effect of different selenite concentrations on algal growth during a 144 h exposure period. It was found that lower Se concentrations (? 75 mg L(-1)) positively promoted C. vulgaris growth and acted as antioxidant by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (LPO) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidative effect was associated with an increase in guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and photosynthetic pigments. Meanwhile, significant increase in the cell growth rate and organic Se content was also detected in the algae. In contrast, these changes were opposite in C. vulgaris exposed to Se higher than 100 mg L-1. The antioxidation and toxicity appeared to be correlated to Se bioaccumulation, which suggests the appropriate concentration of Se in the media accumulation of C. vulgaris should be 75 mg L-1. Taken together, C. vulgaris possesses tolerance to Se, and Se-Chlorella could be developed as antioxidative food for aquaculture and human health. PMID:25375113

  4. The influence of salinity on the toxicity of selected sulfonamides and trimethoprim towards the green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Borecka, Marta; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Haliński, Łukasz P; Pazdro, Ksenia; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents the investigation of the influence of salinity variations on the toxicity of sulfapyridine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine and trimethoprim towards the green algae Chlorella vulgaris after exposure times of 48 and 72h. In freshwater the EC50 values ranged from 0.98 to 123.22mgL(-1) depending on the compound. The obtained results revealed that sulfamethoxazole and sulfapyridine were the most toxic, while trimethoprim was the least toxic pharmaceutical to the selected organism. Deviations between the nominal and real test concentrations were determined via instrumental analysis to support the interpretation of ecotoxicological data. The toxicity effects were also tested in saline water (3, 6 and 9PSU). The tendency that the toxicity of selected pharmaceuticals decreases with increasing salinity was observed. Higher salinity implies an elevated concentration of inorganic monovalent cations that are capable of binding with countercharges available on algal surfaces (hydroxyl functional groups). Hence it can reduce the permeability of pharmaceuticals through the algal cell walls, which could be the probable reason for the observed effect. Moreover, for the classification of the mode of toxic action, the toxic ratio concept was applied, which indicated that the effects of the investigated drugs towards algae are caused by the specific mode of toxic action. PMID:26835894

  5. Selenium Accumulation in Unicellular Green Alga Chlorella vulgaris and Its Effects on Antioxidant Enzymes and Content of Photosynthetic Pigments

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xian; Zhong, Yu; Huang, Zhi; Yang, Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate selenite effects in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris as a primary producer and the relationship with intracellular bioaccumulation. The effects of selenite were evaluated by measuring the effect of different selenite concentrations on algal growth during a 144 h exposure period. It was found that lower Se concentrations (≤75 mg L−1) positively promoted C. vulgaris growth and acted as antioxidant by inhibiting lipid peroxidation (LPO) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The antioxidative effect was associated with an increase in guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and photosynthetic pigments. Meanwhile, significant increase in the cell growth rate and organic Se content was also detected in the algae. In contrast, these changes were opposite in C. vulgaris exposed to Se higher than 100 mg L−1. The antioxidation and toxicity appeared to be correlated to Se bioaccumulation, which suggests the appropriate concentration of Se in the media accumulation of C. vulgaris should be 75 mg L−1. Taken together, C. vulgaris possesses tolerance to Se, and Se-Chlorella could be developed as antioxidative food for aquaculture and human health. PMID:25375113

  6. Effects of temperature on the astaxanthin productivity and light harvesting characteristics of the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis.

    PubMed

    Giannelli, Luca; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2015-03-01

    The green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, which accumulates astaxanthin at an optimal temperature of 20C, was cultivated under temperatures of 20C, 23.5C, 27C, and 30.5C, in order to assess the effects on algal metabolism during the growth phase. The culture growth rate declined with above-optimal increases in temperature, and the final maximum cell concentration at 30.5C reached only 35% of that attained at 20C. On the contrary, the biomass productivity was increased under all the high-temperature conditions, probably reflecting the metabolism switch from cell duplication to energy accumulation that is typically observed in algal cultures subjected to environmental stress. Moreover, an increase in the light-harvesting capability of the alga was observed by means of the total pigment balance and the photosynthesis-intensity (PI) curve measured under the different cultivation conditions. Cultures kept at higher temperatures were able to better harvest and utilize the impinging light due to photo-acclimation. Finally, the differences in the astaxanthin metabolism were elucidated by subjecting the cultures to nitrogen starvation at 20C and 27C. In the culture at 27C, a 1.4-fold increase in the astaxanthin productivity was observed when compared to that at 20C, and the latter required almost two-fold more energy for the astaxanthin production compared with the 27C culture. PMID:25441445

  7. Elicitation of the most important structural properties of ionic liquids affecting ecotoxicity in limnic green algae; a QSAR approach.

    PubMed

    Izadiyan, Parisa; Fatemi, M H; Izadiyan, Mahsa

    2013-01-01

    Many ionic liquids are soluble in water and their impact on the aquatic environment has to be evaluated. However, due to the large number of ionic liquids and lack of experimental data, it is necessary to develop estimation procedures in order to reduce the materials and time consumption. In this study using multilayer perceptron neural network (MLP), ant colony optimization (ACO) and multiple linear regression (MLR) strategies, good predictive quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) models were introduced and structural parameters affecting ecotoxicity of ionic liquids in limnic green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus) were revealed. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) approaches were also applied to visualize any possible patterns or relationships among ionic liquids data. It was revealed that selected descriptors of the MLR model are also capable of clustering ionic liquids according to their four level of toxicity. PMID:23107477

  8. Toxicity of volcanic-ash leachate to a blue-green alga. Results of a preliminary bioassay experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Diane M.; Feder, G.L.; Stiles, E.A.

    1981-01-01

    To assess the possible effects of volcanic ash from the May 18,1980, eruption of Mt. St. Helens, Washington, on aquatic ecosystems, we conducted a bioassay experiment with a blue-green alga, Anabaena flos-aquae. Results showed that leachate (obtained by leaching 151 g of ash with 130 mL of simulated freshwater) was lethal to Anabaena flos-aquae cultures when diluted as much as 1:100 with culture medium. Cultures exposed to a 1:500 dilution grew, but a toxic effect was indicated by abnormalities in the Anabaena filaments. This study indicates that ash from the Mt. St. Helens volcano could have an effect on aquatic ecosystems in the areas of significant ashfall. Further study is needed to determine the toxic chemical constituents in the ash and also its possible effects on other aquatic organisms.

  9. New lipid-producing, cold-tolerant yellow-green alga isolated from the Rocky Mountains of Colorado.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David R; Mengistu, Sinafik; Ranum, Paul; Celio, Gail; Mashek, Mara; Mashek, Douglas; Lefebvre, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    A new strain of yellow-green algae (Xanthophyceae, Heterokonta), tentatively named Heterococcus sp. DN1 (UTEX accession number UTEX ZZ885), was discovered among snow fields in the Rocky Mountains. Axenic cultures of H. sp. DN1 were isolated and their cellular morphology, growth, and composition of lipids were characterized. H. sp. DN1 was found to grow at temperatures approaching freezing to accumulate large intracellular stores of lipids. H. sp. DN1 produces the highest quantity of lipids when grown undisturbed with high light in low temperatures. Of particular interest was the accumulation of eicosapentaenoic acid, known to be important for human nutrition, and palmitoleic acid, known to improve biodiesel feedstock properties. PMID:23754623

  10. Chemical constituents of the aquatic plant Schoenoplectus lacustris: evaluation of phytotoxic effects on the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum.

    PubMed

    D'Abrosca, Brigida; Dellagreca, Marina; Fiorentino, Antonio; Isidori, Marina; Monaco, Pietro; Pacifico, Severina

    2006-01-01

    Forty-nine secondary metabolites were isolated from aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the aquatic plant Shoenoplectus lacustris. All compounds were characterized based on spectroscopic data. Eleven free and glycosylated low-molecular polyphenols, 17 cinnamic acid and dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives, 11 flavonoids, and 10 C13 nor-isoprenoids were identified. The structure of the new compound, 1-benzoyl-glycerol-2-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside, was elucidated by 2D NMR experiments (COSY, HSQC, HMBC, NOESY). To evaluate potential phytotoxic effects, all compounds were tested on the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum, a unicellular organism commonly used in tests of toxicity as a bioindicator of eutrophic sites. The most active compound was (-)-catechin, showing an inhibition similar to that of the algaecide CuSO4. PMID:16525872

  11. The complete nucleotide sequence of a 16S ribosomal RNA gene from a blue-green alga, Anacystis nidulans.

    PubMed

    Tomioka, N; Sugiura, M

    1983-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a 16S ribosomal RNA gene from a blue-green alga, Anacystis nidulans, has been determined. Its coding region is estimated to be 1,487 base pairs long, which is nearly identical to those reported for chloroplast 16S rRNA genes and is about 4% shorter than that of the Escherichia coli gene. The 16S rRNA sequence of A. nidulans has 83% homology with that of tobacco chloroplast and 74% homology with that of E. coli. Possible stem and loop structures of A. nidulans 16S rRNA sequences resemble more closely those of chloroplast 16S rRNAs than those of E. coli 16S rRNA. These observations support the endosymbiotic theory of chloroplast origin. PMID:6412038

  12. Anticholinesterase poisonings in dogs from a cyanobacterial (blue-green algae) bloom dominated by Anabaena flos-aquae.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, N A; Carmichael, W W; Pfahler, D

    1988-04-01

    Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) implicated in the deaths of 9 dogs at Richmond Lake, SD, on Aug 26, 1985, were analyzed. The dominant cyanobacterial species from the water sample was Anabaena flos-aquae. The lyophilized bloom material or the high-performance liquid chromatography purified toxin peak, when administered to mice IP, induced clinical signs of salivation, lacrimation, urinary incontinence, defecation, convulsion, fasciculation, and respiratory arrest. Further comparison of the semipurified bloom toxin with an irreversible anticholinesterase anatoxin-a(s), produced by A flos-aquae strain NRC-525-17, revealed the bloom toxin and anatoxin-a(s) had similar properties on high-performance liquid chromatography and on the inhibition of electric eel acetylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.7). PMID:3132068

  13. Interactive effect of brassinosteroids and cytokinins on growth, chlorophyll, monosaccharide and protein content in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae).

    PubMed

    Bajguz, Andrzej; Piotrowska-Niczyporuk, Alicja

    2014-07-01

    Interaction between brassinosteroids (BRs) (brassinolide, BL; 24-epibrassinolide, 24-epiBL; 28-homobrassinolide, 28-homoBL; castasterone, CS; 24-epicastasterone, 24-epiCS; 28-homocastasterone, 28-homoCS) and adenine- (trans-zeatin, tZ; kinetin, Kin) as well as phenylurea-type (1,3-diphenylurea, DPU) cytokinins (CKs) in the regulation of cell number, phytohormone level and the content of chlorophyll, monosaccharide and protein in unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae) were examined. Chlorella vulgaris exhibited sensitivity to CKs in the following order of their stimulating properties: 10 nM tZ > 100 nM Kin >1 μM DPU. Exogenously applied BRs possessed the highest biological activity in algal cells at concentration of 10 nM. Among the BRs, BL was characterized by the highest activity, while 28-homoCS - by the lowest. The considerable increase in the level of all endogenous BRs by 27-46% was observed in C. vulgaris culture treated with exogenous 10 nM tZ. It can be speculated that CKs may stimulate BR activity in C. vulgaris by inducing the accumulation of endogenous BRs. CKs interacted synergistically with BRs increasing the number of cells and endogenous accumulation of proteins, chlorophylls and monosaccharides in C. vulgaris. The highest stimulation of algal growth and the contents of analyzed biochemical parameters were observed for BL applied in combination with tZ, whereas the lowest in the culture treated with both 28-homoCS and DPU. However, regardless of the applied mixture of BRs with CKs, the considerable increase in cell number and the metabolite accumulation was found above the level obtained in cultures treated with any single phytohormone in unicellular green alga C. vulgaris. PMID:24787502

  14. Negative Impact on Growth and Photosynthesis in the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in the Presence of the Estrogen 17?-Ethynylestradiol

    PubMed Central

    Pocock, Tessa; Falk, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that estrogenic compounds affect development of fertilized eggs of many species of birds, fish and amphibians through disrupted activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA). The most potent activity comes from the most commonly occurring synthetic sterol, 17?-Ethynylestradiol (EE2). Less is known about the responses of aquatic phytoplankton to these compounds. Here we show for the first time that, in comparision to the control, the addition of 7 M EE2 reduced the growth rate of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by 68% for cells grown at high CO2. When cells were grown in ambient air (low Ci) with a fully activated carbon concentrating mechanism through the induction of CA activity, the growth rates were reduced by as much as 119%. A reduced growth rate could be observed at EE2 concentrations as low as 10 pM. This was accompanied by a reduced maximum capacity for electron transport in photosystem II as determined by a lower FV/FM for low Ci-grown cells, which indicates the involvement of CAH3, a CA specifically located in the thylakoid lumen involved in proton pumping across the thylakoid membranes. These results were in agreement with an observed reduction in the chloroplastic affinity for Ci as shown by a strong increase in the Michaelis-Menten K0.5 for HCO3?. In itself, a lowering of the growth rate of a green alga by addition of the sterol EE2 warrants further investigation into the potential environmental impact by the release of treated waste water. PMID:25310092

  15. Persicivirga ulvanivorans sp. nov., a marine member of the family Flavobacteriaceae that degrades ulvan from green algae.

    PubMed

    Barbeyron, Tristan; Lerat, Yannick; Sassi, Jean-Franois; Le Panse, Sophie; Helbert, William; Colln, Pi Nyvall

    2011-08-01

    A rod shaped, Gram-stain-negative, chemo-organotrophic, heterotrophic, strictly aerobic, non-gliding bacterium, designated strain PLR(T), was isolated from faeces of the mollusc Aplysia punctata (Mollusca, Gastropoda) that had been fed with green algae belonging to the genus Ulva. The novel strain was able to degrade ulvan, a polysaccharide extracted from green algae (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae). The taxonomic position of strain PLR(T) was investigated by using a polyphasic approach. Strain PLR(T) was dark orange, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive and grew optimally at 25 C, at pH 7.5 and in the presence of 2.5 % (w/v) NaCl with an oxidative metabolism using oxygen as the electron acceptor. Nitrate could not be used as the electron acceptor. Strain PLR(T) had a Chargaff's coefficient (DNA G+C content) of 35.3 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequence of the 16S rRNA gene placed the novel strain in the family Flavobacteriaceae (phylum 'Bacteroidetes'), within a clade comprising Stenothermobacter spongiae, Nonlabens tegetincola, Sandarakinotalea sediminis, Persicivirga xylanidelens and Persicivirga dokdonensis. The closest neighbours of strain PLR(T) were P. xylanidelens and P. dokdonensis, sharing 95.2 and 95.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. Phylogenetic inference and differential phenotypic characteristics demonstrated that strain PLR(T) represents a novel species of the genus Persicivirga, for which the name Persicivirga ulvanivorans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is PLR(T) (?= CIP 110082(T)?= DSM 22727(T)). PMID:20833882

  16. Pectin Metabolism and Assembly in the Cell Wall of the Charophyte Green Alga Penium margaritaceum1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Domozych, David S.; Sørensen, Iben; Popper, Zoë A.; Ochs, Julie; Andreas, Amanda; Fangel, Jonatan U.; Pielach, Anna; Sacks, Carly; Brechka, Hannah; Ruisi-Besares, Pia; Willats, William G.T.; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.

    2014-01-01

    The pectin polymer homogalacturonan (HG) is a major component of land plant cell walls and is especially abundant in the middle lamella. Current models suggest that HG is deposited into the wall as a highly methylesterified polymer, demethylesterified by pectin methylesterase enzymes and cross-linked by calcium ions to form a gel. However, this idea is based largely on indirect evidence and in vitro studies. We took advantage of the wall architecture of the unicellular alga Penium margaritaceum, which forms an elaborate calcium cross-linked HG-rich lattice on its cell surface, to test this model and other aspects of pectin dynamics. Studies of live cells and microscopic imaging of wall domains confirmed that the degree of methylesterification and sufficient levels of calcium are critical for lattice formation in vivo. Pectinase treatments of live cells and immunological studies suggested the presence of another class of pectin polymer, rhamnogalacturonan I, and indicated its colocalization and structural association with HG. Carbohydrate microarray analysis of the walls of P. margaritaceum, Physcomitrella patens, and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) further suggested the conservation of pectin organization and interpolymer associations in the walls of green plants. The individual constituent HG polymers also have a similar size and branched structure to those of embryophytes. The HG-rich lattice of P. margaritaceum, a member of the charophyte green algae, the immediate ancestors of land plants, was shown to be important for cell adhesion. Therefore, the calcium-HG gel at the cell surface may represent an early evolutionary innovation that paved the way for an adhesive middle lamella in multicellular land plants. PMID:24652345

  17. Preparation of protoplasts from the green alga Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) Link.

    PubMed

    Millner, P A; Callow, M E; Evans, L V

    1979-12-01

    Protoplasts have been obtained from vegetative thallus of the green seaweed Enteromorpha following enzymic digestion with driselase and pectinase. The viability of purified protoplast fractions was assessed by staining and measurements of O2 uptake and evolution. PMID:24310976

  18. Characterisation Of Polysacharides And Lipids From Selected Green Algae Species By FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, Alica; Blinová, Lenka; Gerulová, Kristína

    2015-06-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used in this study to identify and determine spectral features of Chromochloris zofingiensis (Dönz) Fucíková et L.A. Lewis (SAG 211-14, Gottingen, Germany), Acutodesmus obliguus (Turpin) Hegewald (SAG 276-1, Gottingen, Germany) and Chlorella sorokiniana (K. Brandt) Pröschold et Darienko (SAG 211-40c, Gottingen, Germany). Polysaccharides and lipids from these three algae species were determined using Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) with ATR accessory with diamante crystal in spectral range from 400 - 4000 cm-1 and resolution 4.

  19. Functional Characterization of the Plastidic Phosphate Translocator Gene Family from the Thermo-Acidophilic Red Alga Galdieria sulphuraria Reveals Specific Adaptations of Primary Carbon Partitioning in Green Plants and Red Algae1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Linka, Marc; Jamai, Aziz; Weber, Andreas P.M.

    2008-01-01

    In chloroplasts of green plants and algae, CO2 is assimilated into triose-phosphates (TPs); a large part of these TPs is exported to the cytosol by a TP/phosphate translocator (TPT), whereas some is stored in the plastid as starch. Plastidial phosphate translocators have evolved from transport proteins of the host endomembrane system shortly after the origin of chloroplasts by endosymbiosis. The red microalga Galdieria sulphuraria shares three conserved putative orthologous transport proteins with the distantly related seed plants and green algae. However, red algae, in contrast to green plants, store starch in their cytosol, not inside plastids. Hence, due to the lack of a plastidic starch pool, a larger share of recently assimilated CO2 needs to be exported to the cytosol. We thus hypothesized that red algal transporters have distinct substrate specificity in comparison to their green orthologs. This hypothesis was tested by expression of the red algal genes in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and assessment of their substrate specificities and kinetic constants. Indeed, two of the three red algal phosphate translocator candidate orthologs have clearly distinct substrate specificities when compared to their green homologs. GsTPT (for G. sulphuraria TPT) displays very narrow substrate specificity and high affinity; in contrast to green plant TPTs, 3-phosphoglyceric acid is poorly transported and thus not able to serve as a TP/3-phosphoglyceric acid redox shuttle in vivo. Apparently, the specific features of red algal primary carbon metabolism promoted the evolution of a highly efficient export system with high affinities for its substrates. The low-affinity TPT of plants maintains TP levels sufficient for starch biosynthesis inside of chloroplasts, whereas the red algal TPT is optimized for efficient export of TP from the chloroplast. PMID:18799657

  20. Nuclear DNA Content Estimates in Multicellular Green, Red and Brown Algae: Phylogenetic Considerations

    PubMed Central

    KAPRAUN, DONALD F.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Multicellular eukaryotic algae are phylogenetically disparate. Nuclear DNA content estimates have been published for fewer than 1 % of the described species of Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta. The present investigation aims to summarize the state of our knowledge and to add substantially to our database of C-values for theses algae. • Methods The DNA-localizing fluorochrome DAPI (4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) and RBC (chicken erythrocyte) standard were used to estimate 2C values with static microspectrophotometry. • Key Results 2C DNA contents for 85 species of Chlorophyta range from 0·2–6·1 pg, excluding the highly polyploidy Charales and Desmidiales with DNA contents of up to 39·2 and 20·7 pg, respectively. 2C DNA contents for 111 species of Rhodophyta range from 0·1–2·8 pg, and for 44 species of Phaeophyta range from 0·2–1·8 pg. • Conclusions New availability of consensus higher-level molecular phylogenies provides a framework for viewing C-value data in a phylogenetic context. Both DNA content ranges and mean values are greater in taxa considered to be basal. It is proposed that the basal, ancestral genome in each algal group was quite small. Both mechanistic and ecological processes are discussed that could have produced the observed C-value ranges. PMID:15596456

  1. Noninvasive measurement of membrane potential modulation in microorganisms: photosynthesis in green algae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Woo; Saraf, Ravi F

    2014-01-28

    Cell membrane potential (CMP) modulation is a physical measurement to quantitatively probe cell physiology in real time at high specificity. Electrochemical field effect transistors (eFETs) made from graphene and Si nanowire provide strong mechanical and electrical coupling with neurons and muscle cells to noninvasively measure CMP at high sensitivity. To date, there are no noninvasive methods to study electrophysiology of microorganisms because of stiff cell walls and significantly smaller membrane polarizations. An eFET made from the smallest possible nanostructure, a nanoparticle, with sensitivity to a single-electron charge is developed to noninvasively measure CMP modulation in algae. The applicability of the device is demonstrated by measuring CMP modulation due to a light-induced proton gradient inside the chloroplast during photosynthesis. The ?9 mV modulation in CMP in algae is consistent with the absorbance spectrum of chlorophyll, photosynthetic pathway, and inorganic carbon source concentration in the environment. The method can potentially become a routine method to noninvasively study electrophysiology of cells, such as microorganisms for biofuels. PMID:24354302

  2. Visualization of sporopollenin-containing pathogenic green micro-alga Prototheca wickerhamii by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Ueno, Ryohei

    2009-04-01

    Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using taxon-specific, rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes is one of the most powerful tools for the rapid identification of harmful microorganisms. However, eukaryotic algal cells do not always allow FISH probes to permeate over their cell walls. Members of the pathogenic micro-algal genus Prototheca are characterized by their distinctive cell-wall component, sporopollenin, an extremely tough biopolymer that resists acid and alkaline hydrolysis, enzyme attack, and acetolysis. To our knowledge, there has been no report of the successful permeation by the oligonucleotide probes over the cell walls of unicellular green micro-algae, which contain sporopollenin. The DNA probes passed through the cell wall of Prototheca wickerhamii after treating the algal cells with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB). Most cells in the middle logarithmic growth phase culture fluoresced when hybridized with the rRNA-targeted universal probe for eukaryotes, though individual cells included in this culture differed in the level of cell-wall vulnerability to attack by the polysaccharide-degrading enzyme, thus reflecting the different stages of the life cycle. This is the first report regarding the visualization of sporopollenin-containing, green micro-algal cells by FISH. PMID:19396247

  3. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the green alga Oltmannsiellopsis viridis: evolutionary trends of the mitochondrial genome in the Ulvophyceae.

    PubMed

    Pombert, Jean-Franois; Beauchamp, Philippe; Otis, Christian; Lemieux, Claude; Turmel, Monique

    2006-08-01

    The mitochondrial genome displays a highly plastic architecture in the green algal division comprising the classes Prasinophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Ulvophyceae, and Chlorophyceae (Chlorophyta). The compact mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Nephroselmis (Prasinophyceae) and Prototheca (Trebouxiophyceae) encode about 60 genes and have been ascribed an 'ancestral' pattern of evolution, whereas those of chlorophycean green algae are much more reduced in gene content and size. Although the mtDNA of the early-diverging ulvophyte Pseudendoclonium contains 57 conserved genes, it differs from 'ancestral' chlorophyte mtDNAs by its unusually large size (96 kb) and long intergenic spacers. To gain insights into the evolutionary trends of mtDNA in the Ulvophyceae, we have determined the complete mtDNA sequence of Oltmannsiellopsis viridis, an ulvophyte belonging to a distinct, early-diverging lineage. This 56,761 bp genome harbours 54 conserved genes, numerous repeated sequences, and only three introns. From our comparative analyses with Pseudendoclonium mtDNA, we infer that the mitochondrial genome of the last common ancestor of the two ulvophytes closely resembled that of the trebouxiophyte Prototheca in terms of gene content and gene density. Our results also provide strong evidence for the intracellular, interorganellar transfer of a group I intron and for two distinct events of intercellular, horizontal DNA transfer. PMID:16721603

  4. Comparison of plastid 16S rRNA (rrn16) genes from Helicosporidium spp.: evidence supporting the reclassification of Helicosporidia as green algae (Chlorophyta).

    PubMed

    Tartar, Aurlien; Boucias, Drion G; Becnel, James J; Adams, Byron J

    2003-11-01

    The Helicosporidia are invertebrate pathogens that have recently been identified as non-photosynthetic green algae (Chlorophyta). In order to confirm the algal nature of the genus Helicosporidium, the presence of a retained chloroplast genome in Helicosporidia cells was investigated. Fragments homologous to plastid 16S rRNA (rrn16) genes were amplified successfully from cellular DNA extracted from two different Helicosporidium isolates. The fragment sequences are 1269 and 1266 bp long, are very AT-rich (60.7 %) and are similar to homologous genes sequenced from non-photosynthetic green algae. Maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood and neighbour-joining methods were used to infer phylogenetic trees from an rrn16 sequence alignment. All trees depicted the Helicosporidia as sister taxa to the non-photosynthetic, pathogenic alga Prototheca zopfii. Moreover, the trees identified Helicosporidium spp. as members of a clade that included the heterotrophic species Prototheca spp. and the mesotrophic species Chlorella protothecoides. The clade is always strongly supported by bootstrap values, suggesting that all these organisms share a most recent common ancestor. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from plastid 16S rRNA genes confirmed that the Helicosporidia are non-photosynthetic green algae, close relatives of the genus Prototheca (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae). Such phylogenetic affinities suggest that Helicosporidium spp. are likely to possess Prototheca-like organelles and organelle genomes. PMID:14657099

  5. Bicarbonate in vivo Requirement of Photosystem II in the Green Alga Chlamydobotrys stellata.

    PubMed

    Mende, D; Wiessner, W

    1985-03-01

    Flash induced 685 nm fluorescence emission of preilluminated and dark kept Chlamydobotrys stellata has been measured under conditions of CO(2)-deprivation. The difference in fluorescence intensity between dark kept and preilluminated cells is taken as a measure for the reduced state of the primary stable electron acceptor of photosystem II, Q, at the given intensity of preillumination. CO(2) removal from growing cultures of this alga for 15 min diminishes photosynthetic electron transport at the oxidizing side of this photosystem. Prolonged CO(2)-absence influences also its reducing side. Measurements of flash induced oxygen yields support the conclusion that both sides of photosystem II are affected in the absence of bicarbonate. PMID:23196010

  6. Direct and indirect toxic effects of cotton-derived cellulose nanofibres on filamentous green algae.

    PubMed

    Munk, Michele; Brandão, Humberto M; Nowak, Sophie; Mouton, Ludovic; Gern, Juliana C; Guimaraes, Alessandro S; Yéprémian, Claude; Couté, Alain; Raposo, Nádia R B; Marconcini, José M; Brayner, Roberta

    2015-12-01

    Recently, cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) have attracted considerable attention as natural, abundant polymers with excellent mechanical properties and biodegradability. CNFs provide a new materials platform for the sustainable production of high-performance nano-enable products for various applications. Given the increasing rates of CNF production, the potential for their release to the environment and the subsequent impact on ecosystem is becoming an increasing concern that needs to be addressed. Here, we used the Klebsormidium flaccidum as a bioindicator organism of terrestrial and freshwater habitats pollution using a battery of biomarkers. Our results show that cotton CNFs inhibit the proliferation of algae and induce morphological changes in them. The two main toxicity mechanisms induced by cotton CNFs are: (i) a direct contact of CNFs with the cell wall and cellular membrane and (ii) an indirect effect through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). PMID:26363983

  7. Food production and gas exchange system using blue-green alga (spirulina) for CELSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Hatayama, Shigeki

    1987-01-01

    In order to reduce the cultivation area required for the growth of higher plants in space adoption of algae, which have a higher photosynthetic ability, seems very suitable for obtaining oxygen and food as a useful source of high quality protein. The preliminary cultivation experiment for determining optimum cultivation conditions and for obtaining the critical design parameters of the cultivator itself was conducted. Spirulina was cultivated in the 6 liter medium containing a sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and a cultivation temperature controlled using a thermostat. Generated oxygen gas was separated using a polypropyrene porous hollow fiber membrane module. Through this experiment, oxygen gas (at a concentration of more than 46 percent) at a rate of 100 to approx. 150 ml per minute could be obtained.

  8. Hydrogen production from salt water by Marine blue green algae and solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitsui, A.; Rosner, D.; Kumazawa, S.; Barciela, S.; Phlips, E.

    1985-01-01

    Two marine bluegreen algae, Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7 and Synechococcus sp Miami 041511 have been selected as the result of over 10 years continuous and intensive effort of isolation, growth examination, and the screening of hydrogen photoproduction capability in this laboratory. Both strains photoproduced hydrogen for several days at high rates and a quantity of hydrogen was accumulated in a closed vessel. Overall hydrogen donor substance of the hydrogen photoproduction was found to be salt water. Using strain Miami BG 7, a two step method of hydrogen photoproduction from salt water was successfully developed and this was recycled several times over a one month period using both free cells and immobilized cells in both indoor and outdoor under natural sunlight. According to these experiments, a prototype floating hydrogen production system was designed for further development of the biosolar hydrogen production system.

  9. Food production and gas exchange system using blue-green alga (Spirulina) for CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguchi, Mitsuo; Otsubo, Koji; Nitta, Keiji; Hatayama, Shigeki

    In order to reduce the cultivation area required for the growth of higher plants in space adoption of algae, which have a higher photosynthetic ability, seems very suitable for obtaining oxygen and food as a useful source of high quality protein. The preliminary cultivation experiment for determining optimum cultivation conditions and for obtaining the critical design parameters of the cultivator itself has been conducted. Spirulina was cultivated in the 6-liter medium containing a sodium hydrogen carbonate solution and a cultivation temperature controlled using a thermostat. Generated oxygen gas was separated using a polypropyrene porous hollow fiber membrane module. Through this experiment, oxygen gas (at a concentration of more than 46%) at a rate of 100 ~ 150 ml per minute could be obtained.

  10. Seasonal variation of antibacterial activities in the green alga Ulva pertusa Kjellman.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae-Suk; Ha, Yu-Mi; Lee, Bo-Bae; Moon, Hye Eun; Cho, Kwang Keun; Choi, In Soon

    2014-03-01

    The present study was performed to screen out the extracts of algae and assess the seasonal variation in antimicrobial activity of Ulva pertusa against Gardnerella vaginalis. Seasonal variation in antibacterial activity was observed, with the extracts showing no activity during summer and autumn, and showing antibacterial activity from early winter (December) to middle spring (April). The maximum value of antimicrobial activity (6.5 mm inhibition zone at 5 mg disk(-1)) of U. pertusa against G. vaginalis was observed in April. Otherwise, for both chlorophyll a and b, the highest content (2.87 mg g(-1) and 1.37 mg g(-1)) was observed in March 2009. These results may reflect variation in cellular chemical compositions such as secondary metabolite(s) rather than chlorophyll and biological activities according to season. PMID:24665759

  11. A green light for engineered algae: redirecting metabolism to fuel a biotechnology revolution.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Julian N; Oyler, George A; Wilkinson, Loy; Betenbaugh, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    Microalgae have the potential to revolutionize biotechnology in a number of areas including nutrition, aquaculture, pharmaceuticals, and biofuels. Although algae have been commercially cultivated for over 50 years, metabolic engineering now seems necessary in order to achieve their full processing capabilities. Recently, the development of a number of transgenic algal strains boasting recombinant protein expression, engineered photosynthesis, and enhanced metabolism encourage the prospects of designer microalgae. Given the vast contributions that these solar-powered, carbon dioxide-sequestering organisms can provide to current global markets and the environment, an intensified focus on microalgal biotechnology is warranted. Ongoing advances in cultivation techniques coupled with genetic manipulation of crucial metabolic networks will further promote microalgae as an attractive platform for the production of numerous high-value compounds. PMID:18725295

  12. Salicylhydroxamic Acid (SHAM) Inhibition of the Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Concentrating Process in Unicellular Green Algae.

    PubMed

    Goyal, A; Tolbert, N E

    1990-03-01

    Rates of photosynthetic O(2) evolution, for measuring K(0.5)(CO(2) + HCO(3) (-)) at pH 7, upon addition of 50 micromolar HCO(3) (-) to air-adapted Chlamydomonas, Dunaliella, or Scenedesmus cells, were inhibited up to 90% by the addition of 1.5 to 4.0 millimolar salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) to the aqueous medium. The apparent K(1)(SHAM) for Chlamydomonas cells was about 2.5 millimolar, but due to low solubility in water effective concentrations would be lower. Salicylhydroxamic acid did not inhibit oxygen evolution or accumulation of bicarbonate by Scenedesmus cells between pH 8 to 11 or by isolated intact chloroplasts from Dunaliella. Thus, salicylhydroxamic acid appears to inhibit CO(2) uptake, whereas previous results indicate that vanadate inhibits bicarbonate uptake. These conclusions were confirmed by three test procedures with three air-adapted algae at pH 7. Salicylhydroxamic acid inhibited the cellular accumulation of dissolved inorganic carbon, the rate of photosynthetic O(2) evolution dependent on low levels of dissolved inorganic carbon (50 micromolar Na-HCO(3)), and the rate of (14)CO(2) fixation with 100 micromolar [(14)C] HCO(3) (-). Salicylhydroxamic acid inhibition of O(2) evolution and (14)CO(2)-fixation was reversed by higher levels of NaHCO(3). Thus, salicylhydroxamic acid inhibition was apparently not affecting steps of photosynthesis other than CO(2) accumulation. Although salicylhydroxamic acid is an inhibitor of alternative respiration in algae, it is not known whether the two processes are related. PMID:16667326

  13. Green energy from marine algae: biogas production and composition from the anaerobic digestion of Irish seaweed species.

    PubMed

    Vanegas, C H; Bartlett, J

    2013-01-01

    Marine algae have emerged as an alternative feedstock for the production of a number of renewable fuels, including biogas. In addition to energy potential, other characteristics make them attractive as an energy source, including their ability to absorb carbon dioxide (CO2), higher productivity rates than land-based crops and the lack of water use or land competition. For Ireland, biofuels from marine algae can play an important role by reducing imports of fossil fuels as well as providing the necessary energy in rural communities. In this study, five potential seaweed species common in Irish waters, Saccorhiza polyschides, Ulva sp., Laminaria digitata, Fucus serratus and Saccharina latissima, were co-digested individually with bovine slurry. Batch reactors of 120ml and 1000ml were set up and incubated at 35 degrees C to investigate their suitability for production of biogas. Digesters fed with S. latissima produced the maximum methane yield (335 ml g volatile solids(-1) (g(VS)(-1) followed by S. polyschides with 255 ml g(VS)(-1). L. digitata produced 246ml g(VS)(-1) and the lowest yields were from the green seaweed Ulva sp. 191ml g(VS)(-1). The methane and CO2 percentages ranged between 50-72% and 10-45%, respectively. The results demonstrated that the seaweed species investigated are good feedstocks candidates for the production of biogas and methane as a source of energy. Their use on a large-scale process will require further investigation to increase yields and reduce production costs. PMID:24350482

  14. Molecular and biochemical analysis of the first ARA6 homologue, a RAB5 GTPase, from green algae.

    PubMed

    Hoepflinger, Marion C; Geretschlaeger, Anja; Sommer, Aniela; Hoeftberger, Margit; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; Hammerl, Peter; Tenhaken, Raimund; Ueda, Takashi; Foissner, Ilse

    2013-12-01

    RAB5 GTPases are important regulators of endosomal membrane traffic in yeast, plants, and animals. A specific subgroup of this family, the ARA6 group, has been described in land plants including bryophytes, lycophytes, and flowering plants. Here, we report on the isolation of an ARA6 homologue in a green alga. CaARA6 (CaRABF1) from Chara australis, a member of the Characeae that is a close relative of land plants, encodes a polypeptide of 237 aa with a calculated molecular mass of 25.4 kDa, which is highly similar to ARA6 members from Arabidopsis thaliana and other land plants and has GTPase activity. When expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermal cells, fluorescently tagged CaARA6 labelled organelles with diameters between 0.2 and 1.2 µm, which co-localized with fluorescently tagged AtARA6 known to be present on multivesicular endosomes. Mutations in the membrane-anchoring and GTP-binding sites altered the localization of CaARA6 comparable to that of A. thaliana ARA6 (RABF1). In characean internodal cells, confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy with antibodies against AtARA6 and CaARA6 revealed ARA6 epitopes not only at multivesicular endosomes but also at the plasma membrane, including convoluted domains (charasomes), and at the trans-Golgi network. Our findings demonstrate that ARA6-like proteins have a more ancient origin than previously thought. They indicate further that ARA6-like proteins could have different functions in spite of the high similarity between characean algae and flowering plants. PMID:24127512

  15. Molecular and biochemical analysis of the first ARA6 homologue, a RAB5 GTPase, from green algae

    PubMed Central

    Foissner, Ilse

    2013-01-01

    RAB5 GTPases are important regulators of endosomal membrane traffic in yeast, plants, and animals. A specific subgroup of this family, the ARA6 group, has been described in land plants including bryophytes, lycophytes, and flowering plants. Here, we report on the isolation of an ARA6 homologue in a green alga. CaARA6 (CaRABF1) from Chara australis, a member of the Characeae that is a close relative of land plants, encodes a polypeptide of 237 aa with a calculated molecular mass of 25.4kDa, which is highly similar to ARA6 members from Arabidopsis thaliana and other land plants and has GTPase activity. When expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaf epidermal cells, fluorescently tagged CaARA6 labelled organelles with diameters between 0.2 and 1.2 µm, which co-localized with fluorescently tagged AtARA6 known to be present on multivesicular endosomes. Mutations in the membrane-anchoring and GTP-binding sites altered the localization of CaARA6 comparable to that of A. thaliana ARA6 (RABF1). In characean internodal cells, confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy with antibodies against AtARA6 and CaARA6 revealed ARA6 epitopes not only at multivesicular endosomes but also at the plasma membrane, including convoluted domains (charasomes), and at the trans-Golgi network. Our findings demonstrate that ARA6-like proteins have a more ancient origin than previously thought. They indicate further that ARA6-like proteins could have different functions in spite of the high similarity between characean algae and flowering plants. PMID:24127512

  16. Distinctive Architecture of the Chloroplast Genome in the Chlorodendrophycean Green Algae Scherffelia dubia and Tetraselmis sp. CCMP 881

    PubMed Central

    Turmel, Monique; de Cambiaire, Jean-Charles; Otis, Christian; Lemieux, Claude

    2016-01-01

    The Chlorodendrophyceae is a small class of green algae belonging to the core Chlorophyta, an assemblage that also comprises the Pedinophyceae, Trebouxiophyceae, Ulvophyceae and Chlorophyceae. Here we describe for the first time the chloroplast genomes of chlorodendrophycean algae (Scherffelia dubia, 137,161 bp; Tetraselmis sp. CCMP 881, 100,264 bp). Characterized by a very small single-copy (SSC) region devoid of any gene and an unusually large inverted repeat (IR), the quadripartite structures of the Scherffelia and Tetraselmis genomes are unique among all core chlorophytes examined thus far. The lack of genes in the SSC region is offset by the rich and atypical gene complement of the IR, which includes genes from the SSC and large single-copy regions of prasinophyte and streptophyte chloroplast genomes having retained an ancestral quadripartite structure. Remarkably, seven of the atypical IR-encoded genes have also been observed in the IRs of pedinophycean and trebouxiophycean chloroplast genomes, suggesting that they were already present in the IR of the common ancestor of all core chlorophytes. Considering that the relationships among the main lineages of the core Chlorophyta are still unresolved, we evaluated the impact of including the Chlorodendrophyceae in chloroplast phylogenomic analyses. The trees we inferred using data sets of 79 and 108 genes from 71 chlorophytes indicate that the Chlorodendrophyceae is a deep-diverging lineage of the core Chlorophyta, although the placement of this class relative to the Pedinophyceae remains ambiguous. Interestingly, some of our phylogenomic trees together with our comparative analysis of gene order data support the monophyly of the Trebouxiophyceae, thus offering further evidence that the previously observed affiliation between the Chlorellales and Pedinophyceae is the result of systematic errors in phylogenetic reconstruction. PMID:26849226

  17. QSAR analysis and specific endpoints for classifying the physiological modes of action of biocides in synchronous green algae.

    PubMed

    Neuwoehner, Judith; Junghans, Marion; Koller, Mirjam; Escher, Beate I

    2008-10-20

    We propose the use of additional physiological endpoints in the 24h growth inhibition test with synchronous cultures of Scenedesmus vacuolatus for the classification of physiological modes of toxic action of chemicals in green algae. The classification scheme is illustrated on the example of one baseline toxicant (3-nitroaniline) and five biocides (irgarol, diuron, Sea-Nine, tributyltin (TBT) and norflurazon). The well-established endpoint of inhibition of reproduction is used for an analysis of the degree of specificity of toxicity by comparing the experimental data with predictions from a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for baseline toxicity (narcosis). For those compounds with a toxic ratio greater than 10, i.e. a 10 times higher effect in reproduction than predicted by baseline toxicity, additionally the physiological endpoints inhibition of photosynthesis, cell division and cell volume growth were experimentally assessed. Depending on the relative sensitivity of the different endpoints the chemicals were classified into five different classes of modes of toxic action using a flow chart that was developed in the present study. The advantage of the novel classification scheme is the simplicity of the experimental approach. For the determination of the inhibition of reproduction, the cell size and numbers are quantified with a particle analyzer. This information can be used to derive also the physiological endpoints of cell volume growth and inhibition of cell division. The only additional measurement is the inhibition of the photosynthesis efficiency, which can be easily performed using the non-invasive saturation pulse method and pulse-modulated chlorophyll fluorometry with the Tox-Y-PAM instrument. This mechanistic approach offers a great future potential in ecotoxicology for the physiological mode of action classification of chemicals in algae, which should be a crucial step considered in the risk assessment of chemicals. PMID:18789546

  18. Population and community changes of attached algae to zinc stress alone and in combination with selected environmental variables

    SciTech Connect

    Genter, R.B.

    1986-01-01

    Three experiments were performed along the New River, Virginia. Outdoor flow-through stream mesocosms were continuously supplied with natural river water, and chemical treatments were administered with peristaltic pumps. The response variable was biovolume of algae attached to glass-rod artificial substrates. The first experiment was performed in spring, summer, and fall, 1984. Algal communities were exposed to four zinc (Zn) treatments (Ambient, 0.05, 0.5, 1.0 mg Zn/l). Treatments as low as 0.05 mg Zn/l reduced abundance of diatoms characteristics of the control treatment and increased abundance of green and blue-green algae. A similarity index (SIMI) indicated that samples generally became less similar to control samples as treatment increased from 0.05 to 1.0 mg/l. Total biovolume responded later than individual taxa and sometimes failed to distinguish between treatments. Zinc bound to periphyton was more reliable than total Zn in water for identifying Zn treatments. The second experiment investigated factorial treatments of snail grazing (absent, 400 Mudalia sp/m) and Zn (ambient, 0.5 mg/l) on algal abundance. Zinc treatment inhibited all algal taxa regardless of snail treatment. Snail grazing reduced abundance of 5 of 10 diatom taxa, but low temperature may have reduced grazing rate so that these algal populations increased by the end of the experiment. A third experiment investigated change in algal biovolume due to factorial treatments of pH (6, ambient, 9) and Zn (ambient, 0.05 mg An/l). Added Zn and pH 6 treatments reduced abundance of some diatoms and a filamentous blue-green alga and increased abundance of other diatoms, green, and coccoid blue-green algae.

  19. Flash kinetics and light intensity dependence of oxygen evolution in the blue-green alga Anacystis nidulans.

    PubMed

    Ley, A C; Babcock, G T; Sauer, K

    1975-05-15

    Patterns of oxygen evolution in flashing light for the glue-green alga Anacystis nidulans are compared with those for broken spinach chloroplasts and whole cells of the green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. The oscillations of oxygen yield with flash number that occur in both Anacystis and Chlorella, display a greater degree of damping than do those of isolated spinach chloroplasts. The increase in damping results from a two- to threefold increase in the fraction (alpha) of reaction centers "missed" by a flash. The increase in alpha cannot be explained by non-saturing flash intensities or by the dark reduction of the oxidized intermediates formed by the flash. Anaerobic conditions markedly increase alpha in Anacystis and Chlorella but have no effect on alpha in broken spinach chloroplasts. The results signify that the mechanism of charge separation and water oxidation involved in all three orgainsms is the same, but that the pool of secondary electron acceptors between Photosystem II and Photosystem I is more reduced in the dark, in the algal cells, than in the isolated spinach chloroplasts. Oxygen evolution in flashing light for Anacystis and Chlorella show light saturation curves for the oxygen yield of the third flash (Y3) that differ markedly from those of the steady-state flashes(YS). In experiments in which all flashes are uniformly attenuated, Y3 requires nearly twice as much light as YS to reach half-saturation. Under these conditions Y3 has a sigmoidal dependence on intensity, while that of YS is hyperbolic. These differences depend on the number of flashes attenuated. When any one of the first three flashes is attenuated, the variation of Y3 with intensity resembles that of YS. When two of the first three flashes are attenuated, Y3 is intermediate in shape between the two extremes. A quantitative interpretation of these results based on the model of Kok et al. (Kik, B., Forbush, B.and McGloin, M. (1970) Photochem. Photobiol. 14, 307-321) fits the experimental data. PMID:804933

  20. A clade uniting the green algae Mesostigma viride and Chlorokybus atmophyticus represents the deepest branch of the Streptophyta in chloroplast genome-based phylogenies

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Claude; Otis, Christian; Turmel, Monique

    2007-01-01

    Background The Viridiplantae comprise two major phyla: the Streptophyta, containing the charophycean green algae and all land plants, and the Chlorophyta, containing the remaining green algae. Despite recent progress in unravelling phylogenetic relationships among major green plant lineages, problematic nodes still remain in the green tree of life. One of the major issues concerns the scaly biflagellate Mesostigma viride, which is either regarded as representing the earliest divergence of the Streptophyta or a separate lineage that diverged before the Chlorophyta and Streptophyta. Phylogenies based on chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes support the latter view. Because some green plant lineages are not represented in these phylogenies, sparse taxon sampling has been suspected to yield misleading topologies. Here, we describe the complete chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequence of the early-diverging charophycean alga Chlorokybus atmophyticus and present chloroplast genome-based phylogenies with an expanded taxon sampling. Results The 152,254 bp Chlorokybus cpDNA closely resembles its Mesostigma homologue at the gene content and gene order levels. Using various methods of phylogenetic inference, we analyzed amino acid and nucleotide data sets that were derived from 45 protein-coding genes common to the cpDNAs of 37 green algal/land plant taxa and eight non-green algae. Unexpectedly, all best trees recovered a robust clade uniting Chlorokybus and Mesostigma. In protein trees, this clade was sister to all streptophytes and chlorophytes and this placement received moderate support. In contrast, gene trees provided unequivocal support to the notion that the Mesostigma + Chlorokybus clade represents the earliest-diverging branch of the Streptophyta. Independent analyses of structural data (gene content and/or gene order) and of subsets of amino acid data progressively enriched in slow-evolving sites led us to conclude that the latter topology reflects the true organismal relationships. Conclusion In disclosing a sister relationship between the Mesostigmatales and Chlorokybales, our study resolves the long-standing debate about the nature of the unicellular flagellated ancestors of land plants and alters significantly our concepts regarding the evolution of streptophyte algae. Moreover, in predicting a richer chloroplast gene repertoire than previously inferred for the common ancestor of all streptophytes, our study has contributed to a better understanding of chloroplast genome evolution in the Viridiplantae. PMID:17222354

  1. Sensitivity of a green alga to atrazine is not enhanced by previous acute exposure.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Leilan; Brain, Richard; Prosser, Ryan; Solomon, Keith; Hanson, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Exposure to atrazine in small lotic systems can be episodic, with short-term pulses (peaks) followed by lower, decreasing concentrations. Algae and macrophytes recover rapidly from pulsed exposure to atrazine, but reported observations of population response to subsequent exposures are minimal and inconclusive. Consequently, the sensitivity of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata to atrazine following a pulsed exposure was assessed. Exposure concentrations reflected amplifications of those observed in streams from highly vulnerable watersheds in regions of intense use. Initial pulsed atrazine exposure at 0, 150 or 300 μg/L for 24-h was followed by 72-h exposure to 0, 5, 10, 25, or 50 μg/L. Measured responses were cell density, growth rate, chlorophyll-a, and maximum quantum yield of photosystem II. Algal recovery was rapid and prior pulsed exposure to atrazine did not significantly affect subsequent sensitivity (EC10s, EC25s) for any endpoint, indicating no changes in tolerance at the population level for this species. PMID:23850402

  2. The liverwort Pellia endiviifolia shares microtranscriptomic traits that are common to green algae and land plants.

    PubMed

    Alaba, Sylwia; Piszczalka, Pawel; Pietrykowska, Halina; Pacak, Andrzej M; Sierocka, Izabela; Nuc, Przemyslaw W; Singh, Kashmir; Plewka, Patrycja; Sulkowska, Aleksandra; Jarmolowski, Artur; Karlowski, Wojciech M; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2015-04-01

    Liverworts are the most basal group of extant land plants. Nonetheless, the molecular biology of liverworts is poorly understood. Gene expression has been studied in only one species, Marchantia polymorpha. In particular, no microRNA (miRNA) sequences from liverworts have been reported. Here, Illumina-based next-generation sequencing was employed to identify small RNAs, and analyze the transcriptome and the degradome of Pellia endiviifolia. Three hundred and eleven conserved miRNA plant families were identified, and 42 new liverwort-specific miRNAs were discovered. The RNA degradome analysis revealed that target mRNAs of only three miRNAs (miR160, miR166, and miR408) have been conserved between liverworts and other land plants. New targets were identified for the remaining conserved miRNAs. Moreover, the analysis of the degradome permitted the identification of targets for 13 novel liverwort-specific miRNAs. Interestingly, three of the liverwort microRNAs show high similarity to previously reported miRNAs from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This is the first observation of miRNAs that exist both in a representative alga and in the liverwort P.endiviifolia but are not present in land plants. The results of the analysis of the P.endivifolia microtranscriptome support the conclusions of previous studies that placed liverworts at the root of the land plant evolutionary tree of life. PMID:25530158

  3. Green alga Ulva pertusa--a new source of bioactive compounds with antialgal activity.

    PubMed

    Ying-ying, Sun; Hui, Wang; Gan-lin, Guo; Yin-fang, Pu; Bin-lun, Yan; Chang-hai, Wang

    2015-07-01

    We tested the effects of solvent fractions (FA, FB, FC, and FD), which partitioned by liquid-liquid extraction from the methanol extract of Ulva pertusa, on the growth of red tide microalgae (Karenia mikimitoi, Skeletonema costatum, Alexandrium tamarense, Heterosigma akashiwo, Prorocentrum donghaiense), and FA, FB, and FC exhibited significantly antialgal activity. The chemical constituent analysis showed the existence of bioactive compounds such as phenols and alkaloids. Further, four solvent fractions were applied to silica gel column and repeated preparative TLC to produce 13 samples and their purity qualified as thin-layer chromatographic grade. Among these purified samples, FA111, FB411, FC411, FD111, and FD211 exhibited stronger antialgal activity. Furthermore, their functional groups were analyzed by colorimetric methods and UV spectra data. FD111 and FD211 were temptatively identified as alkaloids; the others were initially identified as phenolic acids. This is a preliminary study and the structure identification of these purified samples requires further investigation. While concentration of these purified samples in this algae was very small, they showed excellent effects against red tide microalgae. PMID:25724801

  4. The liverwort Pellia endiviifolia shares microtranscriptomic traits that are common to green algae and land plants

    PubMed Central

    Alaba, Sylwia; Piszczalka, Pawel; Pietrykowska, Halina; Pacak, Andrzej M; Sierocka, Izabela; Nuc, Przemyslaw W; Singh, Kashmir; Plewka, Patrycja; Sulkowska, Aleksandra; Jarmolowski, Artur; Karlowski, Wojciech M; Szweykowska-Kulinska, Zofia

    2015-01-01

    Liverworts are the most basal group of extant land plants. Nonetheless, the molecular biology of liverworts is poorly understood. Gene expression has been studied in only one species, Marchantia polymorpha. In particular, no microRNA (miRNA) sequences from liverworts have been reported. Here, Illumina-based next-generation sequencing was employed to identify small RNAs, and analyze the transcriptome and the degradome of Pellia endiviifolia. Three hundred and eleven conserved miRNA plant families were identified, and 42 new liverwort-specific miRNAs were discovered. The RNA degradome analysis revealed that target mRNAs of only three miRNAs (miR160, miR166, and miR408) have been conserved between liverworts and other land plants. New targets were identified for the remaining conserved miRNAs. Moreover, the analysis of the degradome permitted the identification of targets for 13 novel liverwort-specific miRNAs. Interestingly, three of the liverwort microRNAs show high similarity to previously reported miRNAs from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This is the first observation of miRNAs that exist both in a representative alga and in the liverwort P. endiviifolia but are not present in land plants. The results of the analysis of the P. endivifolia microtranscriptome support the conclusions of previous studies that placed liverworts at the root of the land plant evolutionary tree of life. PMID:25530158

  5. Biotransformation of benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic analogs by several green algae and other algal species under gold and white light.

    PubMed

    Warshawsky, D; Cody, T; Radike, M; Reilman, R; Schumann, B; LaDow, K; Schneider, J

    1995-07-14

    This laboratory has shown that the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), by a freshwater green alga, Selenastrum capricornutum, under gold light proceeds through a dioxygenase pathway with subsequent conjugation and excretion. This study was undertaken to determine: (1) the effects of different light sources on the enzymatic or photochemical processes involved in the biotransformation of BaP over a dose range of 5-1200 mg/l; (2) the phototoxicity of carcinogenic PAHs and mutagenic quinones to a green alga; (3) the ability of other algal systems to metabolize BaP. Cultures were exposed to different doses of BaP for 2 days at 23 degrees C under gold, white or UV-A fluorescent light on a diurnal cycle of 16 h light, 8 h dark. Under gold light, metabolites of BaP produced by Selenastrum capricornutum were the dihydrodiols of which the 11,12-dihydrodiol was the major metabolite. Under white light, at low doses, the major metabolite was the 9,10-dihydrodiol. With increasing dose, the ratio of dihydrodiols to quinones decreased to less than two. With increasing light energy output, from gold to white to UV-A in the PAH absorbing region, BaP quinone production increased. Of other carcinogenic PAHs studied, only 7H-dibenz[c,g]carbazole was as phototoxic as BaP while 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, dibenz[a,j]acridine and non-carcinogenic PAHs, anthracene and pyrene, were not phototoxic. The 3,6-quinone of BaP was found to be highly phototoxic while quinones that included menadione, danthron, phenanthrene-quinone and hydroquinone were not. The data suggest that the phototoxicity of BaP is due to photochemical production of quinones; the 3,6-quinone of BaP is phototoxic and is probably the result of the production of short lived cyclic reactive intermediates by the interaction of light with the quinone. Lastly, only the green algae, Selenastrum capricornutum, Scenedesmus acutus and Ankistrodesmus braunii almost completely metabolized BaP to dihydrodiols. The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the yellow alga Ochromonas malhamensis, the blue green algae Anabaena flosaquae and euglenoid Euglena gracilis did not metabolize BaP to any extent. The data indicate that algae are important in their ability to degrade PAHs but the degradation is dependent on the dose of light energy emitted and absorbed, the dose of PAHs to which the algae are exposed, the phototoxicity of PAHs and their metabolite(s) and the species and strain of algae involved. All of these factors will be important in assessing the degradation and detoxification pathways of recalcitrant PAHs by algae. PMID:7606812

  6. The stoichiometry and antenna size of the two photosystems in marine green algae, Bryopsis maxima and Ulva pertusa, in relation to the light environment of their natural habitat.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Jun-Ya; Suzuki, Takahisa; Maruta, Emiko; Kamimura, Yasumaro

    2005-06-01

    The stoichiometry and antenna sizes of the two photosystems in two marine green algae, Bryopsis maxima and Ulva pertusa, were investigated to examine whether the photosynthetic apparatus of the algae can be related to the light environment of their natural habitat. Bryopsis maxima and Ulva pertusa had chlorophyll (Chl) a/b ratios of 1.5 and 1.8, respectively, indicating large levels of Chl b, which absorbs blue-green light, relative to Chl a. The level of photosystem (PS) II was equivalent to that of PS I in Bryopsis maxima but lower than that of PS I in Ulva pertusa. Analysis of Q(A) photoreduction and P-700 photo-oxidation with green light revealed that >50% of PS II centres are non-functional in electron transport. Thus, the ratio of the functional PS II to PS I is only 0.46 in Bryopsis maxima and 0.35 in Ulva pertusa. Light-response curves of electron transport also provided evidence that PS I had a larger light-harvesting capacity than did the functional PS II. Thus, there was a large imbalance in the light absorption between the two photosystems, with PS I showing a larger total light-harvesting capacity than PS II. Furthermore, as judged from the measurements of low temperature fluorescence spectra, the light energy absorbed by Chl b was efficiently transferred to PS I in both algae. Based on the above results, it is hypothesized that marine green algae require a higher ATP:NADPH ratio than do terrestrial plants to grow and survive under a coastal environment. PMID:15797939

  7. Transcriptional and cellular responses of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, David; Houde, Magali; Douville, Mlanie; De Silva, Amila O; Spencer, Christine; Verreault, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl phosphonic acids (PFPAs), a new class of perfluoroalkyl substances used primarily in the industrial sector as surfactants, were recently detected in surface water and wastewater treatment plant effluents. Toxicological effects of PFPAs have as yet not been investigated in aquatic organisms. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of perfluorooctylphosphonic acid (C8-PFPA) and perfluorodecylphosphonic acid (C10-PFPA) exposure (31-250?g/L) on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using genomic (qRT-PCR), biochemical (reactive oxygen species production (ROS) and lipid peroxidation), and physiological (cellular viability) indicators. After 72h of exposure, no differences were observed in cellular viability for any of the two perfluorochemicals. However, increase in ROS concentrations (36% and 25.6% at 125 and 250?g/L, respectively) and lipid peroxidation (35.5% and 35.7% at 125 and 250?g/L, respectively) was observed following exposure to C10-PFPA. C8-PFPA exposure did not impact ROS production and lipid peroxidation in algae. To get insights into the molecular response and modes of action of PFPA toxicity, qRT-PCR-based assays were performed to analyze the transcription of genes related to antioxidant responses including superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX I). Genomic analyses revealed that the transcription of CAT and APX I was up-regulated for all the C10-PFPA concentrations. In addition, PFPAs were quantified in St. Lawrence River surface water samples and detected at concentrations ranging from 250 to 850pg/L for C8-PFPA and 380 to 650pg/L for C10-PFPA. This study supports the prevalence of PFPAs in the aquatic environment and suggests potential impacts of PFPA exposure on the antioxidant defensive system in C. reinhardtii. PMID:25621396

  8. Macromolecule metabolism and photosynthetic functions in blue-green algae treated with virginiamycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cocito, C; Shilo, M

    1974-08-01

    The M component of virginiamycin inhibited growth of Plectonema boryanum under both photoautotrophic and heterotrophic conditions. Though the S component of this antibiotic had no apparent activity per se, it enhanced the inhibitory action of its partner. Cells incubated with suitable concentrations of either M or M + S stopped growing and lysed. Loss of the colony-forming capacity occurred quickly in the presence of M + S and slowly in the presence of M alone. Virginiamycin M inhibited protein synthesis in autotrophically and heterotrophically growing Plectonema. This effect was very rapid and could be reversed by removing the antibiotic. The S component did not block the incorporation of amino acids into proteins, but prevented the reversibility of the inhibitory effect of M. Virginiamycin M or S did not affect the photosynthetic oxygen development (Hill's reaction) in Plectonema. Moreover, carbon dioxide photoassimilation and formation of chlorophyll were inhibited only after an appreciable lag. Deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis was blocked virtually without delay by virginiamycin M. Since virginiamycin inhibited protein synthesis in a similar fashion in the unicellular Anacystis nidulans, as well as in the filamentous P. boryanum, the mechanism of action of this antibiotic is probably the same in all blue-green algae. PMID:15828183

  9. Comparative study of aluminum and copper transport and toxicity in an acid-tolerant freshwater green alga

    SciTech Connect

    Folsom, B.R.; Popescu, N.A.; Wood, J.M.

    1986-06-01

    A comparative study of the transport and toxicity of one nonessential metal (aluminum), and one essential metal (copper), has been performed with the acid-tolerant green alga Chlorella saccarophila. This organism was isolated from a naturally acidified lake and grows well in laboratory cultures at pH 3.0. Our results show that the fast-exchange ions Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, and Na/sup +/ offer some protection against both Al/sup 3 +/ and Cu/sup 2 +/ toxicity whereas K/sup +/ protects against Al/sup 3 +/ toxicity but enhances Cu/sup 2 +/ toxicity. Plasma emission spectroscopy shows that complexation of Al/sup 3 +/ and Fe/sup 3 +/ to cell surfaces is important in preventing toxic cytoplasmic levels of these metals, both in culture media and in acid mine water. The aqueous ion chemistry for toxic metal uptake is simplified considerably in acidic conditions, where competing hydrolysis and precipitation reactions are eliminated. Therefore, simple competitive experiments can be performed quantitatively. 12 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  10. Purification and biochemical characterisation of a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from the psychrophilic green alga Koliella antarctica.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Myriam; Guerriero, Gea; Cardi, Manuela; Esposito, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Psychrophilic organisms have evolved a number of modifications of cellular structures to survive in the cold environment; among them it is worth noting an increased efficiency of enzymes at lower temperatures. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH; EC 1.1.1.49) was purified and characterised from the psychrophilic green alga Koliella antarctica (Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyta) from the Ross Sea (Antarctica). It was possible to isolate a single G6PDH using biochemical strategies; its maximum activity was measured at 35C, and the enzyme showed an E (a) of 39.6kJmol(-1). This protein reacted with antibodies raised against higher plants plastidic isoforms. KaG6PDH showed peculiar kinetic properties, with a K (iNADPH) value lower than [Formula: see text]. Notably, catalytic activity was inactivated in vitro by DTT and chloroplastic thioredoxin f. These biochemical properties of G6PDH are discussed with respect to higher plant G6PDHs and the adaptation of K. antarctica to polar low-temperature environment. PMID:23117891

  11. Glycosyltransferase Family 43 Is Also Found in Early Eukaryotes and Has Three Subfamilies in Charophycean Green Algae

    PubMed Central

    Taujale, Rahil; Yin, Yanbin

    2015-01-01

    The glycosyltransferase family 43 (GT43) has been suggested to be involved in the synthesis of xylans in plant cell walls and proteoglycans in animals. Very recently GT43 family was also found in Charophycean green algae (CGA), the closest relatives of extant land plants. Here we present evidence that non-plant and non-animal early eukaryotes such as fungi, Haptophyceae, Choanoflagellida, Ichthyosporea and Haptophyceae also have GT43-like genes, which are phylogenetically close to animal GT43 genes. By mining RNA sequencing data (RNA-Seq) of selected plants, we showed that CGA have evolved three major groups of GT43 genes, one orthologous to IRX14 (IRREGULAR XYLEM14), one orthologous to IRX9/IRX9L and the third one ancestral to all land plant GT43 genes. We confirmed that land plant GT43 has two major clades A and B, while in angiosperms, clade A further evolved into three subclades and the expression and motif pattern of A3 (containing IRX9) are fairly different from the other two clades likely due to rapid evolution. Our in-depth sequence analysis contributed to our overall understanding of the early evolution of GT43 family and could serve as an example for the study of other plant cell wall-related enzyme families. PMID:26023931

  12. Enhanced Carotenoid Biosynthesis by Oxidative Stress in Acetate-Induced Cyst Cells of a Green Unicellular Alga, Haematococcus pluvialis

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Makio; Kakizono, Toshihide; Nagai, Shiro

    1993-01-01

    In a green alga, Haematococcus pluvialis, a morphological change of vegetative cells into cyst cells was rapidly induced by the addition of acetate or acetate plus Fe2+ to the vegetative growth phase. Accompanied by cyst formation, algal astaxanthin formation was more enhanced by the addition of acetate plus Fe2+ than by the addition of acetate alone. Encystment and enhanced carotenoid biosynthesis were inhibited by either actinomycin D or cycloheximide. However, after cyst formation was induced by the addition of acetate alone, carotenoid formation could be enhanced with the subsequent addition of Fe2+ even in the presence of the inhibitors. The Fe2+ -enhanced carotenogenesis was inhibited by potassium iodide, a scavenger for hydroxyl radical, suggesting that hydroxyl radical formed by an iron-catalyzed Fenton reaction may be required for enhanced carotenoid biosynthesis. Moreover, it was demonstrated that four active oxygen species, singlet oxygen, superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide, and peroxy radical, were capable of replacing Fe2+ in its role in the enhanced carotenoid formation in the acetate-induced cyst. From these results, it was concluded that oxidative stress is involved in the posttranslational activation of carotenoid biosynthesis in acetate-induced cyst cells. Images PMID:16348895

  13. Static allometry of unicellular green algae: scaling of cellular surface area and volume in the genus Micrasterias (Desmidiales).

    PubMed

    Neustupa, J

    2016-02-01

    The surface area-to-volume ratio of cells is one of the key factors affecting fundamental biological processes and, thus, fitness of unicellular organisms. One of the general models for allometric increase in surface-to-volume scaling involves fractal-like elaboration of cellular surfaces. However, specific data illustrating this pattern in natural populations of the unicellular organisms have not previously been available. This study shows that unicellular green algae of the genus Micrasterias (Desmidiales) have positive allometric surface-to-volume scaling caused by changes in morphology of individual species, especially in the degree of cell lobulation. This allometric pattern was also detected within most of the cultured and natural populations analysed. Values of the allometric S:V scaling within individual populations were closely correlated to the phylogenetic structure of the clade. In addition, they were related to species-specific cellular morphology. Individual populations differed in their allometric patterns, and their position in the allometric space was strongly correlated with the degree of allometric S:V scaling. This result illustrates that allometric shape patterns are an important correlate of the capacity of individual populations to compensate for increases in their cell volumes by increasing the surface area. However, variation in allometric patterns was not associated with phylogenetic structure. This indicates that the position of the populations in the allometric space was not evolutionarily conserved and might be influenced by environmental factors. PMID:26528760

  14. Potent anti-inflammatory activity of pheophytin a derived from edible green alga, Enteromorpha prolifera (Sujiao-nori).

    PubMed

    Okai, Y; Higashi-Okai, K

    1997-06-01

    Recently, a chlorophyll-related compound, pheophytin a, has been identified from an edible green alga, Enteromorpha prolifera (Sujiao-nori in Japanese) as a potent suppressive substance against genotoxin-induced umu C gene expression in a tester bacteria (Okai and Higashi-Okai, 1997, J. Sci. Food Agricul. 71, 531-535). In the present study, anti-inflammatory effects of pheophytin a from Enteromorpha prolifera have been analyzed using in vitro and in vivo experiments. 1. Pheophytin a suppressed the production of superoxide anion (O2-) in mouse macrophages induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) using the cytochrome C reduction method. 2. Pheophytin a caused a suppressive effect against formyl-Met-Leu-Phe, (FMLP)-induced chemotaxis of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in Boyden's chamber experiment. 3. Pheophytin a exhibited a significant suppression against TPA-induced inflammatory reaction such as edema formation in BALB/c mouse ear. These results suggest that pheophytin a from Enteromorpha prolifera has a potent anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:9467755

  15. Toxicant Induced Changes on Delayed Fluorescence Decay Kinetics of Cyanobacteria and Green Algae: A Rapid and Sensitive Biotest

    PubMed Central

    Leunert, Franziska; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Gerhardt, Volkmar; Eckert, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Algal tests have developed into routine tools for testing toxicity of pollutants in aquatic environments. Meanwhile, in addition to algal growth rates, an increasing number of fluorescence based methods are used for rapid and sensitive toxicity measures. The present study stresses the suitability of delayed fluorescence (DF) as a promising parameter for biotests. DF is based on the recombination fluorescence at the reaction centre of photosystem II, which is emitted only by photosynthetically active cells. We analyzed the effects of three chemicals (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU), 3,5 Dichlorophenol (3,5 DCP) and copper) on the shape of the DF decay kinetics for potential use in phytoplankton toxicity tests. The short incubation tests were done with four phytoplankton species, with special emphasis on the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. All species exhibited a high sensitivity to DCMU, but cyanobacteria were more affected by copper and less by 3,5 DCP than the tested green algae. Analyses of changes in the DF decay curve in response to the added chemicals indicated the feasibility of the DF decay approach as a rapid and sensitive testing tool. PMID:23646185

  16. NADP-Malate Dehydrogenase from Unicellular Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. A First Step toward Redox Regulation?1

    PubMed Central

    Lemaire, Stéphane D.; Quesada, Alberto; Merchan, Faustino; Corral, Juan Manuel; Igeno, Maria Isabel; Keryer, Eliane; Issakidis-Bourguet, Emmanuelle; Hirasawa, Masakazu; Knaff, David B.; Miginiac-Maslow, Myroslawa

    2005-01-01

    The determinants of the thioredoxin (TRX)-dependent redox regulation of the chloroplastic NADP-malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH) from the eukaryotic green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii have been investigated using site-directed mutagenesis. The results indicate that a single C-terminal disulfide is responsible for this regulation. The redox midpoint potential of this disulfide is less negative than that of the higher plant enzyme. The regulation is of an all-or-nothing type, lacking the fine-tuning provided by the second N-terminal disulfide found only in NADP-MDH from higher plants. The decreased stability of specific cysteine/alanine mutants is consistent with the presence of a structural disulfide formed by two cysteine residues that are not involved in regulation of activity. Measurements of the ability of C. reinhardtii thioredoxin f (TRX f) to activate wild-type and site-directed mutants of sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) NADP-MDH suggest that the algal TRX f has a redox midpoint potential that is less negative than most those of higher plant TRXs f. These results are discussed from an evolutionary point of view. PMID:15579663

  17. Adaptability of free-floating green tide algae in the Yellow Sea to variable temperature and light intensity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jianjun; Zhang, Jianheng; Huo, Yuanzi; Zhou, Lingjie; Wu, Qing; Chen, Liping; Yu, Kefeng; He, Peimin

    2015-12-30

    In this study, the influence of temperature and light intensity on the growth of seedlings and adults of four species of green tide algae (Ulvaprolifera, Ulvacompressa, Ulva flexuosa and Ulvalinza) from the Yellow Sea was evaluated. The results indicated that the specific growth rate (SGR) of seedlings was much higher than that of adults for the four species. The adaptability of U. prolifera is much wider: Adult daily SGRs were the highest among the four species at 15-20°C with 10-600μmol·m(-2)·s(-1) and 25-30°C with 200-600μmol·m(-2)·s(-1). SGRs were 1.5-3.5 times greater than the other three species at 15-25°C with 200-600μmol·m(-2)·s(-1). These results indicate that U. prolifera has better tolerance to high temperature and light intensity than the other three species, which may in part explain why only U. prolifera undergoes large-scale outbreaks and floats to the Qingdao coast while the other three species decline and disappear at the early stage of blooming. PMID:26573134

  18. A freshwater green alga under cadmium stress: ameliorating calcium effects on ultrastructure and photosynthesis in the unicellular model Micrasterias.

    PubMed

    Andosch, Ancuela; Affenzeller, Matthias J; Lütz, Cornelius; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2012-10-15

    Cadmium is a highly toxic heavy metal pollutant arising mainly from increasing industrial disposal of electronic components. Due to its high solubility it easily enters soil and aquatic environments. Via its similarity to calcium it may interfere with different kinds of Ca dependent metabolic or developmental processes in biological systems. In the present study we investigate primary cell physiological, morphological and ultrastructural responses of Cd on the unicellular freshwater green alga Micrasterias which has served as a cell biological model system since many years and has proved to be highly sensitive to any kind of abiotic stress. Our results provide evidence that the severe Cd effects in Micrasterias such as unidirectional disintegration of dictyosomes, occurrence of autophagy, decline in photosystem II activity and oxygen production as well as marked structural damage of the chloroplast are based on a disturbance of Ca homeostasis probably by displacement of Ca by Cd. This is indicated by the fact that physiological and structural cadmium effects could be prevented in Micrasterias by pre-treatment with Ca. Additionally, thapsigargin an inhibitor of animal and plant Ca(2+)-ATPase mimicked the adverse Cd induced morphological and functional effects on dictyosomes. Recovery experiments indicated rapid repair mechanisms after Cd stress. PMID:22762790

  19. Glycosyltransferase family 43 is also found in early eukaryotes and has three subfamilies in Charophycean green algae.

    PubMed

    Taujale, Rahil; Yin, Yanbin

    2015-01-01

    The glycosyltransferase family 43 (GT43) has been suggested to be involved in the synthesis of xylans in plant cell walls and proteoglycans in animals. Very recently GT43 family was also found in Charophycean green algae (CGA), the closest relatives of extant land plants. Here we present evidence that non-plant and non-animal early eukaryotes such as fungi, Haptophyceae, Choanoflagellida, Ichthyosporea and Haptophyceae also have GT43-like genes, which are phylogenetically close to animal GT43 genes. By mining RNA sequencing data (RNA-Seq) of selected plants, we showed that CGA have evolved three major groups of GT43 genes, one orthologous to IRX14 (IRREGULAR XYLEM14), one orthologous to IRX9/IRX9L and the third one ancestral to all land plant GT43 genes. We confirmed that land plant GT43 has two major clades A and B, while in angiosperms, clade A further evolved into three subclades and the expression and motif pattern of A3 (containing IRX9) are fairly different from the other two clades likely due to rapid evolution. Our in-depth sequence analysis contributed to our overall understanding of the early evolution of GT43 family and could serve as an example for the study of other plant cell wall-related enzyme families. PMID:26023931

  20. Effect assessment of the herbicide paraquat on a green alga using differential gene expression and biochemical biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Jamers, An; De Coen, Wim

    2010-04-01

    Effects of the herbicide paraquat were assessed on the green freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using different endpoints of toxicity. Cell concentration and growth rate were monitored, whereas flow cytometry was applied to determine changes in chlorophyll content, viability and presence of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, a transcriptomics approach using microarray hybridizations was applied to elucidate the mechanisms of toxicity. The results reveal that paraquat concentrations above 0.25 microM induce toxic effects in C. reinhardtii, reflected in a significantly reduced growth rate and cell concentration with a corresponding median effective concentration (EC50) value of 0.26 microM. With increasing paraquat concentrations, an increase in cell volume was registered with a particle counter as well as in the forward scattering signal of flow cytometric measurements, which is a measure of cell size. Flow cytometry, moreover, showed an increase in reactive oxygen species with increasing exposure concentration, corroborating the general knowledge that this herbicide exerts its toxicity through the generation of oxidative stress. At the same time, several genes involved in oxidative stress defense mechanisms, such as L-ascorbate peroxidase, glutaredoxin, and a possible glutathione-S-transferase were differentially expressed, demonstrating the value of microarrays for elucidating possible mechanisms of toxicity. The fact that several genes were differentially expressed at paraquat concentrations that caused no adverse effects on higher levels of biological organization indicates that a transcriptomics approach allows for the detection of early effects, even before they become manifest at higher levels. PMID:20821519

  1. The validity of a reference gene is highly dependent on the experimental conditions in green alga Ulva linza.

    PubMed

    Dong, Meitao; Zhang, Xiaowen; Chi, Xiaoyuan; Mou, Shanli; Xu, Jianfang; Xu, Dong; Wang, Wenqi; Ye, Naihao

    2012-02-01

    Normalization based on inappropriate reference gene may lead to the reduction of the accuracy of RT-qPCR. Although determination of suitable reference genes is essential to RT-qPCR studies, reports on the evaluation of reference genes in Ulva linza, a ubiquitous green-tide forming alga, are lacking. The expression levels of ten candidate reference genes were analyzed in U. linza across different experimental treatments, and the best-ranked reference genes differed across the treatments. The most suitable reference genes were tubulin2 (TUB2) among different salinity and UV treatments. Histone 2 (H2) was stably expressed in different temperature and desiccation stress treatments. 18S rRNA exhibited better expression stability in different light intensity treatments. While all tested samples were considered, none of single gene was widely applicable as a reference gene. Moreover, using a combination of two genes as reference genes might improve the reliability of gene expression by RT-qPCR, and the combination of TUB1 and TUB2 was selected as ideal for all tested samples. The results suggest that assessing the stability of reference gene expression patterns, determining candidates, and testing their suitability are required for each experimental investigation. The results will guide the selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in U. linza. PMID:22205301

  2. The effect of lead on the growth, content of primary metabolites, and antioxidant response of green alga Acutodesmus obliquus (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Piotrowska-Niczyporuk, Alicja; Bajguz, Andrzej; Talarek, Marta; Bralska, Monika; Zambrzycka, Elżbieta

    2015-12-01

    Green unicellular alga Acutodesmus obliquus (Turpin) Hegewald et Hanagata (SAG strain no. 276-6) (Chlorophyceae) was used for determination of phytotoxicity of lead (Pb) at the range of concentrations 0.01-500 μM during 7 days of culture. The accumulation of Pb in algal cells was found to be increased in a concentration- and duration-dependent manner. The highest Pb uptake value was obtained in response to 500 μM Pb on the seventh day of cultivation. The decrease in the number and the size of cells and the contents of selected primary metabolites (photosynthetic pigments, monosaccharides, and proteins) in A. obliquus cells were observed under Pb stress. Heavy metal stimulated also formation of reactive oxygen species (hydrogen peroxide) and oxidative damage as evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation. On the other hand, the deleterious effects of Pb resulting from the cellular oxidative state can be alleviated by enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) and non-enzymatic (ascorbate, glutathione) antioxidant systems. These results suggest that A. obliquus is a promising bioindicator of heavy metal toxicity in aquatic environment, and it has been identified as good scavenger of Pb from aqueous solution. PMID:26233754

  3. Ecological niche partitioning in the picoplanktonic green alga Micromonas pusilla: evidence from environmental surveys using phylogenetic probes.

    PubMed

    Foulon, Elodie; Not, Fabrice; Jalabert, Fabienne; Cariou, Thierry; Massana, Ramon; Simon, Nathalie

    2008-09-01

    Very few studies have analysed the niches of pelagic protist in details. This is because for most protists, both an accurate species definition and methods for routine detection and quantification of cells are lacking. The morphospecies Micromonas pusilla, a marine unicellular green alga, is the most ubiquitous and cosmopolitan picoeukaryote described to date. This species comprises several independent genetic lineages or clades, which are not currently distinguishable based on comparison of their morphology or biogeographical distribution. Molecular probes were used to detect and quantify the genetic clades of M. pusilla in samples from temperate, polar and tropical environments in order to assess potential ecological niche partitioning. The three clades were detected in all biogeographical regions studied and were commonly found in sympatry. Cell abundances recorded for clades A and B were high, especially at coastal stations. Clade C, when detected, was always at low abundances and is suggested to be a low-light clade. Shifts in the contribution of clades to total M. pusilla abundance were observed along environmental gradients, both at local and basin-wide scales. This suggests that the phylogenetic clades occupy specific niches and confirms the existence of cryptic species within the morphospecies M. pusilla. Parameters which can precisely explain the distribution of these cryptic species remain to be elucidated. PMID:18537812

  4. The Glass Menagerie: diatoms for novel applications in nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Richard; Losic, Dusan; Tiffany, Mary Ann; Nagy, Stephen S; Sterrenburg, Frithjof A S

    2009-02-01

    Diatoms are unicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic algae that are found in aquatic environments. Diatoms have enormous ecological importance on this planet and display a diversity of patterns and structures at the nano- to millimetre scale. Diatom nanotechnology, a new interdisciplinary area, has spawned collaborations in biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, physics, chemistry, material science and engineering. We survey diatom nanotechnology since 2005, emphasizing recent advances in diatom biomineralization, biophotonics, photoluminescence, microfluidics, compustat domestication, multiscale porosity, silica sequestering of proteins, detection of trace gases, controlled drug delivery and computer design. Diatoms might become the first organisms for which the gap in our knowledge of the relationship between genotype and phenotype is closed. PMID:19167770

  5. Alkaloids in Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Gven, Kas?m Cemal; Percot, Aline; Sezik, Ekrem

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the alkaloids found in green, brown and red marine algae. Algal chemistry has interested many researchers in order to develop new drugs, as algae include compounds with functional groups which are characteristic from this particular source. Among these compounds, alkaloids present special interest because of their pharmacological activities. Alkaloid chemistry has been widely studied in terrestrial plants, but the number of studies in algae is insignificant. In this review, a detailed account of macro algae alkaloids with their structure and pharmacological activities is presented. The alkaloids found in marine algae may be divided into three groups: 1. Phenylethylamine alkaloids, 2. Indole and halogenated indole alkaloids, 3. Other alkaloids. PMID:20390105

  6. The effect of different polychlorinated biphenyls on two aquatic models, the green alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the haemocytes from the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Halm-Lemeille, Marie-Pierre; Abbaszadeh Fard, Elham; Latire, Thomas; Ferard, Jean-François; Costil, Katherine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Bureau, Ronan; Serpentini, Antoine

    2014-09-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the toxicity of different polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the green algae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the haemocytes from the European abalone, Haliotis tuberculata. Using the algal growth inhibition test, the green algae median Effective Concentration (EC50) values ranged from 0.34μM for PCB28 to more than 100μM for PCBs 101 and 153. Considering the MTT viability test, the abalone EC50 values ranged from 1.67μM for PCB153 to 89μM for PCB28. Our results in contrast to previous observation in vertebrates did not show significant differences between the dioxin like- and non dioxin like-PCBs toxicities regardless of the model used. However, our results demonstrated that the toxicities of PCBs were species dependent. For example, PCB28 was the most toxic compound for P. subcapitata whereas PCBs 1, 180 and 153 were less toxic for that species. On the contrary, PCB153 was reported as the most toxic for H. tuberculata haemocytes and PCB28 the least toxic. To investigate the mode of action of these compounds, we used an in silico method. Our results suggested that PCBs have a non-specific mode of action (e.g., narcosis) on green algae, and another mode of action, probably more specific than narcosis, was reported for PCBs on the abalone haemocytes. PMID:24630249

  7. Fouling coverage of a green tide alga, Ulva pertusa on some antifouling test surfaces exposed to Ayagin harbor waters, east coast of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Sidharthan, M; Shin, Hyun Woung; Joo, Jin Hyung

    2004-01-01

    Toxic antifouling chemicals released into the seawaters leads to marine environmental degradation. In order to identify a nontoxic antifoulant, an assessment of antifouling (AF) efficacy of some AF candidates was made at Ayagin harbor, east coast of South Korea. In this static panel study conducted during October 2000-March 2001, some commercial antifoulants, seaweed and seagrass extracts were screened. On panel surfaces coated with a seaweed extract, Ishige okamurae exhibited effective AF activity. Ulva pertusa was encountered as a 'monospecific' fouler with fairly high fouling coverage on many of the test panel surfaces. In recent years the increased influx of inorganic pollutants in the coastal waters causes exorbitant growth of fouling marine algae found all along the Korean peninsula. Especially, a cosmopolitan ship fouling alga U. pertusa occur with high abundance. It was largely suggested that the proposed international ban on the toxic antifoulant tributyltin (TBT) had significant effect on the 'green tide' phenomenon occurring in different parts of the world. However, it appears that Korean scenario of 'green tide' is a localized. Antifouling efficacy of some AF coatings and fouling coverage of a green tide alga, U. pertusa are discussed. PMID:15303702

  8. Transcriptional analysis of cell growth and morphogenesis in the unicellular green alga Micrasterias (Streptophyta), with emphasis on the role of expansin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Streptophyte green algae share several characteristics of cell growth and cell wall formation with their relatives, the embryophytic land plants. The multilobed cell wall of Micrasterias denticulata that rebuilds symmetrically after cell division and consists of pectin and cellulose, makes this unicellular streptophyte alga an interesting model system to study the molecular controls on cell shape and cell wall formation in green plants. Results Genome-wide transcript expression profiling of synchronously growing cells identified 107 genes of which the expression correlated with the growth phase. Four transcripts showed high similarity to expansins that had not been examined previously in green algae. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that these genes are most closely related to the plant EXPANSIN A family, although their domain organization is very divergent. A GFP-tagged version of the expansin-resembling protein MdEXP2 localized to the cell wall and in Golgi-derived vesicles. Overexpression phenotypes ranged from lobe elongation to loss of growth polarity and planarity. These results indicate that MdEXP2 can alter the cell wall structure and, thus, might have a function related to that of land plant expansins during cell morphogenesis. Conclusions Our study demonstrates the potential of M. denticulata as a unicellular model system, in which cell growth mechanisms have been discovered similar to those in land plants. Additionally, evidence is provided that the evolutionary origins of many cell wall components and regulatory genes in embryophytes precede the colonization of land. PMID:21943227

  9. De novo transcriptomic analysis of hydrogen production in the green alga Chlamydomonas moewusii through RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Microalgae can make a significant contribution towards meeting global renewable energy needs in both carbon-based and hydrogen (H2) biofuel. The development of energy-related products from algae could be accelerated with improvements in systems biology tools, and recent advances in sequencing technology provide a platform for enhanced transcriptomic analyses. However, these techniques are still heavily reliant upon available genomic sequence data. Chlamydomonas moewusii is a unicellular green alga capable of evolving molecular H2 under both dark and light anaerobic conditions, and has high hydrogenase activity that can be rapidly induced. However, to date, there is no systematic investigation of transcriptomic profiling during induction of H2 photoproduction in this organism. Results In this work, RNA-Seq was applied to investigate transcriptomic profiles during the dark anaerobic induction of H2 photoproduction. 156 million reads generated from 7 samples were then used for de novo assembly after data trimming. BlastX results against NCBI database and Blast2GO results were used to interpret the functions of the assembled 34,136 contigs, which were then used as the reference contigs for RNA-Seq analysis. Our results indicated that more contigs were differentially expressed during the period of early and higher H2 photoproduction, and fewer contigs were differentially expressed when H2-photoproduction rates decreased. In addition, C. moewusii and C. reinhardtii share core functional pathways, and transcripts for H2 photoproduction and anaerobic metabolite production were identified in both organisms. C. moewusii also possesses similar metabolic flexibility as C. reinhardtii, and the difference between C. moewusii and C. reinhardtii on hydrogenase expression and anaerobic fermentative pathways involved in redox balancing may explain their different profiles of hydrogenase activity and secreted anaerobic metabolites. Conclusions Herein, we have described a workflow using commercial software to analyze RNA-Seq data without reference genome sequence information, which can be applied to other unsequenced microorganisms. This study provided biological insights into the anaerobic fermentation and H2 photoproduction of C. moewusii, and the first transcriptomic RNA-Seq dataset of C. moewusii generated in this study also offer baseline data for further investigation (e.g. regulatory proteins related to fermentative pathway discussed in this study) of this organism as a H2-photoproduction strain. PMID:23971877

  10. New α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Triterpenic Acid from Marine Macro Green Alga Codium dwarkense Boergs

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Al-Kharusi, Lubna; Hussain, Javid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The marine ecosystem has been a key resource for secondary metabolites with promising biological roles. In the current study, bioassay-guided phytochemical investigations were carried out to assess the presence of enzyme inhibitory chemical constituents from the methanolic extract of marine green alga—Codium dwarkense. The bioactive fractions were further subjected to chromatographic separations, which resulted in the isolation of a new triterpenic acid; dwarkenoic acid (1) and the known sterols; androst-5-en-3β-ol (2), stigmasta-5,25-dien-3β,7α-diol (3), ergosta-5,25-dien-3β-ol (4), 7-hydroxystigmasta-4,25-dien-3-one-7-O-β-d-fucopyranoside (5), 7-hydroxystigmasta-4,25-dien-3-one (6), and stigmasta-5,25-dien-3β-ol (7). The structure elucidation of the new compound was carried out by combined mass spectrometry and 1D (1H and 13C) and 2D (HSQC, HMBC, COSY, and NOESY) NMR spectroscopic data. The sub-fractions and pure constituents were assayed for enzymatic inhibition of alpha-glucosidase. Compound 1 showed significant inhibition at all concentrations. Compounds 2, 3, 5, and 7 exhibited a dose-dependent response, whereas compounds 4–6 showed moderate inhibition. Utilizing such marine-derived biological resources could lead to drug discoveries related to anti-diabetics. PMID:26184240

  11. Evolutionary Origins and Functions of the Carotenoid Biosynthetic Pathway in Marine Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Coesel, Sacha; Oborník, Miroslav; Varela, Joao; Falciatore, Angela; Bowler, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Carotenoids are produced by all photosynthetic organisms, where they play essential roles in light harvesting and photoprotection. The carotenoid biosynthetic pathway of diatoms is largely unstudied, but is of particular interest because these organisms have a very different evolutionary history with respect to the Plantae and are thought to be derived from an ancient secondary endosymbiosis between heterotrophic and autotrophic eukaryotes. Furthermore, diatoms have an additional xanthophyll-based cycle for dissipating excess light energy with respect to green algae and higher plants. To explore the origins and functions of the carotenoid pathway in diatoms we searched for genes encoding pathway components in the recently completed genome sequences of two marine diatoms. Consistent with the supplemental xanthophyll cycle in diatoms, we found more copies of the genes encoding violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) and zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) enzymes compared with other photosynthetic eukaryotes. However, the similarity of these enzymes with those of higher plants indicates that they had very probably diversified before the secondary endosymbiosis had occurred, implying that VDE and ZEP represent early eukaryotic innovations in the Plantae. Consequently, the diatom chromist lineage likely obtained all paralogues of ZEP and VDE genes during the process of secondary endosymbiosis by gene transfer from the nucleus of the algal endosymbiont to the host nucleus. Furthermore, the presence of a ZEP gene in Tetrahymena thermophila provides the first evidence for a secondary plastid gene encoded in a heterotrophic ciliate, providing support for the chromalveolate hypothesis. Protein domain structures and expression analyses in the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum indicate diverse roles for the different ZEP and VDE isoforms and demonstrate that they are differentially regulated by light. These studies therefore reveal the ancient origins of several components of the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway in photosynthetic eukaryotes and provide information about how they have diversified and acquired new functions in the diatoms. PMID:18682837

  12. UNUSUAL PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS CONTRIBUTE TO ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE IN THE PURPLE-COLORED GREEN ALGA ZYGOGONIUM ERICETORUM (ZYGNEMATOPHYCEAE, STREPTOPHYTA) FROM A HIGH-ALPINE HABITAT

    PubMed Central

    Aigner, Siegfried; Remias, Daniel; Karsten, Ulf; Holzinger, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The filamentous green alga Zygogonium ericetorum (Zygnematophyceae, Streptophyta) was collected in a high-alpine rivulet in Tyrol, Austria. Two different morphotypes of this alga were found: a purple morph with a visible purple vacuolar content and a green morph lacking this coloration. These morphotypes were compared with respect to their secondary metabolites, ultrastructure, and ecophysiological properties. Colorimetric tests with aqueous extracts of the purple morph indicated the presence of soluble compounds such as phenolics and hydrolyzable tannins. High-performance liquid chromatography-screening showed that Z. ericetorum contained several large phenolic peaks with absorption maxima at ∼280 nm and sometimes with minor maxima at ∼380 nm. Such compounds are uncommon for freshwater green microalgae, and could contribute to protect the organism against increased UV and visible (VIS) irradiation. The purple Z. ericetorum contained larger amounts (per dry weight) of the putative phenolic substances than the green morph; exposure to irradiation may be a key factor for accumulation of these phenolic compounds. Transmission electron microscopy of the purple morph showed massive vacuolization with homogenous medium electron-dense content in the cell periphery, which possibly contains the secondary compounds. In contrast, the green morph had smaller, electron-translucent vacuoles. The ecophysiological data on photosynthesis and desiccation tolerance indicated that increasing photon fluence densities led to much higher relative electron transport rates (rETR) in the purple than in the green morph. These data suggest that the secondary metabolites in the purple morph are important for light acclimation in high-alpine habitats. However, the green morph recovered better after 4 d of rehydration following desiccation stress. PMID:25810559

  13. Phytohormones as regulators of heavy metal biosorption and toxicity in green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyceae).

    PubMed

    Piotrowska-Niczyporuk, Alicja; Bajguz, Andrzej; Zambrzycka, El?bieta; Godlewska-?y?kiewicz, Beata

    2012-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to test the influence of exogenously applied phytohormones: auxins (IAA, IBA, NAA, PAA), cytokinins (BA, CPPU, DPU, 2iP, Kin, TDZ, Z), gibberellin (GA(3)), jasmonic acid (JA) as well as polyamine - spermidine (Spd) upon the growth and metabolism of green microalga Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyceae) exposed to heavy metal (Cd, Cu, Pb) stress. The inhibitory effect of heavy metals on algal growth, metabolite accumulation and enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic antioxidant system was arranged in the following order: Cd>Pb>Cu. Exogenously applied phytohormones modify the phytotoxicity of heavy metals. Auxins, cytokinins, gibberellin and spermidine (Spd) can alleviate stress symptoms by inhibiting heavy metal biosorption, restoring algal growth and primary metabolite level. Moreover, these phytohormones and polyamine stimulate antioxidant enzymes' (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, catalase) activities and ascorbate as well as glutathione accumulation by producing increased antioxidant capacity in cells growing under abiotic stress. Increased activity of antioxidant enzymes reduced oxidative stress expressed by lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide level. In contrast JA enhanced heavy metal toxicity leading to increase in metal biosorption and ROS generation. The decrease in cell number, chlorophylls, carotenoids, monosaccharides, soluble proteins, ascorbate and glutathione content as well as antioxidant enzyme activity was also obtained in response to JA and heavy metals. Determining the stress markers (lipid peroxidation, hydrogen peroxide) and antioxidants' level as well as antioxidant enzyme activity in cells is important for understanding the metal-specific mechanisms of toxicity and that these associated novel endpoints may be useful metrics for accurately predicting toxicity. The data suggest that phytohormones and polyamine play an important role in the C.vulgaris responding to abiotic stressor and algal adaptation ability to metal contamination of aquatic environment. PMID:22305067

  14. An atypical member of the light-harvesting complex stress-related protein family modulates diatom responses to light.

    PubMed

    Bailleul, Benjamin; Rogato, Alessandra; de Martino, Alessandra; Coesel, Sacha; Cardol, Pierre; Bowler, Chris; Falciatore, Angela; Finazzi, Giovanni

    2010-10-19

    Diatoms are prominent phytoplanktonic organisms that contribute around 40% of carbon assimilation in the oceans. They grow and perform optimally in variable environments, being able to cope with unpredictable changes in the amount and quality of light. The molecular mechanisms regulating diatom light responses are, however, still obscure. Using knockdown Phaeodactylum tricornutum transgenic lines, we reveal the key function of a member of the light-harvesting complex stress-related (LHCSR) protein family, denoted LHCX1, in modulation of excess light energy dissipation. In contrast to green algae, this gene is already maximally expressed in nonstressful light conditions and encodes a protein required for efficient light responses and growth. LHCX1 also influences natural variability in photoresponse, as evidenced in ecotypes isolated from different latitudes that display different LHCX1 protein levels. We conclude, therefore, that this gene plays a pivotal role in managing light responses in diatoms. PMID:20921421

  15. Partial purification and characterization of a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase from the green alga, Dunaliella salina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    A calcium-dependent protein kinase was partially purified and characterized from the green alga Dunaliella salina. The enzyme was activated at free Ca2+ concentrations above 10(-7) molar. and half-maximal activation was at about 3 x 10(-7) molar. The optimum pH for its Ca(2+)-dependent activity was 7.5. The addition of various phospholipids and diolein had no effects on enzyme activity and did not alter the sensitivity of the enzyme toward Ca2+. The enzyme was inhibited by calmodulin antagonists, N-(6-aminohexyl)-1-naphthalene sulfonamide and N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalene sulfonamide in a dose-dependent manner while the protein kinase C inhibitor, sphingosine, had little effect on enzyme activity up to 800 micromolar. Immunoassay showed some calmodulin was present in the kinase preparations. However, it is unlikely the kinase was calmodulin regulated, since it still showed stimulation by Ca2+ in gel assays after being electrophoretically separated from calmodulin by two different methods. This gel method of detection of the enzyme indicated that a protein band with an apparent molecular weight of 40,000 showed protein kinase activity at each one of the several steps in the purification procedure. Gel assay analysis also showed that after native gel isoelectric focusing the partially purified kinase preparations had two bands with calcium-dependent activity, at isoelectric points 6.7 and 7.1. By molecular weight, by isoelectric point, and by a comparative immunoassay, the Dunaliella kinase appears to differ from at least some of the calcium-dependent, but calmodulin and phospholipid independent kinases described from higher plants.

  16. Addressing Unknown Constants and Metabolic Network Behaviors Through Petascale Computing: Understanding H2 Production in Green Algae

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.; Alber, D.; Graf, P.; Seibert, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Genomics Revolution has resulted in a massive and growing quantity of whole-genome DNA sequences, which encode the metabolic catalysts necessary for life. However, gene annotations can rarely be complete, and measurement of the kinetic constants associated with the encoded enzymes can not possibly keep pace, necessitating the use of careful modeling to explore plausible network behaviors. Key challenges are (1) quantitatively formulating kinetic laws governing each transformation in a fixed model network; (2) characterizing the stable solution (if any) of the associated ordinary differential equations (ODEs); (3) fitting the latter to metabolomics data as it becomes available; and, (4) optimizing a model output against the possible space of kinetic parameters, with respect to properties such as robustness of network response, or maximum consumption/production. This SciDAC-2 project addresses this large-scale uncertainty in the genome-scale metabolic network of the water-splitting, H{sub 2}-producing green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Each metabolic transformation is formulated as an irreversible steady-state process, such that the vast literature on known enzyme mechanisms may be incorporated directly. To start, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and basic fermentation pathways have been encoded in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) with careful annotation and consistency with the KEGG database, yielding a model with 3 compartments, 95 species, 38 reactions, and 109 kinetic constants. To study and optimize such models with a view toward larger models, we have developed a system which takes as input an SBML model, and automatically produces C code that when compiled and executed optimizes the model's kinetic parameters according to test criteria. We describe the system and present numerical results. Further development, including overlaying of a parallel multistart algorithm, will allow optimization of thousands of parameters on high-performance systems ranging from distributed grids to unified petascale architectures.

  17. Addressing unknown constants and metabolic network behaviors through petascale computing: understanding H2 production in green algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Christopher; Alber, David; Graf, Peter; Kim, Kwiseon; Seibert, Michael

    2007-07-01

    The Genomics Revolution has resulted in a massive and growing quantity of whole-genome DNA sequences, which encode the metabolic catalysts necessary for life. However, gene annotations can rarely be complete, and measurement of the kinetic constants associated with the encoded enzymes can not possibly keep pace, necessitating the use of careful modeling to explore plausible network behaviors. Key challenges are (1) quantitatively formulating kinetic laws governing each transformation in a fixed model network; (2) characterizing the stable solution (if any) of the associated ordinary differential equations (ODEs); (3) fitting the latter to metabolomics data as it becomes available; and, (4) optimizing a model output against the possible space of kinetic parameters, with respect to properties such as robustness of network response, or maximum consumption/production. This SciDAC-2 project addresses this large-scale uncertainty in the genome-scale metabolic network of the water-splitting, H2-producing green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Each metabolic transformation is formulated as an irreversible steady-state process, such that the vast literature on known enzyme mechanisms may be incorporated directly. To start, glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and basic fermentation pathways have been encoded in Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) with careful annotation and consistency with the KEGG database, yielding a model with 3 compartments, 95 species, 38 reactions, and 109 kinetic constants. To study and optimize such models with a view toward larger models, we have developed a system which takes as input an SBML model, and automatically produces C code that when compiled and executed optimizes the model's kinetic parameters according to test criteria. We describe the system and present numerical results. Further development, including overlaying of a parallel multistart algorithm, will allow optimization of thousands of parameters on high-performance systems ranging from distributed grids to unified petascale architectures.

  18. 3-D analysis of dictyosomes and multivesicular bodies in the green alga Micrasterias denticulata by FIB/SEM tomography☆

    PubMed Central

    Wanner, Gerhard; Schäfer, Tillman; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we employ FIB/SEM tomography for analyzing 3-D architecture of dictyosomes and formation of multivesicular bodies (MVB) in high pressure frozen and cryo-substituted interphase cells of the green algal model system Micrasterias denticulata. The ability of FIB/SEM of milling very thin ‘slices’ (5–10 nm), viewing the block face and of capturing cytoplasmic volumes of several hundred μm3 provides new insight into the close spatial connection of the ER–Golgi machinery in an algal cell particularly in z-direction, complementary to informations obtained by TEM serial sectioning or electron tomography. Our FIB/SEM series and 3-D reconstructions show that interphase dictyosomes of Micrasterias are not only closely associated to an ER system at their cis-side which is common in various plant cells, but are surrounded by a huge “trans-ER” sheath leading to an almost complete enwrapping of dictyosomes by the ER. This is particularly interesting as the presence of a trans-dictyosomal ER system is well known from mammalian secretory cells but not from cells of higher plants to which the alga Micrasterias is closely related. In contrast to findings in plant storage tissue indicating that MVBs originate from the trans-Golgi network or its derivatives our investigations show that MVBs in Micrasterias are in direct spatial contact with both, trans-Golgi cisternae and the trans-ER sheath which provides evidence that both endomembrane compartments are involved in their formation. PMID:24135121

  19. 3-D analysis of dictyosomes and multivesicular bodies in the green alga Micrasterias denticulata by FIB/SEM tomography.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Gerhard; Schäfer, Tillman; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula

    2013-11-01

    In the present study we employ FIB/SEM tomography for analyzing 3-D architecture of dictyosomes and formation of multivesicular bodies (MVB) in high pressure frozen and cryo-substituted interphase cells of the green algal model system Micrasterias denticulata. The ability of FIB/SEM of milling very thin 'slices' (5-10 nm), viewing the block face and of capturing cytoplasmic volumes of several hundred μm(3) provides new insight into the close spatial connection of the ER-Golgi machinery in an algal cell particularly in z-direction, complementary to informations obtained by TEM serial sectioning or electron tomography. Our FIB/SEM series and 3-D reconstructions show that interphase dictyosomes of Micrasterias are not only closely associated to an ER system at their cis-side which is common in various plant cells, but are surrounded by a huge "trans-ER" sheath leading to an almost complete enwrapping of dictyosomes by the ER. This is particularly interesting as the presence of a trans-dictyosomal ER system is well known from mammalian secretory cells but not from cells of higher plants to which the alga Micrasterias is closely related. In contrast to findings in plant storage tissue indicating that MVBs originate from the trans-Golgi network or its derivatives our investigations show that MVBs in Micrasterias are in direct spatial contact with both, trans-Golgi cisternae and the trans-ER sheath which provides evidence that both endomembrane compartments are involved in their formation. PMID:24135121

  20. Colony Organization in the Green Alga Botryococcus braunii (Race B) Is Specified by a Complex Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Taylor L.; Roth, Robyn; Goodson, Carrie; Vitha, Stanislav; Black, Ian; Azadi, Parastoo; Rusch, Jannette; Holzenburg, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Botryococcus braunii is a colonial green alga whose cells associate via a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) and produce prodigious amounts of liquid hydrocarbons that can be readily converted into conventional combustion engine fuels. We used quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy and biochemical/histochemical analysis to elucidate many new features of B. braunii cell/colony organization and composition. Intracellular lipid bodies associate with the chloroplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but show no evidence of being secreted. The ER displays striking fenestrations and forms a continuous subcortical system in direct contact with the cell membrane. The ECM has three distinct components. (i) Each cell is surrounded by a fibrous β-1, 4- and/or β-1, 3-glucan-containing cell wall. (ii) The intracolonial ECM space is filled with a cross-linked hydrocarbon network permeated with liquid hydrocarbons. (iii) Colonies are enclosed in a retaining wall festooned with a fibrillar sheath dominated by arabinose-galactose polysaccharides, which sequesters ECM liquid hydrocarbons. Each cell apex associates with the retaining wall and contributes to its synthesis. Retaining-wall domains also form “drapes” between cells, with some folding in on themselves and penetrating the hydrocarbon interior of a mother colony, partitioning it into daughter colonies. We propose that retaining-wall components are synthesized in the apical Golgi apparatus, delivered to apical ER fenestrations, and assembled on the surfaces of apical cell walls, where a proteinaceous granular layer apparently participates in fibril morphogenesis. We further propose that hydrocarbons are produced by the nonapical ER, directly delivered to the contiguous cell membrane, and pass across the nonapical cell wall into the hydrocarbon-based ECM. PMID:22941913

  1. The mitochondrial respiratory chain of the secondary green alga Euglena gracilis shares many additional subunits with parasitic Trypanosomatidae.

    PubMed

    Perez, Emilie; Lapaille, Marie; Degand, Hervé; Cilibrasi, Laura; Villavicencio-Queijeiro, Alexa; Morsomme, Pierre; González-Halphen, Diego; Field, Mark C; Remacle, Claire; Baurain, Denis; Cardol, Pierre

    2014-11-01

    The mitochondrion is an essential organelle for the production of cellular ATP in most eukaryotic cells. It is extensively studied, including in parasitic organisms such as trypanosomes, as a potential therapeutic target. Recently, numerous additional subunits of the respiratory-chain complexes have been described in Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi. Since these subunits had apparently no counterparts in other organisms, they were interpreted as potentially associated with the parasitic trypanosome lifestyle. Here we used two complementary approaches to characterise the subunit composition of respiratory complexes in Euglena gracilis, a non-parasitic secondary green alga related to trypanosomes. First, we developed a phylogenetic pipeline aimed at mining sequence databases for identifying homologues to known respiratory-complex subunits with high confidence. Second, we used MS/MS proteomics after two-dimensional separation of the respiratory complexes by Blue Native- and SDS-PAGE both to confirm in silico predictions and to identify further additional subunits. Altogether, we identified 41 subunits that are restricted to E. gracilis, T. brucei and T. cruzi, along with 48 classical subunits described in other eukaryotes (i.e. plants, mammals and fungi). This moreover demonstrates that at least half of the subunits recently reported in T. brucei and T. cruzi are actually not specific to Trypanosomatidae, but extend at least to other Euglenozoa, and that their origin and function are thus not specifically associated with the parasitic lifestyle. Furthermore, preliminary biochemical analyses suggest that some of these additional subunits underlie the peculiarities of the respiratory chain observed in Euglenozoa. PMID:24561571

  2. Photosynthetic activity and protein overexpression found in Cr(III)-tolerant cells of the green algae Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M; Bartolom, C M; Snchez-Fortn, S

    2014-08-01

    Chromium is an important constituent in effluents obtained from chromium plating industries. Due to the highly toxic nature of Cr(VI), attention has been shifted to less hazardous Cr(III) electroplating processes. This study evaluated aquatic toxicity of Cr(III)-containing laboratory samples representative of effluents from chromium electroplating industries, on the photosynthetic activity exhibited by both Cr(III)-sensitive (Dc1M(wt)) and tolerant (Dc1M(Cr(III)R30)) Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides strains. Additionally, selected de novo-determined peptide sequences, obtained from Dc1M(Cr(III)R30), have been analyzed to evidence the possible Cr(III) toxic mechanism involved in the resistance of these cells to high Cr(III) levels in aquatic environments. Dc1M(Cr(III)R30) strain exhibited a gross photosynthetic balance of about five times lower than that exhibited by Dc1M(wt) strain, demonstrating that Dc1M(Cr(III)R30) has a photosynthetic yield significantly lower than Dc1M(wt). SDS-PAGE of Dc1M(Cr(III)R30) samples showed the presence of at least two protein bands (23.05 and 153.46 KDa, respectively) absent in wild-type strain samples. Although it has achieved a low coincidence between the lower molecular weight band and a GTPase identified from genome of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, none of de novo peptide sequences obtained showed a significant MS-BLAST score, so that further studies will be required. PMID:24556547

  3. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for an ethanol production process based on blue-green algae.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dexin; Hu, Zushou; Choi, Dong Gu; Thomas, Valerie M; Realff, Matthew J; Chance, Ronald R

    2010-11-15

    Ethanol can be produced via an intracellular photosynthetic process in cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), excreted through the cell walls, collected from closed photobioreactors as a dilute ethanol-in-water solution, and purified to fuel grade ethanol. This sequence forms the basis for a biofuel production process that is currently being examined for its commercial potential. In this paper, we calculate the life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for three different system scenarios for this proposed ethanol production process, using process simulations and thermodynamic calculations. The energy required for ethanol separation increases rapidly for low initial concentrations of ethanol, and, unlike other biofuel systems, there is little waste biomass available to provide process heat and electricity to offset those energy requirements. The ethanol purification process is a major consumer of energy and a significant contributor to the carbon footprint. With a lead scenario based on a natural-gas-fueled combined heat and power system to provide process electricity and extra heat and conservative assumptions around the ethanol separation process, the net life cycle energy consumption, excluding photosynthesis, ranges from 0.55 MJ/MJ(EtOH) down to 0.20 MJ/ MJ(EtOH), and the net life cycle greenhouse gas emissions range from 29.8 g CO?e/MJ(EtOH) down to 12.3 g CO?e/MJ(EtOH) for initial ethanol concentrations from 0.5 wt % to 5 wt %. In comparison to gasoline, these predicted values represent 67% and 87% reductions in the carbon footprint for this ethanol fuel on a energy equivalent basis. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions can be further reduced via employment of higher efficiency heat exchangers in ethanol purification and/ or with use of solar thermal for some of the process heat. PMID:20968295

  4. Colony organization in the green alga Botryococcus braunii (Race B) is specified by a complex extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Taylor L; Roth, Robyn; Goodson, Carrie; Vitha, Stanislav; Black, Ian; Azadi, Parastoo; Rusch, Jannette; Holzenburg, Andreas; Devarenne, Timothy P; Goodenough, Ursula

    2012-12-01

    Botryococcus braunii is a colonial green alga whose cells associate via a complex extracellular matrix (ECM) and produce prodigious amounts of liquid hydrocarbons that can be readily converted into conventional combustion engine fuels. We used quick-freeze deep-etch electron microscopy and biochemical/histochemical analysis to elucidate many new features of B. braunii cell/colony organization and composition. Intracellular lipid bodies associate with the chloroplast and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but show no evidence of being secreted. The ER displays striking fenestrations and forms a continuous subcortical system in direct contact with the cell membrane. The ECM has three distinct components. (i) Each cell is surrounded by a fibrous ?-1, 4- and/or ?-1, 3-glucan-containing cell wall. (ii) The intracolonial ECM space is filled with a cross-linked hydrocarbon network permeated with liquid hydrocarbons. (iii) Colonies are enclosed in a retaining wall festooned with a fibrillar sheath dominated by arabinose-galactose polysaccharides, which sequesters ECM liquid hydrocarbons. Each cell apex associates with the retaining wall and contributes to its synthesis. Retaining-wall domains also form "drapes" between cells, with some folding in on themselves and penetrating the hydrocarbon interior of a mother colony, partitioning it into daughter colonies. We propose that retaining-wall components are synthesized in the apical Golgi apparatus, delivered to apical ER fenestrations, and assembled on the surfaces of apical cell walls, where a proteinaceous granular layer apparently participates in fibril morphogenesis. We further propose that hydrocarbons are produced by the nonapical ER, directly delivered to the contiguous cell membrane, and pass across the nonapical cell wall into the hydrocarbon-based ECM. PMID:22941913

  5. Evaluation of an oil-producing green alga Chlorella sp. C2 for biological DeNOx of industrial flue gases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Chen, Hui; Chen, Weixian; Qiao, Yaqin; He, Chenliu; Wang, Qiang

    2014-09-01

    NOx, a significant portion of fossil fuel flue gases, are among the most serious environmental issues in the world and must be removed in an additional costly gas treatment step. This study evaluated the growth of the green alga Chlorella sp. C2 under a nitrite-simulated NOx environment and the removal rates of actual flue gas fixed salts (FGFSs) from Sinopec's Shijiazhuang refinery along with lipid production. The results showed that nitrite levels lower than 176.5 mM had no significant adverse effects on the cell growth and photosynthesis of Chlorella sp. C2, demonstrating that this green alga could utilize nitrite and NOx as a nitrogen source. High concentrations of nitrite (88.25-176.5 mM) also resulted in the accumulation of neutral lipids. A 60% nitrite removal efficiency was obtained together with the production of 33% algae lipids when cultured with FGFS. Notably, the presence of nitrate in the FGFS medium significantly enhanced the nitrite removal capability, biomass and lipid production. Thus, this study may provide a new insight into the economically viable application of microalgae in the synergistic combination of biological DeNOx of industrial flue gases and biodiesel production. PMID:25105531

  6. Response of benthic algae to environmental gradients in an agriculturally dominated landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munn, M.D.; Black, R.W.; Gruber, S.J.

    2002-01-01

    Benthic algal communities were assessed in an agriculturally dominated landscape in the Central Columbia Plateau, Washington, to determine which environmental variables best explained species distributions, and whether algae species optima models were useful in predicting specific water-quality parameters. Land uses in the study area included forest, range, urban, and agriculture. Most of the streams in this region can be characterized as open-channel systems influenced by intensive dryland (nonirrigated) and irrigated agriculture. Algal communities in forested streams were dominated by blue-green algae, with communities in urban and range streams dominated by diatoms. The predominance of either blue-greens or diatoms in agricultural streams varied greatly depending on the specific site. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated a strong gradient effect of several key environmental variables on benthic algal community composition. Conductivity and % agriculture were the dominant explanatory variables when all sites (n = 24) were included in the CCA; water velocity replaced conductivity when the CCA included only agricultural and urban sites. Other significant explanatory variables included dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), orthophosphate (OP), discharge, and precipitation. Regression and calibration models accurately predicted conductivity based on benthic algal communities, with OP having slightly lower predictability. The model for DIN was poor, and therefore may be less useful in this system. Thirty-four algal taxa were identified as potential indicators of conductivity and nutrient conditions, with most indicators being diatoms except for the blue-greens Anabaena sp. and Lyngbya sp.

  7. The All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory of Algae in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, with a Focus on the Acidophilic Diatom, Eunotia Ehrenberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furey, P. C.; Lowe, R.; Johansen, J. R.

    2005-05-01

    Since the late 1990's, the National Park Service and Discover Life In America have taken on the ambitious task of completing an All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). As one of the most species-rich areas in the temperate zone, GSMNP is considered a hot spot of biological diversity and has been designated as an International Biosphere Reserve. Previous research has suggested that the algal diversity is high in the GSMNP and many species are new, endemic, or restricted in range. To date, 67 species new to science and 163 taxa new to the park have been reported. An update of new species and new park findings will be presented. In particular, the GSMNP supports a diverse community of the acidophilic diatom Eunotia Ehr., both in terms of number of species and geographical distribution. Eunotia species can flourish in the park because of aquatic and aerial habitats that are 5-10X more acidic than normal, in combination with the presence of a complex geology and range of altitudes. An image-rich documentation of the Eunotia will be presented, including both light microscope and scanning electron micrographs that show the diversity, distribution and the variability in morphology.

  8. The genome of the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana: Ecology,evolution, and metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrust, E.V.; Berges, J.; Bowler, C.; Green, B.; Martinez, D.; Putnam, N.; Zhou, S.; Allen, A.; Apt, K.; Bechner, M.; Brzezinski, M.; Chaal, B.; Chiovitti, A.; Davis, A.; Goodstein, D.; Hadi, M.; Hellsten,U.; Hildebrand, M.; Jenkins, B.; Jurka, J.; Kapitonov, V.; Kroger, N.; Lau, W.; Lane, T.; Larimer, F.; Lippmeier, J.; Lucas, S.; Medina, M.; Montsant, A.; Obornik, M.; Parker, M. Schnitzler; Palenik, B.; Pazour,G.; Richardson, P.; Rynearson, T.; Saito, M.; Schwartz, D.; Thamatrakoln,K.; Valentin, K.; Vardi, A.; Wilkerson, F.; Rokhsar, D.; Vardi, A.; Wilkerson, F.P.; Rokhsar, D.S.

    2004-09-01

    Diatoms are unicellular algae with plastids acquired by secondary endosymbiosis. They are responsible for {approx}20% of global carbon fixation. We report the 34 Mbp draft nuclear genome of the marine diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana and its 129 Kbp plastid and 44 Kbp mitochondrial genomes. Sequence and optical restriction mapping revealed 24 diploid nuclear chromosomes. We identified novel genes for silicic acid transport and formation of silica-based cell walls, high-affinity iron uptake, biosynthetic enzymes for several types of polyunsaturated fatty acids, utilization of a range of nitrogenous compounds and a complete urea cycle, all attributes that allow diatoms to prosper in the marine environment. Diatoms are unicellular, photosynthetic, eukaryotic algae found throughout the world's oceans and freshwater systems. They form the base of short, energetically-efficient food webs that support large-scale coastal fisheries. Photosynthesis by marine diatoms generates as much as 40% of the 45-50 billion tonnes of organic carbon produced each year in the sea (1), and their role in global carbon cycling is predicted to be comparable to that of all terrestrial rainforests combined (2, 3). Over geological time, diatoms may have influenced global climate by changing the flux of atmospheric carbon dioxide into the oceans (4). A defining feature of diatoms is their ornately patterned silicified cell wall or frustule, which displays species-specific nano-structures of such fine detail that diatoms have long been used to test the resolution of optical microscopes. Recent attention has focused on biosynthesis of these nano-structures as a paradigm for future silica nanotechnology (5). The long history (over 180 million years) and dominance of diatoms in the oceans is reflected by their contributions to vast deposits of diatomite, most cherts and a significant fraction of current petroleum reserves (6). As photosynthetic heterokonts, diatoms reflect a fundamentally different evolutionary history from the higher plants that dominate photosynthesis on land. Higher plants and green, red and glaucophyte algae are derived from a primary endosymbiotic event in which a non-photosynthetic eukaryote acquired a chloroplast by engulfing (or being invaded by) a prokaryotic cyanobacterium. In contrast, dominant bloom-forming eukaryotic phytoplankton in the ocean, such as diatoms and haptophytes, were derived by secondary endosymbiosis whereby a non-photosynthetic eukaryote acquired a chloroplast by engulfing a photosynthetic eukaryote, probably a red algal endosymbiont (Fig. 1). Each endosymbiotic event led to new combinations of genes derived from the hosts and endosymbionts (7). Prior to this project, relatively few diatom genes had been sequenced, few chromosome numbers were known, and genetic maps did not exist (8). The ecological and evolutionary importance of diatoms motivated our sequencing and analysis of the nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes of the marine centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

  9. The Genome of the Diatom Thalassiosira Pseudonana: Ecology, Evolution and Metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Armbrust, E V; Berges, J A; Bowler, C; Green, B R; Martinez, D; Putnam, N H; Zhou, S; Allen, A E; Apt, K E; Bechner, M; Brzezinski, M A; Chaal, B K; Chiovitti, A; Davis, A K; Demarest, M S; Detter, J C; del Rio, T G; Goodstein, D; Hadi, M Z; Hellsten, U; Hildebrand, M; Jenkins, B D; Jurka, J; Kapitonov, V V; Kroger, N; Lau, W Y; Lane, T W; Larimer, F W; Lippmeier, J C; Lucas, S; Medina, M; Montsant, A; Obornik, M; Parker, M S; Palenik, B; Pazour, G J; Richardson, P M; Rynearson, T A; Saito, M A; Schwartz, D C; Thamatrakoln, K; Valentin, K; Vardi, A; Wilkerson, F P; Rokhsar, D S

    2005-11-14

    Diatoms are unicellular algae with plastids acquired by secondary endosymbiosis. They are responsible for {approx}20% of global carbon fixation. We report the 34 Mbp draft nuclear genome of the marine diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana and its 129 Kbp plastid and 44 Kbp mitochondrial genomes. Sequence and optical restriction mapping revealed 24 diploid nuclear chromosomes. We identified novel genes for silicic acid transport and formation of silica-based cell walls, high-affinity iron uptake, biosynthetic enzymes for several types of polyunsaturated fatty acids, utilization of a range of nitrogenous compounds and a complete urea cycle, all attributes that allow diatoms to prosper in the marine environment. Diatoms are unicellular, photosynthetic, eukaryotic algae found throughout the world's oceans and freshwater systems. They form the base of short, energetically-efficient food webs that support large-scale coastal fisheries. Photosynthesis by marine diatoms generates as much as 40% of the 45-50 billion tonnes of organic carbon produced each year in the sea (1), and their role in global carbon cycling is predicted to be comparable to that of all terrestrial rainforests combined (2, 3). Over geological time, diatoms may have influenced global climate by changing the flux of atmospheric carbon dioxide into the oceans (4). A defining feature of diatoms is their ornately patterned silicified cell wall or frustule, which displays species-specific nano-structures of such fine detail that diatoms have long been used to test the resolution of optical microscopes. Recent attention has focused on biosynthesis of these nano-structures as a paradigm for future silica nanotechnology (5). The long history (over 180 million years) and dominance of diatoms in the oceans is reflected by their contributions to vast deposits of diatomite, most cherts and a significant fraction of current petroleum reserves (6). As photosynthetic heterokonts, diatoms reflect a fundamentally different evolutionary history from the higher plants that dominate photosynthesis on land. Higher plants and green, red and glaucophyte algae are derived from a primary endosymbiotic event in which a non-photosynthetic eukaryote acquired a chloroplast by engulfing (or being invaded by) a prokaryotic cyanobacterium. In contrast, dominant bloom-forming eukaryotic phytoplankton in the ocean, such as diatoms and haptophytes, were derived by secondary endosymbiosis whereby a non-photosynthetic eukaryote acquired a chloroplast by engulfing a photosynthetic eukaryote, probably a red algal endosymbiont (Fig. 1). Each endosymbiotic event led to new combinations of genes derived from the hosts and endosymbionts (7). Prior to this project, relatively few diatom genes had been sequenced, few chromosome numbers were known, and genetic maps did not exist (8). The ecological and evolutionary importance of diatoms motivated our sequencing and analysis of the nuclear, plastid, and mitochondrial genomes of the marine centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

  10. Model based analysis of transient fluorescence yield induced by actinic laser flashes in spinach leaves and cells of green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick.

    PubMed

    Belyaeva, N E; Schmitt, F-J; Paschenko, V Z; Riznichenko, G Yu; Rubin, A B; Renger, G

    2014-04-01

    Measurements of Single Flash Induced Transient Fluorescence Yield (SFITFY) on spinach leaves and whole cells of green thermophilic alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick were analyzed for electron transfer (ET) steps and coupled proton transfer (PT) on both the donor and the acceptor side of the reaction center (RC) of photosystem II (PS II). A specially developed PS II model (Belyaeva etal., 2008, 2011a) allowed the determination of ET steps that occur in a hierarchically ordered time scale from nanoseconds to several seconds. Our study demonstrates that our SFITFY data is consistent with the concept of the reduction of P680(+) by YZ in both leaves and algae (studied on spinach leaves and cells of Chlorella pyrenoidosa Chick). The multiphasic P680(+) reduction kinetics by YZ in PS II core complexes with high oxygen evolution capacity was seen in both algae and leaves. Model simulation to fit SFITFY curves for dark adapted species used here gives the rate constants to verify nanosecond kinetic stages of P680(+) reduction by YZ in the redox state S1 of the water oxidizing complex (WOC) shown in Khn etal. (2004). Then a sequence of relaxation steps in the redox state S1, outlined by Renger (2012), occurs in both algae and leaves as a similar non-adiabatic ET reactions. Coupled PT is discussed briefly to understand a rearrangement of hydrogen bond protons in the protein matrix of the WOC (Umena etal., 2011). On the other hand, present studies showed a slower reoxidation of reduced QA by QB in algal cells as compared with that in a leaf that might be regarded as a consequence of differences of spatial domains at the QB-site in leaves compared to algae. Our comparative study helped to correlate theory with experimental data for molecular photosynthetic mechanisms in thylakoid membranes. PMID:24556534

  11. Impact and recovery of freshwater algae and bacteria to mine stress in Iron Creek, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Genter, R.; Lehman, R.M.; O`Connell, S.P.

    1995-12-31

    Benthic algal population abundances and the metabolic diversity of the benthic and suspended (seston) microbial heterotrophic communities were used to assess the impact and trends in recovery downstream from a point source flowing from an abandoned mine. Benthic algae and microbes were sampled by brushing a confined area on naturally-colonized rocks in Iron Creek, Idaho, and whole-water samples were collected for seston. Algae were counted microscopically. Microbial community metabolic diversity was determined by simultaneously measuring short-term heterotrophic utilization of 94 different carbon sources. Benthic algal populations shifted from a community dominated by diatoms and filamentous blue-green algae in the two upstream references sites to a community dominated by the unicellular blue-green alga Entophysalis rivals (Chamaesiphon) on rocks below the point source. Community composition of benthic algae in the furthest downstream sites increased in similarity to reference sites, but complete recovery was not observed. Microbial community metabolic diversity of the seston and benthic communities along the stream transect followed a similar pattern; the seston metabolic diversity nearly recovered and the benthic metabolic diversity did not recover when compared to the reference sites. The results suggest that benthic algae and microbial metabolic diversity are useful as structural and functional measures of environmental stress and recovery.

  12. Characterization and optimization of hydrogen production by a salt water blue-green alga Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7. II - Use of immobilization for enhancement of hydrogen production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phlips, E. J.; Mitsui, A.

    1986-01-01

    The technique of cellular immobilization was applied to the process of hydrogen photoproduction of nonheterocystous, filamentous marine blue-green alga, Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7. Immobilization with agar significantly improved the rate and longevity of hydrogen production, compared to free cell suspensions. Rates of H2 production in excess of 13 microliters H2 mg dry/wt h were observed and hydrogen production was sustained for three weeks. Immobilization also provided some stabilization to environmental variability and was adaptable to outdoor light conditions. In general, immobilization provides significant advantages for the production and maintenance of hydrogen photoproduction for this strain.

  13. Anticoagulant effect of marine algae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Kwon; Wijesekara, Isuru

    2011-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed in the nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industries to isolate natural anticoagulant compounds from marine resources. Among marine resources, marine algae are valuable sources of novel bioactive compounds with anticoagulant effect. Phlorotannins and sulfated polysaccharides such as fucoidans in brown algae, carrageenans in red algae, and ulvans in green algae have been recognized as potential anticoagulant agents. Therefore, marine algae-derived phlorotannins and SPs have great potential for developing as anticoagulant drugs in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. This chapter focuses on the potential anticoagulant agents in marine algae and presents an overview of their anticoagulant effect. PMID:22054951

  14. Structural Features and Anti-coagulant Activity of the Sulphated Polysaccharide SPS-CF from a Green Alga Capsosiphon fulvescens.

    PubMed

    Synytsya, Andriy; Choi, Doo Jin; Pohl, Radek; Na, Ye Seul; Capek, Peter; Lattov, Erika; Taubner, Tom; Choi, Ji Won; Lee, Chang Won; Park, Jae Kweon; Kim, Woo Jung; Kim, Sung Min; Lee, Jisun; Park, Yong Il

    2015-12-01

    Previously, we reported that the sulphated polysaccharides (SPS)-CF, a water-soluble polysaccharide isolated and purified from Korean green alga Maesaengi (Capsosiphon fulvescens, Chlorophyta), is a glucuronogalactomannan based mainly on the monosaccharide composition determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis after 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) labelling of sugars in the acid (trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)) hydrolyzates of SPS-CF, which showed mannose (55.4 mol %), galactose (25.3 mol %) and glucuronic acid (16.3 mol %) as major sugars (Na et al., Int Immunopharmacol 10:364-370, 2010). However, the results of the present study re-performed for monosaccharide composition of this polysaccharide using, in addition to HPLC of PMP-labelled sugars, other separation methods, i.e. high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD), gas chromatography with flame ionising detection (GC-FID) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC), clearly demonstrated that the most prominent neutral monosaccharides of SPS-CF are xylose (38.6-49.4 mol %) and rhamnose (39.6-45 mol %), while mannose and galactose are present at a much lesser extent or in negligible amount. These extensive monosaccharide analyses, correlation nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) measurements confirmed the sulphated glucuronorhamnoxylan (ulvan) type of SPS-CF polysaccharide, whose backbone is composed of alternating sequence of 4-linked L-rhamnose-3-sulphate and D-xylose residues (ulvobiose U3s) carrying monomeric D-glucuronic acid or D-glucuronic acid-3-sulphate on O-2 of some L-rhamnose-3-sulphate units as the side chains. The SPS-CF exhibited significant in vitro anti-coagulant activity by which the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and thrombin time (TT) were significantly prolonged. The results of this study demonstrated that the ulvan SPS-CF isolated from Korean Maesaengi C. fulvescens can be considered a potential anti-coagulant agent. PMID:26337523

  15. The cortical cytoskeletal network and cell-wall dynamics in the unicellular charophycean green alga Penium margaritaceum

    PubMed Central

    Ochs, Julie; LaRue, Therese; Tinaz, Berke; Yongue, Camille; Domozych, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Penium margaritaceum is a unicellular charophycean green alga with a unique bi-directional polar expansion mechanism that occurs at the central isthmus zone prior to cell division. This entails the focused deposition of cell-wall polymers coordinated by the activities of components of the endomembrane system and cytoskeletal networks. The goal of this study was to elucidate the structural organization of the cortical cytoskeletal network during the cell cycle and identify its specific functional roles during key cell-wall developmental events: pre-division expansion and cell division. Methods Microtubules and actin filaments were labelled during various cell cycle phases with an anti-tubulin antibody and rhodamine phalloidin, respectively. Chemically induced disruption of the cytoskeleton was used to elucidate specific functional roles of microtubules and actin during cell expansion and division. Correlation of cytoskeletal dynamics with cell-wall development included live cell labelling with wall polymer-specific antibodies and electron microscopy. Key Results The cortical cytoplasm of Penium is highlighted by a band of microtubules found at the cell isthmus, i.e. the site of pre-division wall expansion. This band, along with an associated, transient band of actin filaments, probably acts to direct the deposition of new wall material and to mark the plane of the future cell division. Two additional bands of microtubules, which we identify as satellite bands, arise from the isthmus microtubular band at the onset of expansion and displace toward the poles during expansion, ultimately marking the isthmus of future daughter cells. Treatment with microtubule and actin perturbation agents reversibly stops cell division. Conclusions The cortical cytoplasm of Penium contains distinct bands of microtubules and actin filaments that persist through the cell cycle. One of these bands, termed the isthmus microtubule band, or IMB, marks the site of both pre-division wall expansion and the zone where a cross wall will form during cytokinesis. This suggests that prior to the evolution of land plants, a dynamic, cortical cytoskeletal array similar to a pre-prophase band had evolved in the charophytes. However, an interesting variation on the cortical band theme is present in Penium, where two satellite microtubule bands are produced at the onset of cell expansion, each of which is destined to become an IMB in the two daughter cells after cytokinesis. These unique cytoskeletal components demonstrate the close temporal control and highly coordinated cytoskeletal dynamics of cellular development in Penium. PMID:24603606

  16. Zoosporangia survival, dehiscence and zoospore formation, and motility in the green alga Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum as affected by different factors.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S; Agrawal, S C

    2004-01-01

    Urea at 200 ppm (probably serving as a nitrogen source), liquid Bold's basal medium at pH 7.5, temperature of about 22 degrees C and light intensity of about 40 micromol m(-2) s(-1) for 16 h a day induced rapid and/or abundant zoospores formation and zoosporangia dehiscence and favored zoospore liberation, speed and motility time period in the green alga Rhizoclonium hieroglyphicum. However, factors such as water stress (2 and 4 % agarized media, liquid media with 0.2-0.4 mol/L NaCl, 5-60 min blot-dryness of filaments), pH extremes of liquid media (at < or =6.5 and > or =9.5), temperature shock in liquid media (5 and 35 degrees C for > or =5 min), UV exposure (0.96-3.84 kJ/m2), lack of all nutrients from liquid medium (double distilled water), darkness, and presence of "heavy" metals (1-25 ppm Cu, Fe, Zn, Hg, Ni, Co) or organic substances (200-600 ppm captan or DDT, 800 and 1000 ppm 2,4-D, 50 and 400 ppm indole-3-acetic acid (3-IAA), 1000 and 2000 ppm urea, 100 and 200 ppm thiourea) in liquid media decreased and/or delayed at various levels either zoosporangia survival, zoospore formation or zoosporangia dehiscence and/or the rate of zoospore liberation from zoosporangia, zoospore speed and time period of motility in the media or totally inhibited all these processes. 3-IAA at 50 and 400 ppm induced zoosporangial papilla to grow into a tube-like projection of about 30-120 microm in length. Zoosporangial dehiscence rather than zoospore formation or zoosporangia survival, and zoospore motility period rather than zoospore speed are probably more sensitive to various adverse environmental factors. The rate of zoospores liberation from zoosporangium (possibly related directly to some extent on the zoospore number inside) is probably independent of zoospore speed in the medium. PMID:15702544

  17. The photochemical and fluorescence properties of whole cells, spheroplasts and spheroplast particles from the blue-green alga Phormidium luridum.

    PubMed

    Tel-or, E; Malkin, S

    1977-02-01

    The photochemical activities and fluorescence properties of cells, spheroplasts and spheroplast particles from the blue-green alga Phormidium luridum were compared. The photochemical activities were measured in a whole range of wavelengths and expressed as quantum yield spectra (quantum yield vs. wavelength). The following reactions were measured. Photosynthesis (O2 evolution) in whole cells; Hill reaction (O2 evolution) with Fe(CN)63- and NADP as electron acceptors (Photosystem II and photosystem II + Photosystem I reactions); electron transfer from reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol to diquat (Photosystem I reaction). The fluorescence properties were emission spectra, quantum yield spectra and the induction pattern. On the basis of comparison between the quantum yield spectra and the pigments compositions the relative contribution of each pigment to each photosystem was estimated. In normal cells and spheroplasts it was found that Photosystem I (Photosystem II) contains about 90% (10%) of the chlorophyll a, 90% (10%) of the carotenoids and 15% (85%) of the phycocyanin. In spheroplast particles there is a reorganization of the pigments; they loose a certain fraction (about half) of the phycocyanin but the remaining phycocyanin attaches itself exclusively to Photosystem I (!). This is reflected by the loss of Photosystem II activity, a flat quantum yield vs. wavelength dependence and a loss of the fluorescence induction. The fluorescence quantum yield spectra conform qualitatively to the above conclusion. More quantitative estimation shows that only a fraction (20--40%) of the chlorophyll of Photosystem II is fluorescent. Total emission spectrum and the ratio of variable to constant fluorescence are in agreement with this conclusion. The fluorescence emission spectrum shows characteristic differences between the constant and variable components. The variable fluorescence comes exclusively from chlorophyll a; the constant fluorescence is contributed, in addition to chlorophyll a, by phycocyanine and an unidentified long wavelength component. The variable fluorescence does not change in the transition from whole cells to spheroplasts. However, the constant fluorescence increases considerably. This indicates the release of a small fraction of pigments from the photosynthetic photochemical apparatus which then become fluorescent. PMID:402150

  18. Response of freshwater algae to water quality in Qinshan Lake within Taihu Watershed, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianying; Ni, Wanmin; Luo, Yang; Jan Stevenson, R.; Qi, Jiaguo

    Although frequent algal blooms in Taihu Lake in China have become major environmental problems and have drawn national and international attention, little is understood about the relationship between algal blooms and water quality. The goal of this study was to assess the growth and species responses of freshwater algae to variation in water quality in Qinshan Lake, located in headwaters of the Taihu watershed. Water samples were collected monthly from ten study sites in the Qinshan Lake and were analyzed for species distribution of freshwater algae and physiochemical parameters such as total nitrogen (TN), NH4+-N, NO3--N, total phosphorus (TP), chemical oxygen demand (COD Mn) and Chl-a. The results showed that average TN was 4.47 mg/L, with 92.2% of values greater than the TN standard set by the Chinese Environmental Protection Agency; average TP was 0.051 mg/L, with 37.9% of values above the TP national standard; and average trophic level index (TLI) was 53, the lower end of eutrophic condition. Average Chl-a concentration was 12.83 mg/m 3. Green algae and diatom far outweighed other freshwater algae and were dominant most time of the year, with the highest relative abundances of 96% and 99%, respectively. Blue-green algae, composed mainly toxic strains like Microcystis sp ., Nostoc sp. and Oscillatoria sp., became most dominant in the summer with the maximum relative abundance of 69%. The blue-green algae sank to the lake bottom to overwinter, and then dinoflagellates became the dominant species in the winter, with highest relative abundance of 89%. Analysis indicated that nutrients, especially control of ammonia and co-varying nutrients were the major restrictive factor of population growth of blue-green algae, suggesting that control in nutrient enrichments is the major preventive measure of algal blooms in Qinshan Lake.

  19. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. PMID:26389924

  20. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms.

    PubMed

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. PMID:26389924

  1. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties of marennine, a blue-green polyphenolic pigment from the diatom Haslea ostrearia (Gaillon/Bory) Simonsen responsible for the natural greening of cultured oysters.

    PubMed

    Pouvreau, Jean-Bernard; Moranais, Michle; Taran, Frdric; Rosa, Philippe; Dufoss, Laurent; Gurard, Fabienne; Pin, Serge; Fleurence, Jol; Pondaven, Pierre

    2008-08-13

    Among microalgae, the marine diatom Haslea ostrearia has the distinctive feature of synthesizing and releasing, into the surrounding environment, a blue-green polyphenolic pigment called marennine. The oyster-breeding industry commonly makes use of this natural phenomenon for the greening of oysters grown in the ponds of the French Atlantic coast. This article reports the in vitro antioxidant properties of pure marennine. Two kinds of evaluation systems were adopted to test the antioxidative activity of marennine: antioxidant capacity assays (beta-carotene and thymidine protection assays and iron reducing power assay) and free radical scavenging assays (DPPH*, O2*-, and HO*). In almost all cases, marennine exhibited significantly higher antioxidative and free radical scavenging activities than natural and synthetic antioxidants commonly used in food, as shown by comparing median effective concentration (EC 50) values, for each test independently. This medium molecular weight polyphenol (around 10 kDa) from microalgae is thus a potentially useful natural antioxidant. Because of its blue-coloring property and water solubility, it could also be used as a natural food-coloring additive. PMID:18636683

  2. Characterization of chlorophyll-protein complexes isolated from two marine green algae, Bryopsis maxima and Ulva pertusa, growing in the intertidal zone.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Jun-ya; Kozu, Arisu; Fukunaga, Yuko

    2006-07-01

    Three Chl-protein complexes were isolated from thylakoid membranes of Bryopsis maxima and Ulva pertusa, marine green algae that inhabit the intertidal zone of the Pacific Ocean off the eastern coast of Japan by dodecyl-beta-D-maltoside polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The slowest-moving fractions showed low Chl a/b and Chl/P-700 ratios, indicating that this fraction corresponds to complexes in PS I, which is large in both algae. The intermediate and fastest-moving fractions showed the traits of PS II complexes, with some associated Chl a/b-protein complexes and LHC II, respectively. The spectral properties of the separated Chl-proteins were also determined. The absorption spectra showed a shallow shoulder at 540 nm derived from siphonaxanthin in Bryopsis maxima, but not in Ulva pertusa. The 77 K emission spectra showed a single peak in Bryopsis maxima and two peaks in Ulva pertusa. Besides the excitation spectra indicated that the excitation energy transfer to the PS I complexes differed quite a lot higher plants. This suggested that the mechanisms of energy transfer in both of these algae differ from those of higher plants. Considering the light environment of this coastal area, the large size of the antennae of PS I complexes implies that the antennae are arranged so as to balance light absorption between the two photosystems. In addition, we discuss the relationships among the photosystem stoichiometry, the energy transfer, and the distribution between the two photosystems. PMID:16729200

  3. Integration of TiO2 into the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii during frustule synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Yvonne; Monte, Francisco del; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Dockery, Peter; Finn, David P.; Pandit, Abhay

    2013-01-01

    Nature has inspired the design of complex hierarchical structures in the field of material science. Diatoms, unicellular algae with a hallmark intricate siliceous cell wall, have provided such a stimulus. Altering the chemistry of the diatom frustule has been explored to expand on the potential application of diatoms. The ability to modify the diatom in vivo opens the possibility to tailor the diatom to the end application. Herein, we report the chemical modification of the living diatom T. weissflogii using a titania precursor, titanium (IV) bis-(ammonium lactato)-dihydroxide (TiBALDH). Incorporation of Ti into the diatom is achieved via repeated treatment of cultures with non-toxic concentrations of TiBALDH. The characteristic architectural features of the diatom are unaltered following chemical modification. Transformation of the living diatom provides opportunity to confer novel structural, chemical or functional properties upon the diatom. We report on a photocatalytic ability imparted upon the TiBALDH-modified diatom. PMID:24220344

  4. Use of chlorophyll a fluorescence to detect the effect of microcystins on photosynthesis and photosystem II energy fluxes of green algae.

    PubMed

    Perron, Marie-Claude; Qiu, Baosheng; Boucher, Nathalie; Bellemare, Franois; Juneau, Philippe

    2012-04-01

    The phenomenon of cyanobacteria bloom occurs widely in lakes, reservoirs, ponds and slow flowing rivers. Those blooms can have important repercussions, at once on recreational and commercial activities but also on the health of animals and human beings. Indeed, many species are known to produce toxins which are released in water mainly at cellular death. The cyanotoxin most frequently encountered is the microcystin (MC), a hepatotoxin which counts more than 70 variants. The use of fast tests for the detection of this toxin is thus a necessity for the protection of the ecosystems and the human health. A promising method for their detection is a bioassay based on the chlorophyll a fluorescence of algae. Many studies have shown that algae are sensible to diverse pollutants, but were almost never used for cyanotoxins. Therefore, our goals were to evaluate the effect of microcystin on the fluorescence of different species of algae and how it can affect the flow of energy through photosystem II. To reach these objectives, we exposed four green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus CPCC5, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii CC125, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata CPCC37 and Chlorella vulgaris CPCC111) to microcystin standards (variants MC-LF, LR, RR, YR) and to microcystin extracted from Microcystis aeruginosa (CPCC299), which is known to produce mainly MC-LR. Chlorophyll a fluorescence was measured by PEA (Plant Efficiency Analyzer) and LuminoTox. The results of our experiment showed that microcystins affect the photosynthetic efficiency and the flow of energy through photosystem II from 0.01?g/mL, within only 15min. From exposure to standard of microcystin, we showed that MC-LF was the most potent variant, followed by MC-YR, LR and RR. Moreover, green algae used in this study demonstrated different sensitivity to MCs, S. obliquus being the more sensitive. We finally demonstrated that LuminoTox was more sensitive to MCs than parameters measured with PEA, although the latter brings indication on the mode of action of MCs at the photosynthetic apparatus level. This is the first report showing a photosynthetic response within 15min of exposure. Our results suggest that bioassay based on chlorophyll fluorescence can be used as a rapid and sensitive tool to detect microcystin. PMID:22234271

  5. Acidophilic Green Alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 Accumulates High Amount of Lipid Droplets under a Nitrogen-Depleted Condition at a Low-pH

    PubMed Central

    Hirooka, Shunsuke; Higuchi, Sumio; Uzuka, Akihiro; Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Miyagishima, Shin-ya

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal storage lipids are considered to be a promising source for next-generation biofuel feedstock. However, microalgal biodiesel is not yet economically feasible due to the high cost of production. One of the reasons for this is that the use of a low-cost open pond system is currently limited because of the unavoidable contamination with undesirable organisms. Extremophiles have an advantage in culturing in an open pond system because they grow in extreme environments toxic to other organisms. In this study, we isolated the acidophilic green alga Pseudochlorella sp. YKT1 from sulfuric acid mine drainage in Nagano Prefecture, Japan. The vegetative cells of YKT1 display the morphological characteristics of Trebouxiophyceae and molecular phylogenetic analyses indicated it to be most closely related to Pseudochlorella pringsheimii. The optimal pH and temperature for the growth of YKT1 are pH 3.0–5.0 and a temperature 20–25°C, respectively. Further, YKT1 is able to grow at pH 2.0 and at 32°C, which corresponds to the usual water temperature in the outdoors in summer in many countries. YKT1 accumulates a large amount of storage lipids (∼30% of dry weigh) under a nitrogen-depleted condition at low-pH (pH 3.0). These results show that acidophilic green algae will be useful for industrial applications by acidic open culture systems. PMID:25221913

  6. Effect of retorted-oil shale leachate on a blue-green alga (Anabaena flos-aquae)

    SciTech Connect

    McKnight, D.M.; Pereira, W.E.; Rostad, C.E.; Stiles, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    Oil shale reserves in Piceance Creek and the White River, Colorado, contain retorted-shale piles which may pollute th eground water through leaching. Bioassay experiments were carried out to determine the effects of leachates on algae, particularly ANABAENA FLOSAQUAE and SCENEDESMUS. Tests were done to establish inhibitionary concentrations of the leachates from various sources of spent shale. Retorted-shale leachates had major effects on the algae papulations at a 40% concentration, minor effects at 8%, and no effects at 0.4%. Discrepancies between experimental results and actual retorted-shale piles are dixcussed. (JMT)

  7. Dinoflagellates, diatoms, and their viruses.

    PubMed

    Nagasaki, Keizo

    2008-06-01

    Since the first discovery of the very high virus abundance in marine environments, a number of researchers were fascinated with the world of "marine viruses", which had previously been mostly overlooked in studies on marine ecosystems. In the present paper, the possible role of viruses infecting marine eukaryotic microalgae is enlightened, especially summarizing the most up-to-the-minute information of marine viruses infecting bloom-forming dinoflagellates and diatoms. To author's knowledge, approximately 40 viruses infecting marine eukaryotic algae have been isolated and characterized to different extents. Among them, a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) virus "HcV" and a single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) virus "HcRNAV" are the only dinoflagellate-infecting (lytic) viruses that were made into culture; their hosts are a bivalve-killing dinoflagellate Heterocapsa circularisquama. In this article, ecological relationship between H. circularisquama and its viruses is focused. On the other hand, several diatom-infecting viruses were recently isolated and partially characterized; among them, one is infectious to a pen-shaped bloom-forming diatom species Rhizosolenia setigera; some viruses are infectious to genus Chaetoceros which is one of the most abundant and diverse diatom group. Although the ecological relationships between diatoms and their viruses have not been sufficiently elucidated, viral infection is considered to be one of the significant factors affecting dynamics of diatoms in nature. Besides, both the dinoflagellate-infecting viruses and diatom-infecting viruses are so unique from the viewpoint of virus taxonomy; they are remarkably different from any other viruses ever reported. Studies on these viruses lead to an idea that ocean may be a treasury of novel viruses equipped with fascinating functions and ecological roles. PMID:18604491

  8. Diatom fucoxanthin chlorophyll a/c-binding protein (FCP) and land plant light-harvesting proteins use a similar pathway for thylakoid membrane Insertion.

    PubMed

    Lang, M; Kroth, P G

    2001-03-16

    The light-harvesting proteins in plastids of different lineages including algae and land plants represent a superfamily of chlorophyll-binding proteins that seem to be phylogenetically related, although some of the light-harvesting complex (LHC) proteins bind different carotenoids. LHCs can be divided into chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins found in green algae, euglenoids, and higher plants and into chlorophyll a/c-binding proteins of various algal taxa. LHC proteins from diatoms are named fucoxanthin-chlorophyll a/c-binding proteins (FCP). In contrast to chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins, there is no information so far about the way FCPs integrate into thylakoid membranes. The diatom FCP preproteins have a bipartite presequence that is necessary to enable transport into the four membrane-bound diatom plastids, but similar to chlorophyll a/b-binding proteins there is apparently no presequence present for targeting to the thylakoid membrane. By establishing an in vitro import assay for diatom thylakoids, we demonstrated that thylakoid integration of diatom FCP depends on the presence of stromal factors and GTP. This indicates that a pathway involving signal recognition particles (SRP) is involved in membrane integration just as shown for LHCs in higher plants. We also demonstrate integration of diatom FCP into thylakoids of higher plants and vice versa SRP-dependent targeting of LHCs from pea and Arabidopsis into diatom thylakoids. The similar SRP-dependent modes of thylakoid integration of land plant LHCs and FCPs support recent analyses indicating a common origin of chlorophyll a/b- and a/c-binding proteins. PMID:11120738

  9. Partitioning of monomethylmercury between freshwater algae and water.

    PubMed

    Miles, C J; Moye, H A; Phlips, E J; Sargent, B

    2001-11-01

    Phytoplankton-water monomethylmercury (MeHg) partition constants (KpI) have been determined in the laboratory for two green algae Selenastrum capricornutum and Cosmarium botrytis, the blue-green algae Schizothrix calcicola, and the diatom Thallasiosira spp., algal species that are commonly found in natural surface waters. Two methods were used to determine KpI, the Freundlich isotherm method and the flow-through/dialysis bag method. Both methods yielded KpI values of about 10(6.6) for S. capricornutum and were not significantly different. The KpI for the four algae studied were similar except for Schizothrix, which was significantly lower than S. capricornutum. The KpI for MeHg and S. capricornutum (exponential growth) was not significantly different in systems with predominantly MeHgOH or MeHgCl species. This is consistent with other studies that show metal speciation controls uptake kinetics, but the reactivity with intracellular components controls steady-state concentrations. Partitioning constants determined with exponential and stationary phase S. capricornutum cells at the same conditions were not significantly different, while the partitioning constant for exponential phase, phosphorus-limited cells was significantly lower, suggesting that P-limitation alters the ecophysiology of S. capricornutum sufficiently to impact partitioning, which may then ultimately affect mercury levels in higher trophic species. PMID:11718342

  10. [Photoreduction of Se (VI) by marine algae-transitional metals-light system].

    PubMed

    Li, Shun-Xing; Zheng, Feng-Ying; Deng, Nan-Sheng; Hong, Hua-Sheng; Zhu, Guo-Hui

    2005-07-01

    Seven marine phytoplankton, including five green algae (Tetraselmis levis, Chlorella autotrophica, Dunaliella salina, Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis subcordiformis), one diatom (Phaeodactylum tricornutum), one red alga (Porphyridium purpureum), and three usual transitional metals (Fe(III), Cu(II), Mn(II)) were used to make up marine phytoplankton-light or transitional metals-light or marine phytoplankton-transitional metals-light system. In such system, Se(VI) could be transformed into Se(IV) by photoreduction. The species transformation of selenium could be photo-induced by redox reaction of transitional metals. The photochemical activity of marine phytoplankton was confirmed for the first time, because marine phytoplankton could adsorb and concentrated of selenium, transitional metals and organic substances (including the exudation of algae, as reducing agent) which redox potentials were changed. The ratios of Se(VI) to Se(IV) were dominated by the species, the concentration of marine phytoplankton and transitional metals, and it could be enhanced through increasing the concentration of marine algae or the combined effect from marine algae and transitional metals. After photoreduction by ternary system, the ratio of Se(VI) to Se(IV) ranges from 1.17 to 2.85, which is close to the actual value in euphotic layer of seawater. The photochemical process that is induced by marine algae and transitional metals dominative the leading effects on the distribution of oxidation states of selenium. PMID:16212166

  11. Development of a Nuclear Transformation System for Oleaginous Green Alga Lobosphaera (Parietochloris) incisa and Genetic Complementation of a Mutant Strain, Deficient in Arachidonic Acid Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Khozin-Goldberg, Inna; Leu, Stefan; Shapira, Michal; Kaye, Yuval; Tourasse, Nicolas; Vallon, Olivier; Boussiba, Sammy

    2014-01-01

    Microalgae are considered a promising source for various high value products, such as carotenoids, ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The unicellular green alga Lobosphaera (Parietochloris) incisa is an outstanding candidate for the efficient phototrophic production of arachidonic acid (AA), an essential ω-6 PUFA for infant brain development and a widely used ingredient in the baby formula industry. Although phototrophic production of such algal products has not yet been established, estimated costs are considered to be 2–5 times higher than competing heterotrophic production costs. This alga accumulates unprecedented amounts of AA within triacylglycerols and the molecular pathway of AA biosynthesis in L. incisa has been previously elucidated. Thus, progress in transformation and metabolic engineering of this high value alga could be exploited for increasing the efficient production of AA at competitive prices. We describe here the first successful transformation of L. incisa using the ble gene as a selection marker, under the control of the endogenous RBCS promoter. Furthermore, we have succeeded in the functional complementation of the L. incisa mutant strain P127, containing a mutated, inactive version of the delta-5 (Δ5) fatty acid desaturase gene. A copy of the functional Δ5 desaturase gene, linked to the ble selection marker, was transformed into the P127 mutant. The resulting transformants selected for zeocine resistant, had AA biosynthesis partially restored, indicating the functional complementation of the mutant strain with the wild-type gene. The results of this study present a platform for the successful genetic engineering of L. incisa and its long-chain PUFA metabolism. PMID:25133787

  12. Characterization of the Heterotrimeric G-Protein Complex and Its Regulator from the Green Alga Chara braunii Expands the Evolutionary Breadth of Plant G-Protein Signaling1[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hackenberg, Dieter; Sakayama, Hidetoshi; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Pandey, Sona

    2013-01-01

    The lack of heterotrimeric G-protein homologs in the sequenced genomes of green algae has led to the hypothesis that, in plants, this signaling mechanism coevolved with the embryophytic life cycle and the acquisition of terrestrial habitat. Given the large evolutionary gap that exists between the chlorophyte green algae and most basal land plants, the bryophytes, we evaluated the presence of this signaling complex in a charophyte green alga, Chara braunii, proposed to be the closest living relative of land plants. The C. braunii genome encodes for the entire G-protein complex, the Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, and the REGULATOR OF G-PROTEIN SIGNALING (RGS) protein. The biochemical properties of these proteins and their cross-species functionality show that they are functional homologs of canonical G-proteins. The subunit-specific interactions between CbGα and CbGβ, CbGβ and CbGγ, and CbGα and CbRGS are also conserved, establishing the existence of functional G-protein complex-based signaling mechanisms in green algae. PMID:24179134

  13. Effects of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on green algae under visible, UVA, and UVB irradiations: no evidence of enhanced algal toxicity under UV pre-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo-Mi; An, Youn-Joo

    2013-04-01

    Some metal oxide nanoparticles are photoreactive, thus raising concerns regarding phototoxicity. This study evaluated ecotoxic effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles and titanium dioxide nanoparticles to the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata under visible, UVA, and UVB irradiation conditions. The nanoparticles were prepared in algal test medium, and the test units were pre-irradiated by UV light in a photoreactor. Algal assays were also conducted with visible, UVA or UVB lights only without nanoparticles. Algal growth was found to be inhibited as the nanoparticle concentration increased, and ZnO NPs caused destabilization of the cell membranes. We also noted that the inhibitory effects on the growth of algae were not enhanced under UV pre-irradiation conditions. This phenomenon was attributed to the photocatalytic activities of ZnO NPs and TiO2 NPs in both the visible and UV regions. The toxicity of ZnO NPs was almost entirely the consequence of the dissolved free zinc ions. This study provides us with an improved understanding of toxicity of photoreactive nanoparticles as related to the effects of visible and UV lights. PMID:23357865

  14. Does the abundance of girellids and kyphosids correlate with cover of the palatable green algae, Ulva spp.? A test on temperate rocky intertidal reefs.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, A M; Harvey, E S; Rees, M J; Knott, N A

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether the abundance of girellids and kyphosids was related to cover of the palatable green algae, Ulva australis and Ulva compressa, on rocky intertidal reefs in Jervis Bay, New South Wales, Australia. No relationship was found between Ulva spp. cover and abundance of Girella tricuspidata, Girella elevata and Kyphosus sydneyanus during a period of relatively low Ulva spp. cover (i.e. February 2011 to March 2011), but during a period of significantly higher Ulva spp. cover (i.e. October 2011 to November 2011) there was a strong correlation between Ulva spp. cover and G. tricuspidata abundance. Spatial analysis indicated that the abundance of G. tricuspidata was consistent across time, suggesting G. tricuspidata were not moving between reefs in response to variation in Ulva spp. cover between periods but rather that large schools of G. tricuspidata resided on reefs that had relatively higher Ulva spp. cover at certain times of the year. PMID:25557432

  15. On the way to cyanobacterial blooms: impact of the herbicide metribuzin on the competition between a green alga (Scenedesmus) and a cyanobacterium (Microcystis).

    PubMed

    Lürling, Miquel; Roessink, Ivo

    2006-10-01

    The hypothesis that exposure to a common and widely applied photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicide, metribuzin, would alter the outcome of the competitive battle between susceptible green algae (Scenedesmus obliquus) and tolerant cyanobacteria (Microcystis aeruginosa) was tested. In a long-term (17 d) experiment, Scenedesmus and Microcystis populations as well as mixtures that started with different inoculum composition (i.e. 3:1, 1:1 and 1:3 Scenedesmus:Microcystis) were grown in the absence or presence of metribuzin (100 microg l-1). In the absence of metribuzin, Scenedesmus was competitively superior and out-competed Microcystis regardless the initial composition of the mixed communities. However, this competitive outcome was reversed completely in the presence of metribuzin, where despite growth inhibition Microcystis became dominant. Hence, photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides may not only affect algal community structure, but also provide cyanobacteria founder populations a window for dominance and thus play an important role in promoting cyanobacteria blooms. PMID:16540149

  16. Biomass and hydrogen photoproduction by a marine blue-green alga Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7 in natural seawater culture system

    SciTech Connect

    Ramachandran, S.

    1985-01-01

    A non-heterocystous marine blue-green alga Oscillatoria sp. Miami BG 7 showed high biomass yields and hydrogen production rates in a natural seawater based system. Variations in water quality such as salinity, pH, trace metal concentration and combined nitrogen level did not affect either the biomass or the hydrogen production. Recycling of the two steps involved in hydrogen production (i.e., aerobic growth phase and anaerobic hydrogen production phase) significantly increased (> 400%) the hydrogen yield. Immobilization of cells improved hydrogen production activity and its tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. Both the biomass and hydrogen production were not affected under uncontrolled outdoor environments. High biomass yield (250 mg dry wt/l/day or 40 g/m/sup 2//day), solar energy conversion efficiency (3.2%) and hydrogen production rate (1 ml H/sub 2//ml gel/day) were obtained in small scale outdoor systems.

  17. Fluorescent minerals--A potential source of UV protection and visible light for the growth of green algae and cyanobacteria in extreme cosmic environments.

    PubMed

    Omairi, Tareq; Wainwright, Milton

    2015-07-01

    We propose that green algae (Chlorella variabilis and Dunaliella tertiolecta) and cyanobacteria (Synechococcus elongatus and Nostoc commune) can grow inside fluorescent rock minerals which convert damaging UV light to visible light, thereby allowing these organisms to survive and thrive in UV-rich environments without (or with limited) visible light, which would otherwise be inimical to them. The four microorganisms were incubated inside fluorescent rocks composed of fluorite, calcite and pyrite. The resultant growth was then measured following exposure to UV radiation, with the use of optical density and measurement of chlorophyll concentration. Results show that the microorganisms were shielded from harmful UV in these semi-transparent rocks, while at the same time benefiting from the fact that the minerals converted UV to visible light; this have been shown by a statistically significant increase in their growth, which although lower than when the cells were incubated in sunlight, was significantly higher than in controls incubated in the dark. PMID:26256632

  18. Diatoms in space: testing prospects for reliable diatom nanotechnology in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Richard; Hoover, Richard B.; Tuszynski, Jack A.; de Luis, Javier; Camp, Philip J.; Tiffany, Mary Ann; Nagy, Stephen S.; Fayek, Mostafa; Lopez, Pascal J.; Lerner, Beatriz E.

    2007-09-01

    The worldwide effort to grow nanotechnology, rather than use lithography, focuses on diatoms, single cell eukaryotic algae with ornate silica shells, which can be replaced by oxides and ceramics, or reduced to elemental silicon, to create complex nanostructures with compositions of industrial and electronics importance. Diatoms produce an enormous variety of structures, some of which are microtubule dependent and perhaps sensitive to microgravity. The NASA Single Loop for Cell Culture (SLCC) for culturing and observing microorganisms permits inexpensive, low labor in-space experiments. We propose to send up to the International Space Station diatom cultures of the three diatom species whose genomes are currently being sequenced, plus the giant diatoms of Antarctica (up to 6 mm length for a single cell) and the unique colonial diatom, Bacillaria paradoxa. Bacillaria cells move against each other in partial synchrony, like a sliding deck of cards, by a microfluidics mechanism. Will normal diatoms have aberrant patterns, shapes or motility compared to ground controls? The generation time is typically one day, so that many generations may be examined from one flight. Rapid, directed evolution may be possible running the SLCC as a compustat. The shell shapes and patterns are preserved in hard silica, so that the progress of normal and aberrant morphogenesis may be followed by drying samples on a moving filter paper "diatom tape recorder". With a biodiversity of 100,000 distinct species, diatom nanotechnology may offer a compact and portable nanotechnology toolkit for space exploration anywhere.

  19. Bioinformatics Reveal Five Lineages of Oleosins and the Mechanism of Lineage Evolution Related to Structure/Function from Green Algae to Seed Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ming-Der; Huang, Anthony H.C.

    2015-01-01

    Plant cells contain subcellular lipid droplets with a triacylglycerol matrix enclosed by a layer of phospholipids and the small structural protein oleosin. Oleosins possess a conserved central hydrophobic hairpin of approximately 72 residues penetrating into the lipid droplet matrix and amphipathic amino- and carboxyl (C)-terminal peptides lying on the phospholipid surface. Bioinformatics of 1,000 oleosins of green algae and all plants emphasizing biological implications reveal five oleosin lineages: primitive (in green algae, mosses, and ferns), universal (U; all land plants), and three in specific organs or phylogenetic groups, termed seed low-molecular-weight (SL; seed plants), seed high-molecular-weight (SH; angiosperms), and tapetum (T; Brassicaceae) oleosins. Transition from one lineage to the next is depicted from lineage intermediates at junctions of phylogeny and organ distributions. Within a species, each lineage, except the T oleosin lineage, has one to four genes per haploid genome, only approximately two of which are active. Primitive oleosins already possess all the general characteristics of oleosins. U oleosins have C-terminal sequences as highly conserved as the hairpin sequences; thus, U oleosins including their C-terminal peptide exert indispensable, unknown functions. SL and SH oleosin transcripts in seeds are in an approximately 1:1 ratio, which suggests the occurrence of SL-SH oleosin dimers/multimers. T oleosins in Brassicaceae are encoded by rapidly evolved multitandem genes for alkane storage and transfer. Overall, oleosins have evolved to retain conserved hairpin structures but diversified for unique structures and functions in specific cells and plant families. Also, our studies reveal oleosin in avocado (Persea americana) mesocarp and no acyltransferase/lipase motifs in most oleosins. PMID:26232488

  20. Optimization, equilibrium, kinetic, thermodynamic and desorption studies on the sorption of Cu(II) from an aqueous solution using marine green algae: Halimeda gracilis.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, R; Rajasimman, M; Karthikeyan, C

    2015-11-01

    The aptitude of marine green algae Helimeda gracilis for sorption of Cu(II) ions from an aqueous solution was studied in batch experiments. The effect of relevant parameters such as function of pH, sorbent dosage, agitation speed and contact time was evaluated by using Response surface methodology (RSM). A maximum percentage removal of Cu (II) by Halimeda gracilis occurs at pH-4.49, sorbent dosage-1.98g/L, agitation speed-119.43rpm and contact time-60.21min. Further, the sorbent was characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Experimental data were analyzed in terms of pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, intraparticle diffusion, power function and elovich kinetic models. The results showed that the sorption process of Cu(II) ions followed well pseudo-second order kinetics. The sorption data of Cu(II) ions at 308.15K are fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R), Temkin, Sips and Toth isotherms. Sorption of Cu(II) onto marine green algae Helimeda gracilis followed the Langmuir and Toth isotherm models (R(2)=0.998 and R(2)=0.999) with the maximum sorption capacity of 38.46 and 38.07mg/g. The calculated thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° showed that the sorption of Cu(II) ions onto Helimeda gracilis biomass was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. Desorption study shows that the sorbent could be regenerated using 0.2M HCl solution, with up to 89% recovery. PMID:25866206

  1. Bioinformatics Reveal Five Lineages of Oleosins and the Mechanism of Lineage Evolution Related to Structure/Function from Green Algae to Seed Plants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Der; Huang, Anthony H C

    2015-09-01

    Plant cells contain subcellular lipid droplets with a triacylglycerol matrix enclosed by a layer of phospholipids and the small structural protein oleosin. Oleosins possess a conserved central hydrophobic hairpin of approximately 72 residues penetrating into the lipid droplet matrix and amphipathic amino- and carboxyl (C)-terminal peptides lying on the phospholipid surface. Bioinformatics of 1,000 oleosins of green algae and all plants emphasizing biological implications reveal five oleosin lineages: primitive (in green algae, mosses, and ferns), universal (U; all land plants), and three in specific organs or phylogenetic groups, termed seed low-molecular-weight (SL; seed plants), seed high-molecular-weight (SH; angiosperms), and tapetum (T; Brassicaceae) oleosins. Transition from one lineage to the next is depicted from lineage intermediates at junctions of phylogeny and organ distributions. Within a species, each lineage, except the T oleosin lineage, has one to four genes per haploid genome, only approximately two of which are active. Primitive oleosins already possess all the general characteristics of oleosins. U oleosins have C-terminal sequences as highly conserved as the hairpin sequences; thus, U oleosins including their C-terminal peptide exert indispensable, unknown functions. SL and SH oleosin transcripts in seeds are in an approximately 1:1 ratio, which suggests the occurrence of SL-SH oleosin dimers/multimers. T oleosins in Brassicaceae are encoded by rapidly evolved multitandem genes for alkane storage and transfer. Overall, oleosins have evolved to retain conserved hairpin structures but diversified for unique structures and functions in specific cells and plant families. Also, our studies reveal oleosin in avocado (Persea americana) mesocarp and no acyltransferase/lipase motifs in most oleosins. PMID:26232488

  2. Comparative Analysis of the Chemical Composition of Mixed and Pure Cultures of Green Algae and Their Decomposed Residues by 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zelibor, J. L.; Romankiw, L.; Hatcher, P. G.; Colwell, R. R.

    1988-01-01

    It is known that macromolecular organic matter in aquatic environments, i.e., humic substances, is highly aliphatic. These aliphatic macromolecules, predominantly paraffinic in structure, are prevalent in marine and lacustrine sediments and are believed to originate from algae or bacteria. A comparative study of mixed and pure cultures of green algae and their decomposed residues was performed by using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as the primary analytical method. Results obtained in this study confirm the presence of components that are chemically refractory and that are defined as alghumin and hydrolyzed alghumin. These were detected in heterogeneous, homogeneous, and axenic biomasses composed of several genera of Chlorophyta. Although the chemical composition of algal biomass varied with culture conditions, the chemical structure of the alghumin and hydrolyzed alghumin, demonstrated by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy appeared to be constant for members of the Chlorophyta examined in this study. The alghumin was dominated by carbohydrate-carbon, with minor amounts of amide or carboxyl carbon and paraffinic carbon, the latter surviving strong hydrolysis by 6 N HCI (hydrolyzed alghumin). Bacterial decomposition of heterogeneous algal biomass labeled with 13C was conducted under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions to determine chemical structure and stability of the refractory material. The refractory fraction ranged from 33% in aerobic to 44% in anaerobic cultures. The refractory fraction recovered from either aerobic or anaerobic degradation comprised 40% alghumin, which represented an enrichment by 10% relative to the proportion of alghumin derived from whole cells of algae. The paraffinic component in the hydrolyzed alghumin of whole algal cells was found to be 1.8% and increased to 5.1 and 6.9% after aerobic and anaerobic bacterial degradation, respectively. It is concluded that members of the Chlorophyta contain a common insoluble structure composed of paraffinic carbon that is resistant to chemical and bacterial degradation under conditions used in this study. The paraffinic structure is identical to those constituting humin of aquatic origin. Thus, alga-derived macromolecular compounds deposited in aquatic environments (alghumin) probably contribute to sedimentary humic substances. PMID:16347601

  3. Antiproliferative activity of methanolic extracts from two green algae, Enteromorpha intestinalis and Rizoclonium riparium on HeLa cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Natural compounds can be alternative sources for finding new lead anti-cancer molecules. Marine algae have been a traditional source for bioactive compounds. Enteromorpha intestinalis and Rhizoclonium riparium are two well distributed saline/brackish water algae from Sundarbans. There’s no previous report of these two for their anti-proliferative activities. Methods Cytotoxicity of the algal methanolic extracts (AMEs) on HeLa cells were assayed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. Morphological examinations were done by Haematoxylin, Hoechst 33258 and Acridine orange staining. DNA fragmentation was checked. Gene expressions of Cysteine aspartate protease (Caspase) 3, Tumor protein (TP) 53, Bcl-2 associated protein X (Bax) were studied by Reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) keeping Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as internal control. Protein expressions were studied for Caspase 3, phospho-p53, Bax, Microtubule associated proteins-1/ light chain B (MAP1/LC3B) by western blot. Results The AMEs were found to be cytotoxic with Inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) values 309.048 ± 3.083 μg/ml and 506.081 ± 3.714 μg/ml for E. intestinalis and R. riparium extracts respectively. Treated cells became round with blebbings with condensed nuclei. Acidic lysosomal vacuoles formation occurred in treated cells. Expression of apoptotic genes in both mRNA and protein level was lowered. Expression of LC3B-II suggested occurrence of autophagy in treated cells. Conclusions These two algae can be potent candidates for isolating new lead anticancer molecules. So they need further characterization at both molecular and structural levels. PMID:24355313

  4. Postglacial environments on the eastern Laptev Sea shelf: evidence from diatom and aquatic palynomorph assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyakova, Ye. I.; Bauch, H. A.; Novichkova, T. S.; Rudenko, O. V.

    2003-04-01

    So far, the Pleistocene geological history of the Laptev Sea shelf was reconstructed mainly on the basis of high-resolution seismic data and their extrapolation to the terrestrial geology. Due to successful realization of the drilling program executed by the Russian-German expedition TRANSDRIFT VIII in 2000, the uppermost part of last glacial sediments were recovered from the Eastern Laptev Sea. Core PS-51/135-4 and borehole KI005 used in this study were obtained from the eastern Yana River paleodelta channel and covered the time interval 17 5 ka based on radiocarbon chronology. For the purpose of reconstructing variations in riverine discharge and surface water salinity we used the ratio between marine and freshwater diatoms, and the ratio between dinoflagellate cysts represented by marine species and cysts of freshwater chlorophyte algae, which are transported to the sea shelves by rivers. The established linkage between distribution patterns in relative abundances of these groups of microfossils in surface sediments of the Eurasian Arctic seas and the surface water salinity indicates that they can be utilized to make assumption on paleosalinity fluctuations in the Laptev Sea. Several palaeoenvironmental events are recognized on the Eastern Laptev Sea shelf for the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene. The oldest, Upper Pleistocene, sediments are represented by riverine and lake sediments. The time span between 11.1 and 10.7 ka was characterized by avalanche-like precipitation of freshwater diatoms and green algae in the inner shelf zone near the former location of the river mouth. The following time interval (10.7 to 9.6 ka), characterized by an overall decrease of concentrations and relative abundances of freshwater diatoms and chlorophyte cysts, indicates a transitional phase. During the time interval from 9.6 to 9.0 ka, the increase of relative abundances of dinoflagellate cysts and marine diatoms indicates development of marine conditions and the influence of Atlantic water masses on this outer shelf region.

  5. Green algae (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) adsorbs Bacillus thurigiensis (Bt) toxin, Cry1Ca insecticidal protein, without an effect on growth.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiamei; Chen, Xiuping; Li, Yunhe; Su, Changqing; Ding, Jiatong; Peng, Yufa

    2014-08-01

    The effect of purified Cry1Ca insecticidal protein on the growth of Chlorella pyrenoidosa was studied in a three-generation toxicity test. The C. pyrenoidosa medium with a density of 5.4 × 10(5) cells/mL was subcultured for three generations with added Cry1Ca at 0, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/L, and cell numbers were determined daily. To explore the distribution of Cry1Ca in C. pyrenoidosa and the culture medium, Cry1Ca was added at 1000 µg/L to algae with a high density of 4.8 × 10(6) cells/mL, and Cry1Ca content was determined daily in C. pyrenoidosa and the culture medium by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Our results showed that the growth curves of C. pyrenoidosa exposed to 10, 100, and 1000 µg/L of Cry1Ca almost overlapped with that of the blank control, and there were no statistically significant differences among the four treatments from day 0 to day 7, regardless of generation. Moreover, the Cry1Ca content in the culture medium and in C. pyrenoidosa sharply decreased under exposure of 1000 µg/L Cry1Ca with high initial C. pyrenoidosa cell density. The above results demonstrate that Cry1Ca in water can be rapidly adsorbed and degraded by C. pyrenoidosa, but it has no suppressive or stimulative effect on algae growth. PMID:24836871

  6. A Simple Green Synthesis of Palladium Nanoparticles with Sargassum Alga and Their Electrocatalytic Activities Towards Hydrogen Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Momeni, S; Nabipour, I

    2015-08-01

    This study presents the synthesis of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) using the extract derived from the marine alga, Sargassum bovinum, collected from Persian Gulf area. Water-soluble compounds that exist in the marine alga extract were the main cause of the reduction of palladium ions to Pd nanoparticles. The basic properties of PdNPs produced in this method were confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). TEM confirmed the monodispersed and octahedral shape of PdNPs within the size ranges from 5 to 10 nm. Catalytic performance of the biosynthetic PdNPs was investigated by electrochemical reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). PdNP-modified carbon ionic liquid electrode (PdNPs/CILE) was developed as a nonenzymatic sensor for the determination of hydrogen peroxide. Amperometric measurements showed that PdNPs/CILE is a reliable sensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide in the range of 5.0 μM-15.0 mM with a sensitivity of 284.35 mAmM(-1) cm(-2) and a detection limit of 1.0 μM. Moreover, PdNPs/CILE exhibits a wide linear range, high sensitivity and selectivity, and excellent stability for the detection of H2O2 in aqueous solutions. PMID:26041058

  7. RNA-Mediated Silencing in Algae: Biological Roles and Tools for Analysis of Gene Function ▿

    PubMed Central

    Cerutti, Heriberto; Ma, Xinrong; Msanne, Joseph; Repas, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Algae are a large group of aquatic, typically photosynthetic, eukaryotes that include species from very diverse phylogenetic lineages, from those similar to land plants to those related to protist parasites. The recent sequencing of several algal genomes has provided insights into the great complexity of these organisms. Genomic information has also emphasized our lack of knowledge of the functions of many predicted genes, as well as the gene regulatory mechanisms in algae. Core components of the machinery for RNA-mediated silencing show widespread distribution among algal lineages, but they also seem to have been lost entirely from several species with relatively small nuclear genomes. Complex sets of endogenous small RNAs, including candidate microRNAs and small interfering RNAs, have now been identified by high-throughput sequencing in green, red, and brown algae. However, the natural roles of RNA-mediated silencing in algal biology remain poorly understood. Limited evidence suggests that small RNAs may function, in different algae, in defense mechanisms against transposon mobilization, in responses to nutrient deprivation and, possibly, in the regulation of recently evolved developmental processes. From a practical perspective, RNA interference (RNAi) is becoming a promising tool for assessing gene function by sequence-specific knockdown. Transient gene silencing, triggered with exogenously synthesized nucleic acids, and/or stable gene repression, involving genome-integrated transgenes, have been achieved in green algae, diatoms, yellow-green algae, and euglenoids. The development of RNAi technology in conjunction with system level “omics” approaches may provide the tools needed to advance our understanding of algal physiological and metabolic processes. PMID:21803865

  8. Efficient expression of nuclear transgenes in the green alga Chlamydomonas: synthesis of an HIV antigen and development of a new selectable marker.

    PubMed

    Barahimipour, Rouhollah; Neupert, Juliane; Bock, Ralph

    2016-03-01

    The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has become an invaluable model system in plant biology. There is also considerable interest in developing this microalga into an efficient production platform for biofuels, pharmaceuticals, green chemicals and industrial enzymes. However, the production of foreign proteins in the nucleocytosolic compartment of Chlamydomonas is greatly hampered by the inefficiency of transgene expression from the nuclear genome. We have recently addressed this limitation by isolating mutant algal strains that permit high-level transgene expression and by determining the contributions of GC content and codon usage to gene expression efficiency. Here we have applied these new tools and explored the potential of Chlamydomonas to produce a recombinant biopharmaceutical, the HIV antigen P24. We show that a codon-optimized P24 gene variant introduced into our algal expression strains give rise to recombinant protein accumulation levels of up to 0.25 % of the total cellular protein. Moreover, in combination with an expression strain, a resynthesized nptII gene becomes a highly efficient selectable marker gene that facilitates the selection of transgenic algal clones at high frequency. By establishing simple principles of successful transgene expression, our data open up new possibilities for biotechnological research in Chlamydomonas. PMID:26747175

  9. Supramolecular organization of fucoxanthin-chlorophyll proteins in centric and pennate diatoms.

    PubMed

    Gardian, Zdenko; Litvn, Radek; Bna, David; Vcha, Frantiek

    2014-07-01

    Fucoxanthin-chlorophyll proteins (FCP) are the major light-harvesting proteins of diatom algae, a major contributor to marine carbon fixation. FCP complexes from representatives of centric (Cyclotella meneghiniana) and pennate (Phaeodactylum tricornutum) diatoms were prepared by sucrose gradient centrifugation and studied by means of electron microscopy followed by single particle analysis. The oligomeric FCP from a centric diatom were observed to take the form of unusual chain-like or circular shapes, a very unique supramolecular assembly for such antennas. The existence of the often disputed oligomeric form of FCP in pennate diatoms has been confirmed. Contrary to the centric diatom FCP, pennate diatom FCP oligomers are very similar to oligomeric antennas from related heterokont (Stramenopila) algae. Evolutionary aspects of the presence of novel light-harvesting protein arrangement in centric diatoms are discussed. PMID:24715699

  10. Recovery of algal oil from marine green macro-algae Enteromorpha intestinalis by acidic-hydrothermal process.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Hong, Yong-Ki; Lee, Hyung-Ho; Kong, In-Soo; Kim, Joong Kyun; Park, Nam Gyu; Kim, Sung-Koo; Park, Don-Hee

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the recovery of algal oil from Enteromorpha intestinalis based on an acidic-hydrothermal reaction was investigated. Overall, the algal oil yield after the acidic-hydrothermal reaction was increased under the conditions of high reaction temperature, high catalyst concentration, and long reaction time within the tested ranges. Significantly, catalyst concentration, compared with reaction temperature and time, less affected algal oil recovery. The optimal acidic-hydrothermal reaction conditions for production of algal oil from E. intestinalis were as follows-200 C reaction temperature, 2.92 % catalyst concentration, 54 min reaction time. Under these conditions, an 18.6 % algal oil yield was obtained. By increasing the combined severity factor, the algae oil recovery yield linearly increased. PMID:25055795

  11. Validation of Polytomella piriformis nomen nudum (Chlamydomonadaceae): a Distinct Lineage Within a Genus of Nonphotosynthetic Green Algae.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Shelley M; Lee, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Polytomella strain SAG 63-10 was first described by Pringsheim (1963) as Polytomella piriformis nomen nudum. The current study validates the name Polytomella piriformis following the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN). We present 18S rRNA sequences of SAG 63-10 and several other Polytomella strains, which, along with existing mitochondrial DNA sequences, clearly distinguishes P. piriformis n. sp. from other available Polytomella species. The first type material of the species is presented, as well as an illustration and micrographs. Our own observations of P. piriformis SAG 63-10 are compared to Pringsheim's description and to descriptions of other valid Polytomella spp. PMID:26047054

  12. The leaves of green plants as well as a cyanobacterium, a red alga, and fungi contain insulin-like antigens.

    PubMed

    Silva, L B; Santos, S S S; Azevedo, C R; Cruz, M A L; Venncio, T M; Cavalcante, C P; Ucha, A F; Astolfi Filho, S; Oliveira, A E A; Fernandes, K V S; Xavier-Filho, J

    2002-03-01

    We report the detection of insulin-like antigens in a large range of species utilizing a modified ELISA plate assay and Western blotting. We tested the leaves or aerial parts of species of Rhodophyta (red alga), Bryophyta (mosses), Psilophyta (whisk ferns), Lycopodophyta (club mosses), Sphenopsida (horsetails), gymnosperms, and angiosperms, including monocots and dicots. We also studied species of fungi and a cyanobacterium, Spirulina maxima. The wide distribution of insulin-like antigens, which in some cases present the same electrophoretic mobility as bovine insulin, together with results recently published by us on the amino acid sequence of an insulin isolated from the seed coat of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and from the developing fruits of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), suggests that pathways depending on this hormone have been conserved through evolution. PMID:11887207

  13. Characterization of thylakoid membrane in a heterocystous cyanobacterium and green alga with dual-detector fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy with a systematic change of incident laser power.

    PubMed

    Nozue, Shuho; Mukuno, Akira; Tsuda, Yumi; Shiina, Takashi; Terazima, Masahide; Kumazaki, Shigeichi

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM) has been applied to plants, algae and cyanobacteria, in which excitation laser conditions affect the chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime due to several mechanisms. However, the dependence of FLIM data on input laser power has not been quantitatively explained by absolute excitation probabilities under actual imaging conditions. In an effort to distinguish between photosystem I and photosystem II (PSI and PSII) in microscopic images, we have obtained dependence of FLIM data on input laser power from a filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis and single cellular green alga Parachlorella kessleri. Nitrogen-fixing cells in A. variabilis, heterocysts, are mostly visualized as cells in which short-lived fluorescence (?0.1ns) characteristic of PSI is predominant. The other cells in A. variabilis (vegetative cells) and P. kessleri cells show a transition in the status of PSII from an open state with the maximal charge separation rate at a weak excitation limit to a closed state in which charge separation is temporarily prohibited by previous excitation(s) at a relatively high laser power. This transition is successfully reproduced by a computer simulation with a high fidelity to the actual imaging conditions. More details in the fluorescence from heterocysts were examined to assess possible functions of PSII in the anaerobic environment inside the heterocysts for the nitrogen-fixing enzyme, nitrogenase. Photochemically active PSII:PSI ratio in heterocysts is tentatively estimated to be typically below our detection limit or at most about 5% in limited heterocysts in comparison with that in vegetative cells. PMID:26474523

  14. The slow S to M rise of chlorophyll a fluorescence reflects transition from state 2 to state 1 in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Kodru, Sireesha; Malavath, Tirupathi; Devadasu, Elsinraju; Nellaepalli, Sreedhar; Stirbet, Alexandrina; Subramanyam, Rajagopal; Govindjee

    2015-08-01

    The green alga Chlamydomonas (C.) reinhardtii is a model organism for photosynthesis research. State transitions regulate redistribution of excitation energy between photosystem I (PS I) and photosystem II (PS II) to provide balanced photosynthesis. Chlorophyll (Chl) a fluorescence induction (the so-called OJIPSMT transient) is a signature of several photosynthetic reactions. Here, we show that the slow (seconds to minutes) S to M fluorescence rise is reduced or absent in the stt7 mutant (which is locked in state 1) in C. reinhardtii. This suggests that the SM rise in wild type C. reinhardtii may be due to state 2 (low fluorescence state; larger antenna in PS I) to state 1 (high fluorescence state; larger antenna in PS II) transition, and thus, it can be used as an efficient and quick method to monitor state transitions in algae, as has already been shown in cyanobacteria (Papageorgiou et al. 1999, 2007; Kaňa et al. 2012). We also discuss our results on the effects of (1) 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,4-dimethyl urea, an inhibitor of electron transport; (2) n-propyl gallate, an inhibitor of alternative oxidase (AOX) in mitochondria and of plastid terminal oxidase in chloroplasts; (3) salicylhydroxamic acid, an inhibitor of AOX in mitochondria; and (4) carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, an uncoupler of phosphorylation, which dissipates proton gradient across membranes. Based on the data presented in this paper, we conclude that the slow PSMT fluorescence transient in C. reinhardtii is due to the superimposition of, at least, two phenomena: qE dependent non-photochemical quenching of the excited state of Chl, and state transitions. PMID:25663564

  15. Heterologous expression of the C-terminal antigenic domain of the malaria vaccine candidate Pfs48/45 in the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Jones, Carla S; Luong, Tiffany; Hannon, Michael; Tran, Miller; Gregory, James A; Shen, Zhouxin; Briggs, Steven P; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2013-03-01

    Malaria is a widespread and infectious disease that is a leading cause of death in many parts of the world. Eradication of malaria has been a major world health goal for decades, but one that still remains elusive. Other diseases have been eradicated using vaccination, but traditional vaccination methods have thus far been unsuccessful for malaria. Infection by Plasmodium species, the causative agent of malaria, is currently treated with drug-based therapies, but an increase in drug resistance has led to the need for new methods of treatment. A promising strategy for malaria treatment is to combine transmission blocking vaccines (TBVs) that prevent spread of disease with drug-based therapies to treat infected individuals. TBVs can be developed against surface protein antigens that are expressed during parasite reproduction in the mosquito. When the mosquito ingests blood from a vaccinated individual harboring the Plasmodium parasite, the antibodies generated by vaccination prevent completion of the parasites life-cycle. Animal studies have shown that immunization with Pfs48/45 results in the production of malaria transmission blocking antibodies; however, the development of this vaccine candidate has been hindered by poor expression in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts. Recently, the chloroplast of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has been used to express complex recombinant proteins. In this study, we show that the C-terminal antigenic region of the Pfs48/45 antigen can be expressed in the chloroplast of the green algae C. reinhardtii and that this recombinant protein has a conformation recognized by known transmission blocking antibodies. Production of this protein in algae has the potential to scale to the very large volumes required to meet the needs of millions at risk for contracting malaria. PMID:22592550

  16. XET Activity is Found Near Sites of Growth and Cell Elongation in Bryophytes and Some Green Algae: New Insights into the Evolution of Primary Cell Wall Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Van Sandt, Vicky S. T.; Stieperaere, Herman; Guisez, Yves; Verbelen, Jean-Pierre; Vissenberg, Kris

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims In angiosperms xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET)/hydrolase (XTH) is involved in reorganization of the cell wall during growth and development. The location of oligo-xyloglucan transglucosylation activity and the presence of XTH expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the earliest diverging extant plants, i.e. in bryophytes and algae, down to the Phaeophyta was examined. The results provide information on the presence of an XET growth mechanism in bryophytes and algae and contribute to the understanding of the evolution of cell wall elongation in general. Methods Representatives of the different plant lineages were pressed onto an XET test paper and assayed. XET or XET-related activity was visualized as the incorporation of fluorescent signal. The Physcomitrella genome database was screened for the presence of XTHs. In addition, using the 3? RACE technique searches were made for the presence of possible XTH ESTs in the Charophyta. Key Results XET activity was found in the three major divisions of bryophytes at sites corresponding to growing regions. In the Physcomitrella genome two putative XTH-encoding cDNA sequences were identified that contain all domains crucial for XET activity. Furthermore, XET activity was located at the sites of growth in Chara (Charophyta) and Ulva (Chlorophyta) and a putative XTH ancestral enzyme in Chara was identified. No XET activity was identified in the Rhodophyta or Phaeophyta. Conclusions XET activity was shown to be present in all major groups of green plants. These data suggest that an XET-related growth mechanism originated before the evolutionary divergence of the Chlorobionta and open new insights in the evolution of the mechanisms of primary cell wall expansion. PMID:17098750

  17. The Physiological Response of Two Green Calcifying Algae from the Great Barrier Reef towards High Dissolved Inorganic and Organic Carbon (DIC and DOC) Availability

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Friedrich Wilhelm; Vogel, Nikolas; Teichberg, Mirta; Uthicke, Sven; Wild, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Increasing dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations associated with ocean acidification can affect marine calcifiers, but local factors, such as high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations through sewage and algal blooms, may interact with this global factor. For calcifying green algae of the genus Halimeda, a key tropical carbonate producer that often occurs in coral reefs, no studies on these interactions have been reported. These data are however urgently needed to understand future carbonate production. Thus, we investigated the independent and combined effects of DIC (pCO2 402 μatm/ pHtot 8.0 and 996 μatm/ pHtot 7.7) and DOC (added as glucose in 0 and 294 μmol L-1) on growth, calcification and photosynthesis of H. macroloba and H. opuntia from the Great Barrier Reef in an incubation experiment over 16 days. High DIC concentrations significantly reduced dark calcification of H. opuntia by 130 % and led to net dissolution, but did not affect H. macroloba. High DOC concentrations significantly reduced daily oxygen production of H. opuntia and H. macroloba by 78 % and 43 %, respectively, and significantly reduced dark calcification of H. opuntia by 70%. Combined high DIC and DOC did not show any interactive effects for both algae, but revealed additive effects for H. opuntia where the combination of both factors reduced dark calcification by 162 % compared to controls. Such species-specific differences in treatment responses indicate H. opuntia is more susceptible to a combination of high DIC and DOC than H. macroloba. From an ecological perspective, results further suggest a reduction of primary production for Halimeda-dominated benthic reef communities under high DOC concentrations and additional decreases of carbonate accretion under elevated DIC concentrations, where H. opuntia dominates the benthic community. This may reduce biogenic carbonate sedimentation rates and hence the buffering capacity against further ocean acidification. PMID:26267650

  18. The physiological response of two green calcifying algae from the Great Barrier Reef towards high dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC and DOC) availability.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Friedrich Wilhelm; Vogel, Nikolas; Teichberg, Mirta; Uthicke, Sven; Wild, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Increasing dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations associated with ocean acidification can affect marine calcifiers, but local factors, such as high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations through sewage and algal blooms, may interact with this global factor. For calcifying green algae of the genus Halimeda, a key tropical carbonate producer that often occurs in coral reefs, no studies on these interactions have been reported. These data are however urgently needed to understand future carbonate production. Thus, we investigated the independent and combined effects of DIC (pCO2 402 μatm/ pHtot 8.0 and 996 μatm/ pHtot 7.7) and DOC (added as glucose in 0 and 294 μmol L-1) on growth, calcification and photosynthesis of H. macroloba and H. opuntia from the Great Barrier Reef in an incubation experiment over 16 days. High DIC concentrations significantly reduced dark calcification of H. opuntia by 130 % and led to net dissolution, but did not affect H. macroloba. High DOC concentrations significantly reduced daily oxygen production of H. opuntia and H. macroloba by 78 % and 43 %, respectively, and significantly reduced dark calcification of H. opuntia by 70%. Combined high DIC and DOC did not show any interactive effects for both algae, but revealed additive effects for H. opuntia where the combination of both factors reduced dark calcification by 162 % compared to controls. Such species-specific differences in treatment responses indicate H. opuntia is more susceptible to a combination of high DIC and DOC than H. macroloba. From an ecological perspective, results further suggest a reduction of primary production for Halimeda-dominated benthic reef communities under high DOC concentrations and additional decreases of carbonate accretion under elevated DIC concentrations, where H. opuntia dominates the benthic community. This may reduce biogenic carbonate sedimentation rates and hence the buffering capacity against further ocean acidification. PMID:26267650

  19. Acute and chronic effects of sodium tungstate on an aquatic invertebrate (Daphnia magna), green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), and zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Clements, Leslie N; Lemus, Ranulfo; Butler, Alicia D; Heim, Kate; Rebstock, Matthew R; Venezia, Carmen; Pardus, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Although aquatic toxicity data exists for tungstate substances, insufficient data of high quality and relevancy are available for conducting an adequate risk assessment. Therefore, a series of acute and chronic toxicity tests with sodium tungstate (Na(2)WO(4)) were conducted on an aquatic invertebrate (Daphnia magna), green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), and zebrafish (Danio rerio). Collectively, the data from these studies suggest that sodium tungstate exhibits a relatively low toxicity to these taxa under these test conditions. All studies were conducted in the same laboratory under good laboratory practice standards using Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development guidelines with the same stock of test material and the same analytical methods. All results are reported as mg W/L. The following toxicity values were based on mean measured concentrations. For D. magna, the 21 day test no-observable effect concentration (NOEC) was 25.9 mg W/L, and the 48-h median effective concentration (EC(50)) from the acute test was >95.5 mg W/L (the highest concentration tested). The P. subcapitata test yielded an ErC(50) of 31 mg W/L. A 38-day test with zebrafish resulted in an NOEC ?5.74 mg W/L with no effects at any concentration. The 96-h LC(50) from the acute test with zebrafish was >106 mg W/L. The results of the current acute study for daphnids and fish are consistent with published literature, whereas the algae results are different from previously reported values. Transformation/dissolution (T/D) studies, which were conducted according to United Nations Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals protocol, confirmed that the WO (4) (-2) anion accounted for most of the tungsten in solution. For classification purposes, the algae ecotoxity reference value was then compared with T/D data and would not classify Na(2)WO(4) as an aquatic toxicant under the European Union Classification, Labelling and Packaging scheme. PMID:22638979

  20. Diatom Community Response to Global Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, W. F.; Rose, J.; Langley, J. A.; Coyne, K. J.

    2008-12-01

    Diatoms are ubiquitous components of marine and freshwater environments and are responsible for nearly a quarter of the world's primary production. These microscopic algae are excellent indicators of environmental change and are routinely used as indicators of water quality. Diatom frustules have also been used to infer past climate change. With anticipated increases in atmospheric CO2 and eutrophication, understanding the contribution by diatoms as sinks for carbon in the world's oceans and estuaries is crucial. Benthic diatoms are especially significant in this respect due to their interactions with both atmospheric and sedimentary carbon cycling. We investigated changes in marsh sediment diatom community structure in response to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and nitrogen input. Twenty plots of brackish marsh were enclosed in environmental chambers and exposed to two levels of atmospheric CO2 (ambient and elevated) crossed with a nitrogen-addition treatment (2 x 2 factorial) beginning in May 2006. DNA was extracted from sediment samples obtained from environmentally controlled marsh plots in June, 2008. Using diatom-specific primers, the diatom community was amplified by PCR and evaluated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The diatom community composition was then compared across the four treatments (Amb, Amb+N, Elev, Elev+N) using multivariate statistical methods. Multidimensional scaling plots revealed clear grouping of samples according to treatment. A global analysis of similarity test was significant, as were all pairwise comparisons of treatments. The greatest changes in community structure occurred in the elevated CO2 group. In contrast, Amb+N was more similar to Elev+N, suggesting that nitrogen effects may mask elevated CO2 effects on diatom community structure in these plots.

  1. The Central Carbon and Energy Metabolism of Marine Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Obata, Toshihiro; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Nunes-Nesi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Diatoms are heterokont algae derived from a secondary symbiotic event in which a eukaryotic host cell acquired an eukaryotic red alga as plastid. The multiple endosymbiosis and horizontal gene transfer processes provide diatoms unusual opportunities for gene mixing to establish distinctive biosynthetic pathways and metabolic control structures. Diatoms are also known to have significant impact on global ecosystems as one of the most dominant phytoplankton species in the contemporary ocean. As such their metabolism and growth regulating factors have been of particular interest for many years. The publication of the genomic sequences of two independent species of diatoms and the advent of an enhanced experimental toolbox for molecular biological investigations have afforded far greater opportunities than were previously apparent for these species and re-invigorated studies regarding the central carbon metabolism of diatoms. In this review we discuss distinctive features of the central carbon metabolism of diatoms and its response to forthcoming environmental changes and recent advances facilitating the possibility of industrial use of diatoms for oil production. Although the operation and importance of several key pathways of diatom metabolism have already been demonstrated and determined, we will also highlight other potentially important pathways wherein this has yet to be achieved. PMID:24957995

  2. [Computational analysis of a cys-loop ligand gated ion channel from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii].

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    Plants possess several neurotransmitters with well-known physiological roles. Currently only receptors for glutamate were reported to be found in plants, while receptors for acetylcholine, serotonin and GABA have not yet been reported. In animals, these neurotransmitters act via one class of ligand binding ion channels called Cys-loop receptors which play a major role in fast synaptic transmission. They show the presence of two domains namely Neurotransmitter-gated ion-channel ligand-binding domain (Pfam: PF02931) and Neurotransmitter-gated transmembrane domain (Pfam: PF02932). Cys-loop receptors are also known in prokaryotes. No cys-loop receptor has been characterized from plants yet. In this study, the Ensembl plants database was searched for proteins with these two domains in the sequenced plant genomes, what resulted in only one protein (LIC1) from the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. BLAST and profile HMM searches against the pdb structure database showed that this protein is related to animal and prokaryotic cys-loop receptors, although the cysteine residues characteristic of the cys-loop are absent. Physico-chemical and sequence analysis indicate that LIC1 is an anionic receptor. A model of this protein was generated using homology modeling based on a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of Torpedo marmorata. The characteristic extracellular domain (ECD) and transmembrane domain (TMD) are well structured but the intercellular region is poorly formed. This is the first report on a detailed characterization of a cys-loop receptor from the plant kingdom. PMID:26510602

  3. Azoxystrobin-induced excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and inhibition of photosynthesis in the unicellular green algae Chlorella vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lei; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the short-term toxicity of azoxystrobin (AZ), one of strobilurins used as an effective fungicidal agent to control the Asian soybean rust, on aquatic unicellular algae Chlorella vulgaris. The median percentile inhibition concentration (IC₅₀) of AZ for C. vulgaris was found to be 510 μg L(-1). We showed that the algal cells were obviously depressed or shrunk in 300 and 600 μg L(-1) AZ treatments by using the electron microscopy. Furthermore, 19, 75, and 300 μg L(-1) AZ treatments decreased the soluble protein content and chlorophyll concentrations in C. vulgaris and altered the energy-photosynthesis-related mRNA expression levels in 48- and 96-h exposure periods. Simultaneously, our results showed that AZ could increase the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) level and compromise superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and glutathione (GSH) content. These situations might render C. vulgaris more vulnerable to oxidative damage. Overall, the present study indicated that AZ might be toxic to the growth of C. vulgaris, affect energy-photosynthesis-related mRNA expressions, and induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction in C. vulgaris. PMID:25672875

  4. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using marine algae Caulerpa racemosa and their antibacterial activity against some human pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiraven, T.; Sundaramanickam, A.; Shanmugam, N.; Balasubramanian, T.

    2015-04-01

    We present the synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using Caulerpa racemosa, a marine algae. Fresh C. racemosa was collected from the Gulf of Mannar, Southeast coast of India. The seaweed extract was used for the synthesis of AgNO3 at room temperature. UV-visible spectrometry study revealed surface plasmon resonance at 413 nm. The characterization of silver nanoparticle was carried out using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). FT-IR measurements revealed the possible functional groups responsible for reduction and stabilization of the nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the particles were crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry.TEM micrograph has shown the formation of silver nanoparticles with the size in the range of 5-25 nm. The synthesized AgNPs have shown the best antibacterial activity against human pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis. The above eco-friendly synthesis procedure of AgNPs could be easily scaled up in future for the industrial and therapeutic needs.

  5. Biosorption of hexavalent chromium by raw and acid-treated green alga Oedogonium hatei from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V K; Rastogi, A

    2009-04-15

    The hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), biosorption by raw and acid-treated Oedogonium hatei were studied from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments were conducted to determine the biosorption properties of the biomass. The optimum conditions of biosorption were found to be: a biomass dose of 0.8 g/L, contact time of 110 min, pH and temperature 2.0 and 318 K respectively. Both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm equations could fit the equilibrium data. Under the optimal conditions, the biosorption capacities of the raw and acid-treated algae were 31 and 35.2 mg Cr(VI) per g of dry adsorbent, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption of Cr(VI) onto algal biomass was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic under studied conditions. The pseudo-first-order kinetic model adequately describe the kinetic data in comparison to second-order model and the process involving rate-controlling step is much complex involving both boundary layer and intra-particle diffusion processes. The physical and chemical properties of the biosorbent were determined and the nature of biomass-metal ions interactions were evaluated by FTIR analysis, which showed the participation of -COOH, -OH and -NH(2) groups in the biosorption process. Biosorbents could be regenerated using 0.1 M NaOH solution, with up to 75% recovery. Thus, the biomass used in this work proved to be effective materials for the treatment of chromium bearing aqueous solutions. PMID:18691812

  6. Metagenome changes in the mesophilic biogas-producing community during fermentation of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Roland; Lakatos, Gergely; Bjti, Tams; Marti, Gergely; Bagi, Zoltn; Kis, Mihly; Kovcs, Attila; cs, Norbert; Rkhely, Gbor; Kovcs, Kornl L

    2015-12-10

    A microalgal biomass offers a potential alternative to the maize silage commonly used in biogas technology. In this study, photoautotrophically grown Scenedesmus obliquus was used as biogas substrate. This microalga has a low C/N ratio of 8.5 relative to the optimum 20-30. A significant increase in the ammonium ion content was not observed. The methane content of the biogas generated from Sc. obliquus proved to be higher than that from maize silage, but the specific biogas yield was lower. Semi-continuous steady biogas production lasted for 2 months. Because of the thick cell wall of Sc. obliquus, the biomass-degrading microorganisms require additional time to digest its biomass. The methane concentration in the biogas was also high, in co-digestion (i.e., 52-56%) as in alga-fed anaerobic digestion (i.e., 55-62%). These results may be related to the relative predominance of the order Clostridiales in co-digestion and to the more balanced C/N ratio of the mixed algal-maize biomass. Predominance of the order Methanosarcinales was observed in the domain Archaea, which supported the diversity of metabolic pathways in the process. PMID:26087313

  7. Lipid content and fatty acid composition of green algae Scenedesmus obliquus grown in a constant cell density apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, K. J.; Nakhost, Z.; Barzana, E.; Karel, M.

    1987-01-01

    The lipids of alga Scenedesmus obliquus grown under controlled conditions were separated and fractionated by column and thin-layer chromatography, and fatty acid composition of each lipid component was studied by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). Total lipids were 11.17%, and neutral lipid, glycolipid and phospholipid fractions were 7.24%, 2.45% and 1.48% on a dry weight basis, respectively. The major neutral lipids were diglycerides, triglycerides, free sterols, hydrocarbons and sterol esters. The glycolipids were: monogalactosyl diglyceride, digalactosyl diglyceride, esterified sterol glycoside, and sterol glycoside. The phospholipids included: phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl glycerol and phosphatidyl ethanolamine. Fourteen fatty acids were identified in the four lipid fractions by GLC. The main fatty acids were C18:2, C16:0, C18:3(alpha), C18:1, C16:3, C16:1, and C16:4. Total unsaturated fatty acid and essential fatty acid compositions of the total algal lipids were 80% and 38%, respectively.

  8. Effect of aponin, a substance from a green alga Nannochloris species, on the spore germination of two fungi.

    PubMed

    Halvorson, M J; TeStrake, D; Martin, D F

    1984-01-01

    Fungistasis which occurs in soil has also been reported to exist in seawater. Nannochloris sp. (Chlorophyta) found along the west coast of Florida, has been shown to elaborate a compound which is cytolytic towards Ptychodiscus brevis, the Florida red tide organism. Aponin, a chloroform extract containing the cytolytic compound or compounds, was tested on the spore germination of two fungi, Dendryphiella salina, a facultative marine organism and Curvularia sp. a terrestrial one. Aponin was stimulatory towards D. salina at all concentrations tested, while Curvularia sp. was stimulated at the highest concentration used but inhibited at the lower concentrations. The culture age of the two fungi did not alter the relative sensitivity of both fungi towards aponin but the germination percentage of Curvularia sp. was affected by the culture age. An aqueous extract of Nannochloris sp. was also tested on the two fungi and was shown to be inhibitory to both. The results seem to indicate that more than one compound from Nannochloris sp. is capable of affecting spore germination indicating that this alga might be playing a role in the reported fungistasis in seawater. Gulf seawater was tested and found to have little if any fungistatic activity. PMID:6530959

  9. Nutritional And Taste Characteristics Of Algae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karel, M.; Nakhost, Z.

    1992-01-01

    Report describes investigation of chemical composition of blue-green algae Synechococcus 6311, as well as preparation of protein isolate from green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and incorporation into variety of food products evaluated for taste. Part of program to investigate growth of microalgae aboard spacecraft for use as food.

  10. Evolution and Functional Diversification of Fructose Bisphosphate Aldolase Genes in Photosynthetic Marine Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Andrew E.; Moustafa, Ahmed; Montsant, Anton; Eckert, Angelika; Kroth, Peter G.; Bowler, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Diatoms and other chlorophyll-c containing, or chromalveolate, algae are among the most productive and diverse phytoplankton in the ocean. Evolutionarily, chlorophyll-c algae are linked through common, although not necessarily monophyletic, acquisition of plastid endosymbionts of red as well as most likely green algal origin. There is also strong evidence for a relatively high level of lineage-specific bacterial gene acquisition within chromalveolates. Therefore, analyses of gene content and derivation in chromalveolate taxa have indicated particularly diverse origins of their overall gene repertoire. As a single group of functionally related enzymes spanning two distinct gene families, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolases (FBAs) illustrate the influence on core biochemical pathways of specific evolutionary associations among diatoms and other chromalveolates with various plastid-bearing and bacterial endosymbionts. Protein localization and activity, gene expression, and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum contains five FBA genes with very little overall functional overlap. Three P. tricornutum FBAs, one class I and two class II, are plastid localized, and each appears to have a distinct evolutionary origin as well as function. Class I plastid FBA appears to have been acquired by chromalveolates from a red algal endosymbiont, whereas one copy of class II plastid FBA is likely to have originated from an ancient green algal endosymbiont. The other copy appears to be the result of a chromalveolate-specific gene duplication. Plastid FBA I and chromalveolate-specific class II plastid FBA are localized in the pyrenoid region of the chloroplast where they are associated with ?-carbonic anhydrase, which is known to play a significant role in regulation of the diatom carbon concentrating mechanism. The two pyrenoid-associated FBAs are distinguished by contrasting gene expression profiles under nutrient limiting compared with optimal CO2 fixation conditions, suggestive of a distinct specialized function for each. Cytosolically localized FBAs in P. tricornutum likely play a role in glycolysis and cytoskeleton function and seem to have originated from the stramenopile host cell and from diatom-specific bacterial gene transfer, respectively. PMID:21903677

  11. Aureochrome 1a Is Involved in the Photoacclimation of the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Jungandreas, Anne; Bartulos, Carolina Rio; Gruber, Ansgar; Jakob, Torsten; Kroth, Peter G.; Wilhelm, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Aureochromes constitute a family of blue light (BL) receptors which are found exclusively in heterokont algae such as diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) and yellow-green algae (Xanthophyceae). Previous studies on the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum indicate that the formation of a high light acclimated phenotype is mediated by the absorption of BL and that aureochromes might play an important role in this process. P. tricornutum possesses four genes encoding aureochromes. In this study we confirm the nuclear localisation of the PtAUREO1a, 1b and 2 proteins. Furthermore we studied the physiology of light quality acclimation in genetically transformed P. tricornutum cell lines with reduced expression of the aureochrome 1a gene. The results demonstrate that the AUREO1a protein has a distinct function in light acclimation. However, rather unexpectedly AUREO1a seems to repress high light acclimation which resulted in a state of hyper high light acclimation in aureo1a silenced strains. This was indicated by characteristic changes of several photosynthetic parameters, including increased maximum photosynthesis rates, decreased chlorophyll a contents per cell and increased values of non-photochemical quenching in AUREO1a silenced strains compared to wild type cultures. Strikingly, AUREO1a silenced strains exhibited phenotypic differences compared to wild type cells during cultivation under BL as well as under red light (RL) conditions. Therefore, AUREO1a might influence the RL signalling process, suggesting an interaction of AUREO1a with RL perception pathways. PMID:24073211

  12. RNAi knock-down of LHCBM1, 2 and 3 increases photosynthetic H2 production efficiency of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Oey, Melanie; Ross, Ian L; Stephens, Evan; Steinbeck, Janina; Wolf, Juliane; Radzun, Khairul Adzfa; Kügler, Johannes; Ringsmuth, Andrew K; Kruse, Olaf; Hankamer, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Single cell green algae (microalgae) are rapidly emerging as a platform for the production of sustainable fuels. Solar-driven H2 production from H2O theoretically provides the highest-efficiency route to fuel production in microalgae. This is because the H2-producing hydrogenase (HYDA) is directly coupled to the photosynthetic electron transport chain, thereby eliminating downstream energetic losses associated with the synthesis of carbohydrate and oils (feedstocks for methane, ethanol and oil-based fuels). Here we report the simultaneous knock-down of three light-harvesting complex proteins (LHCMB1, 2 and 3) in the high H2-producing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant Stm6Glc4 using an RNAi triple knock-down strategy. The resultant Stm6Glc4L01 mutant exhibited a light green phenotype, reduced expression of LHCBM1 (20.6% ±0.27%), LHCBM2 (81.2% ±0.037%) and LHCBM3 (41.4% ±0.05%) compared to 100% control levels, and improved light to H2 (180%) and biomass (165%) conversion efficiencies. The improved H2 production efficiency was achieved at increased solar flux densities (450 instead of ∼100 µE m(-2) s(-1)) and high cell densities which are best suited for microalgae production as light is ideally the limiting factor. Our data suggests that the overall improved photon-to-H2 conversion efficiency is due to: 1) reduced loss of absorbed energy by non-photochemical quenching (fluorescence and heat losses) near the photobioreactor surface; 2) improved light distribution in the reactor; 3) reduced photoinhibition; 4) early onset of HYDA expression and 5) reduction of O2-induced inhibition of HYDA. The Stm6Glc4L01 phenotype therefore provides important insights for the development of high-efficiency photobiological H2 production systems. PMID:23613840

  13. RNAi Knock-Down of LHCBM1, 2 and 3 Increases Photosynthetic H2 Production Efficiency of the Green Alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Oey, Melanie; Ross, Ian L.; Stephens, Evan; Steinbeck, Janina; Wolf, Juliane; Radzun, Khairul Adzfa; Kügler, Johannes; Ringsmuth, Andrew K.; Kruse, Olaf; Hankamer, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Single cell green algae (microalgae) are rapidly emerging as a platform for the production of sustainable fuels. Solar-driven H2 production from H2O theoretically provides the highest-efficiency route to fuel production in microalgae. This is because the H2-producing hydrogenase (HYDA) is directly coupled to the photosynthetic electron transport chain, thereby eliminating downstream energetic losses associated with the synthesis of carbohydrate and oils (feedstocks for methane, ethanol and oil-based fuels). Here we report the simultaneous knock-down of three light-harvesting complex proteins (LHCMB1, 2 and 3) in the high H2-producing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant Stm6Glc4 using an RNAi triple knock-down strategy. The resultant Stm6Glc4L01 mutant exhibited a light green phenotype, reduced expression of LHCBM1 (20.6% ±0.27%), LHCBM2 (81.2% ±0.037%) and LHCBM3 (41.4% ±0.05%) compared to 100% control levels, and improved light to H2 (180%) and biomass (165%) conversion efficiencies. The improved H2 production efficiency was achieved at increased solar flux densities (450 instead of ∼100 µE m−2 s−1) and high cell densities which are best suited for microalgae production as light is ideally the limiting factor. Our data suggests that the overall improved photon-to-H2 conversion efficiency is due to: 1) reduced loss of absorbed energy by non-photochemical quenching (fluorescence and heat losses) near the photobioreactor surface; 2) improved light distribution in the reactor; 3) reduced photoinhibition; 4) early onset of HYDA expression and 5) reduction of O2-induced inhibition of HYDA. The Stm6Glc4L01 phenotype therefore provides important insights for the development of high-efficiency photobiological H2 production systems. PMID:23613840

  14. Influence of agglomeration of cerium oxide nanoparticles and speciation of cerium(III) on short term effects to the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Rhder, Lena A; Brandt, Tanja; Sigg, Laura; Behra, Renata

    2014-07-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NP) are increasingly used in industrial applications and may be released to the aquatic environment. The fate of CeO2 NP and effects on algae are largely unknown. In this study, the short term effects of CeO2 NP in two different agglomeration states on the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were examined. The role of dissolved cerium(III) on toxicity, its speciation and the dissolution of CeO2 NP were considered. The role of cell wall of C. reinhardtii as a barrier and its influence on the sensitivity to CeO2 NP and cerium(III) was evaluated by testing both, the wild type and the cell wall free mutant of C. reinhardtii. Characterization showed that CeO2 NP had a surface charge of ?0mV at physiological pH and agglomerated in exposure media. Phosphate stabilized CeO2 NP at pH 7.5 over 24h. This effect was exploited to test CeO2 NP dispersed in phosphate with a mean size of 140nm and agglomerated in absence of phosphate with a mean size of 2000nm. The level of dissolved cerium(III) in CeO2 NP suspensions was very low and between 0.1 and 27nM in all tested media. Exposure of C. reinhardtii to Ce(NO3)3 decreased the photosynthetic yield in a concentration dependent manner with EC50 of 7.50.84?M for wild type and EC50 of 6.30.53?M for the cell wall free mutant. The intracellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased upon exposure to Ce(NO3)3 with effective concentrations similar to those inhibiting photosynthesis. The agglomerated CeO2 NP caused a slight decrease of photosynthetic yield at the highest concentrations (100?M), while no effect was observed for dispersed CeO2 NP. The low toxicity of agglomerated CeO2 NP was attributed quantitatively to Ce(3+) ions co-occurring in the nanoparticle suspension whereas for dispersed CeO2 NP, dissolved Ce(3+) was precipitated with phosphate and not bioavailable. Furthermore CeO2 NP did not affect the intracellular ROS level. The cell wall free mutant and wild type of C. reinhardtii showed the same sensitivity to CeO2 NP and Ce(NO3)3, indicating a minor role of the cell wall on toxicity. For both algae strains, a flocculation of cells was observed upon exposure to agglomerated CeO2 NP and Ce(NO3)3, only algae exposed to agglomerated CeO2 NP were tightly packed in exopolymeric substances. PMID:24747084

  15. Nitrogen Limitation and Slow Drying Induce Desiccation Tolerance in Conjugating Green