Science.gov

Sample records for green pasture status

  1. A Global Assessment of Long-Term Greening and Browning Trends in Pasture Lands Using the GIMMS LAI3g Dataset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Pau, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Pasture ecosystems may be particularly vulnerable to land degradation due to the high risk of human disturbance (e.g., overgrazing, burning, etc.), especially when compared with natural ecosystems (non-pasture, non-cultivated) where direct human impacts are minimal. Using maximum annual leaf area index (LAImax) as a proxy for standing biomass and peak annual aboveground productivity, we analyze greening and browning trends in pasture areas from 1982-2008. Inter-annual variability in pasture productivity is strongly controlled by precipitation (positive correlation) and, to a lesser extent, temperature (negative correlation). Linear temporal trends are significant in 23% of pasture cells, with the vast majority of these areas showing positive LAImax trends. Spatially extensive productivity declines are only found in a few regions, most notably central Asia, southwest North America, and southeast Australia. Statistically removing the influence of precipitation reduces LAImax trends by only 13%, suggesting that precipitation trends are only a minor contributor to long-term greening and browning of pasture lands. No significant global relationship was found between LAImax and pasture intensity, although the magnitude of trends did vary between cells classified as natural versus pasture. In the tropics and Southern Hemisphere, the median rate of greening in pasture cells is significantly higher than for cells dominated by natural vegetation. In the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics, conversely, greening of natural areas is 2-4 times the magnitude of greening in pasture areas. This analysis presents one of the first global assessments of greening and browning trends in global pasture lands, including a comparison with vegetation trends in regions dominated by natural ecosystems. Our results suggest that degradation of pasture lands is not a globally widespread phenomenon and, consistent with much of the terrestrial biosphere, there have been widespread increases in

  2. Status Analysis of "Green School" Development in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhiyan, Jiao; Hongying, Zeng

    2004-01-01

    This article deals with the status analysis of "green school" development in China. In this article, the authors give a basic background of "green school" development in China, as well as the status of "green school" in China based on submitted materials. They discuss the satisfactory and inadequate areas of the "green school" as analyzed and…

  3. Assessing pasture quality and degradation status using hyperspectral imaging: a case study from western Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, Lukas W.; Meyer, Hanna; Meyer, Nele; Reudenbach, Christoph; Bendix, Jörg

    2013-10-01

    Alpine grasslands on the Tibetan Plateau (TP) are suffering from pasture degradation induced by over-grazing, climate change and improper livestock management. Meanwhile, the status of pastures is largely unknown especially in poor accessible western parts on the TP. The aim of this case study was to assess the suitability of hyperspectral imaging to predict quality and amount of forage on the western TP. Therefore, 18 ground- based hyperspectral images taken along two transects on a winter pasture were used to estimate leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthetic-active vegetation cover (PV) and proportion of grasses. For calibration and validation purposes, chlorophyll content of 20 grass plants was measured in situ. From the images reference spectra of grass and non-grass species were collected. PV was assessed from similarity of images to mean vegetation spectra using spectral angle mapper and threshold classifications. A set of 48 previously published hyperspectral vegetation indices (VI) was used as predictors to estimate chlorophyll content and to discriminate grass and non-grass pixels. Separation into grass and non-grass species was performed using partial least squares (PLS) discriminant analysis and chlorophyll content was estimated with PLS regression. The accuracy of the models was assessed with leave-one-out cross validation and normalised root mean square errors (nRMSE) for chlorophyll and contingency matrices for grass classification and total PV separation. Highest error rates were observed for discrimination between vegetated and non-vegetated parts (Overall accuracy = 0.85), whilst accuracies of grass and non grass separation (Overall accuracy = 0.98) and chlorophyll estimation were higher (nRMSE = 10.7).

  4. Going green to be seen: status, reputation, and conspicuous conservation.

    PubMed

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Tybur, Joshua M; Van den Bergh, Bram

    2010-03-01

    Why do people purchase proenvironmental "green" products? We argue that buying such products can be construed as altruistic, since green products often cost more and are of lower quality than their conventional counterparts, but green goods benefit the environment for everyone. Because biologists have observed that altruism might function as a "costly signal" associated with status, we examined in 3 experiments how status motives influenced desire for green products. Activating status motives led people to choose green products over more luxurious nongreen products. Supporting the notion that altruism signals one's willingness and ability to incur costs for others' benefit, status motives increased desire for green products when shopping in public (but not private) and when green products cost more (but not less) than nongreen products. Findings suggest that status competition can be used to promote proenvironmental behavior. PMID:20175620

  5. Mountain pastures of Qilian Shan: plant communities, grazing impact and degradation status (Gansu province, NW China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranova, Alina; Schickhoff, Udo; Shunli, Wang; Ming, Jin

    2015-04-01

    Qilian Mountains are the water source region for the low arid reaches of HeiHe river basin (Gansu province, NW China). Due to overstocking and overgrazing during the last decades adverse ecological ef¬fects, in particular on soil properties and hydrological cycle, are to be expected in growing land areas. Vegetation cover is very important to prevent erosion process and to sustain stable subsurface runoff and ground water flow. The aim of this research is to identify plant communities, detecting grazing-induced and spatially differentiated changes in vegetation patterns, and to evaluate status of pasture land degradation.The study area is located in the spring/autumn pasture area of South Qilian Mountains between 2600-3600 m a.s.l., covering five main vegetation types: spruce forest, alpine shrubland, shrubby grassland, mountain grassland, degraded mountain grassland. In order to analyze gradual changes in vegetation patterns along altitudinal and grazing gradients and to classify related plant communities, quantitative and qualitative relevé data were collected (coverage, species composition, abundance of unpalatable plants, plant functional types, etc.). Vegetation was classified using hierarchical cluster analyses. Indirect Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) was used to analyze variation in relationships between vegetation, environmental factors, and grazing impact. According to DCA results, distribution of the plant communities was strongly affected by altitude and exposition. Grassland floristic gradients showed greater dependence on grazing impact, which correlated contrarily with soil organic content, soil moisture and pH. Highest numbers of species richness and alpha diversity were detected in alpine shrubland vegetation type. Comparing the monitoring data for the recent nine years, a trend of deterioration, species successions and shift in dominant species becomes obvious. Species indicating degrading site environmental conditions were identified

  6. Short communication: Characterizing metabolic and oxidant status of pastured dairy cows postpartum in an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Elischer, M F; Sordillo, L M; Siegford, J M; Karcher, E L

    2015-10-01

    The periparturient period represents a stressful time for dairy cows as they transition from late gestation to early lactation. Undesirable fluctuations in metabolites and impaired immune defense mechanisms near parturition can severely affect cow health and have residual effects on performance and longevity. Metabolic and oxidative stress profiles of multiparous and primiparous dairy cows in traditional parlor and feeding systems are well characterized, but status of these profiles in alternative management systems, such as grazing cows managed with an automatic milking system (AMS), are poorly characterized. Therefore, the objective of this case study was to characterize the metabolic and oxidant status of pastured cows milked with an AMS. It was hypothesized that primiparous and multiparous cows milked with an AMS would experience changes in oxidative and metabolic status after parturition; however, these changes would not impair cow health or production. Blood was collected from 14 multiparous and 8 primiparous Friesian-cross dairy cows at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d relative to calving for concentrations of insulin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate, reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, and antioxidant potential. Milk production and milking frequency data were collected postpartum. Milk production differed on d 7 and 14 between primiparous and multiparous cows and frequency was not affected by parity. Primiparous cows had higher levels of glucose than multiparous cows. No differences in insulin, NEFA, or β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were noted between multiparous and primiparous cows postpartum, though days relative to calving significantly affected insulin and NEFA. Primiparous cows also had higher antioxidant potential than multiparous cows during the postpartum period. Results from this study show that, although responses were within expected ranges, periparturient multiparous cows responded differently than periparturient

  7. The Status of Women Faculty at Bowling Green State University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowling Green State Univ., OH.

    In response to the increasing concern in the academic professions about the systematic sex bias faced by women academicians, the Faculty Senate of Bowling Green State University appointed an Ad Hoc committee on the Status of Women Faculty in the fall of 1971. The committee was charged with conducting an empirical study on existing sex…

  8. Effect of application of fluidized bed combustion residue to reclaimed mine pastures on forage yield, composition, animal performance, and mineral status

    SciTech Connect

    Smedley, K.O.

    1985-01-01

    Reclaimed surface mined soils in Appalachia are typically infertile and must be amended for optimum vegetative growth. Fluidized bed combustion residue (FBCR) has high levels of Ca, S, Zn, Fe, and Al, and 50% of the neutralizing capacity of limestone. Three treatments were applied to three capacity of limestone. Three treatments were applied to three replicated 0.81 ha reclaimed mine pastures: (A) control (no amendment), (B) 6760 kg FBCR/ha, and (C) 3380 kg limestone/ha. Based on forage availability, six steers were rotationally grazed on pastures receiving each treatment. Steers were weighed and blood samples collected at 14-d intervals and all animals were sacrificed for tissue sampling at the end of the 114-d trial. B and C increased soil pH above control levels. Forage yield and steer gain were not significantly affected by treatment. Forage samples collected during the trial indicated that B and C amendments elevated forage ash, Ca, Mg, S, Cu, and Ca:P ratio and depressed cellulose and NDF. The forage sampled the following spring was lower in hemicellulose, Zn, Mn and Ni; and higher in ash, Ca, S, the Ca:P ratio in the B and C pastures. Mean serum mineral levels of steers were not affected by pasture treatment. The blood packed cell volume was higher in cattle grazing pastures. Liver levels of Fe, Mn, Ni, and Na and bile levels of Mn were depressed in cattle grazing B and C and serum was at deficiency levels and was not detectable in bile, regardless of treatment. Kidney levels of Ca, Mg and P were higher, hair Zn was higher, rib Cr and long bone Cd levels were lower in animals grazing the pastures. This study suggests that FBCR amendment enhances nutrient quality of forage and minerals status of animals at least as well as limestone application to acidic reclaimed mine pastures.

  9. Queensland Pastures

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... Local graziers hope for good long-term responses in pasture growth from the heavy rains. These images and maps from the Multi-angle Imaging ... for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and uses plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar ...

  10. Combining multi-spectral proximal sensors and digital cameras for monitoring grazed tropical pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handcock, R. N.; Gobbett, D. L.; González, L. A.; Bishop-Hurley, G. J.; McGavin, S. L.

    2015-11-01

    Timely and accurate monitoring of pasture biomass and ground-cover is necessary in livestock production systems to ensure productive and sustainable management of forage for livestock. Interest in the use of proximal sensors for monitoring pasture status in grazing systems has increased, since such sensors can return data in near real-time, and have the potential to be deployed on large properties where remote sensing may not be suitable due to issues such as spatial scale or cloud cover. However, there are unresolved challenges in developing calibrations to convert raw sensor data to quantitative biophysical values, such as pasture biomass or vegetation ground-cover, to allow meaningful interpretation of sensor data by livestock producers. We assessed the use of multiple proximal sensors for monitoring tropical pastures with a pilot deployment of sensors at two sites on Lansdown Research Station near Townsville, Australia. Each site was monitored by a Skye SKR-four-band multi-spectral sensor (every 1 min), a digital camera (every 30 min), and a soil moisture sensor (every 1 min), each operated over 18 months. Raw data from each sensor were processed to calculate a number of multispectral vegetation indices. Visual observations of pasture characteristics, including above-ground standing biomass and ground cover, were made every 2 weeks. A methodology was developed to manage the sensor deployment and the quality control of the data collected. The data capture from the digital cameras was more reliable than the multi-spectral sensors, which had up to 63 % of data discarded after data cleaning and quality control. We found a strong relationship between sensor and pasture measurements during the wet season period of maximum pasture growth (January to April), especially when data from the multi-spectral sensors were combined with weather data. RatioNS34 (a simple band ratio between the near infrared (NIR) and lower shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands) and rainfall since 1

  11. Inequality, green spaces, and pregnant women: roles of ethnicity and individual and neighbourhood socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Dadvand, Payam; Wright, John; Martinez, David; Basagaña, Xavier; McEachan, Rosemary R C; Cirach, Marta; Gidlow, Christopher J; de Hoogh, Kees; Gražulevičienė, Regina; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2014-10-01

    Evidence of the impact of green spaces on pregnancy outcomes is limited with no report on how this impact might vary by ethnicity. We investigated the association between residential surrounding greenness and proximity to green spaces and birth weight and explored the modification of this association by ethnicity and indicators of individual (maternal education) and neighbourhood (Index of Multiple Deprivation) socioeconomic status. Our study was based on 10,780 singleton live-births from the Born in Bradford cohort, UK (2007-2010). We defined residential surrounding greenness as average of satellite-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) in buffers of 50 m, 100 m, 250 m, 500 m and 1000 m around each maternal home address. Residential proximity to green spaces was defined as living within 300 m of a green space with an area of ≥ 5000 m(2). We utilized mixed effects models to estimate adjusted change in birth weight associated with residential surrounding greenness as well as proximity to green spaces. We found a positive association between birth weight and residential surrounding greenness. Furthermore, we observed an interaction between ethnicity and residential surrounding greenness in that for White British participants there was a positive association between birth weight and residential surrounding greenness whereas for participants of Pakistani origin there was no such an association. For surrounding greenness in larger buffers (500 m and 1000 m) there were some indications of stronger associations for participants with lower education and those living in more deprived neighbourhoods which were not replicated for surrounding greenness in smaller buffer sizes (i.e. 50 m, 100 m, and 250 m). The findings for residential proximity to a green space were not conclusive. Our study showed that residential surrounding greenness is associated with better foetal growth and this association could vary between different ethnic and socioeconomic groups

  12. The Green Pastures of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loban, Walter

    1973-01-01

    Urges teachers, in helping children acquire language power, to provide opportunities for the students to enlarge their experiences and then help them find appropriate words to clarify and organize thinking about that experience. (MM)

  13. Origins, current status, and future challenges of green chemistry.

    PubMed

    Anastas, Paul T; Kirchhoff, Mary M

    2002-09-01

    Over the course of the past decade, green chemistry has demonstrated how fundamental scientific methodologies can protect human health and the environment in an economically beneficial manner. Significant progress is being made in several key research areas, such as catalysis, the design of safer chemicals and environmentally benign solvents, and the development of renewable feedstocks. Current and future chemists are being trained to design products and processes with an increased awareness for environmental impact. Outreach activities within the green chemistry community highlight the potential for chemistry to solve many of the global environmental challenges we now face. The origins and basis of green chemistry chart a course for achieving environmental and economic prosperity inherent in a sustainable world. PMID:12234198

  14. Population status of North American green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, P.B.; Grimes, C.; Hightower, J.E.; Lindley, S.T.; Moser, M.L.; Parsley, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    North American green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, was petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The two questions that need to be answered when considering an ESA listing are; (1) Is the entity a species under the ESA and if so (2) is the "species" in danger of extinction or likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range? Green sturgeon genetic analyses showed strong differentiation between northern and southern populations, and therefore, the species was divided into Northern and Southern Distinct Population Segments (DPSs). The Northern DPS includes populations in the Rogue, Klamath-Trinity, and Eel rivers, while the Southern DPS only includes a single population in the Sacramento River. The principal risk factors for green sturgeon include loss of spawning habitat, harvest, and entrainment. The Northern DPS is not considered to be in danger of extinction or likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future. The loss of spawning habitat is not large enough to threaten this DPS, although the Eel River has been severely impacted by sedimentation due to poor land use practices and floods. The two main spawning populations in the Rogue and Klamath-Trinity rivers occupy separate basins reducing the potential for loss of the DPS through catastrophic events. Harvest has been substantially reduced and green sturgeon in this DPS do not face substantial entrainment loss. However there are significant concerns due to lack of information, flow and temperature issues, and habitat degradation. The Southern DPS is considered likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future. Green sturgeon in this DPS are concentrated into one spawning area outside of their natural habitat in the Sacramento River, making them vulnerable to catastrophic extinction. Green sturgeon spawning areas have been lost from the area above Shasta Dam on the Sacramento River and

  15. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2014 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Shaughnessy, Eric; Heeter, Jenny; Liu, Chang; Nobler, Erin

    2015-10-16

    NREL's annual report on green power markets summarizes status and trends in the voluntary demand for renewable energy. U.S. green power markets have become more complex over time as state-level policies have enabled more avenues for green power purchases. In recent years, community solar, community choice aggregation (CCA), and voluntary power purchase agreements (PPAs) have significantly increased the number of U.S. voluntary green power customers. The community solar model has grown rapidly with 90 projects in 25 states by 2015. Renewable energy sales in CCAs declined slightly in 2014 in response to less favorable economic conditions in Illinois. At the same time, several California CCAs continued to grow, and many more communities are planning to pursue green power through aggregation. Voluntary green power purchasing through bi-lateral PPAs took off in 2014 due to several large-scale agreements signed by information and communication technology firms. Traditional green power options, such as utility green pricing programs and voluntary RECs markets, also grew in 2014. Current trends suggest strong continued growth in U.S. voluntary green power markets.

  16. Green roofs for a drier world: effects of hydrogel amendment on substrate and plant water status.

    PubMed

    Savi, Tadeja; Marin, Maria; Boldrin, David; Incerti, Guido; Andri, Sergio; Nardini, Andrea

    2014-08-15

    Climate features of the Mediterranean area make plant survival over green roofs challenging, thus calling for research work to improve water holding capacities of green roof systems. We assessed the effects of polymer hydrogel amendment on the water holding capacity of a green roof substrate, as well as on water status and growth of Salvia officinalis. Plants were grown in green roof experimental modules containing 8 cm or 12 cm deep substrate (control) or substrate mixed with hydrogel at two different concentrations: 0.3 or 0.6%. Hydrogel significantly increased the substrate's water content at saturation, as well as water available to vegetation. Plants grown in 8 cm deep substrate mixed with 0.6% of hydrogel showed the best performance in terms of water status and membrane integrity under drought stress, associated to the lowest above-ground biomass. Our results provide experimental evidence that polymer hydrogel amendments enhance water supply to vegetation at the establishment phase of a green roof. In particular, the water status of plants is most effectively improved when reduced substrate depths are used to limit the biomass accumulation during early growth stages. A significant loss of water holding capacity of substrate-hydrogel blends was observed after 5 months from establishment of the experimental modules. We suggest that cross-optimization of physical-chemical characteristics of hydrogels and green roof substrates is needed to improve long term effectiveness of polymer-hydrogel blends. PMID:24867709

  17. A STATUS REPORT ON PLANKTONIC CYANOBACTERIA (BLUE-GREEN ALGAE) AND THEIR TOXINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxic blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) continue to be agents of certain waterbased toxicoses. heir presence is now being acknowledged in many of the world's fresh and brackish waters with eutrophication status of meso to hypereutrophic. ense surface scums called waterblooms will ...

  18. The association between neighborhood greenness and weight status: an observational study in Perth Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the relationship between weight status and objectively measured neighborhood greenness and no study has examined this relationship across the different stages of adulthood. This research was an investigation of weight status and neighborhood greenness using objectively measured satellite remote sensing for a large population representative sample. Method Cross-sectional study of 10,208 young adults (16–24 years), mid-age adults (25–64 years) and older adults (65+ years) from a population representative sample for the period 2004–2009 in Perth, Western Australia. Neighborhood greenness was ascertained for a 1600m road network service area around each participant’s address using the mean and standard deviation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) obtained from remote sensing. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess associations with weight status (overweight-or-obese, obese) adjusted for socio-demographics and health-related behaviors. Results The adjusted odds ratio (OR) comparing obesity in the highest to the lowest tertile of mean greenness was 0.78 (95% CI 0.69-0.89). For the same comparison, the OR for overweight-or-obese was similar, 0.84 (95% CI 0.76-0.92). The OR comparing obesity in the highest to lowest tertile of variation in greenness was 0.75 (95% CI 0.66-0.85). For the same comparison, the OR for overweight-or-obese was similar, 0.75 (95% CI 0.68-0.82). Conclusion Higher levels and greater variation of neighborhood greenness are associated with lower odds of obesity among adults of all ages. Research examining neighborhood characteristics correlated with variability in greenness will help better understand these relationships. PMID:23783002

  19. Pasture Fallowing Fact Sheet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture fallowing is the practice of leaving pastures ungrazed for a period to encourage grass reseeding and increase pasture diversity. Fallowing may have negative effects as well, by reducing legume cover and allowing thistles and other invasive weeds to increase. We looked at the effects of fallo...

  20. Pastures and biodiversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers often plant monocultures or simple grass-legume mixtures in their pastures. Increased biodiversity in pastures may be one tool to improve sustainability and productivity. This fact sheet addresses some common questions regarding biodiversity in pastures. Very broadly, biodiversity refers to ...

  1. Pasture diversity and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of pastures in the northeastern United States, not much is known about their ecology, including taxonomic and functional diversity. This factsheet presents results from a 1998-2005 survey of pastures on 44 farms from Maine to Maryland. Pastures are quite diverse; the ...

  2. Pasture diversity and management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientists at the USDA-ARS Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit have been collecting pasture plant biodiversity data for over ten years and across the northeastern United States. We have identified more than three hundred species of vascular plants. The average pasture in this regi...

  3. Uele River, Cleared Pasture Lands, Zaire, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In this view of the Uele River and cleared pasturelands in Zaire (3.5N, 27.0E), the distinctive dendritic drainage pattern of the region becomes obvious. Cleared pasture lands shown as light green, contrasts with the dark green of the remaining closed conopy forests. The remnant woodlands along the streams indicates the intricate drainage network of this hilly region. Scattered vegetation free spots show the deep red tropical soils.

  4. Green Monopropellant Status at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnside, Christopher G.; Pierce, Charles W.; Pedersen, Kevin W.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center is continuing investigations into the use of green monopropellants as a replacement for hydrazine in spacecraft propulsion systems. Work to date has been to push technology development through multiple activities designed to understand the capabilities of these technologies. Future work will begin to transition to mission pull as these technologies are mature while still keeping a solid goal of pushing technology development as opportunities become available. The AF-M315E activities began with hot-fire demonstration testing of a 1N monopropellant thruster in FY 14 and FY15. Following successful completion of the preliminary campaign, changes to the test stand to accommodate propellant conditioning capability and better control of propellant operations was incorporated to make testing more streamlined. The goal is to conduct hot-fire testing with warm and cold propellants using the existing feed system and original thruster design. Following the 1N testing, a NASA owned 100 mN thruster will be hot-fire tested in the same facility to show feasibility of scaling to smaller thrusters for cubesat applications. The end goal is to conduct a hot-fire test of an integrated cubesat propulsion system using an SLM printed propellant tank, an MSFC designed propulsion system electronic controller and the 100 mN thruster. In addition to the AF-M315E testing, MSFC is pursuing hot-fire testing with LMP-103S. Following our successful hot-fire testing of the 22N thruster in April 2015, a test campaign was proposed for a 440N LMP-103S thruster with Orbital ATK and Plasma Processes. This activity was funded through the Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) ACO funding call in the last quarter of CY15. Under the same funding source a test activity with Busek and Glenn Research Center for testing of 5N AF-M315E thrusters was proposed and awarded. Both activities are in-work with expected completion of hot-fire testing by the end of FY17. MSFC is

  5. Humus status of soddy-podzolic soil upon application of different green manures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripol'Skaya, L. N.; Romanovskaya, D. K.; Shlepetiene, A.

    2008-08-01

    Results of studying the effect of different plant species on the humus status of loamy sandy soddy-podzolic soil were generalized. It was found that the application of different green manure species ( Lupinus luteus L., Trifolium pratense L., and Raphanus sativus L.) and straw from cereal crops ( Secale cereale, Hordeum L.) under percolative conditions helped to sustain a stable humus budget in grain agrophytocenoses. A significant change in the fractional composition of HAs and FAs occurred under the effect of green manure. The fractions of free HAs and those bound to clay minerals accumulated with the application of Trifolium pratense and Raphanus sativus biomass and cereal straw. Lower amounts of aggressive and free FAs were formed in the soil with the application of straw and fallow plants. The decomposition of green manure and the formation of humic substances also depended on the hydrothermal conditions during application of manure.

  6. Managing Intensively Grazed Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage production during periods of summer drought can be increased by including additional species in the pasture mixture, especially if those species have desirable attributes such as improved water use efficiency or deep root systems. Conversion of plowed fields to pasture also has the potential ...

  7. Influence of topography on density of grassland passerines in pastures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Renfrew, R.B.; Ribic, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    Pastures provide substantial habitat for grassland birds of management concern in the Driftless Area of southwestern Wisconsin. The rolling topography in this region is characterized by lowland valleys surrounded by relatively steep and often wooded slopes which are set apart from more expansive treeless uplands. We hypothesized that there would be lower densities of area sensitive grassland passerines in lowland grasslands compared to upland grasslands because of their preference for larger more open grasslands. To test this hypothesis and assess how well pasture area and vegetation structure predicted grassland passerine density compared to upland/lowland status, we conducted point counts of birds in 60 pastures in May-June 1997 and 1998. Upland pastures generally supported greater densities of grassland passerines than lowland pastures. Densities of Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) and bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) were significantly higher in upland pastures than in lowland pastures. Grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum) density was significantly higher on uplands in one of the study years. The density of eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna), western meadowlark (S. neglecta) and sedge wren (Cistothorus platensis) did not differ significandy between uplands and lowlands. Grassland passerine density was also predicted by pasture size and vegetation structure. Densities of bobolink and grasshopper sparrow were higher in larger pastures. Bobolink and Savannah sparrow occurred on pastures with greater vegetation height-density and less bare ground; bobolink also preferred shallower litter depths. Lowland pastures supported grassland bird species of management concern and should not be neglected. However, we recommend that pasture management for grassland passerines in areas of variable topography favor relatively large upland pastures that will contain higher densities of species of management concern.

  8. Dryland pasture and crop conditions as seen by HCMM. [Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenthal, W. D. (Principal Investigator); Harlan, J. C.; Blanchard, B. J.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The soil moisture difference between the flight lines was partly due to water-holding capacity differences of the two soil types. Fields along the east flight line were in clay; while along the west flight line, the soil was sandy loam which holds less moisture. Due to differences in the amount of green material, the pastures were wetter than the wheat fields. Most of the pastures average from 40-80% green material, while wheat averages from 90-100% green material. A large amount of green material transpired more water and depleted the soil water content faster than dead vegetation. Visicorder data found temperature differences between the rangeland and winter wheat fields. Pasture had a larger percentage of dead material with different thermal properties than live vegetation, and surface temperature was primarily dependent on insolation. Dead material transpired less, but warms up faster than wheat fields.

  9. Can neighborhood green space mitigate health inequalities? A study of socio-economic status and mental health.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Villanueva, Karen; Knuiman, Matthew; Francis, Jacinta; Foster, Sarah; Wood, Lisa; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2016-03-01

    This study examined whether the association of psychological distress with area-level socio-economic status (SES) was moderated by the area and attractiveness of local green space. As expected, the odds of higher psychological distress was higher in residents in lower SES areas than those in higher SES areas. However, our results were inconclusive with regard to the moderating role of green space in the relationship between psychological distress and SES. Further investigations incorporating safety and maintenance features of green space and street-level greenery are warranted. PMID:26796324

  10. The association between green space and depressive symptoms in pregnant women: moderating roles of socioeconomic status and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    McEachan, R R C; Prady, S L; Smith, G; Fairley, L; Cabieses, B; Gidlow, C; Wright, J; Dadvand, P; van Gent, D; Nieuwenhuijsen, M J

    2016-01-01

    Background The current study explored the association between green space and depression in a deprived, multiethnic sample of pregnant women, and examined moderating and mediating variables. Method 7547 women recruited to the ‘Born in Bradford’ cohort completed a questionnaire during pregnancy. A binary measure of depressive symptoms was calculated using a validated survey. Two green space measures were used: quintiles of residential greenness calculated using the normalised difference vegetation index for three neighbourhood sizes (100, 300 and 500 m buffer zones around participant addresses); access to major green spaces estimated as straight line distance between participant address and nearest green space (>0.5 hectares). Logistic regression analyses examined relationships between green space and depressive symptoms, controlling for ethnicity, demographics, socioeconomic status (SES) and health behaviours. Multiplicative interactions explored variations by ethnic group, SES or activity levels. Mediation analysis assessed indirect effects via physical activity. Results Pregnant women in the greener quintiles were 18–23% less likely to report depressive symptoms than those in the least green quintile (for within 100 m of green space buffer zone). The green space-depressive symptoms association was significant for women with lower education or who were active. Physical activity partially mediated the association of green space, but explained only a small portion of the direct effect. Conclusions Higher residential greenness was associated with a reduced likelihood of depressive symptoms. Associations may be stronger for more disadvantaged groups and for those who are already physically active. Improving green space is a promising intervention to reduce risk of depression in disadvantaged groups. PMID:26560759

  11. Pasture monitoring at a farm scale with the USDA-NRCS pasture condition score system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pasture Condition Score (PCS) system, developed by the USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), is an assessment tool for pastureland enrolled in conservation programs. Ten indicators of vegetation and soils status are rated on a 1 to 5 scale and summed to give an aggregate score, whi...

  12. Effect of nutritional status on the osmoregulation of green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris).

    PubMed

    Haller, Liran Y; Hung, Silas S O; Lee, Seunghyung; Fadel, James G; Lee, Jun-Ho; McEnroe, Maryann; Fangue, Nann A

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is linked to food web and salinity fluctuations in estuarine environments. Both decreased nutritional status and environmental salinity influence the physiological tolerance and health of fish populations; however, limited information on the interaction of these two factors and their physiological consequences is available. The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) is a species of special concern in California, and the southern distinct population segment is listed as threatened. To test the hypothesis that poor nutrition negatively affects osmoregulation, juvenile green sturgeon (222 d posthatch) were randomly assigned to four feed restriction groups (12.5%, 25%, 50%, and 100% of the optimal feeding rate for 4 wk). Fish were then acutely exposed to 0-, 8-, 16-, or 32-ppt salinities and sampled at three time points (12, 72, or 120 h). Feed restriction significantly (P < 0.05) decreased specific growth rate, feed efficiency, condition factor, whole-body lipids, and protein content as well as plasma glucose, triglycerides, and proteins. Furthermore, feed restriction, salinity concentration, and salinity exposure time had significant effects on hematological indexes (hematocrit, hemoglobin), plasma values (osmolality, Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), glucose, lactate, cortisol), enzymatic activity (gill and pyloric ceca Na(+)/K(+) ATPase), and morphology of gill mitochondria-rich cells. The largest disturbances were observed at the highest salinity treatments across all feeding regimes. In addition, the interaction between feed restriction and acute salinity exposure at the highest salinity treatment resulted in high mortality rates during the first 72 h of salinity exposure. Evaluating the interactions of these environmental stressors and their implications on green sturgeon physiological tolerance will inform restoration and management efforts in rapidly changing estuarine environments. PMID:25590591

  13. Plant physiology for profitable pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A basic question of pasture-based livestock production is whether producers should manage pastures on the basis of what is best for the animal or what is best for the plant. Given that pastures are the principal and most economical source of feed, producers should carefully consider how they manage...

  14. Immune status of free-ranging green turtles with fibropapillomatosis from Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Rameyer, R.A.; Balazs, G.H.; Cray, C.; Chang, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    Cell-mediated and humoral immune status of free-ranging green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Hawaii (USA) with and without fibropapillornatosis (FP) were assessed. Tumored and non-tumored turtles from Kaneohe Bay (KB) on the island of Oahu and from FP-free areas on the west (Kona/Kohala) coast of the island of Hawaii were sampled from April 1998 through February 1999. Turtles on Oahu were grouped (0-3) for severity of tumors with 0 for absence of tumors, 1 for light, 2 for moderate, and 3 for most severe. Turtles were weighed, straight carapace length measured and the regression slope of weight to straight carapace length compared between groups (KB0, KB1, KB2, KB3, Kona). Blood was assayed for differential white blood cell count, hematocrit, in vitro peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation in the presence of concanavalin A (ConA) and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), and protein electrophoresis. On Oahu, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio increased while eosinophil/monocyte ratio decreased with increasing tumors score. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation indices for ConA and PHA were significantly lower for turtles with tumor scores 2 and 3. Tumor score 3 turtles (KB3) had significantly lower hematocrit, total protein, alpha 1, alpha 2, and gamma globulins than the other four groups. No significant differences in immune status were seen between non-tumored (or KB1) turtles from Oahu and Hawaii. There was no significant difference between groups in regression slopes of body condition to carapace length. We conclude that turtles with severe FP are imunosuppressed. Furthermore, the lack of significant difference in immune status between non-tumored (and KB1) turtles from Oahu and Kona/Kohala indicates that immunosuppression may not be a prerequisite for development of FP.

  15. Pasture seed banks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In our surveys of northeastern pastures, we found the equivalent of more than 8 million seeds per acre in the surface soil (the top four inches) from the seed bank study. These seeds came from 58 species of plants. The annual forbs (all broadleaf plants with the exception of legumes and trees) domin...

  16. Pasture Research Summaries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our goal is to develop diverse, stable, and persistent forage and pasture lands that provide a permanent cover and protect the natural resource base for future generations. Research on forage-livestock systems seeks to improve the productivity, sustainability, and profitability of northeastern forag...

  17. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (11th Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Kreycik, Claire; Friedman, Barry

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  18. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (11th Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B.

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  19. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (2009 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Sumner, Jenny

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  20. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2009 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Sumner, J.

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  1. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Dagher, Leila; Swezey, Blair

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  2. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Dagher, L.; Swezey, B.

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  3. Extract of green tea leaves partially attenuates streptozotocin-induced changes in antioxidant status and gastrointestinal functioning in rats.

    PubMed

    Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Zduńczyk, Zenon; Jurgoński, Adam; Brzuzan, Łucja; Godycka-Kłos, Irena; Zary-Sikorska, Ewa

    2008-05-01

    Rats with severe streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes were subjected to dietary green tea extract supplementation at 2 doses (0.01% and 0.2%; GTL and GTH groups, respectively) to evaluate their effects on antioxidant, gastrointestinal, and renal parameters of experimental animals. The lower dietary supplementation reflects daily consumption of 3 cups of green tea for an average adult weighing 70 kg. Supplementation of a diet with green tea extract had no influence on elevated food intake, body weight loss, increased glucose concentration, or declined antioxidant capacity of water-soluble substances in plasma in the diabetic rats. In cases of intestinal maltase activity, attenuation of liver and kidney hypertrophy, triacylglycerol concentration, and aspartate aminotransferase activity in the serum, both dietary treatments normalized metabolic disorders caused by STZ injection to a similar extent. Unlike the GTL group, the GTH treatment significantly ameliorated development of diabetes-induced abnormal values for small intestinal saccharase and lactase activities, renal microalbuminuria, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance content in kidney tissue, as well as total antioxidant status in the serum of rats. The GTH group was also characterized by higher antioxidant capacity of lipid-soluble substances in plasma and superoxide dismutase activity in the serum. Although the higher dose of green tea extract did not completely protect against STZ-induced hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in experimental rats, this study suggests that green tea extract ingested at high amounts may prove to be a useful therapeutic option in the reversal of diabetic dysfunction. PMID:19083430

  4. The greening of the U.S. Department of Energy Headquarters, Washington, D.C. Second-year status report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-22

    The Greening of the Department of Energy Headquarters is a comprehensive, multi-year project designed to identify and implement specific actions DOE can take to save energy and money, improve the comfort and productivity of employees, and benefit the environment. It is part of the Administration`s overall effort to promote greening in all of the nation`s federal buildings. Present Clinton started the Greening of the White House in 1993, and similar efforts have been undertaken by the Department of Defense at the Pentagon, the National Park Service at the Presidio, and now the Department of Energy at the Forrestal and Germantown buildings. The Greening of the Department of Energy Headquarters, An Action Plan for Success (Action Plan), unveiled on April 22, 1996, outlined more than 80 action items for DOE`s Forrestal and Germantown buildings. The action items were designed to increase energy efficiency, improve resource management, improve air quality, reduce water use, reduce paper use, improve landscape management, improve maintenance and operational procedures, increase employee participation, and promote education and outreach. In the two years since the Action Plan was introduced, the Department of Energy has made major progress in implementing specific action items designed to target four major subject areas: (1) Energy Efficiency; (2) Resource Management; (3) Air, Water, Landscape, and (4) Human Factors. This report outlines the status of the recommendations of the Action Plan since they were introduced two years ago.

  5. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Eighth Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2005-10-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied by renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering "green power" options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. The first section provides an overview of green power markets, consumer response, and recent industry trends. The second section provides brief descriptions of utility green pricing programs. The third section describes companies that actively market green power in competitive markets and those that market renewable energy certificates nationally or regionally. The final section provides information on a select number of large, nonresidential green power purchasers, including businesses, universities, and government agencies.

  6. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2008 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B.

    2009-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to buy electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. In the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering 'green power' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from renewable energy marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets or offering renewable energy certificates (RECs) online. Today, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, while all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States including utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. These sections are followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The final section offers conclusions and observations.

  7. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (2008 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, Lori; Kreycik, Claire; Friedman, Barry

    2009-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to buy electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. In the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering 'green power' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from renewable energy marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets or offering renewable energy certificates (RECs) online. Today, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, while all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States including utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. These sections are followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The final section offers conclusions and observations.

  8. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Ninth Edition)

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2006-11-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied by renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering ''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than half of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. Currently, more than 600 utilities, or about 20% of utilities nationally, offer green power programs to customers. These programs allow customers to purchase some portion of their power supply as renewable energy--almost always at a higher price--or to contribute funds for the utility to invest in renewable energy development. The term ''green pricing'' is typically used to refer to these utility programs offered in regulated or noncompetitive electricity markets. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States.

  9. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2013 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.; Belyeu, K.; Kuskova-Burns, K.

    2014-11-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This report surveys utilities, competitive suppliers, renewable energy certificate (REC) marketers, and, for the first time, the community choice aggregation market. This report finds that the voluntary market totaled 62 million megawatt-hours in 2013. Approximately 5.4 million customers are purchasing green power. This report presents data and analysis on voluntary market sales and customer participation, products and premiums, green pricing marketing, and administrative expenses. The report also details trends in REC tracking systems, REC pricing in voluntary and compliance markets, community and crowd-funded solar, and interest in renewable energy by the information and communication technologies sector.

  10. Burrowing mayflies as indicators of ecosystem health: Status of populations in western Lake Erie, Saginaw Bay and Green Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, T.A.; Bur, M.T.; Gorman, O.T.; Schaeffer, J.S.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Environment Canada are supporting the development of indicators of ecosystem health that can be used to report on progress in restoring and maintaining the Great Lakes ecosystem, as called for in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the United States and Canada. One indicator under development is based on burrowing mayflies (Hexagenia: Ephemeroptera: Ephemeridae). We sampled in western Lake Erie, Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron), and Green Bay (Lake Michigan) in spring 2001 at 117 stations covering about 1,870 km2 of lake bed, to determine the status of nymphal populations of Hexagenia, and to provide information that would further the technical development of an indicator of ecosystem health based on Hexagenia. In western Lake Erie, density and biomass of nymphs were generally highest on fine-grained substrate in offshore waters and were lower on coarser substrates in near shore waters. Nymphs were virtually absent from Saginaw Bay, where only one nymph was collected at 28 stations. Nymphs were collected at only 6 of 48 stations in Green Bay, and density and biomass were highest at the northern end of the bay. Polluted sediments are likely responsible for the absence or low density and biomass of nymphs observed on fine-grained substrates in western Lake Erie, Saginaw Bay, and Green Bay, all of which historically supported abundant populations.

  11. CO2 balance of an intensively grazed temperate pasture during pasture renewal via cultivation or direct drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutledge, Susanna; Mudge, Paul; Wall, Aaron; Campbell, Dave; Schipper, Louis

    2015-04-01

    The management practice of pasture renewal (PR, also referred to as 'restoration') of permanent pastures offers the opportunity to replace low producing pasture, remove weeds and pests, improve drainage, and introduce improved pasture varieties, thereby increasing pasture production. PR can consist of a range of practices including spraying existing pasture with herbicide, followed by direct drilling or full cultivation (ploughing). Although PR is common in some farming systems, little is known about the impact of PR of permanent pastures on soil C and CO2 dynamics. Here we report on the CO2 balance following four PR events of intensively grazed permanent pastures in temperate New Zealand. Three events of PR followed the same method which included two herbicide sprays and a full cultivation (CULT). PR events took place in either spring or autumn, which meant soil moisture conditions varied greatly between PR events. For the fourth PR event, pasture was sprayed only once, and was not cultivated but instead seeds were directly drilled (DD) into the sprayed-off pasture. Chambers and the eddy covariance technique were used to measure the CO2 exchange before, during and after PR. In addition to the direct loss of CO2 measured during the PR events, we also quantified the 'net impact of PR' which we defined as the difference between net CO2 exchange of the pasture that underwent PR and that of an undisturbed pasture which served as a control. This way, we also accounted for the temporary lack of photosynthetic carbon inputs when plants were absent during the PR events. Both the rate of direct CO2 respiratory losses and the 'net impact of PR' appeared highly dependent on soil moisture status, with the lowest rate of loss measured under severe drought conditions and the highest rate of loss measured in spring when ample moisture was present. Because the rate of CO2 loss did not decrease over time during PR, the longer the soil was bare, the more CO2 was lost. The duration

  12. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2012 Data)

    SciTech Connect

    Heeter, J.; Nicholas, T.

    2013-10-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. These markets continued to exhibit growth and stimulate renewable energy development in 2012. This paper reviews the voluntary market and identifies market trends.

  13. The effects of protein supplement on leptin concentrations in lambs and meat goat kids grazing Bermudagrass pastures in Central Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lambs and kids weaned and pastured on bermudagrass (BG; Cynodon dactylon) may not receive enough protein to reach maximal growth during mid to late summer when protein in BG pastures declines. As an indicator of physiological status, leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone that increases as body cond...

  14. Estimating cotton nitrogen nutrition status using leaf greenness and ground cover information

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessing nitrogen (N) status is important from economic and environmental standpoints. To date, many spectral indices to estimate cotton chlorophyll or N content have been purely developed using statistical analysis approach where they are often subject to site-specific problems. This study describ...

  15. CHEMICAL AND BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF PASTURE RUNOFF

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural background characteristics and grazing cattle both influence the chemical and bacteriological quality of pasture runoff in south central Nebraska. The chemical quality of runoff from unstocked grassland was poorer than that from grazed pasture. The chemical quality of pas...

  16. Guide to Managing Pasture Water: Streamside Buffers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Properly managed pasture water not only provides high-quality water which promotes healthy and productive livestock, but also contributes to maintaining water quality downstream. Riparian (streamside) areas serve as a transition between upland pastures and waterways. In other words, they link pastur...

  17. Pasture quality variation throughout the grazing season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is important for dairy producers and their nutritionists to have an idea of the nutritional quality of the pasture they are providing to their cows. This article uses data gathered from several on-going pasture research projects to demonstrate how pasture quality varies during the grazing season,...

  18. Stocking Rates for Horse Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decision on which stocking rate to graze a horse pasture is critical, particularly if the forage is expected to meet the nutrient needs of the horses. Challenges and management for targeting the optimum stocking rate, defined as the stocking rate that allows forage consumption to approximately equ...

  19. Pasture Drought Insurance Based on NDVI and SAVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escribano Rodríguez, J. A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Hernandez Díaz-Ambrona, C. G.

    2012-04-01

    Drought is a complex phenomenon, which is difficult to define. The term is used to refer to deficiency in rainfall, soil moisture, vegetation greenness, ecological conditions or socio economic conditions, and different drought types can be inferred. In this study, drought is considered as a period when the pasture growth is low in regard to long-term average conditions. The extensive livestock production is based on the natural resources available. The good management practices concurs the maximum livestock nutrition needs with the maximum pasture availability. Therefore, early drought detection and impact assessment on the amount of pasture biomass are important in several areas in Spain, whose economy strongly depends on livestock production. The use of remote sensing data presents a number of advantages when determining drought impact on vegetation. The information covers the whole of a territory and the repetition of images provides multi-temporal measurements. In addition, vegetation indexes, being NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) and SAVI (soil-adjusted vegetation index) the most common ones, obtainedfrom satellite data allow areas affected by droughts to be identified. These indices are being used for estimation of vegetation photosynthesis activity and monitoring drought. The present study shows the application of these vegetation indices for pasture drought monitoring in three places in Spain and their correlation with several field measurements. During 2010 and 2011 three locations, El Cubo de Don Sancho (Salamanca), Trujillo (Cáceres) and Pozoblanco (Córdoba), were selected and a periodic pasture monitoring and botanic composition were achieved. Daily precipitation, temperature and monthly soil water content were measurement as well as fresh and dry pasture weight. At the same time, remote sensing images were capture by DEIMOS-1 of the chosen places.This satellite is based on the concept Microsat-100 from Surrey. It is conceived for

  20. Pasture improvement in Spanish Dehesas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Vilanova, M.; González López, F.

    2009-04-01

    In the south-west of the Iberian Peninsula, the dehesa is a widespread agro-silvo-pastoral land use system, characterized by a grassland with a disperse cover of oak trees and shrubs, where the main production is extensive livestock combined with agriculture and forestry. Many years of inappropriate management of dehesas (deforestation, overgrazing, excessive agricultural activities, etc.) has led to the degradation of vegetation and soils in extensive areas, causing reductions in biomass and biodiversity, affecting the permanence of plants and causing important losses of palatable species. As there is growing interest in these wooded rangeland ecosystems due to their economic importance and high environmental value, the recovery of the original pasture biodiversity and the increase of productivity, together with the conservation of the environment, are the main goals in these areas of low productive potential, degraded and subject to soil erosion. Soil and climate conditions have a great influence on grassland production, with rainfall producing strong seasonal and interannual variations. These natural pastures, mainly composed of summer withering annual species, reach maximum productions in spring and register low values in autumn, slowing down in winter. During the summer dry season, the wilting pastures can offer a good forage for animals. Autochthonous annual legumes play an important role because they are well adapted to local edaphic and climatic conditions and produce hard seeds which germinate in autumn. This helps them to survive the frequent droughts and offer a high quality forage, which is a valuable complement to other pasture plants with lower protein content. Therefore, for several decades, legume seeding combined with the application of phosphate fertilizer has been the most common strategy used to improve pastures in SW Spain, where dehesas cover an area of about four million hectares. This paper examines the whole process of pasture improvement

  1. Afforestation or intense pasturing improve the ecological and economic value of abandoned tropical farmlands

    PubMed Central

    Knoke, Thomas; Bendix, Jörg; Pohle, Perdita; Hamer, Ute; Hildebrandt, Patrick; Roos, Kristin; Gerique, Andrés; Sandoval, María L.; Breuer, Lutz; Tischer, Alexander; Silva, Brenner; Calvas, Baltazar; Aguirre, Nikolay; Castro, Luz M.; Windhorst, David; Weber, Michael; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven; Palomeque, Ximena; Mora, Julio; Mosandl, Reinhard; Beck, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demands for livelihood resources in tropical rural areas have led to progressive clearing of biodiverse natural forests. Restoration of abandoned farmlands could counter this process. However, as aims and modes of restoration differ in their ecological and socio-economic value, the assessment of achievable ecosystem functions and benefits requires holistic investigation. Here we combine the results from multidisciplinary research for a unique assessment based on a normalization of 23 ecological, economic and social indicators for four restoration options in the tropical Andes of Ecuador. A comparison of the outcomes among afforestation with native alder or exotic pine, pasture restoration with either low-input or intense management and the abandoned status quo shows that both variants of afforestation and intense pasture use improve the ecological value, but low-input pasture does not. Economic indicators favour either afforestation or intense pasturing. Both Mestizo and indigenous Saraguro settlers are more inclined to opt for afforestation. PMID:25425182

  2. Afforestation or intense pasturing improve the ecological and economic value of abandoned tropical farmlands.

    PubMed

    Knoke, Thomas; Bendix, Jörg; Pohle, Perdita; Hamer, Ute; Hildebrandt, Patrick; Roos, Kristin; Gerique, Andrés; Sandoval, María L; Breuer, Lutz; Tischer, Alexander; Silva, Brenner; Calvas, Baltazar; Aguirre, Nikolay; Castro, Luz M; Windhorst, David; Weber, Michael; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven; Palomeque, Ximena; Mora, Julio; Mosandl, Reinhard; Beck, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    Increasing demands for livelihood resources in tropical rural areas have led to progressive clearing of biodiverse natural forests. Restoration of abandoned farmlands could counter this process. However, as aims and modes of restoration differ in their ecological and socio-economic value, the assessment of achievable ecosystem functions and benefits requires holistic investigation. Here we combine the results from multidisciplinary research for a unique assessment based on a normalization of 23 ecological, economic and social indicators for four restoration options in the tropical Andes of Ecuador. A comparison of the outcomes among afforestation with native alder or exotic pine, pasture restoration with either low-input or intense management and the abandoned status quo shows that both variants of afforestation and intense pasture use improve the ecological value, but low-input pasture does not. Economic indicators favour either afforestation or intense pasturing. Both Mestizo and indigenous Saraguro settlers are more inclined to opt for afforestation. PMID:25425182

  3. Phosphorus, carbon- and nitrogen interactions in productive and degraded tropical pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberson, A.; Hegglin, D. D.; Nesper, M.; Rao, I.; Fonte, S.; Ramirez, B.; Velasquez, J.; Tamburini, F.; Bünemann, E. K.; Frossard, E.

    2011-12-01

    Pastures are the main land use in deforested areas of tropical South America. The highly weathered soils of these regions usually have low total and available phosphorus (P) contents. Low P availability can strongly limit plant and animal productivity and other soil ecosystem functions. Most introduced pastures of Brachiaria spp. are grass-alone (GA) while some are grass-legume (GL) pastures. The majority of the introduced pastures, particularly the grass-alone are at some state of degradation (GD). Pasture degradation induces severe loss of plant biomass production, with drastic ecological and economic implications. Although the importance of P deficiency in pasture degradation has been recognized, the knowledge generated on stoichiometry of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and P along pathways of the nutrient cycles of pastures, with different botanical composition and productivity, has been very limited. We will present results of a case study realized during 2010 to 2011 in the forest margins agro-ecosystem of the department of Caquetá, Colombia. Our objectives were to determine: i) whether P availability is lower in degraded compared to productive pastures, and ii) whether the introduction of legumes in the pasture increases P availability through enhanced biological P cycling through plant growth, plant litter decomposition and the soil microbial biomass; and iii) whether pasture types (GA vs GL) and the state of pasture degradation affect the C:N:P ratios in nutrient pools of the soil-plant system. An on-farm study was conducted on nine farms in the department of Caquetá, Colombia. On every farm three different pasture types were studied: degraded grass alone pastures (GD), productive grass-alone pastures (GA) and productive grass-legume pastures (GL). Basic soil characteristics and indicators on soil P status, microbial P cycling, plant biomass production, plant litter deposition and nutrient concentrations in plant tissue were determined. Analysis of P, C and N

  4. Soil fertility management on natural pastures in Eastern Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi; Jolokhava, Tamar; Kenchiashvili, Naira; Tarkhnishvili, Maia

    2015-04-01

    The development of livestock production in Georgia is mainly based on productivity of natural common pasturelands as it is the cheapest way to keep animals. Therefore it is crucial to manage those pastures in order to supply domestic animals with adequate amount of green grass during whole grazing season. The problems associated with poor grassland management is especially evident under limited rainfall conditions. Usually farmers do not consider suitability of existing stocking rates with pasture productivity leading to overutilization of pastureland causing reduction of palatable plant species and total grass cover stimulating soil erosion processes, which deflates soil nutrients and soil organic matter. Intensification of negative processes may result in loss of soil fertility and poor grass regrowth capacities. Current study aims to evaluate existing grazing system on a selected plots from common pasturelands in Eastern Georgia and to develop a proper soil fertility management plan accepted in organic agriculture taking into account local soil-climatic conditions, pasture vegetation stand and its richness with palatable plant species.

  5. Environmental determinants of the old oaks in wood-pastures from a changing traditional social-ecological system of Romania.

    PubMed

    Moga, Cosmin Ioan; Samoilă, Ciprian; Öllerer, Kinga; Băncilă, Raluca I; Réti, Kinga-Olga; Craioveanu, Cristina; Poszet, Szilárd; Rákosy, László; Hartel, Tibor

    2016-05-01

    Large, old trees are keystone ecological structures, their decline having disproportional ecological consequences. There is virtually no information available regarding the status and occurrence of old trees in traditional cultural landscapes from Eastern Europe. In this study, we explore the environmental determinants of the old oaks found in wood-pastures from a changing traditional rural landscape from Central Romania. Both the old oaks and the wood-pastures harboring them have exceptional cultural, historical, and ecological values, yet are vulnerable to land-use change. We surveyed 41 wood-pastures from Southern Transylvania and counted the old oaks in them. We then related the number of old oaks from these wood-pastures to a set of local and landscape level variables related to wood-pastures. We found 490 old oaks in 25 wood-pastures. The number of old oaks was positively related to the size of the wood-pasture and the amount of pasture and forest around it (500 m buffer), and negatively related to the proximity of the village. Furthermore, we found a significant interaction between the effects of sheepfolds in the wood-pasture and the size of the wood-pasture on the number of old trees, indicating a negative influence of sheepfolds on the number of old trees in smaller sized wood-pastures. There is an increasing risk for losing old trees in the traditional cultural landscapes due to the lack of formal recognition of these trees. Therefore, while presenting the positive example of local initiatives and citizen science, we argue for an urgent development and implementation of conservation policies along with education strategies targeting the old trees and rural communities from the changing traditional cultural landscapes of Eastern Europe. PMID:26729244

  6. Cycling and loss of nutrients in pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pastures are fundamentally different than croplands. When cropland is harvested, large amounts of plant nutrients are removed so relatively large rates of nutrients are often needed. In pasture, most of the nutrients harvested by livestock are returned. The proportion of nutrients returned by livest...

  7. Pasture Plants of the Northeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This factsheet contains summary information about the most common plant species encountered in northeastern pastures. Some information, such as plant size and flowering time, comes from standard reference works. Information on frequency and abundance in northeastern pastures is derived from an eight...

  8. PASTURE PLANT COMMUNITIES IN THE NORTHEAST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pastures are important to the economy of the northeastern United States, but we still don't know much about their ecology. One of the areas where we need more information is in understanding how environment affects the success of forage and weedy species in pastures. We surveyed 44 farms from Maryla...

  9. Soil carbon cycling in pasture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon accumulation in soil under pastures occurs to various degrees depending upon management and length of time. This presentation describes research results on soil carbon sequestration under pastures from the southeastern USA to help inform the scientific basis for development of a protocol to ...

  10. Advantages of pasture-based milk products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research has focused on determining the biologically active compounds naturally occurring in milk from pasture-fed cows and evaluating the impact of processing on these compounds. This research addresses one of the critical goals of the Northeast Pasture Consortium to “summarize conjugated li...

  11. Monitoring pasture variability: optical OptRx(®) crop sensor versus Grassmaster II capacitance probe.

    PubMed

    Serrano, João M; Shahidian, Shakib; Marques da Silva, José Rafael

    2016-02-01

    Estimation of pasture productivity is an important step for the farmer in terms of planning animal stocking, organizing animal lots, and determining supplementary feeding needs throughout the year. The main objective of this work was to evaluate technologies which have potential for monitoring aspects related to spatial and temporal variability of pasture green and dry matter yield (respectively, GM and DM, in kg/ha) and support to decision making for the farmer. Two types of sensors were evaluated: an active optical sensor ("OptRx(®)," which measures the NDVI, "Normalized Difference Vegetation Index") and a capacitance probe ("GrassMaster II" which estimates plant mass). The results showed the potential of NDVI for monitoring the evolution of spatial and temporal patterns of vegetative growth of biodiverse pasture. Higher NDVI values were registered as pasture approached its greatest vegetative vigor, with a significant fall in the measured NDVI at the end of Spring, when the pasture began to dry due to the combination of higher temperatures and lower soil moisture content. This index was also effective for identifying different plant species (grasses/legumes) and variability in pasture yield. Furthermore, it was possible to develop calibration equations between the capacitance and the NDVI (R(2) = 0.757; p < 0.01), between capacitance and GM (R(2) = 0.799; p < 0.01), between capacitance and DM (R(2) =0.630; p < 0.01), between NDVI and GM (R(2) = 0.745; p < 0.01), and between capacitance and DM (R(2) = 0.524; p < 0.01). Finally, a direct relationship was obtained between NDVI and pasture moisture content (PMC, in %) and between capacitance and PMC (respectively, R(2) = 0.615; p < 0.01 and R(2) = 0.561; p < 0.01) in Alentejo dryland farming systems. PMID:26812951

  12. The multi-year cumulative effects of alternative stocking rate and grazing management practices on pasture productivity and utilization efficiency.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, B; Delaby, L; Pierce, K M; McCarthy, J; Fleming, C; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2016-05-01

    The production and utilization of increased quantities of high quality pasture is of paramount importance in pasture-based milk production systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cumulative effects of alternative integrated grazing strategies, incorporating alternative stocking rate (SR) and grazing severities, on pasture productivity and grazing efficiency over multiple years within farm systems using perennial ryegrass dominant pastures. Three whole-farm SR treatments were compared over 4 complete grazing seasons (2009 to 2012 inclusive): low (2.51 cows/ha; LSR), medium (2.92 cows/ha; MSR), and high (3.28 cows/ha; HSR). Each system had its own farmlet containing 18 paddocks and remained on the same treatment for the duration of the study. Stocking rate had a significant effect on all grazing variables with the exception of soil fertility status and sward density. Increased SR resulted in increased total annual net pasture accumulation, improved sward nutritive value, and increased grazed pasture utilization. Total annual net pasture accumulation was greatest in HSR [15,410kg of dry matter (DM)/ha], intermediate for MSR (14,992kg of DM/ha), and least for LSR (14,479kg of DM/ha) during the 4-yr study period. A linear effect of SR on net pasture accumulation was detected with an increase in net pasture accumulation of 1,164.4 (SE=432.7) kg of DM/ha for each 1 cow/ha increase in SR. Pregrazing pasture mass and height and postgrazing residual pasture mass and height were greatest for LSR, intermediate for the MSR, and lowest for the HSR. In comparison with the LSR, the imposition of a consistently increased grazing severity coupled with increased whole farm SR in MSR and HSR treatments arrested the decline in sward nutritive value, typically observed during mid-season. Incorporating the individual beneficial effects of SR on pasture accumulation, nutritive value, and utilization efficiency, total proportional energy (unité fourragère lait

  13. Steers performance in dwarf elephant grass pastures alone or mixed with Arachis pintoi.

    PubMed

    Crestani, Steben; Ribeiro Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Miguel, Marcolino Frederico; de Almeida, Edison Xavier; Santos, Flávio Augusto Portela

    2013-08-01

    The inclusion of legumes in pasture reduces the need for mineral nitrogen applications and the pollution of groundwater; however, the agronomic and animal husbandry advantages with tropical legumes are still little known. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the use of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) in dwarf elephant grass pastures (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) on forage intake and animal performance. The experimental treatments were dwarf elephant grass fertilized with 200 kg N/ha, and dwarf elephant grass mixed with forage peanut without mineral fertilizers. The animals used for the experiment were 12 Charolais steers (body weight (BW) = 288 ± 5.2 kg) divided into four lots (two per treatment). Pastures were managed under intermittent stocking with an herbage allowance of 5.4 kg dry matter of green leaves/100 kg BW. Dry matter intake (mean = 2.44% BW), the average daily gain (mean = 0.76 kg), and the stocking rate (mean = 3.8 AU/ha) were similar between the studied pastures, but decreased drastically in last grazing cycle with the same herbage allowance. The presence of peanut in dwarf elephant grass pastures was enough to sustain the stocking rate, but did not allow increasing forage intake and animal performance. PMID:23413007

  14. Greener Pastures in Northern Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    After a 19 month rainfall deficiency, heavy rainfall during January 2004 brought drought relief to much of northern Queensland. Local graziers hope for good long-term responses in pasture growth from the heavy rains. These images and maps from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) portray part of Australia's Mitchell Grasslands bioregion before summer rainfall, on October 18, 2003 (left) and afterwards, on February 7, 2004 (right).

    The top pair of images are natural color views from MISR's nadir camera. The green areas in the post-rainfall image highlight the growth of vegetation. The middle panels show the reflectivity of the surface over the photosynthetically active region (PAR) of visible light (400 - 700 nm), expressed as a directional-hemispherical reflectance (DHR-PAR), or albedo. That portion of the radiation that is not reflected back to the atmosphere or space is absorbed by either the vegetation or the soil. The fraction of PAR radiation absorbed by green vegetation, known as FPAR, is shown in the bottom panels. FPAR is one of the quantities that establishes the photosynthetic and carbon uptake efficiency of live vegetation. MISR's FPAR product makes use of aerosol retrievals to correct for atmospheric scattering and absorption effects, and uses plant canopy structural models to determine the partitioning of solar radiation. Both of these aspects are facilitated by the multiangular nature of the MISR measurements.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. These data products were generated from a portion of the imagery acquired during Terra orbits 20397 and 22028. The panels cover an area of about 290 kilometers x 228 kilometers, and utilize data from blocks 106 to 108 within World Reference System-2 path 96.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA

  15. New Developments in Grasses for Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New forage varieties with improved traits are an essential component of best management practices for livestock agriculture. This paper discusses new varieties of several cool-season forage grasses used for pasture production....

  16. Plant Species Diversity and Pasture Management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers face many challenges in pasture management, such as evolving agri-environmental schemes to protect natural resources, and need new management techniques to remain sustainable. Ecological research indicates that increased plant biodiversity benefits ecosystem functions such as primary product...

  17. Acute ingestion of catechin-rich green tea improves postprandial glucose status and increases serum thioredoxin concentrations in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaki; Miyashita, Masashi; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Bae, Seong-Ryu; Kim, Hyeon-Ki; Wakisaka, Takuya; Matsui, Yuji; Takeshita, Masao; Yasunaga, Koichi

    2014-11-14

    Elevated postprandial hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress increase the risks of type 2 diabetes and CVD. Green tea catechin possesses antidiabetic properties and antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we examined the acute and continuous effects of ingestion of catechin-rich green tea on postprandial hyperglycaemia and oxidative stress in healthy postmenopausal women. Participants were randomly assigned into the placebo (P, n 11) or green tea (GT, n 11) group. The GT group consumed a catechin-rich green tea (catechins 615 mg/350 ml) beverage per d for 4 weeks. The P group consumed a placebo (catechins 92 mg/350 ml) beverage per d for 4 weeks. At baseline and after 4 weeks, participants of each group consumed their designated beverages with breakfast and consumed lunch 3 h after breakfast. Venous blood samples were collected in the fasted state (0 h) and at 2, 4 and 6 h after breakfast. Postprandial glucose concentrations were 3 % lower in the GT group than in the P group (three-factor ANOVA, group × time interaction, P< 0·05). Serum concentrations of the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites increased after meals (P< 0·05), but no effect of catechin-rich green tea intake was observed. Conversely, serum postprandial thioredoxin concentrations were 5 % higher in the GT group than in the P group (three-factor ANOVA, group × time interaction, P< 0·05). These findings indicate that an acute ingestion of catechin-rich green tea has beneficial effects on postprandial glucose and redox homeostasis in postmenopausal women. PMID:25230741

  18. Studies of pasture production in Extremadura (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Vilanova, M.; González López, F.; Paredes Galán, J.; Prieto Macías, P. M.; Blanco, V. Maya

    2009-04-01

    The region of Extremadura covers more than four million hectares in the South West of Spain, with dehesas occupying almost 1.5 million hectares of its surface. This agro-silvo-pastoral land use system constitutes the most recommendable model for extensive exploitation in Mediterranean areas in which the semiarid climate and the poor, shallow soils are constraints on any other type of agricultural use. It is characterized by a grassland with a disperse cover of oak trees and shrubs, where the main production is extensive livestock combined with agriculture and forestry. The pastures are the basis for animal breeding in the dehesas being these ecosystems of great economic, social as well as environmental value in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula. These facts justify the investigation on pasture improvement and the study on spatial and temporal variations of pasture production in the whole region. Pasture production is quite variable, highly determined by soil and climate conditions. Rainfall variability produces large seasonal and annual variations, with the highest production in spring, low production in autumn and very scarce in winter. During summer, while pastures are wilting, hard seeds stay latent in the soil and gradually germinate in consecutive months. But variability of pasture production in such a heterogeneous ecosystem does not only depend on edaphic and climate conditions, but also on other factors, such as grazing management, improvement measures, fertilization, exploitation infrastructures, stocking rates, etc. The present study, carried out in the framework of the "Montado/Dehesa" INTERREG project, aimed to sample pasture production in Extremadura, in order to provide a large amount of real data for determining the influence of the different factors involved, which will constitute the basis for the developement of a production model. The latter will be integrated into a tool helping to decide on the best practice of dehesa management. Pastures were

  19. Carbon budgets for an irrigated intensively grazed dairy pasture and an unirrigated winter-grazed pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, John E.; Laubach, Johannes; Barthel, Matti; Fraser, Anitra; Phillips, Rebecca L.

    2016-05-01

    Intensification of pastoral agriculture is occurring rapidly across New Zealand, including increasing use of irrigation and fertiliser application in some regions. While this enables greater gross primary production (GPP) and livestock grazing intensity, the consequences for the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) of the pastures are poorly known. Here, we determined the NECB over one year for an irrigated, fertilised and rotationally grazed dairy pasture and a neighbouring unirrigated, unfertilised, winter-grazed pasture. Primary terms in the NECB calculation were: net ecosystem production (NEP), biomass carbon removed by grazing cows and carbon (C) input from their excreta. Annual NEP was measured using the eddy-covariance method. Carbon removal was estimated with plate-meter measurements calibrated against biomass collections, pre- and post-grazing. Excreta deposition was calculated from animal feed intake. The intensively managed pasture gained C (NECB = 103 ± 42 g C m-2 yr-1) but would have been subject to a non-significant C loss if cattle excreta had not been returned to the pasture. The unirrigated pasture was C-neutral (NECB = -13 ± 23 g C m-2 yr-1). While annual GPP of the former was almost twice that of the latter (2679 vs. 1372 g C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration differed by only 68 % between the two pastures (2271 vs. 1352 g C m-2 yr-1). The ratio of GPP to the total annual water input of the irrigated pasture was 37 % greater than that of the unirrigated pasture, i.e. the former used the water input more efficiently than the latter to produce biomass. The NECB results agree qualitatively with those from many other eddy-covariance studies of grazed grasslands, but they seem to be at odds with long-term carbon-stock studies of other New Zealand pastures.

  20. Potassium deficiency affects water status and photosynthetic rate of the vegetative sink in green house tomato prior to its effects on source activity.

    PubMed

    Kanai, Synsuke; Moghaieb, Reda E; El-Shemy, Hany A; Panigrahi, R; Mohapatra, Pravat K; Ito, J; Nguyen, Nguyen T; Saneoka, Hirofumi; Fujita, Kounosuke

    2011-02-01

    The potassium requirement of green house tomatoes is very high for vegetative growth and fruit production. Potassium deficiency in plants takes long time for expression of visible symptoms. The objective of this study is to detect the deficiency early during the vegetative growth and define the roles of aquaporin and K-channel transporters in the process of regulation of water status and source-sink relationship. The tomato plants were grown hydroponically inside green house of Hiroshima University, Japan and subjected to different levels of K in the rooting medium. Potassium deficiency stress decreased photosynthesis, expansion and transport of ¹⁴C assimilates of the source leaf, but the effects became evident only after diameter expansion of the growing stem (sink) was down-regulated. The depression of stem diameter expansion is assumed to be associated with the suppression of water supply more than photosynthate supply to the organ. The stem diameter expansion is parameterized by root water uptake and leaf transpiration rates. The application of aquaporin inhibitor (AgNO₃) decreased leaf water potential, stem expansion and root hydraulic conductance within minutes of application. Similar results were obtained for application of the K-channel inhibitors. These observations suggested a close relationship between stem diameter expansion and activities of aquaporins and K-channel transporters in roots. The deficiency of potassium might have reduced aquaporin activity, consequently suppressing root hydraulic conductance and water supply to the growing stem for diameter expansion and leaf for transpiration. We conclude that close coupling between aquaporins and K-channel transporters in water uptake of roots is responsible for regulation of stem diameter dynamics of green house tomato plants. PMID:21421382

  1. 1. South approach to the horse pasture store, looking north; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. South approach to the horse pasture store, looking north; U.S. Highway 58 (toward Martinsville) is in the foreground - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  2. DO GRAZING CATTLE SEEK NUTRITIONALLY SUPERIOR PORTIONS OF PASTURES?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated the hypothesis that grazing cattle will most often frequent nutritionally superior portions of large pastures. Forage quantity/quality characteristics were mapped among three pastures and cattle grazing patterns subsequently tracked with GPS collars. Cattle preferred locations...

  3. Evaluation of the Host Status of Mature Green Papayas 'Maradol' for the Mexican Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Arredondo, José; Ruiz, Lia; Díaz-Fleischer, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    The suitability of mature green 'Maradol' papaya as a host of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) was studied under field and laboratory conditions. Field tests were conducted on commercial-ripened and spot-ripened fruit in two orchards and during two seasons in the state of Chiapas. Fruits at exportation ripeness are in "commercial ripeness", while fruits that are harvested immediately preceding exportation ripeness are in "spot ripeness." The field tests consisted of forced infestation experiments that evaluated papayas at two ripeness stages: the commercial- or exportation-ripened fruit (green fruits with one or two yellow stripes) and fruit before exportation ripeness called "spot ripeness." These tests were conducted in two orchards and during two seasons in the state of Chiapas, Mexico. Laboratory trials were performed with commercial-ripened fruit only. Fruit from four different postharvest periods (3, 24, 48, and 72 h) were exposed to groups of gravid flies. No larvae emerged from the fruit that was collected in the field experiments. However, some larvae and several fertile flies were obtained from the commercial-ripened fruit 72 h postharvest but not 3, 24, and 48 h postharvest in the laboratory. The results of this study indicate that the commercially ripe fruits of papaya Maradol were resistant to or free from infestation of A. ludens flies under field conditions, though these fruits must be considered nonnatural, conditional host because they became infested in the laboratory. PMID:26309263

  4. Fact Sheet: Accurately measuring forage yield in pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Farmers have a few options for measuring pasture yield. These include pasture rulers, plate meters, and electronic gauges. Pasture rulers simply measure canopy height and assume that forage yield is directly related to height. Plate meters improve accuracy by measuring compressed height. Electronic ...

  5. Fact Sheet: Ten Questions about Pastures and Biodiversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally, pasture management has emphasized balancing the quantity and quality of forage for livestock production. Thus, producers have often planted single species or simple grass-legume mixtures in their pastures. Today, producers face new challenges in pasture management, including sustainab...

  6. PLANT SPECIES DIVERSITY, ECOSYSTEM FUNCTION, AND PASTURE MANAGEMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grassland farmers face new challenges in pasture management including improving sustainability, reducing inputs of fertilizers and pesticides, and protecting soil resources. Managing plant diversity within and among pastures may be one tool to aid producers in meeting these new challenges. Pasture e...

  7. Nitrous Oxide and Methane Emissions from Grazed Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of nitrous oxide and methane to the atmosphere from grazed pastures in the eastern U.S. is not well known. Small, vented chambers have been deployed periodically since May 2005 in a rotationally-grazed pasture in central Pennsylvania. Since locations in pastures where livestock uri...

  8. Fact Sheet: Soil Carbon Sequestration in Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sequestration of carbon as soil organic matter is one way to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and lower the potential for global climate change. Cultivation typically caused the loss of 20 to 50% the native soil organic matter. Establishing pasture on former croplands is expected to a...

  9. Exploiting the Potential Differences in Pasture Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperate grasses grown for pasture in Wisconsin exhibit a range of chemical and physical characteristics that influence their utilization by grazing cattle. Potential intake of all grasses declines with maturity due to decreasing cell wall digestiblity, but the leaves and stems of orchardgrass and...

  10. Measuring Carbon Sequestration in Pasture Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of croplands to pasture can greatly increase sequestration of carbon in soil organic matter, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and helping to reduce the impacts of climate change. The measurement of soil carbon, and its limitations, could impact future carbon credit programs. ...

  11. Nutrient management on pasture and haylands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient management on pastures is a critical part of maintaining and improving their ability to provide key ecosystem services including forage and fuel production, clean air and water, and climate mitigation. Our objective was to determine the scientific underpinning for purported benefits of nutr...

  12. Measuring and budgeting available forage in pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We modeled two farms that differed in size, grazing management, and feeding strategy. We first modeled the optimal management and performance conditions for each farm with the assumption that forage on pasture was measured accurately and budgeted optimally. We also established an economically optimu...

  13. Soil carbon under perennial pastures; benchmarking the influence of pasture age and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orgill, Susan E.; Spoljaric, Nancy; Kelly, Georgina

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports baseline soil carbon stocks from a field survey of 19 sites; 8 pairs/triplet in the Monaro region of New South Wales. Site comparisons were selected by the Monaro Farming Systems group to demonstrate the influence of land management on soil carbon, and included: nutrient management, liming, pasture age and cropping history. Soil carbon stocks varied with parent material and with land management. The fertilised (phosphorus) native perennial pasture had a greater stock of soil carbon compared with the unfertilised site; 46.8 vs 40.4 Mg.C.ha to 0.50 m. However, the introduced perennial pasture which had been limed had a lower stock of soil carbon compared with the unlimed site; 62.8 vs 66.7 Mg.C.ha to 0.50 m. There was a greater stock of soil carbon under two of the three younger (<10 yr old) perennial pastures compared with older (>35 yr old) pastures. Cropped sites did not have lower soil carbon stocks at all sites; however, this survey was conducted after three years of above average annual rainfall and most sites had been cropped for less than three years. At all sites more than 20% of the total carbon stock to 0.50 m was in the 0.30 to 0.50 m soil layer highlighting the importance of considering this soil layer when investigating the implications of land management on soil carbon. Our baseline data indicates that nutrient management may increase soil carbon under perennial pastures and highlights the importance of perennial pastures for soil carbon sequestration regardless of age.

  14. Effect of interactions on the nutrient status of a tropical soil treated with green manures and inorganic phosphate fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Bah, Abdul R; Rahman, Zaharah A; Hussin, Aminuddin

    2004-06-01

    Integrated nutrient management systems using plant residues and inorganic P fertilizers have high potential for increasing crop production and ensuring sustainability in the tropics, but their adoption requires in-depth understanding of nutrient dynamics in such systems. This was examined in a highly weathered tropical soil treated with green manures (GMs) and P fertilizers in two experiments conducted in the laboratory and glasshouse. The treatments were factorial combinations of the GMs (Calopogonium caeruleum, Gliricidia sepium, and Imperata cylindrica) and P fertilizers (phosphate rocks [PRs] from North Carolina, China, and Algeria, and triple superphosphate) replicated thrice. Olsen P, mineral N, pH, and exchangeable K, Ca, and Mg were monitored in a laboratory incubation study for 16 months. The change in soil P fractions and available P was also determined at the end of the study. Phosphorus available from the amendments was quantified at monthly intervals for 5 months by 33P-32P double isotopic labeling in the glasshouse using Setaria sphacelata as test crop. The GMs were labeled with 33P to determine their contribution to P taken up by Setaria, while that from the P fertilizers was indirectly measured by labeling the soil with 32P. The P fertilizers hardly changed Olsen P and exchangeable cations during 16 months of incubation. The legume GMs and legume GM+P did not change Olsen P, lowered exchangeable Ca, and increased exchangeable K about threefold (4.5 cmol[+]kg(-1) soil) in the first 4 months, even as large amounts of NH4-N accumulated (approximately 1000 mg kg soil(-1)) and soil pH increased to more than 6.5. Afterwards, Olsen P and exchangeable Ca and Mg increased (threefold) as NH4+-N and soil pH declined. The legume GMs also augmented reversibly sorbed P in Al-P and Fe-P fractions resulting in high residual effect in the soil, while fertilizer-P was irreversibly retained. The GMs increased PR-P utilization by 40 to over 80%, mobilized soil P, and

  15. New pasture plants intensify invasive species risk

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Don A.; Catford, Jane A.; Barney, Jacob N.; Hulme, Philip E.; Inderjit; Martin, Tara G.; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M.; Riley, Sophie; Visser, Vernon

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is critical to meet global food demand, but intensification threatens native species and degrades ecosystems. Sustainable intensification (SI) is heralded as a new approach for enabling growth in agriculture while minimizing environmental impacts. However, the SI literature has overlooked a major environmental risk. Using data from eight countries on six continents, we show that few governments regulate conventionally bred pasture taxa to limit threats to natural areas, even though most agribusinesses promote taxa with substantial weed risk. New pasture taxa (including species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, and plant-endophyte combinations) are bred with characteristics typical of invasive species and environmental weeds. By introducing novel genetic and endophyte variation, pasture taxa are imbued with additional capacity for invasion and environmental impact. New strategies to prevent future problems are urgently needed. We highlight opportunities for researchers, agribusiness, and consumers to reduce environmental risks associated with new pasture taxa. We also emphasize four main approaches that governments could consider as they build new policies to limit weed risks, including (i) national lists of taxa that are prohibited based on environmental risk; (ii) a weed risk assessment for all new taxa; (iii) a program to rapidly detect and control new taxa that invade natural areas; and (iv) the polluter-pays principle, so that if a taxon becomes an environmental weed, industry pays for its management. There is mounting pressure to increase livestock production. With foresight and planning, growth in agriculture can be achieved sustainably provided that the scope of SI expands to encompass environmental weed risks. PMID:25368175

  16. New pasture plants intensify invasive species risk.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Don A; Catford, Jane A; Barney, Jacob N; Hulme, Philip E; Inderjit; Martin, Tara G; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M; Riley, Sophie; Visser, Vernon

    2014-11-18

    Agricultural intensification is critical to meet global food demand, but intensification threatens native species and degrades ecosystems. Sustainable intensification (SI) is heralded as a new approach for enabling growth in agriculture while minimizing environmental impacts. However, the SI literature has overlooked a major environmental risk. Using data from eight countries on six continents, we show that few governments regulate conventionally bred pasture taxa to limit threats to natural areas, even though most agribusinesses promote taxa with substantial weed risk. New pasture taxa (including species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, and plant-endophyte combinations) are bred with characteristics typical of invasive species and environmental weeds. By introducing novel genetic and endophyte variation, pasture taxa are imbued with additional capacity for invasion and environmental impact. New strategies to prevent future problems are urgently needed. We highlight opportunities for researchers, agribusiness, and consumers to reduce environmental risks associated with new pasture taxa. We also emphasize four main approaches that governments could consider as they build new policies to limit weed risks, including (i) national lists of taxa that are prohibited based on environmental risk; (ii) a weed risk assessment for all new taxa; (iii) a program to rapidly detect and control new taxa that invade natural areas; and (iv) the polluter-pays principle, so that if a taxon becomes an environmental weed, industry pays for its management. There is mounting pressure to increase livestock production. With foresight and planning, growth in agriculture can be achieved sustainably provided that the scope of SI expands to encompass environmental weed risks. PMID:25368175

  17. A recent assessment of the elemental composition of New Zealand pastures in relation to meeting the dietary requirements of grazing livestock.

    PubMed

    Knowles, S O; Grace, N D

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of the benefits and limitations of pasture feeding underpins sustainable grazing systems that produce milk and meat from ruminant livestock. We evaluated the mineral composition of 1,106 pasture samples collected independently from locations across New Zealand from 2001 to 2006. About half were submitted during 2002 and 2003, and 87% came from the North Island. Most herbage was from ryegrass and clover-dominated swards. The concentrations of Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, S, Se, or Zn were measured by nitric acid digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy or atomic absorption spectroscopy. Median concentrations for the macro elements were Ca 5.5, K 33, Mg 2.2, Na 2.0, P 4.0, and S 3.6 g/kg DM and for the trace elements were Co 0.10, Cu 8.4, Fe 131, Mn 74, Mo 0.66, Se 0.050, and Zn 43 mg/kg DM. Frequency histograms of concentrations revealed distributions ranging from near-normal to bottom-heavy skew with a long tail of high values. The minerals required for good plant growth were found at adequate concentrations in the majority of pastures. The exception was P; only 74% of pastures contained the recommended 3.5 mg P/kg DM. Results of the pasture survey were compared to the dietary intake requirements of cattle and sheep. For 7 elements, >95% of the pastures contained sufficiently high concentrations to meet the needs of unsupplemented animals. Exceptions were the Se dietary requirement, which was met by only 76% of pastures, the Co requirement of sheep met by only 54% of pastures, and the Cu, Na, and P requirements of cattle met by 25, 78, and 87% of pastures, respectively. Pasture analysis is an essential tool for identifying dietary insufficiency as well as unfavorable mineral balances where interactions could induce a deficiency, such as Cu × Mo and Mg × K. Monitoring of animals' nutritional status is also required to manage complex metabolic disorders related to peripartum flux of Ca and Mg. This

  18. Perennial Forage Kochia for Increased Production of Winter Grazed Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing forage kochia (Kochia prostrata) during fall/winter has improved livestock health and reduced winter feeding costs. The objectives of this study were to compare forage production/quality and livestock performance of traditional winter pastures versus pastures with forage kochia. Two kochia...

  19. Pasture growth and decomposition under continuous and rotational grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Past research has shown that grazing management can affect both pasture growth and litter decomposition. The objective of this study was to compare forage appearance (growth) and forage disappearance (decomposition) on both continuous and rotational grazed beef cattle pasture in Ohio. Data was colle...

  20. Productivity, botanical composition, and nutritive value of commercial pasture mixtures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pastures in the northeastern USA often are planted to mixtures of grasses and legumes. There is limited public sector information on the performance of commercial forage mixtures. We evaluated a range of commercial pasture mixtures to determine if the number of species in a mixture affected yield an...

  1. Lake-dredged material for beef cattle pasture establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbonatic lake-dredged materials can be used as soil amendments (lime and fertilizer) for early establishment of bahiagrass in beef cattle pastures in Florida. Some of the indirect benefits of the liming effects of this material for pastures include enhancing nutrient availability, nitrification, n...

  2. EFFECTS OF LIVESTOCK PASTURING ON NONPOINT SURFACE RUNOFF

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project was initiated to evaluate the effects of livestock pasturing in the humid regions of the United States on the quality of nonpoint surface runoff. Three pasturing regimes which are more commonly practiced in the corn belt states were evaluated to determine their poten...

  3. Influence of transient flooding on methane fluxes from subtropical pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonally flooded subtropical pastures are major methane (CH4) sources, where transient flooding drives episodic and high-magnitude emissions from the underlying landscape. Understanding the mechanisms that drive these patterns is needed to better understand pasture CH4 emissions and their response...

  4. Pasture condition scoring at the whole-farm scale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers need monitoring and assessment tools to aid in pasture management. The Pasture Condition Score (PCS) system was developed by the USDA-NRCS as a monitoring and management tool. Information is lacking, however, on how PCS results vary within and among grazing seasons and within and among far...

  5. 2. Overall view of the horse pasture store from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Overall view of the horse pasture store from the east; U.S. Highway 58 runs from left to right across the view, while Route 687 rices into the distance at the left - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  6. 5. East and north (rear) elevations of the horse pasture ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. East and north (rear) elevations of the horse pasture store, looking southwest; the store's two outbuildings can ben seen at the right of the view - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  7. 4. West and south elevations of the horse pasture store, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. West and south elevations of the horse pasture store, looking northeast; a "Greenhouse" structure can be seen extending to the west of the store at the left of the view - Horsepasture Store, U.S. Route 58 & State Route 687, Horse Pasture, Henry County, VA

  8. Ruminal motility of stocker cattle grazed on winter wheat pasture.

    PubMed

    Horn, G W; Frost, D F

    1982-10-01

    A 2-yr study was conducted to determine whether bloat of stocker cattle grazing winter wheat pasture is a primary bloat or a secondary bloat as a result of reduced ruminal motility. Amplitude (mm Hg) and frequency of ruminal contractions (contractions/min) of steers were measured before and after the steers were placed on wheat pasture, and at about weekly intervals during the pasture grazing periods. Implantable pressure transducers and water-filled balloon cannulas were used to measure ruminal motility. During the first year, amplitude of contractions increased (P less than .005) during grazing of wheat pasture (i.e., 20.5 vs 6.7 and 21.6 vs 12.9, respectively, for steers with implanted pressure transducers and water-filled balloon cannulas). Frequency of ruminal contractions of steers on wheat pasture was not decreased (P greater than .05). In the second year, amplitudes of ruminal contractions of steers on wheat pasture ranged from 11.0 to 33.5, and were either similar or greater (P less than .05) than the mean for the pre- and post-wheat pasture period (16.5). Frequencies of ruminal contractions that ranged from 1.66 to 1.80 were observed on four dates during the pasture grazing period, and were decreased (P less than .05) as compared with the mean for the pre- and post-wheat pasture period (2.43). However, the reduced frequencies were not accompanied by reduced (P greater than .05) amplitude x frequency of contractions. The data indicate that ruminal motility is not decreased in stocker cattle grazing winter wheat pasture. PMID:7142058

  9. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  10. Use of Reflectance Measurements for the Detection of N, P, K, ADF and NDF Contents in Sainfoin Pasture

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Sebahattin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationships between nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (P), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents of sainfoin (Onobrychis sativa Lam.) pasture and canopy reflectance. Canopy reflectance measurements were made by using a portable spectroradiometer. An experiment was conducted in the Turkey in May and June in 2007 and 2008. Sainfoin pasture N, P, K, ADF and NDF contents correlated linearly with the reflectance ratios R780/650 (0.61≤ r2 ≤0.80) and first derivatives of the reflectance ratios 760/630 (0.70≤ r2 ≤0.84). Linear equations between each forage variable and reflectance or first derivatives reflectance had high r2 (0.68≤ r2 ≤0.83 and 0.79≤ r2 ≤0.90, respectively) in R780 and R760 wavelengths. In stepwise regression of the reflectance (in 460, 550, 650 and 780 nm wavelengths), the r2 of predicted and measured N, P, K, ADF and NDF contents of sainfoin pasture were (0.85, 0.85, 0.78, 0.81 and 0.74, respectively), in stepwise regression of the first derivatives of reflectance (in 440, 530, 630 and 760 nm wavelengths), the r2 of predicted and measured N, P, K, ADF and NDF contents of sainfoin pasture were (0.87, 0.91, 0.83, 0.93 and 0.86, respectively). Our results suggest that canopy reflectance in blue, green, red and near infrared wavebands with NIR/Red and NDVI ratios can be used for nondestructive prediction of forage quality variables in sainfoin pasture.

  11. Biodiversity on Swedish pastures: estimating biodiversity production costs.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Fredrik Olof Laurentius

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the costs of producing biological diversity on Swedish permanent grasslands. A simple model is introduced where biodiversity on pastures is produced using grazing animals. On the pastures, the grazing animals create a sufficient grazing pressure to lead to an environment that suits many rare and red-listed species. Two types of pastures are investigated: semi-natural and cultivated. Biological diversity produced on a pasture is estimated by combining a biodiversity indicator, which measures the quality of the land, with the size of the pasture. Biodiversity is, in this context, a quantitative measure where a given quantity can be produced either by small area with high quality or a larger area with lower quality. Two areas in different parts of Sweden are investigated. Box-Cox transformations, which provide flexible functional forms, are used in the empirical analysis and the results indicate that the biodiversity production costs differ between the regions. The major contribution of this paper is that it develops and tests a method of estimating biodiversity production costs on permanent pastures when biodiversity quality differs between pastures. If the method were to be used with cost data, that were more thoroughly collected and covered additional production areas, biodiversity cost functions could be estimated and used in applied policy work. PMID:18079049

  12. Perspectives on pasture versus indoor feeding of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Wilhelm

    2016-01-15

    The dairy industry in many regions of the world has moved towards a high-input/high-output system maximising annual milk production per cow, primarily through increasing concentrate-based total mixed rations fed indoors year round, as opposed to allowing cows to feed on pasture. Pasture-based dairy systems in regions like New Zealand and Ireland are oriented towards maximum milk yield per unit of pasture, which has led to Holstein strains that are 50 to 100 kg lighter, exhibit a higher body condition score, and produce roughly half the annual amount of milk as compared to their Holstein counterparts kept in confinement in North America and Europe. Freedom from hunger might not be guaranteed when high-yielding dairy cows are kept on pasture without any supplemental feed, but at the same time no access to pasture can be considered an animal welfare concern, because pasturing is generally beneficial to the animals' health. On pasture, lighter-weight dairy cows with a medium milk production potential have proven to be superior with regard to feed efficiency and fertility. The year-round indoor feeding of high-yielding dairy cows with total mixed rations containing substantial amounts of human-edible crops from arable land puts global food security at risk and fails to utilise the evolutionary advantages of ruminants. PMID:26010136

  13. Crop and pasture response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Tubiello, Francesco N; Soussana, Jean-François; Howden, S Mark

    2007-12-11

    We review recent research of importance to understanding crop and pasture plant species response to climate change. Topics include plant response to elevated CO(2) concentration, interactions with climate change variables and air pollutants, impacts of increased climate variability and frequency of extreme events, the role of weeds and pests, disease and animal health, issues in biodiversity, and vulnerability of soil carbon pools. We critically analyze the links between fundamental knowledge at the plant and plot level and the additional socio-economic variables that determine actual production and trade of food at regional to global scales. We conclude by making recommendations for current and future research needs, with a focus on continued and improved integration of experimental and modeling efforts. PMID:18077401

  14. Production potential of warm-season annual pastures in rotation with corn silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Warm-season grasses can provide a pasture resource and give relief to cool-season pastures during the hot summer months when cool-season pasture production declines. Increased pasture availability is especially important for organic producers because of the newly defined grazing requirement for org...

  15. [Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Estimation Models for Pasture Quality].

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei-wei; Gong, Cai-lan; Hu, Yong; Wei, Yong-lin; Li, Long; Liu, Feng-yi; Meng, Peng

    2015-10-01

    Crude protein (CP), crude fat (CFA) and crude fiber (CFI) are key indicators for evaluation of the quality and feeding value of pasture. Hence, identification of these biological contents is an essential practice for animal husbandry. As current approaches to pasture quality estimation are time-consuming and costly, and even generate hazardous waste, a real-time and non-destructive method is therefore developed in this study using pasture canopy hyperspectral data. A field campaign was carried out in August 2013 around Qinghai Lake in order to obtain field spectral properties of 19 types of natural pasture using the ASD Field Spec 3, a field spectrometer that works in the optical region (350-2 500 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum. In additional to the spectral data, pasture samples were also collected from the field and examined in laboratory to measure the relative concentration of CP (%), CFA (%) and CFI (%). After spectral denoising and smoothing, the relationship of pasture quality parameters with the reflectance spectrum, the first derivatives of reflectance (FDR), band ratio and the wavelet coefficients (WCs) was analyzed respectively. The concentration of CP, CFA and CFI of pasture was found closely correlated with FDR with wavebands centered at 424, 1 668, and 918 nm as well as with the low-scale (scale = 2, 4) Morlet, Coiflets and Gassian WCs. Accordingly, the linear, exponential, and polynomial equations between each pasture variable and FDR or WCs were developed. Validation of the developed equations indicated that the polynomial model with an independent variable of Coiflets WCs (scale = 4, wavelength =1 209 nm), the polynomial model with an independent variable of FDR, and the exponential model with an independent variable of FDR were the optimal model for prediction of concentration of CP, CFA and CFI of pasture, respectively. The R2 of the pasture quality estimation models was between 0.646 and 0.762 at the 0.01 significance level. Results suggest

  16. Spectrometry of pasture condition and biogeochemistry in the central Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Townsend, Alan R.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.

    Regional analyses of Amazon cattle pasture biogeochemistry are difficult due to the complexity of human, edaphic, biotic and climatic factors and persistent cloud cover in satellite observations. We developed a method to estimate key biophysical properties of Amazon pastures using hyperspectral reflectance data and photon transport inverse modeling. Remote estimates of live and senescent biomass were strongly correlated with plant-available forms of soil phosphorus and calcium. These results provide a basis for monitoring pasture condition and biogeochemistry in the Amazon Basin using spaceborne hyperspectral sensors.

  17. Spectrometry of Pasture Condition and Biogeochemistry in the Central Amazon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P.; Townsend, Alan R.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.

    1999-01-01

    Regional analyses of Amazon cattle pasture biogeochemistry are difficult due to the complexity of human, edaphic, biotic and climatic factors and persistent cloud cover in satellite observations. We developed a method to estimate key biophysical properties of Amazon pastures using hyperspectral reflectance data and photon transport inverse modeling. Remote estimates of live and senescent biomass were strongly correlated with plant-available forms of soil phosphorus and calcium. These results provide a basis for monitoring pasture condition and biogeochemistry in the Amazon Basin using spaceborne hyperspectral sensors.

  18. 75 FR 7153 - National Organic Program; Access to Pasture (Livestock)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-17

    ..., NOP published an Advanced Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (ANPR) (71 FR 19131) seeking input on: (1... the ``National Organic Program (NOP)--Access to Pasture (Livestock)'' proposed rule (73 FR 63584)....

  19. Pasture-scale measurement of methane emissions of grazing cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantifying methane emission of cattle grazing on southern Great Plains pastures using micrometeorology presents several challenges. Cattle are elevated, mobile point sources of methane, so that knowing their location in relation to atmospheric methane concentration measurements becomes critical. St...

  20. GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING EAST, FROM RECLAIMED PASTURE TO 8750 PIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING EAST, FROM RECLAIMED PASTURE TO 8750 PIT WITH STRIPPING AND RECLAMATION ACTIVITY ONGOING SIDE BY SIDE. - Drummond Coal Company Cedrum Mine, 8750 Pit, County Road 124, Townley, Walker County, AL

  1. VIEW OF RIDING STABLE AND PASTURE FROM ENTRANCE ROAD, PART ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF RIDING STABLE AND PASTURE FROM ENTRANCE ROAD, PART TWO OF PANORAMA, FACING NORTHEAST - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  2. View east of the irrigation ditch in the upslope pasture ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View east of the irrigation ditch in the upslope pasture above the ranch core. The ditch flows toward the eastern barbed wire fenceline in the background. - Tassi Ranch, Tassi Springs, Littlefield, Mohave County, AZ

  3. 1. Distant view, showing bridge in context with agricultural (pastures ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Distant view, showing bridge in context with agricultural (pastures and cornfields) setting; looking southeast. - Eureka Bridge, Spanning Yellow River (Moved to City Park, Castalia), Frankville, Winneshiek County, IA

  4. West wing, west elevation, seen entirety from the pasture at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West wing, west elevation, seen entirety from the pasture at the west edge of state park property. (recreation of HABS No. CA-38-P152-1). - Vallejo Adobe, Adobe Road at Casa Grande, Petaluma, Sonoma County, CA

  5. 8. OBLIQUE VIEW OF WALKER BRIDGE FROM PASTURE SOUTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. OBLIQUE VIEW OF WALKER BRIDGE FROM PASTURE SOUTH OF THE KLAMATH RIVER; FACING NORTHEAST. - Walker Bridge, Spanning Klamath River and connecting Highway 96 and Walker Road, Klamath River, Siskiyou County, CA

  6. 4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WALKER BRIDGE FROM IRRIGATED PASTURE BETWEEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CONTEXTUAL VIEW OF WALKER BRIDGE FROM IRRIGATED PASTURE BETWEEN THE KLAMATH RIVER AND WALKER ROAD; FACING WEST. - Walker Bridge, Spanning Klamath River and connecting Highway 96 and Walker Road, Klamath River, Siskiyou County, CA

  7. Assessing the status of food safety management systems for fresh produce production in East Africa: evidence from certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nanyunja, J; Jacxsens, L; Kirezieva, K; Kaaya, A N; Uyttendaele, M; Luning, P A

    2015-06-01

    The farms of fresh produce farmers are major sources of food contamination by microbiological organisms and chemical pesticides. In view of their choice for farming practices, producers are influenced by food safety requirements. This study analyzes the role of food safety standard certification toward the maturity of food safety management systems (FSMS) in the primary production of fresh produce. Kenya and Uganda are two East African countries that export green beans and hot peppers, respectively, to the European Union but have contrasting features in terms of agricultural practices and certification status. In the fresh produce chain, a diagnostic instrument for primary production was used to assess context factors, core control and assurance activities, and system output to measure the performance of FSMS for certified green bean farms in Kenya and noncertified hot pepper farms in Uganda. Overall, our findings show that in Uganda, noncertified hot pepper farms revealed only a "basic level of control and assurance" activities in their FSMS, which was not satisfactory, because no insight into potential pesticide microbial contamination was presented by these farmers. On the other hand, certified green bean farms in Kenya had an "average level of control and assurance," providing insight into the delivered food safety and quality by the farmers. Farm size did not impact the maturity level of FSMS. This study confirms the role played by food safety standard certification toward the maturity of FSMS implemented in developing countries and demonstrates the possibility of Ugandan farms to upgrade agricultural practices in the fresh produce sector. PMID:26038896

  8. Green Coffee

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Caffeine in green coffee might slow blood clotting. Taking green coffee along with medications that also ...

  9. Green Tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Key References Green tea. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 8, 2009. Green tea ( Camellia sinensis ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on July ...

  10. Determination of pasture quality using airborne hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullanagari, R. R.; Kereszturi, G.; Yule, Ian J.; Irwin, M. E.

    2015-10-01

    Pasture quality is a critical determinant which influences animal performance (live weight gain, milk and meat production) and animal health. Assessment of pasture quality is therefore required to assist farmers with grazing planning and management, benchmarking between seasons and years. Traditionally, pasture quality is determined by field sampling which is laborious, expensive and time consuming, and the information is not available in real-time. Hyperspectral remote sensing has potential to accurately quantify biochemical composition of pasture over wide areas in great spatial detail. In this study an airborne imaging spectrometer (AisaFENIX, Specim) was used with a spectral range of 380-2500 nm with 448 spectral bands. A case study of a 600 ha hill country farm in New Zealand is used to illustrate the use of the system. Radiometric and atmospheric corrections, along with automatized georectification of the imagery using Digital Elevation Model (DEM), were applied to the raw images to convert into geocoded reflectance images. Then a multivariate statistical method, partial least squares (PLS), was applied to estimate pasture quality such as crude protein (CP) and metabolisable energy (ME) from canopy reflectance. The results from this study revealed that estimates of CP and ME had a R2 of 0.77 and 0.79, and RMSECV of 2.97 and 0.81 respectively. By utilizing these regression models, spatial maps were created over the imaged area. These pasture quality maps can be used for adopting precision agriculture practices which improves farm profitability and environmental sustainability.

  11. Open pasture, silvopasture, and sward herbage maturity effects on nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of cool-season pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Appalachian USA, growing forages within woodlots offers promise of increased farm productivity. A synchronized, temporal understanding of open (OP) and silvopasture (SP) nutritive characteristics is essential for grazing system development. We examined pasture type nutritive value relationships w...

  12. Spatiotemporal moisture dynamics in a prairie pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Amber; Ireson, Andrew; Helgason, Warren

    2016-04-01

    For most practical applications, soil moisture estimates are needed at field scale, integrated over the root zone. We present here results from a field study in a pasture site in Saskatchewan, Canada. We combine observations of point scale soil moisture content from an array of neutron probes with continuous, field scale, shallow soil moisture content observations from the COSMOS instrument. The neutron probe data provide insights into the spatial variability of soil moisture processes, which is highly significant at this site. In particular, we find that the field comprises non-participating profiles, where infiltration, change in storage and drainage are minimal, and dynamic profiles, where these processes are highly dynamic. This strongly affects the relationship between the spatial mean vs standard deviation of moisture content, with important implications for upscaling of point scale observations to field scale. The COSMOS performs well, but only captures changes in water content to a depth of around 20 cm, meaning that upscaling with depth is required to produce a field scale, root zone integrated estimation of soil moisture content. We compare three upscaling approaches.

  13. Volatile constituents of Festuca nigrescens, Phleum alpinum and Poa alpina from N. W. Italian Alpine pastures.

    PubMed

    Tava, Aldo; Cecotti, Roberto; Grecchi, Maris; Falchero, Luca; Coppa, Mauro; Lombardi, Giampiero

    2011-01-01

    The composition of the volatile fractions of three important grasses from sub-alpine N.W. Italian pastures, namely Festuca nigrescens Lam. non Gaudin (chewing fescue), Phleum alpinum L. (alpine timothy) and Poa alpina L. (alpine bluegrass) was investigated. The fresh aerial parts were collected at the flowering stage during the summer season. The volatile oils obtained from green tissues by steam distillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus, were analyzed by GC/FID and GC/MS. The oil yield was 0.04 +/- 0.01% weight/fresh weight bases for each of the investigated species. Several classes of compounds were found in the volatile fractions, including aldehydes, alcohols, acids, hydrocarbons, esters, ketones, terpenes, and phenolics. Qualitative and quantitative differences were observed. PMID:21366056

  14. The motivation of dairy cows for access to pasture.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Gemma L; Rutter, S Mark; East, Martyn; Sinclair, Liam A

    2013-07-01

    Several factors influence whether dairy cattle prefer to be indoors or at pasture, including weather conditions and milk yield, but it is unclear how motivated cows are for access to pasture. One way to measure motivation is to require the animal to work (e.g., walk different distances) for access to a resource. This study investigated whether pasture access located 60, 140, or 260m from the indoor housing would affect the proportion of time dairy cows spent at pasture. Thirty-two Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used during the study, which took place in the United Kingdom from May to July 2010. The experiment consisted of four 18-d experimental periods, with 8 cows in each period, which were further divided into 2 groups of 4 cows. Following a training period, the cows were randomly allocated to distances of 60, 140, or 260m to pasture over three 4-d measurement periods. A video camera was used to record time spent indoors and outdoors 24h/d, and manual behavior observations (0700 to 2200h) took place 6 times during each period to record how the cows spent their time in each location. The video data showed that cows spent, on average, 57.8% (±3.44) of their time outside (either at pasture or on the track). One-sample t-tests revealed that this value was different from 0% (t=16.80), 50% (t=2.26), and 100% (t=-12.28). Analysis of the percentage time spent outside revealed that distance did not influence nighttime pasture use (2100 to 0430h; F2,8=0.16; 81.0% vs. 81.0% vs. 76.7%, for 60m vs. 140m vs. 260m, respectively). In contrast, during the day (0700 to 2100h; from behavior observations), time spent at pasture declined as distance increased; that is, cows spent more time at pasture when they had to walk 60m (F2,80=10.09) than when they had to walk 140 or 260m (45.3% vs. 27.4% vs. 21.2%, respectively). Time spent at pasture decreased on rainy days (y=-1.0672x + 59.646, R(2)=0.09, n=48d), but the indoor temperature-humidity index (THI), the outdoor THI, and body

  15. Improvement of natural pastures using liquid organic fertilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi; Gabedava, Giorgi; Abuladze, Paata

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays natural pastures remains the main source to supply livestock with fresh feed material in Georgia. Due to that common pasturelands are under continues grazing pressure and normally no measures are taken in order to improve pasture productivity and to protect soil from erosion. Unregulated stocking rate leads to overutilization of natural pastures causing reduction in productivity and soil fertility. It is especially evident in arid regions, where bare soil after removal of vegetation dries out and is subject to wind erosion. In many areas even with regulated stocking rate plant available soil nutrient pool is already diminished and vegetation cannot be recovered easily after grazing. Therefore it is essential to improve soil fertility, which provide adequate amount of nutrients to plants to regenerate. Ongoing study aims to compare effect of different types of organic fertilizers on natural pastures in combination with pasture rotation scheme in order to maintain soil fertility and prepare the basis for its gradual improvement. Initial results shows positive impact of liquid organic fertilizers which increased aboveground biomass production by 200-300 kg per hectare.

  16. Green chemistry: development trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moiseev, I. I.

    2013-07-01

    Examples of applications of green chemistry methods in heavy organic synthesis are analyzed. Compounds, which can be produced by the processing of the biomass, and the criteria for the selection of the most promising products are summarized. The current status of the ethanol production and processing is considered. The possibilities of the use of high fatty acid triglycerides, glycerol, succinic acid, and isoprene are briefly discussed. The bibliography includes 67 references.

  17. Green Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  18. Factors affecting pasture intake and total dry matter intake in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, O P; Smith, T R

    2000-10-01

    We investigated the most relevant variables for estimating pasture intake and total dry matter (DM) intake in grazing dairy cows using 27 previously published studies. Variables compared were pasture allowance, days in milk, amount of forage, amount of concentrate and total supplementation, pasture allowance and supplementation interaction, fat-corrected milk, body weight (BW), metabolic BW, daily change in BW, percentage of legumes in pasture, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents of pasture, and NDF in pasture selected. The variables were selected using stepwise regression analysis for total DM intake and pasture DM intake. Variables selected in the total DM intake regression equation (R2 = 0.95) were pasture allowance, total supplementation, interaction of pasture allowance and supplementation, fat-corrected milk, BW, daily change in BW, percentage of legumes and pasture NDF content. Pasture DM intake regression equation (R2 = 0.90) was similar to total DM intake equation, but supplementation coefficient was negative, showing substitution effect in supplementing grazing cows. The intake of NDF as a percentage of BW was higher than 1.3% when considering NDF content of the pasture allowance. Low pasture allowance groups had values higher than 1.3%. PMID:11049073

  19. Discrimination of pasture-fed lambs from lambs fed dehydrated alfalfa indoors using different compounds measured in the fat, meat and plasma.

    PubMed

    Prache, S; Kondjoyan, N; Delfosse, O; Chauveau-Duriot, B; Andueza, D; Cornu, A

    2009-04-01

    The last decade has seen important developments in the use of carotenoid pigments to authenticate pasture-feeding in ruminants. However, dehydrated alfalfa is sometimes incorporated in grain-based concentrates fed to stall-raised lambs, which may affect the reliability of the pasture-feeding authentication methods based on carotenoids in plasma and fat, due to significant residual carotenoid levels post-dehydration. The aim of this study was to examine whether other compounds can give additional information to authenticate diet and discriminate pasture-fed lambs from lambs fed high levels of alfalfa indoors. Two feeding treatments were compared: pasture-feeding (P) v. stall-feeding with dehydrated alfalfa (A). Each treatment group consisted of seven male Romanov × Berrichon lambs. Pasture-fed (P) lambs grazed a permanent graminaceae-rich pasture maintained at a leafy, green stage, offered ad libitum; they received no supplementation at pasture. A-group lambs were individually penned and fed dehydrated alfalfa and straw; their feed level was adjusted to achieve a similar growth pattern as for P-group lambs. Plasma carotenoid concentration was measured at slaughter by spectrophotometry. The reflectance spectrum of perirenal and subcutaneous caudal fat was measured at 24-h post mortem and used to calculate an index (absolute value of the mean integral (AVMI)) quantifying light absorption by carotenoid pigments present in the fat. The nitrogen (N) stable isotopes ratio (δ15N) in both feed and longissimus dorsi muscle was measured by isotopes ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Volatile compounds were analyzed in perirenal fat for five randomly chosen lambs per treatment, using dynamic headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Plasma carotenoid concentration and AVMI of the fat did not differ significantly between P- and A-group lambs, but there were significant between-treatment differences in meat δ15N values and in the terpene profiles of perirenal fat. A

  20. Epizootiology of spirorchiid infection in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Work, Thierry M; Balazs, George H; Schumacher, Jody L; Amarisa, Marie

    2005-08-01

    We describe the epizootiology of spirorchiid trematode infections in Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas) by quantifying tissue egg burdens in turtles submitted for necropsy and by assessing antibody response to crude adult worm and egg antigens among a variety of age groups. Hapalotrema sp. and Laeredius sp. predominated in turtles infected with spirorchiids. Tissue egg burdens decreased with increasing size and increased with deteriorating body condition of turtles. No relationship was found between tissue egg burdens and sex or fibropapillomatosis status. Tissue egg burdens increased in turtles from southeast to northwest in the main Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii to Kauai). Hatchling and captive-reared turtles had significantly lower levels of antibodies against crude worm and egg antigens. Based on tissue egg burdens and antibody status, we hypothesize that immature turtles become infected with spirorchiids shortly after recruiting into coastal foraging pastures from the pelagic environment, that infection levels decrease with age, and that spirorchiids detrimentally affect the body condition of sea turtles independent of tumor burden. The low intensity of infection in turtles with the endemic trematode Carettacola hawaiiensis suggests either that turtles are less susceptible to infection with this parasite or that the parasite is outcompeted by species of Hapalotrema and Laeredius. Given that the 2 latter species are found in the Pacific and other oceans, they are not likely endemic and were probably introduced into Hawaii through an undetermined route. PMID:17089757

  1. Epizootiology of spirorchid infection in green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Balazs, G.H.; Schumacher, Jody L.; Marie, A.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the epizootiology of spirorchiid trematode infections in Hawaiian green turtles (Chelonia mydas) by quantifying tissue egg burdens in turtles submitted for necropsy and by assessing antibody response to crude adult worm and egg antigens among a variety of age groups. Hapalotrema sp. and Laeredius sp. predominated in turtles infected with spirorchiids. Tissue egg burdens decreased with increasing size and increased with deteriorating body condition of turtles. No relationship was found between tissue egg burdens and sex or fibropapillomatosis status. Tissue egg burdens increased in turtles from southeast to northwest in the main Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii to Kauai). Hatchling and captive-reared turtles had significantly lower levels of antibodies against crude worm and egg antigens. Based on tissue egg burdens and antibody status, we hypothesize that immature turtles become infected with spirorchiids shortly after recruiting into coastal foraging pastures from the pelagic environment, that infection levels decrease with age, and that spirorchiids detrimentally affect the body condition of sea turtles independent of tumor burden. The low intensity of infection in turtles with the endemic trematode Carettacola hawaiiensis suggests either that turtles are less susceptible to infection with this parasite or that the parasite is outcompeted by species of Hapalotrema and Laeredius. Given that the 2 latter species are found in the Pacific and other oceans, they are not likely endemic and were probably introduced into Hawaii through an undetermined route.

  2. Greene Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article profiles the 37-year-old researcher Jay P. Greene and his controversial research studies on education. Most people learn early to trust the things they see first, but Greene adheres to a different creed. People are deceived by their own eyes. He believed that visual betrayal is as evident as it is in how people think…

  3. Invited review: An evaluation of the likely effects of individualized feeding of concentrate supplements to pasture-based dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hills, J L; Wales, W J; Dunshea, F R; Garcia, S C; Roche, J R

    2015-03-01

    In pasture-based dairy systems, supplementary feeds are used to increase dry matter intake and milk production. Historically, supplementation involved the provision of the same amount of feed (usually a grain-based concentrate feed) to each cow in the herd during milking (i.e., flat-rate feeding). The increasing availability of computerized feeding and milk monitoring technology in milking parlors, however, has led to increased interest in the potential benefits of feeding individual cows (i.e., individualized or differential feeding) different amounts and types of supplements according to one or more parameters (e.g., breeding value for milk yield, current milk yield, days in milk, body condition score, reproduction status, parity). In this review, we consider the likely benefits of individualized supplementary feeding strategies for pasture-based dairy cows fed supplements in the bail during milking. A unique feature of our review compared with earlier publications is the focus on individualized feeding strategies under practical grazing management. Previous reviews focused primarily on research undertaken in situations where cows were offered ad libitum forage, whereas we consider the likely benefits of individualized supplementary feeding strategies under rotational grazing management, wherein pasture is often restricted to all or part of a herd. The review provides compelling evidence that between-cow differences in response to concentrate supplements support the concept of individualized supplementary feeding. PMID:25582585

  4. Effect of mineral supplementation on the performance by stocker cattle grazing winter wheat pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the efficacy of mineral supplementing stocker cattle grazing wheat pasture, 2 experiments were conducted. In Exp 1, 72 steer and heifer calves (avg BW = 228 kg) were randomly assigned to 12, 4.9-ha pastures on November 12 at 1.2 calves/ha (4 pastures), and February 5 at 2.5 calves/ha (8...

  5. Effects of pasture renovation on hydrology, nutrient runoff, and forage yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper pasture management is important in promoting optimal forage growth and reducing runoff and nutrient loss. Pasture renovation was performed prior to manure application (poultry litter or swine slurry) on different pasture soils and rainfall simulations were conducted to identify the effects o...

  6. Regionalized levels of soil phosphorus and phosphorus saturation in beef cattle pastures with and without grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Available soil phosphorus (P) in various agro-ecosystems is regulated by climate, soil type, vegetation, and management practices. Available soil P in bahiagrass beef cattle pastures were compared with rhizoma peanut pastures and bermudagrass pastures. For each location, the pain plot was represente...

  7. Peripheral and gastrointestinal immune systems of healthy cattle raised outdoors at pasture or indoors on a concentrate-based ration

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite an increasing preference of consumers for beef produced from more extensive pasture-based production systems and potential human health benefits from the consumption of such beef, data regarding the health status of animals raised on pasture are limited. The objective of this study was to characterise specific aspects of the bovine peripheral and the gastrointestinal muscosal immune systems of cattle raised on an outdoor pasture system in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based system. Results A number of in vitro functional tests of immune cells suggested subtle differences between the animals on the outdoor versus indoor production systems. There was a decrease in the number of neutrophils and monocytes engaged in phagocytosis in outdoor cattle (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) in comparison to those indoors. Following mitogen stimulation, a lower level of interferon-γ was produced in leukocytes from the outdoor animals (P < 0.05). There was evidence of a gastrointestinal nematode infection in the outdoor animals with elevated levels of serum pepsinogen (P < 0.001), a higher number of eosinophils (P < 0.05) and a higher level of interleukin-4 and stem cell factor mRNA expression (P < 0.05) in the outdoor animals in comparison to the indoor animals. Lower levels of copper and iodine were measured in the outdoor animals in comparison to indoor animals (P < 0.001). Conclusion Despite distinctly contrasting production systems, only subtle differences were identified in the peripheral immune parameters measured between cattle raised at pasture in comparison to animals raised on a conventional intensive indoor concentrate-based production system. PMID:20356390

  8. Analysis of the effects of blue light on morphofunctional status of in vitro cultured blastocysts from mice carrying gene of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP).

    PubMed

    Sakharova, N Yu; Mezhevikina, L M; Smirnov, A A; Vikhlyantseva, E F

    2014-05-01

    We studied the effect of blue light (440-490 nm) on the development of late blastocysts of mice carrying the gene of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Exposure to blue light for 20 min reduced adhesive properties of blastocysts and their capacity to form primary colonies consisting of the cells of inner cell mass, trophoblast, and extraembryonic endoderm. The negative effects of blue light manifested in morphological changes in the primary colonies and impairment of differentiation and migration of cells of the trophoblast and extraembryonic endoderm. The problems of cell-cell interaction and inductive influences of the inner cell mass on other cell subpopulations are discussed. EGFP blastocysts were proposed as the model for evaluation of the mechanisms underlying the effects of blue light as the major negative factor of visible light used in in vitro experiments on mammalian embryos. PMID:24913583

  9. GREEN Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. McNerney, Jerry [D-CA-9

    2013-06-13

    07/08/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Ecosystem carbon-water interactions of tropical pasture and afforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, S.; Eugster, W.; Buchmann, N.

    2010-12-01

    Despite the importance of tropical ecosystems for global carbon and water cycling, eddy covariance flux measurements in the tropics are still scarce and globally underrepresented within FLUXNET. In addition, previous studies have been predominantly conducted in tropical forests with only very few observations, often unpublished, from other tropical land-use types like pastures, croplands and savannas. As recently emphasized by global synthesis activities, C4 dominated ecosystems account for more than 20 % of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) but represent less than 20 site-years of data within FLUXNET. Consequently, an expansion of observations for tropical C4 ecosystems is needed to understand their role in the global carbon and water cycling. We have performed comparative eddy covariance measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes in a tropical pasture and an adjacent, young afforestation in Panama from 2007 to 2009. Our results show a larger intra-annual variability of CO2 and H2O fluxes at the pasture compared to the afforestation. In addition, the tropical pasture was more sensitive to water limitations and seasonal drought. Moreover, observed differences in water use efficiency (WUE) between both ecosystems tend to become smaller after the establishment phase of the afforestation. Our results highlight the role of land management on ecosystem carbon and water fluxes in the tropics. Implications of our results for further research and synthesis activities will be discussed.

  11. Utilization of Pasture and Forages by Ruminants: A Historical Perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pastures, forages and grasslands dominate the landscape across the United States and support a large ruminant population that supplies the nation with value-added animal products. An historical perspective is presented of the innovations as they occurred in the Journal of Animal Science over the pas...

  12. Using lake dredged material to enhance pasture establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cow-calf (Bos taurus) industry in subtropical United States and other parts of the world depends almost totally on grazed pastures. Establishment of complete, uniform stand of bahiagrass in a short time period is vital economically. Domestic wastewater sludge or sewage sludge, composted urban pl...

  13. Reestablishing Chicory into Multi-Species Perennial Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) has the potential to provide abundant, high quality forage during periods of drought stress, but poor persistence limits its usefulness in permanent pasture. This experiment compared the ability of three seeding methods to reestablish chicory into a grazed multi-specie...

  14. Heifer growth performance from fall-oat pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fall-grown oat has shown promise as an emergency fall forage option, or to extend the grazing season in Wisconsin. Our objectives for this project were: i) to assess the pasture productivity and forage characteristics of 2 fall-grown oat cultivars (Ogle and ForagePlus; OG and FP, respectively) using...

  15. Leveraging the beneficial compounds of organic and pasture milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much discussion has arisen over the possible benefits of organic food, including milk. Organic milk comes from cows that are on pasture during the growing season, and would be expected to contain some compounds that are not found in animals receiving conventional feed, or at higher concentrations. ...

  16. Sediment carbon concentration and transport from small pastured watersheds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the current emphasis on the role of carbon in the environment, agricultural systems and their impacts on the carbon cycle are important parts of the overall issue. Pasture systems and carbon that is transported attached to sediment has been addressed at the North Appalachian Experimental Waters...

  17. Utilization of Pasture Seed Mixtures in the Northeast USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terms such as “plant species diversity” and “species mixture complexity” are used to describe and quantify characteristics of plant communities found in pastures, and have drawn increased attention from the scientific community. Livestock producers use many methods to alter these characteristics in...

  18. SOIL PHOSPHOROUS SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION IN PASTURES RECEIVING POULTRY LITTER APPLICATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmentally-based P management strategies could be improved by delineating management zones incorporating the effects of landscape position on soil morphology, hydrology, and soil P distribution. Three farm pasture sites in SW Missouri receiving long-term poultry litter applications were sampled...

  19. Cattle use patterns of riparian pastures in northeastern Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock use of riparian areas has been fraught with controversy, with some arguing that livestock should be excluded while others emphasize the benefits of controlled grazing. Our study was designed to 1) characterize the nature of cattle grazing in riparian pastures, 2) determine intensity and s...

  20. Grazing management effects on pasture productivity – extent of grazing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    How does grazing using the “take half – leave half” rule actually affect annual pasture productivity? Is residue height a concern when mature grasses are mob grazed, a management alternative to grazing at a vegetative stage? A range of grazing management systems was implemented at the U.S. Dairy For...

  1. New Genomic Resources for Pasture and Range Grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the initial requirements of utilizing genomic approaches in plant improvements is the availability of DNA sequence information. Toward the goal of generating sequence information for forage and pasture grasses, we are developing EST libraries from orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata) and sever...

  2. Evaluating Pasture Grasses: Fescues and Other Freaks of Nature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) has excellent potential for grazing-based dairy and beef systems in Wisconsin, but producer awareness of this temperate grass is lacking. Previous research established that its intake potential is comparable or superior to other pasture grasses, and winter-ha...

  3. Canopy-Coverage Method Compares Pasture and Prairie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantzen, Paul G.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the procedures used by a high school biology class in an ecological study related to the degeneration of grasslands. The canopy-coverage method of vegetational analysis was used to compare a low-grade, over-grazed pasture with a nearby high-quality prairie. An interpretation of the results is also presented. (JR)

  4. Comparison of Two Pasture Growth Models of Differing Complexity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two pasture growth models that share many common features but differ in model complexity have been developed for incorporation into the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM). Major differences between models include the explicit representation of roots in the more complex model, and their effects on c...

  5. Nutritive value in relation to plant species diversity of pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Planting forage mixtures may benefit pasture herbage production; however, changes in botanical composition could cause unstable nutritive value. Data from two grazing studies and a farm survey were used to examine how plant species diversity influenced herbage nutritive value. In one grazing study,...

  6. Distribution of cattle grazing in a northeastern Oregon riparian pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Livestock grazing of a northeastern Oregon riparian pasture was monitored using high-frequency GPS tracking of cattle and high-resolution aerial photography. Tracking collars recorded positions, velocity, date, and time at 1-sec intervals. Areas where animals rested and moved were identified and re...

  7. Fact Sheet: Tapping into the pasture seed bank

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A seed bank is a reserve of dormant seeds in the soil that enables some types of plants to re-establish themselves after a drastic disturbance of the established vegetation. In some ways it forms a “memory” for the pasture, a record of its vegetation history. To explore that history, we visited seve...

  8. Soil nitrogen and carbon impacts of raising chickens on pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryals, R.; Leach, A.; Tang, J.; Hastings, M. G.; Galloway, J. N.

    2014-12-01

    Chicken is the most consumed meat in the US, and production continues to intensify rapidly around the world. Chicken manure from confined feeding operations is typically applied in its raw form to nearby croplands, resulting in hotspots of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Pasture-raised chicken is an alternative to industrial production and is growing in popularity with rising consumer demand for more humanely raised protein sources. In this agricultural model, manure is deposited directly onto grassland soils where it is thought to increase pools of soil carbon and nitrogen. The fate of manure nitrogen from pasture-raised chicken production remains poorly understood. We conducted a controlled, replicated experiment on a permaculture farm in Charlottesville, Virginia (Timbercreek Organics) in which small chicken coops (10 ft x 12 ft) were moved daily in a pasture. We measured manure deposition rates, soil inorganic nitrogen pools, soil moisture, and soil N2O and CO2 emissions. Measurements were made for the 28-day pasture life of three separate flocks of chickens in the spring, summer, and fall. Each flock consisted of approximately 200-300 chickens occupying three to five coops (~65 chickens/coop). Measurements were also made in paired ungrazed control plots. Manure deposition rates were similar across flocks and averaged 1.5 kgdrywt ha-1 during the spring grazing event and 4.0 kgdrywt ha-1 during the summer and fall grazing events. Manure deposition was relatively constant over the four weeks pasture-lifetime of the chickens. Compared to control plots, grazed areas exhibited higher soil N2O and CO2 fluxes. The magnitude of these fluxes diminished significantly over the four-week span. Soil gas fluxes significantly increased following rainfall events. For a given rainfall event, higher fluxes were observed from transects that were grazed more recently. Soil gaseous reactive nitrogen losses were less in this pasture system compared to cultivated field amended

  9. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  10. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  11. Green Giant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Details the design of the Bahen Centre for Information Technology at the University of Toronto, particularly its emphasis on "green," or sustainable, design. Includes floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  12. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  13. Eastern Gamagrass Management for Pastures in the Mid-Atlantic Region: I. Animal Performance and Pasture Productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eastern gamagrass [Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L.] is a native, warm-season perennial grass with potential as pasture for the eastern USA, but its value has not been well studied. The objective of this 4-yr experiment was to estimate forage mass (FM) for eastern gamagrass (EG) that maximizes steer pe...

  14. Short-Term and Sub-Chronic Dietary Exposure to Aspalathin-Enriched Green Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) Extract Affects Rat Liver Function and Antioxidant Status.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Johanna Debora; de Beer, Dalene; Joubert, Elizabeth; Gelderblom, Wentzel C A

    2015-01-01

    An aspalathin-enriched green rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) extract (GRE) was fed to male Fischer rats in two independent studies for 28 and 90 days. The average dietary total polyphenol (TP) intake was 756 and 627 mg Gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/kg body weight (bw)/day over 28 and 90 days, respectively, equaling human equivalent doses (HEDs) of 123 and 102 GAE mg/kg bw/day. Aspalathin intake of 295 mg/kg bw/day represents a HED of 48 mg/kg bw/day (90 day study). Consumption of GRE increased feed intake significantly (p < 0.05) compared to the control after 90 days, but no effect on body and organ weight parameters was observed. GRE significantly (p < 0.05) reduced serum total cholesterol and iron levels, whilst significantly (p < 0.05) increasing alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity after 90 days. Endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver, i.e., catalase and superoxide dismutase activity, was not adversely affected. Glutathione reductase activity significantly (p < 0.05) increased after 28 days, while glutathione (GSH) content was decreased after 90 days, suggesting an altered glutathione redox cycle. Quantitative Real Time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed altered expression of certain antioxidant defense and oxidative stress related genes, indicative, among others, of an underlying oxidative stress related to changes in the GSH redox pathway and possible biliary dysfunction. PMID:26694346

  15. Forages and pastures symposium: fungal endophytes of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass: pasture friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Young, C A; Hume, D E; McCulley, R L

    2013-05-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. syn. Festuca arundinacea Schreb.] and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) are important perennial forage grasses utilized throughout the moderate- to high-rainfall temperate zones of the world. These grasses have coevolved with symbiotic fungal endophytes (Epichloë/Neotyphodium spp.) that can impart bioactive properties and environmental stress tolerance to the grass compared with endophyte-free individuals. These endophytes have proven to be very important in pastoral agriculture in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia, where forage grasses are the principal feed for grazing ruminants. In this review, we describe the biology of these grass-endophyte associations and implications for the livestock industries that are dependent on these forages. Endophyte alkaloid production is put in context with endophyte diversity, and we illustrate how this has facilitated utilization of grasses infected with different endophyte strains that reduce livestock toxicity issues. Utilization of tall fescue and use of perennial ryegrass in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia are compared, and management strategies focused predominantly on the success of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass in New Zealand and Australia are discussed. In addition, we consider the impact of grass-endophyte associations on the sustainability of pasture ecosystems and their likely response to future changes in climate. PMID:23307839

  16. The Green of Green Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challis, Lawrie; Sheard, Fred

    2003-12-01

    In 1828, an English miller from Nottingham published a mathematical essay that generated little response. George Green's analysis, however, has since found applications in areas ranging from classical electrostatics to modern quantum field theory.

  17. Greening of the Earth and its drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zaichun; Piao, Shilong; Myneni, Ranga B.; Huang, Mengtian; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Canadell, Josep G.; Ciais, Philippe; Sitch, Stephen; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Arneth, Almut; Cao, Chunxiang; Cheng, Lei; Kato, Etsushi; Koven, Charles; Li, Yue; Lian, Xu; Liu, Yongwen; Liu, Ronggao; Mao, Jiafu; Pan, Yaozhong; Peng, Shushi; Peñuelas, Josep; Poulter, Benjamin; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Stocker, Benjamin D.; Viovy, Nicolas; Wang, Xuhui; Wang, Yingping; Xiao, Zhiqiang; Yang, Hui; Zaehle, Sönke; Zeng, Ning

    2016-08-01

    Global environmental change is rapidly altering the dynamics of terrestrial vegetation, with consequences for the functioning of the Earth system and provision of ecosystem services. Yet how global vegetation is responding to the changing environment is not well established. Here we use three long-term satellite leaf area index (LAI) records and ten global ecosystem models to investigate four key drivers of LAI trends during 1982-2009. We show a persistent and widespread increase of growing season integrated LAI (greening) over 25% to 50% of the global vegetated area, whereas less than 4% of the globe shows decreasing LAI (browning). Factorial simulations with multiple global ecosystem models suggest that CO2 fertilization effects explain 70% of the observed greening trend, followed by nitrogen deposition (9%), climate change (8%) and land cover change (LCC) (4%). CO2 fertilization effects explain most of the greening trends in the tropics, whereas climate change resulted in greening of the high latitudes and the Tibetan Plateau. LCC contributed most to the regional greening observed in southeast China and the eastern United States. The regional effects of unexplained factors suggest that the next generation of ecosystem models will need to explore the impacts of forest demography, differences in regional management intensities for cropland and pastures, and other emerging productivity constraints such as phosphorus availability.

  18. Controlling runoff from subtropical pastures has differential effects on nitrogen and phosphorus loads.

    PubMed

    Bohlen, Patrick J; Villapando, Odi R

    2011-01-01

    A 4-yr (2005-2008) study was conducted to evaluate the potential of pasture water management for controlling nutrient losses in surface runoff in the Northern Everglades. Two pasture water management treatments were investigated on Bahia grass ( Flüggé) pastures: reduced flow and unobstructed flow. The reduced flow treatment was applied to four of eight 20.23-ha pastures by installing water control structures in pasture drainage ditches with flashboards set at a predetermined height. Four other pastures received the unobstructed-flow treatment, in which surface runoff exited pastures unimpeded. Automated instruments measured runoff volume and collected surface water samples for nutrient analysis. In analyzing data for before-after treatment analysis, the 2005 results were removed because of structural failure in water control structures and the 2007 results were removed because of drought conditions. Pasture water retention significantly reduced annual total nitrogen (TN) loads, which were 11.28 kg ha and 6.28 kg ha, respectively, in pastures with unobstructed and reduced flow. Total phosphorus (TP) loads were 27% lower in pastures with reduced flow than in pastures with unobstructed flow, but this difference was not statistically significant. Concentrations of available soil P were significantly greater in pastures with reduced flow. Pasture water retention appears to be an effective approach for reducing runoff volume and TN loads from cattle pastures in the Northern Everglades, but the potential to reduce TP loads may be diminished if higher water table conditions cause increased P release from soils, which could result in higher P concentration in surface runoff. PMID:21546685

  19. Pasture trees in tropical México: the effect of soil nutrients on seedling growth.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sáanchez, José Luis

    2006-06-01

    Environment and seedling community under isolated trees in pastures are different from those in the open pasture. The effect of the pasture trees on the soil nutrients and on the seedling growth were investigated. Seven isolated trees and eight plots were selected in two pastures of 12-yr and 32-yr old derived from a lowland rain forest with nutrient-rich soil at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico. The soil concentrations of total N, P Bray, K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+, plus others physical and chemical characteristics, were compared between the pasture trees and the open-pasture. An experiment was done to test the hypothesis that soil from under the pasture trees was better for seedling growth than soil from the open pasture. Seedlings of two native tree species and two domesticated species were grown in soil from the two different sites in a shade-house. The dry weight of the shoot and root/shoot ratio were compared. Only total N, P and Na+ differed slightly in concentrations between the sites, but did not promote more seedling biomass. It seems that the soil at this location is sufficiently nutrient-rich even in the open pastures and over-ride any effect of the pasture trees on nutrient availability. PMID:18494306

  20. Rumen conditions that predispose cattle to pasture bloat.

    PubMed

    Majak, W; Howarth, R E; Cheng, K J; Hall, J W

    1983-08-01

    Rumen contents from the dorsal sac were examined before alfalfa ingestion to determine factors that predispose cattle to pasture bloat. Chlorophyll concentration, buoyancy of particulate matter, and rates of gas production were significantly higher in cattle that subsequently bloated than in those that did not. Higher chlorophyll in bloat cases indicated accumulation of suspended chloroplast particles in the dorsal sac, perhaps due to increased buoyancy of the particulate matter. The higher fermentation rates (in the presence of glucose) suggested that the latent capacity for gas production was due to microbial colonization of suspended feed particles. Chlorophyll 4 h after feeding was also higher in bloated as compared to unbloated animals. In short, the microbial colonization and retention of particulate matter provided active inocula for promoting rapid legume digestion. Consequently, gas production was enhanced when feeding commenced, but the fermentation gases were trapped by the buoyant, frothy ingesta, resulting in the condition of pasture bloat. PMID:6619348

  1. Influence of transient flooding on methane fluxes from subtropical pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Samuel D.; Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria; Walter, M. Todd; Boughton, Elizabeth H.; Bernacchi, Carl J.; DeLucia, Evan H.; Groffman, Peter M.; Keel, Earl W.; Sparks, Jed P.

    2016-03-01

    Seasonally flooded subtropical pastures are major methane (CH4) sources, where transient flooding drives episodic and high-magnitude emissions from the underlying landscape. Understanding the mechanisms that drive these patterns is needed to better understand pasture CH4 emissions and their response to global change. We investigated belowground CH4 dynamics in relation to surface fluxes using laboratory water table manipulations and compared these results to field-based eddy covariance measurements to link within-soil CH4 dynamics to ecosystem fluxes. Ecosystem CH4 fluxes lag flooding events, and this dynamic was replicated in laboratory experiments. In both cases, peak emissions were observed during water table recession. Flooding of surface organic soils and precipitation driven oxygen pulses best explained the observed time lags. Precipitation oxygen pulses likely delay CH4 emissions until groundwater dissolved oxygen is consumed, and emissions were temporally linked to CH4 production in surface soil horizons. Methane accumulating in deep soils did not contribute to surface fluxes and is likely oxidized within the soil profile. Methane production rates in surface organic soils were also orders of magnitude higher than in deep mineral soils, suggesting that over longer flooding regimes CH4 produced in deep horizons is not a significant component of surface emissions. Our results demonstrate that distinct CH4 dynamics may be stratified by depth and flooding of surface organic soils drives CH4 fluxes from subtropical pastures. These results suggest that small changes in pasture water table dynamics can drive large changes in CH4 emissions if surface soils remain saturated over longer time scales.

  2. Contrasting impacts of different-sized herbivores on species richness of Mediterranean annual pastures differing in primary productivity.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Marta; Rebollo, Salvador; García-Salgado, Gonzalo

    2013-06-01

    Vertebrate herbivores can be key determinants of grassland plant species richness, although the magnitude of their effects can largely depend on ecosystem and herbivore characteristics. It has been demonstrated that the combined effect of primary productivity and body size is critical when assessing the impact of herbivores on plant richness of perennial-dominated grasslands; however, the interaction of site productivity and herbivore size as determinants of plant richness in annual-dominated pastures remains unknown. We experimentally partitioned primary productivity and herbivore body size (sheep and wild rabbits) to study the effect of herbivores on the plant species richness of a Mediterranean semiarid annual plant community in central Spain over six years. We also analyzed the effect of grazing and productivity on the evenness and species composition of the plant community, and green cover, litter, and plant height. We found that plant richness was higher where the large herbivore was present at high-productivity sites but barely changed at low productivity. The small herbivore did not affect species richness at either productivity site despite its large effects on species composition. We propose that adaptations to resource scarcity and herbivory prevented plant richness changes at low-productivity sites, whereas litter accumulation in the absence of herbivores decreased plant richness at high productivity. Our results are consistent with predictions arising from a long history of grazing and highlight the importance of both large and small herbivores to the maintenance of plant diversity of Mediterranean annual-dominated pastures. PMID:23090759

  3. Small quantities of carotenoid-rich tropical green leafy vegetables indigenous to Africa maintain vitamin A status in Mongolian gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Ejoh, Richard A; Dever, Joseph T; Mills, Jordan P; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2010-06-01

    Leafy vegetables are important sources of provitamin A carotenoids. Information on their ability to provide vitamin A is often misleading because of the methodology used to assess bioefficacy. Mongolian gerbils were used to evaluate the bioefficacy of provitamin A carotenoids in tropical leafy vegetables (i.e. Solanum nigrum, Moringa oleifera, Vernonia calvoana and Hibiscus cannabinus) that are indigenous to Africa. Gerbils (n 67) were vitamin A-depleted for 5 weeks. After a baseline kill (n 7), the gerbils were weight-matched and assigned to six treatment groups (n 10; four vegetable groups; negative and positive controls). For 4 weeks, the treatments included 35 nmol vitamin A (theoretical concentrations based on 100 % bioefficacy) in the form of vegetables or retinyl acetate. In addition to their diets, the control and vegetable groups received daily doses of oil, while the vitamin A group received retinyl acetate in oil matched to prior day intake. Serum and livers were analysed for vitamin A using HPLC. Serum retinol concentrations did not differ among groups, but total liver vitamin A of the vitamin A and vegetable groups were higher than that of the negative control group (P < 0.0001). Liver beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase-1 expression levels were determined for two vegetable groups and were similar to the positive and negative controls. Conversion factors for the different leafy vegetables were between 1.9 and 2.3 microg beta-carotene equivalents to 1 microg retinol. Small quantities of these vegetables maintained vitamin A status in gerbils through efficient bioconversion of beta-carotene to retinol. PMID:20412609

  4. Small quantities of carotenoid-rich tropical green leafy-vegetables indigenous to Africa maintain vitamin A status in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Ejoh, Richard A.; Dever, Joseph T.; Mills, Jordan P.; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2015-01-01

    Leafy vegetables are important sources of provitamin A carotenoids. Information on their ability to provide vitamin A is often misleading because of the methodology used to assess bioefficacy. Mongolian gerbils were used to evaluate the bioefficacy of provitamin A carotenoids in tropical leafy vegetables (i.e. Solanium nigrum, Moringa oleifera, Vernonia calvoana, and Hibiscus cannabinus) that are indigenous to Africa. Gerbils (n = 67) were vitamin A-depleted for 5 weeks. After a baseline kill (n = 7), the gerbils were weight-matched and assigned to 6 treatment groups (n = 10/group; 4 vegetable groups; negative and positive controls). For 4 weeks, the treatments included 35 nmol vitamin A (theoretical concentrations based on 100% bioefficacy) in the form of vegetables or retinyl acetate. In addition to their diets, the control and vegetable groups received daily doses of oil, while the vitamin A group received retinyl acetate in oil matched to prior day intake. Serum and livers were analysed for vitamin A using HPLC. Serum retinol concentrations did not differ among groups, but total liver vitamin A of the vitamin A and vegetable groups were higher than that of the negative control group (P < 0·0001). Liver β-carotene 15,15′-monooxygenase-1 expression levels were determined for two vegetable groups and were similar to the positive and negative controls. Conversion factors for the different leafy vegetables were between 1·9 and 2·3 μg β-carotene equivalents to 1 μg retinol. Small quantities of these vegetables maintained vitamin A status in gerbils through efficient bioconversion of β-carotene to retinol. PMID:20412609

  5. Going Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the benefits that schools and universities can gain by adopting environmentally sensitive practices in their design and operations. Includes resources for locating additional information about green schools and a list of 11 features that represent a comprehensive, sustainable school. (GR)

  6. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output. PMID:23763098

  7. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  8. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  9. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  10. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts. PMID:19062433

  11. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  12. Interrelationships of nutrition, metabolic hormones and resumption of ovulation in multiparous suckled beef cows on subtropical pastures.

    PubMed

    Samadi, F; Phillips, N J; Blache, D; Martin, G B; D'Occhio, M J

    2013-03-01

    The effect of nutrition before and after calving on metabolic status and the resumption of ovulation postpartum was examined in multiparous sucked beef cows on subtropical pastures. At 6-7 months of gestation, Droughtmaster cows were randomly assigned on body weight (BW) and stage of gestation to two groups that received either standard subtropical pasture (SP, n = 7, 543 ± 12 kg BW) or improved pasture (IP, n = 7, 564 ± 12 kg BW). The two nutritional treatments were maintained after calving. Starting at 1 week after calving, cows were monitored for BW and body condition score (BCS, biweekly) and for circulating concentrations of insulin, glucose, IGF-1, GH and leptin (weekly). Ovarian follicular status was monitored weekly by trans-rectal ultrasonography. Fecal samples were obtained at 3-week intervals to ascertain percentage crude protein (%CP) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) of pastures. Crude protein and DMD were greater (P < 0.05) for cows on IP during the first 9 weeks after calving after which there were no differences between nutritional treatments. Cows on IP were heavier (P < 0.05) and had a greater (P < 0.01) BCS than cows on SP at 1 week after calving (585 ± 9 kg and 3.7 ± 0.2 BCS and 528 ± 21 kg and 2.3 ± 0.2 BCS, respectively). Cows on SP showed a gradual increase in BW and there were no differences in BW after approximately 7 weeks postpartum whilst BCS remained less for cows on SP. Plasma concentrations of insulin, glucose, IGF-1 and leptin were all greater (P < 0.01) for cows on IP compared with cows on SP, whilst GH did not differ. The diameter of the largest follicle did not differ between cows on IP and SP throughout the postpartum period. However, 7 of 7 cows on IP resumed ovulations between 12 and 15 weeks postpartum whilst only 1 of 7 cows on SP had resumed ovulation during the study. It is concluded from the findings that exposure of cows to IP and SP before and after calving resulted in two groups of cows with different metabolic

  13. Effect of stocking rate on milk and pasture productivity and supplementary feed use for spring calving pasture fed dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Patton, D; Pierce, K M; Horan, B

    2016-07-01

    The productivity of grazing systems is primarily limited by the scale and efficiency of systems applied to the grazable land platform adjacent to the milking parlor. The objective of this study was to compare forage production, utilization and quality, milk production, and requirement for supplementary feeds for 2 different grazing platform stocking rate (GPSR) treatments over 4 yr. Animals were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 GPSR treatments: high-closed (HC; 3.1 cows/ha) and high-open (HO; 4.5 cows/ha), which were designed to represent alternative GPSR in a post-European Union milk quota, spring calving, pasture-based milk production system. Animal production data were analyzed using Proc MIXED of SAS with GPSR, year, and parity included as fixed effects in the final model. Within a seasonal spring calving grazing system, at high GPSR and offering moderate amounts of additional supplements based on pasture supply deficits, both systems produced more milk and fat plus protein per hectare in comparison with Irish commercial dairy farms. Although requiring additional supplementation, increased GPSR resulted in increased milk production per hectare but also in an increased requirement for concentrate and forage supplementation during lactation. No significant influence of GPSR was found on body weight and body condition score or reproductive performance during the 4-yr study period. In addition, GPSR also had no effect on pasture production, utilization, or quality during the study period. The strategic use of additional supplements with restricted pasture availability at higher GPSR maintained milk production per cow and significantly increased milk production per hectare. PMID:27108176

  14. Pasture Management Strategies for Sequestering Soil Carbon - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Franzluebbers, Alan J.

    2006-03-15

    Pasturelands account for 51 of the 212 Mha of privately held grazing land in the USA. Tall fescue is the most important cool-season perennial forage for many beef cattle producers in the humid region of the USA. A fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, infects the majority of tall fescue stands with a mutualistic association. Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte have negative impacts on cattle performance. However, there are indications that endophyte infection of tall fescue is a necessary component of productive and persistent pasture ecology. The objectives of this research were to characterize and quantify changes in soil organic carbon and associated soil properties under tall fescue pastures with and without endophyte infection of grass. Pastures with high endophyte infection had greater concentration of soil organic carbon, but lower concentration of biologically active soil carbon than pastures with low endophyte infection. A controlled experiment suggested that endophyte-infected leaf tissue may directly inhibit the activity of soil microorganisms. Carbon forms of soil organic matter were negatively affected and nitrogen forms were positively affected by endophyte addition to soil. The chemical compounds in endophyte-infected tall fescue (ergot alkaloids) that are responsible for animal health disorders were found in soil, suggesting that these chemicals might be persistent in the environment. Future research is needed to determine whether ergot alkaloids or some other chemicals are responsible for increases in soil organic matter. Scientists will be able to use this information to better understand the ecological impacts of animals grazing tall fescue, and possibly to identify and cultivate other similar associations for improving soil organic matter storage. Another experiment suggested that both dry matter production and soil microbial activity could be affected by the endophyte. Sampling of the cumulative effects of 20 years of tall fescue

  15. And deregulation shall lead me to lie down in green pastures

    SciTech Connect

    Weidinger, G.

    1995-06-01

    This presentation briefly reviews the history of the IPP industry, the current state of competition, and potential opportunities for IPPs in a deregulated environment. Since the beginning of the PURPA created IPP industry, we have experienced many market phases. These began with {open_quotes}beat avoided cost,{close_quotes} followed by {open_quotes}find a need and fill it,{close_quotes} followed by {open_quotes}the bid fest,{close_quotes} to today`s {open_quotes}anything goes.{close_quotes} During this time, market clearing prices have declined from over 80/KwHr to 2-40/KwHr. Today`s partially deregulated electric market includes fierce competition and several new players in the game. Where surplus capacity exists, IPPs must compete with subsidized power. Long-term contracts are no longer widely available. Access to markets is constrained by less than open transmission. Even with these challenges, opportunities remain for the IPP supplier. Opportunities for advanced coal-fired power systems will be explored.

  16. Sabbatical as a Form of Faculty Renewal in the Community College: Green Pastures or Fallow Fields?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Bai; Miller, Michael T.

    1998-01-01

    Describes a survey of chief academic officers at 65 randomly selected community colleges that assessed perceptions regarding faculty sabbatical leaves. Reveals that administrators agreed that sabbaticals contribute to a sense of rejuvenation and renewal, among other things, but tended to disagree that they help faculty become better scholars and…

  17. Sabbatical as a Form of Faculty Renewal in the Community College: Green Pastures or Fallow Fields?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Bai; Miller, Michael T.

    To identify the benefits and outcomes of sabbatical leave practices of community colleges, a survey was undertaken of senior academic affairs administrators at community colleges across the United States. Questionnaires were mailed to 100 administrators requesting information on sabbatical practices at their college, their perceptions of the…

  18. The Information Society of the 1990s; Blue Sky and Green Pastures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Toni Carbo

    1987-01-01

    Predicts how an information-intensive society in the next 10 years will affect the daily life of an individual. Trends described include renewed emphasis of problem solving, increased awareness of the importance of lifelong learning, greater economic challenges, and redirected attention to sociocultural concerns. (EM)

  19. Carbon fluxes of Kobresia pygmaea pastures on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babel, Wolfgang; Biermann, Tobias; Falge, Eva; Ingrisch, Johannes; Leonbacher, Jürgen; Schleuss, Per; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Ma, Yaoming; Miehe, Georg; Foken, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    With an approximate cover of 450,000 km² on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the Cyperaceae Kobresia pygmaea forms he world's largest alpine ecosystem. This species, especially adapted to grazing pressure, grows to a height of only 2-6 cm and can be found in an altitudinal range of 4000 to 5960 m a.s.l. A special characteristic of this ecosystem is the stable turf layer, which is built up from roots and plays a significant role in protecting soil from erosion. This is of great importance since soils on the TP store 2.5 % of the global soil organic carbon stocks. The aim of the investigation was the study of the carbon storage and the impact of human-induced land use change on these Kobresia pygmaea pastures. We therefore applied eddy-covariance measurements and modelling as a long-term control of the fluxes between the atmosphere and the pastures and 13C labelling for the investigation of flux partitioning, and chamber measurements to investigate the degradation of the pastures. Combining CO2 budgets observed in 2010 with eddy-covariance measurements and relative partitioning of carbon fluxes estimated with 13C labelling enabled us to characterise the C turnover for the vegetation period with absolute fluxes within the plant-soil-atmosphere continuum. These results revealed that this ecosystem indeed stores a great amount of C in below-ground pools, especially in the root turf layer. To further investigate the importance of the root layer, the experiments in 2012 focused on flux measurements over the different surface types which make up the heterogeneity of the Kobresia pygmaea pastures and might result from degradation due to extensive grazing. The three surface types investigated with a LiCOR long-term monitoring chamber system include Kobresia pygmaea with intact turf layer (IRM), a surface type where the turf layer is still present but the vegetation is sparse and mainly consists of Cryptogam crusts (DRM) and finally areas without the turf layer (BS). According to

  20. Green Giants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Michaella; Maine, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    Explains how designing and constructing sustainable, environmentally friendly school buildings does not have to be a costly venture. Provides advice for selecting building materials, developing energy efficiency, and minimizing toxins. Reviews the status of national sustainable design standards. (GR)

  1. Relationship between pasture nutritive measurements and plasma urea nitrogen in lambs grazing silvopasture or open pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship of herbage energy content relative to crude protein (CP) is an important aspect in nitrogen use efficiency of grazing livestock. Plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) is an excellent indicator of animal nitrogen status, increasing when excessive nitrogen is available in the diet, and resultin...

  2. Breeding objectives for sheep should be customised depending on variation in pasture growth across years.

    PubMed

    Rose, G; Mulder, H A; Thompson, A N; van der Werf, J H J; van Arendonk, J A M

    2015-08-01

    Breeding programmes for livestock require economic weights for traits that reflect the most profitable animal in a given production system, which affect the response in each trait after selection. The profitability of sheep production systems is affected by changes in pasture growth as well as grain, meat and wool prices between seasons and across years. Annual pasture growth varies between regions within Australia's Mediterranean climate zone from low growth with long periods of drought to high growth with shorter periods of drought. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess whether breeding objectives need to be adapted for regions, depending on how reliable the pasture growth is across years. We modelled farms with Merino sheep bred for wool and meat in 10 regions in Western Australia. Across these 10 regions, mean annual pasture growth decreased, and the CV of annual pasture growth increased as pasture growth for regions became less reliable. We calculated economic values for nine traits, optimising management across 11 years, including variation for pasture growth and wool, meat and grain prices between and within years from 2002 to 2012. These economic values were used to calculate responses to selection for each trait for the 10 regions. We identified two potential breeding objectives, one for regions with low or high reliability and the other for regions with medium reliability of pasture growth. Breeding objectives for high or low pasture growth reliability had more emphasis on live weight traits and number of lambs weaned. Breeding objectives for medium reliability of pasture growth had more emphasis on decreasing fibre diameter. Relative economic weights for fleece weight did not change across the regions. Regions with low or high pasture reliability had similar breeding objectives and response to selection, because the relationship between the economic values and CV of pasture growth were not linear for live weight traits and the number of

  3. Digestible energy content of pasture species in growing European wild boar (Sus scrofa L.).

    PubMed

    Quijada, R P; Bitsch, N I; Hodgkinson, S M

    2012-06-01

    The objectives were to determine the apparent energy digestibility of six pasture species frequently grazed by European wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) and to estimate the digestible energy (DE) consumption from pasture by grazing wild boar. Seven diets were prepared; a base diet (BD) which did not contain any pasture species, diets D1 to D5 which included 75% of the BD and 25% of the dried pasture species Lolium perenne (D1), Festuca arundinacea (D2), Agrostis capillaris (D3), Bromus staminius (D4) or Trifolium repens (D5) and D6 which contained 85% BD and 15% dried Plantago lanceolata. Seven purebred European wild boar (initial liveweight 24.4 ± 0.8 kg, average ± SEM) were given access to the diets following a Latin Square design. The animals received each diet for eight days, with faecal sampling on days 6, 7 and 8. The total apparent DE consumption from pasture by grazing wild boar was estimated using previously collected pasture consumption data from wild boar. The digestibility coefficients and DE contents of the pasture species ranged from 0.29 to 0.65, and 5.8 to 12.6 MJ/kg DM respectively, with L. perenne and P. lanceolata having the greatest digestibility coefficients and DE contents. The wild boar were estimated to satisfy between 52% and 142% of their maintenance energy requirements through pasture consumption. Grazing wild boar are able to utilise an important proportion of the energy present in pasture species. PMID:21575078

  4. Kobresia pygmaea pasture degradation and its response to increasing N deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shibin; Schleuss, Per-Marten; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-04-01

    Kobresia pygmaea is a dominant plant species on the Tibetan Plateau covering ca. one fifth of the total area. Severe degradation by overgrazing is ongoing at K. pygmaea pastures in recent decades. Nitrogen (N) deposition is also increasingly exacerbated across the Tibetan Plateau. Up to now the response of K. pygmaea pastures with increasing degradation to N deposition is unclear. We aimed at: (1) evaluating the effect of pasture degradation on carbon (C) and N contents of soil, root, microbial biomass and leachate, (2) determining N allocation to plant, soil and microbial biomass after N addition and (3) making an estimation of N storage and loss in Kobresia pasture. We used three Kobresia root mat types varying in their degradation stages: (1) living root mats, (2) dying root mats and (3) dead root mats. We also added two levels of 15NH415NO3 solution to simulate N deposition (control: 2.5 kg N/ha; deposition 50.9 kg N/ha) and traced the 15N in the soil-plant system. Leaching of NH4+, NO3- and DON were detected by homogeneously adding distilled water to each sample and collecting the leachate afterwards. Total N content lost by leaching increased 6.5 times following the degradation from living to dead root mats. This indicated that living Kobresia effectively decreased N loss from leaching due to N uptake by plants. The microbial biomass C to N (MBC/MBN) ratio narrowed from 10.2 to 7.5 and then to 5.0 for living, dying and dead root mats, respectively. This shows the degradation K. pygmaea shift the ecosystem from a N-limited to a C-limited status for microbes. Nitrogen addition increased above-ground plant biomass (AGB) as well as its total N content in living root mat while MBC and MBN were not affected. This shows K. pygmaea is more sensitive to N addition than microorganisms. N allocation (% of total N added) by AGB, below-ground plant biomass and soil in living root mats were 22.1%, 22.7% and 17.6%, respectively. No significant effect between these

  5. Biomass estimation to support pasture management in Niger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schucknecht, A.; Meroni, M.; Kayitakire, F.; Rembold, F.; Boureima, A.

    2015-04-01

    Livestock plays a central economic role in Niger, but it is highly vulnerable due to the high inter-annual variability of rain and hence pasture production. This study aims to develop an approach for mapping pasture biomass production to support activities of the Niger Ministry of Livestock for effective pasture management. Our approach utilises the observed spatiotemporal variability of biomass production to build a predictive model based on ground and remote sensing data for the period 1998-2012. Measured biomass (63 sites) at the end of the growing season was used for the model parameterisation. The seasonal cumulative Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (CFAPAR), calculated from 10-day image composites of SPOT-VEGETATION FAPAR, was computed as a phenology-tuned proxy of biomass production. A linear regression model was tested aggregating field data at different levels (global, department, agro-ecological zone, and intersection of agro-ecological and department units) and subjected to a cross validation (cv) by leaving one full year out. An increased complexity (i.e. spatial detail) of the model increased the estimation performances indicating the potential relevance of additional and spatially heterogeneous agro-ecological characteristics for the relationship between herbaceous biomass at the end of the season and CFAPAR. The model using the department aggregation yielded the best trade-off between model complexity and predictive power (R2 = 0.55, R2cv = 0.48). The proposed approach can be used to timely produce maps of estimated biomass at the end of the growing season before ground point measurements are made available.

  6. The Effects of Modern-Day Cropland and Pasture Management on Vegetation Fire: An Earth System Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, S. S.; Malyshev, S.; Shevliakova, E.; Pacala, S. W.

    2014-12-01

    Fire is a major component of the global carbon cycle, with some estimates of the associated emissions reaching 2.5 PgC/yr. This and the other impacts of biomass burning have driven efforts to improve its simulation in Earth system models. Recent global fire models usually include both bioclimatic and anthropogenic drivers of fire, with the latter (via population density and sometimes economic status) serving to increase or suppress burned area. Some models have added the representation of fire used in deforestation and cropland management, the extent and seasonal timing of which may not be accounted for by the usual approach to anthropogenic influence. Human land use can also limit fire by fragmenting landscapes, but this process is not included in most global models. Moreover, although people often use fire to manage grazing lands for livestock, these practices have not been explicitly modeled (except as performed by pre-industrial societies). This could be important for regions such as sub-Saharan Africa, where the seasonality of pasture burning tends to differ from that of other lands, potentially influencing savanna-forest dynamics. Recent efforts elucidating the effects of cropland and pasture on fire regimes at regional scales provide insight into these processes. Using this new understanding, we have developed a fire model with structurally distinct modules for burning of croplands, pasture, and primary and secondary lands, as well as fire use for deforestation. Parameters for each are rigorously constrained using remote-sensing observations of burned area. This structure allows us to disentangle agricultural practices and fragmentation effects from the endogenous processes driving fire on non-agricultural land, resulting in a better ability to simulate how fire works at large scales. This is critical for modeling the future of fire and all the parts of the Earth system that it affects, including vegetation distributions, nutrient cycling, and biosphere

  7. ESTIMATION OF FORAGE NITROGEN CONCENTRATION AND IN VITRO DRY MATTER DIGESTIBILITY OF GRASS PASTURES USING PLANT CANOPY HYPERSPECTRAL REFLECTANCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Timely assessment of forage nitrogen (N) concentration and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) during the growing season can help livestock managers make decisions for adjusting stocking rate and managing pastures. Nondestructive measurements of pasture canopy hyperspectral reflectance may pro...

  8. Management of tall fescue pastures and nutrients in a Southern Piedmont environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pastures have replaced row-crop agriculture in many parts of the Southern Piedmont in response to soil and water conservation needs where tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is a common pasture grass. However, nutrient losses from livestock manure and/or poultry fertilization can contribute to ...

  9. SOIL SEED BANK COMPOSITION IN PASTURES OF DIVERSE MIXTURES OF TEMPERATE FORAGES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed banks may contribute useful or weedy species that fill gaps in pastures. In a previous study, pastures planted to complex mixtures of forages had fewer weedy species in the aboveground vegetation. In this study, we relate changes in the species composition of the seed bank to changes in the abo...

  10. Dispersal and post-dispersal predation of Italian ryegrass seed in unimproved pasture.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dispersal and post-dispersal predation of Italian ryegrass seed in unimproved pasture. Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) can be a productive and high-quality cool-season forage, but is considered a weed in some pastures. Italian ryegrass does not form a persistent seed bank and needs to prod...

  11. Quantifying phosphorus levels in landscapes associated with Bahiagrass-based pastures and beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relatively little information exists regarding possible magnitudes of P losses from grazed pastures. Whether or not P losses from grazed pastures are significantly greater than background losses and how these losses are affected by soil, forage management, or stocking density are not well understood...

  12. Perennial Forage Kochia for Improved Productivity of Grass Dominated Winter Grazing Pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grazing forage kochia (Kochia prostrata) during fall/winter has been shown to improve livestock health and reduce winter feeding costs. The objectives of this study were to compare the differences of traditional winter pastures versus pastures with forage kochia. Fifty mature, pregnant, Black Angu...

  13. Soil seed bank community structure of pastures and hayfields on an organic farm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the composition of seed banks in pasture soils would help farmers anticipate and manage for weed problems. We characterized the soil seed bank in eight pastures and hayfields [two alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and two predominantly grass hayfields; two recently established and two perma...

  14. Incorporating A Total Mixed Ration into Pasture-Based Dairy Systems: The Best of Both Worlds?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pastures containing multiple plant species have been shown to have greater plant productivity than pasture planted with a single plant species. However, it has not been determined whether this increase in plant productivity translates into increased animal productivity. Therefore, a study was design...

  15. Yield, Root Growth and Soil Water Content of Drought-Stressed Pasture Mixtures Containing Chicory

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is a deep-rooted forb that has increasingly been investigated for inclusion in pasture mixtures because of its reported drought tolerance and high productivity during summer months. This study examined how adding chicory to pasture mixtures impacted forage yield, root ...

  16. Assessment of Prior Grazing Experiences on Adaption to Pasture and Performance of Dairy Heifers.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate how previous grazing experience affects animal behavior on pasture. Animal behavior was monitored in 32 Holstein (n = 21) and Holstein-Jersey (n = 11) yearlings. Two heifer groups (n = 8 per group) had been exposed to pasture from August through October 20...

  17. Relationship between residual feed intake, performance, and carcass parameters of pasture finished cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2009 and 2010, Angus-crossbred steers (n = 39) were used to evaluate the relationship between residual feed intake (RFI), pasture-finishing performance and carcass parameters. During RFI determinations prior to pasture finishing initiation in mid-April, animals were fed an alfalfa hay cube diet....

  18. High biomass removal limits carbon sequestration potential of mature temperate pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Decades of plowing have depleted organic carbon stocks in many agricultural soils. Conversion of plowed fields to pasture has the potential to reverse this process, recapturing organic matter that was lost under more intensive cropping systems. Temperate pastures in the northeast USA are highly prod...

  19. Assessing the land resource capacity for pasture-based dairy farming in the Northeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research has demonstrated that pasture-based dairy farming can offer many potential benefits for farmer incomes, animal welfare, and environmental quality. However, a common criticism of pasture-based dairies is that relative to confinement production, they produce less milk per acre of farmland, so...

  20. Allocating fresh pasture during the afternoon enhances daily weight gains… what about milk yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research conducted in Argentina, US, Australia and Europe has shown significant variations in chemical composition of pasture throughout the day, which results in an increase in pasture digestibility and energy concentration as the day progresses. Cattle have adapted their grazing patterns during th...

  1. Influence of land-use change on near-surface hydrological processes: Undisturbed forest to pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germer, Sonja; Neill, Christopher; Krusche, Alex V.; Elsenbeer, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    SummarySoil compaction that follows the clearing of tropical forest for cattle pasture is associated with lower soil hydraulic conductivity and increased frequency and volume of overland flow. We investigated the frequency of perched water tables, overland flow and stormflow in an Amazon forest and in an adjacent 25-year-old pasture cleared from the same forest. We compared the results with the frequencies of these phenomena estimated from comparisons of rainfall intensity and soil hydraulic conductivity. The frequency of perched water tables based on rainfall intensity and soil hydraulic conductivity was expected to double in pasture compared with forest. This corresponded closely with an approximate doubling of the frequency of stormflow and overland flow in pasture. In contrast, the stormflow volume in pasture increased 17-fold. This disproportional increase of stormflow resulted from overland flow generation over large areas of pasture, while overland flow generation in the forest was spatially limited and was observed only very near the stream channel. In both catchments, stormflow was generated by saturation excess because of perched water tables and near-surface groundwater levels. Stormflow was occasionally generated in the forest by rapid return flow from macropores, while slow return flow from a continuous perched water table was more common in the pasture. These results suggest that deforestation for pasture alters fundamental mechanisms of stormflow generation and may increase runoff volumes over wide regions of Amazonia.

  2. Monitoring Pasture Production in Mamawatu, New Zealand, Using Proba-V Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuohy, Mike; Mansion, Valentin

    2015-12-01

    The Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) was calculated from Proba-V data over 18 months (S10) and 12 months (S5). These values were compared with pasture biomass as measured by weekly farm rides on a 4WD towing the Rapid Pasture Meter. Trends in the data were well matched, especially during the summer and after rain in autumn.

  3. Seed bank characterization of pastures and hayfields of the University of New Hampshire Organic Dairy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Buried seed in pasture soils are often reservoirs of weedy plants. The seed bank was characterized in pastures and hayfields with different management histories at the University of New Hampshire Organic Research Dairy. Three hayfields [two of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and one grass] and five pas...

  4. THE SALEM ROAD STUDY: RESTORATION OF DEGRADED LAND WITH PASTURE - SOIL QUALITY AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture management is of importance to the understanding of agronomic and animal productivity, soil quality, greenhouse gas emissions, and environmental quality. Pastures have the potential to serve as a significant sink for C sequestered in soil organic matter. Efficient utilization of N is of co...

  5. Land use intensity trajectories on Amazonian pastures derived from Landsat time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufin, Philippe; Müller, Hannes; Pflugmacher, Dirk; Hostert, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Monitoring changes in land use intensity of grazing systems in the Amazon is an important prerequisite to study the complex political and socio-economic forces driving Amazonian deforestation. Remote sensing offers the potential to map pasture vegetation over large areas, but mapping pasture conditions consistently through time is not a trivial task because of seasonal changes associated with phenology and data gaps from clouds and cloud shadows. In this study, we tested spectral-temporal metrics derived from intra-annual Landsat time series to distinguish between grass-dominated and woody pastures. The abundance of woody vegetation on pastures is an indicator for management intensity, since the duration and intensity of land use steer secondary succession rates, apart from climate and soil conditions. We used the developed Landsat-based metrics to analyze pasture intensity trajectories between 1985 and 2012 in Novo Progresso, Brazil, finding that woody vegetation cover generally decreased after four to ten years of grazing activity. Pastures established in the 80s and early 90s showed a higher fraction of woody vegetation during their initial land use history than pastures established in the early 2000s. Historic intensity trajectories suggested a trend towards more intensive land use in the last decade, which aligns well with regional environmental policies and market dynamics. This study demonstrates the potential of dense Landsat time series to monitor land-use intensification on Amazonian pastures.

  6. Management effects on the distribution of soil characteristics of two pasture types in Oklahoma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pastures of native prairie and winter wheat are among the primary resources used to graze cattle in central Oklahoma. These pastures are subject to numerous stressors that affect land condition including grazing, climate, soil fertility, and farming operations. Understanding responses of soil charac...

  7. Timing and rate of Chaparral treatment affects tall fescue seedhead development and pasture plant densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The herbicide Chaparral™ has been shown to suppress seedhead development in tall fescue (Neotyphodium coenophialum) pastures and reduce the symptoms of tall fescue toxicosis in cattle. However, little is known about the logistics of herbicide treatment on tall fescue pastures. The objective of thi...

  8. Tall fescue management: Pasture and cattle responses to endophyte and fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yearling heifers grazing tall fescue pastures had greatest performance in winter and spring on endophyte-free and novel endophyte associations, because of high forage quality and lack of ergot alkaloids produced by a common “wild” tall fescue-endophyte association. Pasture and cattle responses were...

  9. THE EFFECTS OF PASTURE FALLOWING ON THE SEED BANK AND FORAGE SPECIES COMPOSITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fallowing, the practice of leaving a pasture ungrazed during the growing season, is sometimes used as a tool for improving pasture quality by allowing grasses to reseed naturally. Fallowing has been shown to provide benefits in New Zealand, but has been adopted on rotationally-stocked farms in the n...

  10. Monitoring runoff from cattle-grazed pastures for a phosphorus loss quantification tool

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss from agriculture persists as a water quality impairment issue. For dairy farms, nutrients can be lost from cropland, pastures, barnyards, and outdoor cattle lots. We monitored N and P loss in runoff from dairy and beef grazed pastures for two years in southwest W...

  11. Comparing pasture c sequestration estimates from eddy covariance and soil cores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Temperate pastures in the northeast USA are highly productive and could act as significant sinks for soil organic carbon (SOC). However, soils under mature pastures are often considered to have reached equilibrium such that no further sequestration of SOC is expected. This study quantified changes i...

  12. Development of a quantitative pasture phosphorus management tool using the SWAT model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pasture Phosphorus Management (PPM) Calculator allows conservation planners to predict phosphorus loss from pastures in eastern Oklahoma. The computer based tool is a vastly simplified interface for the popular, yet complicated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). PPM Calculator allows users...

  13. Green Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  14. Countermeasures for pasture-associated laminitis in ponies and horses.

    PubMed

    Harris, Patricia; Bailey, Simon R; Elliott, Jonathan; Longland, Annette

    2006-07-01

    Laminitis occurs throughout the world in horses and ponies and has major welfare implications. It is obviously important to be able to recognize and treat the condition in its early stages so that pain and suffering are kept to a minimum. However, ideally it would be preferred to be able to recommend certain interventions/countermeasures that avoid or prevent the condition from occurring in the first place. Because pasture-associated laminitis occurs with grass consumption, one obvious way to avoid the condition is to prevent access to pasture and to feed forage alternatives that are known to be low in rapidly fermentable material. For the majority of horses, total restriction is not always a viable or desired option for financial, welfare, and health reasons. It also may not be necessary for those animals that are not predisposed to laminitis. This review discusses the possible countermeasures that could be considered now and in the future in the following 7 key areas: 1) Identifying animals predisposed to the condition; 2) Limiting development of insulin resistance; 3) Avoiding high intakes of rapidly fermentable material; 4) Preventing/reducing the formation and absorption of the various "triggering factors"; 5) Reducing/preventing oxidative damage; 6) Preventing/reducing matrix metalloproteinase activity; and 7) Preventing changes in blood flow. It is unfortunate that little or no hard data exist at present on effective countermeasures, only mechanistic evidence for avoiding risk factors. However, there is much to gain, and research in this area is urgently required. PMID:16772514

  15. Heavy metal levels of pasture grasses in metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luilo, G. B.; Othman, O. C.

    2003-05-01

    Urban agriculture is becoming an important lucrative activity in Dar es Salaam City even though the city is subject to traffic and industrial pollution pressures. Poor planning has left only limited spaces, particularly road reserves, for cultivation and foraging animals. While there is increasing road traffic no study bas been conducted determine levels of trace metals in pasture grasses. This study, therefore, reports on the levels of cadmium, manganese, lead and zinc of cynodon grasses in road vicinity in the city. Results show that the trace metal levels (ppm ± SDE) in Cynodon grass species were: Cd (0.24 ± 0.06-2.58 ± 0.15), Mn (41.5 ± 13.6-345.0 ± 124.3), Pb (1.15 ± 0.64-25.53 ± 1.29) and Zn (25.97 ± 3.69-95.36 ± 19.61). The mean levels of lead and zinc varied exponentially with distance off the road up to 15 m distance. Lead and zinc levels correlated with average daily traffic in the roads while cadmium and manganese did not. This suggests that lead and zinc in grasses owe their sources from the passing motor vehicles in agreement with other reported studies. It is recommended that pasture grasses in road vicinities must not be used for foraging dairy cattle and goats for public health reasons.

  16. Spatial and temporal variation in mined land pastures

    SciTech Connect

    Teutsch, C.D.; Collins, M.; Ditsch, D.C.; Johns, J.; Larson, B.; Turner, W.; Hamilton, T.; May, C.; Clay, L.

    1998-12-31

    Kentucky has large areas of reclaimed surface mined land that could provide grazing for livestock. Research is needed to define optimum stocking densities and to determine the sustainability of such grazing systems for this region. A long-term field study was initiated in 1997 on 151 ha of reclaimed land near Chavies, KY to assess spatial and temporal variation under grazing with stocking densities of 0, 0.28, 0.42, or 0.83 beef cow/calf pairs/ha. Global Positioning System and GIS technologies were employed to interpolate surface maps of the site using 11,000 points. Herbage and soil samples were collected around permanent markers systematically placed over the entire area at a density of 1 per 0.4 ha. Elevation ranged from 295 to 371 m and pasture slope ranged from 0 to 57{degree} with a mean of 13{degree}. Biomass density in late April ranged from 0 to 2500 kg/ha and was lowest at the highest stocking density, where grazing activity was highest. Spring-born calves averaged 240 kg at weaning. Cow weight and body condition score at the end of the grazing season was reduced at the highest stocking density and suggests that the highest stocking density may be excessive for mined land pastures in this region.

  17. Carbon fluxes of Kobresia pygmaea pastures on the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foken, T.; Biermann, T.; Babel, W.; Ma, Y.

    2013-12-01

    With an approximate cover of 450,000 km2 on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the Cyperaceae Kobresia pygmaea forms he world's largest alpine ecosystem. This species, especially adapted to grazing pressure, grows to a height of only 2-6 cm and can be found in an altitudinal range of 4000 to 5960 m a.s.l. A special characteristic of this ecosystem is the stable turf layer, which is built up from roots and plays a significant role in protecting soil from erosion. This is of great importance since soils on the TP store 2.5 % of the global soil organic carbon stocks. The aim of the investigation was the study of the carbon storage and the impact of human-induced land use change on these Kobresia pygmaea pastures. We therefore applied eddy-covariance measurements and modelling as a long-term control of the fluxes between the atmosphere and the pastures and 13C labelling for the investigation of flux partitioning, and chamber measurements to investigate the degradation of the pastures. Combining CO2 budgets observed in 2010 with eddy-covariance measurements and relative partitioning of Carbon fluxes estimated with 13C labelling enabled us to characterise the C turnover for the vegetation period with absolute fluxes within the plant-soil-atmosphere continuum. These results revealed that this ecosystem indeed stores a great amount of C in below-ground pools, especially in the root turf layer. To further investigate the importance of the root layer, the experiments in 2012 focused on flux measurements over the different surface types which make up the heterogeneity of the Kobresia pygmaea pastures and might result from degradation due to extensive grazing. The three surface types investigated with a LiCOR long-term monitoring chamber system include Kobresia pygmaea with intact turf layer (IRM), a surface type where the turf layer is still present but the vegetation is sparse and mainly consists of Cryptogam crusts (DRM) and finally areas without the turf layer (BS). According to

  18. Prevalence and concentration of Salmonella and Campylobacter in the processing environment of small-scale pastured broiler farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A growing niche in the locally grown food movement is the small scale production of broiler chickens using the pasture-raised poultry production model. Little research exists that focuses on Salmonella and Campylobacter contamination in the environment associated with on-farm processing of pasture-r...

  19. Grazing management effects on sediment, phosphorus, and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erosion and precipitation runoff from pastures may lead to degradation of surface water. A two-year grazing study was conducted to quantify effects of grazing management on sediment, phosphorus (P), and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures. Six adjoining 12.1-ha pastures bisecte...

  20. The effectiveness of faecal removal methods of pasture management to control the cyathostomin burden of donkeys

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The level of anthelmintic resistance within some cyathostomin parasite populations has increased to the level where sole reliance on anthelmintic-based control protocols is not possible. Management-based nematode control methods, including removal of faeces from pasture, are widely recommended for use in association with a reduction in anthelmintic use to reduce selection pressure for drug resistance; however, very little work has been performed to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of such methods. Methods We analysed data obtained from 345 donkeys at The Donkey Sanctuary (Devon, UK), managed under three different pasture management techniques, to investigate the effectiveness of faeces removal in strongyle control in equids. The management groups were as follows: no removal of faeces from pasture, manual, twice-weekly removal of faeces from pasture and automatic, twice-weekly removal of faeces from pasture (using a mechanical pasture sweeper). From turn-out onto pasture in May, monthly faecal egg counts were obtained for each donkey and the dataset subjected to an auto regressive moving average model. Results There was little to no difference in faecal egg counts between the two methods of faecal removal; both resulted in significantly improved cyathostomin control compared to the results obtained from the donkeys that grazed pasture from which there was no faecal removal. Conclusions This study represents a valuable and unique assessment of the effectiveness of the removal of equine faeces from pasture, and provides an evidence base from which to advocate twice-weekly removal of faeces from pasture as an adjunct for equid nematode control. Widespread adoption of this practice could substantially reduce anthelmintic usage, and hence reduce selection pressure for nematode resistance to the currently effective anthelmintic products. PMID:24460700

  1. Grazing Soybean to Increase Voluntary Cow Traffic in a Pasture-based Automatic Milking System

    PubMed Central

    Clark, C. E. F.; Horadagoda, A.; Kerrisk, K. L.; Scott, V.; Islam, M. R.; Kaur, R.; Garcia, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    Pasture-based automatic milking systems (AMS) require cow traffic to enable cows to be milked. The interval between milkings can be manipulated by strategically allocating pasture. The current experiment investigated the effect of replacing an allocation of grazed pasture with grazed soybean (Glycine max) with the hypothesis that incorporating soybean would increase voluntary cow traffic and milk production. One hundred and eighty mixed age, primiparous and multiparous Holstein-Friesian/Illawarra cows were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (n = 90/group) with a 2×2 Latin square design. Each group was either offered treatments of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hoach ex Chiov.) pasture (pasture) or soybean from 0900 h to 1500 h during the experimental period which consisted of 2 periods of 3 days following 5 days of training and adaptation in each period with groups crossing over treatments after the first period. The number of cows trafficking to each treatment was similar together with milk yield (mean ≈18 L/cow/d) in this experiment. For the cows that arrived at soybean or pasture there were significant differences in their behaviour and consequently the number of cows exiting each treatment paddock. There was greater cow traffic (more cows and sooner) exiting pasture allocations. Cows that arrived at soybean stayed on the allocation for 25% more time and ate more forage (8.5 kg/cow/d/allocation) relative to pasture (4.7 kg/cow/d/allocation). Pasture cows predominantly replaced eating time with rumination. These findings suggest that replacing pasture with alternative grazeable forages provides no additional incentive to increase voluntary cow traffic to an allocation of feed in AMS. This work highlights the opportunity to increase forage intakes in AMS through the incorporation of alternative forages. PMID:25049970

  2. Green Phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Vijay; Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Rao, J. L.; Dhoble, S. J.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-11-01

    Manganese-doped LaMgAl11O19 powder has been prepared by an easy combustion method. Powder x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy have been used to characterize the as-prepared phosphor. The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of LaMgAl11O19:Mn2+ phosphor exhibits six-line hyperfine structure centered at g ≈ 1.973. The number of spins participating in resonance ( N) and the paramagnetic susceptibility ( χ) for the resonance signal at g ≈ 1.973 have been calculated as a function of temperature. The photoluminescence spectrum exhibits green emission at 516 nm, which is attributed to 4T1 → 6A1 transition of Mn2+ ions. From EPR and luminescence studies, it is observed that Mn2+ ions occupy Mg2+ sites and Mn2+ ions are located at tetrahedral sites in the prepared phosphors.

  3. Utility of Penman-Monteith, Priestley-Taylor, reference evapotranspiration, and pan evaporation methods to estimate pasture evapotranspiration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumner, D.M.; Jacobs, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) was measured at 30-min resolution over a 19-month period (September 28, 2000-April 23, 2002) from a nonirrigated pasture site in Florida, USA, using eddy correlation methods. The relative magnitude of measured ETa (about 66% of long-term annual precipitation at the study site) indicates the importance of accurate ET a estimates for water resources planning. The time and cost associated with direct measurements of ETa and the rarity of historical measurements of ETa make the use of methods relying on more easily obtainable data desirable. Several such methods (Penman-Monteith (PM), modified Priestley-Taylor (PT), reference evapotranspiration (ET 0), and pan evaporation (Ep)) were related to measured ETa using regression methods to estimate PM bulk surface conductance, PT ??, ET0 vegetation coefficient, and Ep pan coefficient. The PT method, where the PT ?? is a function of green-leaf area index (LAI) and solar radiation, provided the best relation with ET a (standard error (SE) for daily ETa of 0.11 mm). The PM method, in which the bulk surface conductance was a function of net radiation and vapor-pressure deficit, was slightly less effective (SE=0.15 mm) than the PT method. Vegetation coefficients for the ET0 method (SE=0.29 mm) were found to be a simple function of LAI. Pan coefficients for the Ep method (SE=0.40 mm) were found to be a function of LAI and Ep. Historical or future meteorological, LAI, and pan evaporation data from the study site could be used, along with the relations developed within this study, to provide estimates of ETa in the absence of direct measurements of ETa. Additionally, relations among PM, PT, and ET0 methods and ETa can provide estimates of ETa in other, environmentally similar, pasture settings for which meteorological and LAI data can be obtained or estimated. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Objective indicators of pasture degradation from spectral mixture analysis of Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Eric A.; Asner, Gregory P.; Stone, Thomas A.; Neill, Christopher; Figueiredo, Ricardo O.

    2008-03-01

    Degradation of cattle pastures is a management concern that influences future land use in Amazonia. However, "degradation" is poorly defined and has different meanings for ranchers, ecologists, and policy makers. Here we analyze pasture degradation using objective scalars of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV), and exposed soil (S) derived from Landsat imagery. A general, probabilistic spectral mixture model decomposed satellite spectral reflectance measurements into subpixel estimates of PV, NPV, and S covers at ranches in western and eastern Amazonia. Most pasture management units at all ranches fell along a single line of decreasing PV with increasing NPV and S, which could be considered a degradation continuum. The ranch with the highest stocking densities and most intensive management had greater NPV and S than a less intensively managed ranch. The number of liming, herbiciding, and disking treatments applied to each pasture management unit was positively correlated with NPV and negatively correlated with PV. Although these objective scalars revealed signs of degradation, intensive management kept exposed soil to <40% cover and maintained economically viable cattle production over several decades. In ranches with few management inputs, the high PV cover in young pastures declined with increasing pasture age, while NPV and S increased, even where grazing intensity was low. Both highly productive pastures and vigorous regrowth of native vegetation cause high PV values. Analysis of spectral properties holds promise for identifying areas where grazing intensity has exceeded management inputs, thus increasing coverage of senescent foliage and exposed soil.

  5. Unexpected changes in soil phosphorus dynamics along pasture chronosequences in the humid tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, Alan R.; Asner, Gregory P.; Cleveland, Cory C.; Lefer, Margaret E.; Bustamante, Mercedes M. C.

    2002-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) is widely believed to limit plant growth and organic matter storage in a large fraction of the world's lowland tropical rain forests. We investigated how the most common land use change in such forests, conversion to cattle pasture, affects soil P fractions along pasture chronosequences in the central Brazilian Amazon and in southwestern Costa Rica. Our sites represent a broad range in rainfall, soil type, management strategies, and total soil P (45.2-1228.0 μg P/g soil), yet we found some unexpected and at times quite similar changes in soil P in all sites. In the Brazilian sites, where rainfall is relatively low and pasture management is more intense than in the Costa Rican sites, significant losses in total soil P and soil organic carbon (SOC) were seen with pasture age on already P-deficient Oxisol and Entisol soils. However, P losses were from inorganic soil P fractions, while organic forms of soil P remained constant or increased with pasture age, despite the declines in SOC. In Costa Rica, SOC remained constant across the Oxisol sites and increased from forest to pasture on the Mollisols, while soil organic P increased with pasture age in both sequences.

  6. Assessing effects of climate change and adaptation strategies on irrigated pastures using DAISY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagimoto, Y.; Cuenca, R. H.

    2013-12-01

    The DAISY ecological model was applied for the flood-irrigated cool-season pastures in the Upper Klamath Basin, Oregon to study 1) the current condition of the pastures in the semi-arid environment, 2) effects of projected climate change, and 3) effects of introducing white clover and a sprinkler system as a potential adaptation strategy. The calibrated model indicated that productivity of the cool-season pastures was limited primarily by nitrogen (N) availability and temperature. The results of our scenario analysis indicated that the projected climate change would increase seasonal forage production (YF) and crop water use (AET) due to longer and warmer growing season. This study also found that introduction of white clover would significantly increase YF without changing AET by improving N availability due to increased nutrients deposition by cattle and increased symbiotic N fixation by white clover. In consequence, the mixed pasture could significantly improve water use efficiency (YF/AET) and, therefore the adaptability of the pasture in an area with high value water. Installing sprinkler system to the mixed pasture would increase YF by increasing net N input by increasing N mineralization and reducing denitrification. Furthermore, upgraded irrigation systems could increase water availability of the area during growing season by releasing significant amount of subsurface water to nearby surface water pools. This study demonstrated that ecological models such as DAISY can be a useful tool to model pasture systems and assess effects of projected climate changes and adaptation strategies.

  7. Reviving wood-pastures for biodiversity and people: A case study from western Estonia.

    PubMed

    Roellig, Marlene; Sutcliffe, Laura M E; Sammul, Marek; von Wehrden, Henrik; Newig, Jens; Fischer, Joern

    2016-03-01

    Wood-pastures are associated with high cultural and biodiversity values in Europe. However, due to their relatively low productivity, large areas of wood-pastures have been lost over the last century. In some areas, incentive schemes have been developed to revive wood-pastures. We investigated the effects of one such scheme in western Estonia. We compared the structure of grazed wood-pastures (old and restored) to those of abandoned wood-pastures and ungrazed forest stands to explore the effects of management, and conducted interviews with 24 farmers to investigate their motivations to carry out the management. We found a positive influence of active management on the semi-open structure of wood-pastures. Financial support was vital for management, but personal values related to tradition also played an important role. The interviewees differed widely in their range of motivations, suggesting that other strategies in addition to financial incentives would further improve the management of wood-pastures in the region. PMID:26458391

  8. Conversion of Grazed Pastures to Energy Cane as a Biofuel Feedstock Alters Soil GHG Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez-Casanovas, N.; DeLucia, N.; Bernacchi, C.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in land use profoundly affect climate through variations in soil Greenhouse Gas (GHG) exchange. The need for alternative energies is accelerating land use change as marginal land or managed ecosystems are being converted to highly productive second-generation bioenergy crops such as energy cane (Saccharum spp. L). Although the deployment of energy cane is a promising strategy to meet global bioenergy industry demands, few studies have investigated soil GHG fluxes in these crops and sub-tropical low-intensity grazing pasture (bahiagrass, Paspalum notatum L., as forage for cattle, Bos taurus L.) with which they are competing for land. Here, we showed that soil N2O fluxes in bioenergy crops were higher (>250%) than those observed in pastures following fertilization when soil moisture and temperature were high. In the absence of recent fertilization, the N2O source strength in energy cane and pasture sites was similar. Under drier and cooler soil conditions, both pastures and bioenergy crops were weak sources of N2O even when energy cane plots were recently fertilized. Soils on grazed pastures were sources of CH4 during the wet season but became sinks under drier, colder conditions. Energy cane plantations were weak sources of CH4 over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. The heterotrophic component of soil respiration was larger (139-155%) in pastures than in energy cane crops, suggesting lower decomposition of SOC in bioenergy crops. In terms of global warming potential, grazed pastures were stronger (120-150%) soil GHG emitters than energy cane crops over a complete wet-dry seasonal cycle. Moreover, pastures became a substantial source of GHG emitters when including estimates of CH4 flux from cattle. Our results suggest that the conversion of pasture to energy cane will be beneficial in relation to GHGs emitted from soils and cattle. Improved understanding of land use impact on soil GHG dynamics will provide valuable information for decision makers debating

  9. More Stable Productivity of Semi Natural Grasslands than Sown Pastures in a Seasonally Dry Climate

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Sonia; Rusch, Graciela M.; Pezo, Danilo; Casanoves, Fernando; Sinclair, Fergus L.

    2012-01-01

    In the Neotropics the predominant pathway to intensify productivity is generally thought to be to convert grasslands to sown pastures, mostly in monoculture. This article examines how above-ground net primary productivity (ANPP) in semi-natural grasslands and sown pastures in Central America respond to rainfall by: (i) assessing the relationships between ANPP and accumulated rainfall and indices of rainfall distribution, (ii) evaluating the variability of ANPP between and within seasons, and (iii) estimating the temporal stability of ANPP. We conducted sequential biomass harvests during 12 periods of 22 days and related those to rainfall. There were significant relationships between ANPP and cumulative rainfall in 22-day periods for both vegetation types and a model including a linear and quadratic term explained 74% of the variation in the data. There was also a significant correlation between ANPP and the number of rainfall events for both vegetation types. Sown pastures had higher ANPP increments per unit rainfall and higher ANPP at the peak of the rainy season than semi-natural grasslands. In contrast, semi-natural grasslands showed higher ANPP early in the dry season. The temporal stability of ANPP was higher in semi-natural grasslands than in the sown pastures in the dry season and over a whole annual cycle. Our results reveal that, contrary to conventional thinking amongst pasture scientists, there appears to be no increase in ANPP arising from replacing semi-natural grasslands with sown pastures under prevailing pasture management practices in seasonally dry climates, while the temporal distribution of ANPP is more even in semi-natural grasslands. Neither sown pastures nor semi-natural grasslands are productive towards the end of the dry season, indicating the potential importance of the widespread practice of retaining tree cover in pastures. PMID:22590506

  10. Cadmium concentrations in new zealand pastures: relationships to soil and climate variables.

    PubMed

    Reiser, René; Simmler, Michael; Portmann, Denise; Clucas, Lynne; Schulin, Rainer; Robinson, Brett

    2014-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential element that occurs at above-background concentrations in many New Zealand (NZ) soils. Most of this Cd is due to the historical application of single superphosphate that was made from Nauru phosphate rock containing between 400 and 600 mg Cd kg P. Pasture Cd uptake exacerbates the entry of Cd into animal products. We sought to determine the critical environmental factors affecting Cd uptake in NZ pastures and to calculate the likely Cd intake of sheep and cattle. We tested 69 pastures throughout NZ for a range of variables, including Cd. Soil Cd and pasture Cd were positively correlated with soil P and soil concentrations of other elements found in phosphate fertilizers. We found that no single environmental variable adequately predicted pasture Cd uptake. Nevertheless, pseudo-total soil Cd and Cd extracted using a 0.05 mol L Ca(NO) solution were positively correlated with pasture Cd. Although soil pH, soil Fe, and soil Cd provided an excellent predictor of the Ca(NO)-extractable soil Cd fraction, regression models explained just 38% of the variation of the Cd concentration in pasture grasses. Incorporating the effect of pasture species composition is a crucial next step in improving these models. A calculation of the likely exposure to Cd of sheep and cattle revealed that no pastures tested resulted in sheep and cattle ingesting Cd at a rate that would result in breaching muscle-tissue food standards. For offal products, which the NZ meat industry does not sell for human consumption, food safety standards exceedence was calculated in a few cases. PMID:25602820