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Sample records for green onion cutting

  1. USE OF IONIZING RADIATION TO IMPROVE SENSORY AND MICROBIAL QUALITY OF FRESH-CUT GREEN ONION LEAVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh-cut green onion leaves that received absorbed gamma radiation doses of 0, 1, 2 and 3 kGy were stored at 3 degrees Celsius for up to 14 day. Although 2 and 3 kGy radiation completely eliminated microflora population, the treatments resulted in increased cellular membrane damage, loss of aroma,...

  2. Comparative uptake of enteric viruses into spinach and green onions.

    PubMed

    Hirneisen, Kirsten A; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2013-03-01

    Root uptake of enteric pathogens and subsequent internalization has been a produce safety concern and is being investigated as a potential route of pre-harvest contamination. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and the human norovirus surrogate, murine norovirus (MNV), to internalize in spinach and green onions through root uptake in both soil and hydroponic systems. HAV or MNV was inoculated into soil matrices or into two hydroponic systems, floating and nutrient film technique systems. Viruses present within spinach and green onions were detected by RT-qPCR or infectivity assays after inactivating externally present viruses with Virkon(®). HAV and MNV were not detected in green onion plants grown up to 20 days and HAV was detected in only 1 of 64 spinach plants grown in contaminated soil substrate systems up to 20 days. Compared to soil systems, a drastic difference in virus internalization was observed in hydroponic systems; HAV or pressure-treated HAV and MNV were internalized up to 4 log RT-qPCR units and internalized MNV was shown to remain infectious. Understanding the interactions of human enteric viruses on produce can aid in the elucidation of the mechanisms of attachment and internalization, and aid in understanding risks associated with contamination events. PMID:23412715

  3. Development of green onion and cabbage certified reference materials for quantification of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides.

    PubMed

    Otake, Takamitsu; Yarita, Takashi; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Kuroda, Youko; Numata, Masahiko; Iwata, Hitoshi; Mizukoshi, Kazushi; Nakamura, Munetomo; Watai, Masatoshi; Mitsuda, Hitoshi; Fujikawa, Takashi; Ota, Hidekazu

    2011-08-24

    Green onion and cabbage certified reference materials for the analysis of pesticide residues were issued by the National Metrology Institute of Japan, part of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology. Green onion and cabbage samples were grown so as to contain several kinds of organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides, and those were collected from a field in the Kochi Prefecture in Japan. The certification was carried out by using multiple analytical methods to ensure the reliability of analytical results; the values of target pesticides (diazinon, fenitrothion, cypermethrin, etofenprox, and permethrin for green onion and chlorpyrifos, fenitrothion, and permethrin for cabbage) were obtained by isotope dilution mass spectrometry. Certified values of target pesticides were 0.96-13.9 and 2.41-6.9 mg/kg for green onion and cabbage, respectively. These are the first green onion and cabbage powder certified reference materials in which organophosphorus and pyrethroid pesticides are determined. PMID:21774469

  4. Site-Dependent Fluorescence Decay of Malachite Green Doped in Onion Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsuka, Hiroki; Sekine, Masaya; Suzuki, Yuji; Hattori, Toshiaki

    1999-03-01

    Time-resolved fluorescence measurements of malachite green dye moleculesdoped in onion cells were carried out.The fluorescence decay time was dependent on the individual cell and on theposition of the dye in a cell, which reflect the microscopic dynamics of each boundsite.Upon cooling, the decay time increased and this increase was accelerated ataround the freezing point of the onion cell.

  5. Bio-ethanol Production from Green Onion by Yeast in Repeated Batch.

    PubMed

    Robati, Reza

    2013-09-01

    Considered to be the cleanest liquid fuel, bio-ethanol can be a reliable alternative to fossil fuels. It is produced by fermentation of sugar components of plant materials. The common onions are considered to be a favorable source of fermentation products as they have high sugar contents as well as contain various nutrients. This study focused on the effective production of ethanol from Green onion (Allium fistulosum L.) by the yeast "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" in repeated batch. The results showed that the total sugar concentration of onion juice was 68.4 g/l. The maximum rate of productivity, ethanol yield and final bio-ethanol percentage was 7 g/l/h (g ethanol per liter of onion juice per hour), 35 g/l (g ethanol per liter of onion juice) and 90 %, respectively. PMID:24426132

  6. Light Intensity and Carbon Dioxide Availability Impact Antioxidant Activity in Green Onions (Allium fistulosumm L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Lanfang; Bisbee, Patricia; Pare, Paul

    The prospect of long-duration manned space missions poses many challenges, including the development of a sustainable life support system and effective methods of space-radiation protection. To mitigate the risk of increased space-radiation, functional foods rich in antioxidant properties such as green onions are of particular interest. However it has yet to be established whether antioxidant properties can be preserved or enhanced in space environment where carbon dioxide, lighting intensity, gravity and pressure differ from which plants have acclimated to on earth. In this study, green onions (Allium fistulosumm L. cultivar Kinka) rich in antioxidant flavonoids are used as a model system to investigate variations in antioxidant capacity with plants grown under varying light intensities and CO2 concentrations. The antioxidant potential is determined using both radical cation scavenging and oxygen radical absorbance assays. For all light intensities assayed, antioxidant potential in water extract of green onions per gram biomass declined with CO2 increases up to 1200 ppm, and then leveled off with further CO2 increase to 4000 ppm. This inverse carbon dioxide versus antioxidant activity correlation suggests lower accumulation rates for water soluble antioxidant compounds compared to total biomass under increasing CO2 concentrations. The effect of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration on antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts were light intensity dependent. The implications of these findings are discussed in the context of traditional plant antioxidants including vitamin C and the major onion flavonoid quercetin.

  7. Effective hepatitis A virus inactivation during low-heat dehydration of contaminated green onions.

    PubMed

    Laird, David T; Sun, Yan; Reineke, Karl F; Shieh, Y Carol

    2011-08-01

    Preserving fruits and vegetables by dehydration is common; however, information is limited concerning viral survival on the produce during the process. This work demonstrated the effects of low heat dehydration on inactivating hepatitis A virus (HAV) on contaminated green onions. Inoculated and uninoculated onion samples were dehydrated at target temperatures of 45-65 °C for 20 h. HAV from artificially contaminated onions (fresh or dehydrated) was eluted by shaking at 145 rpm at 20 °C for 20 min with 3% beef extract, pH 8, and followed by 0.2 μM-membrane filtration before plaque assay and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis. Dilutions of the filtrates were made for obtaining countable plaques on FRhK-4 cell monolayers in 6-well plates, and also for eliminating inhibitors in qRT-PCR. Average water activity of the onions after 20 h-dehydration was 0.227, regardless of temperature used (47.9 °C or 65.1 °C). Eight dehydration trials resulted in a linear relationship between HAV inactivation and dehydration temperature, with HAV log reduction = 0.1372x(°C) - 5.5572, r(2) = 0.88. Therefore, the 20 h-heating at 47.8, 55.1, and 62.4 °C reduced infectious HAV in onions by 1, 2, and 3 logs respectively, the Z value being 7.3 °C. It was concluded that low heat dehydration using 62.5 °C or above could effectively inactivate HAV on contaminated onions by >3 logs. PMID:21569944

  8. Inactivation of internalized and surface contaminated enteric viruses in green onions.

    PubMed

    Hirneisen, Kirsten A; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2013-09-01

    With increasing outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with produce, it is important to assess interventions to reduce the risk of illness. UV, ozone and high pressure are non-thermal processing technologies that have potential to inactivate human pathogens on produce and allow the retention of fresh-like organoleptic properties. The objective of this study was to determine if UV, ozone, and high pressure are effective technologies compared to traditional chlorine spray on green onions to reduce enteric viral pathogens and to determine the effect of location of the virus (surface or internalized) on the efficacy of these processes. Mature green onion plants were inoculated with murine norovirus (MNV), hepatitis A virus (HAV) and human adenovirus type 41 (Ad41) either on the surface through spot inoculation or through inoculating contaminated hydroponic solution allowing for uptake of the virus into the internal tissues. Inoculated green onions were treated with UV (240 mJ s/cm(2)), ozone (6.25 ppm for 10 min), pressure (500 MPa, for 5 min at 20°C), or sprayed with calcium hypochlorite (150 ppm, 4°C). Viral inactivation was determined by comparing treated and untreated inoculated plants using cell culture infectivity assays. Processing treatments were observed to greatly affect viral inactivation. Viral inactivation for all three viruses was greatest after pressure treatment and the lowest inactivation was observed after chlorine and UV treatment. Both surface inoculated viruses and viruses internalized in green onions were inactivated to some extent by these post-harvest processing treatments. These results suggest that ozone and high pressure processes aimed to reduce the level of microbial contamination of produce have the ability to inactivate viruses if they become localized in the interior portions of produce. PMID:23973828

  9. Effect of irradiation on Salmonella survival and quality of 2 varieties of whole green onions.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Latha; Williams-Hill, Donna; Prakash, Anuradha

    2011-08-01

    Two varieties of green onions, Banner and Baja Verde, were inoculated with a cocktail of 3 Salmonella strains using dip and spot inoculation and irradiated at 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2 kGy using electron beam. Salmonella survivors were enumerated using a XLD underlay/TSAYE overlay plating method. The D values were in the range of 0.26 to 0.32 kGy depending on variety but not on the method of inoculation. This indicated that a 5-log reduction of Salmonella can be achieved at a dose of 1.6 kGy. For the quality study, both varieties of green onions were irradiated at 0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 kGy and evaluated for changes in microbial counts, color, texture, and visual quality during storage at 4 °C. Irradiation reduced total plate counts and psychrotrophs by 3 logs. Although the counts increased during storage, they did not exceed the initial counts of control. No significant difference was observed in color and texture between irradiated samples and control. The control maintained good visual quality for about 13 d as compared to 15 d for 1.5 and 2.5 kGy samples. The 2.0 kGy samples maintained good visual quality for 17 d suggesting that irradiation can increase shelf life by reducing spoilage microorganisms but higher doses can be detrimental to quality. At the dose levels required to achieve a 5-log reduction in Salmonella, the shelf life of whole green onion can be extended. This study shows that irradiation can be used to enhance safety without adverse effects on quality. PMID:21623790

  10. Investigation of Volatiles Emitted from Freshly Cut Onions (Allium cepa L.) by Real Time Proton-Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS)

    PubMed Central

    Løkke, Mette Marie; Edelenbos, Merete; Larsen, Erik; Feilberg, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in cut onions (Allium cepa L.) were continuously measured by PTR-MS during the first 120 min after cutting. The headspace composition changed rapidly due to the very reactive volatile sulfurous compounds emitted from onion tissue after cell disruption. Mass spectral signals corresponding to propanethial S-oxide (the lachrymatory factor) and breakdown products of this compound dominated 0–10 min after cutting. Subsequently, propanethiol and dipropyl disulfide predominantly appeared, together with traces of thiosulfinates. The concentrations of these compounds reached a maximum at 60 min after cutting. Propanethiol was present in highest concentrations and had an odor activity value 20 times higher than dipropyl disulfide. Thus, propanethiol is suggested to be the main source of the characteristic onion odor. Monitoring the rapid changes of VOCs in the headspace of cut onion necessitates a high time resolution, and PTR-MS is demonstrated to be a very suitable method for monitoring the headspace of freshly cut onions directly after cutting without extraction or pre-concentration. PMID:23443367

  11. Interactions between sanitizers and packaging gas compositions and their effects on the safety and quality of fresh-cut onions (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Page, Natalie; González-Buesa, Jaime; Ryser, Elliot T; Harte, Janice; Almenar, Eva

    2016-02-01

    Onions are one of the most widely utilized vegetables worldwide, with demand for fresh-cut onions steadily increasing. Due to heightened safety concerns and consumer demand, the implications of sanitizing and packaging on fresh-cut onion safety and quality need to be better understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of produce sanitizers, in-package atmospheres, and their interactions on the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium, mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeast and mold, and the physico-chemical quality of diced onions to determine the best sanitizer and in-package atmosphere combination for both safety and quality. Diced onions were inoculated or not with S. Typhimurium, sanitized in sodium hypochlorite, peroxyacetic acid, or liquid chlorine dioxide, and then packaged in either polylactic acid bags containing superatmospheric O2, elevated CO2/reduced O2, or air, or in polyethylene terephthalate snap-fit containers. Throughout 14 days of storage at 7 °C, packaged diced onions were assessed for their safety (S. Typhimurium), and quality (mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeasts and molds, physico-chemical analyses, and descriptive and consumer acceptance sensory panels). While sanitizer affected (P<0.05) fewer parameters (S. Typhimurium, mesophiles, yeasts and molds, headspace CO2, weight loss, and pH), in-package atmosphere had a significant (P<0.05) effect on all parameters evaluated. Two-way interactions between sanitizer and atmosphere that affected S. Typhimurium and pH were identified whereas 3-way interactions (sanitizer, atmosphere and time) were only observed for headspace CO2. Sodium hypochlorite and elevated CO2/reduced O2 was the best sanitizer and in-package atmosphere combination for enhancing the safety and quality of packaged diced onions. In addition, this combination led to diced onions acceptable for purchase after 2 weeks of storage by trained and consumer panels. PMID:26656528

  12. Dynamics of phoxim residues in green onion and soil as influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fa Yuan; Shi, Zhao Yong; Tong, Rui Jian; Xu, Xiao Feng

    2011-01-15

    Organophosphorus pesticides in crops and soil pose a serious threat to public health and environment. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi may make a contribution to organophosphate degradation in soil and consequently decrease chemical residues in crops. A pot culture experiment was conducted to investigate the influences of Glomus caledonium 90036 and Acaulospora mellea ZZ on the dynamics of phoxim residues in green onion (Allium fistulosum L.) and soil at different harvest dates after phoxim application. Results show that mycorrhizal colonization rates of inoculated plants were higher than 70%. Shoot and root fresh weights did not vary with harvest dates but increased significantly in AM treatments. Phoxim residues in plants and soil decreased gradually with harvest dates, and markedly reduced in AM treatments. Kinetic analysis indicated that phoxim degradation in soil followed a first-order kinetic model. AM inoculation accelerated the degradation process and reduced the half-life. G. caledonium 90036 generally produced more pronounced effects than A. mellea ZZ on both the plant growth and phoxim residues in plants and soil. Our results indicate a promising potential of AM fungi for the control of organophosphate residues in vegetables, as well as for the phytoremediation of organophosphorus pesticide-contaminated soil. PMID:20870354

  13. Mixed noble gas effect on cut green peppers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, L. V.; Zhang, M.; Karangwa, E.; Chesereka, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing attempts at using gas which leads to hydrate formation as a preservative tool in fresh-cut fruits and vegetables have been reported. In this study, changes in some physical and biochemical properties of fresh-cut green peppers under compressed noble gas treatments were examined. Mixed argonkrypton and argon treatments were performed before cold storage at 5°C for 15 days. Mass loss and cell membrane permeability were found to be the lowest in mixed argon-krypton samples. Besides, a lower CO2 concentration and vitamin C loss were detected in gastreated samples compared to untreated samples (control). While the total phenol degradation was moderately reduced, the effect of the treatment on polyphenoloxidase activity was better at the beginning of the storage period. The minimum changes in quality observed in cut peppers resulted from both mixed and gas treatment alone.

  14. UV light inactivation of hepatitis A virus, Aichi virus, and feline calicivirus on strawberries, green onions, and lettuce.

    PubMed

    Fino, Viviana R; Kniel, Kalmia E

    2008-05-01

    A majority of illnesses caused by foodborne viruses are associated with fresh produce. Fruits and vegetables may be considered high-risk foods, as they are often consumed raw without a specific inactivation step. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate nonthermal treatments for the inactivation of foodborne pathogens. This study investigates the UV inactivation of three viruses: feline calicivirus (a surrogate for norovirus), and two picornaviruses, hepatitis A virus and Aichi virus. Three produce types were selected for their different surface topographies and association with outbreaks. Green onions, lettuce, and strawberries were individually spot inoculated with 10(7) to 10(9) 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of each virus per ml and exposed to UV light at various doses (< or = 240 mW s/cm2), and viruses were eluted using an optimized recovery strategy. Virus infection was quantified by TCID50 in mammalian cell culture and compared with untreated recovered virus. UV light applied to contaminated lettuce resulted in inactivation of 4.5 to 4.6 log TCID50/ml; for contaminated green onions, inactivation ranged from 2.5 to 5.6 log TCID50/ml; and for contaminated strawberries, inactivation ranged from 1.9 to 2.6 log TCID50/ml for the three viruses tested. UV light inactivation on the surface of lettuce is more effective than inactivation on the other two produce items. Consistently, the lowest results were observed in the inactivation of viruses on strawberries. No significant differences (P > 0.05) for virus inactivation were observed among the three doses applied (40, 120, and 240 mW s/cm2) on the produce, with the exception of hepatitis A virus and Aichi virus inactivation on green onions, where inactivation continued at 120 mW s/cm2 (P < 0.05). PMID:18522022

  15. Efficacy of UV, acidified sodium hypochlorite, and mild heat for decontamination of surface and infiltrated Escherichia coli O157:H7 on green onions and baby spinach.

    PubMed

    Durak, M Zeki; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

    2012-07-01

    Produce-associated foodborne illnesses outbreaks have highlighted the need for more effective decontamination methods to ensure the safety of fresh produce. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the individual and combined efficacies of germicidal UV light (12.5 to 500 mJ/cm(2)), acidified sodium hypochlorite (ASC 10 to 200 ppm), and mild heat (40 to 50°C) for decontaminating green onions and baby spinach infected with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Samples were inoculated by spot and dip inoculation methods to mimic surface and infiltrated E. coli O157:H7 contamination, respectively. In green onions and baby spinach, the individual efficacies of UV, ASC, and mild-heat treatments varied based on the produce type and contamination method. Following analysis of the efficacies of the single treatments, a combined treatment with 125 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 50°C was selected for spot-inoculated green onions, and a combined treatment with 125 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 20°C was selected for spot- and dip-inoculated baby spinach. While a >5-log reduction was achieved with the combination treatment for spot-inoculated green onions with an initial contamination level of 7.2 log CFU per spot, the same treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations below the detection limit (<1 log) on green onions spot inoculated at a lower contamination level (4.3 log CFU per spot). On spot- and dip-inoculated baby spinach, the combined treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 populations by 2.8 log CFU per spot and 2.6 log CFU/g, respectively. The combined treatment of 500 mJ/cm(2) UV and 200 ppm of ASC at 50°C selected for the decontamination of dip-inoculated green onions resulted in a 2.2-log CFU/g reduction. These findings suggest that when foodborne pathogens contaminate produce and subsequently infiltrate, attach to, or become localized into protected areas, the individual or combined applications of UV, ASC, and mild-heat treatments have limited decontamination

  16. Application of porcine gastric mucin-conjugated magnetic beads and polyethylene glycol goncentration and detection of human noroviruses from green onion and grape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To set up detection methods for norovirus in fruits and vegetables by using porcine gastric mucin-conjugated magnetic beads (PGM-MB) and polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG8000) concentrating and detecting the norovirus in green onion and grape. Methods: The highest virus dilution given a posit...

  17. Agile and green manufacturing and super hard coated cutting tools

    SciTech Connect

    Chi-Hung Shen

    1995-12-31

    The paper discusses the global movement towards an agile and green manufacturing environment and their impacts on high volume producers such the automotive industry. In the area of machining, two major shifts are envision (1) proliferation of highly flexible CNC single spindle machining centers to replace conventional dedicated transfer lines and (2) implementation of {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} machining systems where there are no or minimal use of machining fluids. In order to migrate towards these goals and still remain competitive and profitable, economically viable high performance super hard coated cutting tools must be developed. Machining results with CVD diamond coated tools are presented to illustrate their current capabilities and limitations. Key areas for further research and develop of super hard coating tools will also be discussed.

  18. Templated green synthesis of plasmonic silver nanoparticles in onion epidermal cells suitable for surface-enhanced Raman and hyper-Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Espina Palanco, Marta; Bo Mogensen, Klaus; Gühlke, Marina; Heiner, Zsuzsanna; Kneipp, Janina; Kneipp, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    We report fast and simple green synthesis of plasmonic silver nanoparticles in the epidermal cells of onions after incubation with AgNO3 solution. The biological environment supports the generation of silver nanostructures in two ways. The plant tissue delivers reducing chemicals for the initial formation of small silver clusters and their following conversion to plasmonic particles. Additionally, the natural morphological structures of the onion layers, in particular the extracellular matrix provides a biological template for the growth of plasmonic nanostructures. This is indicated by red glowing images of extracellular spaces in dark field microscopy of onion layers a few hours after AgNO3 exposure due to the formation of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanostructures generated in the extracellular space of onion layers and within the epidermal cell walls can serve as enhancing plasmonic structures for one- and two-photon-excited spectroscopy such as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface enhanced hyper-Raman scattering (SEHRS). Our studies demonstrate a templated green preparation of enhancing plasmonic nanoparticles and suggest a new route to deliver silver nanoparticles as basic building blocks of plasmonic nanosensors to plants by the uptake of solutions of metal salts. PMID:27547600

  19. Templated green synthesis of plasmonic silver nanoparticles in onion epidermal cells suitable for surface-enhanced Raman and hyper-Raman scattering

    PubMed Central

    Espina Palanco, Marta; Bo Mogensen, Klaus; Gühlke, Marina; Heiner, Zsuzsanna; Kneipp, Janina

    2016-01-01

    Summary We report fast and simple green synthesis of plasmonic silver nanoparticles in the epidermal cells of onions after incubation with AgNO3 solution. The biological environment supports the generation of silver nanostructures in two ways. The plant tissue delivers reducing chemicals for the initial formation of small silver clusters and their following conversion to plasmonic particles. Additionally, the natural morphological structures of the onion layers, in particular the extracellular matrix provides a biological template for the growth of plasmonic nanostructures. This is indicated by red glowing images of extracellular spaces in dark field microscopy of onion layers a few hours after AgNO3 exposure due to the formation of silver nanoparticles. Silver nanostructures generated in the extracellular space of onion layers and within the epidermal cell walls can serve as enhancing plasmonic structures for one- and two-photon-excited spectroscopy such as surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and surface enhanced hyper-Raman scattering (SEHRS). Our studies demonstrate a templated green preparation of enhancing plasmonic nanoparticles and suggest a new route to deliver silver nanoparticles as basic building blocks of plasmonic nanosensors to plants by the uptake of solutions of metal salts. PMID:27547600

  20. Development of an extraction and concentration procedure and comparison of RT-PCR primer systems for the detection of hepatitis A virus and norovirus GII in green onions.

    PubMed

    Guévremont, Evelyne; Brassard, Julie; Houde, Alain; Simard, Carole; Trottier, Yvon-Louis

    2006-06-01

    Vegetables can be considered as a vector of transmission for human hepatic and enteric viruses such as hepatitis A virus (HAV) and noroviruses when contaminated by spoiled irrigation water or when prepared by infected food handlers. Recently, outbreaks of HAV have been reported in the USA involving fresh green onions. A viral elution-concentration method was developed for the detection of HAV and norovirus contaminated green onions by RT-PCR. Repeated pipetting/washings of the surface with a pH 9.5 glycine-buffered solution allowed the elution of viruses from the vegetables. Concentration of the viral load was performed by a polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation procedure. Viral RNAs were extracted and purified using a combination of Trizol-chloroform and poly(dT) magnetic beads methods. Different sets of primers, including two newly designed primers sets for HAV RT-PCR, were tested in order to achieve the best analytical sensitivity. Using the new primer design, it was possible to detect 10(0) TCID(50%)/25 g of HAV in fresh green onions, while 1 RT-PCRU/25 g was detected for noroviruses GII using previously described primers. This method, based on molecular tools, would be useful for diagnostic laboratories in order to perform viral analyses of such commodities as fresh vegetables in cases of foodborne infections. PMID:16423413

  1. Quantum cutting in nanoparticles producing two green photons

    SciTech Connect

    Lorbeer, C; Mudring, Anja -V

    2014-01-01

    A synthetic route to nanoscale NaGdF4:Ln is presented which allows for quantum cutting based on the Gd-Er-Tb system. This shows, that cross-relaxation and other energy transfer processes necessary for multiphoton emission can be achieved in nanoparticles even if the large surface and the potentially huge amount of killer traps would suggest a lack of subsequent emission.

  2. The decontaminative effects of acidic electrolyzed water for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes on green onions and tomatoes with differing organic demands.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun-Jin; Alexander, Edward; Taylor, Gary A; Costa, Roy; Kang, Dong-Hyun

    2009-06-01

    Acidic electrolyzed water (AC-EW) has strong bactericidal activity against foodborne pathogens on fresh vegetables. However, the efficacy of AC-EW is influenced by soil or other organic materials present. This study examined the bactericidal activity of AC-EW in the presence of organic matter, in the form of bovine serum against foodborne pathogens on the surfaces of green onions and tomatoes. Green onions and tomatoes were inoculated with a culture cocktail of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes. Treatment of these organisms with AC-EW containing bovine serum concentrations of 5, 10, 15, and 20 ml/l was performed for 15s, 30s, 1 min, 3 min and 5 min. The total residual chlorine concentrations of AC-EW decreased proportional to the addition of serum. The bactericidal activity of AC-EW also decreased with increasing bovine serum concentration, whereas unamended AC-EW treatment reduced levels of cells to below the detection limit (0.7 logCFU/g) within 3 min. PMID:19376459

  3. Studies on the effects of oral administration of nutrient mixture, quercetin and red onions on the bioavailability of epigallocatechin gallate from green tea extract.

    PubMed

    Kale, Anup; Gawande, Sonia; Kotwal, Swati; Netke, Shrirang; Roomi, Waheed; Ivanov, Vadim; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Rath, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a main anticancer component in green tea, has a poor bioavailability in rats and humans due to oxidation, metabolism and its efflux. It was hypothesized that nutrients that address these problems might result in increased bioavailability. Plasma concentrations of EGCG at various time intervals were determined to calculate and compare the pharmacokinetic parameters after oral administration of green tea extract (GTE) or GTE as a nutrient mixture (E) or E + quercetin (Q)/red onions. In rat studies, supplementation of GTE with other nutrients (E) or E + Q raised the plasma C(max) from 55.29 +/- 1.70 to 61.94 +/- 1.70 ng/mL and 94.44 +/- 1.59 ng/mL, respectively. The corresponding t((1/2)) elimination was 2.04 +/- 0.2 h, 3.63 +/- 0.66 h and 2.28 +/- 0.049 h. The AUC(0-24h) were 510.16 +/- 9.88 for GTE, 601.72 +/- 19.10 ng.h/mL for E and 794.08 +/- 15.27 ng x h/mL (p < or = 0.05) for E + Q. In human studies when GTE was fed as GTE or E or E + red onions, the C(max) values were 348.4 +/- 76.6, 384.0 +/- 78.5 ng/mL and 468.4 +/- 131.4. AUC(0-8h) was 1784.1 +/- 56.06 (GTE), 1971.5 +/- 566.5 ng x h/mL (E) and 2490 +/- 878.1 (E + Q), but the change in t((1/2)) elimination was not significant.In conclusion, it is possible to increase the bioavailability of EGCG by supplementing it with nutrients and quercetin. PMID:19585479

  4. Tracing temperature patterns of cut leafy greens during service in North Carolina school food service.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Ellen M; Chapman, Benjamin; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Phister, Trevor

    2014-09-01

    Contaminated fresh produce has been increasingly identified as a cause of foodborne illnesses. Because of concerns about pathogen growth on these food items at retail, the 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration Food Code established that cut leafy greens (lettuce, spinach, spring mix, cabbage, arugula, and kale) must have time and temperature controls for safety and hence should be kept at refrigerated temperatures (5°C or lower). The purpose of this study was to determine the temperature profiles of cut leafy greens in single-serving clamshell containers provided as part of the North Carolina School Lunch Program and to compare the two policies that North Carolina has in place to control the temperature of these products (the 3-day rule and time in lieu of temperature). Temperatures were recorded with data loggers in 24 schools during a 3-day period. In all cases, substantial temperature variability was found for these products, including temperatures above 5°C for at least 1 h on each of the 3 days. In some cases, temperatures reached above 5°C for more than 3 h throughout the serving time. The results demonstrate the importance of developing a protocol for continuous temperature monitoring of leafy greens served in school lunch programs. PMID:25198840

  5. Onion dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.; Lienau, P.J.

    1994-07-01

    This article describes the onion dehydration process as generally practiced in the United States. The actual processing steps from harvest to final product, and geothermal applications for power production and energy requirements in the dehydration industry are discussed. A design of a dehydrator converted to geothermal energy usage is included.

  6. Onion dehydration

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1995-12-31

    Onion dehydration consists of a continuous operation, belt conveyor using fairly low-temperature hot air from 38-104{degrees}C (100 to 200{degrees}F). Typical processing plants will handle 4500 kg (10,000 pounds) of raw product per hour (single line), reducing the moisture from around 83 % to 4 % (680 to 820 kg - 1,500 to 1,800 pounds finished product). An example of a geothermal processing plant is Integrate Ingredients at Empire, Nevada, in the San Emidio Desert. A total of 6.3 million kg (14 million pounds) of dry product are produced annually: 60% onion and 40% garlic. A 130{degrees}C (266{degrees}F) well provide the necessary heat for the plant.

  7. Effect of pretreatments and modified atmosphere packaging on the shelf life and quality of fresh- cut green bell pepper.

    PubMed

    Ranjitha, K; Sudhakar Rao, D V; Shivashankara, K S; Roy, Tapas Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Present study was aimed at understanding the effect of pretreatments and modified atmosphere packaging on the quality of fresh-cut green bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) during low temperature storage. Dip treatment of freshly cut green bell pepper pieces in 2 % calcium propionate followed by surface drying and subsequent packing in cryovac PD961 film which maintained an equilibrium modified atmosphere of 13-14 % O2 and 7 % CO2 helped to extend the marketability till 9 days storage at 8 °C. The microbiological quality was at the best level up to 6 days of storage, as evidenced by a surge in aerobic plate count, pectinolysers and pseudomonads on subsequent days. Head space volatile analysis of the produce at regular intervals showed a reduction in monoterpenoids and simultaneous increase of aldehydes and ketones, sesquiterpenoids, esters, furans and pyrazines during storage. Principal component analysis of the head space volatiles identified, cis - ocimene, 1,3,8-paramenthatriene, trans 3- caren 2-ol, bergamotene, 2-hexenal, ethyl 1- decanol, (E)-3- hexenol and heptane thiol as the markers of freshness in minimally processed green bell pepper. PMID:26604359

  8. The optical properties of onion dry skin and flesh at the wavelength 632.8 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weilin; Li, Changying

    2012-05-01

    Evaluating onions quality using optical techniques is challenging because the presence of outer dry skin and the layered structure of onion fleshy tissues. To better understand the light propagation in onions, the optical properties of dry skin and fleshy tissues from two cultivars were measured at 632.8 nm by using a single integrating sphere based system. Onion tissues were cut into 30 mm square pieces and sandwiched by Borofloat glass slides. The total diffuse reflectance, the total transmittance, and the collimated transmittance of the onion samples were measured by an integrating sphere system with a VIS-NIR spectrometer. The absorption coefficient (μa), the reduced scattering coefficient (μs'), and the anisotropy coefficient (g) of onion tissue samples were estimated using the inverse adding-doubling method based on the measured spectra. The light propagation in onion tissues were modeled based on the calculated optical parameters using Monte Carlo simulations. The results indicated that onion tissues are high albedo biological media. Onion dry skins have much higher absorption and reduced scattering coefficients than onion fleshy tissues. Comparisons between the two onion cultivars showed that the optical properties of onions could vary with cultivars. The results of this study can be used to develop appropriate optical approaches for the onion quality inspection.

  9. Persistence and bioaccumulation of oxyfluorfen residues in onion.

    PubMed

    Sondhia, Shobha

    2010-03-01

    A field study was conducted to determine persistence and bioaccumulation of oxyflorfen residues in onion crop at two growth stages. Oxyfluorfen (23.5% EC) was sprayed at 250 and 500 g ai/ha on the crop (variety, N53). Mature onion and soil samples were collected at harvest. Green onion were collected at 55 days from each treated and control plot and analyzed for oxyfluorfen residues by a validated high-performance liquid chromatography method with an accepted recovery of 78-92% at the minimum detectable concentration of 0.003 microg g(-1). Analysis showed 0.015 and 0.005 microg g(-1) residues of oxyfluorfen at 250 g a.i. ha(-1) rate in green and mature onion samples, respectively; however, at 500 g a.i.ha(-1) rates, 0.025 and 0.011 microg g(-1) of oxyfluorfen residues were detected in green and mature onion samples, respectively. Soil samples collected at harvest showed 0.003 and 0.003 microg g(-1) of oxyfluorfen residues at the doses 250 and 500 g a.i. ha(-1), respectively. From the study, a pre-harvest interval of 118 days for onion crop after the herbicide application is suggested. PMID:19238567

  10. Onion dehydration: a review.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Jayeeta; Shrivastava, S L; Rao, P S

    2012-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a very commonly used vegetable, ranks third in the world production of major vegetables. Apart from imparting a delicious taste and flavour due to its pungency in many culinary preparations, it serves several medicinal purposes also. Processing and preservation of onion by suitable means is a major thrust area since a long time. The various kinds of treatments followed for dehydration of onion such as convective air drying, solar drying, fluidized bed drying, vacuum microwave drying, infrared drying and osmotic drying are reviewed here. These techniques are mainly used for preservation and value addition of onion. Several researchers have tried for decades to model the drying kinetics and quality parameters, which are also compiled here briefly. PMID:23729847

  11. Fischer Assays of Oil-Shale Drill Cores and Rotary Cuttings from the Greater Green River Basin, Southwestern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Oil Shale Assessment Team

    2008-01-01

    Chapter 1 of this CD-ROM is a database of digitized Fischer (shale-oil) assays of cores and cuttings from boreholes drilled in the Eocene Green River oil shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming. Assays of samples from some surface sections are also included. Most of the Fischer assay analyses were made by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) at its laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming. Other assays, made by institutional or private laboratories, were donated to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and are included in this database as well as Adobe PDF-scanned images of some of the original laboratory assay reports and lithologic logs prepared by USBM geologists. The size of this database is 75.2 megabytes and includes information on 971 core holes and rotary-drilled boreholes and numerous surface sections. Most of these data were released previously by the USBM and the USGS through the National Technical Information Service but are no longer available from that agency. Fischer assays for boreholes in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado have been published by the USGS. Additional data include geophysical logs, groundwater data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, and other data. These materials are available for inspection in the office of the USGS Central Energy Resources Team in Lakewood, Colorado. The digitized assays were checked with the original laboratory reports, but some errors likely remain. Other information, such as locations and elevations of core holes and oil and gas tests, were not thoroughly checked. However, owing to the current interest in oil-shale development, it was considered in the public interest to make this preliminary database available at this time. Chapter 2 of this CD-ROM presents oil-yield histograms of samples of cores and cuttings from exploration drill holes in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Great Divide, Green River, and Washakie Basins of southwestern Wyoming. A database was compiled that includes about 47

  12. Evaluation of onion cultivars for resistance to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fuchs, Marc; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2010-06-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a worldwide pest of onion, Allium cepa L., can reduce onion yield by > 50% and be even more problematic when it transmits Iris yellow spot virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, IYSV). Because T. tabaci is difficult to control with insecticides and other strategies, field studies on onion, Allium cepa L., resistance to T. tabaci and IYSV were conducted in 2007 and 2008 in two locations in New York state. Forty-nine cultivars were evaluated for resistance by counting the number of larvae weekly and recording leaf damage. In another experiment, the impact of T. tabaci and IYSV on plant growth and yield was examined by spraying half of the plants with an insecticide. Eleven of the 49 cultivars had very little leaf damage and were considered resistant to T. tabaci. Visual assessment indicated that all resistant cultivars had yellow-green- colored foliage, whereas the other 38 had blue-green- colored foliage. The visual assessment of color agreed with data on color taken with a HunterLab Ultra Scan XE colorimeter. The onions 'Colorado 6' and 'NMSU 03-52-1' had the lowest numbers of T. tabaci, suggesting strong antibiosis and/or antixenosis. The other nine cultivars had variable numbers of T. tabaci, indicating a possible combination of categories of resistance. In the nonprotected treatments there were significant reductions in plant height and plant weight in most of the resistant cultivars, but there were reductions in bulb weight only in a few of them. The average of plants infected with IYSV was 10% in 2007 and 60% in 2008. Our findings indicate potential for developing onion resistance to T. tabaci as part of an overall integrated pest management strategy but suggest difficulties in identifying resistance to IYSV. PMID:20568640

  13. Onion cultivar evaluation - Lane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growers currently use a combination of short-day and intermediate-day onion cultivars to extend the time periods for transplanting and harvesting. The intermediate cultivars available to growers have been limited in Oklahoma. Newly available intermediate cultivars may offer additional characterist...

  14. Survival and distribution of Escherichia coli on diverse fresh-cut baby leafy greens under preharvest through postharvest conditions.

    PubMed

    Tomás-Callejas, Alejandro; López-Velasco, Gabriela; Camacho, Alex B; Artés, Francisco; Artés-Hernández, Francisco; Suslow, Trevor V

    2011-12-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 has been associated in multiple outbreaks linked to the consumption of whole produce and fresh-cut leafy vegetables. However, plant-based foods had not been traditionally recognized as a host for enteric pathogens until the elevated incidence of produce-related outbreaks became apparent. The survival dynamics of two cocktails of generic E. coli (environmental water, plant and soil isolates) and E. coli O157:H7 within the phyllosphere of Mizuna, Red Chard and Tatsoi during their production, harvest, minimal processing, packaging and storage over two greenhouse production cycles were studied. Genotyping of applied generic E. coli strains to evaluate their comparative survival and relative abundance in the phyllosphere by REP-PCR is also reported. The Mizuna, Red Chard and Tatsoi shoots were grown under standard greenhouse conditions and fertility management. Both E. coli cocktails were spray-inoculated separately and determined to result in an initial mean population density of log 4.2 CFU/cm². Leaves were harvested as mini-greens approximating commercial maturity, minimally processed in a model washing system treated with 3 mg/L of ClO₂ and stored for 7 days at 5 °C. Rapid decline of generic E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 populations was observed for all plant types regardless of the leaf age at the time of inoculation and the irrigation type across both seasonal growth cycle trials. The decline rate of the surviving populations for the fall season was slower than for the summer season. The minimal processing with 3 mg/L of ClO₂ was not sufficient to fully disinfect the inoculated leaves prior to packaging and refrigerated storage. Viable populations of E. coli and E. coli O157:H7 were confirmed throughout storage, including the final time point at the end of acceptable visual leaf quality. In this study, the ability of low populations of E. coli to survive during production and postharvest operations in selected mini-greens has been

  15. Onion artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  16. Retention of quality and nutritional value of 13 fresh-cut vegetables treated with low-dose radiation.

    PubMed

    Fan, X; Sokorai, K J B

    2008-09-01

    Improving the microbial safety while maintaining quality of fresh fruits and vegetables will increase consumer confidence in fresh produce. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of irradiation at 1 kGy, a dose that potentially inactivates E. coli O157:H7 by 5 logs, on the quality of 13 common fresh-cut vegetables: iceberg, romaine, green and red leaf lettuce, spinach, tomato, cilantro, parsley, green onion, carrot, broccoli, red cabbage, and celery. The results showed that the appearance of irradiated samples was similar to the nonirradiated ones except that irradiated carrots, celery, cilantro, and green onions had higher appearance scores than corresponding nonirradiated vegetables. There was no difference in the instrumental texture between irradiated samples and nonirradiated ones. The aroma of several irradiated vegetables was significantly better than controls after 14-d storage, because these control samples decayed or senesced. The 1 kGy irradiation did not affect vitamin C content of most vegetables; however, irradiated green and red leaf lettuce had 24% to 53% lower vitamin C contents than the controls. Our results suggest that most fresh-cut fruits and vegetables tested can tolerate up to 1 kGy irradiation without significant losses in any of the quality attributes. PMID:18803730

  17. 21 CFR 102.39 - Onion rings made from diced onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Onion rings made from diced onion. 102.39 Section... Nonstandardized Foods § 102.39 Onion rings made from diced onion. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as onion rings, except that it is composed of...

  18. 21 CFR 102.39 - Onion rings made from diced onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Onion rings made from diced onion. 102.39 Section... Nonstandardized Foods § 102.39 Onion rings made from diced onion. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as onion rings, except that it is composed of...

  19. 21 CFR 102.39 - Onion rings made from diced onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Onion rings made from diced onion. 102.39 Section... Nonstandardized Foods § 102.39 Onion rings made from diced onion. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as onion rings, except that it is composed of...

  20. 21 CFR 102.39 - Onion rings made from diced onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Onion rings made from diced onion. 102.39 Section... Nonstandardized Foods § 102.39 Onion rings made from diced onion. (a) The common or usual name of the food product that resembles and is of the same composition as onion rings, except that it is composed of...

  1. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid...

  2. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as...

  3. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as...

  4. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid...

  5. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid...

  6. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as...

  7. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid...

  8. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as...

  9. 7 CFR 955.5 - Vidalia onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vidalia onion. 955.5 Section 955.5 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Definitions § 955.5 Vidalia onion. Vidalia onion means all varieties of Allium cepa of the hybrid...

  10. 7 CFR 959.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Onions. 959.5 Section 959.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN SOUTH TEXAS Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 959.5 Onions. Onions means all varieties of Allium cepa commonly known as...

  11. Discontinuous Growth of Onion Structure under Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Shuji

    Discontinuous growth process of the Multilamellar vesicle (so called Onion) driven by shear quench was investigated by viscometry and microscopy in detail. Discontinuous Onion growth was observed when the final shear rate corresponded to the intermediate shear rate domain where the shear-thickening and shear-thinning viscosity appeared. In this process, large Onion transformed back into the lamellae and then formed large Onion. Small Onion to lamellae degradation process might be achieved by two modes, first the disruption of the configurational order of densely packed Onions followed by the rupture of Onion as second process. The second process would be characterized by the shear-banding flow pattern composed of the Onion-Lα coexisting state. We suggest that the appearance of the shear-band structure and the Onion reformation developed from the shear-band might be scaled by considering the mechanical energy balance with the bending elastic energy of bilayers.

  12. 21 CFR 102.39 - Onion rings made from diced onion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... onions, shall be as follows: (1) When the product is composed of dehydrated onions, the name shall be... than dehydrated, the name shall be “onion rings made from diced onions.” (b) The words “made from...

  13. Quantitative transfer of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to equipment during small-scale production of fresh-cut leafy greens.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Annemarie L; Davidson, Gordon R; Marks, Bradley P; Todd, Ewen C D; Ryser, Elliot T

    2012-07-01

    Postharvest contamination and subsequent spread of Escherichia coli O157:H7 can occur during shredding, conveying, fluming, and dewatering of fresh-cut leafy greens. This study quantified E. coli O157:H7 transfer from leafy greens to equipment surfaces during simulated small-scale commercial processing. Three to five batches (22.7 kg) of baby spinach, iceberg lettuce, and romaine lettuce were dip inoculated with a four-strain cocktail of avirulent, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillinresistant E. coli O157:H7 to contain ∼10(6), 10(4), and 10(2) CFU/g, and then were processed after 1 h of draining at ∼23°C or 24 h of storage at 4°C. Lettuce was shredded using an Urschel TransSlicer at two different blade and belt speeds to obtain normal (5 by 5 cm) and more finely shredded (0.5 by 5 cm) lettuce. Thereafter, the lettuce was step conveyed to a flume tank and was washed and then dried using a shaker table and centrifugal dryer. Product (25-g) and water (40-ml) samples were collected at various points during processing. After processing, product contact surfaces (100 cm(2)) on the shredder (n = 14), conveyer (n = 8), flume tank (n = 11), shaker table (n = 9), and centrifugal dryer (n = 8) were sampled using one-ply composite tissues. Sample homogenates diluted in phosphate or neutralizing buffer were plated, with or without prior 0.45- m m membrane filtration, on Trypticase soy agar containing 0.6% yeast extract supplemented with 100 ppm of ampicillin to quantify green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli O157:H7 under UV light. During leafy green processing, ∼90% of the E. coli O157:H7 inoculum transferred to the wash water. After processing, E. coli O157:H7 populations were highest on the conveyor and shredder (P<0.05), followed by the centrifugal dryer, flume tank, and shaker table, with ∼29% of the remaining product inoculum lost during centrifugal drying. Overall, less (P<0.05) of the inoculum remained on the product after centrifugally drying

  14. Sequencing and mapping of the onion genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cost of DNA sequencing continues to decline and, in the near future, it will become reasonable to undertake sequencing of the enormous nuclear genome of onion. We undertook sequencing of expressed and genomic regions of the onion genome to learn about the structure of the onion genome, as well a...

  15. Leaf waxes and thrips resistance in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion thrips is an important insect pest of onion that damages leaves and bulbs, reduces yields, and transmits important diseases such as iris yellow spot virus and bacterial rots. Growers would benefit from onions resistant to thrips in order to reduce insecticide applications and provide more sust...

  16. 7 CFR 958.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Onions. 958.5 Section 958.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.5 Onions....

  17. 7 CFR 958.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Onions. 958.5 Section 958.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.5 Onions....

  18. 7 CFR 958.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Onions. 958.5 Section 958.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.5 Onions....

  19. 7 CFR 958.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Onions. 958.5 Section 958.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.5 Onions....

  20. 7 CFR 958.5 - Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Onions. 958.5 Section 958.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ONIONS GROWN IN CERTAIN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 958.5 Onions....

  1. Direct determination of the chromosomal location of bunching onion and bulb onion markers using bunching onion-shallot monosomic additions and allotriploid-bunching onion single alien deletions.

    PubMed

    Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Yamashita, Ken-ichiro; Yaguchi, Shigenori; Yamashita, Koichiro; Hagihara, Takuya; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Kojima, Akio; Wako, Tadayuki

    2011-02-01

    To determine the chromosomal location of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and bulb onion (A. cepa L.) expressed sequence tags (ESTs), we used a complete set of bunching onion-shallot monosomic addition lines and allotriploid bunching onion single alien deletion lines as testers. Of a total of 2,159 markers (1,198 bunching onion SSRs, 324 bulb onion EST-SSRs and 637 bulb onion EST-derived non-SSRs), chromosomal locations were identified for 406 markers in A. fistulosum and/or A. cepa. Most of the bunching onion SSRs with identified chromosomal locations showed polymorphism in bunching onion (89.5%) as well as bulb onion lines (66.1%). Using these markers, we constructed a bunching onion linkage map (1,261 cM), which consisted of 16 linkage groups with 228 markers, 106 of which were newly located. All linkage groups of this map were assigned to the eight basal Allium chromosomes. In this study, we assigned 513 markers to the eight chromosomes of A. fistulosum and A. cepa. Together with 254 markers previously located on a separate bunching onion map, we have identified chromosomal locations for 766 markers in total. These chromosome-specific markers will be useful for the intensive mapping of desirable genes or QTLs for agricultural traits, and to obtain DNA markers linked to these. PMID:20938763

  2. Research Advances: Onions Battle Osteoporosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at the University of Bern in Switzerland have identified a compound in the popular vegetable that appears to decrease bone loss in laboratory studies using rat bone cells. It is suggested that eating onions might help prevent bone loss and osteoporosis, a disease, which predominantly affects older women.

  3. Within-plant distribution of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onions.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jianhua; Munro, Scott; Boulton, Alan; Stevens, Mark

    2008-08-01

    Two aspects of the within-plant distribution of Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on onion, Allium cepa L., plants were investigated: 1) diurnal variations in the distribution of adults and larvae between basal and upper sections of onion leaves, and 2) between-leaf and within-leaf distribution of the eggs. The diurnal investigations showed that higher proportions of larvae than of adults congregated at the basal sections of plants, particularly when plants were young and thrips density was low. As plants matured and thrips density increased, the larvae became more dispersed. Regardless of plant size, there were always more adults in the upper than basal plant sections. There were no clear time-windows during the 24-h diurnal cycle when more thrips were in the upper plant parts. T. tabaci eggs were laid everywhere in the plant. Leaves of intermediate ages had more eggs than older or younger leaves. Within leaves, the white leaf sheath received the least eggs and leaf tips received slightly more eggs than leaf sheaths. The highest egg density was found between the green leaf base and the leaf tips. Regardless of plant size, more than half of all eggs were laid above the basal sections. The percentage increased to >95% in mature plants. Except when plants were small the outer leaves were preferred over inner leaves and upper leaf sections preferred over lower leaf sections as egg-laying sites by adults. Implications of the results in the management of T. tabaci are discussed. PMID:18767744

  4. Delaying onion planting to control onion maggot (Diptera: Anthomyiidae): efficacy and underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nault, Brian A; Werling, Benjamin P; Straub, Richard W; Nyrop, Jan P

    2011-10-01

    Onion maggot, Delia antiqua (Meigen) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), is an important pest of onion, Allium cepa L., in northern temperate areas, especially in the Great Lakes region of North America Management of D. antiqua relies on insecticide use at planting, but insecticide resistance can cause control failures that threaten the long-term viability of this strategy. Delaying the time onions are planted was investigated as an alternative management approach for D. antiqua and the ecological and behavioral mechanisms underlying host age and insect relationships were examined in laboratory and field experiments. Delaying onion planting by two to four weeks reduced damage to onions by 35 and 90%, respectively. Onions planted later emerged later and this reduced the period overwintered flies had to oviposit on the plants. Moreover, flies tended to lay few to no eggs on these young, late-planted onions. As anticipated, D. antiqua laid 4-8 times more eggs on older onions than on young onions, and older onions were more resilient to injury caused by D. antiqua neonates compared with younger onions. However, the resiliency to maggot attack lessened as the density of D. antiqua increased from 2 to 10 eggs per plant, which probably explains why greater levels of maggot damage are typically observed in early onion plantings compared with later plantings. Delaying onion planting until mid-May reduced D. antiqua damage without jeopardizing the period required to produce marketable yield, but this cultural tactic must be combined with other management strategies to prevent economic loss. PMID:22066192

  5. Correlations between Colonization of Onion Thrips and Leaf Reflectance Measures across Six Cabbage Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Bálint, János; Nagy, Balázs Vince; Fail, József

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to reveal if the UV-A, and visible light reflection of leaves of white cabbage varieties is correlated to resistance against onion thrips. The antixenotic resistance (AR) against onion thrips and thrips damage differed between varieties Balashi, Bloktor, Riana – considered resistant – and Green Gem, Hurricane, Quisor – considered susceptible. The solar UV-A (340–400 nm) and visible (401–650 nm) light reflection of white cabbage leaves were recorded. Correlation between AR against onion thrips and reflection of leaves in UV-A and visible range of the studied white cabbage varieties were computed. According to the AR evaluation onion thrips density was always higher on susceptible than on resistant varieties. The UV-A light reflection of head forming leaves and the contrast between head and exterior leaves (H/E) was negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference at an early stage of cabbage head formation. The visible light reflection of both head forming and exterior leaves was also negatively correlated with onion thrips host preference. Susceptible varieties had greater damage ratings at harvest than resistant ones and positive correlations were observed between AR and damage. AR against onion thrips may be affected by differences in reflection of cabbage leaves at an early growth stage. It is suggested that more intensive reflection of leaves and/or higher contrast values between the reflectance intensity of head versus outer leaves made the resistant varieties less attractive to onion thrips. Our results reported here provide the first evidence of negative correlation between UV-A and visible reflection of leaves and AR of white cabbage against a dangerous insect pest, opening new perspectives for understanding the role of reflection by plant leaves in pest management. PMID:24040093

  6. Micropropagation of onion (Allium cepa L.) from immature inflorescences.

    PubMed

    Marinangeli, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    In vitro plant production by direct organogenesis from immature flower heads is an ideal approach for clonal propagation of onions (Allium cepa L.). This technique ensures genetic stability, high propagation rate, and maintains donor plant of explants with an advantage over other means of in vitro regeneration. Onion micropropagation is usually applied in breeding programs, maintenance, and multiplication of cytoplasmic-male sterile lines for hybrid production, germplasm conservation, and as a tool for the application of other biotechnologies. For in vitro culture, mature onion bulbs are induced to reproductive phase by vernalization and forced to inflorescence initiation. Immature umbels are dissected from bulbs or cut directly when they appear from the pseudostem among the leaves. Disinfected inflorescences are cultivated in BDS basal medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 0.1 mg/L naphthalene acetic acid, 1 mg/L N (6)-benzyladenine, and 8 g/L agar, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod white fluorescent light (PPD: 50-70 μmol/m(2)s) for 35 days. The regenerated shoot clumps are divided and subculture under the same conditions. For bulbification phase, the individual shoots are cultured in BDS basal medium containing 90 g/L sucrose, without plant growth regulators, pH 5.5, under 16 h photoperiod. Microbulbs can be directly cultivated ex vitro without acclimation. PMID:23179710

  7. Physicochemical properties, and antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of garlic and onion powder in fresh pork belly and loin during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Park, S Y; Yoo, S S; Shim, J H; Chin, K B

    2008-10-01

    Pork loin and belly cuts were pumped to 110% of their original weight with solutions containing 5% of various ingredients (sodium ascorbate, garlic, and onion powder), and evaluated the physicochemical properties, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities during refrigerated storage at 8 degrees C. The addition of garlic and onion powder tended to increase redness (a) and yellowness (b) in both the belly lean and loin with the exception of a few cases. Free fatty acid values in both pork belly and loin cuts were reduced with the addition of these ingredients, as compared to the control. Significant differences in peroxide values were observed in sodium ascorbate and garlic-injected belly, and in sodium ascorbate and onion-injected loin, as compared to the control. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values in the pork belly with garlic or onion powder were significantly lower than in the belly without these ingredients or with sodium ascorbate (P < 0.05). Total plate counts were lower in both the belly and loin containing garlic and onion powder, as compared to the control. In both the belly and loin cuts, the content of oxidative products (volatile compounds) was reduced with the addition of garlic and onion powder, particularly the aldehydes (hexanal). Overall, garlic and onion in enhanced meats showed an antioxidant activity as effective as that of sodium ascorbate and also an antimicrobial effect to inhibit the growth of total bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae. PMID:19019099

  8. Differences in susceptibility to onion smut (Urocystis cepulae) among onion lines in the National Germplasm Collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion smut (Urocystis cepulae Frost) is endemic in many onion –growing regions of northeastern North America and can cause losses of up to 80 percent of plant stand if no fungicides are applied to the crop. Onion lines from the National Germplasm Collection in Geneva, New York were screened for rel...

  9. Tracking an Escherichia coli O157:H7-contaminated batch of leafy greens through a pilot-scale fresh-cut processing line.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Annemarie L; Davidson, Gordon R; Marks, Bradley P; Todd, Ewen C D; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-09-01

    Cross-contamination of fresh-cut leafy greens with residual Escherichia coli O157:H7-contaminated product during commercial processing was likely a contributing factor in several recent multistate outbreaks. Consequently, radicchio was used as a visual marker to track the spread of the contaminated product to iceberg lettuce in a pilot-scale processing line that included a commercial shredder, step conveyor, flume tank, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer. Uninoculated iceberg lettuce (45 kg) was processed, followed by 9.1 kg of radicchio (dip inoculated to contain a four-strain, green fluorescent protein-labeled nontoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 cocktail at 10(6) CFU/g) and 907 kg (2,000 lb) of uninoculated iceberg lettuce. After collecting the lettuce and radicchio in about 40 bags (∼22.7 kg per bag) along with water and equipment surface samples, all visible shreds of radicchio were retrieved from the bags of shredded product, the equipment, and the floor. E. coli O157:H7 populations were quantified in the lettuce, water, and equipment samples by direct plating with or without prior membrane filtration on Trypticase soy agar containing 0.6% yeast extract and 100 ppm of ampicillin. Based on triplicate experiments, the weight of radicchio in the shredded lettuce averaged 614.9 g (93.6%), 6.9 g (1.3%), 5.0 g (0.8%), and 2.8 g (0.5%) for bags 1 to 10, 11 to 20, 21 to 30, and 31 to 40, respectively, with mean E. coli O157:H7 populations of 1.7, 1.2, 1.1, and 1.1 log CFU/g in radicchio-free lettuce. After processing, more radicchio remained on the conveyor (9.8 g; P < 0.05), compared with the shredder (8.3 g), flume tank (3.5 g), and shaker table (0.1 g), with similar E. coli O157:H7 populations (P > 0.05) recovered from all equipment surfaces after processing. These findings clearly demonstrate both the potential for the continuous spread of contaminated lettuce to multiple batches of product during processing and the need for improved equipment designs that minimize

  10. Overwintering locations and hosts for onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in the onion cropping ecosystem in New York.

    PubMed

    Larentzaki, E; Shelton, A M; Musser, F R; Nault, B A; Plate, J

    2007-08-01

    Identifying locations where onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), overwinter and subsequently disperse is important for designing control strategies. In upstate New York from 2003 through 2006, potential overwintering sites in the commercial onion, Allium cepa L., cropping system were investigated early in the spring before onion seedling emergence and again late in the season after onions were harvested. Onion thrips adults were sampled directly from the soil and indirectly from the soil by using emergence cages. Sampling locations included onion field interiors and edges and areas outside of these fields, including woods. Host material sampled included onion culls; volunteer onions, which sprout from cull onions left behind after harvest; and weeds. Onion thrips adults were found in all sections of onion fields and in locations outside of onion fields, with the fewest emerging from woods. Emergence began in early May and extended into June. Peak emergence occurred during the last half of May, at which time 50-75% of the population had emerged. Adults colonized volunteer onions as early as late March and as late as mid-November. No adults were found overwintering in onion cull piles. Adults also colonized several weed species, especially pigweed, Amaranthus hybridis L., and lambsquarters, Chenopodium album L., late in the fall. Our results indicate that onion thrips adults overwinter in the soil within and near onion fields and that they probably colonize volunteer onion plants before subsequent generations infest the onion crop in the spring. Volunteer onions and weeds also provide onion thrips with a host after onions are harvested. Consequently, onion thrips management strategies should include tactics that reduce volunteer onion and weed abundance. PMID:17849870

  11. Hypoglycemic effects of Welsh onion in an animal model of diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Ji-Hye; Choi, Ha-Neul; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Han, Jung-Hee; Lee, Jai-Heon

    2010-01-01

    Tight control of blood glucose is the most important strategy for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Here, we investigated the beneficial effects of Welsh onion on fasting and postprandial hyperglycemia. Inhibitory activities of hot water extracts from the green stalk and white bulb, which are the edible portions of the Welsh onion, and the fibrous root extract against yeast α-glucosidase were measured in vitro. To study the effects of Welsh onion on postprandial hyperglycemia, a starch solution (1 g/kg) with and without Welsh onion fibrous root extract (500 mg/kg) or acarbose (50 mg/kg) was administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats after an overnight fast. Postprandial plasma glucose levels were measured and incremental areas under the response curve were calculated. To study the hypoglycemic effects of chronic feeding of Welsh onion, five-week-old db/db mice were fed an AIN-93G diet or a diet containing either Welsh onion fibrous root extract at 0.5% or acarbose at 0.05% for 7 weeks after 1 week of adaptation. Fasting plasma glucose and blood glycated hemoglobin were measured. Compared to the extract from the edible portions of Welsh onion, the fibrous root extract showed stronger inhibition against yeast α-glucosidase, with an IC50 of 239 µg/mL. Oral administration of Welsh onion fibrous root extract (500 mg/kg) and acarbose (50 mg/kg) significantly decreased incremental plasma glucose levels 30-120 min after oral ingestion of starch as well as the area under the postprandial glucose response curve, compared to the control group (P < 0.01). The plasma glucose and blood glycated hemoglobin levels of the Welsh onion group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P < 0.01), and were not significantly different from those fed acarbose. Thus, we conclude that the fibrous root of Welsh onion is effective in controlling hyperglycemia in animal models of diabetes mellitus. PMID:21286406

  12. Weed control options for transplanted onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As interest in sweet onion production has grown in Oklahoma and Arkansas, so has the realization that uncontrolled weeds can result in a total loss of marketable onion production. Although mechanical weed control can successfully control weeds between rows, producers need reliable methods for contro...

  13. Acetic acid and weed control in onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Although corn gluten meal shows great promise as an organic preemergent herbicide for onions, research has shown the need for supplemental, postemergen...

  14. Acetic acid: Crop injury and onion yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Organic herbicides for sweet onions are limited to non-selective materials, such as corn gluten meal and vinegar. Research at Lane, Oklahoma has shown...

  15. The Chemistry of Garlic and Onions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Block, Eric

    1985-01-01

    Discusses structures and characteristics of sulfur compounds which cause the odor of garlic and the crying which may result from an onion. These compounds are dependent on conditions of extraction and account for medical properties long ascribed to garlic and onions. (DH)

  16. Onions--a global benefit to health.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gareth; Trueman, Laurence; Crowther, Timothy; Thomas, Brian; Smith, Brian

    2002-11-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is botanically included in the Liliaceae and species are found across a wide range of latitudes and altitudes in Europe, Asia, N. America and Africa. World onion production has increased by at least 25% over the past 10 years with current production being around 44 million tonnes making it the second most important horticultural crop after tomatoes. Because of their storage characteristics and durability for shipping, onions have always been traded more widely than most vegetables. Onions are versatile and are often used as an ingredient in many dishes and are accepted by almost all traditions and cultures. Onion consumption is increasing significantly, particularly in the USA and this is partly because of heavy promotion that links flavour and health. Onions are rich in two chemical groups that have perceived benefits to human health. These are the flavonoids and the alk(en)yl cysteine sulphoxides (ACSOs). Two flavonoid subgroups are found in onion, the anthocyanins, which impart a red/purple colour to some varieties and flavanols such as quercetin and its derivatives responsible for the yellow and brown skins of many other varieties. The ACSOs are the flavour precursors, which, when cleaved by the enzyme alliinase, generate the characteristic odour and taste of onion. The downstream products are a complex mixture of compounds which include thiosulphinates, thiosulphonates, mono-, di- and tri-sulphides. Compounds from onion have been reported to have a range of health benefits which include anticarcinogenic properties, antiplatelet activity, antithrombotic activity, antiasthmatic and antibiotic effects. Here we review the agronomy of the onion crop, the biochemistry of the health compounds and report on recent clinical data obtained using extracts from this species. Where appropriate we have compared the data with that obtained from garlic (Allium sativum L.) for which more information is widely available. PMID:12410539

  17. Effect of dynamic temperature storage in retail display case on the quality and microbiota of packaged fresh-cut leafy greens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial refrigeration equipment is projected to rise 5.2% annually to meet the consumer demand for fresh-cut produce items. The highly variable temperature conditions associated with storage of fresh-cuts in commercial open-refrigerated display cases dramatically affects the shelf-life and qualit...

  18. Weed and Onion Response to multiple Applications of Goal Tender beginning at the 1-Leaf Stage of Onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broadleaf weed control in onion is difficult in part due to a lack of postemergence herbicide options at an early growth stage of onions. Onion tolerance to sequential applications of oxyfluorfen (Goal-Tender) alone and with bromoxynil (Buctril) beginning at the 1-lf stage of onions was evaluated n...

  19. Reversible nanodiamond-carbon onion phase transformations.

    PubMed

    Xiao, J; Ouyang, G; Liu, P; Wang, C X; Yang, G W

    2014-06-11

    Because of their considerable science and technical interest, nanodiamonds (3-5 nm) are often used as a model to study the phase transformation between graphite and diamond. Here we demonstrated that a reversible nanodiamond-carbon onion phase transformation can become true when laser irradiates colloidal suspensions of nanodiamonds at the ambient temperature and pressure. Nanodiamonds are first transformed to carbon onions driven by the laser-induced high temperature in which an intermediary bucky diamond phase is observed. Sequentially, carbon onions are transformed back to nanodiamonds driven by the laser-induced high temperature and high pressure from carbon onions as nanoscaled temperature and pressure cell upon the laser irradiation process in liquid. Similarly, the same bucky diamond phase serving as an intermediate phase is found during the carbon onion-to-nanodiamond transition. To have a clear insight into the unique phase transformation the thermodynamic approaches on the nanoscale were proposed to elucidate the reversible phase transformation of nanodiamond-to-carbon onion-to-nanodiamond via an intermediary bucky diamond phase upon the laser irradiation in liquid. This reversible transition reveals a series of phase transformations between diamond and carbon allotropes, such as carbon onion and bucky diamond, having a general insight into the basic physics involved in these phase transformations. These results give a clue to the root of meteoritic nanodiamonds that are commonly found in primitive meteorites but their origin is puzzling and offers one suitable approach for breaking controllable pathways between diamond and carbon allotropes. PMID:24823241

  20. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts. PMID:19062433

  1. Identification and onion pathogenicity of Burkholderia cepacia complex isolates from the onion rhizosphere and onion field soil.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Janette L; Fasi, Anthony C; Ramette, Alban; Smith, James J; Hammerschmidt, Raymond; Sundin, George W

    2008-05-01

    Burkholderia cepacia complex strains are genetically related but phenotypically diverse organisms that are important opportunistic pathogens in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF,) as well as pathogens of onion and banana, colonizers of the rhizospheres of many plant species, and common inhabitants of bulk soil. Genotypic identification and pathogenicity characterization were performed on B. cepacia complex isolates from the rhizosphere of onion and organic soils in Michigan. A total of 3,798 putative B. cepacia complex isolates were recovered on Pseudomonas cepacia azelaic acid tryptamine and trypan blue tetracycline semiselective media during the 2004 growing season from six commercial onion fields located in two counties in Michigan. Putative B. cepacia complex isolates were identified by hybridization to a 16S rRNA gene probe, followed by duplex PCR using primers targeted to the 16S rRNA gene and recA sequences and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the recA sequence. A total of 1,290 isolates, 980 rhizosphere and 310 soil isolates, were assigned to the species B. cepacia (160), B. cenocepacia (480), B. ambifaria (623), and B. pyrrocinia (27). The majority of isolates identified as B. cepacia (85%), B. cenocepacia (90%), and B. ambifaria (76%) were pathogenic in a detached onion bulb scale assay and caused symptoms of water soaking, maceration, and/or necrosis. A phylogenetic analysis of recA sequences from representative B. cepacia complex type and panel strains, along with isolates collected in this study, revealed that the B. cenocepacia isolates associated with onion grouped within the III-B lineage and that some strains were closely related to strain AU1054, which was isolated from a CF patient. This study revealed that multiple B. cepacia complex species colonize the onion rhizosphere and have the potential to cause sour skin rot disease of onion. In addition, the onion rhizosphere is a natural habitat and a potential environmental source

  2. Onion: nature protection against physiological threats.

    PubMed

    Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Saeed, Farhan; Khalid, Nauman

    2015-01-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is found in various regions of Europe, North America, Asia, and Africa. It is one of the classic examples of Allium species used not only for culinary preparations but also for medicinal purposes. Onion with a variety of purposes is often used as a raw material in many dishes and accepts almost all of the traditions and culture. Owing to its storage characteristics and durability of shipping, onions have been traded more widely than most vegetables. The pungent fractions of garlic are mostly sulfur-containing moieties while its two chemical groups have marked effect on human health. These are flavonoids and ALK (EN)-based cysteine sulfoxides (ACSOs). Compounds in onions have been reported with a range of health benefits, including anticancer properties, antiplatelet activity, antithrombotic activity, antiasthmatic activity, and antibiotic effects. PMID:24915405

  3. Cultivar evaluation for hoop house grown onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oklahoma onions are produced for the fresh market using a combination of short and intermediate day cultivars. Recently developed hoop house transplant production techniques enable local production of cultivars not available as transplants elsewhere. Several new intermediate cultivars have product...

  4. Polyphasic characterization of xanthomonas strains from onion.

    PubMed

    Gent, David H; Schwartz, Howard F; Ishimaru, Carol A; Louws, Frank J; Cramer, Robert A; Lawrence, Christopher B

    2004-02-01

    ABSTRACT Xanthomonas leaf blight has become an increasingly important disease of onion, but the diversity among Xanthomonas strains isolated from onion is unknown, as is their relationship to other species and pathovars of Xanthomonas. Forty-nine Xanthomonas strains isolated from onion over 27 years from 10 diverse geographic regions were characterized by pathogenicity to onion and dry bean, fatty acid profiles, substrate utilization patterns (Biolog), bactericide resistance, repetitive sequence-based polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting, rDNA internally transcribed spacer (ITS) region, and hrp b6 gene sequencing. Multiplication of onion Xanthomonas strain R-O177 was not different from X. axonopodis pv. phaseoli in dry bean, but typical common bacterial blight disease symptoms were absent in dry bean. Populations from each geographical region were uniformly sensitive to 100 mug of CuSO(4), 100 mug of ZnSO(4), and 100 mug of streptomycin sulfate per ml. Biolog substrate utilization and fatty acid profiles revealed close phenoltypic relatedness between onion strains of Xanthomonas and X. axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae (57% of strains) and X. arboricola pv. poinsettiicola (37% of strains), respectively. A logistic regression model based on fatty acid composition and substrate utilization classified 69% of strains into their geographical region of origin. Sequencing of a portion of the hrp B6 gene from 24 strains and ITS region from 25 strains revealed greater than 97% sequence similarity among strains. DNA fingerprinting revealed five genotype groups within onion strains of Xanthomonas and a high degree of genetic diversity among geographical regions of origin. Based on pathogenicity to onion, carbon substrate utilization, fatty acid profiles, rDNA genetic diversity, and genomic fingerprints, we conclude that the strains examined in this study are pathovar X. axonopodis pv. allii. Implications of genetic and phenotypic diversity within X. axonopodis pv. allii are

  5. Onion skin as a radiation monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desrosiers, Marc F.; McLaughlin, William L.

    The ESR spectra of the dry, outer skin of onion, red onion, garlic, and shallot were measured before and after irradiation. In all spectra only a single resonance (g = 2.00) was observed. The ESR signal intensity increased with absorbed dose, however, the radiation-induced signal decayed slowly with time. It was concluded that the outer skin of these foods are not suitable as a long-term postirradiation monitor.

  6. Epicuticular waxes on onion leaves and associated resistance to onion thrips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural variation exists for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on onion foliage. Wild-type onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes and is often referred to as “waxy”. The recessively inherited “glossy” phenotype has significantly less wax relative to waxy types and shows resistance to o...

  7. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on onion growth and onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani, 2013.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A preliminary study was conducted in a greenhouse (15 ± 1oC, with supplemental lights for 12 h/day) to determine the role of AMF on onion growth and for reducing the severity of onion stunting, using a commercial AMF inoculant, BioTerra Plus, that contains 104 propagules/g (ppg) of Glomus intraradic...

  8. Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion and weed response to mustard seed meal (MSM) were tested in greenhouse and field trials in 2007-2009. MSM was applied to the soil surface at rates of 1.1, 2.2, and 4.4 MT/ha. In greenhouse trials, onions were severely injured and stands reduced with all rates of MSM applied prior to onion emer...

  9. 7 CFR 955.101 - Vidalia Onion Handler Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Vidalia Onion Handler Report. 955.101 Section 955.101... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Rules and Regulations § 955.101 Vidalia Onion Handler Report. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  10. 7 CFR 955.101 - Vidalia Onion Handler Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Vidalia Onion Handler Report. 955.101 Section 955.101... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Rules and Regulations § 955.101 Vidalia Onion Handler Report. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  11. An International Plan to Sequence the Onion Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cost of DNA sequencing continues to decline and, in the near future, it will become reasonable to undertake sequencing of the enormous nuclear genome of onion. We undertook sequencing of expressed and genomic regions of the onion genome to learn about the structure of the onion genome, as well a...

  12. 7 CFR 457.135 - Onion crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Definitions Damaged onion production. Storage type onions that do not grade U.S. No. 1 or do not satisfy any...) determined by multiplying the approved yield per acre by the coverage level percentage you elect. Storage... quantity of onions (in hundredweight) determined by multiplying the approved yield per acre by the...

  13. Variation for epicuticular waxes and thrips resistance in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) and thrips-vectored Iris Yellow Spot Virus (IYSV) routinely cause significant losses to the bulb and seed crops of onion. Both pests have become more problematic as global temperatures rise. Natural variation exists in onion for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on...

  14. Onion thiosulfinates: some like them hot, others not

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion (Allium cepa) efficiently acquires and accumulates sulfur. In most plants, the majority of sulfur is located in proteins in the amino acids cysteine and methionine; however in onion a significant proportion of the sulfur is found in non-protein amino-acid derivatives. In onion, sulfur is most ...

  15. 7 CFR 980.117 - Import regulations; onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type Onions (7 CFR 51.3195 through 51.3209), the United States Standards for Grades of Creole Onions (7 CFR 51.3955 through 51.3970), or the United States Standards for Grades of Onions Other Than Bermuda... Marketing Order No. 958, as amended (7 CFR Part 958) and during the March 10 through June 4 period...

  16. 7 CFR 955.101 - Vidalia Onion Handler Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Vidalia Onion Handler Report. 955.101 Section 955.101... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Rules and Regulations § 955.101 Vidalia Onion Handler Report. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  17. 7 CFR 955.101 - Vidalia Onion Handler Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Vidalia Onion Handler Report. 955.101 Section 955.101... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Rules and Regulations § 955.101 Vidalia Onion Handler Report. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  18. 7 CFR 955.101 - Vidalia Onion Handler Report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Vidalia Onion Handler Report. 955.101 Section 955.101... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIDALIA ONIONS GROWN IN GEORGIA Rules and Regulations § 955.101 Vidalia Onion Handler Report. (a) Each handler shall furnish...

  19. 7 CFR 457.135 - Onion crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Onion crop insurance provisions. 457.135 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.135 Onion crop insurance provisions. The onion crop insurance provisions for the 2013 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  20. 7 CFR 457.135 - Onion crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Onion crop insurance provisions. 457.135 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.135 Onion crop insurance provisions. The onion crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  1. 7 CFR 980.117 - Import regulations; onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type Onions (7 CFR 51.3195 through 51.3209), the United States Standards for Grades of Creole Onions (7 CFR 51.3955 through 51.3970), or the United States Standards for Grades of Onions Other Than Bermuda... Marketing Order No. 958, as amended (7 CFR Part 958) and during the March 10 through June 4 period...

  2. 7 CFR 980.117 - Import regulations; onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type Onions (7 CFR 51.3195 through 51.3209), the United States Standards for Grades of Creole Onions (7 CFR 51.3955 through 51.3970), or the United States Standards for Grades of Onions Other Than Bermuda... Marketing Order No. 958, as amended (7 CFR Part 958) and during the March 10 through June 4 period...

  3. 78 FR 45898 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 955 Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia... document directs that a referendum be conducted among eligible producers of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia... Vidalia onions produced in the production area. DATES: The referendum will be conducted from September...

  4. Self-organized two-dimensional onions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shenqiang; Briber, Robert M.; Wuttig, Manfred

    2009-03-01

    Spontaneously self-assembled onion-type nanostructures based on block copolymers as templating materials are reported. Polystyrene-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymer containing CoFe2O4 and Pb1.1(Zr0.53Ti0.47)O3 precursors segregated to the two microdomains forms well-ordered templated lamellar structures. Onion-type nanostructures have been induced by room temperature solvent annealing for 64 h in a magnetic field of 0.8 T oriented perpendicularly to the plane of film. The recorded images suggest that the Lorentz force acting on charges in the paraelectric precursor induces a circular component of the diffusion flux that leads to the onion formation. This templating process opens a route for nanometer-scale patterning of magnetic toroids.

  5. Flavonoid Content in Fresh, Home Processed, and Light-Exposed Onions and in Dehydrated Commercial Onion Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion plants synthesize flavonoids as protection against damage by UV-radiation and by intracellular hydrogen peroxide. Because antioxidative flavonoids also exhibit health-promoting effects in humans, a need exists to measure their content in onions and in processed onion products. To contribute ...

  6. Evaluation of onion germplasm for resistance to Iris yellow spot (Iris yellow spot virus) and onion thrips, Thrips tabaci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is the most economically important monocot outside of the grasses. This important crop suffers severe damage from onion thrips (Thrips tabaci), a cosmopolitan and polyphagous insect pest. In addition to direct feeding damages, onion thrips has emerged as the principal vector o...

  7. Nanotechnology: Synthesis of carbon 'onions' in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, N.; Wang, H.; Chhowalla, M.; Alexandrou, I.; Amaratunga, G. A. J.

    2001-11-01

    The fabrication of carbon nanomaterials usually calls for expensive vacuum systems to generate plasmas and yields are disappointingly low. Here we describe a simple method for producing high-quality spherical carbon nano-'onions' in large quantities without the use of vacuum equipment. The nanoparticles, which have C60 cores surrounded by onion-like nested particles, are generated by an arc discharge between two graphite electrodes submerged in water. This technique is economical and environmentally benign, and produces uncontaminated nanoparticles which may be useful in many applications.

  8. Once an Onion, Always an Onion (Artist Concept)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This artist's concept illustrates a massive star before and after it blew up in a cataclysmic 'supernova' explosion. NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence that this star -- the remains of which are named Cassiopeia A -- exploded with some degree of order, preserving chunks of its onion-like layers as it blasted apart.

    Cassiopeia A is located 10,000 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia. It was once a massive star 15 to 20 times larger than our sun. Its fiery death would have been viewable from Earth about 340 years ago.

    The top figure shows the star before it died, when its layers of elements were stacked neatly, with the heaviest at the core and the lightest at the top. Spitzer found evidence that these layers were preserved when the star exploded, flinging outward in all directions, but not at the same speeds. As a result, some chunks of the layered material traveled farther out than others, as illustrated in the bottom drawing.

    The infrared observatory was able to see the tossed-out layers, because they light up upon ramming into a 'reverse' shock wave created in the aftermath of the explosion. When a massive star explodes, it creates two types of shock waves. The forward shock wave darts out quickest, and, in the case of Cassiopeia A, is now traveling at supersonic speeds up to 7,500 kilometers per second (4,600 miles/second). The reverse shock wave is produced when the forward shock wave slams into a shell of surrounding material expelled before the star died. It tags along behind the forward shock wave at slightly slower speeds.

    Chunks of the star that were thrown out fastest hit the shock wave sooner and have had more time to heat up to scorching temperatures previously detected by X-ray and visible-light telescopes. Chunks of the star that lagged behind hit the shock wave later, so they are cooler and radiate infrared light that was not seen until Spitzer came along. These lagging chunks are made up of gas and

  9. Viruses occurring in onion crop in amasya province, the major onion producing region in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sevik, Mehmet Ali; Akcura, Cemile

    2013-06-01

    Amasya is the greatest onion producing area in Turkey. Onion fields from Amasya region were surveyed for virus diseases in 2009-2011 and tested for the presence of the most important onion viruses such as Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV), Leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), Shallot latent virus (SLV) and Garlic common latent virus (GCLV). The presence of virus diseases and their identification was ascertained through symptom observation in the fields, sap transmission to hosts, and DAS-ELISA. Based on the ELSA results, 57 out of 332 samples (17.16 %) were infected with viruses. The results showed that the highest infection was caused by OYDV (12.33 %) followed by LYSV (3.60 %). Only 1.19 % of the samples were infected with SLV, but none of the samples were found to be infected for GCLV and IYSV. PMID:24426263

  10. Impact of straw mulch on populations of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in onion.

    PubMed

    Larentzaki, E; Plate, J; Nault, B A; Shelton, A M

    2008-08-01

    Development of insecticide resistance in onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), populations in onion (Allium spp.) fields and the incidence of the T. tabaci transmitted Iris yellow spot virus have stimulated interest in evaluating alternative management tactics. Effects of straw mulch applied in commercial onion fields in muck areas of western New York were assessed in 2006 and 2007 as a possible onion thrips management strategy. In trials in which no insecticides were applied for thrips control, straw mulch-treated plots supported significantly lower T. tabaci populations compared with control plots. In both years, the action thresholds of one or three larvae per leaf were reached in straw mulch treatments between 7 and 14 d later than in the control. Ground predatory fauna, as evaluated by pitfall trapping, was not increased by straw mulch in 2006; however, populations of the common predatory thrips Aeolothrips fasciatus (L.) (Thysanoptera: Aeolothripidae) were significantly lower in straw mulch plots in both years. Interference of straw mulch in the pupation and emergence of T. tabaci was investigated in the lab and their emergence was reduced by 54% compared with bare soil. In the field the overall yield of onions was not affected by the straw mulch treatment; however, the presence of jumbo grade onions (>77 mm) was increased in 2006, but not in 2007. These results indicate that populations of T. tabaci adults and larvae can be significantly reduced by the use of straw mulch without compromising overall onion yield. The use of this cultural practice in an onion integrated pest management program seems promising. PMID:18767742

  11. Cutting assembly

    DOEpatents

    Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.; Bencloski, William A.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    A cutting apparatus includes a support table mounted for movement toward and away from a workpiece and carrying a mirror which directs a cutting laser beam onto the workpiece. A carrier is rotatably and pivotally mounted on the support table between the mirror and workpiece and supports a conduit discharging gas toward the point of impingement of the laser beam on the workpiece. Means are provided for rotating the carrier relative to the support table to place the gas discharging conduit in the proper positions for cuts made in different directions on the workpiece.

  12. Transfer of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from equipment surfaces to fresh-cut leafy greens during processing in a model pilot-plant production line with sanitizer-free water.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Annemarie L; Davidson, Gordon R; Marks, Bradley P; Todd, Ewen C D; Ryser, Elliot T

    2012-11-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of fresh-cut leafy greens has become a public health concern as a result of several large outbreaks. The goal of this study was to generate baseline data for E. coli O157:H7 transfer from product-inoculated equipment surfaces to uninoculated lettuce during pilot-scale processing without a sanitizer. Uninoculated cored heads of iceberg and romaine lettuce (22.7 kg) were processed using a commercial shredder, step conveyor, 3.3-m flume tank with sanitizer-free tap water, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer, followed by 22.7 kg of product that had been dip inoculated to contain ∼10(6), 10(4), or 10(2) CFU/g of a four-strain avirulent, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 cocktail. After draining the flume tank and refilling the holding tank with tap water, 90.8 kg of uninoculated product was similarly processed and collected in ∼5-kg aliquots. After processing, 42 equipment surface samples and 46 iceberg or 36 romaine lettuce samples (25 g each) from the collection baskets were quantitatively examined for E. coli O157:H7 by direct plating or membrane filtration using tryptic soy agar containing 0.6% yeast extract and 100 ppm of ampicillin. Initially, the greatest E. coli O157:H7 transfer was seen from inoculated lettuce to the shredder and conveyor belt, with all equipment surface populations decreasing 90 to 99% after processing 90.8 kg of uncontaminated product. After processing lettuce containing 10(6) or 10(4) E. coli O157:H7 CFU/g followed by uninoculated lettuce, E. coli O157:H7 was quantifiable throughout the entire 90.8 kg of product. At an inoculation level of 10(2) CFU/g, E. coli O157:H7 was consistently detected in the first 21.2 kg of previously uninoculated lettuce at 2 to 3 log CFU/100 g and transferred to 78 kg of product. These baseline E. coli O157:H7 transfer results will help determine the degree of sanitizer efficacy required to better ensure the safety of fresh-cut leafy

  13. Genetics of carbohydrate accumulation in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructans are soluble carbohydrates composed of fructose chains attached to a basal sucrose molecule and act both as health-enhancing pro- and pre-biotics. In onion, higher fructan concentrations are correlated with greater soluble solids content, dry weights, and pungency. We analyzed dry weights ...

  14. Epicuticular waxes and thrips resistance in onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Next-generation sequencing of normalized cDNAs from two inbred lines of onion revealed over 3000 well supported single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), of which over 800 have been mapped. This SNP-based map was used to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the amounts and types of epicu...

  15. Onions: Transplant Production, Varieties, and Storage Trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh market, sweet onions offer a specialty crop niche market to Oklahoma growers. Experiments were done to determine effectiveness of transplants raised in a hoophouse system on cultivar performance, and to determine methods for short term storage for market extension. Ten short or intermediate ...

  16. Hoop house production of onion transplants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are important in Oklahoma in garden plantings and as fresh-market commercial crops. Plantings are generally established in late winter using transplants. The predominate type of transplants used are bare-rooted plants that are produced out of state. Observations over several ...

  17. Cutting Candles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranucci, Ernest R.

    1973-01-01

    Different regular-polygon-shaped candles wound with a sheet of paper are cut through obliquely. When the papers are unwound, unique patterns are revealed. Investigation of these patterns leads to the discovery of geometric concepts. (JP)

  18. Evaluation of sampling methodology for determining the population dynamics of onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Ontario onion fields.

    PubMed

    MacIntyre-Allen, J K; Scott-Dupree, C D; Tolman, J H; Harris, C R

    2005-12-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman, are an economic pest of alliums worldwide. In Ontario onion-growing regions, seasonal abundance and population trends of onion thrips are not well known. The objectives of this research were to investigate onion thrips population dynamics by using both white sticky traps and plant counts, to gain insight into flight height, and to determine the genus and sex of thrips fauna present in monitored fields. Adult thrips were captured on white sticky traps placed in two commercial onion fields in the Thedford-Grand Bend Marsh region as early as mid-May in 2001, 2002, and 2003. Thrips were not recorded on onion plants in these fields until late June and early July. A comparison of sticky trap captures to plant counts revealed a strong, positive correlation, indicating that sticky traps, which consistently detected thrips earlier than plant counts, could be used instead of plant counts early in the season to monitor onion thrips populations. Pole traps placed in onion and an adjacent soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., field revealed that regardless of crop type, most thrips were captured 0.7-0.95 m above the soil surface. During this study, 70% of 137,000 thrips captured on sticky traps and 89% of 1,482 thrips captured in pan traps were female onion thrips. No male onion thrips were identified in this study: most of the remaining thrips were Frankliniella spp. PMID:16539160

  19. Effect of onion extract on corneal haze suppression after air assisted lamellar keratectomy

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Soohyun; PARK, Young Woo; LEE, Euiri; PARK, Sang Wan; PARK, Sungwon; NOH, Hyunwoo; KIM, Jong Whi; SEONG, Je Kyung; SEO, Kangmoon

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of onion extract on corneal haze suppression after applying the air assisted lamellar keratectomy. The air assisted lamellar keratectomy was performed on 24 canine eyes. They were treated with an artificial tear (group C), prednisolone acetate (group P), onion extract (group O) and TGF-β1 (group T) three times per day from 7 to 28 days after the surgery. Corneal haze occurred on the all eyes and was observed beginning 7 days after the surgery. The haze was significantly decreased in groups P and O from day 14 compared with the group C using the clinical (group P; P=0.021, group O; P=0.037) and objective evaluation method (group P; P=0.021, group O; P=0.039). In contrast, it was significantly increased in group T from day 14 compared with group C based on the clinical (P=0.002) and objective evaluation method (P<0.001). Subsequently, these eyes were enucleated after euthanasia, and immunohistochemistry with α-SMA antibodies was done. The total green intensity for α-SMA was significantly more expressed in group T and significantly less expressed in groups P and O than in group C. Onion extract could have potential as a therapeutic in preventing corneal haze development by suppressing the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. PMID:26607134

  20. Effect of onion extract on corneal haze suppression after air assisted lamellar keratectomy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soohyun; Park, Young Woo; Lee, Euiri; Park, Sang Wan; Park, Sungwon; Noh, Hyunwoo; Kim, Jong Whi; Seong, Je Kyung; Seo, Kangmoon

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of onion extract on corneal haze suppression after applying the air assisted lamellar keratectomy. The air assisted lamellar keratectomy was performed on 24 canine eyes. They were treated with an artificial tear (group C), prednisolone acetate (group P), onion extract (group O) and TGF-β1 (group T) three times per day from 7 to 28 days after the surgery. Corneal haze occurred on the all eyes and was observed beginning 7 days after the surgery. The haze was significantly decreased in groups P and O from day 14 compared with the group C using the clinical (group P; P=0.021, group O; P=0.037) and objective evaluation method (group P; P=0.021, group O; P=0.039). In contrast, it was significantly increased in group T from day 14 compared with group C based on the clinical (P=0.002) and objective evaluation method (P<0.001). Subsequently, these eyes were enucleated after euthanasia, and immunohistochemistry with α-SMA antibodies was done. The total green intensity for α-SMA was significantly more expressed in group T and significantly less expressed in groups P and O than in group C. Onion extract could have potential as a therapeutic in preventing corneal haze development by suppressing the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. PMID:26607134

  1. Garlic and onions: Their cancer prevention properties

    PubMed Central

    Nicastro, Holly L.; Ross, Sharon A.; Milner, John A.

    2015-01-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiological studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biological processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps. PMID:25586902

  2. Garlic and onions: their cancer prevention properties.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Holly L; Ross, Sharon A; Milner, John A

    2015-03-01

    The Allium genus includes garlic, onions, shallots, leeks, and chives. These vegetables are popular in cuisines worldwide and are valued for their potential medicinal properties. Epidemiologic studies, while limited in their abilities to assess Allium consumption, indicate some associations of Allium vegetable consumption with decreased risk of cancer, particularly cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Limited intervention studies have been conducted to support these associations. The majority of supportive evidence on Allium vegetables cancer-preventive effects comes from mechanistic studies. These studies highlight potential mechanisms of individual sulfur-containing compounds and of various preparations and extracts of these vegetables, including decreased bioactivation of carcinogens, antimicrobial activities, and redox modification. Allium vegetables and their components have effects at each stage of carcinogenesis and affect many biologic processes that modify cancer risk. This review discusses the cancer-preventive effects of Allium vegetables, particularly garlic and onions, and their bioactive sulfur compounds and highlights research gaps. PMID:25586902

  3. [Analysis of a synthetic onion aroma (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Ledl, F

    1975-02-01

    A complex mixture of compounds possessing an intensive aroma of onions is obtained, when propionaldehyde, propionaldehyde and acetaldehyde are treated with hydrogen sulfide and ammonia. Dihydrodithiazines, diethyltrithiolane, diethyl-methyl-1,3-dithiine and in small quantities diethyltetrathiane, dimethylthiophene, dipropyldisulfide, dipropenylsulfide, alkylpyridines, and the condensation products of aldehydes can be proved by the GC-MS-technic. The compositions of the synthetic onion aroma corresponds slightly with the composition of the natural onion aroma. PMID:1224790

  4. Plant growth promotion rhizobacteria in onion production.

    PubMed

    Colo, Josip; Hajnal-Jafari, Timea I; Durić, Simonida; Stamenov, Dragana; Hamidović, Saud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the research was to examine the effect of rhizospheric bacteria Azotobacter chroococcum, Pseudomonas fluorescens (strains 1 and 2) and Bacillus subtilis on the growth and yield of onion and on the microorganisms in the rhizosphere of onion. The ability of microorganisms to produce indole-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and to solubilize tricalcium phosphate (TCP) was also assessed. The experiment was conducted in field conditions, in chernozem type of soil. Bacillus subtilis was the best producer of IAA, whereas Pseudomonas fluorescens strains were better at producing siderophores and solubilizing phosphates. The longest seedling was observed with the application of Azotobacter chroococcum. The height of the plants sixty days after sowing was greater in all the inoculated variants than in the control. The highest onion yield was observed in Bacillus subtilis and Azotobacter chroococcum variants. The total number of bacteria and the number of Azotobacter chroococcum were larger in all the inoculated variants then in the control. The number of fungi decreased in most of the inoculated variants, whereas the number of actinomycetes decreased or remained the same. PMID:25033667

  5. Using Sphinx to Improve Onion Routing Circuit Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kate, Aniket; Goldberg, Ian

    This paper presents compact message formats for onion routing circuit construction using the Sphinx methodology developed for mixes. We significantly compress the circuit construction messages for three onion routing protocols that have emerged as enhancements to the Tor anonymizing network; namely, Tor with predistributed Diffie-Hellman values, pairing-based onion routing, and certificateless onion routing. Our new circuit constructions are also secure in the universal composability framework, a property that was missing from the original constructions. Further, we compare the performance of our schemes with their older counterparts as well as with each other.

  6. Cut Costs without Cutting Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereus, Steven C.

    2000-01-01

    Districts can save 5 to 10 percent of budgets without damaging student services by adhering to certain principles: utilize public funds efficiently; set service-improvement and cost-cutting goals; involve and reward employees for improvement efforts; and use management systems, business techniques, and information technology. (MLH)

  7. OEM--a new medium for rapid isolation of onion-pathogenic and onion-associated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zaid, Ali M; Bonasera, Jean M; Beer, Steven V

    2012-12-01

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) are plagued by a number of bacterial pathogens including Pantoea ananatis, P. agglomerans, Burkholderia cepacia, Enterobacter cloacae, Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. axonopodis and several Pseudomonas spp. We developed a semi-selective medium, termed onion extract medium (OEM), to selectively and rapidly isolate bacteria pathogenic to and associated with onions and onion-related samples including bulbs, seeds, sets, transplant seedlings, soil and water. Most strains of interest grow sufficiently on OEM in 24h at 28°C for tentative identification based on colony morphology, facilitating further characterization by microbiological and/or molecular means. PMID:23041494

  8. Effect of deep vs. shallow tillage on onion stunting and onion bulb yield, 2012

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field experiment was conducted at a site inoculated with R. solani AG 8 at the Oregon State University Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Hermiston, OR to determine the effect of plowing (deep tillage) vs. rototilling (shallow tillage) on onion stunting caused by R. solani AG ...

  9. Onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): a global pest of increasing concern in onion.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fuchs, Marc; Nault, Brian A; Fail, József; Shelton, Anthony M

    2011-02-01

    During the past two decades, onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), has become a global pest of increasing concern in commercial onion (Allium cepa L.), because of its development of resistance to insecticides, ability to transmit plant pathogens, and frequency of producing more generations at high temperatures. T. tabaci feeds directly on leaves, causing blotches and premature senescence as well as distorted and undersized bulbs. T. tabaci can cause yield loss > 50% but can be even more problematic when it transmits Iris yellow spot virus (family Bunyaviridae, genus Tospovirus, IYSV). IYSV was identified in 1981 in Brazil and has spread to many important onion-producing regions of the world, including several U.S. states. IYSV symptoms include straw-colored, dry, tan, spindle- or diamond-shaped lesions on the leaves and scapes of onion plants and can cause yield loss up to 100%. Here, we review the biology and ecology of T. tabaci and discuss current management strategies based on chemical, biological, and cultural control as well as host resistance. Future directions for research in integrated pest management are examined and discussed. PMID:21404832

  10. Nitrogen Effects on Onion Yield Under Drip and Furrow Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) is a high cash value crop with a very shallow root system that is frequently irrigated and fertilized with high N rates to maximize yield. Converting from furrow-irrigated to drip-irrigated onion production may reduce N fertilizer needs, water inputs, and NO3-N leaching poten...

  11. Development of a haploid mapping family for onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion has one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploid plants, approximately 63 times greater than rice. Pilot sequencing of the onion transcriptome revealed adequate numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to develop a high-density genetic map. We are presently sequencing normaliz...

  12. Short-term storage options for fresh-market onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet onions have proven to be an excellent spring specialty crop in southeastern Oklahoma. Growers are interested in fuel-efficient methods of short term storage (up to 6 months) to lengthen market windows and enhance returns. Onions were seeded in high tunnels in November of 2005, transplanted to...

  13. Shelf life and microbial profile of peeled onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The increased usage of peeled onions over the past ten years by food service operations and fast-food restaurants has been plagued by black mold decay during cold-chain storage. This study examined the epiphytic microbiological distribution on onions and what effects various processing steps have on...

  14. Vinegar as a broadcast herbicide for spring-transplanted onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The weed control challenges for onion production are formidable; however, these challenges are even greater for those considering organic crop production. Organic onion producers need additional organic herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Field research was conducted...

  15. 7 CFR 956.5 - Walla Walla Sweet Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Walla Walla Sweet Onions. 956.5 Section 956.5... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.5 Walla Walla Sweet...

  16. 7 CFR 956.5 - Walla Walla Sweet Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Walla Walla Sweet Onions. 956.5 Section 956.5... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.5 Walla Walla Sweet...

  17. Pentatricopeptide Repeat Genes in Onion (Allium cepa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of hybrid-onion seed depends on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS). The most commonly used CMS in onion requires the presence of male-sterile (S) cytoplasm and recessive alleles at one nuclear male-fertility restoration (Ms) locus. Male-sterile lines are seed propagated using maintain...

  18. Onion and weed response to mustard (Sinapis alba) seed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control in organic onion production is often difficult and expensive, requiring numerous cultivations and extensive hand-weeding. Onion safety and weed control with mustard seed meal (MSM) derived from Sinapis alba was evaluated in greenhouse and field trials. MSM applied at 110, 220, and 440 g...

  19. HIGH TEMPERATURE CONTINUOUS FLOW CURING OF SWEET ONIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was undertaken to investigate the feasibility of heat treating sweet onions under controlled commercial conditions. Three batches, approximately 2.5 tons each, were passed through a single pass continuous flow drier. Air temperatures of 43 and 46 C were used to cure sweet onions for 17 and...

  20. 7 CFR 457.135 - Onion crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Onion crop insurance provisions. 457.135 Section 457.135 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.135 Onion crop...

  1. Production and characterization of tearless and non-pungent onion.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masahiro; Masamura, Noriya; Shono, Jinji; Okamoto, Daisaku; Abe, Tomoko; Imai, Shinsuke

    2016-01-01

    The onion lachrymatory factor (LF) is produced from trans-S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (PRENCSO) through successive reactions catalyzed by alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) and lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS), and is responsible for the tear inducing-property and the pungency of fresh onions. We developed tearless, non-pungent onions non-transgenically by irradiating seeds with neon-ion at 20 Gy. The bulbs obtained from the irradiated seeds and their offspring bulbs produced by selfing were screened by organoleptic assessment of tear-inducing property or HPLC analysis of LF production. After repeated screening and seed production by selfing, two tearless, non-pungent bulbs were identified in the third generation (M3) bulbs. Twenty M4 bulbs obtained from each of them showed no tear-inducing property or pungency when evaluated by 20 sensory panelists. The LF production levels in these bulbs were approximately 7.5-fold lower than those of the normal onion. The low LF production levels were due to reduction in alliinase activity, which was a result of low alliinase mRNA expression (less than 1% of that in the normal onion) and consequent low amounts of the alliinase protein. These tearless, non-pungent onions should be welcomed by all who tear while chopping onions and those who work in facilities where fresh onions are processed. PMID:27048847

  2. Onion consumption and bone density in laying hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion and its flavonoid component, quercetin, are associated with increased bone density in humans, rabbits, and rodents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is a similar effect of onion on laying hens. Thirty-two Hy-line W36 White Leghorn hens at 30 weeks of age were randomly d...

  3. GENOTYPIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON GYNOGENIC HAPLOID INDUCTION IN ONION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro culture of unpollinated flowers is an efficient procedure to produce haploids of onion. However several bottlenecks remain limiting the production of doubled haploids, especially the low gynogenic response of most onion populations and poor efficiency of chromosome doubling. We studied fr...

  4. Production and characterization of tearless and non-pungent onion

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Masahiro; Masamura, Noriya; Shono, Jinji; Okamoto, Daisaku; Abe, Tomoko; Imai, Shinsuke

    2016-01-01

    The onion lachrymatory factor (LF) is produced from trans-S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (PRENCSO) through successive reactions catalyzed by alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) and lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS), and is responsible for the tear inducing-property and the pungency of fresh onions. We developed tearless, non-pungent onions non-transgenically by irradiating seeds with neon-ion at 20 Gy. The bulbs obtained from the irradiated seeds and their offspring bulbs produced by selfing were screened by organoleptic assessment of tear-inducing property or HPLC analysis of LF production. After repeated screening and seed production by selfing, two tearless, non-pungent bulbs were identified in the third generation (M3) bulbs. Twenty M4 bulbs obtained from each of them showed no tear-inducing property or pungency when evaluated by 20 sensory panelists. The LF production levels in these bulbs were approximately 7.5-fold lower than those of the normal onion. The low LF production levels were due to reduction in alliinase activity, which was a result of low alliinase mRNA expression (less than 1% of that in the normal onion) and consequent low amounts of the alliinase protein. These tearless, non-pungent onions should be welcomed by all who tear while chopping onions and those who work in facilities where fresh onions are processed. PMID:27048847

  5. Acetic acid and weed control in onions (Allium cepa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Although corn gluten meal shows great promise as an organic preemergent herbicide for onions, research has shown the need for supplemental, postemergen...

  6. Acetic acid: Crop injury and onion (Allium cepa L.) yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed control is a major challenge in conventional and organic production systems, especially for organically produced sweet onion (Allium cepa L.). Organic herbicides for sweet onions are limited to non-selective materials, such as corn gluten meal and vinegar. Research at Lane, Oklahoma has shown...

  7. 7 CFR 956.5 - Walla Walla Sweet Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Walla Walla Sweet Onions. 956.5 Section 956.5... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.5 Walla Walla Sweet...

  8. 7 CFR 956.5 - Walla Walla Sweet Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Walla Walla Sweet Onions. 956.5 Section 956.5... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.5 Walla Walla Sweet...

  9. 7 CFR 956.5 - Walla Walla Sweet Onions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Walla Walla Sweet Onions. 956.5 Section 956.5... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET ONIONS GROWN IN THE WALLA WALLA VALLEY OF SOUTHEAST WASHINGTON AND NORTHEAST OREGON Definitions § 956.5 Walla Walla Sweet...

  10. Broadcast applications of acetic acid: Crop injury and onion yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The organic herbicides for sweet onions (Allium cepa L.) are limited to non-selective materials, such as corn gluten meal and vinegar. Research in Oklahoma has shown that corn gluten meal can be an affective early season pre-emergence herbicide for onion transplants, but once the residual impact of...

  11. A Model of Onion Routing with Provable Anonymity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigenbaum, Joan; Johnson, Aaron; Syverson, Paul

    Onion routing is a scheme for anonymous communication that is designed for practical use. Until now, however, it has had no formal model and therefore no rigorous analysis of its anonymity guarantees. We give an IO-automata model of an onion-routing protocol and, under possibilistic definitions, characterize the situations in which anonymity and unlinkability are guaranteed.

  12. Relationship between sensory and chemical attributes of Vidalia onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flavor in fresh onions is dominated by sulfur containing volatiles that are released once tissues are disrupted and the S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSOs) are hydrolyzed by the enzyme alliinase. Four intensities of flavor levels of Vidalia onions were induced by cultivating sweet (Num 1006) an...

  13. Special properties of X-ray diffraction on carbon onions

    SciTech Connect

    Yastrebov, S. G. Ivanov-Omskii, V. I.

    2007-12-15

    The kinematic theory of X-ray diffraction was applied to the study of the most intense Bragg's reflection observed for carbon onions. It was shown that the agreement with experimental data was attained using a convolution of a Lorentzian contour with regard to the distribution of onion sizes and of an asymmetric contour taking into account the fluctuations of intershell distances inside the particle. It can be assumed that the observed scatter in intershell distances indicates a nonequilibrium state of the internal configuration of onion shells. It appeared to be possible to estimate not only the average onion size, which exceeds the average size of pristine nanodiamonds that are used for onion preparation by annealing, but their size distribution function as well.

  14. Two new bicyclic sulfoxides from Welsh onion.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Kotaro; Ono, Masateru; El-Aasr, Mona; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei

    2016-04-01

    Newly identified bicyclic sulfoxides, welsonins A1 (1) and A2 (2), were isolated from acetone extracts of the bulbs of the Welsh onion (Allium fistulosum). In this study, the structures of 1 and 2, which are tetrahydrothiophene-S-oxide derivatives, were characterized by spectroscopic analysis. These compounds appeared to be derived from the coupling of 1-propenyl sulfenic acid and uronic acid. Welsonin A1 (1) showed the potential to suppress tumor-cell proliferation by inhibiting the polarization of alternatively activated M2 macrophages. PMID:26676612

  15. Activation of immune responses in mice by an oral administration of bunching onion (Allium fistulosum) mucus.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Takeuchi, Atsuko; Wako, Tadayuki

    2013-01-01

    Bunching onion [Allium fistulosum L. (Liliaceae)] secretes mucus in the cavities of its green leaves. The effects of the mucus, which is consumed as food, were examined. The mucus augmented the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 from RAW 264 cells and of interleukin (IL)-12 from J774.1 cells; however, extracts from green leaves and white sheaths did not. An oral administration of this mucus to mice augmented the immune functions of peritoneal cells by increasing TNF-α and IL-12 production and phagocytosis. It also augmented interferon (IFN)-γ production from spleen cells and natural killer (NK) activity. These results suggest that an oral administration of the A. fistulosum mucus can enhance natural immunity. PMID:24018671

  16. 78 FR 28118 - Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and Assessment Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 955 Vidalia Onions Grown in Georgia; Change in Reporting and... the marketing order for Vidalia onions grown in Georgia (order). The order regulates the handling of Vidalia onions grown in Georgia and is administered locally by the Vidalia Onion Committee...

  17. Electrophysical Properties of Onion-Like Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachev, E. N.; Romanenko, A. I.; Zhdanov, K. R.; Anikeeva, O. B.; Buryakov, T. I.; Kuznetsov, V. L.; Moseenkov, S. I.

    2016-06-01

    The paper examines electrophysical properties of onion-like carbon (OLC) samples, where particles have the average size of 4-8 nm and are formed by 5-10 nested fullerene-like spheres connected by 1-3 common curved graphene shells into aggregates with a size of 50-300 nm. We measured the temperature dependence of electrical resistance from 4.2 to 300 K and dependence of magnetoresistance in magnetic fields up to 6 T at the temperature of 4.2 K. Temperature dependences of electrical resistance of samples can be described within the framework of the Mott law with variable hop length for the one-dimensional case or within the framework of the Efros-Shklovskii Coulomb gap. We observed the quadratically increasing positive magnetoresistance up to 6 T associated with compression of wave functions of conduction electrons. Negative magnetoresistance was observed in the range of magnetic fields up to 1-2 T in the case of some samples. This is due to the fact that magnetic field suppresses the contributions to magnetoresistance made by interference effects in the area of hopping conductivity. The measurements were used to estimate the localization radius that is comparable to the diameter of OLC particles (nano-onions).

  18. Influence of Sulfur Fertilization on the Antioxidant Activities of Onion Juices Prepared by Thermal Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Eunmi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2016-01-01

    Two onions (Sulfur-1 and Sulfur-4) cultivated with different sulfur applications were thermally processed to elucidate the effects of heat treatment on browning index and antioxidant activity. Sulfur-4 onion had higher sulfur content compared with the Sulfur-1 onion. After thermal processing, browning intensity was different between the two onions juices, with lower values observed for Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that sulfur inhibits the Maillard browning reaction. The total reducing capacity of the juices increased at higher thermal processing temperatures; however, it was also lower in the Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that the heat treatment of onions enhanced their antioxidant activity, but the effect was offset in the Sulfur-4 onion juice presumably due to higher sulfur content. This study indicates that sulfur, a core element for the functionality of onions, can decrease the antioxidant activity of thermally processed onions because of its potential as a Maillard reaction inhibitor. PMID:27390734

  19. Influence of Sulfur Fertilization on the Antioxidant Activities of Onion Juices Prepared by Thermal Treatment.

    PubMed

    Koh, Eunmi; Surh, Jeonghee

    2016-06-01

    Two onions (Sulfur-1 and Sulfur-4) cultivated with different sulfur applications were thermally processed to elucidate the effects of heat treatment on browning index and antioxidant activity. Sulfur-4 onion had higher sulfur content compared with the Sulfur-1 onion. After thermal processing, browning intensity was different between the two onions juices, with lower values observed for Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that sulfur inhibits the Maillard browning reaction. The total reducing capacity of the juices increased at higher thermal processing temperatures; however, it was also lower in the Sulfur-4 onion juice. This suggests that the heat treatment of onions enhanced their antioxidant activity, but the effect was offset in the Sulfur-4 onion juice presumably due to higher sulfur content. This study indicates that sulfur, a core element for the functionality of onions, can decrease the antioxidant activity of thermally processed onions because of its potential as a Maillard reaction inhibitor. PMID:27390734

  20. A less energy intensive process for dehydrating onion.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Manpreet Kaur; Jha, S N; Patil, R T; Dhatt, A S; Kaur, Amandeep; Jaiswal, P

    2015-02-01

    Onion powder has an extensive demand and wide application worldwide as flavour additive in convenience foods and medicinal products. Conventionally onion powder is prepared by hot air drying of onion slices followed by grinding. Convective air drying when used alone demands longer drying time and thus has a high expense of energy. As bulk of onion is water (82-87 %), removal of moisture prior to drying can reduce moisture loading on dryer and hence the energy consumption. Keeping this in view, onions were partially dewatered using centrifugal force before convective drying. The effect of partial mechanical dewatering and drying air temperature was studied on drying time, specific energy consumption and onion powder quality (colour and flavour). The combination process was also optimized to achieve increased drying rate and product quality comparable to products obtained using convective drying alone. Onions subjected to 60 % partial mechanical dewatering and hot air drying at 70 °C exhibited significantly (p ≤ 0.5) shortened drying time, decreased energy consumption and maintained colour and flavour of the dried product. PMID:25694729

  1. Characterization of Carbon Onion Nanomaterials for Environmental Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Su, C.; Bailes, A.; Lu, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The unique properties of carbonaceous nanomaterials, including small particle size, high surface area, and manipulatable surface chemistry, provide high potential for their applications to environmental remediation. While research has been devoted to develop nanotechnology for environmental applications using carbonaceous nanomaterials, e.g. carbon nanotubes and C60 fullerenes, the practical applications are limited due to their high cost of production of about 50-100/g. We introduce a relatively new carbonaceous nanomaterial, i.e. carbon onion nanomaterials, which could be produced in a cost-effective way of about 1/g, by oxygen-depleted combustion of hydrocarbon gases. Carbon onion nanomaterials consist of spherical fullerene cores surrounded by onion-like nested spherical graphite layers, with diameters of around 20 nm. In this work, we characterized the properties of carbon onion nanomaterials to investigate their potential applications in environmental remediation. Dry carbon onion powders were first characterized using transmission electron microcopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and gas sorption Surface Area Analyzer. Sorption capacity of carbon onion nanomaterials for heavy metals, including Zn(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), and Cu(II), was explored using different pH conditions and surface modification approaches. We found that carbon onion nanomaterials can effectively adsorb heavy metal contaminants at high pH or when surface functionalized with carboxylate groups. Stable aqueous suspension of carbon onion aggregates was produced by exchange of toluene organic solvent. The properties of carbon onion aggregates in aqueous suspension, including particle size, zeta potential, and concentration, were determined using a Zetasizer Nano ZS analyzer, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) / Energy-Dispersive X-Ray (EDX), and UV-VIS Scanning Spectrophotometer. Carbon onion nanomaterials were found to be very well dispersed in aqueous phase, forming stable aggregates

  2. The onion method for multiple perturbation theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, R. J.

    1988-04-01

    We develop a method of successive approximations for molecular scattering theory. This consists of a recipe for removing from the Schrödinger equation, one by one, the wave functions of a set of approximate solutions. The radial wave function is expressed as a linear combination of the well-behaved and singular solutions of the first approximation, and a set of coupled differential equations is obtained for the coefficients of the approximate solutions. A similar set of coefficients is obtained for the next approximation, and the exact coefficients are expressed in terms of the approximate coefficients to yield a set of second-level coefficients. The process can be continued like pealing off the layers of an onion. At each stage the coupled differential equations for the coefficients is equivalent to the Schrödinger equation. Finally, one can either ignore the remaining coefficients or approximate the coupled equations by a simple perturbation theory.

  3. Peeling the onion: understanding others' lived experience.

    PubMed

    Miles, Maureen; Chapman, Ysanne; Francis, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Society and some healthcare professionals often marginalise pregnant women who take illicit substances. Midwives who care for these women are often viewed as working on the edge of society. This research aimed to examine the lived experiences of midwives who care for pregnant women who take illicit drugs. A phenomenological study informed by Heidegger, Gadamer and Merleau-Ponty was chosen to frame these lived experiences. Using face-to-face interviews, data were collected from 12 midwives making a difference, establishing partnerships and letting go and refining practice. Lived experiences are unique and can be difficult, intangible and couched in metaphor and difficult to grasp. This paper aims to discuss lived experience and suggests that like an onion, several layers have to be peeled away before meaning can be exposed; each cover reveals another layer beneath that is different from before and different from the next. The study provides exemplars that explain lived experiences. PMID:26169515

  4. Effect of onion extract on immune response in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Chisty, M M; Quddus, R; Islam, B; Khan, B R

    1996-08-01

    A total of 40 NZW rabbits were selected for this study to see the effect of onion extract on immune response following antigenic challenge. These animals were randomly divided into four groups, each composed of ten rabbits. Group I and II were challenged with typhoid H (TH) antigen and groups III and IV with sheep red blood cells (SRBC). Groups I and III were considered as control and II and IV as treated groups. The latter two groups were treated with onion extract orally. The immunosuppressive effect of onion extract was evaluated by estimating antibody levels by Widal test and hemolysin titer. It was found that mean antibody titers were significantly lower in the treated groups than in controls. The weights of thymus and lymph nodes were higher and of adrenal glands were lower in the control groups than in the treated groups. It appeared from the current study that onion extract has an inhibitory effect on immune response. PMID:9103661

  5. The Origin of the Name "Onion's Fusible Alloy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2010-01-01

    In response to a reader query, this article traces the history of fusible alloys, including Newton's metal, D'Arcet's metal, Rose's metal, Onion's fusible alloy, and Wood's metal. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  6. Dynamic susceptibility of onion in ferromagnetic elliptical nanoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Congpu; Song, Jiefang; Xu, Jianghong; Wen, Fusheng

    2016-06-01

    Micromagnetic simulation was performed to investigate the equilibrium state and dynamic susceptibility spectra of magnetic elliptical nanoring. There are two equilibrium states (onion and vortex) obtained in elliptical nanoring. The onion state can be used to record information in MRAM. And it is important to investigate the dynamic susceptibility spectra of onion state, which is closely related to writing and reading speed of magnetic memory devices. Those results show that two or three resonance peaks are found under different thickness of elliptical nanoring with onion state, respectively. The low resonance frequency of two resonance peaks is increasing with the arm width of the elliptical ring, but is decreasing with the thickness. However, the high frequency of two resonance peaks is decreasing with the arm width of the elliptical ring.

  7. Development and validation of a real-time quantitative PCR assay to detect Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii from onion seed.

    PubMed

    Robène, Isabelle; Perret, Marion; Jouen, Emmanuel; Escalon, Aline; Maillot, Marie-Véronique; Chabirand, Aude; Moreau, Aurélie; Laurent, Annie; Chiroleu, Frédéric; Pruvost, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    Bacterial blight of onion is an emerging disease threatening world onion production. The causal agent Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. allii is seed transmitted and a reliable and sensitive tool is needed to monitor seed exchanges. A triplex quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed targeting two X. axonopodis pv. allii-specific markers and an internal control chosen in 5.8S rRNA gene from Alliaceae. Amplification of at least one marker indicates the presence of the bacterium in seed extracts. This real-time PCR assay detected all the 79 X. axonopodis pv. allii strains tested and excluded 85.2% of the 135 non-target strains and particularly all 39 saprophytic and pathogenic bacteria associated with onion. Cross-reactions were mainly obtained for strains assigned to nine phylogenetically related X. axonopodis pathovars. The cycle cut-off was estimated statistically at 36.3 considering a risk of false positive of 1%. The limit of detection obtained in at least 95% of the time (LOD 95%) was 5×10(3) CFU/g (colony forming unit/g). The sensitivity threshold was found to be 1 infected seed in 32,790 seeds. This real-time PCR assay should be useful for preventing the long-distance spread of X. axonopodis pv. allii via contaminated seed lots and determining the epidemiology of the bacterium. PMID:25940928

  8. High Yield Synthesis of Bucky Tubules and Bucky Onions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoping; Wang, Youwen; Li, Wenzhu; Wenzhou, Li

    1994-04-01

    The bucky tubules and bucky onions are synthesized in macroscopic quantity with high yield by modified Kratschmer-Lamb-Fostiropoulos-Huffman method. Besides ordinary concentric bucky tubules, also are observed abnormal nonconcentric multilayer graphitic tubules with varying layer spacings. The curved graphitic tubules are observed, showing the tendency to form torus. Under appropriate helium pressure, about half of the synthesized product is the multi-shell bucky onions, polyhedral in shape in accord with the theoretical calculation.

  9. Multishell Intermetallic Onions by Symmetrical Configuration of Ordered Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, R.; Chen, W.; Cheng, Z. Y.; Li, Y. D.; Zhu, J.

    2010-11-01

    Ordered domains are utilized to construct new nanostructures, i.e., multishell intermetallic onions, which are formed by symmetrical configuration of ordered domains. Through density-functional theory calculations, we have shown that the energy penalties for introducing antiphase boundaries into the nanoparticles are small in some alloy systems compared to typical surface energies, making it feasible to prepare intermetallic onions by tuning surface energies. The unique surface atomic arrangements would provide opportunities for developing novel materials like efficient catalysts.

  10. Microbial diversity and flavor formation in onion fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Lili; Luo, Jianfei; Li, Pan; Yu, Hang; Huang, Jianfei; Luo, Lixin

    2014-09-01

    Fermented onion products are popular in many countries. We conducted fermentation with and without salt to identify the microorganisms responsible for onion fermentation and the unique taste of fermented onion. The results of PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) revealed that lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus zymae, L. malefermentans, L. plantarum), acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacter pasteurianus, A. orientalis), citric acid bacteria (Citrobacter sp., C. freundii), and yeasts (Candida humilis, Kazachstania exigua, Saccharomyces boulardii) were the dominant microorganisms involved in onion fermentation. Organic acid analysis indicated that lactic acid and acetic acid significantly increased after fermentation. There were no significant changes in the types of amino acids after fermentation, but the total concentration of amino acids significantly decreased after fermentation with salt. The increase in esters, alcohols, and aldehydes after fermentation was responsible for the unique flavor of fermented onion. Fermentation with salt inhibited the accumulation of organic acids and limited the conversion of proteins into amino acids but maintained the unique odor of onion by limiting the degradation of sulfur-containing compounds. PMID:25088041

  11. Model system for plant cell biology: GFP imaging in living onion epidermal cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, A.; Wyatt, S.; Tsou, P. L.; Robertson, D.; Allen, N. S.

    1999-01-01

    The ability to visualize organelle localization and dynamics is very useful in studying cellular physiological events. Until recently, this has been accomplished using a variety of staining methods. However, staining can give inaccurate information due to nonspecific staining, diffusion of the stain or through toxic effects. The ability to target green fluorescent protein (GFP) to various organelles allows for specific labeling of organelles in vivo. The disadvantages of GFP thus far have been the time and money involved in developing stable transformants or maintaining cell cultures for transient expression. In this paper, we present a rapid transient expression system using onion epidermal peels. We have localized GFP to various cellular compartments (including the cell wall) to illustrate the utility of this method and to visualize dynamics of these compartments. The onion epidermis has large, living, transparent cells in a monolayer, making them ideal for visualizing GFP. This method is easy and inexpensive, and it allows for testing of new GFP fusion proteins in a living tissue to determine deleterious effects and the ability to express before stable transformants are attempted.

  12. Evaluating an Action Threshold-Based Insecticide Program on Onion Cultivars Varying in Resistance to Onion Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Nault, Brian A; Huseth, Anders S

    2016-08-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a highly destructive pest of onion, Allium cepa L., and its management relies on multiple applications of foliar insecticides. Development of insecticide resistance is common in T. tabaci populations, and new strategies are needed to relax existing levels of insecticide use, but still provide protection against T. tabaci without compromising marketable onion yield. An action threshold-based insecticide program combined with or without a thrips-resistant onion cultivar was investigated as an improved approach for managing T. tabaci infestations in commercial onion fields. Regardless of cultivar type, the average number of insecticide applications needed to manage T. tabaci infestations in the action-threshold based program was 4.3, while the average number of sprays in the standard weekly program was 7.2 (a 40% reduction). The mean percent reduction in numbers of applications following the action threshold treatment in the thrips-resistant onion cultivar, 'Advantage', was 46.7% (range 40-50%) compared with the standard program, whereas the percentage reduction in applications in action threshold treatments in the thrips-susceptible onion cultivar, 'Santana', was 34.3% (range 13-50%) compared with the standard program, suggesting a benefit of the thrips-resistant cultivar. Marketable bulb yields for both 'Advantage' and 'Santana' in the action threshold-based program were nearly identical to those in the standard program, indicating that commercially acceptable bulb yields will be generated with fewer insecticide sprays following an action threshold-based program, saving money, time and benefiting the environment. PMID:27329626

  13. Prevention of browning in potato with a heat-treated onion extract.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Kyung; Kim, Young-Mai; Kim, Na-Young; Kim, Gi-Nahm; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Bang, Keuk-Seung; Park, Inshik

    2002-04-01

    The inhibitory effect of an onion extract on browning of potato was investigated. The addition of the heated onion extract to potato exhibited a marked inhibitory effect on potato polyphenol oxidase and the formation of a brown color. The inhibitory effect of the onion extract was dependent upon its heating temperature. The addition of both glycine and glucose increased the inhibitory effect of the onion extract toward potato polyphenol oxidase. PMID:12036061

  14. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, R.F.

    1984-07-17

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engagable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  15. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1986-04-01

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  16. Portable cutting apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gilmore, Richard F.

    1986-01-01

    A remotely operable, portable cutting apparatus detachably secured to the workpiece by laterally spaced clamp assemblies engageable with the workpiece on opposite sides of the intended line of cut. A reciprocal cutter head is mounted between the clamp assemblies and is provided with a traveling abrasive cutting wire adapted to sever the workpiece normal to the longitudinal axis thereof. Dust and debris are withdrawn from the cutting area by a vacuum force through a nozzle mounted on the cutting head.

  17. Detection of Sour Skin Diseases in Vidalia Sweet Onions using Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vidalia sweet onion is an important specialty crop grown in southeast area of Georgia, which accounts for approximate 13% of the vegetable farm gate value in the state. However, Vidalia sweet onions are more prone to rotting and sprouting due to lacking some pungent compounds found in other onion va...

  18. Evaluation of Onion Genotypes for Resistance to Stunting Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 35 onion genotypes was evaluated for resistance to onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 8 (AG-8) under temperature-controlled greenhouse conditions (15 ± 1oC) in 2013. Each onion genotype was planted in a cone-tainer with and without inoculation with R. solani AG ...

  19. Spatial and temporal distribution of iris yellow spot virus and thrips in Colorado onion fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Iris yellow spot virus and its onion thrips vector (Thrips tabaci) are yield limiting pests of onion in the western U.S. This 2-year project investigated the relationship of iris yellow spot to thrips populations, soil properties, and grower management practices in Colorado onion fields. A random sy...

  20. Corn gluten meal as an alternative weed control option for spring-transplanted onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Successful screening of suitable onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties, viable production areas, and potential marketing options suggest that onions are a potential alternative crop for Oklahoma and northeast Texas. Unfortunately, the onion's slow growth rate, short height, non-branching plant structure,...

  1. 78 FR 8047 - Onions Grown in South Texas; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 959 Onions Grown in South Texas; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY... rate established for the South Texas Onion Committee (Committee) for the 2012-13 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.025 to $0.03 per 50-pound equivalent of onions handled. The Committee locally...

  2. Isolation and characterization of onion degrading bacteria from onion waste produced in South Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Rinland, María Emilia; Gómez, Marisa Anahí

    2015-03-01

    Onion production in Argentina generates a significant amount of waste. Finding an effective method to recycle it is a matter of environmental concern. Among organic waste reuse techniques, anaerobic digestion could be a valuable alternative to current practices. Substrate inoculation with appropriate bacterial strains enhances the rate-limiting step (hydrolysis) of anaerobic digestion of biomass wastes. Selection of indigenous bacteria with the ability to degrade onion waste could be a good approach to find a suitable bioaugmentation or pretreatment agent. We isolated bacterial strains from onion waste in different degradation stages and from different localities. In order to characterize and select the best candidates, we analyzed the growth patterns of the isolates in a medium prepared with onion juice as the main source of nutrients and we evaluated carbon source utilization. Nine strains were selected to test their ability to grow using onion tissue and the five most remarkable ones were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Strains belonged to the genera Pseudoxanthomonas, Bacillus, Micrococcus and Pseudomonas. Two strains, Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtillis MB2-62 and Pseudomonas poae VE-74 have characteristics that make them promising candidates for bioaugmentation or pretreatment purposes. PMID:25586510

  3. Physiological, biochemical and transcriptional analysis of onion bulbs during storage

    PubMed Central

    Chope, Gemma A.; Cools, Katherine; Hammond, John P.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Terry, Leon A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims During the transition from endo-dormancy to eco-dormancy and subsequent growth, the onion bulb undergoes the transition from sink organ to source, to sustain cell division in the meristematic tissue. The mechanisms controlling these processes are not fully understood. Here, a detailed analysis of whole onion bulb physiological, biochemical and transcriptional changes in response to sprouting is reported, enabling a better knowledge of the mechanisms regulating post-harvest onion sprout development. Methods Biochemical and physiological analyses were conducted on different cultivars (‘Wellington’, ‘Sherpa’ and ‘Red Baron’) grown at different sites over 3 years, cured at different temperatures (20, 24 and 28 °C) and stored under different regimes (1, 3, 6 and 6 → 1 °C). In addition, the first onion oligonucleotide microarray was developed to determine differential gene expression in onion during curing and storage, so that transcriptional changes could support biochemical and physiological analyses. Key Results There were greater transcriptional differences between samples at harvest and before sprouting than between the samples taken before and after sprouting, with some significant changes occurring during the relatively short curing period. These changes are likely to represent the transition from endo-dormancy to sprout suppression, and suggest that endo-dormancy is a relatively short period ending just after curing. Principal component analysis of biochemical and physiological data identified the ratio of monosaccharides (fructose and glucose) to disaccharide (sucrose), along with the concentration of zeatin riboside, as important factors in discriminating between sprouting and pre-sprouting bulbs. Conclusions These detailed analyses provide novel insights into key regulatory triggers for sprout dormancy release in onion bulbs and provide the potential for the development of biochemical or transcriptional markers for sprout

  4. Cutting state identification

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M.

    1997-12-31

    Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting.

  5. Graphitic onions as reaction cells on the nanoscale

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, L.; Banhart, F.

    2006-05-08

    Multishell fullerene clusters (carbon onions) encapsulating iron crystals of a few nanometers in size are subjected to intense electron irradiation at high temperature in an electron microscope. A reaction between graphite and iron, leading to the formation of iron carbide (cementite) in the core of the clusters, is observed in situ. The reaction in these spherical nanoencapsulates is explained by the occurrence of high pressure, mobile carbon interstitial atoms, and the irradiation-induced lowering of the kinetic barrier. Thus, carbon onions can be used as high-pressure cells for inducing a chemical reaction in nanometer-sized particles.

  6. Raman spectroscopy of polyhedral carbon nano-onions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codorniu Pujals, Daniel; Arias de Fuentes, Olimpia; Desdín García, Luis F.; Cazzanelli, Enzo; Caputi, Lorenzo S.

    2015-09-01

    The Raman spectra of polyhedral carbon nano-onions (PCO), obtained by underwater arc discharge of graphite electrodes, are studied. While the general Raman spectrum of PCO is very similar to those of other carbon nanostructures, including spherical nano-onions, the fine structure of the G and 2D bands gives valuable information that allows using Raman spectroscopy for differentiating the PCO from other carbon structures. The interpretation of the features of the fine structure of the spectra is supported by evidences obtained by TEM.

  7. 76 FR 35997 - Onions Grown in Certain Designated Counties in Idaho, and Malheur County, OR; Modification of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 958 Onions Grown in Certain Designated... handling regulation for onions handled under the Idaho-Eastern Oregon onion marketing order. The marketing order regulates the handling of onions grown in designated counties in Idaho, and Malheur County,...

  8. Quantitative laser cutting of plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schou, Juergen; Heisel, Torben; Nordskov, Arne; Christensen, Svend; Jensen, Peter S.; Thestrup, Birgitte; Toftmann, Bo

    2002-09-01

    It is possible to quantify cutting of plant stems by a laser beam in contrast to mechanical cutting. The biomass of the plants after a certain period under standard green house conditions was used to measure the effect of partial or complete cutting with a laser. Continuous laser irradiation at 10.6 micrometers of the plant stem turned out to be very efficient at values of the energy per width unit above 6 J/mm. The effect of laser irradiation at 355 nm or 1064 nm is less pronounced, but also at these wavelengths the re- growth or continuous growth are reduced. A monocotyledon- type, winter what (Triticum vulgare L), is substantially more resistant than a dicotyledon-type, charlock (Chenopodium album L.) against radiation. The exposure limits for laser light in living plants have been explored as well. The limit in terms of re-growth of the irradiated plants exceeds the MPE (maximum permissible exposure) of human skin by several orders of magnitude. The consequence is that very powerful (unfocused) lasers can be used in any environment without significant impact on living plants.

  9. Cuts and puncture wounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... cuts and puncture wounds can be treated at home. Take the following steps. FOR MINOR CUTS Wash your hands with soap or antibacterial ... and scissors safely. Make sure you and your child are up to date on vaccinations . A tetanus vaccine is generally recommended every 10 ... Snake bite Minor cut - first aid Sewing a wound closed - series ...

  10. Corn gluten meal: Weed control and yields for onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One weed control option for certified organic producers is corn gluten meal (CGM). Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Lane, OK) to determine the efficacy of CGM as an herbicide for use in transplanted onion production. The research involved 8 weed control treatments with 4 replicat...

  11. Integrated Systems of Weed Management in Organic 'Vidalia' Onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trials were conducted in southeastern Georgia to develop integrated systems of weed management in organic Vidalia® onion. Treatments were a factorial arrangement of summer solarization, cultivation, and herbicides appropriate for use in certified organic production systems. Plots were solarized wi...

  12. Dielectric properties for prediction of moisture content in Vidalia onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microwave Sensing provides a means for nondestructively determining the amount of moisture in materials by sensing the dielectric properties of the material. In this study, dielectric properties of Vidalia onions were analyzed for moisture dependence at 13.36 GHz and 23°C for moisture content betwee...

  13. Life of the onion not knowing up from down

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordeyev, A.

    1980-01-01

    The absence of the force of gravity has a negative effect on plant life. Plants grown on spacecraft have died prematurely. Tests are being made to discover whether or not electricity will compensate for the absence of gravitation. It was found that an onion under current is not subject to the force of gravity. Tremendous possibilities are opened up by these experiments.

  14. Corn Response to Nitrogen Following Onion in Rotation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, we evaluated the effects of residual soil N level plus applied N fertilizer (6 N rates) on corn grain yields and corn N uptake following the 2005 onion crop. Residual soil N levels in the 0- to 6-ft soil profile at corn planting ranged from 86 to 189 lb N/a where furrow irrigation was used...

  15. Post-directed application of potential organic herbicides for onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic onion producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of potential organic herbicides on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and yields. The experime...

  16. Pelargonic acid as a post-directed herbicide for onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic onion producers need appropriate herbicides that can effectively provide post-emergent weed control. Research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determine the impact of a potential organic herbicide on weed control efficacy, crop injury, and yields. The experim...

  17. Characterization of Nutritionally Important Carotenoids in Welsh Onion Accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Allium genus are consumed for their culinary flavor attributes, but also contain antioxidant and anticarcinogenic phytochemicals. Welsh onions (Allium fistulosum L.) are commonly used in Asian cuisine, where both leaves and pseudostems are consumed. Carotenoids are an important clas...

  18. 7 CFR 457.135 - Onion crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in color than non-storage onions. They are generally more pungent, have a lower sugar content, and... production guarantee for the stage in which the damage occurred. 4. Contract Changes In accordance with section 4 (Contract Changes) of the Basic Provisions (§ 457.8), the contract change date is June...

  19. Onion Response to Nitrogen Fertilization Under Drip and Furrow Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion is a high cash value crop with a very shallow root system that is frequently fertilized with high N rates (>200 lb N/a) to maximize yield. In 2005, we applied six N rates (0, 40, 80, 120, 160, and 200 lb N/a) to existing N plots previously cropped to corn (2000-2003) and chile pepper (2004). ...

  20. New Specialty Crop Funds Invested in Onion Genomics Project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 2008 Farm Bill provided funds for the USDA to establish the Specialty Crops Research Initiative to address challenges in the production and marketing of fruit, nut, vegetable, nursery, and ornamental crops. A group of prominent onion scientists joined together and proposed collaborative researc...

  1. Dielectric spectroscopy measurements for moisture prediction in vidalia onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microwave sensing offers an opportunity to determine nondestructively the amount of moisture in materials by sensing the dielectric properties of the material. Dielectric properties of Vidalia onions grown in southeastern Georgia were measured with an open-ended coaxial-line probe and network analyz...

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Male-Fertility Restoration in CMS Onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using proteomics ...

  3. Proteomic analyses of male-fertility restoration in CMS onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using a proteomics ...

  4. Factors contributing to bacterial bulb rots of onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of bacterial rots of onion bulbs is increasing and has become a serious problem for growers. This increase is likely due to a combination of factors, such as high bacterial populations in soils and irrigation water, heavy rains flooding production fields, higher temperatures, etc. It m...

  5. The Dominant Ms Allele in Onion Shows Reduced Penetrance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most commonly used source of cytoplasmic male sterility in onion is controlled by the interaction of the cytoplasm [male-sterile (S) or normal (N) male-fertile] and one nuclear male-fertility-restoration locus (Ms). Scoring of genotypes at Ms is generally done by testcrossing male-fertile to mal...

  6. Translational Genomics of Onion: Challenges of an Enormous Nuclear Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of high throughput DNA sequencing to address important production constraints has been termed “translational genomics”. Classical breeding of onion (Allium cepa) is expensive and slow due to a long generation time and the high costs of crossing with insects. Translational genomics should r...

  7. Genetic Analyses of Soluble Carbohydrate Concentrations in Onion Bulbs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructans are the primary soluble carbohydrate in onion (Allium cepa L.) bulbs and show significant correlations with dry weights and pungency. In this research, we estimated the genetic effects and interactions between two chromosome regions associated with higher amounts of soluble carbohydrates i...

  8. Integrated systems of weed management in organic "Vidalia" onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vidalia® dry-bulb onion are a multi-million dollar crop grown exclusively in a twenty county region in southeastern Georgia, as defined by a Federal Marketing Order issued in 1989. Plantings in 2009 were 11,500 harvested acres, with an estimated gross value of $9,440/A. Acreage of certified organi...

  9. Effectiveness of Onion Extract Gel on Surgical Scars in Asians

    PubMed Central

    Chanprapaph, Kumutnart; Tanrattanakorn, Somsak; Wattanakrai, Penpun; Wongkitisophon, Pranee; Vachiramon, Vasanop

    2012-01-01

    Background. Onion extracts have been shown in vitro to accelerate wound healing. Results from clinical studies on surgical scars in Caucasians were disappointing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of onion extract gel in improving the cosmetic and symptoms of surgical scars in Asians. Patients/Methods. Twenty Asians who had new Pfannenstiel's cesarean section scars were recruited in this prospective double-blinded, split-scar study. Each side was randomly assigned treatment with onion extract gel or placebo at 7 days after surgery. The product was applied three times daily for 12 weeks. Subjects were evaluated at baseline and 4th and 12th weeks. Scar redness was assessed by calorimeter, scar height and pliability were assessed by blinded investigators, and scar symptoms and overall cosmetic improvement were assessed by subjects. Results. Sixteen subjects completed the study. A statistically significant difference between two sides of scar in terms of scar height and scar symptoms was found. There was no statistically significant difference in scar redness, scar pliability, and overall cosmetic appearance between two sides. Conclusions. The early use of topical 12% onion extract gel on Pfannenstiel's cesarean section scar in Asians resulted in the improvement of scar height and scar symptoms. PMID:22924037

  10. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  11. Thrips tabaci (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Iris yellow spot virus associated with onion transplants, onion volunteers, and weeds in Colorado

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrips tabaci infestation was determined on onion transplants received in Colorado during March and April from out of state sources (Imperial Valley, near Phoenix Arizona, and southern Texas) during 2004 to 2008. In the five years of the study, 50% to 100% of the transplant lots sampled were found ...

  12. Device for cutting protrusions

    DOEpatents

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  13. Steam-cooking rapidly destroys and reverses onion-induced antiplatelet activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Foods in the diet that can aid in the prevention of diseases are of major interest. Onions are key ingredients in many cuisines around the world and moreover, onion demand has trended higher over the past three decades. An important pharmacological aspect of onion is the ability to inhibit platelet aggregation. Raw onions inhibit platelet aggregation; however, when onions are boiled or heated, antiplatelet activity may be abolished. Methods Onion quarters were steamed for 0, 1, 3, 6, 10, and 15 min. The in vitro antiplatelet activity of a yellow hybrid storage onion was examined at these times on the blood of 12 human subjects using in vitro whole blood aggregometry. Results Contrary to findings reported for boiling, antiplatelet activity was destroyed between 3 and 6 min of steaming, and at 10 min of steaming, cooked onions stimulated platelet activity. Extracts from cooked onion had the potential to reverse the inhibitory effect on blood platelets by 25%. Responses were consistent across all donors. Total polyphenolic concentration and soluble solids were not affected by steaming time. Conclusions The potential value of cooked onion preparations may result in destruction or reversal of antiplatelet activity, without affecting the polyphenolic concentration. PMID:22992282

  14. Overcoming Obstacles to Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, green design has evolved from a cutting-edge idea embraced by ecology-obsessed activists to an idea embraced as a badge of honor by schools and universities across the nation. A consensus has formed among architects, school facility managers and educators that sustainably designed projects are desirable and make sense for the…

  15. Shear Induced Structures in Lamellar Systems ---From Layers to Onions to Onions and Layers---

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschoreck, S.; Fujii, S.; Richtering, W.

    Shear flow induces the formation of multilamellar vesicles (MLV, also termed ``onions") in the lamellar phase of the nonionic surfactant C_{10}E_{3} in water. Depending on the applied shear rate, one can reach a state of polydisperse MLV (at intermediate shear rates) or densely packed monodisperse MLV at high shear rates. In this contribution we investigated the structure evolution when the shear rate is reduced by means of rheo-microscopy as well as rheo-small angle light and neutron scattering (SALS, SANS). Different shear quenches within the MLV structure region of 40 wt% C_{10}E_{3} reveal two different MLV size growth mechanisms: (i) a continuous and (ii) a discontinuous MLV size growth. In the later case, a part of the initial MLV structure transforms into planar lamellar domains leading to shear thinning. The lamellar domains perform a re-orientation process from parallel oriented lamellae into MLV in coexistence with the initial MLV structure. The pathway of the transformation of the parallel lamellae to MLV is the same as in start-up experiments, i.e. from a homeotropically aligned lamellar phase.

  16. Laser cutting plastic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  17. Ultrasonic Cutting of Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Yvonne; Zahn, Susann; Rohm, Harald

    In the field of food engineering, cutting is usually classified as a mechanical unit operation dealing with size reduction by applying external forces on a bulk product. Ultrasonic cutting is realized by superpositioning the macroscopic feed motion of the cutting device or of the product with a microscopic vibration of the cutting tool. The excited tool interacts with the product and generates a number of effects. Primary energy concentration in the separation zone and the modification of contact friction along the tool flanks arise from the cyclic loading and are responsible for benefits such as reduced cutting force, smooth cut surface, and reduced product deformation. Secondary effects such as absorption and cavitation originate from the propagation of the sound field in the product and are closely related to chemical and physical properties of the material to be cut. This chapter analyzes interactions between food products and ultrasonic cutting tools and relates these interactions with physical and chemical product properties as well as with processing parameters like cutting velocity, ultrasonic amplitude and frequency, and tool design.

  18. Green Coffee

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Caffeine in green coffee might slow blood clotting. Taking green coffee along with medications that also ...

  19. Green Tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Key References Green tea. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 8, 2009. Green tea ( Camellia sinensis ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on July ...

  20. Honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) foraging in response to preconditioning with onion flower scent compounds.

    PubMed

    Silva, Erin M; Dean, Bill B; Hiller, Larry K

    2003-10-01

    Onion (Allium cepa L.) seed production has long been plagued with yield problems because of lack of pollination by the honey bee, Apis mellifera L. To attempt to attract more pollinators to the onion seed production field, honey bees were conditioned to associate onion floral odor components with a reward. Isolated nucleus hives of honey bees were fed 30% sucrose solutions scented with a 0.2% solution of onion floral odor compounds. After feeding on these solutions for 6 wk, bees were not found to prefer onion flowers to two competing food sources, carrot and alfalfa flowers, at the 5% significance level. However, there was an overall trend indicating a change in honey bee behavior, with fewer "trained" bees visiting alfalfa and carrot and more visiting onion. Thus, it may be possible to alter honey bee behavior with preconditioning but probably not to a degree that would be economically significant. PMID:14650525

  1. Quantitative metabolite profiling of edible onion species by NMR and HPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Soininen, Tuula H; Jukarainen, Niko; Auriola, Seppo O K; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Karjalainen, Reijo; Vepsäläinen, Jouko J

    2014-12-15

    Allium genus is a treasure trove of valuable bioactive compounds with potentially therapeutically important properties. This work utilises HPLC-MS and a constrained total-line-shape (CTLS) approach applied to (1)H NMR spectra to quantify metabolites present in onion species to reveal important inter-species differences. Extensive differences were detected between the sugar concentrations in onion species. Yellow onion contained the highest and red onion the lowest amounts of amino acids. The main flavonol-glucosides were quercetin 3,4'-diglucoside and quercetin 4'-glucoside. In general, the levels of flavonols were, higher in yellow onions than in red onions, and garlic and leek contained a lower amount of flavonols than the other Allium species. Our results highlight how (1)H NMR together with HPLC-MS can be useful in the quantification and the identification of the most abundant metabolites, representing an efficient means to pinpoint important functional food ingredients from Allium species. PMID:25038704

  2. Estimating the Size of Onion Epidermal Cells from Diffraction Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groff, Jeffrey R.

    2012-10-01

    Bioscience and premedical profession students are a major demographic served by introductory physics courses at many colleges and universities. Exposing these students to biological applications of physical principles will help them to appreciate physics as a useful tool for their future professions. Here I describe an experiment suitable for introductory physics where principles of wave optics are applied to probe the size of onion epidermal cells. The epidermis tissue is composed of cells of relatively uniform size and shape (Fig. 1) so the tissue acts like a one-dimensional transmission diffraction grating. The diffraction patterns generated when a laser beam passes through the tissue (Fig. 2) are analyzed and an estimate of the average width of individual onion epidermal cells is calculated. The results are compared to direct measurements taken using a light microscope. The use of microscopes and plant-cell tissue slides creates opportunities for cross-discipline collaboration between physics and biology instructors.

  3. Management of Paratrichodorus allius Damage to Onion in the Columbia Basin of Oregon.

    PubMed

    Ingham, R E; Hamm, P B; McMorran, J P; Clough, G H

    1999-12-01

    Production of storage and dehydration (dehy) onions is increasing rapidly in the northcentral Oregon region of the Columbia Basin. Roughly circular patches of stunted onions have been observed in many fields and are often numerous and (or) extensive in area. Onions in these patches often exhibit symptoms typical of stubby-root nematodes, and Paratrichodorus allius has been collected from several damaged areas. This study examined the relationship of P. allius densities to onion yield reduction and benefit from oxamyl application. Transect samples and onions harvested across areas with varying P. allius densities revealed that the total number of onions was not affected by P. allius but that onions were in smaller, less valuable size classes. Yield of the largest size class of storage onions (colossals) declined substantially (57-61%) even at low (5-16/250 g soil) nematode densities. Treatment with oxamyl at 1.1 kg a.i./ha mitigated most of the damage, and the value of both storage and dehy onions was increased by more than $1,200/ha. Early applications were superior to later applications, whereas treatment at both times was no better than the early treatment alone. Damage at low (<10/250 g soil) nematode densities, low treatment cost ($86-172/ha), and high crop values suggest an economic benefit from treatment at population densities of four or more P. allius/250 g soil. However, stunted patches of onions may occur for reasons other than nematodes, and the presence of P. allius should be confirmed before treating fields. This is the first report of stubby-root nematode damage to dehy onions and to storage onions in the Columbia Basin. PMID:19270935

  4. Radioinhibition process in Argentinian garlic and onion bulbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curzio, O. A.; Croci, C. A.

    Technological aspects of garlic and onion bulbs subjected to the radioinhibition process and extended storage under warehouse conditions were studied. Garlic and onion of the "Colorado" and "Valenciana sintética 14" varieties respectively, were irradiated in dormancy period with an average dose of 50.0 Gy of 60Co gamma rays and kept in storage up to ten months post-harvest. Throughout the control period (180-300 days post-harvest) obvious benefits were attained as to reducing the weight loss and increasing the percentage of marketable bulbs. In general, the irradiated bulbs were superior to the non-irradiated ones with regard to the external aspect, firmness and internal aspect, while the odor of the bulbs was not affected by the process. The radioinhibition process does not seem to affect adversely the levels of dry matter, carbohydrates and ascorbic acid as well as the acidity in onion bulbs. In two marketing trials a very favourable reception was perceived in the consumer public regarding the quality of the products. These studies have promoted the construction of a multipurpose irradiation facility in the Universidad Nacional del Sur for the development of the radiation processing technology.

  5. Organic acid contents in onion cultivars (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Galdón, Beatriz; Tascón Rodríguez, Catalina; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2008-08-13

    The following organic acids (glutamic, oxalic, pyruvic, malic, tartaric, citric, and fumaric), pungency, Brix degree, acidity, and pH were determined in onion cultivars (Texas, Guayonje, San Juan de la Rambla, Carrizal Alto, Carrizal Bajo, and Masca) harvested in the same agroclimatic conditions. Glutamic acid was the most abundant organic acid (325 +/- 133 mg/100 g) followed by citric acid (48.5 +/- 24.1 mg/100 g) and malic acid (43.6 +/- 10.4 mg/100 g). There were significant differences between the onion cultivars in the mean concentrations of all of the analyzed parameters. The San Juan de la Rambla and Masca cultivars presented, in general, higher concentrations of the organic acids than the other cultivars. Significant differences in most of the analyzed parameters were observed between the two seed origins for the Masca and San Juan de la Rambla cultivars. The onion samples tended to be classified according to the cultivar and, in the case of San Juan de la Rambla cultivar, according to the precedence of the seeds after applying discriminant analysis. PMID:18616262

  6. Quality evaluation of onion bulbs during low temperature drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djaeni, M.; Asiah, N.; Wibowo, Y. P.; Yusron, D. A. A.

    2016-06-01

    A drying technology must be designed carefully by evaluating the foods' final quality properties as a dried material. Thermal processing should be operated with the minimum chance of substantial flavour, taste, color and nutrient loss. The main objective of this research was to evaluate the quality parameters of quercetin content, color, non-enzymatic browning and antioxidant activity. The experiments showed that heating at different temperatures for several drying times resulted in a percentage of quercetin being generally constant. The quercetin content maintained at the value of ±1.2 % (dry basis). The color of onion bulbs was measured by CIE standard illuminant C. The red color (a*) of the outer layer of onion bulbs changed significantly when the drying temperature was increased. However the value of L* and b* changed in a fluctuating way based on the temperature. The change of onion colors was influenced by temperature and moisture content during the drying process. The higher the temperature, the higher it affects the rate of non-enzymatic browning reaction. The correlation between temperature and reaction rate constant was described as Arrhenius equation. The rate of non-enzymatic browning increases along with the increase of drying temperature. The results showed that higher drying temperatures were followed by a lower IC10. This condition indicated the increase of antioxidant activity after the drying process.

  7. Effect of different exposed lights on quercetin and quercetin glucoside content in onion (Allium cepa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Eun Young; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Sharma, Kavita; Li, Guan Hao; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glucosides are the major flavonols present in onion (Allium cepa L.) and are predominantly present as quercetin, quercetin-3,4′-diglucoside and quercetin-4′-glucoside. Effect of different light wavelengths on onion after harvest and storage, with fluorescent, blue, red and ultra violet light influenced the quercetin and quercetin glucosides profile. In a peeled onion, all the light treatments elevated quercetin content in bulb. Among them, particularly fluorescent light effect was more eminent which stimulates the maximum synthesis of quercetin in onion. In case of whole onion bulb, skin and pulp showed different responses to light treatment, respectively. The pulp had the highest quercetin glucosides under blue light, whereas the lowest under fluorescent light. Onion skin showed nearly opposite pattern as compared to the pulp. In particular, light treatment proved to be a better way to increase the level of quercetin content in onions which might be utilized for industrial production of bioactive compounds from onion and onion waste products. PMID:26150744

  8. Effect of different exposed lights on quercetin and quercetin glucoside content in onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Ko, Eun Young; Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Sharma, Kavita; Li, Guan Hao; Park, Se Won

    2015-07-01

    Quercetin and quercetin glucosides are the major flavonols present in onion (Allium cepa L.) and are predominantly present as quercetin, quercetin-3,4'-diglucoside and quercetin-4'-glucoside. Effect of different light wavelengths on onion after harvest and storage, with fluorescent, blue, red and ultra violet light influenced the quercetin and quercetin glucosides profile. In a peeled onion, all the light treatments elevated quercetin content in bulb. Among them, particularly fluorescent light effect was more eminent which stimulates the maximum synthesis of quercetin in onion. In case of whole onion bulb, skin and pulp showed different responses to light treatment, respectively. The pulp had the highest quercetin glucosides under blue light, whereas the lowest under fluorescent light. Onion skin showed nearly opposite pattern as compared to the pulp. In particular, light treatment proved to be a better way to increase the level of quercetin content in onions which might be utilized for industrial production of bioactive compounds from onion and onion waste products. PMID:26150744

  9. Density functional study of the intershell interaction energy in carbon onions

    SciTech Connect

    Pis Diez, P.; Iniguez, M.P.

    1995-12-15

    The intershell interaction energy in carbon onions is self-consistently obtained by using the local density approximation of the {pi} electrons in a spherically averaged pseudopotential. Onions formed by two, three, and four shells with up to 1800 atoms are considered. These results agree well with recent large-scale ab initio calculations and with experimental evidence that onions are more stable than are single fullerenes for cluster sizes larger than 100 atoms. The small electronic redistribution that takes place when onions are formed supports the picture of weak van der Waals forces between single fullerenes. 18 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Inhibition of platelet activation by lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS)-silenced (tearless) onion juice.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Susan J; Rippon, Paula; Butts, Chrissie; Olsen, Sarah; Shaw, Martin; Joyce, Nigel I; Eady, Colin C

    2013-11-01

    Onion and garlic are renowned for their roles as functional foods. The health benefits of garlic are attributed to di-2-propenyl thiosulfinate (allicin), a sulfur compound found in disrupted garlic but not found in disrupted onion. Recently, onions have been grown with repressed lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS) activity, which causes these onions to produce increased amounts of di-1-propenyl thiosulfinate, an isomer of allicin. This investigation into the key health attributes of LFS-silenced (tearless) onions demonstrates that they have some attributes more similar to garlic and that this is likely due to the production of novel thiosulfinate or metabolites. The key finding was that collagen-induced in vitro platelet aggregation was significantly reduced by tearless onion extract over normal onion extract. Thiosulfinate or derived compounds were shown not to be responsible for the observed changes in the inflammatory response of AGS (stomach adenocarcinoma) cells to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) when pretreated with model onion juices. A preliminary rat feeding trial indicated that the tearless onions may also play a key role in reducing weight gain. PMID:24147811

  11. Continuum modeling of breathing-like modes of spherical carbon onions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghavanloo, Esmaeal; Ahmad Fazelzadeh, S.

    2015-08-01

    In this letter, an analytical formulation is developed for predicting the breathing-like modes of spherical carbon onions consisting of an arbitrary number of layers. The spherical layers of the carbon onions are concentrically nested, and are coupled through van der Waals (vdW) forces between two adjacent layers. Lennard-Jones potential and continuum models are utilized to estimate the vdW interaction coefficients and the breathing-like modes of the carbon onions. The formulation is justified by a good agreement between the results given by the present model and available experimental and numerical data. Finally, numerical results are obtained for various carbon onions.

  12. Starting Trees from Cuttings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, David C.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a procedure for starting tree cuttings from woody plants, explaining "lag time," recommending materials, and giving step-by-step instructions for rooting and planting. Points out species which are likely candidates for cuttings and provides tips for teachers for developing a unit. (JM)

  13. When Students Cut Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malikow, Max

    2006-01-01

    Masochism, the irrational self-infliction of pain, is more easily defined than understood. Once, a teacher used the word "cutting" only reference to a student skipping class. But, in recent years, it has taken on additional meaning. Cutting, or self-injury, is a deliberate self-harming behavior but without conscious suicidal ideation. To define…

  14. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  15. Fundamentals of cutting.

    PubMed

    Williams, J G; Patel, Y

    2016-06-01

    The process of cutting is analysed in fracture mechanics terms with a view to quantifying the various parameters involved. The model used is that of orthogonal cutting with a wedge removing a layer of material or chip. The behaviour of the chip is governed by its thickness and for large radii of curvature the chip is elastic and smooth cutting occurs. For smaller thicknesses, there is a transition, first to plastic bending and then to plastic shear for small thicknesses and smooth chips are formed. The governing parameters are tool geometry, which is principally the wedge angle, and the material properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and fracture toughness. Friction can also be important. It is demonstrated that the cutting process may be quantified via these parameters, which could be useful in the study of cutting in biology. PMID:27274798

  16. Cutting hospital costs without cutting staff.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, John P

    2011-10-01

    A hospital that is seeking ways to cut costs without compromising care should resist the temptation to lay off staff and instead make it a priority to improve efficiencies. This approach requires a formal program to identify and analyze all of the hospital's processes. The focus of the analysis should be to determine which activities are being performed efficiently, which are being performed inefficiently, and which are unnecessary. This effort will achieve the greatest success if it is customer-centric. PMID:22053641

  17. INTERNAL CUTTING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Russell, W.H. Jr.

    1959-06-30

    A device is described for removing material from the interior of a hollow workpiece so as to form a true spherical internal surface in a workpiece, or to cut radial slots of an adjustable constant depth in an already established spherical internal surface. This is accomplished by a spring loaded cutting tool adapted to move axially wherein the entire force urging the tool against the workpiece is derived from the spring. Further features of importance involve the provision of a seal between the workpiece and the cutting device and a suction device for carrying away particles of removed material.

  18. Testing Of Choiced Ceramics Cutting Tools At Irregular Interrupted Cut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyncl, Ladislav; Malotová, Šárka; Nováček, Pavel; Nicielnik, Henryk; Šoková, Dagmar; Hemžský, Pavel; Pitela, David; Holubjak, Jozef

    2015-12-01

    This article discusses the test of removable ceramic cutting inserts during machining irregular interrupted cut. Tests were performed on a lathe, with the preparation which simulated us the interrupted cut. By changing the number of plates mounted in a preparation it simulate us a regular or irregular interrupted cut. When with four plates it was regular interrupted cut, the remaining three variants were already irregular cut. It was examined whether it will have the irregular interrupted cutting effect on the insert and possibly how it will change life of inserts during irregular interrupted cut (variable delay between shocks).

  19. Cuts, Scratches, and Scrapes

    MedlinePlus

    ... to make sure the animal didn't have rabies. Certain cuts or bites could lead to a ... purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All ...

  20. Cut without Killing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The zero-based curriculum model can help school boards and administrators make decisions about what to keep and what to cut. All instructional programs are ranked and judged in categories ranging from required to optional. (MLF)

  1. Green Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  2. First Report of Iris yellow spot virus on Onion and Leek in Western Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion (Allium cepa) and leek (Allium porrum) are grown on approximately 600 ha in western Oregon annually for bulb and seed production. Plants with elongated to diamond-shaped, straw-colored lesions characteristic of those caused by Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV) were observed on onion bulb crops an...

  3. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Allium cepa L. (Onion) Bulb to Identify Allergens and Epitopes

    PubMed Central

    Rajkumar, Hemalatha; Ramagoni, Ramesh Kumar; Anchoju, Vijayendra Chary; Vankudavath, Raju Naik; Syed, Arshi Uz Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Allium cepa (onion) is a diploid plant with one of the largest nuclear genomes among all diploids. Onion is an example of an under-researched crop which has a complex heterozygous genome. There are no allergenic proteins and genomic data available for onions. This study was conducted to establish a transcriptome catalogue of onion bulb that will enable us to study onion related genes involved in medicinal use and allergies. Transcriptome dataset generated from onion bulb using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 technology showed a total of 99,074,309 high quality raw reads (~20 Gb). Based on sequence homology onion genes were categorized into 49 different functional groups. Most of the genes however, were classified under 'unknown' in all three gene ontology categories. Of the categorized genes, 61.2% showed metabolic functions followed by cellular components such as binding, cellular processes; catalytic activity and cell part. With BLASTx top hit analysis, a total of 2,511 homologous allergenic sequences were found, which had 37–100% similarity with 46 different types of allergens existing in the database. From the 46 contigs or allergens, 521 B-cell linear epitopes were identified using BepiPred linear epitope prediction tool. This is the first comprehensive insight into the transcriptome of onion bulb tissue using the NGS technology, which can be used to map IgE epitopes and prediction of structures and functions of various proteins. PMID:26284934

  4. Structural analyses and immunomodulatory properties of fructo-oligosaccharides from onion (Allium cepa).

    PubMed

    Kumar, V Prasanna; Prashanth, K V Harish; Venkatesh, Y P

    2015-03-01

    Onion (Allium cepa) is an immune-boosting food rich in fructans. The major aim of this study is to characterize and investigate the immunomodulatory properties of onion fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). FOS was isolated from onion bulbs by hot 80% ethanol extraction (yield: ∼4.5 g/100 g fw) followed by gel permeation chromatography. NMR of onion FOS revealed unusual β-D-Glc terminal residue at the non-reducing end. TLC and ESI-MS analyses showed that onion FOS ranged from trisaccharides to hexasaccharides. Onion FOS (50 μg/mL) significantly increased (∼3-fold) the proliferation of mouse splenocytes/thymocytes vs. control. Further, onion FOS enhanced (∼2.5-fold) the production of nitric oxide by peritoneal exudates cells (PECs) from Wistar rats; intracellular free radicals production and phagocytic activity of isolated murine PECs were also augmented. Our structural and in vitro results indicate that onion FOS comprising of tri- to hexasaccharide units belongs to inulin-type fructans, and possess immunostimulatory activities towards murine lymphocytes and macrophages. PMID:25498616

  5. Non-enzymatic browning and flavour kinetics of vacuum dried onion slices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Jayeeta; Shrivastava, Shanker L.; Rao, Pavuluri S.

    2015-01-01

    Onion slices were dehydrated under vacuum to produce good quality dried ready-to-use onion slices. Colour development due to non-enzymatic browning and flavour loss in terms of thiosulphinate concentration was determined, along with moisture content and rehydration ratio. Kinetics of non-enzymatic browning and thiosulphinate loss during drying was analysed. Colour change due to non-enzymatic browning was found to be much lower in the case of vacuum dried onion, and improved flavour retention was observed as compared to hot air dried onion slices. The optical index values for non-enzymatic browning varied from 18.41 to 38.68 for untreated onion slices and from 16.73 to 36.51 for treated slices, whereas thiosulphinate concentration in the case of untreated onion slices was within the range of 2.96-3.92 μmol g-1 for dried sample and 3.71-4.43 μmol g-1 for the treated onion slices. Rehydration ratio was also increased, which may be attributed to a better porous structure attained due to vacuum drying. The treatment applied was found very suitable in controlling non-enzymatic browning and flavour loss during drying, besides increasing rehydration ratio. Hence, high quality dried ready- to-use onion slices were prepared.

  6. 78 FR 52099 - Onions Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano/Creole; Bermuda-Granex-Grano

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 51 Onions Other Than Bermuda-Granex-Grano/Creole; Bermuda-Granex- Grano AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... Type Onions which were issued under the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946. The Agricultural...

  7. Why are there so many molecular markers tagging the Ms locus of onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary source of male sterility used to produce hybrid-onion cultivars is conditioned by the interaction of the cytoplasm (N versus S) and alleles at one nuclear male-fertility restoration (Ms) locus Due to the biennial life cycle of onion and the necessity to score testcross progenies, the de...

  8. Toxicity of selected insecticides to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) using a glass-vial bioassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), are important pests that are primarily controlled with insecticides on both onions and cotton in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Resistance to various insecticides has been reported so data are needed on toxicity of insecticides r...

  9. Stunting of onion caused by Rhizoctonia spp. isolated from the Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2009 and 2010, 45 isolates of Rhizoctonia spp. were recovered from onion bulb crops in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, in which patches of severely stunted onion plants developed following rotation with winter cereal cover crops. Characterization of isolates recovered f...

  10. Genetic variation for epicuticular waxes in onion: a thrips-avoidance mechanism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrips are one of the main insect pests of onion, causing damage to leaves and stored bulbs as well as transmitting serious diseases such as Iris Yellow Spot Virus and bacterial bulb rots. Reduced quantity and possibly altered chemistry of epicuticular waxes contribute to thrips tolerance in onion. ...