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Sample records for green manures

  1. Green manures and plant disease management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of green manures, which involves the incorporation of fresh plant material, has traditionally been primarily for the purpose of soil enrichment through the addition of plant organic matter and nutrients. However, green manures produce many changes in soil physical, chemical, and biological p...

  2. Effect of green manure on E. coli O157:H7 survival in soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green manure is the remnants of crops (stems, outer leaves, tops of leaves, etc.) that remain in the field after harvest, and are plowed back into the field to increase fertility. The role of green manure in the survival of E. coli O157:H7 in soil has not been examined. We evaluated three types of g...

  3. Green farming systems for the Southeast USA using manure-to-energy conversion platforms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock operations in the Southeastern USA are faced with implementing holistic solutions to address effective manure treatment through efficient energy management and safeguarding of supporting natural resources. By integrating waste-to-energy conversion platforms, future green farming systems ca...

  4. Humus status of soddy-podzolic soil upon application of different green manures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripol'Skaya, L. N.; Romanovskaya, D. K.; Shlepetiene, A.

    2008-08-01

    Results of studying the effect of different plant species on the humus status of loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soil were generalized. It was found that the application of different green manure species ( Lupinus luteus L., Trifolium pratense L., and Raphanus sativus L.) and straw from cereal crops ( Secale cereale, Hordeum L.) under percolative conditions helped to sustain a stable humus budget in grain agrophytocenoses. A significant change in the fractional composition of HAs and FAs occurred under the effect of green manure. The fractions of free HAs and those bound to clay minerals accumulated with the application of Trifolium pratense and Raphanus sativus biomass and cereal straw. Lower amounts of aggressive and free FAs were formed in the soil with the application of straw and fallow plants. The decomposition of green manure and the formation of humic substances also depended on the hydrothermal conditions during application of manure.

  5. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    PubMed

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

  6. Green Manure Addition to Soil Increases Grain Zinc Concentration in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A.; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H.; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg−1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg−1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg−1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)−1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)−1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

  7. Effects of green manure cover crops on Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations.

    PubMed

    Tuan, Shu-Jen; Li, Nian-Jhen; Yeh, Chih-Chun; Tang, Li-Cheng; Chi, Hsin

    2014-06-01

    Spodoptera litura (F.) is an important pest of numerous agro-economic crops, including green manure cover crops. In Taiwan, sesbania (Sesbanin roxburghii Merr.), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), and rapeseed (Brassicae campestris L. variety chinensis) are the most popular green manure crops; sesbania and sunn hemp are commonly planted in warm seasons, whereas rapeseed is grown in the winter. In this study, life-table data for S. litura reared on these three green manures were collected to evaluate their roles as refuges of this pest. The net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, and finite rate of increase of S. litura were the highest when reared on sesbania (1428.1 offspring, 0.2327 d(-1), 1.2621 d(-1)), followed by sunn hemp (778.4 offspring, 0.2070 d(-1), 1.2300 d(-1)) and rapeseed (737.6 offspring, 0.2040 d(-1), 1.2263 d(-1)). The high growth rates on these green manure crops show that they can serve as potential breeding sites for S. litura. Population projection demonstrated the rapid growth of S. litura on sesbania, sunn hemp, and rapeseed as well. Because most growers have traditionally ignored pest management in green manure fields, the mass emergence of S. litura in these fields may cause unexpected infestations in nearby vegetable, corn, and peanut crops. This study shows that the use of green manures as sources of nutrients should be critically reassessed and an area-wide pest management program should be instituted by taking the population of S. litura in green manure fields into consideration. PMID:25026645

  8. Mechanism of disease suppression of Fusarium wilt of watermelon by cover crop green manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fall planted Vicia villosa cover crop incorporated in spring as a green manure can suppress Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (FON)] of watermelon in Maryland and Delaware. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the mechanism of this suppression was general or specific, and ...

  9. [Further reduction of nitrogen fertilizer application in paddy field under green manuring of Taihu Area, China].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong; Yan, Ting-mei; Qiao, Jun; Yang, Lin-zhang; Tang, Fang; Song, Yun-fei

    2015-06-01

    This study focused on the nitrogen loss via runoff, change of nitrogen in different forms in surface water in paddy field, and grain yield, through further reduction of nitrogen fertilizer application rate under green manuring without basal dressing. Results showed that with 150 kg · hm(-2) inorganic N fertilizer input after return of green manure to soil, no basal dressing could not only sharply reduce N concentration in surface water and decrease 17.2% of N loss, but also increase 2.8% of grain yield in comparison with basal dressing. It was a worthwhile farming method that inorganic nitrogen fertilizer was not used for basal dressing but for topdressing after return of green ma- nure to soil in Taihu Area. However, the grain yield would decrease if the rate of topdressing nitro- gen was excessively reduced or increased. After all, it was feasible to realize harmonization of grain yield and environmental benefits in Taihu Area, with 133 kg · hm(-2) inorganic N fertilizer input after return of green manure to soil as well as no application of basal dressing, which could greatly reduce N fertilizer input and N loss as well as ensure rice yield. PMID:26572018

  10. [Effects of Green Manure Intercropping and Straw Mulching on Winter Rape Rhizosphere Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Respiration].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Quan; Wang, Long-chang; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Sai; Du, Juan; Zhao, Lin-lu

    2016-03-15

    Under the background of global warming, the farmland soil respiration has become the main way of agricultural carbon emissions. And green manure has great potential to curb greenhouse gas emissions and achieve energy conservation and emissions reduction. However, in purple soil region of Southwest, China, soil respiration under green manure remains unclear, especially in the winter and intercropping. Through the green manure ( Chinese milk vetch) intercropping with rape, therefore, we compared the effects of rape rhizosphere under straw mulching. The soil organic carbon and soil respiration were examined. The results showed, compared with straw mulching, root separation was the major influencing factors of soil organic carbon on rape rhizosphere. Soil organic carbon was significantly decreased by root interaction. In addition, straw mulching promoted while green manure intercropping inhibited the soil respiration. Soil respiration presented the general characteristics of fall-rise-fall due to the strong influence of rape growth period. Therefore, it showed a cubic curve relationship with soil temperature. PMID:27337908

  11. The green manure value of seven clover species grown as annual crops on low and high fertility temperate soils.

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, Shirley M.; King, Jane R.; Izaurralde, Roberto C.; O'Donovan, John T.

    2009-05-01

    Annual and perennial clover species may differ in green manure value. Seven clover (Trifolium) species were grown as annual crops on low fertility (Breton) and high fertility 15 (Edmonton) soils in Alberta

  12. Application of rye green manure in wheat rotation system alters soil water content and chemical characteristics under dryland condition in Maragheh.

    PubMed

    Mosavi, S B; Jafarzadeh, A A; Nishabouri, M R; Ostan, Sh; Feiziasl, V

    2009-01-15

    This study was carried out with or without rye green manure along with 4 nitrogen fertilization treatments (0, 26, 103 and 337 (kg N ha(-1)) in 3 rotation system (green manure-wheat). Results showed that, although treatment effects on dryland wheat grain yield was not significant, but maximum grain yield (2484 kg ha(-1)) was obtained from application of rye green manure along with 26 kg N ha(-1); which is 22% more than check (without rye green manure) treatment. Green manure application with or without nitrogen increased EC (dS m(-1)), but decreased OC, P (av.), Cu (av.), Mn (av.), Zn (av.) and sand in the soil. In contrast to green manure, application of nitrogen along with green manure increased saturation and clay. In the stage of stem appearance, soil moisture content decreased 8% in green-manure application but with nitrogen application the moisture increased 6% compared with check in 0-20 cm depth. It can be concluded that, green manure application is useful along with nitrogen fertilizer application in long term. This treatment could increase soil moisture content, which leads to higher wheat grain yield in dryland areas. In addition, green manure application could change some soil characteristics such as soil TNV%, which decreases availability of some essential nutrients for dryland wheat. PMID:19579941

  13. Use of Green Manure Crops in Control of Hirschmanniella mucronata and H. oryzae in Irrigated Rice

    PubMed Central

    Prot, Jean-Claude; Soriano, Imelda R. S.; Matias, Danilo M.; Savary, Serge

    1992-01-01

    Four field experiments were conducted to study the effect of Sesbania rostrata and Aeschynomene afraspera as rotational and green manure crops on the population dynamics of Hirschmanniella mucronata and H. oryzae, and subsequent rice yields. The sequential cropping of the legumes with rice controlled both nematode species. In two experiments, yield of rice was related to the nematode population denisites at planting and harvesting of the second rice crop (R² = 0.391, P < 0.001, and R² = 0.57, P < 0.001), regardless of the treatments. Rice yield increases were attributed to nutritional effect of the green manure and the reduction of the nematode populations or the modification of a factor(s) linked to the nematode populations induced by their cropping. As the two leguminous crops do not generate direct return, using them to control the rice-root nematodes was not economical, despite the significant yield increase obtained. PMID:19283213

  14. Leaching of cyanogenic glucosides and cyanide from white clover green manure.

    PubMed

    Bjarnholt, Nanna; Laegdsmand, Mette; Hansen, Hans C B; Jacobsen, Ole H; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2008-06-01

    Use of crops for green manure as a substitute for chemical fertilizers and pesticides is an important approach towards more sustainable agricultural practices. Green manure from white clover is rich in nitrogen but white clover also produces the cyanogenic glucosides (CGs) linamarin and lotaustralin; CGs release toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) upon hydrolysis which may be utilized for pest control. We demonstrate that applying CGs in the form of a liquid extract of white clover to large columns of intact agricultural soils can result in leaching of toxic cyanide species to a depth of at least 1m. Although degradation of the CGs during leaching proceeded with half lives in the interval 1.5-35 h depending on soil characteristics, a fraction of the applied CGs (0.9-3.2%) was recovered in the leachate as either CGs or toxic cyanide species. Detoxification of the HCN formed was rapid in soil and leachate from both sandy and loamy soil. However, 30% of the leachate samples exceeded the EU threshold value of 50 micrgl(-1) total cyanide for drinking water and 85% exceeded the US threshold of 5 micrgl(-1) for cyanide chronic ecotoxicity in fresh water. This study demonstrates that even easily degradable natural products present in crop plants as defense compounds pose a threat to the quality of groundwater and surface waters. This aspect needs consideration in assessment of the risk associated with use of crops as green manure to replace chemical fertilizers and pesticides as well as in genetic engineering approaches to design crops with improved pest resistance. PMID:18472138

  15. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Azzaroli Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

    2012-02-01

    Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilized cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM) production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010 all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (110 kg N ha-1) before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilized cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested) increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

  16. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Azzaroli Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

    2012-07-01

    Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and return as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilised cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM) production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (60 kg NH4+-N + 50 kg organic N ha-1) before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilised cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested) increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Based on measurements covering the growing season 2010, organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilisation (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

  17. Performance of arugula (Eruca sativa) as a green manure and trap crop for fungal pathogens and parasitic nematode suppression in potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Green manures in combination with synthetic nematicides are used to manage plant parasitic nematodes in a potato cropping system. Arugula, Eruca sativa, a Brassica plant, has shown great potential for controlling plant parasitic nematodes as, it has a dual role. Arugula is both a green manure (it co...

  18. Evaluation of Millet and Rapeseed as Rotation or Green Manure Crops to Control Nematodes in Orchard Replant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four annual crops, including Canadian forage pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) hybrid 101, velvetbean (Mucuna spp. ), rapeseed (Brassica napus) cv. Dwarf Essex, and buckwheat (Fagopyrum spp.), were evaluated as rotation or green manure crops for suppression of dagger (Xiphinema americanum) and lesio...

  19. Chicken manure enhanced yield and quality of field-grown kale and collard greens.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F; Turley, Eric T; Hill, Regina R; Snyder, John C

    2014-01-01

    Organic matter and nutrients in municipal sewage sludge (SS) and chicken manure (CM) could be recycled and used for land farming to enhance fertility and physical properties of soils. Three soil management practices were used at Kentucky State University Research Farm, Franklin County, to study the impact of soil amendments on kale (Brassica oleracea cv. Winterbar) and collard (Brassica oleracea cv. Top Bunch) yields and quality. The three soil management practices were: (i) SS mixed with native soil at 15 t acre(-1), (ii) CM mixed with native soil at 15 t acre(-1), and (iii) no-mulch (NM) native soil for comparison purposes. At harvest, collard and kale green plants were graded according to USDA standards. Plants grown in CM and SS amended soil produced the greatest number of U.S. No. 1 grade of collard and kale greens compared to NM native soil. Across all treatments, concentrations of ascorbic acid and phenols were generally greater in kale than in collards. Overall, CM and SS enhanced total phenols and ascorbic acid contents of kale and collard compared to NM native soil. We investigated the chemical and physical properties of each of the three soil treatments that might explain variability among treatments and the impact of soil amendments on yield, phenols, and ascorbic acid contents of kale and collard green grown under this practice. PMID:24502217

  20. Oxisol decapitated recovery with green manure and sewage sludge: Effect on growth of Astronium fraxinifolium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souto Filho, S. N.; Marchini, D. C.; de Arruda, O. G.; Giácomo, R. G.; Alves, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    Incorrect use of land and large buildings in rural areas are causing changes to it, making them less productive and thus increasing the degraded areas. Techniques aimed at ecological restoration of degraded soils have been investigated. In recovery planning a degraded area, the great challenge to be achieved is the establishment of a A horizon, so that from then on, the process is catalyzed by the biosphere, and there may be other horizons, as the natural conditioning. In this sense the positive changes were investigated in an environment of decapitated Savannah Oxisol, which was removed a layer 8.5 m thick to build a hydroelectric power plant. For recovery, we used a native tree species, green manure, sewage sludge and grass. The studied soil is under human intervention techniques for recovery for seven years. The experimental design was randomized blocks with five treatments and five replications. The treatments were: 1-Control- bare soil (without management), 2-Astronium fraxinifolium Schott; 3-A. fraxinifolium + Canavalia ensiformis; 4- A. fraxinifolium + Raphanus sativus by 2005 was replaced in 2006 by Crotalaria juncea; 5- A. fraxinifolium + Brachiaria decumbens + sewage sludge (60 t ha-1, dry basis). We studied in 2010 and 2011 the development of tree species (stem diameter and plant height), the fresh and dry matter of green manures and B. decumbens. The results were analyzed by performing the variance analysis and Tukey test at 5% probability to compare averages. The rate of plant growth during the periods studied in the treatment with sewage sludge was higher than other treatments, so this is the most appropriate management for the recovery of degraded soil under study.

  1. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

    2012-04-01

    Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non fertilized cereal reference during the GM year (2009). Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+ 0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) resulting in generally higher N2O emissions during barley production. Addition of biogas residue (80 kg N ha-1) in 2010 to previously non mulched GM and unfertilized cereal plots (2009) had no significant effect on cumulative N2O emissions relative to a treatment receiving the same amount of N in form of mulched aboveground GM. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, organic amendments (previously mulched or harvested GM, biorest) increased N2O emissions relative to a reference treatment with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

  2. Biofumigation for control of pale potato cyst nematodes: activity of brassica leaf extracts and green manures on Globodera pallida in vitro and in soil.

    PubMed

    Lord, James S; Lazzeri, Luca; Atkinson, Howard J; Urwin, Peter E

    2011-07-27

    The effects of brassica green manures on Globodera pallida were assessed in vitro and in soil microcosms. Twelve of 22 brassica accessions significantly inhibited the motility of G. pallida infective juveniles in vitro. Green manures of selected brassicas were then incorporated into soil containing encysted eggs of G. pallida. Their effect on egg viability was estimated by quantifying nematode actin 1 mRNA by RT-qPCR. The leaf glucosinolate profiles of the plants were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Three Brassica juncea lines (Nemfix, Fumus, and ISCI99) containing high concentrations of 2-propenyl glucosinolate were the most effective, causing over 95% mortality of encysted eggs of G. pallida in polyethylene-covered soil. The toxic effects of green manures were greater in polyethylene-covered than in open soil. Toxicity in soil correlated with the concentration of isothiocyanate-producing glucosinolate but not total glucosinolate in green manures. PMID:21718044

  3. Effect of green manure in soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomato in the no tillage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson; Rossi, Fabricio; Dias, Fabio; Trivelin, Paulo; Tavares, Silvio; Muraoka, Takashi; Ambrosano, Glaucia; Salgado, Gabriela; Otsuk, Ivani

    2016-04-01

    The use of alternative fertilizers may reduce costs and promote sustainability to the family-based agro ecological production system. The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of the green manure to the quality of the soil and the transference of the nitrogen to cherry tomatoes using the N-15 abundance method (FAPESP 11/05648-3). The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, APTA/SAA, SP, Brazil. The IAC collection accesses 21 of cherry tomatoes were used. Each Plot consisted of six plants spaced 0.5 m and 0.9 m between rows, using a randomized-blocks design with eight treatments and five repetitions. The treatments consisted of green manure crops intercropped or not with cherry tomato, namely: jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), velvet bean (Mucuna deeringiana), mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek), white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Besides two witnesses, one with and another without corn straw. Five leaves with petiole of each plant part from the first ripe fruit and a bunch of fruits per plant are harvested. Samples of leaf and fruit were weighed and dried in a forced air oven and its dry weight measured. A subsample was ground in a Wiley mill and brought to the mass spectrometer (ANCA GSL) on the Stable Isotopes Laboratory of CENA/USP for δN-15 analysis. It measured the percentage of the transference of N from the green manure to the tomato; the tomato plants grown in monocropping were considered a control. It was found that 27 % of the N present in the fruit and 23% of the N present in the leaves came from the green manure. These results show that dur¬ing the development of the fruit of the tomato there is a greater translocation and consequently, a higher use of the N from the green manure in the fruits than in the leaves. This production system can reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The presence of a green manure in non-intercropped treatments caused some soil

  4. USE OF GREEN MANURE CROPS AND SUGAR BEET VARIETIES TO CONTROL HETERODERA BETAE.

    PubMed

    Raaijmakers, E

    2014-01-01

    Although it is less studied than the white beet cyst nematode (Heterodera schachtii), the yellow beet cyst nematode (H. betae) has been found in many countries in Europe. For example in The Netherlands, France and Spain. H. betae causes yield losses on sandy soils. A high infestation can result in loss of complete plants. In The Netherlands, this nematode is especially found in the south eastern and north eastern part, where it occurs on 18% and 5% of the fields, respectively. From a project of the Dutch Sugar beet Research Institute IRS (SUSY) on factors explaining differences in sugar yield, this nematode was one of the most important factors reducing sugar yields on sandy soils. Until 2008, the only way to control H. betae was by reducing the number of host crops in the crop rotation. Host crops are crops belonging to the families of Cruciferae, Chenopodiaceae, Polygonaceae, Caryophyllaceae and Leguminosea. In order to find more control measures, research was done to investigate the host status of different green manure crops and the resistance and tolerance of different sugar beet varieties to H. betae. White mustard (Sinapis alba) and oil seed radish (Raphanus sativus spp. oleiferus) varieties resistant to H. schachtii were investigated for their resistance against H. betae. A climate room trial and a field trial with white mustard and oil seed radish were conducted in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Results show that H. betae could multiply on susceptible white mustard and susceptible oil seed radish, but not on the H. schachtii resistant varieties. In climate room trials in 2009, 2010 and 2011 and field trials in 2010, 2011 and 2012, the effect of different sugar beet varieties on the multiplication of H. betae and the effect of H. betae on yield at different infestation levels was investigated. Sugar beet varieties with resistance genes to H. schachtii (from Beta procumbens or B. maritima) were selected. Varieties with resistance genes from these sources were

  5. Effect of the chemical composition of green manure crops on humus formation in a Soddy-Podzolic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripolskaja, L.; Romanovskaja, D.; Slepetiene, A.; Razukas, A.; Sidlauskas, G.

    2014-04-01

    The effects of different types of green manure ( Trifolium pratense L., Dactylis glomerata L., and Secale cereale L.) and the time of its input into the soil (autumn and spring) on the contents of humus and labile humus substances in a soddy-podzolic soil and the relationship between the formation of humus and the chemical composition of the applied biomass were studied. Green manure had a positive effect on the accumulation of humus in the soil. When the plants were plowed into the soil in the fall, the amount of humus formed in the soil in the first year was 0.1% higher in comparison with the spring application of green manure. The most active synthesis of new humus substances took place upon the following properties of the plant biomass: C: N = 15-25, the cellulose content of 20-28%, and the lignin content of 14-17%. The highest amount of labile humus substances was formed during the decomposition of the biomass with the C: N ratio above 20, the cellulose content of 19-20%, and the lignin content of 14-16%.

  6. Anaerobic digested dairy manure as a nutrient supplement for cultivation of oil-rich green microalgae Chlorella sp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Li, Yecong; Chen, Paul; Min, Min; Chen, Yifeng; Zhu, Jun; Ruan, Roger R

    2010-04-01

    The present study was to investigate the effectiveness of using digested dairy manure as a nutrient supplement for cultivation of oil-rich green microalgae Chlorella sp. Different dilution multiples of 10, 15, 20, and 25 were applied to the digested manure and algal growth was compared in regard to growth rate, nutrient removal efficiency, and final algal fatty acids content and composition. Slower growth rates were observed with less diluted manure samples with higher turbidities in the initial cultivation days. A reverse linear relationship (R(2) = 0.982) was found between the average specific growth rate of the beginning 7 days and the initial turbidities. Algae removed ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and COD by 100%, 75.7-82.5%, 62.5-74.7%, and 27.4-38.4%, respectively, in differently diluted dairy manure. COD in digested dairy manure, beside CO(2), proved to be another carbon source for mixotrophic Chlorella. Fatty acid profiles derived from triacylglyceride (TAG), phospholipid and free fatty acids showed that octadecadienoic acid (C18:2) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0) were the two most abundant fatty acids in the algae. The total fatty acid content of the dry weight increased from 9.00% to 13.7% along with the increasing dilution multiples. Based on the results from this study, a process combining anaerobic digestion and algae cultivation can be proposed as an effective way to convert high strength dairy manure into profitable byproducts as well as to reduce contaminations to environment. PMID:19932957

  7. Remediation of degraded arable steppe soils in Moldova using vetch as green manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmeier, M.; Lungu, M.; Hübner, R.; Cerbari, V.

    2015-01-01

    In the Republic of Moldova, non-sustainable arable farming led to severe degradation and erosion of fertile steppe soils (Chernozems). As a result, the Chernozems lost about 40% of their initial amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC). Aim of this study was to remediate degraded arable soils and promote carbon sequestration by implementation of cover cropping and green manuring in Moldova. Thereby, the suitability of the legume hairy vetch (Vicia sativa) as cover crop under the dry, continental climate of Moldova was examined. At two experimental sites, the effect of cover cropping on chemical and physical soil properties as well as on yields of subsequent main crops was determined. The results showed a significant increase of SOC after incorporation of hairy vetch due to a high above- and belowground biomass production that was related with a high input of carbon and nitrogen. A calculation of SOC stocks based on equivalent soil masses revealed a sequestration of around 3 t C ha-1 yr-1 as a result of hairy vetch cover cropping. The buildup of SOC was associated with an improvement of the soil structure as indicated by a distinct decrease of bulk density and a relative increase of macroaggregates at the expense of microaggregates and clods. As a result, yields of subsequent main crops increased by around 20%. Our results indicated that hairy vetch is a promising cover crop to remediate degraded steppe soils, control soil erosion and sequestrate substantial amounts of atmospheric C in arable soils of Moldova.

  8. [Effects of rotations and different green manure utilizations on crop yield and soil fertility].

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhi-yuan; Wang, Zheng; Li, Jing; Yu, Chang-wei; Cao, Qun-hu; Cao, Wei-dong; Gao, Ya-jun

    2015-08-01

    A 4-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of three rotation systems and three corresponding leguminous green manure (LGM) application methods on wheat yield and soil properties. The rotation patterns were summer fallow--winter wheat (SW), LGM-- winter wheat (LW) and LGM--spring maize--winter wheat (LMW). The three LGM application methods of LW included: early mulch, early incorporation and late incorporation while the three LGM application methods of LMW were: stalk mulch, stalk incorporation and stalk move-away. The results indicated that for LW, LGM consumed more soil water, thus the wheat yield was not stable. The nitrate storage in 0-200 cm soil after wheat harvest was significantly higher than that of the others, indicating an increasing risk of nitrate leaching. Early mulch under LW had the highest soil organic carbon (SOC) content and storage of SOC (SSOC) in 0-20 cm soil. For LMW, wheat yield was comparatively stable among years, because of higher water storage before wheat seeding, and the nitrate storage in 0-200 cm soil after wheat harvest was significantly lower than LW, which decreased the risk of nitrate leaching. Stalk mulch had higher SOC content in 0-20 cm soil after wheat harvest compared with move-away. In addition, compared with the soil when the experiment started, stalk much also increased SSOC in 0-20 cm soil. In conclusion, LMW with stalk mulch could increase soil water storage, stabilize crop yield, improve soil fertility and decrease 0-200 cm soil nitrate storage. This system could be treated as a good alternative for areas with similar climate. PMID:26685595

  9. Remediation of degraded arable steppe soils in Moldova using vetch as green manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesmeier, M.; Lungu, M.; Hübner, R.; Cerbari, V.

    2015-05-01

    In the Republic of Moldova, non-sustainable arable farming led to severe degradation and erosion of fertile steppe soils (Chernozems). As a result, the Chernozems lost about 40% of their initial amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC). The aim of this study was to remediate degraded arable soils and promote carbon sequestration by implementation of cover cropping and green manuring in Moldova. Thereby, the suitability of the legume hairy vetch (Vicia sativa) as cover crop under the dry continental climate of Moldova was examined. At two experimental sites, the effect of cover cropping on chemical and physical soil properties as well as on yields of subsequent main crops was determined. The results showed a significant increase of SOC after incorporation of hairy vetch mainly due to increases of aggregate-occluded and mineral-associated OC. This was related to a high above- and belowground biomass production of hairy vetch associated with a high input of carbon and nitrogen into arable soils. A calculation of SOC stocks based on equivalent soil masses revealed a sequestration of around 3 t C ha-1yr-1 as a result of hairy vetch cover cropping. The buildup of SOC was associated with an improvement of the soil structure as indicated by a distinct decrease of bulk density and a relative increase of macroaggregates at the expense of microaggregates and clods. As a result, yields of subsequent main crops increased by around 20%. Our results indicated that hairy vetch is a promising cover crop to remediate degraded steppe soils, control soil erosion and sequester substantial amounts of atmospheric C in arable soils of Moldova.

  10. Effect of green manure in soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomato in the no tillage system on corn straw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosano, Edmilson; Rossi, Fabricio; Dias, Fabio; Trivelin, Paulo; Muraoka, Takashi; Tavares, Silvio; Ambrosano, Glaucia

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of green manure in on soil quality and nitrogen transfer to cherry tomatoes using the N-15 abundance method. The experiment was carried out in Piracicaba, APTA/SAA, SP, Brazil. The IAC collection accesses 21 of cherry tomatoes were used. Each Plot consisted of six plants spaced 0.5 m and 0.9 m between rows, conducted in a randomized block with eight treatments and five repetitions. The treatments were as green manures intercropping or not on cherry tomato, namely: jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.), dwarf mucuna (Mucuna deeringiana), mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek ), white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). Besides two witnesses, one without corn straw and another with corn straw. Five leaves with petiole of each plant part during the first ripe fruit and a bunch of fruits per plant are harvested. Samples of leaf and fruit were weighed and dried in an oven of forced air and its dry weight measured. A subsample was ground in a knife mill type Willy and brought to the mass spectrometer (ANCA GSL) on the Stable Isotopes Laboratory of CENA/USP for the analysis of δN-15. It measured the percentage of transfer of N green manure for tomato, the tomato plants grown as monocropped were considered a control and came to the result that 27 % N found in the fruit came from the green manure and the aerial part this figure was 23%. These results show that dur¬ing the fruit set of tomato can occur greater translocation and consequent higher utilization of N from green manure than in the aerial part. This production system can reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers. The presence of a green manure in treatments not intercropped caused some soil alterations that could be detected in samples collected in the harvesting season. There was an increase in organic matter, Ca, Mg and Zn availability, and consequently in base saturation and pH. The presence

  11. Chemical, green and organic manure effects on chemical properties on a savannah oxisol and on corn under conventional tillage and no-tillage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannigel, Anny R.; Alves, Marlene C.; Valério Filho, Walter V.

    2015-04-01

    Modern agriculture, in general, has always been based on the concept that natural resources are endless; however, this concept is changing. Concern for the environment is increasingly becoming part of farming practices, either by the awareness of society, or because the high cost of fertilizers or even the exhaustion of soils. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of the green manure and mineral fertilizer and/or organic manure and, on the chemical properties of an Oxisol, on "Savannah" (cerrado) area in Mato Grosso do Sul-Brazil, cultivated with corn (Zea mays L.) on the following management conditions: no-tillage and conventional tillage, on area previously under pasture (Brachiaria decumbens). The experimental design was a randomized blocks and the tested treatments were: control (without organic manure or chemical fertilizer); chemical fertilizer, as recommended for the culture and based on the chemical soil analysis; organic manure (cow manure); organic manure + half of the mineral fertilizer recommended rate; and the green manure Crotalaria juncea and Pennisetum americanum. The chemical analyses were the soil chemical analysis to the intent of soil fertility. Corn yield was evaluated. The collect of soil samples were realized in depths of 0.00-0.05 m and 0.05-0.10 m and 0.10-0.20 m. The organic manure and the organic manure + half of the mineral recommended rate increased P, Ca, Mg, K and Organic Matter in the first depth (0.00 - 0.05 m). These treatments also increased K and Mg at the second depth analyzed (0.05 - 0.10 m) and K in the depth from 0.10 - 0.20 m. Under conventional tillage management presents better crop results with an average grain yield of 3649 kg ha-1 versus 2374 kg ha-1 obtained under no-tillage. The use of chemical fertilizer, organic manure + half of the mineral recommended rate, Crotalaria juncea, organic manure and Pennisetum americanum increased corn yield by 84, 79, 58, 44 and 41 %, respectively.

  12. Development and Comparison of SYBR Green Quantitative Real-time PCR Assays for Detection and Enumeration of Sulfate-reducing Bacteria in Stored Swine Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was developed that targeted the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA). Degenerate primer sets were developed to detect three different groups of SRB in stored swine manure using a SYBR Green qua...

  13. Impact of different green manures on the content of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxides and L-ascorbic acid in leek (Allium porrum).

    PubMed

    Lundegårdh, B; Botek, P; Schulzov, V; Hajslov, J; Strömberg, A; Andersson, H C

    2008-03-26

    This field study investigated the impact of various fertilization strategies with red clover ( Trifolium pratense L.) green manure on the levels of S-alk(en)yl- l-cysteine sulfoxides (ACSO) and l-ascorbic acid in leek. Two of the 12 treatments were controls, one without fertilizers and the other with a commercial mineral fertilizer. The remaining 10 treatments were different forms and quantities of green manure prepared from red clover. One treatment consisted of direct incorporation into soil of the preceding red clover crop. The other 9 treatments comprised three types of red clover green manure [anaerobically digested red clover biomass (biodigestate), composted red clover, fresh red clover as mulch] applied at three different doses. Yield was increased only at the highest dose of compost and the highest dose of mulch. High doses of green manure decreased dry matter content in leek. The fertilizer treatments increased the nitrogen uptake and the nitrogen content of leek. Sulfur uptake and sulfur levels were increased only by the mineral fertilizer and by the compost. Nonfertilized leek contained 20.4 +/- 5.8 g/kg of dry weight (dw) ACSOs as determined by LC-MS/MS and 1.57 +/- 0.01 g/kg of dw ascorbic acid as determined by HPLC. The ACSOs were to 92-96% isoalliin, the rest being methiin. Alliin was identified in only 1 of 72 samples. The ACSO level was increased by 37% by the mineral fertilizer. Whereas direct incorporation of red clover, mulch, and red clover biodigestate had no influence on the ACSO level, the highest dose of compost increased the ACSO level by 55%. Ascorbic acid levels were not influenced by the mineral treatment. Green manures increased ascorbic acid levels only on a dry weight basis. A high correlation between the content of sulfur and ACSO indicated that delivering capacity of sulfur from the manure to the plant strongly affected the ASCO content of the leek. In conclusion, the composted green manure was the most useful organic fertilizer

  14. Green manure plants for remediation of soils polluted by metals and metalloids: ecotoxicity and human bioavailability assessment.

    PubMed

    Foucault, Y; Lévêque, T; Xiong, T; Schreck, E; Austruy, A; Shahid, M; Dumat, C

    2013-10-01

    Borage, white mustard and phacelia, green manure plants currently used in agriculture to improve soil properties were cultivated for 10 wk on various polluted soils with metal(loid) concentrations representative of urban brownfields or polluted kitchen gardens. Metal(loid) bioavailability and ecotoxicity were measured in relation to soil characteristics before and after treatment. All the plants efficiently grow on the various polluted soils. But borage and mustard only are able to modify the soil characteristics and metal(loid) impact: soil respiration increased while ecotoxicity, bioaccessible lead and total metal(loid) quantities in soils can be decreased respectively by phytostabilization and phytoextraction mechanisms. These two plants could therefore be used for urban polluted soil refunctionalization. However, plant efficiency to improve soil quality strongly depends on soil characteristics. PMID:23968553

  15. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays is widely well know that the potato is an important vegetable crop at Brazíl. It is grown on about 173.000 ha, with total yield of 2.6 million tons year-1. The average yield is 15 t ha-1. This level is very low because degeneration of crop is rapid under high temperature and high viruses pressure. Therefore seed potato propagation and production is principal on consumption potato production. This is why we found it necessary to develop it. The latossolo vermelho soil-farmyard manure- burnt rice straw-fertilizer 4N:14P:8K greenhouse pot trial was set up at the National Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brasília-DF, Brazíl in 1990. The methods of the experiments were soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw, soil x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer and soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer on randomized block design in total 29 combination of treatments in 5, 5 and 3 repetitions with in a total parcel of 116. According to chemical analysis of the a., soil, b., farmyard manure and c., burnt rice straw the agrochemistry parameters were as follows (estimated datas): a., latossolo vermelho soil: CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1, b., farmyard manure: N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., burnt rice straw: N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. The experimental datas were estimated by analysis of variance, ANOVA and MANOVA. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Mixture of 80% latossolo vermelho, 10% burnt rice straw and 10% farmyard manure were shown best performance on seed potato productivity. The piece of tubers with a 0-20 mm (consumption seeds) was increased by 77%. 2. Total seed potato number was reached maximum at 10.8 g pot-1 4N:14P:8K fertilizer regarding to average of treatments with a 33%. 3. Dry biomassa production plant-1 was decreased by high dose of 4N:14P:8K

  16. Response of root-knot nematodes and Palmer amaranth to tillage and rye green manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rye (Secale cereale L.), which produces bioactive benzoxazinoid compounds, is a frequently used winter cover crop in many agronomic production systems in the USA. Our objective was to determine whether incorporating rye into soil while still green results in greater suppression of root-knot nematod...

  17. Soil Water Balance and Water Use Efficiency of Dryland Wheat in Different Precipitation Years in Response to Green Manure Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dabin; Yao, Pengwei; Na, Zhao; Cao, Weidong; Zhang, Suiqi; Li, Yangyang; Gao, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) monoculture is conventionally cultivated followed by two to three months of summer fallow in the Loess Plateau. To develop a sustainable cropping system, we conducted a six-year field experiment to investigate the effect of leguminous green manure (LGM) instead of bare fallow on the yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat and the soil water balance (SWB) in different precipitation years in a semi-arid region of northwest China. Results confirmed that planting LGM crop consumes soil water in the fallow season can bring varied effects to the subsequent wheat. The effect is positive or neutral when the annual precipitation is adequate, so that there is no significant reduction in the soil water supplied to wheat. If this is not the case, the effect is negative. On average, the LGM crop increased wheat yield and WUE by 13% and 28%, respectively, and had considerable potential for maintaining the SWB (0–200 cm) compared with fallow management. In conclusion, cultivation of the LGM crop is a better option than fallow to improve the productivity and WUE of the next crop and maintain the soil water balance in the normal and wet years in the Loess Plateau. PMID:27225842

  18. Soil Water Balance and Water Use Efficiency of Dryland Wheat in Different Precipitation Years in Response to Green Manure Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dabin; Yao, Pengwei; Na, Zhao; Cao, Weidong; Zhang, Suiqi; Li, Yangyang; Gao, Yajun

    2016-01-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) monoculture is conventionally cultivated followed by two to three months of summer fallow in the Loess Plateau. To develop a sustainable cropping system, we conducted a six-year field experiment to investigate the effect of leguminous green manure (LGM) instead of bare fallow on the yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat and the soil water balance (SWB) in different precipitation years in a semi-arid region of northwest China. Results confirmed that planting LGM crop consumes soil water in the fallow season can bring varied effects to the subsequent wheat. The effect is positive or neutral when the annual precipitation is adequate, so that there is no significant reduction in the soil water supplied to wheat. If this is not the case, the effect is negative. On average, the LGM crop increased wheat yield and WUE by 13% and 28%, respectively, and had considerable potential for maintaining the SWB (0-200 cm) compared with fallow management. In conclusion, cultivation of the LGM crop is a better option than fallow to improve the productivity and WUE of the next crop and maintain the soil water balance in the normal and wet years in the Loess Plateau. PMID:27225842

  19. Soil Water Balance and Water Use Efficiency of Dryland Wheat in Different Precipitation Years in Response to Green Manure Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dabin; Yao, Pengwei; Na, Zhao; Cao, Weidong; Zhang, Suiqi; Li, Yangyang; Gao, Yajun

    2016-05-01

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) monoculture is conventionally cultivated followed by two to three months of summer fallow in the Loess Plateau. To develop a sustainable cropping system, we conducted a six-year field experiment to investigate the effect of leguminous green manure (LGM) instead of bare fallow on the yield and water use efficiency (WUE) of winter wheat and the soil water balance (SWB) in different precipitation years in a semi-arid region of northwest China. Results confirmed that planting LGM crop consumes soil water in the fallow season can bring varied effects to the subsequent wheat. The effect is positive or neutral when the annual precipitation is adequate, so that there is no significant reduction in the soil water supplied to wheat. If this is not the case, the effect is negative. On average, the LGM crop increased wheat yield and WUE by 13% and 28%, respectively, and had considerable potential for maintaining the SWB (0–200 cm) compared with fallow management. In conclusion, cultivation of the LGM crop is a better option than fallow to improve the productivity and WUE of the next crop and maintain the soil water balance in the normal and wet years in the Loess Plateau.

  20. Farmyard Manure and Fertilizer Effects on Seed Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Yield in Green House Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    László, M.

    2009-04-01

    Nowadays is widely well know that the potato is an important vegetable crop at Brazíl. It is grown on about 173.000 ha, with total yield of 2.6 million tons year-1. The average yield is 15 t ha-1. This level is very low because degeneration of crop is rapid under high temperature and high viruses pressure. Therefore seed potato propagation and production is principal on consumption potato production. This is why we found it necessary to develop it. The latossolo vermelho soil-farmyard manure- burnt rice straw-fertilizer 4N:14P:8K greenhouse pot trial was set up at the National Vegetable Crops Research Center, Brasília-DF, Brazíl in 1990. The methods of the experiments were soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw, soil x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer and soil x farmyard manure x burnt rice straw x 4N:14P:8K fertilizer on randomized block design in total 29 combination of treatments in 5, 5 and 3 repetitions with in a total parcel of 116. According to chemical analysis of the a., soil, b., farmyard manure and c., burnt rice straw the agrochemistry parameters were as follows (estimated datas): a., latossolo vermelho soil: CaCO3 0.3-0.7%, humo 0.9-1.0%, pH (H2O) 5.3, pH (KCl) 4.5, AL- P2O5 3.2-3.5 mg kg-1, AL- K2O 180 mg kg-1, Mg (KCl) 70 mg kg-1, EDTA-Zn 0.5-0.8 mg kg-1, EDTA-Cu 0.5-0.6 mg kg-1, b., farmyard manure: N 1.8 g kg-1, P2O5 2.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.0 g kg-1, c., burnt rice straw: N 0.8 g kg-1, P2O5 7.0 g kg-1, K2O 4.5 g kg-1. The experimental datas were estimated by analysis of variance, ANOVA and MANOVA. The main conclusions were as follows: 1. Mixture of 80% latossolo vermelho, 10% burnt rice straw and 10% farmyard manure were shown best performance on seed potato productivity. The piece of tubers with a 0-20 mm (consumption seeds) was increased by 77%. 2. Total seed potato number was reached maximum at 10.8 g pot-1 4N:14P:8K fertilizer regarding to average of treatments with a 33%. 3. Dry biomassa production plant-1 was decreased by high dose of 4N:14P:8K

  1. Effect of interactions on the nutrient status of a tropical soil treated with green manures and inorganic phosphate fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Bah, Abdul R; Rahman, Zaharah A; Hussin, Aminuddin

    2004-06-01

    Integrated nutrient management systems using plant residues and inorganic P fertilizers have high potential for increasing crop production and ensuring sustainability in the tropics, but their adoption requires in-depth understanding of nutrient dynamics in such systems. This was examined in a highly weathered tropical soil treated with green manures (GMs) and P fertilizers in two experiments conducted in the laboratory and glasshouse. The treatments were factorial combinations of the GMs (Calopogonium caeruleum, Gliricidia sepium, and Imperata cylindrica) and P fertilizers (phosphate rocks [PRs] from North Carolina, China, and Algeria, and triple superphosphate) replicated thrice. Olsen P, mineral N, pH, and exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg were monitored in a laboratory incubation study for 16 months. The change in soil P fractions and available P was also determined at the end of the study. Phosphorus available from the amendments was quantified at monthly intervals for 5 months by 33P-32P double isotopic labeling in the glasshouse using Setaria sphacelata as test crop. The GMs were labeled with 33P to determine their contribution to P taken up by Setaria, while that from the P fertilizers was indirectly measured by labeling the soil with 32P. The P fertilizers hardly changed Olsen P and exchangeable cations during 16 months of incubation. The legume GMs and legume GM+P did not change Olsen P, lowered exchangeable Ca, and increased exchangeable K about threefold (4.5 cmol[+]kg(-1) soil) in the first 4 months, even as large amounts of NH4-N accumulated (approximately 1000 mg kg soil(-1)) and soil pH increased to more than 6.5. Afterwards, Olsen P and exchangeable Ca and Mg increased (threefold) as NH4+-N and soil pH declined. The legume GMs also augmented reversibly sorbed P in Al-P and Fe-P fractions resulting in high residual effect in the soil, while fertilizer-P was irreversibly retained. The GMs increased PR-P utilization by 40 to over 80%, mobilized soil P, and

  2. Growth and nitrogen fixation of legumes at increased salinity under field conditions: implications for the use of green manures in saline environments.

    PubMed

    Bruning, Bas; van Logtestijn, Richard; Broekman, Rob; de Vos, Arjen; González, Andrés Parra; Rozema, Jelte

    2015-01-01

    The use of legumes as green manure can potentially increase crop productivity in saline environments and thus contribute to the sustainability of agricultural systems. Here, we present results from a field experiment conducted in the Netherlands that addressed the efficiency of nitrogen (N) fixation by a legume at varying salinities. We grew Melilotus officinalis in an agricultural field using drip irrigation with water salinity varying in electrical conductivity between 1.7 and 20 dS m(-1). In the experiment, nearly 100 % of total plant N in M. officinalis was derived from symbiotic fixation at all but the highest salinity level (20 dS m(-1)). Our results indicated that this species derived substantial amounts of N via symbiotic fixation, the N becoming available in the soil (and thus available to crops) when cultivated legumes senesce and decompose. Based on the growth performance of M. officinalis and its ability to fix N at moderate soil salinity in our field experiments, we identified this species as a promising source for green manure in saline agriculture in temperate regions. PMID:25661201

  3. Growth and nitrogen fixation of legumes at increased salinity under field conditions: implications for the use of green manures in saline environments

    PubMed Central

    Bruning, Bas; van Logtestijn, Richard; Broekman, Rob; de Vos, Arjen; González, Andrés Parra; Rozema, Jelte

    2015-01-01

    The use of legumes as green manure can potentially increase crop productivity in saline environments and thus contribute to the sustainability of agricultural systems. Here, we present results from a field experiment conducted in the Netherlands that addressed the efficiency of nitrogen (N) fixation by a legume at varying salinities. We grew Melilotus officinalis in an agricultural field using drip irrigation with water salinity varying in electrical conductivity between 1.7 and 20 dS m−1. In the experiment, nearly 100 % of total plant N in M. officinalis was derived from symbiotic fixation at all but the highest salinity level (20 dS m−1). Our results indicated that this species derived substantial amounts of N via symbiotic fixation, the N becoming available in the soil (and thus available to crops) when cultivated legumes senesce and decompose. Based on the growth performance of M. officinalis and its ability to fix N at moderate soil salinity in our field experiments, we identified this species as a promising source for green manure in saline agriculture in temperate regions. PMID:25661201

  4. Manure Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding of manure management methods and practices from the perspective of pathogen prevalence, survival, and susceptibility to various treatment effects has led to development of several beneficial management practices and technologies for reducing manure pathogens in agricultural landscapes....

  5. Geographic information system based manure application plan.

    PubMed

    Basnet, Badri B; Apan, Armando A; Raine, Steven R

    2002-02-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) based manure application plan has been developed for the site-specific application of animal waste to agricultural fields in the Westbrook sub-catchment of the Murray-Darling Basin, south-east Queensland, Australia. Sites suitable for animal waste application were identified using a GIS based weighted linear combination (WLC) model. The degree of land suitability for animal waste application was determined using a range of social, economic, environmental, and agricultural factors. As eutrophication and toxic blue-green algae blooms are a known problem in the catchment, the manure application rates were limited to the rate of crop phosphorus removal. Maximum manure application rate was calculated spatially by taking the crop nutrient (P2O5) requirement and the manure nutrient (P2O5) content into account. The environmental suitability of the fields receiving animal waste was considered in prescribing the final application rate of solid and liquid manures generated by local animal production facilities. The degree of site suitability of the agricultural fields was also used to suggest manure management practices to minimise the socio-environmental risks and increase the nutrient use efficiency of the applied manure. The amount of ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) that would be added to the soil by satisfying the P2O5 requirement using manure sources was also calculated and an applied NH4-N map was created. This map could be used to assist farmers identify additional nitrogen requirements after manure application. PMID:11995243

  6. Effects of soil amendments at a heavy loading rate associated with cover crops as green manures on the leaching of nutrients and heavy metals from a calcareous soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing-Ren; Li, Yun-Cong; Klassen, Waldemar

    2003-11-01

    The potential risk of groundwater contamination by the excessive leaching of N, P and heavy metals from soils amended at heavy loading rates of biosolids, coal ash, N-viro soil (1:1 mixture of coal ash and biosolids), yard waste compost and co-compost (3:7 mixture of biosolids to yard wastes), and by soil incorporation of green manures of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea) and sorghum sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) was studied by collecting and analyzing leachates from pots of Krome very gravelly loam soil subjected to these treatments. The control consisted of Krome soil without any amendment. The loading rate was 205 g pot(-1) for each amendment (equivalent to 50 t ha(-1) of the dry weight), and the amounts of the cover crops incorporated into the soil in the pot were those that had been grown in it. A subtropical vegetable crop, okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L.), was grown after the soil amendments or cover crops had been incorporated into the soil. The results showed that the concentration of NO3-N in leachate from biosolids was significantly higher than in leachate from other treatments. The levels of heavy metals found in the leachates from all amended soils were so low, as to suggest these amendments may be used without risk of leaching dangerous amounts of these toxic elements. Nevertheless the level of heavy metals in leachate from coal ash amended soil was substantially greater than in leachates from the other treatments. The leguminous cover crop, sunn hemp, returned into the soil, increased the leachate NO3-N and inorganic P concentration significantly compared with the non-legume, sorghum sudangrass. The results suggest that at heavy loading rates of soil amendments, leaching of NO3- could be a significant concern by application of biosolids. Leaching of inorganic P can be increased significantly by both co-compost and biosolids, but decreased by coal ash and N-viro soil by virtue of improved adsorption. The leguminous cover crop

  7. Manure on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many managers of crop-livestock operations could, or need to, utilize alfalfa fields in their manure management plans. The advantages to manure application on alfalfa need to be considered in the context of some potential concerns – plant damage from manure or wheel traffic, pathogen transmission in...

  8. Manure's dark side

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although manure is a beneficial resource for farmers, it can cause problems that arise because of what it contains. Manure application to forages may enhance the spread of pathogenic organisms. Many pathogens excreted in manure live for several months under field conditions. Ensiling forage greatly ...

  9. Manure Tracking Book

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document provides an example of the ‘Manure Tracking Book’ that was used by the fifty-four Wisconsin dairy farmers who participated in the “On Farmers’ Ground” nutrient management research project. This Book was used to systematically tract how, when and where farmers spread manure, and factors...

  10. Manure use on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure application to alfalfa is often necessary because of limited application windows during the year and limited land-to-livestock ratios to meet Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan requirements. Manure applied before alfalfa planting or during production can improve yield and performance of t...

  11. ANIMAL MANURES AS FEEDSTUFFS: CATTLE MANURE FEEDING TRIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The utilization of 'as-collected' and processed beef cattle and dairy cow manure, manure screenings and anaerobically digested cattle manures was evaluated on the basis of the results of feeding trials reported in the literature. The maximum level of incorporating these manures i...

  12. Use of legume manures as nitrogen sources for corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent volatility in supplies and prices of natural gas and synthetic N fertilizer suggests a need to develop and refine alternative strategies for supplying N to corn. In this study, conducted in northeastern Iowa, we examined the use of red clover and alfalfa green manures as means of supplying N ...

  13. Environmental chemistry of animal manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure is traditionally regarded as a valuable resource of plant nutrients. However, there is an increasing environmental concern associated with animal manure utilization due to high and locally concentrated volumes of manure produced in modern intensified animal production. Although conside...

  14. Temporal changes of selected chemical properties in three manure - amended soils of Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Ortiz Escobar, M E; Hue, N V

    2008-12-01

    Soil amendment with organic materials (crop residues animal manure, and green manure) reportedly has positive effects on soil properties, from acidity to plant-nutrient availability. To examine that hypothesis, an incubation study was conducted to assess the changes in some chemical properties of three different tropical soils (Andisol, Ultisol, and Oxisol) amended with chicken manure and green manure (Leucaena leucocephala) at the rate of 10tha(-1). The results showed that organic amendments raised soil pH and EC, regardless of the type of manure used. Manuring lowered the concentrations of Mehlich-3 extractable Ca, P, Mn and Si in all soils and decreased the concentration of Mg in the Ultisol and Oxisol. However, manure amendment led to increases in the concentrations of Mg and K in the Andisol. Organic amendments caused a decrease in KCl extractable Al. Initial soluble C levels were highest in the Oxisol (60micromolg(-1)) and lowest in the Andisol (20micromolg(-1)). The concentration of soluble C decreased exponentially with duration of incubation. Three low molecular weight organic molecules (acetic acid, catechol and oxalic acid) out of the eight tested were found in all manure-amended soils. This study quantified the release of some Al chelating organic acids, the reduction of exchangeable Al, and the changes in major plant-nutrients when organic materials were added to nutrient poor, tropical acid soils. PMID:18550367

  15. Dairy manure biochar as a phosphorus fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy manure biochars, along with other manure biochars, contain sufficient concentrations of plant available nutrients, particularly phosphorous. For greenhouse studies using ryegrass, cotton, and soybean, manure biochars performed similar to commercial phosphorous fertilizers when applied at appro...

  16. Survival of Salmonella enterica in Dried Turkey Manure and Persistence on Spinach Leaves.

    PubMed

    Oni, Ruth A; Sharma, Manan; Buchanan, Robert L

    2015-10-01

    Concerns about the microbiological safety of fresh produce have attracted attention in the past three decades due to multiple foodborne outbreaks. Animal manure contaminated with enteric pathogens has been identified as an important preharvest pathogen source. This study investigated the survival of Salmonella enterica in dust particles of dehydrated turkey manure and how association with manure dust may enhance the survival of salmonellae on leafy greens in the field. The survival of a cocktail of multiple Salmonella serotypes in the dried fecal material of various particle sizes (125 to 500 μm) was examined at varying moisture contents (5, 10, and 15%). Survival times of the pathogen were inversely related to moisture content and particle size of manure dust, with viable Salmonella still detectable for up to 291 days in the smallest particle size (125 μm) with 5% moisture. Association with manure dust particles increased the survival of Salmonella when subjected to UV light both under laboratory conditions and on the surface of spinach leaves in a greenhouse setting. The results of this study suggest that aerosolized manure particles could be a potential vehicle for Salmonella dispersal to leafy greens if the microorganism is present in the dry manure. PMID:26408127

  17. Immobilization of tetracyclines in manure and manure-amended soils using aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Punamiya, Pravin; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Rakshit, Sudipta; Elzinga, Evert J; Datta, Rupali

    2016-02-01

    Veterinary antibiotics (VAs) are emerging contaminants of concern in the environment, mainly due to the potential for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and effect on microbiota that could interfere with crucial ecosystem functions such as nutrient cycling and decomposition. High levels of VAs such as tetracyclines (TCs) have been reported in agricultural soils amended with manure, which also has the potential to cause surface and groundwater contamination. Several recent studies have focused on developing methods to immobilize VAs such as composting with straw, hardwood chips, commercial biochar, aeration, mixing, heat treatment, etc. The major shortcomings of these methods include high cost and limited effectiveness. In the current study, we assessed the effectiveness of aluminum-based drinking water treatment residuals (Al-WTR) as a "green" sorbent to immobilize TCs in manure and manure-applied soils with varying physicochemical properties by laboratory incubation study. Results show that Al-WTR is very effective in immobilizing tetracycline (TTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC). The presence of phosphate resulted in significant (p < 0.01) decrease in TTC/OTC sorption by Al-WTR, but the presence of sulfate did not. attenuated total reflection (ATR)-FTIR spectroscopy indicate that TTC and OTC likely forming surface complexes via inner-sphere-type bonds in soils, manure, and manure-applied soils amended with Al-WTR. PMID:26490907

  18. An Overview of the Control of Bacterial Pathogens in Cattle Manure.

    PubMed

    Manyi-Loh, Christy E; Mamphweli, Sampson N; Meyer, Edson L; Makaka, Golden; Simon, Michael; Okoh, Anthony I

    2016-01-01

    Cattle manure harbors microbial constituents that make it a potential source of pollution in the environment and infections in humans. Knowledge of, and microbial assessment of, manure is crucial in a bid to prevent public health and environmental hazards through the development of better management practices and policies that should govern manure handling. Physical, chemical and biological methods to reduce pathogen population in manure do exist, but are faced with challenges such as cost, odor pollution, green house gas emission, etc. Consequently, anaerobic digestion of animal manure is currently one of the most widely used treatment method that can help to salvage the above-mentioned adverse effects and in addition, produces biogas that can serve as an alternative/complementary source of energy. However, this method has to be monitored closely as it could be fraught with challenges during operation, caused by the inherent characteristics of the manure. In addition, to further reduce bacterial pathogens to a significant level, anaerobic digestion can be combined with other methods such as thermal, aerobic and physical methods. In this paper, we review the bacterial composition of cattle manure as well as methods engaged in the control of pathogenic microbes present in manure and recommendations that need to be respected and implemented in order to prevent microbial contamination of the environment, animals and humans. PMID:27571092

  19. Animal Manure Harms Entomopathogenic Nematodes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure forms an alternative to synthetic fertilizer that provides the additional benefits of reducing nutrient leaching and soil erosion, and promoting greater soil biodiversity. Studies show that animal manures can suppress plant parasitic nematodes by increasing densities of antagonistic mi...

  20. Handling manure on forage crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure application to alfalfa (and other perennial forages) is often necessary because of limited application windows during the year and limited land-to-livestock ratios to meet Comprehensive Nutrient Management Plan requirements. Manure applied before alfalfa planting or during production can impr...

  1. Black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) larvae reduce Escherichia coli in dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiaolin; Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Brady, Jeff A; Sanford, Michelle R; Yu, Ziniu

    2008-12-01

    Escherichia coli labeled with a green fluorescent protein was inoculated into sterile dairy manure at 7.0 log cfu/g. Approximately 125 black soldier fly larvae were placed in manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli. Manure inoculated with E. coli but without black soldier fly larvae served as the control. For the first experiment, larvae were introduced into 50, 75, 100, or 125 g sterilized dairy manure inoculated and homogenized with E. coli and stored 72 h at 27 degrees C. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in all treatments. However, varying the amount of manure provided the black soldier fly larvae significantly affected their weight gain and their ability to reduce E. coli populations present. For the second experiment, larvae were introduced into 50 g manure inoculated with E. coli and stored for 72 h at 23, 27, 31, or 35 degrees C. Minimal bacterial growth was recorded in the control held at 35 degrees C and was excluded from the analysis. Black soldier fly larvae significantly reduced E. coli counts in manure held at remaining temperatures. Accordingly, temperature significantly influenced the ability of black soldier fly larvae to develop and reduce E. coli counts with greatest suppression occurring at 27 degrees C. PMID:19161696

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF A METHOD TO CONVERT GREEN AND ANIMAL WASTES TO A USEFUL AGRICULTURAL PRODUCT WITH POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVE FUEL USE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Initially, we thought that we would shred the green waste to use as a binder for the animal manure to produce a material useful as a fuel or soil amendment. Our first experiments in mixing the materials revealed that manure was, instead, better used as a binder for the green w...

  3. Northern New England's Dairy Manure digesters

    SciTech Connect

    Gilman, F.E.; Bennett, S.

    1985-01-01

    Dairy Manure digesters are complimentary to systematized manure handling providing unique opportunities for by-product use and pollution control. Separated solids used for bedding are a valued by-product in addition to cash income from electric power sold.

  4. Manure concerns -- pathogens, antibiotics, and other chemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure is a fantastic resource for farmers – brown gold, as some have called it – but its use is not without problems. These problems arise because of what the manure contains but may be important only under certain field conditions. Manure application to forages may enhance the spread of pathogenic...

  5. Dairy manure biochar as a phosphorus fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Future manure management practices will need to remove large amounts of organic waste as well as harness energy to generate value-added products. Manures can be processed using thermochemical conversion technologies to generate a solid product called biochar. Dairy manure biochars contain sufficient...

  6. Subsurface application of dry solid manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure provides a rich source of crop nutrients, but applying manure on the soil surface can result in significant nutrient losses that cost producers substantial income while degrading air and water quality. Incorporating manure into the soil is a successful technique for decreasing nutrien...

  7. MANAGING MANURE TO ACHIEVE MAXIMUM VALUE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure is an asset to soil productivity and crop production. The current assumption is that more manure is produced today than throughout history in the United States. Analysis of animal production numbers for the past 50 years shows that less manure is produced because of reduced animal productio...

  8. Harvesting feedlot manure for fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeten, J.M.; Higgins, A.; Spindler, D.; Undersander, D.J.; Egg, R.P.; Reddell, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to determine the variation of manure quality as a function of depth in the manure pack, the quantity of feedlot manure that can be harvested with elevating scrapers and wheel loader, and the yield of reasonable high-quality feedlot manure for biogas plant feedstock. Feedlot manure quality (ash, heat of combustion, and S content) varied with vertical location in the manure pack. Loose surface manure had the highest quality for these purposes. Heat of combustion was closely related with ash and moisture contents, it averaged 8302 Btu per pound on a dry ash-free basis for all samples. The majority of the manure pack could be collected with an elevating scraper to yield a feedstock with 30% ash and a heat of combustion of 8800 Btu per pound on a dry ash-free basis. Feedlot manure collected by the elevating scraper is much higher in quality for essentially all uses than the 1-2 inch, thick manure/soil interfacial layer. The quantity and quality of feedlot manure that can be collected from feedlots in the vicinity of a proposed biogas production plant in southeastern Colorado are reported.

  9. Practical survey on antibiotic-resistant bacterial communities in livestock manure and manure-amended soil.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingxiang; Wang, Ruifei; Ren, Siwei; Szoboszlay, Marton; Moe, Luke A

    2016-01-01

    Through livestock manure fertilization, antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are transferred to agricultural soils, resulting in a high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the soil. It is not clear, however, whether a correlation exists between resistant bacterial populations in manure and manure-amended soil. In this work, we demonstrate that the prevalence of cephalexin-, amoxicillin-, kanamycin- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria as well as bacteria simultaneously resistant to all four antibiotics was much higher in manure-amended soils than in manure-free soil. 454-pyrosequencing indicated that the ARB and multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in swine or chicken manure and manure-amended soil were mainly distributed among Sphingobacterium, Myroides, Enterococcus, Comamonas and unclassified Flavobacteriaceae. The genus Sphingobacterium was highly prevalent among ARB from swine manure and manure-amended soil, and was also the most dominant genus among MARB from chicken manure and manure-amended soil. Other dominant genera among ARB or MARB populations in manure samples, including Myroides, Enterococcus and Comamonas, could not be detected or were detected at very low relative abundance in manure-amended soil. The present study suggests the possibility of transfer of ARBs from livestock manures to soils and persistence of ARB in these environments. PMID:26513264

  10. Anaerobic acidogenesis of dairy manure

    SciTech Connect

    Krones, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine if high rate acidogenic fermentation of dairy manure was possible, Whole dairy manure was ground and diluted to 4% total solids and fed to a 10 L anaerobic chemostat operating at 35C and with hydraulic retention times varying between 6 and 50 hours. Several physical and organic parameters of the influent and effluent were measured and compared. The results indicated that the manure was too refractory for high rate liquefaction and hydrolysis. A second experiment was conducted using the same techniques and substrate but varying the substrate pH between 5 and 7. The objectives were to further investigate the pH sensitivity of the acidogenic process and to determine if, by introducing a substrate with a low pH, acidogenesis might proceed more efficiently. The primary result of decreasing the pH was a smaller proportion of methane and an increased proportion of hydrogen in the gas. Liquefaction and hydrolysis continued to be rate limiting and appeared to be a major impediment to two phase anaerobic treatment of dairy manure.

  11. Manure management. A systems approach.

    PubMed

    Grusenmeyer, D C; Cramer, T N

    1997-10-01

    Traditionally, the management of manure nutrients has focused primarily on the production, collection, storage, and field application of manure. By contrast, a total systems approach expands this focus to include concerns about human and animal health, odor and fly control, nutrient import and handling, ration balancing and feeding management to optimize dietary nutrient utilization, management of crop harvest and storage to maximize feed palatability and nutrient digestibility, manure processing for export, farm economics of nutrient management, and the broader economic impacts of environmental regulation and enforcement. In the future, the focus of manure and nutrient management must be to optimize nutrient flow and utilization at every point within the total dairy farm system. A total systems approach to nutrient management is vital to the future of the dairy industry. This approach requires a broad spectrum of scientific expertise that includes multidisciplinary teams involving agronomists, dairy scientists, economists, engineers, microbiologists, soil scientists, veterinarians, and regulators to deal successfully with the complex issues pertaining to dairy nutrient management. PMID:9361237

  12. Components of dairy manure management systems.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, H H; Wilkie, A C; Powers, W J; Nordstedt, R A

    1994-07-01

    Dairy manure management systems should account for the fate of excreted nutrients that may be of environmental concern. Currently, regulatory oversight is directed primarily at the assurance of water quality; N is the most monitored element. Land application of manure at acceptable fertilizer levels to crops produced on the farm by hauling or by pumping flushed manure effluent through irrigation systems is the basis of most systems. Nutrient losses to surface and groundwaters can be avoided, and significant economic value can be obtained from manure as fertilizer if adequate crop production is possible. Dairies with insufficient crop production potential need affordable systems to concentrate manure nutrients, thereby reducing hauling costs and possibly producing a salable product. Precipitation of additional nutrients from flushed manures with sedimented solids may be possible. Composting of separated manure solids offers a possible method to stabilize solids for distribution, but, most often, solids separated from dairy manures are fibrous and low in fertility. Manure solids combined with wastes from other sources may have potential if a marketable product can be produced or if sufficient subsidy is received for processing supplementary wastes. Solutions to odor problems are needed. Energy generated from manure organic matter, via anaerobic digestion, reduces atmospheric emissions of methane and odorous compounds. Use of constructed wetlands or harvesting of photosynthetic biomass from wastewater has the potential to improve water quality, making extensive recycling possible. PMID:7929962

  13. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bodelier, Paul L. E.; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-01-01

    Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4) production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy soil due to the inherent differences in composition as a result of contrasting diets and digestive physiology between the two livestock types. To compare the effect of ruminant and non-ruminant animal manure applications on CH4 emissions and methanogenic archaeal diversity during rice cultivation (June to September, 2009), fresh cattle and swine manures were applied into experimental pots at 0, 20 and 40 Mg fresh weight (FW) ha−1 in a greenhouse. Applications of manures significantly enhanced total CH4 emissions as compared to chemical fertilization, with cattle manure leading to higher emissions than swine manure. Total organic C contents in cattle (466 g kg−1) and swine (460 g kg−1) manures were of comparable results. Soil organic C (SOC) contents were also similar between the two manure treatments, but dissolved organic C (DOC) was significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. The mcrA gene copy numbers were significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. Diverse groups of methanogens which belong to Methanomicrobiaceae were detected only in cattle-manured but not in swine-manured soil. Methanogens were transferred from cattle manure to rice paddy soils through fresh excrement. In conclusion, cattle manure application can significantly increase CH4 emissions in rice paddy soil during cultivation, and its pretreatment to suppress methanogenic activity without decreasing rice productivity should be considered. PMID:25494364

  14. Cattle Manure Enhances Methanogens Diversity and Methane Emissions Compared to Swine Manure under Rice Paddy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Yoon; Pramanik, Prabhat; Bodelier, Paul L E; Kim, Pil Joo

    2014-01-01

    Livestock manures are broadly used in agriculture to improve soil quality. However, manure application can increase the availability of organic carbon, thereby facilitating methane (CH4) production. Cattle and swine manures are expected to have different CH4 emission characteristics in rice paddy soil due to the inherent differences in composition as a result of contrasting diets and digestive physiology between the two livestock types. To compare the effect of ruminant and non-ruminant animal manure applications on CH4 emissions and methanogenic archaeal diversity during rice cultivation (June to September, 2009), fresh cattle and swine manures were applied into experimental pots at 0, 20 and 40 Mg fresh weight (FW) ha-1 in a greenhouse. Applications of manures significantly enhanced total CH4 emissions as compared to chemical fertilization, with cattle manure leading to higher emissions than swine manure. Total organic C contents in cattle (466 g kg-1) and swine (460 g kg-1) manures were of comparable results. Soil organic C (SOC) contents were also similar between the two manure treatments, but dissolved organic C (DOC) was significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. The mcrA gene copy numbers were significantly higher in cattle than swine manure. Diverse groups of methanogens which belong to Methanomicrobiaceae were detected only in cattle-manured but not in swine-manured soil. Methanogens were transferred from cattle manure to rice paddy soils through fresh excrement. In conclusion, cattle manure application can significantly increase CH4 emissions in rice paddy soil during cultivation, and its pretreatment to suppress methanogenic activity without decreasing rice productivity should be considered. PMID:25494364

  15. High rate manure supernatant digestion.

    PubMed

    Bergland, Wenche Hennie; Dinamarca, Carlos; Toradzadegan, Mehrdad; Nordgård, Anna Synnøve Røstad; Bakke, Ingrid; Bakke, Rune

    2015-06-01

    The study shows that high rate anaerobic digestion may be an efficient way to obtain sustainable energy recovery from slurries such as pig manure. High process capacity and robustness to 5% daily load increases are observed in the 370 mL sludge bed AD reactors investigated. The supernatant from partly settled, stored pig manure was fed at rates giving hydraulic retention times, HRT, gradually decreased from 42 to 1.7 h imposing a maximum organic load of 400 g COD L(-1) reactor d(-1). The reactors reached a biogas production rate of 97 g COD L(-1) reactor d(-1) at the highest load at which process stress signs were apparent. The yield was ∼0.47 g COD methane g(-1) CODT feed at HRT above 17 h, gradually decreasing to 0.24 at the lowest HRT (0.166 NL CH4 g(-1) CODT feed decreasing to 0.086). Reactor pH was innately stable at 8.0 ± 0.1 at all HRTs with alkalinity between 9 and 11 g L(-1). The first stress symptom occurred as reduced methane yield when HRT dropped below 17 h. When HRT dropped below 4 h the propionate removal stopped. The yield from acetate removal was constant at 0.17 g COD acetate removed per g CODT substrate. This robust methanogenesis implies that pig manure supernatant, and probably other similar slurries, can be digested for methane production in compact and effective sludge bed reactors. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis indicated a relatively fast adaptation of the microbial communities to manure and implies that non-adapted granular sludge can be used to start such sludge bed bioreactors. PMID:25776915

  16. Modeling rainfall-induced release of manure constituents from surface-applied liquid dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Release kinetics of manure constituents (MC) is an important mechanism affecting overland and subsurface transport of manure-borne contaminants. Present release models adequately describe the rainfall-induced release of MC from surface-applied solid manure, but these models are not applicable for li...

  17. ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS OF ORGANIC PHOSPHORUS IN EXTRACTS IN RESUSPENSIONS OF SWINE MANURE AND CATTLE MANURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure can be a valuable resource of P for plant growth. Organic phosphates (Po) are considered bioavailable if they can be hydrolyzed to inorganic P. Therefore, investigation of the susceptibility of manure Po to hydrolysis may increase our understanding of manure Po bioavailability. In this...

  18. Does manure management affect the latent greenhouse gas emitting potential of livestock manures?

    PubMed

    Pratt, Chris; Redding, Matthew; Hill, Jaye; Jensen, Paul D

    2015-12-01

    With livestock manures being increasingly sought as alternatives to costly synthetic fertilisers, it is imperative that we understand and manage their associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here we provide the first dedicated assessment into how the GHG emitting potential of various manures responds to the different stages of the manure management continuum (e.g., from feed pen surface vs stockpiled). The research is important from the perspective of manure application to agricultural soils. Manures studied included: manure from beef feedpen surfaces and stockpiles; poultry broiler litter (8-week batch); fresh and composted egg layer litter; and fresh and composted piggery litter. Gases assessed were methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), the two principal agricultural GHGs. We employed proven protocols to determine the manures' ultimate CH4 producing potential. We also devised a novel incubation experiment to elucidate their N2O emitting potential; a measure for which no established methods exist. We found lower CH4 potentials in manures from later stages in their management sequence compared with earlier stages, but only by a factor of 0.65×. Moreover, for the beef manures this decrease was not significant (P<0.05). Nitrous oxide emission potential was significantly positively (P<0.05) correlated with C/N ratios yet showed no obvious relationship with manure management stage. Indeed, N2O emissions from the composted egg manure were considerably (13×) and significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of the fresh egg manure. Our study demonstrates that manures from all stages of the manure management continuum potentially entail significant GHG risk when applied to arable landscapes. Efforts to harness manure resources need to account for this. PMID:26320816

  19. Bioaerosol Deposition to Food Crops near Manure Application: Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment.

    PubMed

    Jahne, Michael A; Rogers, Shane W; Holsen, Thomas M; Grimberg, Stefan J; Ramler, Ivan P; Kim, Seungo

    2016-03-01

    Production of both livestock and food crops are central priorities of agriculture; however, food safety concerns arise where these practices intersect. In this study, we investigated the public health risks associated with potential bioaerosol deposition to crops grown in the vicinity of manure application sites. A field sampling campaign at dairy manure application sites supported the emission, transport, and deposition modeling of bioaerosols emitted from these lands following application activities. Results were coupled with a quantitative microbial risk assessment model to estimate the infection risk due to consumption of leafy green vegetable crops grown at various distances downwind from the application area. Inactivation of pathogens ( spp., spp., and O157:H7) on both the manure-amended field and on crops was considered to determine the maximum loading of pathogens to plants with time following application. Overall median one-time infection risks at the time of maximum loading decreased from 1:1300 at 0 m directly downwind from the field to 1:6700 at 100 m and 1:92,000 at 1000 m; peak risks (95th percentiles) were considerably greater (1:18, 1:89, and 1:1200, respectively). Median risk was below 1:10,000 at >160 m downwind. As such, it is recommended that a 160-m setback distance is provided between manure application and nearby leafy green crop production. Additional distance or delay before harvest will provide further protection of public health. PMID:27065414

  20. Decay Of Bacterial Pathogens, Fecal Indicators, And Real-Time Quantitative PCR Genetic Markers In Manure-Amended Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined persistence and decay of bacterial pathogens, fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and emerging real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) genetic markers for rapid detection of fecal pollution in manure-amended agricultural soils. Known concentrations of transformed green...

  1. The Value of Manure in Feedlot Operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The dramatic increase in the cost of commercial fertilizer has prompted crop producers to look much more favorably at the use of livestock manure as an alternative fertilizer for their crops. Manure and commercial fertilizer both provide basic nutrients necessary for crops but there are differences ...

  2. Ammonia emission during irrigation of dairy manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Application of liquid manure through irrigation systems has become more common in recent years. Emission of NH3 from surface-applied manure has been well documented, but less is known about emission during the irrigation process itself. We carried out a series of 11 experiments over a two-year perio...

  3. Dairy manure applications and soil health implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy manure applications can potentially improve soil health by adding organic matter (OM) to the soil. However, intensive dairy manure applications can cause salt accumulations on arid, irrigated soils, impairing soil health, which can reduce crop growth and yield. Soil organic matter, a major c...

  4. Land application of manure for beneficial reuse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentration of animal production systems has increased efficiency and improved overall economic return for animal producers. This concentration, along with the advent of commercial fertilizers, has led to a change in the way animal producers view manure. Manure, once valued as a resource by fa...

  5. MANURE MANAGEMENT: ALFALFA FIELDS GIVE US OPTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The average cow in the U.S. produces more than 18,000 lbs. of milk each year and generates about 42,000 lbs. of manure. Manure management is not the only task on the farmer's 'to do' list, but in today’s world it is increasingly important to do it right. Although alfalfa acreage is a relatively smal...

  6. Subsurface manure application to reduce ammonia emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation into soil is generally recommended to reduce ammonia volatilization and nutrient runoff following land application of manures. A range of subsurface applicators are available for manure incorporation with minimal soil disturbance in reduced tillage systems, but none have been widely a...

  7. Determinants and processes of manure nitrogen availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased animal production to feed a growing human population, concomitant with increasing loss of farm land available for manure application, make it vitally important that practices be developed for optimizing nutrient recycling from manure to crops. To assist in reaching this goal, methods for ...

  8. Dairy Manure Nutrients: Variable, But Valuable

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowing the nutrient content of manure is essential for doing nutrient management planning for dairy farms. Summaries of over 14,000 dairy manure samples from Wisconsin and 2,300 from Vermont over a 10 to 15-year period showed average values that were consistent with UW-Extension book values but dif...

  9. Ammonia emissions from land application of manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia volatilization can be a major nitrogen (N) loss process for surface-applied manures. There is concern that current manure management practices are contributing to ammonia losses in the Mid-Atlantic region with subsequent reductions in air quality and increases in N losses to streams and est...

  10. Reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in chicken manure by larvae of the black soldier fly.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Marilyn C; Islam, Mahbub; Sheppard, Craig; Liao, Jean; Doyle, Michael P

    2004-04-01

    Green fluorescent protein-labeled Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis were inoculated at 10(7) CFU/g into cow, hog, or chicken manure. Ten- or 11-day-old soldier fly larvae (Hermetia illucens L.) (7 to 10 g) were added to the manure and held at 23, 27, or 32 degrees C for 3 to 6 days. Soldier fly larvae accelerated inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in chicken manure but had no effect in cow manure and enhanced survival in hog manure. The initial pH values of the hog and chicken manure were 6.0 to 6.2 and 7.4 to 8.2, respectively, and it is surmised that these conditions affected the stability of the larval antimicrobial system. Reductions of E. coli O157:H7 populations in chicken manure by larvae were affected by storage temperature, with greater reductions in samples held for 3 days at 27 or 32 degrees C than at 23 degrees C. Pathogen inactivation in chicken manure by larvae was not affected by the indigenous microflora of chicken manure, because Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae-treated samples were approximately 2.5 log lower than control samples without larvae when either autoclaved or nonautoclaved chicken manure was used as the contaminated medium during 3 days of storage. Extending the storage time to 6 days, larvae again accelerated the reduction in Salmonella Enteritidis populations in chicken manure during the first 4 days of storage; however, larvae became contaminated with the pathogen. After 2 days of feeding on contaminated manure, Salmonella Enteritidis populations in larvae averaged 3.3 log CFU/g. Populations decreased to 1.9 log CFU/g after 6 days of exposure to contaminated chicken manure; however, the absence of feeding activity by the maggots in later stages of storage may be responsible for the continued presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in larvae. Transfer of contaminated larvae to fresh chicken manure restored feeding activity but led to cross-contamination of the fresh manure. PMID:15083719

  11. Manure management in reduced tillage and grassland systems: A review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing manure in reduced tillage systems remains a major concern, because tillage has traditionally been used to incorporate manure. Surface applied manure that is not incorporated into soil provides inefficient delivery of manure nutrients to crops due to environmental losses of nutrients and ser...

  12. Estimates of Residual Dairy Manure N Availability Using Various Techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is common practice to repeatedly apply dairy manure to the same fields. To accurately assess the total plant availability of manure nutrients, it is necessary to account for the nutrients remaining in soil from previous manure applications. A field experiment studying manure nitrogen (N) uptake ...

  13. ESTIMATES OF RESIDUAL DAIRY MANURE N AVAILABILITY USING VARIOUS TECHNIQUES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is common practice to repeatedly apply dairy manure to the same fields. To accurately assess the total plant availability of manure nutrients, it is necessary to account for the nutrients remaining in soil from previous manure applications. A field experiment studying manure nitrogen (N) uptake ...

  14. Enhancing Nutrient Cycling by Coupling Cover Crops with Manure Injection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coupling winter small grain cover crops (CC) with liquid manure injection may increase manure nutrient capture. The objectives of this research were to quantify manure injection effects using target manure N rates of 112, 224, and 336 kg N ha-1 on CC plant density, fall and spring shoot biomass, N, ...

  15. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012–2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  16. The Effects of Cattle Manure and Garlic Rotation on Soil under Continuous Cropping of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.).

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruiping; Mo, Yanling; Liu, Changming; Wang, Yongqi; Ma, Jianxiang; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) can lead to reduced yield and quality. We aimed to determine the effects of cattle manure addition and rotation with green garlic to improve yield and reduce disease incidence in watermelon and to examine the effects on the biological and chemical characteristics of the soil. Field experiments were performed during 2012-2014 on land previously under two years of continuous watermelon cropping in northwest China. We examined three treatment combinations: watermelon and garlic rotation, cattle manure application before watermelon planting, and combined cattle manure addition and crop rotation. Watermelon monoculture was retained as a control. Watermelon yield was significantly higher and disease incidence was lower in the treatments than the control. The populations of soil bacteria and actinomycetes and the bacteria/fungi ratio increased significantly and soil enzyme activities were generally enhanced under treatments. Available nutrients and soil organic matter contents were much higher under experimental treatments than the control. Results suggest both cattle manure application and garlic rotation can ameliorate the negative effects of continuous cropping. The combined treatment of cattle manure addition and green garlic rotation was optimal to increase yield, reduce disease incidence and enhance soil quality. PMID:27258145

  17. Reduction of indicator and pathogenic microorganisms in pig manure through fly ash and lime addition during alkaline stabilization.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jonathan W C; Selvam, Ammaiyappan

    2009-09-30

    A pilot scale study was conducted to evaluate the effect of lime and alkaline coal fly ash (CFA) on the reduction of pathogens in pig manure during alkaline stabilization and suppression of re-growth during post-stabilization incubation. Pig manure was mixed with CFA at 25%, 33% and 50%, and a control without fly ash was maintained. To these manure-ash mixtures, lime was added at the rate of 2% or 4% and incubated for 8 days. During the incubation, the population of Salmonella, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, fecal Streptococcus and total bacteria were enumerated. After the alkaline stabilization process, the mixtures were incubated under green house condition to evaluate the re-growth of pathogens. During the 8-day alkaline stabilization, Salmonella, fecal coliforms, E. coli and fecal Streptococcus were completely devitalized in manure-ash-lime mixtures, whereas in the control, incubation reduced the pathogen and total bacterial population by 2-3 logs. Fecal streptococcus was destructed within 4 days of alkaline stabilization, whereas other pathogens needed 8 days for their destruction. During the incubation in green house, an increase in the population of the pathogens and total bacteria was observed. Results indicate that alkaline stabilization of pig manure with lime at 4% and CFA at 50% is effective in devitalizing the pathogens and reducing the post-stabilization re-growth. PMID:19442442

  18. Manure treatment for green farming systems of the southeastern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although most of the farms of the southeastern USA are relatively small, they often have profit centers of livestock or high value crops. This livestock production is vital to the regional economy. It is common for more that 50% of the agricultural cash receipts for states of this region to come fro...

  19. Ammonia volatilization from crop residues and frozen green manure crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ruijter, F. J.; Huijsmans, J. F. M.; Rutgers, B.

    2010-09-01

    Agricultural systems can lose substantial amounts of nitrogen (N). To protect the environment, the European Union (EU) has adopted several directives that set goals to limit N losses. National Emission Ceilings (NEC) are prescribed in the NEC directive for nitrogen oxides and ammonia. Crop residues may contribute to ammonia volatilization, but sufficient information on their contribution to the national ammonia volatilization is lacking. Experiments were carried out with the aim to assess the ammonia volatilization of crop residues left on the soil surface or incorporated into the soil under the conditions met in practice in the Netherlands during late autumn and winter. Ammonia emission from residues of broccoli, leek, sugar beet, cut grass, fodder radish (fresh and frozen) and yellow mustard (frozen) was studied during two winter seasons using volatilization chambers. Residues were either placed on top of soil or mixed with soil. Mixing residues with soil gave insignificant ammonia volatilization, whereas volatilization was 5-16 percent of the N content of residues when placed on top of soil. Ammonia volatilization started after at least 4 days. Total ammonia volatilization was related to C/N-ratio and N concentration of the plant material. After 37 days, cumulative ammonia volatilization was negligible from plant material with N concentration below 2 percent, and was 10 percent of the N content of plant material with 4 percent N. These observations can be explained by decomposition of plant material by micro-organisms. After an initial built up of the microbial population, NH 4+ that is not needed for their own growth is released and can easily emit as NH 3 at the soil surface. The results of the experiments were used to estimate the contribution of crop residues to ammonia volatilization in the Netherlands. Crop residues of arable crops and residues of pasture topping may contribute more than 3 million kg NH 3-N to the national ammonia volatilization of the Netherlands, being more than 3 percent of the national emissions in 2005. This contribution should therefore be considered when focusing on the national ceilings for ammonia emissions.

  20. Transport of Manure Constituents in Runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, D.; Guber, A.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Sikora, L. M.; Nemes, A.; Pachepsky, Y. A.

    2005-12-01

    Fecal coliforms (FC) are often used as indicators of pathogenic bacteria contamination of surface water from surface-applied manure. Manure constituents other than FC may serve as natural tracers of bacterial contamination provided the rates of release from manure and surface transport mechanisms are similar. The objective of this work was to compare fecal coliforms (FC), organic carbon (OC), and water-soluble phosphorus (P) transport from dissolving manure applied on hillslopes with different soil texture and surface cover conditions under simulated rainfall. Two-by-six meters runoff plots were set in triplicate on vegetated and bare 20% slopes with sandy loam and clay loam soils at the ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center. Fresh bovine manure was applied at the top 30-cm wide strip, and at 50 cm x 30 cm miniplots in the immediate vicinity of runoff plots. Rainfall (ca. 6 cm per hour) was simulated for 1 hour on bare plots and for 1.5 hours on vegetated plots. Runoff was collected from gutters at the edge of runoff plots and miniplots at five-min intervals. In general, the volume of runoff was less from vegetated plots than from bare plots, and was less from sandy loam plots than from clay loam plots. Partitioning of fecal coliforms between runoff and suspended sediment was quantified using the partitioning coefficient Kd. The Kd values were greater for the sandy loam plot than the clay loam soil. The value of the partitioning coefficient increased from spring to fall at all plots. Release kinetics of FC and soluble P were similar. The fast release stage of about 20 minutes was followed by aa relatively slow release stage. Both soil texture and vegetation significantly affected transport of the manure constituents. More than 70% of manure FC and OC were transported with runoff over bare plots, and less than 15% over vegetation plots. Overall, manure-borne P appears to be a promising potential tracer for assessing of manure-borne bacteria transport.

  1. Mixing rare earth elements with manures to control phosphorus loss in runoff and track manure fate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concern over the enrichment of agricultural runoff with phosphorus (P) from land applied livestock manures has prompted the development of manure amendments that minimize P solubility. We evaluated the effect of mixing two rare earth chlorides, lanthanum chloride and ytterbium chloride, with poultr...

  2. Lincomycin and spectinomycin concentrations in liquid swine manure and their persistence during simulated manure storage.

    PubMed

    Kuchta, Sandra L; Cessna, Allan J

    2009-07-01

    Antimicrobials administered to livestock can be excreted up to 75% in the feces and urine. Liquid swine manure from confined animal feeding operations is generally retained in lagoon storage until it is applied as a nutrient source to crop and pasture land. Thus, the applied manure becomes a possible source of antimicrobials to aquatic ecosystems. In the prairie region of Canada, lincomycin and spectinomycin are two antimicrobials that are frequently administered to pigs for prevention of post-weaning diarrhea. In order to assess the potential for contamination of prairie wetlands, concentrations of both antimicrobials were monitored in liquid manure from a commercial-scale barn during a 5-week study, and their persistence during simulated manure storage was investigated. LC-MS/MS analysis of manure extracts showed that concentrations of lincomycin and spectinomycin in the accumulating liquid manure at the end of the study were equivalent to 32 and 3%, respectively, of the doses administered to weanling pigs in their feed. In a laboratory study in which lagoon storage was simulated at room temperature using fortified liquid manure, concentrations of both antimicrobials showed a rapid initial decrease during the first 6 days, followed by a much slower dissipation, over a period of 5 months. Such persistence indicates that lincomycin and spectinomycin may be present in lagoon manure when applied as an amendment to agricultural land since many lagoons are emptied every 6 months (early spring and late fall). PMID:18800201

  3. Effects of cattle feeding regimen and soil management type on the fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium in manure, manure-amended soil, and lettuce.

    PubMed

    Franz, Eelco; van Diepeningen, Anne D; de Vos, Oscar J; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

    2005-10-01

    Survival of the green fluorescent protein-transformed human pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was studied in a laboratory-simulated lettuce production chain. Dairy cows were fed three different roughage types: high-digestible grass silage plus maize silage (6:4), low-digestible grass silage, and straw. Each was adjusted with supplemental concentrates to high and low crude protein levels. The pathogens were added to manure, which was subsequently mixed (after 56 and 28 days for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella serovar Typhimurium, respectively) with two pairs of organically and conventionally managed loamy and sandy soil. After another 14 days, iceberg lettuce seedlings were planted and then checked for pathogens after 21 days of growth. Survival data were fitted to a logistic decline function (exponential for E. coli O157:H7 in soil). Roughage type significantly influenced the rate of decline of E. coli O157:H7 in manure, with the fastest decline in manure from the pure straw diet and the slowest in manure from the diet of grass silage plus maize silage. Roughage type showed no effect on the rate of decline of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium, although decline was significantly faster in the manure derived from straw than in the manure from the diet of grass silage plus maize silage. The pH and fiber content of the manure were significant explanatory factors and were positively correlated with the rate of decline. With E. coli O157:H7 there was a trend of faster decline in organic than in conventional soils. No pathogens were detected in the edible lettuce parts. The results indicate that cattle diet and soil management are important factors with respect to the survival of human pathogens in the environment. PMID:16204535

  4. Effect of coal fly ash-amended organic compost as a manure for agricultural crops

    SciTech Connect

    Ghuman, G.S.; Menon, M.P.; James, J.; Chandra, K.; Sajwan, K. )

    1991-04-01

    Coal-fired electric power plants generate large quantities of fly ash as a byproduct. In continuation of previous studies on the utilization of fly ash as an amendment to organic compost for use as a manure for agricultural crops, the authors have now determined the effects of this manure on the yield and uptake of selected elements by several plants including collard green, corn, mustard green, bell pepper, egg plant, and climbing beans. An amended compost containing 30-40% fly ash with a compost:soil ratio of 1:3 was found to be most effective to enhance the yield and nutrient uptake of most of the plants. At 20% fly ash level, no increase in yield of any of the above crops was observed. The uptake of K, Mg, Mn, and P was increased in most plants. Boron which is known to be detrimental to the growth of plants above certain level was also found to be increased in plants nourished with the manure.

  5. Semi-continuous cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris for treating undigested and digested dairy manures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Wang, Yingkuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2010-12-01

    The present study, based on a previous batch-wise experiment, investigated a lab-scale semi-continuous cultivation of green microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (UTEX 2714), as a useful means for nutrient reduction as well as production of algal biomass which can be used as potential feedstock for the production of biofuel and other commodities, on 20 x diluted dairy manures. Both undigested and digested samples were applied in parallel experiments for comparison regarding the requirements of hydraulic retention times (HRTs), removal efficiencies of nitrogen, phosphorus, and chemical oxygen demand (COD), biomass productivities, and CO₂ sequestration abilities. It was demonstrated that algae grown in undigested dairy manure achieved removal rates of 99.7%, 89.5%, 92.0%, and 75.5% for NH₄+--N, TN, TP, and COD, respectively, under a 5-day HRT, while the HRT had to extend to 20 days in order to achieve 100.0% removal of NH₄+--N in digested one with simultaneous removals of 93.6% of TN, 89.2% of TP, and 55.4% of COD. The higher organic carbon contained in undigested dairy manure helped boost the growth of mixotrophic Chlorella, thus resulting in a much shorter HRT needed for complete removal of NH₄+--N. Moreover, algae grown in digested dairy manure provided more penitential than those grown in undigested one in CO₂ sequestration per milligram of harvested dried biomass (1.68 mg CO₂/mg dry weight (DW) vs 0.99 mg CO₂/mg DW), but did not surpass in total the amount of CO₂ sequestered on a 15-day period basis because of the better productivity gained in undigested dairy manure. PMID:20567935

  6. Effect of proximity to a cattle feedlot on Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens and evaluation of the potential for airborne transmission

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of proximity to a beef cattle feedlot on E. coli O157:H7 contamination of leafy greens was examined. In each of two years, leafy greens were planted to nine plots located 60, 120, and 180 meters from a cattle feedlot (3 plots each distance). Leafy greens, feedlot manure, and bioaerosol ...

  7. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  8. Accuracy of the predicted fertilizer N equivalence of manure slurry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers need reliable estimates of N availability from livestock manure to develop nutrient management plans, to estimate the correct manure application rate, and to predict the amount of supplemental fertilizer N that is needed when manure does not fulfill the crop N requirement. We tested the accu...

  9. Mercury in Animal Manures and Impacts on Environmental Health

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal manure is widely used as a cheap source of fertilizer all over the world, and is also used as animal feed. In industrialized countries, tons of animal manures per hectare each year are applied to agricultural lands as an easy means of disposal. Analysis of these manures shows low Hg concentra...

  10. Influence of manure application method on odor emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surface application of manure in reduced tillage systems can serve as a major source of nuisance odors. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate odor emissions associated with various technologies that incorporate manure with minimal soil disturbance. Dairy manure slurry was applied by five meth...

  11. Effect of Dietary Protein on Ammonia Emission from Dairy Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary crude protein concentration on ammonia (NH3) volatilization from dairy cow manure. Two types of manure were prepared by feeding lactating dairy cows diets with 16% (DM basis; HighCP) or 14% CP (LowCP). The manure was used in 2...

  12. Effects of aging on microbial ecology in swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions and availability of nutrients from manure depends on activities of resident microorganisms; however, the effects of diet, animal genetics or treatments on the microbial ecology of pig manure is largely unknown. Stainless steel tanks with total manure capacity of 900 L were designed to all...

  13. Effectiveness of Recovered Manure Phosphorus as Plant Fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) was recovered from liquid swine manure and poultry litter using new advanced treatment manure processes developed to recover this nutrient from manure. The high P concentration in the recovered P materials indicates that they likely have use as plant fertilizers. A study was conducted...

  14. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  15. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  16. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  17. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  18. 9 CFR 93.415 - Manure from quarantined ruminants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined ruminants. 93...; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Ruminants § 93.415 Manure from quarantined ruminants. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the...

  19. Effects of chemical amendments to swine manure on runoff quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land-applied swine manure can be an environmental concern when runoff losses of manure constituents occur. The use of chemical amendments to mitigate these losses has been investigated for poultry litter, but materials such as swine manure have received less attention in this context, particularly ...

  20. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  1. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  2. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  3. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  4. 9 CFR 93.514 - Manure from quarantined swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined swine. 93.514... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Swine § 93.514 Manure from quarantined swine. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the swine producing same....

  5. Overview of the advances in environmental chemistry of animal manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is an increasing environmental concern over animal manure due to the volumes produced in modern intensified animal production. However, animal manure is traditionally regarded as a valuable resource of plant nutrients. Although research on environmental impacts of animal manure and associated...

  6. Agronomic effectiveness of phosphorus materials recovered from manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of large amounts of manure from confined livestock facilities is an environmental concern often associated to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential pollution of water resources. Recovery of P from livestock manure is an attractive approach when on-farm application of manure i...

  7. Characteristics and fertilizer value of compost dairy barn manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compost dairy barn (CDB) manure is a new manure source on dairy farms. Only two published studies report manure composition in CDBs. One determined composition in the upper 30 cm of 12 barns and the other summarized sample analyses from the entire pack depth from 6 barns. The visually apparent unifo...

  8. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  9. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  10. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  11. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  12. 9 CFR 93.312 - Manure from quarantined horses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Manure from quarantined horses. 93.312... FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses § 93.312 Manure from quarantined horses. No manure shall be removed from the quarantine premises until the release of the horses producing same....

  13. Coupling Cover Crops and Manure Injection: Soil Inorganic N Changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of a rye/oat cover crop with liquid swine manure application may enhance retention of manure nitrogen (N) in corn-soybean cropping systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in soil inorganic N following injection of liquid swine manure to plots seeded with a rye/oat co...

  14. Thermal characterization of swine manure: Bioenergy feedstock potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The trend toward larger concentrated animal feeding operations has generated a sustainable surplus of manure. In addition to its traditional use as a fertilizer, manure is a rich organic resource that can be used as a bioenergy feedstock. While thermochemical conversion of animal manure via combusti...

  15. PHOSPHORUS FEEDING AND MANURE NUTRIENT RECYCLING ON WISCONSIN DAIRY FARMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient management regulations for livestock operations are focused on a farm¿s ability to recycle the phosphorus (P) contained in manure. Most efforts to improve dairy manure management emphasize manure handling, storage, and land application techniques. Little is known about relationships betwee...

  16. Horse manure as feedstock for anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Hadin, Sa; Eriksson, Ola

    2016-10-01

    Horse keeping is of great economic, social and environmental benefit for society, but causes environmental impacts throughout the whole chain from feed production to manure treatment. According to national statistics, the number of horses in Sweden is continually increasing and is currently approximately 360,000. This in turn leads to increasing amounts of horse manure that have to be managed and treated. Current practices could cause local and global environmental impacts due to poor performance or lack of proper management. Horse manure with its content of nutrients and organic material can however contribute to fertilisation of arable land and recovery of renewable energy following anaerobic digestion. At present anaerobic digestion of horse manure is not a common treatment. In this paper the potential for producing biogas and biofertiliser from horse manure is analysed based on a thorough literature review in combination with mathematical modelling and simulations. Anaerobic digestion was chosen as it has a high degree of resource conservation, both in terms of energy (biogas) and nutrients (digestate). Important factors regarding manure characteristics and operating factors in the biogas plant are identified. Two crucial factors are the type and amount of bedding material used, which has strong implications for feedstock characteristics, and the type of digestion method applied (dry or wet process). Straw and waste paper are identified as the best materials in an energy point of view. While the specific methane yield decreases with a high amount of bedding, the bedding material still makes a positive contribution to the energy balance. Thermophilic digestion increases the methane generation rate and yield, compared with mesophilic digestion, but the total effect is negligible. PMID:27396682

  17. Biodegradation of Pig Manure by the Housefly, Musca domestica: A Viable Ecological Strategy for Pig Manure Management

    PubMed Central

    Čičková, Helena; Pastor, Berta; Kozánek, Milan; Martínez-Sánchez, Anabel; Rojo, Santos; Takáč, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500–700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.7±32.0 ml of eggs in a 15-day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.4–1.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178–444 kg of manure. Larval development varied among four different types of pig manure (centrifuged slurry, fresh manure, manure with sawdust, manure without sawdust). Larval survival ranged from 46.9±2.1%, in manure without sawdust, to 76.8±11.9% in centrifuged slurry. Larval development took 6–11 days, depending on the manure type. Processing of 1 kg of wet manure produced 43.9–74.3 g of housefly pupae and the weight of the residue after biodegradation decreased to 0.18–0.65 kg, with marked differences among manure types. Recommendations for the operation of industrial-scale biodegradation facilities are presented and discussed. PMID:22431982

  18. Biodegradation of pig manure by the housefly, Musca domestica: a viable ecological strategy for pig manure management.

    PubMed

    Čičková, Helena; Pastor, Berta; Kozánek, Milan; Martínez-Sánchez, Anabel; Rojo, Santos; Takáč, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500-700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.7±32.0 ml of eggs in a 15-day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.4-1.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178-444 kg of manure. Larval development varied among four different types of pig manure (centrifuged slurry, fresh manure, manure with sawdust, manure without sawdust). Larval survival ranged from 46.9±2.1%, in manure without sawdust, to 76.8±11.9% in centrifuged slurry. Larval development took 6-11 days, depending on the manure type. Processing of 1 kg of wet manure produced 43.9-74.3 g of housefly pupae and the weight of the residue after biodegradation decreased to 0.18-0.65 kg, with marked differences among manure types. Recommendations for the operation of industrial-scale biodegradation facilities are presented and discussed. PMID:22431982

  19. Effects of Animal Diet, Manure Application Rate, and Tillage on Transport of Microorganisms from Manure-Amended Fields ▿

    PubMed Central

    Durso, Lisa M.; Gilley, John E.; Marx, David B.; Woodbury, Bryan L.

    2011-01-01

    Manure from cattle fed distillers' grain or corn diets was applied to fields, and the fields were subjected to rainfall simulation tests. Manure was added at three rates on till and no-till plots. Correlations between microbial transport and runoff characteristics were identified. Results indicate that diet affects phage but not bacterial transport from manure-amended fields. PMID:21803913

  20. Determining Bioactive Phosphorus Fractions in Animal Manure, Soil, and Extracts of Soils and Manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Enzymatic dephosphorylation of compounds such as inositol phosphates and other orthophosphate monoesters, phosphorylated lipids, and phosphodiesters have been used in their characterization in many biological media including organic residuals and soils. In an enzymatic assay, a manure sample, a soi...

  1. Accidents related to manure in eastern Switzerland: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed Central

    Knoblauch, A; Steiner, B; Bachmann, S; Trachsler, G; Burgheer, R; Osterwalder, J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Liquid manure systems and manure pits are major hazards in the agricultural workplace. The incidence of accidents related to manure is unknown. The objective of this study was to survey the liquid manure facilities of farms in eastern Switzerland and find the incidence of accidents related to manure in the region. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study and cross sectional survey of 210 farms in eastern Switzerland. RESULTS: The incidence of accidents related to manure was found to be 10.4/1000 person-years. Most accidents were categorised as minor--that is, had a benign outcome for the people involved or involved animals only. One in 33 of the farms surveyed was the scene of an accident related to manure each year. CONCLUSIONS: The medical literature on accidents related to manure mostly reports accidents with catastrophic outcomes. This study shows that this type of accident is only the tip of the iceberg. Most of the accidents reported in this study belong to a category that has hitherto been un-noticed and unreported. The term "accident related to manure" covers a broad range of events, and those resulting in serious human illness or death represent only a small part of this spectrum. A wide variety of liquid manure systems were found on the farms surveyed. Very few liquid manure facilities conformed to published safety standards. PMID:8882112

  2. Characteristics of Stratified Bedded Pack Dairy Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Compost" dairy barns are a relatively new housing system that generates a deep (0.9 to 1.5 m), stratified bedded pack (SBP) manure source. Bedding composed of sawdust, wood chips, or crop residues accumulates as additions are made to maintain a dry surface. Surface drying is promoted by a combinati...

  3. Nitrogen availability from compost dairy barn manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A relatively new dairy cow housing with deep bedding, commonly called compost dairy barns (CDB), is being adopted by small- to medium-sized farms. There have been no reports of nitrogen (N) availability from this manure. In laboratory and field trials, we characterized the nutrient content and N ava...

  4. CONVERSION OF CATTLE MANURE INTO USEFUL PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the project was to design and build a pyrolysis apparatus for cattle manure and to investigate the potential uses of the pyrolysis by-products. A pyrolysis machine of semi-continuous feed capabilities was designed and built. Various conditions of pyrolysis treatmen...

  5. Dairy cow manure digester and cogenerator performance

    SciTech Connect

    Pigg, D.L.; Vetter, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A 94 m/sup 3/ mesophilic digester with a 15 kW engine-generator was monitored. The average manure collected was 6.48 kg VS/cow/day. An ultimate methane yield (Bo) of 0.25 L CH4/g VS was calculated. The potential gross energy production was determined to be 3 kWh/cow/day.

  6. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  7. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  8. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  9. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  10. 9 CFR 95.20 - Animal manure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Animal manure. 95.20 Section 95.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL OF...

  11. Subsurface application enhances benefits of manure redistribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainable nutrient management requires redistribution of livestock manure from nutrient-excess areas to nutrient-deficit areas. Field experiments were conducted to assess agronomic (i.e., corn yield) and environmental (i.e., ammonia volatilization and surface nutrient losses) effects of different ...

  12. Evaluation of sample preservation methods for poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Pan, J; Fadel, J G; Zhang, R; El-Mashad, H M; Ying, Y; Rumsey, T

    2009-08-01

    When poultry manure is collected but cannot be analyzed immediately, a method for storing the manure is needed to ensure accurate subsequent analyses. This study has 3 objectives: (1) to investigate effects of 4 poultry manure sample preservation methods (refrigeration, freezing, acidification, and freeze-drying) on the compositional characteristics of poultry manure; (2) to determine compositional differences in fresh manure with manure samples at 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation under bird cages; and (3) to assess the influence of 14-d freezing storage on the composition of manure when later exposed to 25 degrees C for 7 d as compared with fresh manure. All manure samples were collected from a layer house. Analyses performed on the manure samples included total Kjeldahl nitrogen, uric acid nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and urea nitrogen. In experiment 1, the storage methods most similar to fresh manure, in order of preference, were freezing, freeze-drying, acidification, and refrigeration. Thoroughly mixing manure samples and compressing them to 2 to 3 mm is important for the freezing and freeze-dried samples. In general, refrigeration was found unacceptable for nitrogen analyses. A significant effect (P < 0.0001) of time for refrigeration was found on uric acid nitrogen and ammonia nitrogen. In experiment 2, the total Kjeldahl nitrogen and uric acid nitrogen were significantly lower (P < 0.05) for 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation compared with fresh manure. Manure after 1, 2, and 3 d of accumulation had similar nitrogen compositions. The results from experiment 3 show that nitrogen components from fresh manure samples and thawed samples from 14 d of freezing are similar at 7 d but high variability of nitrogen compositions during intermediate times from 0 to 7 d prevents the recommendation of freezing manure for use in subsequent experiments and warrants future experimentation. In conclusion, fresh poultry manure can be frozen for accurate subsequent nitrogen

  13. Green Coffee

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Caffeine in green coffee might slow blood clotting. Taking green coffee along with medications that also ...

  14. Green Tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Key References Green tea. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 8, 2009. Green tea ( Camellia sinensis ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on July ...

  15. Anaerobic digestibility of beef hooves with swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yun; Wang, Ding-Kang; Kong, Yunhong; Ungerfeld, Emilio M; Seviour, Robert; Massé, Daniel I

    2015-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an effective method for treating animal by-products, generating at the same time green energy as methane (CH4). However, the methods and mechanisms involved in anaerobic digestion of α-keratin wastes like hair, nails, horns and hooves are still not clear. In this study we investigated the feasibility of anaerobically co-digesting ground beef hooves in the presence of swine manure or slaughterhouse sludge at 25 °C using eight 42-L Plexiglas lab-scale digesters. Our results showed addition of beef hooves statistically significantly increased the rate of CH4 production with swine manure, but only increased it slightly with slaughterhouse sludge. After 90-day digestion, 73% of beef hoof material added to the swine manure-inoculated digesters had been converted into CH4, which was significantly higher than the 45% level achieved in the slaughterhouse sludge inoculated digesters. BODIPY-Fluorescent casein staining detected proteolytic bacteria in all digesters with and without added beef hooves, and their relative abundances corresponded to the rate of methanogenesis of the digesters with the different inocula. Fluorescence in situ hybridization in combination with BODIPY-Fluorescent casein staining identified most proteolytic bacteria as members of genus Alkaliphilus in the subfamily Clostridiaceae 2 of family Clostridiaceae. They thus appear to be the bacteria mainly responsible for digestion of beef hooves. PMID:25595391

  16. Studies into Using Manure in a Biorefinery Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shulin; Wen, Zhiyou; Liao, Wei; Liu, Chuanbin; Kincaid, R. L.; Harrison, J. H.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Brown, Michael D.; Stevens, Don J.

    2005-03-01

    Animal manure is an underutilized biomass resource containing a large amount of organic carbon that is often wasted in the existing manure disposal practices. A research project funded by the US Department of Energy explored the feasibility of using manure via the sugar platform in a biorefinery. The results showed that fiber, the major component of dry manure, constituted approximately 50%, 40%, and 36% of the dry dairy, swine, and poultry manure materials, respectively. The highest fiber contents were in dairy manure of which more than 75% of the dry matter was in the particles greater than 0.125 mm. Manure can be used for substrate to produce cellulase on site. The hemicellulose component in the manure fiber could be readily converted to sugar through acid hydrolysis. Concentrated acid treatment was most effective in manure cellulose decrystallization. The effectiveness of enzymatic hydrolysis was limited without concentrated acid pretreatment. The high protein content in manure had negative affects on acid hydrolysis. Purification and separation is necessary for further chemical conversion of the sugar to value-added chemicals through hydrogenation.

  17. Seasonal variation of methane flux from coastal saline rice field with the application of different organic manures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, A.; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh B.; Nayak, D. R.; Mahata, K. R.; Santra, S. C.; Adhya, T. K.

    2013-02-01

    A field experiment was conducted in an irrigated saline rice field of Gadakujang (a fishing hamlet of coastal Odisha, India, ravaged by the super cyclone of 1999 and cyclone BOB02 of 2006), to study the effects of locally available organic and fresh green manure amendment to the saline soil on methane (CH4) emission during wet and dry seasons using the conventional closed chamber flux measurement method. In a first report of this kind, CH4 emission vis-à-vis yield improvement of rice with different locally available organic manure application from coastal saline rice field soil of Odisha, is reported. The study confirms that CH4 flux from the saline soil planted to rice is significantly lower than that of irrigated inland non-saline rice field during both wet and dry seasons. Cumulative seasonal CH4 flux from different treatments of the coastal saline rice field ranged between 119.51 and 263.60 kg ha-1 during the wet season and 15.35-100.88 kg ha-1 during the dry season. Lower CH4 emission during the dry season may be attributed to the increased soil salinity (EC1:2) that went up from 0.76 dS m-1 during the wet season to 3.96 dS m-1 during the dry season. Annual CH4 emission per Mg grain yield was significantly low from plots treated with locally available green manure Morning glory (Ipomoea lacunosa) (17.27) with significantly high rice grain yield. Study indicates that Morning glory may be used as a potential green manure to increase grain yield and reduced CH4 emission from the coastal saline rice ecosystems of the tropics.

  18. Phosphorus Speciation in Manure and Manure-Amended Soils Using XANES Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sato,S.; Solomon, D.; Hyland, C.; Ketterings, Q.; Lehmann, J.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies suggested an increase in the proportion of calcium phosphates (CaP) of the total phosphorus (P) pool in soils with a long-term poultry manure application history versus those with no or limited application histories. To understand and predict long-term P accumulation and release dynamics in these highly amended soils, it is important to understand what specific P species are being formed. We assessed forms of CaP formed in poultry manure and originally acidic soil in response to different lengths of mostly poultry manure applications using P K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. Phosphorus K-edge XANES spectra of poultry manure showed no evidences of crystalline P minerals but dominance of soluble CaP species and free and weakly bound phosphates (aqueous phosphate and phosphate adsorbed on soil minerals). Phosphate in an unamended neighboring forest soil (pH 4.3) was mainly associated with iron (Fe) compounds such as strengite and Fe-oxides. Soils with a short-term manure history contained both Fe-associated phosphates and soluble CaP species such as dibasic calcium phosphate (DCP) and amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). Long-term manure application resulted in a dominance of CaP forms confirming our earlier results obtained with sequential extractions, and a transformation from soluble to more stable CaP species such as {beta}-tricalcium calcium phosphate (TCP). Even after long-term manure application (>25 yr and total P in soil up to 13 307 mg kg{sup -1}), however, none of the manure-amended soils showed the presence of crystalline CaP. With a reduction or elimination of poultry manure application to naturally acidic soils, the pH of the soil is likely to decrease, thereby increasing the solubility of Ca-bonded inorganic P minerals. Maintaining a high pH is therefore an important strategy to minimize P leaching in these soils.

  19. Volatilization of ammonia from manure as affected by manure additives, temperature and mixing.

    PubMed

    Van der Stelt, B; Temminghoff, E J M; Van Vliet, P C J; Van Riemsdijk, W H

    2007-12-01

    Ammonia (NH(3)) volatilization decreases the N-nutrient value of livestock manure slurries and can lead to soil acidification and eutrophication problems. In this study the effect of three manure additives (Euro Mest-mix (Mx), Effective Micro-organisms (EM), and Agri-mest (Am)) on NH(3) volatilization at three temperatures (4, 20, and 35 degrees C) was investigated. The manufacturers claim that Mx contains absorbing clay minerals and that applying Am and EM to slurry will reduce nitrogen losses, most likely by enhancing the biodegradation of manure slurry. Furthermore, the effect of mixing slurry on NH(3) volatilization has been investigated. Ammonia volatilization increased with increasing temperature and mixing of the slurries. However, at 35 degrees C mixing of manure reduced NH(3) emissions compared to non-mixing, which is related to a reduced crust resistance to gaseous transport at higher temperatures for non-mixing. Moreover, mixing introduces oxygen into the anaerobic slurry environment which will slow down microbial activity. The use of additives did not change manure characteristics (pH, dry matter, N(total), N(mineral), C/N, and C/N(organic)) and did not result in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in NH(3) emissions, except that at 4 degrees C and no mixing a significant decrease of 34% in NH(3) volatilization was observed, when Am and EM together, were applied to slurry. PMID:17215124

  20. Pig manure treatment and purification by filtration.

    PubMed

    Makara, A; Kowalski, Z

    2015-09-15

    This study aimed to develop a new, complex pig manure treatment and filtration process. The final scheme, called the AMAK process, comprised the following successive steps: mineralization with mineral acids, alkalization with lime milk, superphosphate addition, a second alkalization, thermal treatment, and pressure filtration. The proposed method produced a filtrate with 95%, 80%, and 96% reductions in chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen content, and phosphorus content, respectively. An advantage of the proposed method was that it incorporated a crystalline phase into the solid organic part of the manure, which enabled high filtration rates (>1000 kg m(-2) h(-1)) and efficient separation. The process also eliminated odor emissions from the filtrate and sediment. The treated filtrate could be used to irrigate crops or it could be further treated in conventional biological wastewater treatment plants. The sediment could be used for producing mineral-organic fertilizer. The AMAK process is inexpensive, and it requires low investment costs. PMID:26197426

  1. Dairy manure nutrient analysis using quick tests.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Bicudo, J R

    2005-05-01

    Rapid on-farm assessment of manure nutrient content can be achieved with the use of quick tests. These tests can be used to indirectly measure the nutrient content in animal slurries immediately before manure is applied on agricultural fields. The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of hydrometers, electrical conductivity meter and pens, and Agros N meter against standard laboratory methods. Manure samples were collected from 34 dairy farms in the Mammoth Cave area in central Kentucky. Regression equations were developed for combined and individual counties located In the area (Barren, Hart and Monroe). Our results indicated that accuracy in nutrient estimation could be improved if separate linear regressions were developed for farms with similar facilities in a county. Direct hydrometer estimates of total nitrogen were among the most accurate when separate regression equations were developed for each county (R2 = 0.61, 0.93, and 0.74 for Barren, Hart and Monroe county, respectively). Reasonably accurate estimates (R2 > 0.70) were also obtained for total nitrogen and total phosphorus using hydrometers, either by relating specific gravity to nutrient content or to total solids content. Estimation of ammoniacal nitrogen with Agros N meter and electrical conductivity meter/pens correlated well with standard laboratory determinations, especially while using the individual data sets from Hart County (R2 = 0.70 to 0.87). This study indicates that the use of quick test calibration equations developed for a small area or region where farms are similar in terms of manure handling and management, housing, and feed ration are more appropriate than using "universal" equations usually developed with combined data sets. Accuracy is expected to improve if individual farms develop their own calibration curves. Nevertheless, we suggest confidence intervals always be specified for nutrients estimated through quick testing for any specific region, county, or farm

  2. Ammonia stripping of biologically treated liquid manure.

    PubMed

    Alitalo, Anni; Kyrö, Aleksis; Aura, Erkki

    2012-01-01

    A prerequisite for efficient ammonia removal in air stripping is that the pH of the liquid to be stripped is sufficiently high. Swine manure pH is usually around 7. At pH 7 (at 20°C), only 0.4% of ammonium is in ammonia form, and it is necessary to raise the pH of swine slurry to achieve efficient ammonia removal. Because manure has a very high buffering capacity, large amounts of chemicals are needed to change the slurry pH. The present study showed that efficient air stripping of manure can be achieved with a small amount of chemicals and without strong bases like NaOH. Slurry was subjected to aerobic biological treatment to raise pH before stripping. This facilitated 8 to 32% ammonia removal without chemical treatment. The slurry was further subjected to repeated cycles of stripping with MgO and Ca(OH)(2) additions after the first and second strippings, respectively, to raise slurry pH in between the stripping cycles. After three consecutive stripping cycles, 59 to 86% of the original ammonium had been removed. It was shown that the reduction in buffer capacity of the slurry was due to ammonia and carbonate removal during the stripping cycles. PMID:22218195

  3. Characterization of ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koirala, Kedar

    Emission of gases, odor, and particulate matters from livestock manure is a major concern because of their potential adverse environmental impacts. For example, ammonia in the air has the potential to: negatively affect animal, human health and environment. Mitigation of ammonia emissions from livestock manure to protect animal and human health, and the environment, in general, is thus an important agenda for livestock producers, engineers, and environmental scientists. Proper understanding of the mechanisms or process of its volatilization from manure is the first step towards designing or formulating appropriate emissions mitigation strategies. This research investigated the effects of suspended solids, anaerobic digestion, and ionic strength on the ammonia (NH3) volatilization mechanism from liquid dairy manure. Experiments were conducted to: (i) assess the role of suspended solids characteristics on ammonia volatilization, (ii) evaluate the impacts of anaerobic digestion on the process governing NH 3 volatilization, and (iii) delineate the influences of suspended solids (SS) and ionic strength (IS) on the ammonia volatilization process from dairy manure. Two key parameters (the ammonia dissociation and the overall mass transfer coefficient (KoL)) that govern ammonia volatilization were evaluated to achieve these objectives. The physical and chemical properties of manure were also evaluated to further elucidate the respective processes. The suspended solids ammoniacal nitrogen adsorption properties did not significantly affect either the ammonium dissociation or the K oL; suggesting that the characteristics of manure suspended solids did not play a significant role in ammonia volatilization from liquid dairy manure. The dissociation of ammonium in anaerobically digested (AD) manure was significantly higher than in the undigested (UD) manure. However, KoL was less in AD manure than in UD manure, while an increase in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) was observed

  4. Microbial Community and Chemical Characteristics of Swine Manure during Maturation.

    PubMed

    Trabue, Steven L; Kerr, Brian J; Bearson, Bradley L; Hur, Manhoi; Parkin, Timothy; Wurtele, Eve S; Ziemer, Cherrie J

    2016-07-01

    Swine diet formulations have the potential to lower animal emissions, including odor and ammonia (NH). The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of manure storage duration on manure chemical and microbial properties in swine feeding trials. Three groups of 12 pigs were fed a standard corn-soybean meal diet over a 13-wk period. Urine and feces were collected at each feeding and transferred to 12 manure storage tanks. Manure chemical characteristics and headspace gas concentrations were monitored for NH, hydrogen sulfide (HS), volatile fatty acids, phenols, and indoles. Microbial analysis of the stored manure included plate counts, community structure (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), and metabolic function (Biolog). All odorants in manure and headspace gas concentrations were significantly ( < 0.01) correlated for length of storage using quadratic equations, peaking after Week 5 for all headspace gases and most manure chemical characteristics. Microbial community structure and metabolic utilization patterns showed continued change throughout the 13-wk trial. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis species diversity patterns declined significantly ( < 0.01) with time as substrate utilization declined for sugars and certain amino acids, but functionality increased in the utilization of short chain fatty acids as levels of these compounds increased in manure. Studies to assess the effect of swine diet formulations on manure emissions for odor need to be conducted for a minimum of 5 wk. Efforts to determine the impact of diets on greenhouse gas emissions will require longer periods of study (>13 wk). PMID:27380061

  5. Green Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  6. Reduction of volatile fatty acids and odor offensiveness by anaerobic digestion and solid separation of dairy manure during manure storage.

    PubMed

    Page, Laura H; Ni, Ji-Qin; Zhang, Hao; Heber, Albert J; Mosier, Nathan S; Liu, Xingya; Joo, Hung-Soo; Ndegwa, Pius M; Harrison, Joseph H

    2015-04-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) play an important role in the biodegradation of organic wastes and production of bioenergy under anaerobic digestion, and are related to malodors. However, little is known about the dynamics of VFA during dairy manure storage. This study evaluated the characteristics of VFA in dairy manure before and after anaerobic co-digestion in a laboratory experiment using eight lab-scale reactors. The reactors were loaded with four different types of dairy manure: (1) liquid dairy manure from a freestall barn, (2) mixture of dairy manure and co-digestion food processing wastes at the inlet of an anaerobic digester, (3) effluent from the digester outlet, and (4) the liquid fraction of effluent from a solid separator. Four VFA (acetic, propionic, butyric, and 2-methylbutyric acids) were identified and quantified in weekly manure samples from all reactors. Results showed that the dominant VFA was acetic acid in all four manure sources. The off-farm co-digestion wastes significantly increased the total VFA concentrations and the proportions of individual VFA in the influent. The dairy manure under storage demonstrated high temporal and spatial variations in pH and VFA concentrations. Anaerobic digestion reduced the total VFA by 86%-96%; but solid-liquid separation did not demonstrate a significant reduction in total VFA in this study. Using VFA as an indicator, anaerobic digestion exhibited an effective reduction of dairy manure odor offensiveness. PMID:25617873

  7. Greene Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article profiles the 37-year-old researcher Jay P. Greene and his controversial research studies on education. Most people learn early to trust the things they see first, but Greene adheres to a different creed. People are deceived by their own eyes. He believed that visual betrayal is as evident as it is in how people think…

  8. Net nitrogen mineralization from past year's manure and fertilizer applications.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure from the semiarid West’s dairy industries is a rich nutrient source, but its use for crops can be problematic because soil N availability from manure may vary substantially depending on the year of application. Experimental plots established in Idaho on a Portneuf silt loam (coarse silty, mi...

  9. Ammonia Volatilization Loss from Surface Applied Livestock Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia (NH3) emission from livestock manures used in agriculture reduces N uptake by crops and negatively impacts air quality. This laboratory study was conducted to evaluate NH3 emission from different livestock manures applied to two soils: Candler fins sand (CFS; light-textured soil, pH 6.8 and...

  10. Process for recovery of calcium phosphates from solid manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of manure in regions with intense confined livestock and poultry production is an environmental concern when land is limiting because it promotes soil phosphorus (P) surplus and potential pollution of water resources. Although manure can be moved off the farm, its transportation bec...

  11. Mechanical aeration to reduce P export from manured grasslands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The poultry industry is an important component of agricultural production in the Southern Piedmont of Georgia. Associated manures are typically surface-applied to pastures as a fertilizer for forages. However, this surface application of manures allows phosphorus (P) to accumulate at the soil surf...

  12. Dairy heifer diets, manure management, and runoff phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure application to cropland can contribute to runoff losses of phosphorus and eutrophication of surface waters. We conducted a series of three rainfall simulation experiments to assess the effects of dairy heifer diet P, manure incorporation, application rate, and soil test P on runoff P losses f...

  13. Soil Nitrogen Response to Coupling Cover Crops with Manure Injection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Coupling winter small grain cover crops (CC) with manure (M) application may increase retention of manure nitrogen (N) in corn-soybean cropping systems. The objective of this research was to quantify soil N changes after application of liquid swine M (Sus scrofa L.) at target N rates of 112, 224, an...

  14. Recovered phosphorus from animal manure and its use as fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Repeated land application of large amounts of manure from confined livestock facilities is an environmental concern frequently associated to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and a likely source for pollution of water resources. Animal waste treatments that include recovery of P from manure are a manag...

  15. Low disturbance manure incorporation effects on ammonia and nitrate losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia volatilization represents a major mechanism of nitrogen (N) loss from land-applied manure and is an air quality concern. A field study was conducted to assess ammonia emissions related to manure application method in central Pennsylvania on a Hagerstown soil (Fine, mixed semiactive, mesic Ty...

  16. Biochar from livestock manure as a fertilizer source for ryegrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When processed via pyrolysis, livestock manures have the potential of providing energy and biochar. Biochars that are high in carbon but low in nutrient content, such as wood, can be applied to soil in relatively large amounts. Such is not the case for manure biochars. They are high in nutrient c...

  17. Modeling water movement in beef cattle bedded manure pack

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bedded manure is a valuable fertilizer source because it contains essential macronutrients (nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K)) for crop production. Previous research with beef cattle bedded manure packs demonstrated that water-soluble macronutrients accumulated toward the bottom of the...

  18. Turning schedules effect nutrient content of composted swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) generate large amounts of manure per area basis. This manure must be removed and disposed of or utilized in an environmentally sound manner. Land application to crop land is the most common method of waste disposal. For much of the year, land applica...

  19. Anaerobic digestion of the liquid fraction of dairy manure

    SciTech Connect

    Haugen, V.; Dahlberg, S.; Lindley, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    The authors tested several solid liquid separation systems suitable for processing dairy manure prior to anaerobic digestion. None of the systems tried have completely satisfied the requirements. Evaluated effects of separation on biogas production. Unseparated dairy manure produced more biogas than the liquid fraction.

  20. Agronomic effectiveness of phosphorus materials recovered from manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land application of large amounts of manure from confined livestock facilities is an environmental concern often associated often associated to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential pollution of water resources. Recovery of P from livestock manure is an attractive approach when on-farm applic...

  1. Method of soil sampling following subsurface banding of solid manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil sampling guidelines do not exist for fields fertilized with solid manures applied in bands. The objective of this work was to describe the distribution of mineral nutrients and total C and propose a method of taking soil samples that reflects the fertility level of a field following manure app...

  2. Characterization of manures from fish cage farming in Chile.

    PubMed

    Salazar, F J; Saldana, R C

    2007-12-01

    This study aims to characterize salmonid manures and to determine their potential use in agricultural soils. Sampling was carried out below salmon and trout cages in farms located in lakes and in the sea in the South of Chile during 2002-2003. Manure was analyzed for macronutrients, micronutrients and heavy metals. Results showed a high variability between samples and differences between sea and lake manure. Dry matter contents were low averaging c. 12-15%. Manures showed low OM contents with values manures had low total N contents with values of <0.9%, more than 75% of which was in the organic form. Lake manure showed high contents of P (1.56%), Ca (3.89%), Fe (27,948 ppm), Mn (446 ppm), Al (31,789 ppm), As (5.13 ppm), Cd (1.04 ppm), Cr (18.8 ppm), Ni (12.3 ppm), Pb (3.5 ppm) and Zn (393 ppm). Sea manure had high contents of Mg (1.65% ppm), K (0.63%), Na (11.8%) and Cu (89 ppm). Salmonid manure had low nutrients and heavy metal contents and a potential use in agricultural soils, which could reduce the risks of water pollution on water from fish farming. PMID:16962324

  3. Manure Application under Winter Conditions: Nutrient Runoff and Leaching Losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter application of manure is commonly practiced and potential nutrient losses can be difficult to predict due to wide variations in weather within a year and between years. This study was conducted to determine nutrient losses via surface runoff and subsurface leachate from winter-applied manure ...

  4. Manure Application Under Winter Conditions: Nutrient Runoff and Leaching Losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter application of manure is commonly practiced and potential nutrient losses are difficult to predict. This study was conducted in order to determine nutrient losses via surface runoff and subsurface leachate from winter-applied manure based on its relative placement with respect to snow. A labo...

  5. Manure application under winter conditions: Nutrient runoff and leaching losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Winter application of manure is commonly practiced and potential nutrient losses are difficult to predict. This study was conducted in order to determine nutrient losses via surface runoff and subsurface leachate from winter-applied manure based on its relative placement with respect to snow. A labo...

  6. The role of carbon dioxide in ammonia emission from manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia emission from manure is a significant loss of fixed N from agricultural systems, and contributes to air pollution and ecosystem degradation. Despite the development of numerous mathematical models for predicting ammonia emission, the interactions between carbon dioxide emission, manure pH, a...

  7. Solubility of manure phosphorus characterized by selective and sequential extractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increasing awareness of the severity of the problem of phosphorus (P) derived from agricultural production moving off-farm and threatening water quality has led to the search for methods to characterize the forms and potential solubilities of phosphorus in food animal manures and manure products...

  8. A METHOD OF MANURE DISPOSAL FOR BEEF PACKING OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report contains the preliminary studies, process development, process calculations, and process design for a system to successfully handle the paunch manure in a beef slaughtering operation. These studies resulted in a system in which the paunch manure is collected from the s...

  9. Characteristics and Nitrogen Value of Stratified Bedded Pack Dairy Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compost-bedded-pack (CBP) dairy barns are relatively new, but CBP manure has not been characterized in detail and there are no published data on its N supply. We measured physical characteristics, nutrient concentration, N mineralization, and N supply to corn (Zea mays L.) of CBP manure from eight M...

  10. Gasification of hybrid feedstock using animal manures and hays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of a proprietary integrated gasification-internal combustion system in producing electricity from mixtures of animal manures such as swine solids, chicken litter, and hays. Five to 10 gallons of mixtures of swine manure, chicken litter, and h...

  11. Making Use of Manure for a Clean-Up Job

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wastes should no longer be wasted. This article describes how animal manure can be utilized by converting it into activated carbons. These activated carbons are then utilized to adsorb unwanted pollutants because of their high porosity. The animal manure will eventually help to remove odors from dr...

  12. Effects of composting swine manure on nutrients and estrogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Direct application of raw manure to fields as a soil amendment can contribute ammonia, pathogens, and volatile organic compounds at concentrations that may give rise to adverse odors and environmental concerns. In addition, raw manures can contain concentrations of reproductive hormones that could i...

  13. Turning schedules influence final composition of composted swine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liquid swine (Sus scrofa domesticus) manure is a high-moisture, low-nutrient product that limits economical transport to areas in proximity of its source, possibly contributing to localized high soil nutrient levels. Composting swine manure converts liquid slurries to solids at lower moisture conten...

  14. Inorganic carbon and emission of ammonia from manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animal agriculture, and manure in particular, is a major source of ammonia emissions, and numerous models have been developed for predicting ammonia emission from manure. However, even the most comprehensive models are often inaccurate. Ammonia emission is complicated by volatilization of carbon dio...

  15. Phosphorus distribution in a soil fertilized with recovered manure phosphates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phosphorus (P) can be recovered in a concentrated form from livestock manure and poultry litter. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the short-term leaching potential and plant availability of P from recovered P materials from liquid pig manure (SRP) and broiler litter (LRP) in a characteri...

  16. Soil and cover crop responses to liquid swine manure application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large-scale pork production is a major agricultural enterprise in the Midwest. Large numbers of confined hogs produce about 50 million tons per year of swine manure in Iowa alone. The most commonly used manure management practice in the Midwest involves fall application to land where corn will be gr...

  17. Modeling Fate and Transport of Manure-borne Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure contains pathogenic microorganisms that can cause serious illness and death in humans. The objective of this work is to review the status and challenges in modeling fate and water transport of manure-borne pathogens (MBP) and organisms-indicators of fecal contamination. Approaches are outline...

  18. Dairy manure field applications – How much is too much?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Applying dairy manure to agricultural fields can help increase crop yields, improve soil water-holding capacity, and enhance soil fertility. However, when manures are applied to fields at high rates over a period of several years, nutrients can accumulate, causing eutrophication in drainage waterwa...

  19. Winter runoff of surface applied animal manure in Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USEPA-ORD, USEPA Region 5 NPDES program branch, and USDA-ARS are collaborating to improve the scientific foundation for guidance regarding winter application of manure to land when the soil is frozen. Vegetative filter strips, unmanured setbacks, and nutrient-limited manure application are bein...

  20. Sorption of lincomycin by manure-derived biochars from water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of antibiotics in agroecosystems raises serious concerns about the proliferation of antibiotic resistant bacteria and potential adverse effects to human health. Soil amendment with biochars pyrolyzed from manures may be a win-win strategy for novel manure management and antibiotics abat...

  1. Odorous VOC emissions following land application of swine manure slurry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Swine manure is often applied to crop land as a fertilizer source. Odor emissions from land-applied swine manure may pose a possible nuisance to downwind populations if not applied with sufficient forethought. A research project was conducted to assess the time decay of odorous volatile organic co...

  2. REDUCTION OF EMISSIONS FROM IN VITRO SWINE MANURE USING MONENSIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Storage of swine manure is associated with the generation of malodorous compounds and emissions. These are produced as a result of anaerobic degradation of materials present in manure and include sulfides, methane, organic acids, ammonia, and other volatile compounds. Because odor emission from li...

  3. Pathogen transport in surface runoff from manured agricultural fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research objective: Manure application to cultivated land is a sustainable approach for enhancing soil fertility and tilth. However, enteric pathogens are often common in manure and can be transported from the application site via runoff and potentially transmitted to livestock and humans. Our objec...

  4. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-22

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only helps prevent pollution but can also convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially viable conversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This casebook examines some of the current opportunities for recovering methane from anaerobic digestion animal manures.

  5. Long-term operation of manure-microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guodong; Zhao, Qingliang; Jiao, Yan; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2015-03-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is applied to produce electricity using dairy manure as a fuel. Since the way MFC utilizes manure as a fuel and the long-term operation stability of manure-MFC remains unclear, this study examined the evolution of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in anodic chamber and power generation by MFC in a 171days test. The tested MFC can produce electricity over the entire testing period by single feed of manure, with stable power output and total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal rate in the period of day 30-140. The hydrophobic acid (HPO-A) and hydrophilic (HPI) fractions of manure were the principal components of anolyte DOM, with the concentrations of both being reduced over MFC operation. The degradable organic matters were converted to compounds with high aromaticity. PMID:25603729

  6. Dung lung: a report of toxic exposure to liquid manure

    SciTech Connect

    Osbern, L.N.; Crapo, R.O.

    1981-09-01

    The use of liquid manure storage facilities poses several serious threats: toxic gas inhalation, asphyxiation, aspiration of liquid manure, and infection. Hydrogen sulfide poisoning in a manure storage pit resulted in three deaths. Two of the persons who died had massive aspiration of liquid manure; the third had severe pulmonary edema but had not aspirated manure. The clinical course of the patient who survived was complicated by hemodynamic instability, adult respiratory distress syndrome, and infection. These accidents can be prevented by the use of a self-contained breathing apparatus and a safety line, as well as the presence of a second person for rescue if necessary. Recommendations for treatment are mainly supportive, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation, mechanical ventilation, oxygen, and positive end-expiratory pressure. Nitrites may speed recovery but in excess can cause other complications.

  7. Value-Added Chemicals from Animal Manure

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Shulin; Liao, Wei; Liu, Chuanbin; Wen, Zhiyou; Kincaid, R L.; Harrison, J H.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Brown, Michael D.; Solana, Amy E.; Stevens, Don J.

    2003-12-19

    The objective of the project proposed by Washington State University (WSU) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was to develop technology for the utilization of animal manures as feedstocks to produce value-added products. These included medium-volume commodity chemicals such as glycols or diols and protein-based products such as chemicals or feed supplements. The research focused on two aspects of this approach including the analysis and treatment of the feedstock to produce intermediate chemical precursors and the aqueous phase conversion of these intermediates to chemicals and other value-added products.

  8. Applied manure research—looking forward to the benign roles of animal manure in agriculture and the environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By definition, animal manure is discarded animal excreta and bedding materials usually applied to soils as a fertilizer for agricultural production. However, the impact of manure generation and disposal is far more than the role of organic fertilizers, even though the fertilizer function of animal m...

  9. Effects of animal diet, manure application rate, and tillage on transport of microorganisms from manure-amended fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure from cattle fed distiller’s grain or corn diets was land-applied to fields and subjected to rainfall simulation tests. Manure was added at four rates on till and no-till plots. Correlations between microbial transport and runoff-characteristics were identified. Results indicate diet affects...

  10. Impacts of a Swine Manure Spill on Fluvial Sediments: Evaluation of an alternative Manure Spill Remediation Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the last decade the frequency of confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) manure spills and violations have increased, in conjunction with the increase in the number of animal on each farm and production efficiency. Currently, the conventional remediation method for manure spills focus exc...

  11. Manure-DNDC: a biogeochemical process model for quantifying greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from livestock manure systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From the point of view of biogeochemistry, manure is a complex of organic matter containing minor minerals. When manure is excreted by animals, it undergoes a series of reactions such as decomposition, hydrolysis, ammonia volatilization, nitrification, denitrification, and fermentation from which ca...

  12. Plant nutrients and bioenergy via a new quick wash procedure for livestock manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While livestock manures offer great potential to provide nutrients for cotton, most manures are unbalanced in nitrogen and phosphorous. Recovery of significant amount of phosphorous (P) from manure provides a more environmentally safe application of the manure to land as well as the opportunity to t...

  13. Manure Spills in Streams: Current Practices and Remediation Methods to Minimize Water Quality Degradation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Manure spills into streams are an all too common byproduct of animal production. With greater numbers of animals raised on fewer farms, manure spills become greater problems due to the volume of manure spilled into aquatic ecosystems. This book chapter reviews why manure spills occur, and the curren...

  14. Effects of liquid swine manure on sorption of 17ß-estradiol to soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estrogens are potent endocrine disrupting chemicals and can be found in the environment. Animal manure can contain estrogenic hormones, specifically 17'-estradiol (E2). A common manure management practice is to contain liquid manure in a manure storage ponds or lagoons, which is then applied on or i...

  15. Measuring Water-Extractable Phosphorus in Manures to Predict Phosphorus Concentrations in Runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water-extractable phosphorus (WEP) in manures can influence the risk of P losses in runoff when manures are land applied. There is some uncertainty about how WEP in manures should be determined. Information on the effects of manure sample handling before analysis on WEP values and appropriate manu...

  16. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  17. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  18. Green Giant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Details the design of the Bahen Centre for Information Technology at the University of Toronto, particularly its emphasis on "green," or sustainable, design. Includes floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  19. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  20. Migration of Caenorhabditis elegans to manure and manure compost and potential for transport of Salmonella newport to fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Stephen J; Anderson, Gary L; Williams, Phillip L; Millner, Patricia D; Beuchat, Larry R

    2006-01-15

    A study was done to determine if a free-living, bacterivorous nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, migrates to bovine manure, turkey manure, composted bovine manure, composted turkey manure, and manure-amended soil inoculated with Salmonella Newport. Movement of the worm to lettuce, strawberries, and carrots was also studied. C. elegans moved most rapidly to turkey manure and strawberries, with 35% and 60% of worms, respectively, associating with samples within 30 min. Survival and reproduction of C. elegans in test materials were not affected by the presence of S. newport. Bovine manure and bovine manure compost inoculated with S. newport (8.6 log10 CFU/g) were separately placed in the bottom of a glass jar and covered with a layer of soil (5 cm) inoculated (50 worms/g) or not inoculated with C. elegans. A piece of lettuce, strawberry, or carrot was placed on top of the soil before jars were sealed and held at 20 degrees C for up to 10 days. In the system using soil inoculated with C. elegans, S. newport initially in bovine manure was detected on the surface of lettuce, strawberry, and carrot samples within 3, 1, and 1 days, respectively. The pathogen was detected on lettuce, strawberry, and carrot within 1, 7, and 1 days, respectively, when initially present in bovine manure compost. With one exception, the pathogen was not detected on the produce over the 10-day incubation period when C. elegans was not present in the soil. Results indicate that C. elegans has the potential for transporting S. newport in soil to the surface of preharvest fruits and vegetables in contact with soil. PMID:16226330

  1. Phosphorus recovery from pig manure solids prior to land application.

    PubMed

    Szögi, Ariel A; Vanotti, Matias B; Hunt, Patrick G

    2015-07-01

    Land disposal of pig manure is an environmental concern due to an imbalance of the nitrogen to phosphorus (N:P) ratio for crop production, leading to excess phosphorus (P) in soils and potential risks of water pollution. A process called "quick wash" was investigated for its feasibility to extract and recover P from pig manure solids. This process consists of selective dissolution of P from solid manure into a liquid extract using mineral or organic acid solutions, and recovery of P from the liquid extract by adding lime and an organic polymer to form a P precipitate. Laboratory tests confirmed the quick wash process selectively removed and recovered up to 90% of the total (TP) from fresh pig manure solids while leaving significant amounts of nitrogen (N) in the washed manure residue. As a result of manure P extraction, the washed solid residue became environmentally safer for land application with a more balanced N:P ratio for crop production. The recovered P can be recycled and used as fertilizer for crop production while minimizing manure P losses into the environment. PMID:25874587

  2. Analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Survival in Ovine or Bovine Manure and Manure Slurry

    PubMed Central

    Kudva, Indira T.; Blanch, Kathryn; Hovde, Carolyn J.

    1998-01-01

    Farm animal manure or manure slurry may disseminate, transmit, or propagate Escherichia coli O157:H7. In this study, the survival and growth of E. coli O157:H7 in ovine or bovine feces under various experimental and environmental conditions were determined. A manure pile collected from experimentally inoculated sheep was incubated outside under fluctuating environmental conditions. E. coli O157:H7 survived in the manure for 21 months, and the concentrations of bacteria recovered ranged from <102 to 106 CFU/g at different times over the course of the experiment. The DNA fingerprints of E. coli O157:H7 isolated at month 1 and month 12 were identical or very similar. A second E. coli O157:H7-positive ovine manure pile, which was periodically aerated by mixing, remained culture positive for 4 months. An E. coli O157:H7-positive bovine manure pile was culture positive for 47 days. In the laboratory, E. coli O157:H7 was inoculated into feces, untreated slurry, or treated slurry and incubated at −20, 4, 23, 37, 45, and 70°C. E. coli O157:H7 survived best in manure incubated without aeration at temperatures below 23°C, but it usually survived for shorter periods of time than it survived in manure held in the environment. The bacterium survived at least 100 days in bovine manure frozen at −20°C or in ovine manure incubated at 4 or 10°C for 100 days, but under all other conditions the length of time that it survived ranged from 24 h to 40 days. In addition, we found that the Shiga toxin type 1 and 2 genes in E. coli O157:H7 had little or no influence on bacterial survival in manure or manure slurry. The long-term survival of E. coli O157:H7 in manure emphasizes the need for appropriate farm waste management to curtail environmental spread of this bacterium. This study also highlights the difficulties in extrapolating laboratory data to on-farm conditions. PMID:9726855

  3. The Green of Green Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challis, Lawrie; Sheard, Fred

    2003-12-01

    In 1828, an English miller from Nottingham published a mathematical essay that generated little response. George Green's analysis, however, has since found applications in areas ranging from classical electrostatics to modern quantum field theory.

  4. Pathogen reduction in minimally managed composting of bovine manure.

    PubMed

    Millner, Patricia; Ingram, David; Mulbry, Walter; Arikan, Osman A

    2014-11-01

    Spread of manure pathogens is of considerable concern due to use of manure for land application. In this study, the effects of four static pile treatment options for bovine manure on die-off of a generic Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7 surrogate, Salmonella Senftenberg, Salm. Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes were evaluated. Bovine manure spiked with these bacteria were placed in cassettes at the top, middle, and bottom sections of four static pile treatments that reflect minimal changes in pile construction with and without straw. Temperatures were monitored continuously during the 28 day self-heating period. E. coli and salmonellae were reduced from 8 to 9 log10 CFU g(-1) to undetectable levels (<1.77 log10 MPN g(-1)) at 25-30 cm depths within 7 days in all pile sections except for the manure-only pile in which 3-4 logs of reduction were obtained. No L. monocytogenes initially present at 6.62 log10 CFU g(-1) were recovered from straw-amended piles after 14 days, in contrast with manure-only treatment in which this pathogen was recovered even at 28 days. Decline of target bacterial populations corresponded to exposure to temperatures above 45°C for more than 3 days and amendments of manure with straw to increase thermophilic zones. Use of straw to increase aeration, self-heating capacity, and heat retention in manure piles provides producers a minimal management option for composting that enhances pathogen die-off and thereby reduces risk of environmental spread when manure is applied to land. PMID:25151442

  5. Levels of nine potentially toxic elements in Idaho fish manures

    SciTech Connect

    Krieger, R.I.; Marcy, D.; Smith, J.H.; Tomson, K.

    1987-01-01

    Sewage sludges and manures have increasingly been disposed of as soil conditioners and low grade fertilizers. In 1981 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed upper limits of certain heavy metals for seqage sludges suitable for land application. The following upper limits (ppm) were proposed: cadmium (25), chromium (1000), copper (1000), lead (1000), mercury (10), nickel (200), and zinc (2500). The authors determined the concentrations of these elements, plus arsenic and cobalt, in fish manures being evaluated as fertilizers for Idaho cropland. They also determined nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in fresh fish manures.

  6. Pathogens and manure management systems: a review.

    PubMed

    Bicudo, J R; Goyal, S M

    2003-01-01

    There has been an increasing concern about the effects of pathogens that are present in animal manure on humanand animal health. In recent years, outbreaks of food-borne diseases associated with the consumption of animal products havereceived much attention from the media in North America and Europe, leading to increased consumer concerns about the safety of their food supply. The health risks associated with animal operations depend on various factors. The most important ones appear to be related to the animal species being reared and the concentration of pathogenic microorganisms in animal manure. The ability of the pathogens to survive for long periods and through treatment to remain infective in the environment until ingested by human or animal host is an added concern. On the other hand, the role of livestock in most waterborne bacterial outbreaks has often been difficult to clarify since both humans and various wildlife species can shed the same microorganisms and thereby serve as sources of infection. This paper summarizes existing information on the main microbial pathogens present in livestock wastes, and discusses the impact of livestock wastes and agricultural drainage on microbiological quality of water, as well as available management and treatment technologies to minimize the prevalence of pathogens in animal wastes. Despite the fact that most disease outbreaks have been associated with food poisoning by cross-contamination during meat or milk processing and during finished product storage this review shows that a number of best management practices and technical solutions have been developed in the last few years that can be effective tools in minimizing the spread of pathogens from livestock operations in the environment. PMID:12641259

  7. Field scale manure born animal waste management : GIS application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensive beef backgrounding often accumulate manure born soil nutrients, microbes, and pharmaceuticals at different site locations. Unless properly managed, such waste materials can pollute surrounding soil and water sources. Soil sampling from these sites helps determining waste material levels bu...

  8. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.

    1994-12-01

    One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a manure management problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations. Finally, anaerobic digestion has considerable potential beyond agribusiness. Examples of digesters currently employed by other industries are provided.

  9. E-nose identification of Salmonella enterica in poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Kizil, Ü; Genç, L; Genç, T T; Rahman, S; Khaitsa, M L

    2015-04-01

    A DiagNose II electronic nose (e-nose) system was tested to evaluate the performance of such systems in the detection of the Salmonella enterica pathogen in poultry manure. To build a database, poultry manure samples were collected from 7 broiler houses, samples were homogenised, and subdivided into 4 portions. One portion was left as is; the other three portions were artificially infected with S. enterica. An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed and validated using the developed database. In order to test the performance of DiagNose II and the ANN model, 16 manure samples were collected from 6 different broiler houses and tested using these two systems. The results showed that DiagNose II was able to classify manure samples correctly as infected or non-infected based on the ANN model developed with a 94% level of accuracy. PMID:25650129

  10. Evaluation of manure as a feedstock for gas turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Hamrick, J.T.

    1988-05-01

    A preliminary program on evaluation of feedlot manure as a feed stock for gas turbines has been completed. It was determined that manure can be pulverized and fed into a gas turbine combustion system with the manure burning in much the same manner as a liquid or gaseous fuel. Ash and dirt in the manure did not appear to have a significant effect on combustion and were effectively removed by the cyclone filters. The exhaust gases varied from clear to a blue haze. Severe problems were encountered with slagging of the hot refractory walls of the combustor. Development of a suitable combustor will be required before a commercial size system can be designed. 10 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Analysis of manure-derived oxytetracycline in amended soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a member of tetracycline antibiotic family, oxytetracycline is widely administered to animals. With the application of manure from medicated animals as fertilizer into agricultural land, oxytetracycline may enter the environment. For studying oxytetracycline contamination and its fate in agricult...

  12. Treatment of Dairy and Swine Manure Effluents Using Freshwater Algae: Fatty Acid Content and Composition of Algal Biomass at Different Manure Loading Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An alternative to land spreading of manure effluents is to grow crops of algae on the N and P present in the manure and convert manure N and P into algal biomass. The objective of this study was to determine how fatty acid (FA) content and composition of algae respond to changes in the type of manu...

  13. Valorization of horse manure through catalytic supercritical water gasification.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Sonil; Dalai, Ajay K; Gökalp, Iskender; Kozinski, Janusz A

    2016-06-01

    The organic wastes such as lignocellulosic biomass, municipal solid waste, sewage sludge and livestock manure have attracted attention as alternative sources of energy. Cattle manure, a waste generated in surplus amounts from the feedlot, has always been a chief environmental concern. This study is focused on identifying the candidacy of horse manure as a next generation feedstock for biofuel production through supercritical water gasification. The horse manure was gasified in supercritical water to examine the effects of temperature (400-600°C), biomass-to-water ratio (1:5 and 1:10) and reaction time (15-45min) at a pressure range of 23-25MPa. The horse manure and resulting biochar were characterized through carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen-sulfur (CHNS), inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of alkali catalysts such as NaOH, Na2CO3 and K2CO3 at variable concentrations (1-2wt%) were investigated to maximize the hydrogen yields. Supercritical water gasification of horse manure with 2wt% Na2CO3 at 600°C and 1:10 biomass-to-water ratio for 45min revealed maximum hydrogen yields (5.31mmol/g), total gas yields (20.8mmol/g) with greater carbon conversion efficiency (43.1%) and enhanced lower heating value of gas products (2920kJ/Nm(3)). The manure-derived biochars generated at temperatures higher than 500°C also demonstrated higher thermal stability (weight loss <34%) and larger carbon content (>70wt%) suggesting their application in enhancing soil fertility and carbon sequestration. The results propose that supercritical water gasification could be a proficient remediation technology for horse manure to generate hydrogen-rich gas products. PMID:27067100

  14. Liming Poultry Manures to Kill Pathogens and Decrease Soluble Phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire,R.; Hesterberg, D.; Gernat, A.; Anderson, K.; Wineland, M.; Grimes, J.

    2006-01-01

    Received for publication September 9, 2005. Stabilizing phosphorus (P) in poultry waste to reduce P losses from manured soils is important to protect surface waters, while pathogens in manures are an emerging issue. This study was conducted to evaluate CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} for killing manure bacterial populations (pathogens) and stabilizing P in poultry wastes and to investigate the influence on soils following amendment with the treated wastes. Layer manure and broiler litter varying in moisture content were treated with CaO and Ca(OH){sub 2} at rates of 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% by weight. All treated wastes were analyzed for microbial plate counts, pH, and water-soluble phosphorus (WSP), while a few selected layer manures were analyzed by phosphorus X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). A loamy sand and a silt loam were amended with broiler litter and layer manure treated with CaO at rates of 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% and soil WSP and pH were measured at times 1, 8, and 29 d. Liming reduced bacterial populations, with greater rates of lime leading to greater reductions; for example 10% CaO applied to 20% solids broiler litter reduced the plate counts from 793 000 to 6500 mL{sup -1}. Liming also reduced the WSP in the manures by over 90% in all cases where at least 10% CaO was added. Liming the manures also reduced WSP in soils immediately following application and raised soil pH. The liming process used successfully reduced plate counts and concerns about P losses in runoff following land application of these limed products due to decreased WSP.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions during cattle feedlot manure composting.

    PubMed

    Hao, X; Chang, C; Larney, F J; Travis, G R

    2001-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) during feedlot manure composting reduces the agronomic value of the final compost and increases the greenhouse effect. A study was conducted to determine whether GHG emissions are affected by composting method. Feedlot cattle manure was composted with two aeration methods--passive (no turning) and active (turned six times). Carbon lost in the forms of CO2 and CH4 was 73.8 and 6.3 kg C Mg-1 manure for the passive aeration treatment and 168.0 and 8.1 kg C Mg-1 manure for the active treatment. The N loss in the form of N2O was 0.11 and 0.19 kg N Mg-1 manure for the passive and active treatments. Fuel consumption to turn and maintain the windrow added a further 4.4 kg C Mg-1 manure for the active aeration treatment. Since CH4 and N2O are 21 and 310 times more harmful than CO2 in their global warming effect, the total GHG emission expressed as CO2-C equivalent was 240.2 and 401.4 kg C Mg-1 manure for passive and active aeration. The lower emission associated with the passive treatment was mainly due to the incomplete decomposition of manure and a lower gas diffusion rate. In addition, turning affected N transformation and transport in the window profile, which contributed to higher N2O emissions for the active aeration treatment. Gas diffusion is an important factor controlling GHG emissions. Higher GHG concentrations in compost windrows do not necessarily mean higher production or emission rates. PMID:11285897

  16. Nitrogen mineralization potential of three animal manures applied on a sandy clay loam soil.

    PubMed

    Azeez, J O; Van Averbeke, W

    2010-07-01

    Understanding the dynamics of N forms applied as manure is germane for appropriate rate and timing of applications of manure. Manure characterization and laboratory incubation were conducted for 120 days to study the mineralization of poultry, cattle and goat manures. Results showed that manure properties differ. Net immobilization of N was recorded for goat and cattle manures while poultry manure mineralized marginally. The relationship between N release and time is polynomial (cubic). The release phases were: initial rapid N release at 0-30 days; phase of constant release; 40-55 days; decline phase in N release 70-90 days and sharp increase in N release at 120 days. Increasing the N rates of manures above 120 kgNha(-1) will improve their potential as plant nutrient sources. Complementing the manures with inorganic N fertilizers in integrated nutrient management will also improve its quality and effectiveness. PMID:20171089

  17. Decomposition of olive mill waste compost, goat manure and Medicago sativa in Lebanese soils using the litterbag technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atallah, Therese

    2014-05-01

    Organic amendments, green manure and plant residues incorporation are the main sources of nutrients in organic farming, their decomposition rate is crucial for the accumulation and long-term storage of organic matter in soils. In this study the decomposition of compost from olive mill waste (N: 29.3 g kg-1; total dissolved nitrogen or TDN: 3.82 g kg-1), goat manure (N: 31.5 g kg-1; TDN: 0.94 g kg-1), the shoots (N: 33.6 g kg-1; TDN: 17.57 g kg-1) and roots (N: 22.12 g kg-1; TDN: 8.87 g kg-1) of Medicago sativa was followed in three Lebanese soils. The nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium released were followed over one year, starting in early winter (December-January). The mild sub-humid Mediterranean conditions allowed a rapid mass loss in alfalfa shoots 30 days after incorporation. Manure and compost were more persistent. Between 80 and 90% of TDN were released, after 30 days of in-situ incubation for compost, the release was over 90% for alfalfa shoots. The movement of P was slower, as the compost (6.99 g kg-1 of P) and manure (9.81 g kg-1 of P) lost 33% and 22%, respectively, during 30 days of incubation. After one year, 15 to 35% of P remained in the soils. The manure was the richest in potassium (19.66 g kg-1) followed by the alfalfa shoots (15.56 g kg-1), the compost (8.19 g kg-1) and the roots (5.96 g kg-1). The loss of potassium was important, as over 88% had disappeared over the year. All decomposition curves followed an exponential model. The calculated coefficients of decomposition for total nitrogen (lnfinal - lninitial/days) were significantly higher for alfalfa shoots (0.00547 day-1) and similar for the compost (0.00184 day-1) and the manure (0.00175 day-1). The ANOVA test showed a difference between two of the sites (Site A: 521 g kg-1 of clay and 42 g kg-1 of calcium carbonate; Site S: 260 g kg-1 of clay and 269 g kg-1 of CaCO3) and the third one (Site L: 315 g kg-1 of clay and 591 g kg-1 of CaCO3). The relationships between the soil calcium

  18. Going Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the benefits that schools and universities can gain by adopting environmentally sensitive practices in their design and operations. Includes resources for locating additional information about green schools and a list of 11 features that represent a comprehensive, sustainable school. (GR)

  19. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output. PMID:23763098

  20. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  1. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  2. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  3. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts. PMID:19062433

  4. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  5. Odorous VOC emission following land application of swine manure slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, David B.; Gilley, John; Woodbury, Bryan; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Galvin, Geordie; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L.; Li, Xu; Snow, Daniel D.

    2013-02-01

    Swine manure is often applied to crop land as a fertilizer source. Odor emissions from land-applied swine manure may pose a nuisance to downwind populations if manure is not applied with sufficient forethought. A research project was conducted to assess the time decay of odorous volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions following land application of swine manure. Three land application methods were compared: surface application, incorporation 24 h after surface application, and injection. Emission rates were measured in field plots using a small wind tunnel and sorbent tubes. VOCs including eight volatile fatty acids, five aromatics, and two sulfur-containing compounds were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In most cases, a first order exponential decay model adequately described the flux versus time relationship for the 24 h period following land application, but the model sometimes overestimated flux in the 6-24 h range. The same model but with the time term squared adequately predicted flux over the entire 24 h period. Three compounds (4-methylphenol, skatole, and 4-ethylphenol) accounted for 93 percent of the summed odor activity value. First order decay constants (k) for these three compounds ranged from 0.157 to 0.996 h-1. When compared to surface application, injection of swine manure resulted in 80-95 percent lower flux for the most odorous aromatic compounds. These results show that VOC flux decreases rapidly following land application of swine manure, declining below levels of detection and near background levels after 4 to 8 h.

  6. Optimizing the Logistics of Anaerobic Digestion of Manure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghafoori, Emad; Flynn, Peter C.

    Electrical power production from the combustion of biogas from anaerobic digestion (AD) of manure is a means of recovering energy from animal waste. We evaluate the lowest cost method of moving material to and from centralized AD plants serving multiple confined feeding operations. Two areas are modeled, Lethbridge County, Alberta, Canada, an area of concentrated beef cattle feedlots, and Red Deer County, Alberta, a mixed-farming area with hog, dairy, chicken and beef cattle farms, and feedlots. We evaluate two types of AD plant: ones that return digestate to the source confined feeding operation for land spreading (current technology), and ones that process digestate to produce solid fertilizer and a dischargeable water stream (technology under development). We evaluate manure and digestate trucking, trucking of manure with return of digestate by pipelines, and pipelining of manure plus digestate. We compare the overall cost of power from these scenarios to farm or feedlot-based AD units. For a centralized AD plant with digestate return for land spreading the most economical transport option for manure plus digestate is by truck for the mixed-farming area and by pipelines for the concentrated feedlot area. For a centralized AD plant with digestate processing, the most economical transport option is trucking of manure for both cases.

  7. Microwave treatment and struvite recovery potential of dairy manure.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Asif; Lo, Kwang Victor; Liao, Ping Huang

    2008-05-01

    Microwave digestion of liquid dairy manure was tested for the release of nutrients, such as orthophosphates, ammonia-nitrogen, magnesium, calcium and potassium, both with and without the aid of an oxidizing agent (hydrogen peroxide). The orthophosphate to total phosphorus ratio of the manure increased from 21% to greater than 80% with 5 minutes of microwave treatment. More than 36% of total chemical oxygen demand (t-COD) of the manure was reduced when microwave digestion was assisted with peroxide addition. In addition, the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) distribution shifted to simpler chain acids (acetic acid in particular) with an increase in operating temperature. In the second part of the study, digested manure with increased soluble phosphate was tested for the recovery of struvite (magnesium ammonium phosphate) at different pH. It was found that up to 90% of orthophosphate can be removed from the solution. Overall, it was concluded that the oxidizing agent-assisted microwave digestion process can be used upstream of anaerobic digestion, following which the anaerobically digested manure can be used for struvite recovery. Thus, this microwave digestion process presents the potential for enhanced efficiencies in both manure digestion and struvite recovery. PMID:18437623

  8. Assessment and characterization of manure in the Southeastern US

    SciTech Connect

    Gerwig, B.K.; Hegg, R.O.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this project is to assess the quantity and characteristics of the livestock and poultry manures in the Southeastern US Livestock and poultry production in the U.S. is evolving to larger operations. This has caused some concern for water and air quality. Some states require certain management practices that might restrict the expansion of the livestock or poultry industry. These management practices may be: specific setback distances of the facility from neighboring property lines, groundwater monitoring, land application practices, odor control, operator training, and annual fees. These stricter regulations are encouraging the industry to look at various methods to dispose of or utilize animal manure. These methods may include energy recovery by methane production or direct combustion. In the 13 Southeastern states there are 81.1 x 10{sup 9} kg (89 million tons) of collectable manure produced per year. The top three producers of manure in the Southeast are North Carolina, Missouri and Arkansas. These three states contribute 49% of the total collectable manure. The hog and broiler industries supply 63% of the total collectable manure.

  9. Effect of livestock manures on the fitness of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Khan, Hafiz Azhar Ali; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Akram, Waseem

    2012-09-01

    The house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the major pests of confined and pastured livestock worldwide. Livestock manures play an important role in the development and spread of M. domestica. In the present study, we investigated the impact of different livestock manures on the fitness and relative growth rate of M. domestica and intrinsic rate of natural increase. We tested the hypotheses by studying life history parameters including developmental time from egg to adult's eclosion, fecundity, longevity, and survival on manures of buffalo, cow, nursing calf, dog, horse, poultry, sheep, and goat, which revealed significant differences that might be associated with fitness costs. The maggots reared on poultry manure developed faster compared to any other host manure. The total developmental time was the shortest on poultry manure and the longest on horse manure. The fecundity by females reared on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures was greater than on any other host manures. Similarly, percent survival of immature stages, pupal weight, eggs viability, adults' eclosion, survival and longevity, intrinsic rate of natural increase, and biotic potential were significantly higher on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures compared to any other livestock manures tested. However, the sex ratio of adult flies remained the same on all types of manures. The low survival on horse, buffalo, cow, sheep, and goat manures suggest unsuitability of these manures, while the higher pupal weight on poultry, nursing calf, and dog manures suggest that these may provide better food quality to M. domestica compared with any other host manures. Our results point to the role of livestock manures in increasing local M. domestica populations. Such results could help to design cultural management strategies which may include sanitation, moisture management, and manure removal. PMID:22576856

  10. Pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics in livestock manure and manure-amended soils in Jiangsu province, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin Y; Hao, Li J; Qiu, Pan Z; Chen, Rong; Xu, Jing; Kong, Xiang J; Shan, Zheng J; Wang, Na

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the pollution characteristics of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil of livestock farms in Jiangsu province. This investigation employed solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). A total of 53 manure and 50 amended soil samples from 16 livestock farms in Jiangsu province were collected for analysis. In the manure samples, the highest detected frequencies and concentrations were those of tetracyclines (TCs, 54.1 ± 5775.6 μgkg(-1)), followed by fluoroquinolones (FQs, 8.4 ± 435.6 μgkg(-1)), sulphonamides (SAs, 3.2 ± 5.2 μgkg(-1)) and macrolides (MACs, 0.4 ± 110.5 μgkg(-1)). Statistical analysis was used to illuminate the pollution characteristics of 23 veterinary antibiotics for various animal types and different regions in Jiangsu province. The results showed that the pollution level in cow manure was relatively lower compared with pig and chicken manure due to the relative restriction of medication. Furthermore, contamination was serious in amended soil from chicken farms. The pollution level in manure among different regions was higher to the south and north compared with the centre of the region. The same outcome was found for soil. Antibiotic residues in organic fertilizer were also investigated in this study. We found that although the detected concentration was lower in organic fertilizer than in fresh manure, detection frequencies (10-90%) were high, especially for roxithromycin (90%) in MACs (30-90%). This finding suggests attention should be paid to the pollution levels in organic fertilizer. This study is the first extensive investigation of the occurrence and distribution of many kinds of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure and soil from livestock farms of Jiangsu province. This investigation systematically assesses veterinary antibiotics usage and related emissions in southeast China. PMID:26963628