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Sample records for green river shale

  1. High-resolution mass spectrometry of nitrogenous compounds of the Colorado Green River formation oil shale.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneit, B. R.; Schnoes, H. K.; Haug, P.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Basic nitrogenous compounds isolated from extracts of Green River Formation oil shale were analyzed. The major homologous constituents found were the compositional types - namely, quinolines, tetrahydrequinolines with minor amounts of pyridines and indoles series and traces of more aromatized nitrogen compounds. These results are correlated with nitrogen compounds isolated from Green River Formation retort oil and are a survey of the unaltered nitrogen compounds indigeneous to the shale.

  2. Characterization of DOE reference oil shales: Mahogany Zone, Parachute Creek Member, Green River Formation Oil Shale, and Clegg Creek Member, New Albany Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Miknis, F. P.; Robertson, R. E.

    1987-09-01

    Measurements have been made on the chemical and physical properties of two oil shales designated as reference oil shales by the Department of Energy. One oil shale is a Green River Formation, Parachute Creek Member, Mahogany Zone Colorado oil shale from the Exxon Colony mine and the other is a Clegg Creek Member, New Albany shale from Kentucky. Material balance Fischer assays, carbon aromaticities, thermal properties, and bulk mineralogic properties have been determined for the oil shales. Kerogen concentrates were prepared from both shales. The measured properties of the reference shales are comparable to results obtained from previous studies on similar shales. The western reference shale has a low carbon aromaticity, high Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant carbonate mineralogy. The eastern reference shale has a high carbon aromaticity, low Fischer assay conversion to oil, and a dominant silicate mineralogy. Chemical and physical properties, including ASTM distillations, have been determined for shale oils produced from the reference shales. The distillation data were used in conjunction with API correlations to calculate a large number of shale oil properties that are required for computer models such as ASPEN. There was poor agreement between measured and calculated molecular weights for the total shale oil produced from each shale. However, measured and calculated molecular weights agreed reasonably well for true boiling point distillate fractions in the temperature range of 204 to 399/sup 0/C (400 to 750/sup 0/F). Similarly, measured and calculated viscosities of the total shale oils were in disagreement, whereas good agreement was obtained on distillate fractions for a boiling range up to 315/sup 0/C (600/sup 0/F). Thermal and dielectric properties were determined for the shales and shale oils. The dielectric properties of the reference shales and shale oils decreased with increasing frequency of the applied frequency. 42 refs., 34 figs., 24

  3. Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin in Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, R.C.; Mercier, T.J.; Brownfield, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently (2011) completed an assessment of in-place oil shale resources, regardless of grade, in the Eocene Green River Formation of the Greater Green River Basin in southwestern Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah. Green River Formation oil shale also is present in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado and in the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and western Colorado, and the results of these assessments are published separately. No attempt was made to estimate the amount of oil that is economically recoverable because there has not yet been an economic method developed to recover the oil from Green River Formation oil shale.

  4. Primary oil-shale resources of the Green River Formation in the eastern Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Trudell, L.G.; Smith, J.W.; Beard, T.N.; Mason, G.M.

    1983-04-01

    Resources of potential oil in place in the Green River Formation are measured and estimated for the primary oil-shale resource area east of the Green River in Utah's Uinta Basin. The area evaluated (Ts 7-14 S, Rs 19-25 E) includes most of, and certainly the best of Utah's oil-shale resource. For resource evaluation the principal oil-shale section is divided into ten stratigraphic units which are equivalent to units previously evaluated in the Piceance Creek Basin of Colorado. Detailed evaluation of individual oil-shale units sampled by cores, plus estimates by extrapolation into uncored areas indicate a total resource of 214 billion barrels of shale oil in place in the eastern Uinta Basin.

  5. Oil shale resources in the Eocene Green River Formation, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Oil Shale Assessment Team

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a comprehensive assessment of in-place oil in oil shales in the Eocene Green River in the Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah. This CD-ROM includes reports, data, and an ArcGIS project describing the assessment. A database was compiled that includes about 47,000 Fischer assays from 186 core holes and 240 rotary drill holes. Most of the oil yield data were analyzed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, and some analyses were made by private laboratories. Location data for 971 Wyoming oil-shale drill holes are listed in a spreadsheet and included in the CD-ROM. Total in-place resources for the three assessed units in the Green River Formation are: (1) Tipton Shale Member, 362,816 million barrels of oil (MMBO), (2) Wilkins Peak Member, 704,991 MMBO, and (3) LaClede Bed of the Laney Member, 377,184 MMBO, for a total of 1.44 trillion barrels of oil in place. This compares with estimated in-place resources for the Piceance Basin of Colorado of 1.53 trillion barrels and estimated in-place resources for the Uinta Basin of Utah and Colorado of 1.32 trillion barrels.

  6. Shock propagation and attenuation in Green River oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grady, D. E.

    2014-05-01

    Shock waves produced by planar impact of thin plates onto samples of oil shale are monitored with time-resolved velocity interferometer diagnostics. Peak shock stresses are below the Hugoniot elastic limit. Stress wave measurements at successive sample thickness are analysed to determine the experimental shock energy attenuation with propagation distance. Shock attenuation is attributed to stress wave scattering at planes of oil shale kerogen within the shale matrix. Wave scattering from planar defects are evaluated from a shock physics perspective and a scattering model is constructed that sensibly reproduces the experimental observation of shock energy attenuation.

  7. An isotopic biogeochemical study of the Green River oil shale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collister, J. W.; Summons, R. E.; Lichtfouse, E.; Hayes, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-five different samples from three different sulfur cycles were examined in this stratigraphically oriented study of the Shell 22x-l well (U.S.G.S. C177 core) in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Carbon isotopic compositions of constituents of Green River bitumens indicate mixing of three main components: products of primary photoautotrophs and their immediate consumers (delta approximately -30% vs PDB), products of methanotrophic bacteria (delta approximately -85%), and products of unknown bacteria (delta approximately -40%). For individual compounds synthesized by primary producers, delta-values ranged from -28 to -32%. 13C contents of individual primary products (beta-carotane, steranes, acyclic isoprenoids, tricyclic triterpenoids) were not closely correlated, suggesting diverse origins for these materials. 13C contents of numerous hopanoids were inversely related to sulfur abundance, indicating that they derived both from methanotrophs and from other bacteria, with abundances of methanotrophs depressed when sulfur was plentiful in the paleoenvironment. gamma-Cerane coeluted with 3 beta(CH3),17 alpha(H),21 beta(H)-hopane, but delta-values could be determined after deconvolution. gamma-Cerane (delta approximately -25%) probably derives from a eukaryotic heterotroph grazing on primary materials, the latter compound (delta approximately -90%) must derive from methanotrophic organisms. 13C contents of n-alkanes in bitumen differed markedly from those of paraffins generated pyrolytically. Isotopic and quantitative relationships suggest that alkanes released by pyrolysis derived from a resistant biopolymer of eukaryotic origin and that this was a dominant constituent of total organic carbon.

  8. An isotopic biogeochemical study of the Green River oil shale.

    PubMed

    Collister, J W; Summons, R E; Lichtfouse, E; Hayes, J M

    1992-12-01

    Thirty-five different samples from three different sulfur cycles were examined in this stratigraphically oriented study of the Shell 22x-l well (U.S.G.S. C177 core) in the Piceance Basin, Colorado. Carbon isotopic compositions of constituents of Green River bitumens indicate mixing of three main components: products of primary photoautotrophs and their immediate consumers (delta approximately -30% vs PDB), products of methanotrophic bacteria (delta approximately -85%), and products of unknown bacteria (delta approximately -40%). For individual compounds synthesized by primary producers, delta-values ranged from -28 to -32%. 13C contents of individual primary products (beta-carotane, steranes, acyclic isoprenoids, tricyclic triterpenoids) were not closely correlated, suggesting diverse origins for these materials. 13C contents of numerous hopanoids were inversely related to sulfur abundance, indicating that they derived both from methanotrophs and from other bacteria, with abundances of methanotrophs depressed when sulfur was plentiful in the paleoenvironment. gamma-Cerane coeluted with 3 beta(CH3),17 alpha(H),21 beta(H)-hopane, but delta-values could be determined after deconvolution. gamma-Cerane (delta approximately -25%) probably derives from a eukaryotic heterotroph grazing on primary materials, the latter compound (delta approximately -90%) must derive from methanotrophic organisms. 13C contents of n-alkanes in bitumen differed markedly from those of paraffins generated pyrolytically. Isotopic and quantitative relationships suggest that alkanes released by pyrolysis derived from a resistant biopolymer of eukaryotic origin and that this was a dominant constituent of total organic carbon. PMID:11540064

  9. In-place oil shale resources underlying Federal lands in the Green River and Washakie Basins, southwestern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    Using a geologic-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated an in-place oil shale resource of 906 billion barrels under Federal mineral rights, or 62 percent of the total oil shale in place, in the Green River and Washakie Basins, Wyoming. More than 67 percent of the total oil shale in-place resource, or 969 billion barrels, is under Federal surface management.

  10. A Study of the Dielectric Properties of Dry and Saturated Green River Oil Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, J; Roberts, J; Harben, P

    2007-02-07

    We measured dielectric permittivity of dry and fluid-saturated Green River oil shale samples over a frequency range of 1 MHz to 1.8 GHz. Dry sample measurements were carried out between room temperature and 146 C, saturated sample measurements were carried out at room temperature. Samples obtained from the Green River formation of Wyoming and from the Anvil Points Mine in Colorado were cored both parallel and perpendicular to layering. The samples, which all had organic richness in the range of 10-45 gal/ton, showed small variations between samples and a relatively small level of anisotropy of the dielectric properties when dry. The real and imaginary part of the relative dielectric permittivity of dry rock was nearly constant over the frequency range observed, with low values for the imaginary part (loss factor). Saturation with de-ionized water and brine greatly increased the values of the real and imaginary parts of the relative permittivity, especially at the lower frequencies. Temperature effects were relatively small, with initial increases in permittivity to about 60 C, followed by slight decreases in permittivity that diminished as temperature increased. Implications of these observations for the in situ electromagnetic, or radio frequency (RF) heating of oil shale to produce oil and gas are discussed.

  11. High pressure pair distribution function studies of Green River oil shale.

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, K. W.; Chupas, P. J.; Locke, D. R.; Winans, R. E.; Pugmire, R. J.; Univ. of Utah

    2008-01-01

    The compression behavior of a silicate-rich oil shale from the Green River formation in the pressure range 0.0-2.4 GPa was studied using in situ high pressure X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements for the sample contained within a Paris-Edinburgh cell. The real-space local structural information in the PDF, G(r), was used to evaluate the compressibility of the oil shale. Specifically, the pressure-induced reduction in the medium- to long-range atom distances ({approx}6-20 {angstrom}) yielded an average sample compressibility corresponding to a bulk modulus of ca. 61-67 GPa. A structural model consisting of a three phase mixture of the principal crystalline oil shale components (quartz, albite and Illite) provided a good fit to the ambient pressure PDF data (R {approx} 30.7%). Indeed the features in the PDF beyond {approx} {angstrom}, were similarly well fit by a single phase model of the highest symmetry, highly crystalline quartz component. The factors influencing the observed compression behavior are discussed.

  12. Assessment of In-Place Oil Shale Resources of the Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Self, Jesse G.

    2010-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a total of 1.32 trillion barrels of oil in place in 18 oil shale zones in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado.

  13. Assessment of in-place oil shale resources of the Eocene Green River Formation, a foundation for calculating recoverable resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The recently completed assessment of in-place resources of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado; the Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado; and the Greater Green River Basin Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah and their accompanying ArcGIS projects will form the foundation for estimating technically-recoverable resources in those areas. Different estimates will be made for each of the various above-ground and in-situ recovery methodologies currently being developed. Information required for these estimates include but are not limited to (1) estimates of the amount of oil shale that exceeds various grades, (2) overburden calculations, (3) a better understanding of oil shale saline facies, and (4) a better understanding of the distribution of various oil shale mineral facies. Estimates for the first two are on-going, and some have been published. The present extent of the saline facies in all three basins is fairly well understood, however, their original extent prior to ground water leaching has not been studied in detail. These leached intervals, which have enhanced porosity and permeability due to vugs and fractures and contain significant ground water resources, are being studied from available core descriptions. A database of all available xray mineralogy data for the oil shale interval is being constructed to better determine the extents of the various mineral facies. Once these studies are finished, the amount of oil shale with various mineralogical and physical properties will be determined.

  14. Assessment of In-Place Oil Shale Resources of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pantea, Michael P.; Self, Jesse G.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed a reassessment of in-place oil shale resources, regardless of richness, in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, western Colorado. A considerable amount of oil-yield data has been collected after previous in-place assessments were published, and these data were incorporated into this new assessment. About twice as many oil-yield data points were used, and several additional oil shale intervals were included that were not assessed previously for lack of data. Oil yields are measured using the Fischer assay method. The Fischer assay method is a standardized laboratory test for determining the oil yield from oil shale that has been almost universally used to determine oil yields for Green River Formation oil shales. Fischer assay does not necessarily measure the maximum amount of oil that an oil shale can produce, and there are retorting methods that yield more than the Fischer assay yield. However, the oil yields achieved by other technologies are typically reported as a percentage of the Fischer assay oil yield, and thus Fischer assay is still considered the standard by which other methods are compared.

  15. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Green River Shale By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Using a Desolvating Nebulizer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, F.; Clarke, D.; Moody, S.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is applied to a geological sample for the determination of rare earth elements (REEs) using a specialized nebulizer system. The low flow desolvating nebulizer has been shown to decrease metal oxide formation which leads to a reduction in mass spectral interferences. Traditional nebulizers and spray chambers may be suitable for similar sample types, but reduction of water vapor loading to the plasma can improve REE detection limits for quadrupole-based ICP-MS. The Green River formation holds the largest oil shale deposits in the world and understanding the elemental composition of these samples is important in its study. A certified reference material, USGS Green River Shale (SGR-1), was microwave digested prior to analysis, and recoveries of REEs compared to historical values are discussed.

  16. 17alpha/H/ hopane identified in oil shale of the Green River formation /Eocene/ by carbon-13 NMR.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balogh, B.; Wilson, D. M.; Christiansen, P.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1973-01-01

    During an investigation of C-13 NMR shifts and the structural correspondence of pentacyclic triterpenes a C-13 NMR study was conducted on one of the most abundant components of the hexane soluble fraction of oil shale bitumen of the Green River formation. A rigorous proof was derived exclusively from C-13 NMR data for the structure of the important triterpenoid fossil molecule. It was established that the structure of the isolated triterpane was 17alpha(H) hopane.

  17. Fischer Assays of Oil-Shale Drill Cores and Rotary Cuttings from the Greater Green River Basin, Southwestern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey Oil Shale Assessment Team

    2008-01-01

    Chapter 1 of this CD-ROM is a database of digitized Fischer (shale-oil) assays of cores and cuttings from boreholes drilled in the Eocene Green River oil shale deposits in southwestern Wyoming. Assays of samples from some surface sections are also included. Most of the Fischer assay analyses were made by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines (USBM) at its laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming. Other assays, made by institutional or private laboratories, were donated to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and are included in this database as well as Adobe PDF-scanned images of some of the original laboratory assay reports and lithologic logs prepared by USBM geologists. The size of this database is 75.2 megabytes and includes information on 971 core holes and rotary-drilled boreholes and numerous surface sections. Most of these data were released previously by the USBM and the USGS through the National Technical Information Service but are no longer available from that agency. Fischer assays for boreholes in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado have been published by the USGS. Additional data include geophysical logs, groundwater data, chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses, and other data. These materials are available for inspection in the office of the USGS Central Energy Resources Team in Lakewood, Colorado. The digitized assays were checked with the original laboratory reports, but some errors likely remain. Other information, such as locations and elevations of core holes and oil and gas tests, were not thoroughly checked. However, owing to the current interest in oil-shale development, it was considered in the public interest to make this preliminary database available at this time. Chapter 2 of this CD-ROM presents oil-yield histograms of samples of cores and cuttings from exploration drill holes in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Great Divide, Green River, and Washakie Basins of southwestern Wyoming. A database was compiled that includes about 47

  18. Maturation of Green River Shale Kerogen with Hydrous Pyrolysis: Characterization of Geochemical Biomarkers and Carbon Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Q.; Darnell, M.; Bissada, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    To fully understand controlling factors of organic compound generation during oil shale maturation, and systematically assess associated carbon isotope values, a series of hydrous pyrolysis experiments are performed. Kerogen was isolated from Green River shale by a set of acid treatment. Experiments are conducted at 350 °C and 300 bars of total pressure with running time of 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. In each experiment, the reactor contains 1.5 grams of kerogen and 30 grams of deionized water. After experiments, gaseous products are removed under cryogenic conditions for chemical and carbon isotope analyses (GC-IRMS). The bitumen product is retrieved and separated into saturated hydrocarbons, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes (SARA) by HPLC before subsequent analyses (GC, GC-MS, and IRMS). The gaseous compounds from experiments consisted of CO2 and C1 to C4 hydrocarbons. Semiquantitative analysis indicates the yield of n-alkanes decreases with carbon number, with CO2 being more abundant than all alkanes. The δ13C value of alkanes increases with molecular weight, with CO2 having the highest value. Methane and ethane become enriched in 13C with time. In bitumen products, gravimetric analysis has shown that the abundance of aromatics increases with time, while that of asphaltenes decreases. After 72 hours, the weight percentages of saturated hydrocarbons, aromatics, resins and asphaltenes are 2.6, 42.3, 40.1, and 15.0, respectively. High resolution GC-MS results indicate low kerogen maturation after 72 hours using saturated biomarker compounds as thermal maturity indicator, such as 22S/(22S + 22R) of C31 to C35 homohopanes, tricyclics/17(H)-hopanes, and Ts/(Ts + Tm). Bulk carbon isotope value of bitumen decreases with time, with 2.5‰ lighter than original kerogen after 72 hours. In terms of different groups, saturated hydrocarbons and resins become depleted in 13C with longer reaction time, while aromatics and asphaltenes become enriched in 13C

  19. Sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical definition of oil-shale facies in the lower Parachute Creek Member of Green River Formation, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.D.

    1984-04-01

    Sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical studies of two drill cores penetrating the lower Saline zone of the Parachute Creek Member (middle L-4 oil-shale zone through upper R-2 zone) of the Green River Formation in north-central Piceance Creek basin, Colorado, indicate the presence of two distinct oil-shale facies. The most abundant facies has laminated stratification and frequently occurs in the L-4, L-3 and L-2 oil-shale zones. The second, and subordinate facies, has ''streaked and blebby'' stratification and is most abundant in the R-4, R-3 and R-2 zones. Laminated oil shale originated by slow, regular sedimentation during meromictic phases of ancient Lake Uinta, whereas streaked and blebby oil shale was deposited by episodic, non-channelized turbidity currents. Laminated oil shale has higher contents of nahcolite, dawsonite, quartz, K-feldspar and calcite, but less dolomite/ankerite and albite than streaked and blebby oil shale. Ca-Mg-Fe carbonate minerals in laminated oil shale have more variable compositions than those in streaked and blebby shales. Streaked and blebby oil shale has more kerogen and a greater diversity of kerogen particles than laminated oil shale. Such variations may produce different pyrolysis reactions when each shale type is retorted.

  20. Resistivity variations in eocene sandstones from the Laney Shale member, Green River formation, Green River Basin, Wyoming, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Vinopal, R.J.; Nuhfer, E.B.

    1996-06-01

    Resistivity variations in two cores from the Laney Shale sandstone interval correlate with differences in the type and morphology of zeolite cements present in the sandstones. Resistivity of the Laney Shale sandstones varies from 12 to 30 ohm-meters. and shows a significant lateral difference in two wells spaced 6 miles apart. Mean sandstone porosity (27%) is the same in both cored intervals and does not correlate with differences in resistivity response. Thin section, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and whole rock chemical analysis show that variation in the content of the zeolites analcime and clinoptilolite is the most significant mineralogical difference between the two cores. The sodium zeolite, analcime, shows a trend of increasing abundance with depth through the higher resistivity sandstone interval. The blocky analcime cement increases sandstone resistivity by decreasing the abundance of conducting pathways. Lower resistivity sandstones contain the sodium-potassium-calcium zeolite, clinoptilolite. Clinoptilolite occurs as a microcrystalline cement in the form of small prismatic crystals that line pores. The clinoptilolite crystals have a much higher surface area to volume ratio than do the larger analcime crystals. This produces a greater abundance of conducting pathways, via ion exchange surfaces, on clinoptilolite crystals. Zeolite cements in the Laney Shale sandstones formed at shallow burial depths, most likely from the interaction of migrating sodium-rich, high pH connate brines with volcaniclastic grain components.

  1. CORE-BASED INTEGRATED SEDIMENTOLOGIC, STRATIGRAPHIC, AND GEOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE OIL SHALE BEARING GREEN RIVER FORMATION, UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    SciTech Connect

    Lauren P. Birgenheier; Michael D. Vanden Berg,

    2011-04-11

    An integrated detailed sedimentologic, stratigraphic, and geochemical study of Utah's Green River Formation has found that Lake Uinta evolved in three phases (1) a freshwater rising lake phase below the Mahogany zone, (2) an anoxic deep lake phase above the base of the Mahogany zone and (3) a hypersaline lake phase within the middle and upper R-8. This long term lake evolution was driven by tectonic basin development and the balance of sediment and water fill with the neighboring basins, as postulated by models developed from the Greater Green River Basin by Carroll and Bohacs (1999). Early Eocene abrupt global-warming events may have had significant control on deposition through the amount of sediment production and deposition rates, such that lean zones below the Mahogany zone record hyperthermal events and rich zones record periods between hyperthermals. This type of climatic control on short-term and long-term lake evolution and deposition has been previously overlooked. This geologic history contains key points relevant to oil shale development and engineering design including: (1) Stratigraphic changes in oil shale quality and composition are systematic and can be related to spatial and temporal changes in the depositional environment and basin dynamics. (2) The inorganic mineral matrix of oil shale units changes significantly from clay mineral/dolomite dominated to calcite above the base of the Mahogany zone. This variation may result in significant differences in pyrolysis products and geomechanical properties relevant to development and should be incorporated into engineering experiments. (3) This study includes a region in the Uinta Basin that would be highly prospective for application of in-situ production techniques. Stratigraphic targets for in-situ recovery techniques should extend above and below the Mahogany zone and include the upper R-6 and lower R-8.

  2. Spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Green River Formation using Fischer Assay, Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado was studied in detail using some 321,000 Fischer assay analyses in the U.S. Geological Survey oil-shale database. The oil-shale section was subdivided into 17 roughly time-stratigraphic intervals, and the distribution of water in each interval was assessed separately. This study was conducted in part to determine whether water produced during retorting of oil shale could provide a significant amount of the water needed for an oil-shale industry. Recent estimates of water requirements vary from 1 to 10 barrels of water per barrel of oil produced, depending on the type of retort process used. Sources of water in Green River oil shale include (1) free water within clay minerals; (2) water from the hydrated minerals nahcolite (NaHCO3), dawsonite (NaAl(OH)2CO3), and analcime (NaAlSi2O6.H20); and (3) minor water produced from the breakdown of organic matter in oil shale during retorting. The amounts represented by each of these sources vary both stratigraphically and areally within the basin. Clay is the most important source of water in the lower part of the oil-shale interval and in many basin-margin areas. Nahcolite and dawsonite are the dominant sources of water in the oil-shale and saline-mineral depocenter, and analcime is important in the upper part of the formation. Organic matter does not appear to be a major source of water. The ratio of water to oil generated with retorting is significantly less than 1:1 for most areas of the basin and for most stratigraphic intervals; thus water within oil shale can provide only a fraction of the water needed for an oil-shale industry.

  3. Spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Green River Formation using Fischer assay, Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    The spatial and stratigraphic distribution of water in oil shale of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado was studied in detail using some 321,000 Fischer assay analyses in the U.S. Geological Survey oil-shale database. The oil-shale section was subdivided into 17 roughly time-stratigraphic intervals, and the distribution of water in each interval was assessed separately. This study was conducted in part to determine whether water produced during retorting of oil shale could provide a significant amount of the water needed for an oil-shale industry. Recent estimates of water requirements vary from 1 to 10 barrels of water per barrel of oil produced, depending on the type of retort process used. Sources of water in Green River oil shale include (1) free water within clay minerals; (2) water from the hydrated minerals nahcolite (NaHCO3), dawsonite (NaAl(OH)2CO3), and analcime (NaAlSi2O6.H20); and (3) minor water produced from the breakdown of organic matter in oil shale during retorting. The amounts represented by each of these sources vary both stratigraphically and areally within the basin. Clay is the most important source of water in the lower part of the oil-shale interval and in many basin-margin areas. Nahcolite and dawsonite are the dominant sources of water in the oil-shale and saline-mineral depocenter, and analcime is important in the upper part of the formation. Organic matter does not appear to be a major source of water. The ratio of water to oil generated with retorting is significantly less than 1:1 for most areas of the basin and for most stratigraphic intervals; thus water within oil shale can provide only a fraction of the water needed for an oil-shale industry.

  4. GREEN RIVER AIR QUALITY MODEL DEVELOPMENT: METEOROLOGICAL DATA - AUGUST 1980 FIELD STUDY IN THE PICEANCE CREEK BASIN OIL SHALE RESOURCES AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Special meteorological and air quality studies were conducted during August 1980 in the Piceance Creek Basin oil shale resource area of Northwestern Colorado as part of the EPA-sponsored Green River Ambient Model Assessment program. The objective of the limited field program was ...

  5. In-place oil shale resources in the saline-mineral and saline-leached intervals, Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Dietrich, John D.

    2014-01-01

    A recent U.S. Geological Survey analysis of the Green River Formation of the Piceance Basin in western Colorado shows that about 920 and 352 billion barrels of oil are potentially recoverable from oil shale resources using oil-yield cutoffs of 15 and 25 gallons per ton (GPT), respectively. This represents most of the high-grade oil shale in the United States. Much of this rich oil shale is found in the dolomitic Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation and is associated with the saline minerals nahcolite and halite, or in the interval where these minerals have been leached by groundwater. The remaining high-grade resource is located primarily in the underlying illitic Garden Gulch Member of the Green River Formation. Of the 352 billion barrels of potentially recoverable oil resources in high-grade (≥25 GPT) oil shale, the relative proportions present in the illitic interval, non-saline R-2 zone, saline-mineral interval, leached interval (excluding leached Mahogany zone), and Mahogany zone were 3.1, 4.5, 36.6, 23.9, and 29.9 percent of the total, respectively. Only 2 percent of high-grade oil shale is present in marginal areas where saline minerals were never deposited.

  6. Concentration and mineralogical residence of elements in rich oil shales of the Green River Formation, Piceance Creek basin, Colorado, and the Uinta Basin, Utah - A preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Desborough, G.A.; Pitman, J.K.; Huffman, C., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Ten samples from drillcore of two rich oil-shale beds from the Parachute Creek Member of the Eocene Green River Formation, Piceance Creek basin, Colorado, and Uinta Basin, Utah, were analyzed for 37 major, minor, and trace elements. For 23 of these elements, principal mineralogical residence is established or suggested and such studies may provide data which are useful for predicting the kinds and amounts of elements and compounds that might be released into the environment by oil-shale mining operations. ?? 1976.

  7. In-place oil shale resources examined by grade in the major basins of the Green River Formation, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a total of 4.285 trillion barrels of oil in-place in the oil shale of the three principal basins of the Eocene Green River Formation. Using oil shale cutoffs of potentially viable (15 gallons per ton) and high grade (25 gallons per ton), it is estimated that between 353 billion and 1.146 trillion barrels of the in-place resource have a high potential for development.

  8. Effects of organic wastes on water quality from processing of oil shale from the Green River Formation, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leenheer, J.A.; Noyes, T.I.

    1986-01-01

    A series of investigations were conducted during a 6-year research project to determine the nature and effects of organic wastes from processing of Green River Formation oil shale on water quality. Fifty percent of the organic compounds in two retort wastewaters were identified as various aromatic amines, mono- and dicarboxylic acids phenols, amides, alcohols, ketones, nitriles, and hydroxypyridines. Spent shales with carbonaceous coatings were found to have good sorbent properties for organic constituents of retort wastewaters. However, soils sampled adjacent to an in situ retort had only fair sorbent properties for organic constituents or retort wastewater, and application of retort wastewater caused disruption of soil structure characteristics and extracted soil organic matter constituents. Microbiological degradation of organic solutes in retort wastewaters was found to occur preferentially in hydrocarbons and fatty acid groups of compounds. Aromatic amines did not degrade and they inhibited bacterial growth where their concentrations were significant. Ammonia, aromatic amines, and thiocyanate persisted in groundwater contaminated by in situ oil shale retorting, but thiosulfate was quantitatively degraded one year after the burn. Thiocyanate was found to be the best conservative tracer for retort water discharged into groundwater. Natural organic solutes, isolated from groundwater in contact with Green River Formation oil shale and from the White River near Rangely, Colorado, were readily distinguished from organic constituents in retort wastewaters by molecular weight and chemical characteristic differences. (USGS)

  9. Solid-state NMR analysis of coals and shales from the Mesaverde Group, Green River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Miknis, F.P.; MacGowan, D.B.

    1993-08-01

    Samples of coals and shales from the Almond Formation of the Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming were analyzed using solid-state {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques of cross polarization with magic-angle spinning (CP/MAS). The samples were taken from a present-day depth of burial ranging from {approximately}3,000 to {approximately}15,000 ft. In addition, CP/MAS {sup 13}C NMR measurements were made on residues from the hydrous pyrolysis of Almond coal. The hydrous pyrolysis experiments were conducted isothermally for 72 hr in the temperature range of 290 to 360{degree}C (554 to 680{degree}F). In general, the maturation trends observed by NMR for the naturally and artificially matured samples were in agreement with results obtained from other geochemical analyses. The NMR spectra of the naturally matured shale samples showed only a small aliphatic component at depths greater than about 12,000 ft, indicating little capacity for hydrocarbon generation at depths greater than this. Vitrinite reflectance measurements placed the oil window at between 4,500 and 14,500 ft. NMR measurements of the hydrous pyrolysis residues showed a clear loss of aliphatic carbon, relative to the aromatic carbon, with temperature. For the residue obtained from the highest study temperature (360{degree}C/680{degree}F), there was a 60% depletion of the hydrocarbon-producing aliphatic components. The trends in loss of aliphatic carbon with temperature suggested a means of defining a geochemical transformation ratio in terms of the loss of the aliphatic carbon fraction. A good correlation was found between the NMR transformation ratio and the production index determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis measurements.

  10. Laboratory study of the effects of combustion gases on retorting of Green River oil shale with superheated steam

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, A.L.; Bullen, E.A.; Jacobs, H.R.

    1983-04-01

    The leached zone of the Parachute Creek member of the Piceance Basin in the Green River Formation has a unique natural porosity that makes it a likely source for in-situ production of oil from oil shale by injection of superheated steam. The Equity Oil Co. of Salt Lake City, in cooperation with the U. S. Department of Energy, carried out field tests using surface generated steam. Difficulties in delivering steam of sufficiently high temperature to the formation resulted in an experiment which was only marginally successful yielding less than 1 percent of the estimated 300,000 barrels of oil in place. In 1981, personnel at Sandia National Laboratory suggested that a downhole steam generator which could produce steam at temperatures in excess of 1000/sup 0/F (538/sup 0/C) at depth could well solve the temperature problem. In order to evaluate the effects of combustion gases which would be injected along with steam, should a downhole steam generator be used, laboratory studies have been completed using steam diluted with CO/sub 2/ and with CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ as the heating medium. Results of experiments in an autoclave reactor and in a laboratory retort are reported. The temperature, residence time, and partial pressure of steam are the parameters which effect oil yield and oil quality. Oil properties are reported for several experimental conditions and include oil yield, boiling point distributions, pour points, gravity, and elemental and hydrocarbon-type analyses. Both the autoclave and laboratory retort experiments indicate that CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ do not take a reactive part in the formation of oils except as they dilute the steam. However, the presence of CO/sub 2/ in the gaseous atmosphere during retorting does promote a low-temperature transformation of dolomite to calcite in the inorganic matrix of the oil shale.

  11. Role of water in hydrocarbon generation from Type-I kerogen in Mahogany oil shale of the Green River Formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewan, M.D.; Roy, S.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrous and anhydrous closed-system pyrolysis experiments were conducted on a sample of Mahogany oil shale (Eocene Green River Formation) containing Type-I kerogen to determine whether the role of water had the same effect on petroleum generation as reported for Type-II kerogen in the Woodford Shale. The experiments were conducted at 330 and 350??C for 72h to determine the effects of water during kerogen decomposition to polar-rich bitumen and subsequent bitumen decomposition to hydrocarbon-rich oil. The results showed that the role of water was more significant in bitumen decomposition to oil at 350??C than in kerogen decomposition to bitumen at 330??C. At 350??C, the hydrous experiment generated 29% more total hydrocarbon product and 33% more C15+ hydrocarbons than the anhydrous experiment. This is attributed to water dissolved in the bitumen serving as a source of hydrogen to enhance thermal cracking and facilitate the expulsion of immiscible oil. In the absence of water, cross linking is enhanced in the confines of the rock, resulting in formation of pyrobitumen and molecular hydrogen. These differences are also reflected in the color and texture of the recovered rock. Despite confining liquid-water pressure being 7-9 times greater in the hydrous experiments than the confining vapor pressure in the anhydrous experiments, recovered rock from the former had a lighter color and expansion fractures parallel to the bedding fabric of the rock. The absence of these open tensile fractures in the recovered rock from the anhydrous experiments indicates that water promotes net-volume increase reactions like thermal cracking over net-volume decrease reactions like cross linking, which results in pyrobitumen. The results indicate the role of water in hydrocarbon and petroleum formation from Type-I kerogen is significant, as reported for Type-II kerogen. ?? 2010.

  12. Studies of the acidic components of the Colorado Green River formation oil shale-Mass spectrometric identification of the methyl esters of extractable acids.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haug, P.; Schnoes, H. K.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Study of solvent extractable acidic constituents of oil shale from the Colorado Green River Formation. Identification of individual components is based on gas chromatographic and mass spectrometric data obtained for their respective methyl esters. Normal acids, isoprenoidal acids, alpha, omega-dicarboxylic acids, mono-alpha-methyl dicarboxylic acids and methyl ketoacids were identified. In addition, the presence of monocyclic, benzoic, phenylalkanoic and naphthyl-carboxylic acids, as well as cycloaromatic acids, is demonstrated by partial identification.

  13. A Collection of Chemical, Mineralogical, and Stable Isotopic Compositional Data for Green River Oil Shale from Depositional Center Cores in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.

    2009-01-01

    For over half a century, the U.S. Geological Survey and collaborators have conducted stratigraphic and geochemical studies on the Eocene Green River Formation, which is known to contain large oil shale resources. Many of the studies were undertaken in the 1970s during the last oil shale boom. One such study analyzed the chemistry, mineralogy, and stable isotopy of the Green River Formation in the three major depositional basins: Piceance basin, Colo.; Uinta basin, Utah; and the Green River basin, Wyo. One depositional-center core from each basin was sampled and analyzed for major, minor, and trace chemistry; mineral composition and sulfide-mineral morphology; sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon forms; and stable isotopic composition (delta34S, delta15N, delta13C, and delta18O). Many of these data were published and used to support interpretative papers (see references herein). Some bulk-chemical and carbonate-isotopic data were never published and may be useful to studies that are currently exploring topics such as future oil shale development and the climate, geography, and weathering in the Eocene Epoch. These unpublished data, together with most of the U.S. Geological Survey data already published on these samples, are tabulated in this report.

  14. In-place oil shale resources of the Mahogany zone sorted by grade, overburden thickness and stripping ratio, Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado and Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    A range of geological parameters relevant to mining oil shale have been examined for the Mahogany zone of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, Colorado, and Uinta Basin, Utah, using information available in the U.S. Geological Survey Oil Shale Assessment database. Basinwide discrete and cumulative distributions of resource in-place as a function of (1) oil shale grade, (2) Mahogany zone thickness, (3) overburden thickness, and (4) stripping ratio (overburden divided by zone thickness) were determined for both basins on a per-acre basis, and a resource map showing the areal distribution of these properties was generated. Estimates of how much of the Mahogany zone resource meets various combinations of these parameters were also determined. Of the 191.7 billion barrels of Mahogany zone oil in-place in the Piceance Basin, 32.3 percent (61.8 billion barrels) is associated with oil shale yielding at least 25 gallons of oil per ton (GPT) of rock processed, is covered by overburden 1,000 feet thick or less, and has a stripping ratio of less than 10. In the Uinta Basin, 14.0 percent (29.9 billion barrels) of the 214.5 billion barrels of Mahogany zone oil in-place meets the same overburden and stripping ratio criteria but only for the lower grade cutoff of 15 GPT.

  15. Structural characterization of Green River oil-shale at high-pressure using pair distribution function analysis and small angle x-ray scattering.

    SciTech Connect

    Locke, D. R.; Chupas, P. J.; Chapman, K. W.; Pugmire, R. J.; Winans, R. E.; Univ. of Utah

    2008-01-01

    The compression behavior of a silicate-rich oil shale from the Green River formation in the pressure range 0.0-2.4 GPa was studied using in situ high pressure X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) measurements for the sample contained within a Paris-Edinburgh cell. The real-space local structural information in the PDF, G(r), was used to evaluate the compressibility of the oil shale. Specifically, the pressure-induced reduction in the medium- to long-range atom distances (6-20 {angstrom}) yielded an average sample compressibility corresponding to a bulk modulus of ca. 61-67 GPa. A structural model consisting of a three phase mixture of the principal crystalline oil shale components (quartz, albite and Illite) provided a good fit to the ambient pressure PDF data (R 30.7%). Indeed the features in the PDF beyond 6 {angstrom}, were similarly well fit by a single phase model of the highest symmetry, highly crystalline quartz component.

  16. Influence of frequency, grade, moisture and temperature on Green River oil shale dielectric properties and electromagnetic heating processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hakala, J. Alexandra; Stanchina, William; Soong, Yee; Hedges, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    Development of in situ electromagnetic (EM) retorting technologies and design of specific EM well logging tools requires an understanding of various process parameters (applied frequency, mineral phases present, water content, organic content and temperature) on oil shale dielectric properties. In this literature review on oil shale dielectric properties, we found that at low temperatures (<200° C) and constant oil shale grade, both the relative dielectric constant (ε') and imaginary permittivity (ε'') decrease with increased frequency and remain constant at higher frequencies. At low temperature and constant frequency, ε' decreases or remains constant with oil shale grade, while ε'' increases or shows no trend with oil shale grade. At higher temperatures (>200º C) and constant frequency, epsilon' generally increases with temperature regardless of grade while ε'' fluctuates. At these temperatures, maximum values for both ε' and ε'' differ based upon oil shale grade. Formation fluids, mineral-bound water, and oil shale varve geometry also affect measured dielectric properties. This review presents and synthesizes prior work on the influence of applied frequency, oil shale grade, water, and temperature on the dielectric properties of oil shales that can aid in the future development of frequency- and temperature-specific in situ retorting technologies and oil shale grade assay tools.

  17. Lacustrine turbidites in the Green River Formation, northwestern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyni, John R.; Hawkins, James E.

    1981-05-01

    A preliminary study of drill cores of blebby and streaked oil shale from the Green River Formation (Eocene) in the deep northern part of the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, shows sedimentary structures that suggest deposition by turbidity currents. This type of oil shale composes about one-half of the oil-shale deposits at the saline depocenter of Eocene Lake Uinta where it is interbedded with the well-known laminated type of oil shale described previously in the literature. Episodic and rapid deposition by lake-bottom currents of large amounts of carbonate-silicate sediments that formed high-grade oil shale is a new concept for the origin of a major part of the Green River oil-shale deposits. In contrast, the laminated oil shale, as previously described, accumulated very slowly as thin varves in a chemically stratified lake under stagnant conditions.

  18. GREEN RIVER AMBIENT MODEL ASSESSMENT PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the proposed development of the Green River Oil Shale Formation encompassing the areas of southwestern Wyoming, northeastern Utah, and northwestern Colorado, the EPA Region VIII Headquarters in Denver has a specific need for the development of site-specific ambient dispers...

  19. Annual suspended-sediment loads in the Green River at Green River, Utah, 1930-82

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    The Green River above gaging station 093150000 at Green River, Utah, drains about 44,850 square miles in Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming. The average annual precipitation near the station was 6.11 inches. Rocks ranging in age from Precambrian to Holocene are exposed in the Green River drainage basin above Green River, Utah. Shale, siltstone, and mudstone of Tertiary age probably are the most easily eroded rocks in the basin, and they contribute a large part of the sediment load in the Green River. During 1930-82, the U.S. Geological Survey collected records of fluvial sediment at station 093150000. Based on these records the mean annual suspended-sediment load was about 15,630,000 tons, ranging from 1,780,000 tons during 1934 to 43,400,000 tons during 1937. The minimum daily load of 54 tons was on September 27, 1956, and the maximum daily load of 2,230,000 tons was on July 11, 1936. Analysis of the suspended-sediment records collected from 1930-82 at station 093150000 indicated that the accuracy of the records is fair prior to 1945 and good for the remaining period of record. The records after 1945 reflect the use of improved sampling equipment. (USGS)

  20. Revised stratigraphic nomenclature for the Wasatch and Green River formations of Eocene age, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Roehler, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    In this book the nomenclature of the Eocene Wasatch and Green River formations is revised to establish a stratigraphic framework that can be used for the accurate basinwide correlations of lithologic and chronologic units. To implement these revisions, the names Alkali Creek Tongue of the Wasatch Formation, and Farson Sandstone Member of the Green River Formation, Scheggs and Rife beds of the Tipton Shale Member of the Green River Formation are introduced. The continued use of the names New Fork Tongue, Desertion Point Tongue, and upper tongue of the Wasatch Formation, and the Fontenelle Tongue, upper Tipton Shale Member, middle tongue, and upper tongue of the Green River Formation is discouraged.

  1. Shale: Measurement of thermal properties

    SciTech Connect

    Gilliam, T.M.; Morgan, I.L.

    1987-07-01

    Thermal conductivity and heat capacity measurements were made on samples of Devonian shale, Pierre shale, and oil shale from the Green River Formation. Thermal expansion measurements were made on selected samples of Devonian shale. Measurements were obtained over the temperature range of ambient to 473 K. Average values for thermal conductivity and heat capacity for the samples studied were within two standard deviations of all data over this temperature range. 15 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the...

  3. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the...

  4. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the...

  5. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the...

  6. 33 CFR 117.415 - Green River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Green River. 117.415 Section 117.415 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Kentucky § 117.415 Green River. (a) The draw of the...

  7. Alumina from oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    Dawsonite-bearing oil shale of Colorado's Green River Formation offers a unique and vast (6.5 billion tons of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/) resource of easily extractable alumina. The processing methods required by the thermal reactions of dawsonite and its oil-shale carrier also require production of shale oil, soda ash, and nahcolite as marketable coproducts. These production methods are presented. The alumina production process is contrasted with the Bayer process to describe technical advantages of extraction of alumina from oil shale which may offset the problems associated with processing a relatively lean ore. While alumina production from oil shale requires development of new technology, the technical problems appear solvable. Only the political problems arising from the now onerous and completely unnecessary Federal oil-shale withdrawal appear less solvable.

  8. Greater Green River basin well-site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Frohne, K.H.; Boswell, R.

    1993-12-31

    Recent estimates of the natural gas resources of Cretaceous low-permeability reservoirs of the Greater Green River basin indicate that as much as 5000 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of gas may be in place (Law and others 1989). Of this total, Law and others (1989) attributed approximately 80 percent to the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group and Lewis Shale. Unfortunately, present economic conditions render the drilling of many vertical wells unprofitable. Consequently, a three-well demonstration program, jointly sponsored by the US DOE/METC and the Gas Research Institute, was designed to test the profitability of this resource using state-of-the-art directional drilling and completion techniques. DOE/METC studied the geologic and engineering characteristics of ``tight`` gas reservoirs in the eastern portion of the Greater Green River basin in order to identify specific locations that displayed the greatest potential for a successful field demonstration. This area encompasses the Rocks Springs Uplift, Wamsutter Arch, and the Washakie and Red Desert (or Great Divide) basins of southwestern Wyoming. The work was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of a regional geologic reconnaissance of 14 gas-producing areas encompassing 98 separate gas fields. In Phase 2, the top four areas were analyzed in greater detail, and the area containing the most favorable conditions was selected for the identification of specific test sites. In Phase 3, target horizons were selected for each project area, and specific placement locations were selected and prioritized.

  9. Adsorption of pyridine by combusted oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Essington, M. E.

    1992-03-01

    Large volumes of solid waste material will be produced during the commercial production of shale oil. An alternative to the disposal of the solid waste product is utilization. One potential use of spent oil shale is for the stabilization of hazardous organic compounds. The objective of this study was to examine the adsorption of pyridine, commonly found in oil shale process water, by spent oil shale. The adsorption of pyridine by fresh and weathered samples of combusted New Albany Shale and Green River Formation oil shale was examined. In general, pyridine adsorption can be classified as L-type and the isotherms modeled with the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. For the combusted New Albany Shale, weathering reduced the predicted pyridine adsorption maximum and increased the amount of pyridine adsorbed at low solution concentrations. For the combusted Green River Formation oil shales, weathering increased the predicted pyridine adsorption maximum. The pyridine adsorption isotherms were similar to those produced for a combusted Australian oil shale. Although adsorption can be mathematically described by empirical models, the reduction in solution concentrations of pyridine was generally less than 10 mg/l at an initial concentration of 100 mg/l. Clearly, the observed reduction in solution pyridine concentrations does not sufficiently justify using spent oil shale as a stabilizing medium. However, data in the literature suggest that other organic compounds can be effectively removed from solution by spent oil shale and that adsorption is dependent on process conditions and organic compound type.

  10. Maps showing thermal maturity of Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Thomas M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range, Owl Creek, and southern Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east and northeast, the Granite Mountains on the south, and the Wind River Range on the west. Important conventional and unconventional oil and gas resources have been discovered and produced from reservoirs ranging in age from Mississippian through Tertiary. It has been suggested that various Upper Cretaceous marine shales are the principal hydrocarbon source rocks for many of these accumulations. Numerous source rock studies of various Upper Cretaceous marine shales throughout the Rocky Mountain region have led to the conclusion that these rocks have generated, or are capable of generating, oil and (or) gas. With recent advances and success in horizontal drilling and multistage fracture stimulation there has been an increase in exploration and completion of wells in these marine shales in other Rocky Mountain Laramide basins that were traditionally thought of only as hydrocarbon source rocks. Important parameters that control hydrocarbon production from shales include: reservoir thickness, amount and type of organic matter, and thermal maturity. The purpose of this report is to present maps and a structural cross section showing levels of thermal maturity, based on vitrinite reflectance (Ro), for Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin.

  11. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Green River Site, Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1981-08-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has reevaluated the Green River site in order to revise the December 1977 engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Green River, Utah. This evaluation has included the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative remedial actions. Radon gas released from the 123,000 tons of tailings at the Green River site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors.

  12. Oil shale oxidation at subretorting temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, I.A. Jr.

    1980-06-01

    Green River oil shale was air oxidized at subretorting temperatures. Off gases consisting of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and water were monitored and quantitatively determined. A mathematical model of the oxidation reactions based on a shrinking core model has been developed. This model incorporates the chemical reaction of oxygen and the organic material in the oil shale as well as the diffusivity of the oxygen into the shale particle. Diffusivity appears to be rate limiting for the oxidation. Arrhenius type equations, which include a term for oil shale grade, have been derived for both the chemical reaction and the diffusivity.

  13. High-pressure pyrolysis of Green River oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A.K.; Singleton, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    Oil yields, compositions and rates of evolution are reported for heating rates from 1 to 100/sup 0/C/h and pressures of 1.5 and 27 atm. Pyrolysis occurred in an autogenous atmosphere and volatile products were allowed to escape the pyrolysis region continuously. Higher pressures and lower heating rates during pyrolysis cause a decrease in oil yield, although the effects are not additive. The lowest oil yield was approximately 72 wt% or 79 vol% of Fischer assay. Lower oil yield is generally accompanied by lower boiling point distribution, nitrogen content and density and higher H/C ratios. Oils produced at high pressure and slow heating rates are a clear amber color instead of the usual opaque brown. The effect of pyrolysis conditions on biological markers and other diagnostic hydrocarbons is also discussed. Existing kinetic expressions for oil evolution slightly overestimate the shift in the oil evolution rate vs. temperature with a decrease in heating rate. Finally, the rate of oil evolution is retarded by pressure, a factor not taken into account by current kinetic expressions.

  14. FLUORINE IN COLORADO OIL SHALE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyni, John R.

    1985-01-01

    Oil shale from the lower part of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, averages 0. 13 weight percent fluorine, which is about twice that found in common shales, but is the same as the average amount found in some oil shales from other parts of the world. Some fluorine may reside in fluorapatite; however, limited data suggest that cryolite may be quantitatively more important. To gain a better understanding of the detailed distribution of fluorine in the deeper nahcolite-bearing oil shales, cores were selected for study from two exploratory holes drilled in the northern part of the Piceance Creek Basin where the oil shales reach their maximum thickness and grade.

  15. Trace element distribution and oil yield data from the parachute creek member of the green river formation, colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Patrick J.; Donovan, Robert C.

    1987-02-01

    The determination of trace element concentrations in oil shale before mining and retorting is required for proper solid-waste management planning. Using routine Fischer assay oil yield data collected during resource characterization as indicators of potential trace element concentrations could lead to a standard method of identifying strata containing high trace element levels. In order to determine a correlation between trace element concentrations and oil yield, shale samples were selected from four statigraphic zones of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation for analysis. All samples were analyzed for total elemental concentrations, mineralogy, and Fischer assay oil yield. The results of these analyses demonstrated that the Mahogany zone shales contain significantly greater trace element concentrations (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, and vanadium) than the other three shale zones. These high trace element concentrations have been identified within well-defined interbedded tuff deposits in the Mahogany zone. In addition, all trace elements evaluated, except boron, show either increasing or decreasing concentrations as oil yield increases within all oil shale zones. With an increased number of analyses of existing oil shale cores, oil yield data will be correlated to specific stratigraphic units containing high trace element concentrations.

  16. Trace element distribution and oil yield data from the Parachute Creek member of the Green River Formation, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, P.J.; Donovan, R.C. )

    1987-01-01

    The determination of trace element concentrations in oil shale before mining and retorting is required for proper solid-waste management planning. Using routine Fischer assay oil yield data collected during resource characterization as indicators of potential trace element concentrations could lead to a standard method of identifying strata containing high trace element levels. In order to determine a correlation between trace element concentrations and oil yield, shale samples were selected from four stratigraphic zones of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation for analysis. All samples were analyzed for total elemental concentrations, mineralogy, and Fischer assay oil yield. The results of these analyses demonstrated that the Mahogany zone shales contain significantly greater trace element concentrations (antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, silver, and vanadium) than the other three shale zones. These high trace element concentrations have been identified within well-defined interbedded tuff deposits in the Mahogany zone. In addition, all trace elements evaluated, except boron, show either increasing or decreasing concentrations as oil yield increases within all oil shale zones. With an increased number of analyses of existing oil shale cores, oil yield data will be correlated to specific stratigraphic units containing high trace element concentrations.

  17. Variations in sulfur mineralization in the Parachute Creek member of Green River Formation, Colorado and Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, D.L.; Cole, R.D.

    1983-04-01

    Sulfur in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation occurs primarily as pyrite, with lesser amounts of marcasite and pyrrhotite. In this study 222 samples were collected from the openlacustrine facies at Rio Blanco, the marginallacustrine facies at Douglas Pass, and a WOSCO oil shale core drilled in the Eastern Uinta Basin. One portion of each sample was crushed and analyzed for total-weight-percent sulfur (TWPS). Polished blocks were prepared from the remaining slabs. Iron-sulfide morphotypes in these blocks were characterized with a reflected light microscope. Total sulfur contents ranged from 0.0 to 4.6 wt %. Open-lacustrine oil shales in the Parachute Creek Member have much higher relative TWPS values than marginal-lacustrine rocks from the same member. In oil shale, increases in kerogen content are mirrored by increases in total-sulfur content. This correlation is most significant for moderate- to rich-grade oil shales which average between 0.42 and 0.98 TWPS. In oil shale with high relative total sulfur contents, megascopic pods and stringers and microscopic blades, compound-blade clusters and bands, and irregular massive blebs of iron sulfide are the most abundant morphotypes. Stratigraphic variations in sulfur mineralization are present at Rio Blanco. High TWPS values (more than 0.5) are found in the Mahogany ledge and R-8 zone. Rocks above and below this interval have TWPS values less than 0.5. Cyclical stratigraphic variations in TWPS values occur in the Mahogany and R-8 zones.

  18. Variations of Carbon Isotopes during Shale Gas Production from the Horn River Basin, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norville, G.; Muehlenbachs, K.

    2014-12-01

    Chemical and stable isotope compositions of natural gases are key parameters for characterizing gas and hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced gases were obtained from eight wells at multi-well pad sites located in the Horn River Basin (HRB), NE British Columbia. Shale gas wells were drilled and completed in the Devonian Muskwa, Otter Park and Evie Formations of the HRB, and gases collected as time series over short term (~50 days) and long term periods (~ 1250 days). δ13C of gases from HRB formations confirm high thermal maturity and the shale gases frequently showed partial or full isotope reversals among hydrocarbon components. A 10‰ variation in δ13C values of methane was observed during production. In general, during early phases of production shale gases appear enriched in 12C compared to gases sampled at later stages and δ13Cmethane values were approximately between -38‰ and -35‰ during times up to 50 days. The majority of cases of carbon isotope reversals between methane and ethane components of gases (δ13Cmethane > δ13Cethane) were observed at times greater than 100 days, while ethane and propane reversals were common throughout production. Gas production rates differed significantly among the sampled wells from ~ 50 to 400 e3m3/d. Higher rates were frequently associated with gases showing 12Cmethane enrichment. Subsequent to periods of well 'shut in' a change in the carbon isotope composition was detected with enrichment in 13Cmethane of gases. Carbon isotope signatures of produced gases likely reflect a combination of both the in-situ shale gas isotope signature as well as effects of isotope fractionation which may occur during transport through pores and fractures of the shale.

  19. Geology of tight oil and potential tight oil reservoirs in the lower part of the Green River Formation, Uinta, Piceance, and Greater Green River Basins, Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    The recent successful development of a tight oil play in the Eocene-age informal Uteland Butte member of the lacustrine Green River Formation in the Uinta Basin, Utah, using modern horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing techniques has spurred a renewed interest in the tight oil potential of lacustrine rocks. The Green River Formation was deposited by two large lakes, Lake Uinta in the Uinta and Piceance Basins and Lake Gosiute in the Greater Green River Basin. These three basins contain the world’s largest in-place oil shale resources with recent estimates of 1.53 trillion, 1.33 trillion, and 1.44 trillion barrels of oil in place in the Piceance, Uinta, and Greater Green River Basins, respectively. The Uteland Butte member was deposited during an early freshwater stage of the lake in the Uinta Basin prior to deposition of the assessed oil shale intervals. This report only presents information on the early freshwater interval and overlying brackish-water interval in all three basins because these intervals are most likely to have tight oil potential. Burial histories of the three basins were reconstructed to study (1) variations in subsidence and lake development, and (2) post deposition burial that led to the development of a petroleum system in only the Uinta Basin. The Uteland Butte member is a successful tight oil play because it is thermally mature for hydrocarbon generation and contains organic-rich shale, brittle carbonate, and porous dolomite. Abnormally high pressure in parts of the Uteland Butte is also important to production. Variations in organic richness of the Uteland Butte were studied using Fischer assay analysis from oil shale assessments, and pressures were studied using drill-stem tests. Freshwater lacustrine intervals in the Piceance and Greater Green River Basins are immature for hydrocarbon generation and contain much less carbonate than the Uteland Butte member. The brackish-water interval in the Uinta Basin is thermally mature for

  20. Greater Green River Basin Production Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Lim, F.H.; Calogero, D.

    1997-10-01

    The Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) of Wyoming has produced abundant oil and gas out of multiple reservoirs for over 60 years, and large quantities of gas remain untapped in tight gas sandstone reservoirs. Even though GGRB production has been established in formations from the Paleozoic to the Tertiary, recent activity has focused on several Cretaceous reservoirs. Two of these formations, the Ahnond and the Frontier Formations, have been classified as tight sands and are prolific producers in the GGRB. The formations typically naturally fractured and have been exploited using conventional well technology. In most cases, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed when completing these wells to to increase gas production rates to economic levels. The objectives of the GGRB production improvement project were to apply the concept of horizontal and directional drilling to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift and to compare production improvements by drilling, completing, and testing vertical, horizontal and directionally-drilled wellbores at a common site.

  1. Laboratory weathering and solubility relationships of fluorine and molybdenum in combusted oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Essington, M.E.; Wills, R.A.; Brown, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Proper management of large volumes of spent oil shale requires an understanding of the mineralogy and the disposal environment chemistry. Simulated laboratory weathering is one method to rapidly and inexpensively assess the long-term potential for spent oil shales to degrade the environment. The objectives of this study were to assess the solubility relationships of fluorine (F) and molybdenum (Mo) in Green River Formation spent oil shale, to examine the mineralogy and leachate chemistry of three combusted oil shales in a laboratory weathering environment using the humidity cell technique, and to examine the data from spent oil shale literature. Combusted oil shales from the Green River Formation and New Albany Shale were used in the examination of the leachate chemistry and mineralogy.

  2. Coupled Mineral Dissolution and Precipitation Reactions in Shale-Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joe-Wong, C. M.; Harrison, A. L.; Thomas, D.; Dustin, M. K.; Jew, A. D.; Brown, G. E.; Maher, K.; Bargar, J.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing of low-permeability, hydrocarbon-rich shales has recently become an important energy source in the United States. However, hydrocarbon recovery rates are low and drop rapidly after a few months. Hydraulic fracture fluids, which contain dissolved oxygen and numerous organic additives, induce dissolution and precipitation reactions that change the porosity and permeability of the shale. To investigate these reactions, we studied the interactions of four shales (Eagle Ford, Barnett, Marcellus, and Green River) with a simulated hydraulic fracture fluid in batch reactors at 80 °C. The shales were chosen for both economic viability and chemical variety, allowing us to explore the reactivities of different components. The Eagle Ford shale is carbonate rich, and the Green River shale contains significant siderite and kerogen. The Barnett shale also has a high organic content, while the Marcellus shale has the highest fractions of clay and pyrite. Our experiments show that hydrochloric acid in the fluid promotes carbonate mineral dissolution, rapidly raising the pH from acidic to circumneutral levels for the Eagle Ford and Green River shales. Dissolution textures in the Green River shale and large cavities in the Barnett shale indicate significant mineralogical and physical changes in the reacted rock. Morphological changes are not readily apparent in the Eagle Ford and Marcellus shales. For all shales, ongoing changes to the solution Al: Si ratio suggest incongruent aluminosilicate dissolution. Siderite or pyrite dissolution occurs within days and is followed by the formation of secondary Fe precipitates in suspension and coating the walls of the reactor. However, little evidence of any coatings on shale surfaces was found. The net effect of these reactions on porosity and permeability and their influence on the long-term efficacy of oil and gas recovery after hydraulic fracturing are critical to the energy landscape of the United States.

  3. Factors impacting manganese transport from soils into rivers using data from Shale Hills CZO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herndon, E.; Brantley, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Many soils are enriched in trace elements due to atmospheric inputs from industrial sources but little is known about how long these contaminants persist in soils or the rates at which they are transferred into rivers. Modeling the movement of contaminants through the environment is complicated by the heterogeneity of soils and the variability of contaminant mobility across spatial scales. In this study, we use soil, water, and vegetation chemistry to compare rates of Mn contaminant mobilization and removal from soils at ridge, hillslope, and catchment-scales in the Susquehanna Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (SSHCZO). The SSHCZO is a first-order, forested watershed located within the Susquehanna River Basin (SRB) in Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Studies from the SSHCZO are compared to trends in long-term water quality measurements for the Susquehanna River to evaluate terrestrial inputs to the river system. At SSHCZO, we find that Mn is being removed ~7x more quickly from soils in swales than soils on convex-upward hillslopes; thus, swales are a large source of dissolved Mn to the stream. Release rates of Mn from all soils are dwarfed by rates of uptake into vegetation, consistent with the hypothesis that trees temporarily slow the removal of atmospherically-deposited Mn from the soil by accumulating Mn in plant biomass. However, elevated levels of dissolved organic carbon in soil pore waters may enhance Mn release in the swales; therefore, vegetation may first decrease then increase rates of Mn removal from soils over the long-term. Unlike the major rock-derived elements which exhibit chemostatic behavior, Mn concentrations in the stream vary widely over a large range of stream discharge rates. High Mn fluxes in the stream occur in short pulses that only weakly respond to precipitation events, suggesting that dissolved Mn loads in rivers are not solely driven by the hydrology but are rather strongly impacted by processes in the soil and stream sediments. Current

  4. Vegetation canopy cover effects on sediment erosion processes in the upper Colorado River Basin mancos shale formation, Price, Utah

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study provides new parameterizations for applying the Rangeland Hydrology and Erosion Model (RHEM) on the highly erosive, rangeland saline soils of the Mancos Shale formation in the Price-San Rafael River Basin in east central Utah. Calibrated hydrologic parameters (Kss and K') values are gener...

  5. Long-chain carboxylic acids in pyrolysates of Green River kerogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawamura, K.; Tannenbaum, E.; Huizinga, B. J.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1986-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acids (C10-C32), as well as C14-C21 isoprenoid acids (except for C18), have been identified in anhydrous and hydrous pyrolyses products of Green River kerogen (200-400 degrees C, 2-1000 hr). These kerogen-released fatty acids are characterized by a strong even/odd predominance (CPI: 4.8-10.2) with a maximum at C16 followed by lesser amounts of C18 and C22 acids. This distribution is different from that of unbound and bound geolipids extracted from Green River shale. The unbound fatty acids show a weak even/odd predominance (CPI: 1.64) with a maximum at C14, and bound fatty acids display an even/odd predominance (CPI: 2.8) with maxima at C18 and C30. These results suggest that fatty acids were incorporated into kerogen during sedimentation and early diagenesis and were protected from microbial and chemical changes over geological periods of time. Total quantities of fatty acids produced during heating of the kerogen ranged from 0.71 to 3.2 mg/g kerogen. Highest concentrations were obtained when kerogen was heated with water for 100 hr at 300 degrees C. Generally, their amounts did not decrease under hydrous conditions with increase in temperature or heating time, suggesting that significant decarboxylation did not occur under the pyrolysis conditions used, although hydrocarbons were extensively generated.

  6. Evaluation of gas bearing formations in the Greater Green river basin for horizontal well applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mroz, T.H.; Lopez, R.J.

    1992-05-01

    The present study involves locating a potential horizontal well test by evaluating the low permeability reservoirs of the Greater Green River Basin. A study of all formations to a depth of 12,000 feet is in progress to determine the feasibility of air drilling a horizontal well to improve production in the water sensitive low permeability gas sand formations. This is an expanded effort form an earlier study in the eastern part of the basin. The results of the earlier study are used as examples of the methodology applied to evaluate these resources and to establish areas amenable to air horizontal drilling technology. The areal distribution of the work now in progress is included to show the extent of the potential reservoir. Formations of interest in the Mesaverde Group include: Lewis Shale, Almond, Ericson, Blair, and Frontier. The main product of this effort will be a rationale to select horizontal well sites in the Greater Green River Basin, and may have potential use in other low permeability sand reservoirs.

  7. Stromatolites As Fine Records of Terrestrial Environmental Conditions: Examples from the Eocene Green River Formation (Wyoming)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantz, C. M.; Corsetti, F. A.; Petryshyn, V. A.; Wagner, M.; Tripati, A.

    2014-12-01

    Stromatolites are layered structures that form subaqueously, thereby recording chemical information about their formation environment. As such, these accretionary structures are useful tools for fine-timescale environmental reconstructions. High-resolution geochemical analyses of stromatolites that formed in paleolake Gosiute (Eocene Green River Formation) provided novel information about terrestrial environmental variability during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO), the period with the highest temperatures and atmospheric CO2 levels in the Cenozoic. Stromatolites from the ~51 Ma Rife Bed of the Tipton Shale Member of the Green River Formation record dramatic changes in lake volume (and correspondingly, water depth and shoreline) indicating the environment during the peak of the EECO was more variable than previously appreciated. A second set of stromatolites from the ~49 Ma Lower Laclede Bed of the Laney Member of the Green River Formation record transient periods of basin closure during a time when the basin is generally considered to have been balanced-filled. In addition, the results reveal that basin filling after desiccation was not continuous, but fluctuated before becoming an open system, further indicating local climate variability during the EECO. In both cases, major environmental changes are reflected not only in the recorded chemistry, but also in changes in stromatolite microfabric. In addition, clumped isotope paleothermometry provided estimates of water temperature from the evolving lake, which for most of its existence was so massive that it would have influenced regional climate. These and other studies demonstrate that stromatolite laminae can be used to understand fine-scale environmental variability in ancient lacustrine systems.

  8. Mineralogy of the Mahogany marker tuff of the Green River Formation, Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, G.M.

    1983-04-01

    The Mahogany marker tuff is a chronostratigraphic marker which was deposited in Eocene Lake Uinta approximately 45-46 million years ago when the lake was at its maximum size. The Mahogany marker lies 3 to 6 meters above the Mahogany oil shale bed in the upper part of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation. The mineralogy of the marker was studied in drill cores by X-ray diffraction and hand specimen examination. The Mahogany marker consists of authigenic sodium feldspar, analcime, quartz, ankerite, dolomite, potassium, feldspar, calcite with lesser amounts of siderite, hematite, pyrite, undifferentiated clays, pyrrhotite, biotite, marcasite, and locally dawsonite. Analcime is not present in all samples and in samples which are analcime-free, K-feldspar shows a greater abundance. Dawsonite is locally present only in analcime-free samples. The presence or absence of analcime and K-feldspar is attributed to the geochemical conditions that existed in the lake at the time of deposition of the Mahogany marker. The evidence supports a stratified lake model of oil shale deposition, with extremely alkaline pH values existing in deeper central portions of Lake Uinta.

  9. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Papusch, R.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is to provide a basis for groundwater and surface water sampling at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations.

  10. Project GROW [Green River Opportunities for Work]: History Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project GROW, Owensboro, KY.

    A major goal of Project Green River Opportunities for Work (Project GROW) was to develop materials that could be used by teachers in regional schools to help them implement an articulated, developmental career education program from kindergarten through postsecondary levels. The document consists of a regional history report and description of the…

  11. Project GROW [Green River Opportunities for Work]: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vikers, Theo; Gibson, Melvin Pat

    Summarizing the progress of Project Green River Opportunities for Work (Project GROW), the document reviews the study's background and the activities resulting from a third party evaluation by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. Objectives based on the evaluation and recommendations included: (1) development of an articulated and…

  12. 77 FR 24195 - Green River Energy BFD, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Green River Energy BFD, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2012, Green River Energy BFD, LLC filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to section 4... located at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' (Corps) Green River Lake Dam, located on the Green River...

  13. Oil shale loss from a laboratory fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.; Beavers, P.L.

    1989-03-01

    The rate of loss of dust from a laboratory scale fluidized bed of Green River oil shale has been measured. The rate of loss of dust from raw shale in the bed was approximately 1%/min for the first few minutes, and then decreased. The loss rate for retorted or burnt shale was 5 to 10 times higher. The rate for retorted and burned shale were nearly the same. The time required for a 10 wt% loss of mass was approximately 3 min for processed shale and 1 hour for raw shale. Particles left in the bed during fluidization lost sharp corners, but kept the original elongation. Dust lost by the bed has a very wide range of sizes, and demonstrated a strong bimodal distribution of sizes. The bimodal distribution of particles is interpreted as resulting from two mechanisms of dust generation: fracture and wear. Fracture of large particles sometimes produced fragments which were small enough to be blown out of the bed. These fragments were much larger than the individual mineral grains in the shale. The fracture mechanism was dominant in the case of raw shale. Dust in the smaller particle-size range was generated by wear. Wear was the dominant mechanisms in the case of burned shale, whereas, for retorted shale, nearly equal amounts of dust were generated by each mechanism. 13 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  15. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  16. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  17. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  18. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  19. Description and correlation of Eocene rocks in stratigraphic reference sections for the Green River and Washakie basins, southwest Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Roehler, H.W.

    1992-01-01

    Stratigraphic reference sections of the Wasatch, Green River, and Bridger (Washakie) Formations were measured on outcrops in the Green River and Washakie basins adjacent to the Rock Springs uplift in southwest Wyoming. The Washakie basin reference section is 7,939 feet thick and consists of 708 beds that were measured, described, and sampled to evaluate the origin, composition, and paleontology of the rocks. The reference section in the Green River basin is 6,587 feet thick and consists of 624 beds that were measured and described but were not sampled. Columnar sections that have been prepared combine information on the stratigraphic nomenclature, age, depositional environments, lithologies, and fossils of each bed in the reference sections. Eocene strata in the Green River and Washakie basins have been correlated biostratigraphically, chronostratigraphically, and lithostratigraphically. The time boundaries of the lower, middle, and upper Eocene rocks in the reference sections are located partly from biostratigraphic investigations and partly from chronostratigraphic investigations. The time boundaries agree with North American land mammal ages. Major stratigraphic units and key marker beds correlated between the reference sections appeared similar in thickness and lithology, which suggests that most depositional events were contemporaneous in both basins. Rocks sampled in the Washakie basin reference section were examined petrographically and were analyzed using heavy mineral separations, X-ray techniques, and assays. The mineralogy suggests that source rocks in the lower part of the Eocene were mostly of plutonic origin and that source rocks in the upper part of the Eocene were mostly of volcanic origin. Economically significant beds of oil shale and zeolite were identified by the analyses. 51 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Nahcolite Resources in the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Self, Jesse G.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an assessment of in-place nahcolite (NaHCO3) resources in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado. Nahcolite is present in the oil shale deposits of the Parachute Creek Member of the Eocene Green River Formation. It occurs as disseminated aggregates, nodules, bedded units of disseminated brown crystals, and white crystalline beds associated with dawsonite (NaAl(OH)2CO3) and halite (NaCl). The nahcolite-bearing facies are divided into an unleached part containing the nahcolite and halite, which is estimated to be as much as 1,130 ft thick, and an upper leached part several hundred feet thick containing minor nahcolite aggregates and nodules. Locally, thick beds of halite and brown fine-grained nahcolite lie in the depocenter of the basin, but thin laterally away from the basin center and grade into beds of white, coarse-grained nahcolite. In the central part of the study area, the top of the nahcolite-bearing rocks range in depth from about 1,300 to 2,000 ft. Dissolution of water-soluble minerals, mostly nahcolite and halite, in the upper part of the nahcolite-bearing facies has created a collapsed leached zone as much as 580 ft thick that consists of laterally continuous units of solution breccia and fractured oil shale containing solution cavities. The top of the leached zone is not yet defined in the basin, but it probably extends into the A groove in the upper part of the Parachute Creek Member.

  1. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft[sup 2]/[degrees]F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000[degrees]F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  2. DOE oil shale reference sample bank: Quarterly report, July-September 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, L.B.

    1987-09-01

    The DOE Oil Shale Program was restructured in FY84 to implement a 5-year period of basic and applied research in the study of the phenomena involved in oil shale pyrolysis/retorting. The program calls for the study of two reference shales per year for a period of 5 years. Consequently, the program calls for the identification, acquisition, processing, characterization, storage, disbursement, and record keeping for ten reference shales in a period of 5 years. Two FY86 and one FY87 reference shales have been acquired, processed and stored under inert gas. The Eastern shale, designated E86, was obtained from the Clegg Creek Member of the New Albany Shale at a quarry near Louisville, Kentucky in the first quarter of FY86. The FY86 Western Shale was obtained from the Exxon Colony Mine, located near Parachute, Colorado, during the first quarter of FY86. The FY87 Western Shale was obtained from the Tipton Member of the Green River Formation near Rock Springs, Wyoming during the fourth quarter of FY87. Partial distributions of the FY86 shale have been made to DOE and non-DOE contractors. Complete descriptions of the FY87 Western reference shale locale, shale processing procedures and analytical characterization are provided in this report. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Water quality of groundwater and stream base flow in the Marcellus Shale Gas Field of the Monongahela River Basin, West Virginia, 2011-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Kozar, Mark D.; Messinger, Terence; Mulder, Michon L.; Pelak, Adam J.; White, Jeremy S.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides a baseline of water-quality conditions in the Monongahela River Basin in West Virginia during the early phases of development of the Marcellus Shale gas field. Although not all inclusive, the results of this study provide a set of reliable water-quality data against which future data sets can be compared and the effects of shale-gas development may be determined.

  4. Organic geochemistry: Effects of organic components of shales on adsorption: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, P.C.

    1988-11-01

    The Sedimentary Rock Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is investigating shale to determine its potential suitability as a host rock for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). The selected shales are Upper Dowelltown, Pierre, Green River Formation, and two Conasauga (Nolichucky and Pumpkin Valley) Shales, which represent mineralogical and compositional extremes of shales in the United States. According to mineralogical studies, the first three shales contain 5 to 13 wt % of organic matter, and the two Conasauga Shales only contain trace amounts (2 wt %) of organic matter. Soxhlet extraction with chloroform and a mixture of chloroform and methanol can remove 0.07 to 5.9 wt % of the total organic matter from these shales. Preliminary analysis if these organic extracts reveals the existence of organic carboxylic acids and hydrocarbons in these samples. Adsorption of elements such as Cs(I), Sr(II) and Tc(VII) on the organic-extracted Upper Dowelltown, Pierre, green River Formation and Pumpkin Valley Shales in synthetic groundwaters (simulating groundwaters in the Conasauga Shales) and in 0.03-M NaHCO/sub 3/ solution indicates interaction between each of the three elements and the organic-extractable bitumen. 28 refs., 8 figs., 10 tabs.

  5. Detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation along the north and east margins of the Piceance Basin, western Colorado, using measured sections and drill hole information

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents two detailed cross sections of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado, constructed from eight detailed measured sections, fourteen core holes, and two rotary holes. The Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin contains the world’s largest known oil shale deposit with more than 1.5 billion barrels of oil in place. It was deposited in Lake Uinta, a long-lived saline lake that once covered much of the Piceance Basin and the Uinta Basin to the west. The cross sections extend across the northern and eastern margins of the Piceance Basin and are intended to aid in correlating between surface sections and the subsurface in the basin.

  6. Geology and paleoecology of the Cottonwood Creek delta in the Eocene Tipton Tongue of the Green River Formation and a mammalian fauna from the Eocene Cathedral Bluffs Tongue of the Wasatch Formation, Southeast Washakie Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Roehler, H.W.; Hanley, J.H.; Honey, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    Nonmarine mollusks are used to interpret paleoenvironments and patterns of sedimentation of a fan delta on the east margin of Eocene Lake Gosiute. The delta is composed of a lens of quartzose sandstone intertongued with oil shale. Delta morphology is illustrated by cross sections and paleogeographic maps. A fossil fauna representing five mammalian orders is described and used to establish the age of parts of the Wasatch and Green River formations. There are three chapters in this bulletin.

  7. Boomtown blues: a community history of oil shale booms in the Colorado River Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Gulliford, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    The routes of early surveyors and explorers and the mining and agricultural history of the valley are examined in detail as are the ethnic origins of family networks that emerged over generations and were affected by the first oil shale boom between 1915-1925 when major oil companies acquired ranchland, water rights, and oil-shale claims in Garfield County, Colorado. The first boom faded and community equilibrium and solidarity were regained during the depression. By the mid-1970s, major national and international forces again focused on Garfield County and its three trillion barrels of oil locked in shale. President Carter's push for energy self-sufficiency as the moral equivalent of war, and loans made by the synthetic Fuels Corporation for oil shale development, came into direct conflict with national environmental groups and federal environmental laws. Local ranching communities became urbanized boomtowns, especially after Exxon, USA embarked on the $5 billion dollar Colony Oil Shale Project. Less than two years later, on May 2, 1982, Exxon announced the immediate closure of Colony and threw 2100 people out of work and eliminated $85 million in annual payroll from western Colorado. Social and psychological community effects of the oil shale boom and bust are vividly chronicled here.

  8. Hydrochemistry of surface water and groundwater in the shale bedrock, Cross River Basin and Niger Delta Region, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nganje, T. N.; Hursthouse, A. S.; Edet, Aniekan; Stirling, D.; Adamu, C. I.

    2015-07-01

    Water chemistry in the shale bedrock of the Cretaceous-Tertiary of the Cross River and Niger Delta hydrological basins has been investigated using major ions. To carry out a characterization of the water bearing units, 30 and 16 representatives surface and groundwater samples were collected. The evolution of the water is characterized by enhanced content of sodium, calcium and sulphate as a result of leaching of shale rock. The spatial changes in groundwater quality of the area shows an anomalous concentrations of ions in the central parts, while lower values characterize the eastern part of the basin covering Ogoja, Ikom and Odukpani areas. The values of total dissolved solids (TDS) and ions increases down gradient in the direction of groundwater flow. The dissolution of halite and gypsum explains part of the contained Na+, Ca2+, Cl- and SO4 2-, but other processes such as ion exchange, silicate weathering and pyrite oxidation also contribute to water composition. The assessment with contamination indicators such as TDS, hardness, chloride, nitrate and sulphate indicates that the water in area is suitable for human consumption in some locations. Modelling using MINTEQA2 program shows that the water from all the shale water bearing units are under saturated with respect to gypsum.

  9. Characteristics and description of cores from the USGS core hole CRU-1, Parachute Creek Member, Green River Formation, east-central Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keighin, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    Oil-yield, lithologic, and mineral distribution data were determined for cores taken from a 497.7-foot drill hole in the upper part of the Parachute Creek Member of the Eocene Green River Formation. The drill hole, 1050 feet FEL, 700 feet FNL, sec. 3, T. 12 S., R. 24 E., Uintah County, Utah, started slightly below the contact between the Uinta Formation, also of Eocene age, and the underlying Green River Formation. It ended 32 feet below the base of the Mahogany bed (the richest oil-shale bed between A groove and B groove--which define the upper and lower boundaries, respectively, of the Mahogany zone). Most of the interval studied is kerogen- or carbonate-rich, commonly tuffaceous, and is very fine grained. Several thin (<3 feet) oil-shale beds which yield as much as 25 gallons of oil per ton occur above the Mahogany zone, but are probably not of economic interest. The cored sequence contains several tuff beds. The thickest of these beds is approximately 2 feet thick; the average thickness is rarely greater than 0.5 feet. Two oil-saturated tuff beds occur approximately 65 feet above the Mahogany oil-shale bed. Although these two tuffs are exposed on nearby surface outcrops, no evidence of oil is seen on outcrop. The Mahogany zone is approximately 69 feet thick at the drill site; the lowermost few feet were not penetrated. At the site cored, the Mahogany zone is overlain by 435 feet of overburden. Fischer assays indicate that 42.3 feet of oil shale within the Mahogany zone could yield at least 25 gallons of oil per ton from beds at least 10 feet thick.

  10. Mass-movement deposits in the lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2015-01-01

    The Eocene Green River Formation was deposited in two large Eocene saline lakes, Lake Uinta in the Uinta and Piceance Basins and Lake Gosiute in the Greater Green River Basin. Here we will discuss mass-movement deposits in just the Piceance Basin part of Lake Uinta.

  11. 75 FR 30299 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Green Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Fox River, Green Bay, WI AGENCY... the Main Street Bridge at Mile 1.21 over the Fox River, at Green Bay, WI. This deviation...

  12. Microstructural and mineralogical characterization of selected shales in support of nuclear waste repository studies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Hyder, L.K.; Alley, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    Five shales were examined as part of the Sedimentary Rock Program evaluation of this medium as a potential host for a US civilian nuclear waste repository. The units selected for characterization were the Chattanooga Shale from Fentress County, Tennessee; the Pierre Shale from Gregory County, South Dakota; the Green River Formation from Garfield County, Colorado; and the Nolichucky Shale and Pumpkin Valley Shale from Roane County, Tennessee. The micromorphology and structure of the shales were examined by petrographic, scanning electron, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Chemical and mineralogical compositions were studied through the use of energy-dispersive x-ray, neutron activation, atomic absorption, thermal, and x-ray diffraction analysis techniques. 18 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. 78 FR 56607 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... Regulations; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY,'' in the Federal Register (78 FR 31454). We received no... Green Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard amends the..., mile 152.7, between Troy and Green Island, New York. The owner of the bridge, New York State...

  14. Ground-water data, Green River basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, Everett Alfred; Collier, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    Hydrologic and geologic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of energy-related projects in the Green River basin of Wyoming are compiled from the files of the Geological Survey and the Wyoming State Engineer as of 1977. The data include well and spring location, well depth, casing diameter, type of lifts, type of power, use of water, rock type of producing zone, owner, and discharge for more than 1,600 sites. Analyses for common chemical constituents, trace elements, and radioactive chemicals are tabulated as well as water temperature and specific conductance measurement data. Lithologic logs of more than 300 wells, test holes, and measured sections constitute much of this report. County maps at a scale of 1:500 ,000 show the locations. (USGS)

  15. River and fish pollution in Malaysia: A green ergonomics perspective.

    PubMed

    Poon, Wai Ching; Herath, Gamini; Sarker, Ashutosh; Masuda, Tadayoshi; Kada, Ryohei

    2016-11-01

    Human activities, such as industrial, agricultural, and domestic pursuits, discharge effluents into riverine ecological systems that contains aquatic resources, such as fish, which are also used by humans. We conducted case studies in Malaysia to investigate the impacts of these human activities on water and fish resources, as well as on human well-being from an ergonomics perspective. This research shows that a green ergonomics approach can provide us with useful insights into sustainable relationships between humans and ecology in facilitating human well-being in consideration of the overall performance of the social-ecological system. Heavy metal concentrations contained in the effluents pollute river water and contaminate fish, eventually creating significant health risks and economic costs for residents, including the polluters. The study suggests a number of policy interventions to change human behavior and achieve greater collaboration between various levels of government, academia, civil society, and businesses to help establish sustainable relationships between humans and ecology in Malaysia. PMID:26911247

  16. Distribution and origin of sulfur in Colorado oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Dyni, J.R.

    1983-04-01

    The sulfur content of 1,225 samples of Green River oil shale from two core holes in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, ranges from nearly 0 to 4.9 weight percent. In one core hole, the average sulfur content of a sequence of oil shale 555 m thick, which represents nearly the maximum thickness of oil shale in the basin, is 0.76 weight percent. The vertical distribution of sulfur through the oil shale is cyclic. As many as 25 sulfur cycles have lateral continuity and can be traced between the core holes. Most of the sulfur resides in iron sulfides (pyrite, marcasite, and minor. pyrrhotite), and small amounts are organically bound in kerogen. In general, the concentration of sulfur correlates moderately with oil shale yield, but the degree of association ranges from quite high in the upper 90 m of the oil shale sequence to low or none in the leached zone and in illitic oil shale in the lower part of the sequence. Sulfur also correlates moderately with iron in the carbonate oil shale sequence, but no correlation was found in the illitic samples. Sulfide mineralization is believed to have occurred during early and late stages of diagenesis, and after lithification, during development of the leached zone. Significant amounts of iron found in ankeritic dolomite and in illite probably account for the lack of a strong correlation between sulfur and iron.

  17. Shallow oil shale resources of the southern Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Dana, G.F.; Smith, J.W.; Trudell, L.G.

    1980-09-01

    The shallow Green River Formation oil shales in the southern part of Utah's Uinta Basin are potentially developable by strip mining or by subsurface techniques which take advantage of limited overburden. The resource of potential shale oil represented by the shallow deposits is evaluated in detail from corehole oil-yield data. Cross-sections are constructed to readily correlatable stratigraphic units selected to represent resources in the shallow shale. To define each unit, the thickness, average oil yield, and oil resource of each unit in each core are calculated. Contour maps constructed from these data define the resource variation across the shallow resource. By measuring areas enclosed in each resource unit within the defined limit of 200 feet (61 meters) of overburden, the resource represented by the shallow oil shale is evaluated. The total resource is measured as 4.9 billion barrels (779.1 billion liters) of potential shale oil at depths less than 200 feet (61 meters). The rich zone incorporates the Mahogany bed, the best shallow oil-shale unit. This section, currently being exploited by Geokinetics, Inc., for in situ production of shale oil by horizontal combustion, represents 2.2 billion barrels (349.8 billion liters) of potential shale oil in place.

  18. Hydrology and water quality in the Green River and surrounding agricultural areas near Green River in Emery and Grand Counties, Utah, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, S.J.; Spangler, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Wilberg, D.E.; Naftz, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Water from the Colorado River and its tributaries is used for municipal and industrial purposes by about 27 million people and irrigates nearly 4 million acres of land in the Western United States. Water users in the Upper Colorado River Basin consume water from the Colorado River and its tributaries, reducing the amount of water in the river. In addition, application of water to agricultural land within the basin in excess of crop needs can increase the transport of dissolved solids to the river. As a result, dissolved-solids concentrations in the Colorado River have increased, affecting downstream water users. During 2004-05, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Natural Resources Conservation Service, investigated the occurrence and distribution of dissolved solids in water from the agricultural areas near Green River, Utah, and in the adjacent reach of the Green River, a principle tributary of the Colorado River. The flow-weighted concentration of dissolved solids diverted from the Green River for irrigation during 2004 and 2005 was 357 milligrams per liter and the mean concentration of water collected from seeps and drains where water was returning to the river during low-flow conditions was 4,170 milligrams per liter. The dissolved-solids concentration in water from the shallow part of the ground-water system ranged from 687 to 55,900 milligrams per liter. Measurable amounts of dissolved solids discharging to the Green River are present almost exclusively along the river banks or near the mouths of dry washes that bisect the agricultural areas. The median dissolved-solids load in discharge from the 17 drains and seeps visited during the study was 0.35 ton per day. Seasonal estimates of the dissolved-solids load discharging from the study area ranged from 2,800 tons in the winter to 6,400 tons in the spring. The estimate of dissolved solids discharging from the study area annually is 15,700 tons. Water samples collected from selected sites within

  19. Intertonguing of the Lower Part of the Uinta Formation with the Upper Part of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin During the Late Stages of Lake Uinta

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donnell, John R.

    2009-01-01

    During most of middle Eocene time, a 1,500-mi2 area between the Colorado and White Rivers in northwestern Colorado was occupied by the Piceance lobe of Lake Uinta. This initially freshwater lake became increasingly saline throughout its history. Sediments accumulating in the lake produced mostly clay shale, limestone, and dolomite containing varying concentrations of organic matter. At the time of the maximum extent of the lake, the organic-rich Mahogany bed of the Green River Formation was deposited throughout the area. Shortly after its deposition, stream deposits began infilling the lake from the north through a series of contractions interspersed with minor expansions. This fluctuation of the shoreline resulted in the intertonguing of the stream sediments of the lower part of the overlying Uinta Formation with the lacustrine sediments of the upper part of the Green River over a distance of about 40 mi; construction of regional stratigraphic cross sections show the pattern of intertonguing in considerable detail. The data utilized in this study, which covered parts of Rio Blanco, Garfield, and Mesa counties, was derived from (1) geologic mapping of thirty-four 7 1/2-minute quadrangles and stratigraphic studies by geologists of the U.S. Geological Survey, and (2) shale-oil assay information from numerous cores. As a result of this previous work and the additional effort involved in the compilation here presented, more than a dozen Green River Formation tongues have been named, some formally, others informally. Middle Eocene strata above the Mahogany bed in the northern part of the study area are dominantly coarse clastics of the Uinta Formation. The sedimentary sequence becomes more calcareous and organic-rich to the south where, in a 400-mi2 area, a 250 ft-thick sequence of oil shale above the Mahogany bed contains an average of 16 gallons of oil per ton of shale and is estimated to contain 73 billion barrels of oil.

  20. Experimental investigation of the effect of vegetation on soil, sediment erosion, and salt transport processes in the Upper Colorado River Basin Mancos Shale formation, Price, Utah, USA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of concerns about salinity in the Colorado River, this study focused on saline and sodic soils associated with the Mancos Shale formation with the objective of investigating mechanisms driving sediment yield and salinity loads and the role of vegetation in altering soil chemistry in the Pric...

  1. Petrology and reservoir paragenesis in the Sussex B sandstone of the Upper Cretaceous Cody Shale, House Creek and Porcupine fields, Powder River basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This book of reservoir paragenesis includes detailed descriptions of the petrology of depositional facies of the Sussex B sandstone of the Sussex Sandstone Member of the Upper Cretaceous Cody Shale in the House Creek and Porcupine fields, Powder River basin, Wyoming.

  2. Analysis of river pollution data from low-flow period by means of multivariate techniques: a case study from the oil-shale industry region, northeastern Estonia.

    PubMed

    Truu, Jaak; Heinaru, Eeva; Talpsep, Ene; Heinaru, Ain

    2002-01-01

    The oil-shale industry has created serious pollution problems in northeastern Estonia. Untreated, phenol-rich leachate from semi-coke mounds formed as a by-product of oil-shale processing is discharged into the Baltic Sea via channels and rivers. An exploratory analysis of water chemical and microbiological data sets from the low-flow period was carried out using different multivariate analysis techniques. Principal component analysis allowed us to distinguish different locations in the river system. The riverine microbial community response to water chemical parameters was assessed by co-inertia analysis. Water pH, COD and total nitrogen were negatively related to the number of biodegradative bacteria, while oxygen concentration promoted the abundance of these bacteria. The results demonstrate the utility of multivariate statistical techniques as tools for estimating the magnitude and extent of pollution based on river water chemical and microbiological parameters. An evaluation of river chemical and microbiological data suggests that the ambient natural attenuation mechanisms only partly eliminate pollutants from river water, and that a sufficient reduction of more recalcitrant compounds could be achieved through the reduction of wastewater discharge from the oil-shale chemical industry into the rivers. PMID:12638742

  3. An oxygen isotope model for interpreting carbonate diagenesis in nonmarine rocks (Green River Basin, Wyoming, USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, W.W.

    1987-01-01

    A closed-system model is used for predicting the ??18O of formation waters in the deep portions of the northern Green River basin, Wyoming. ??18Ocalcite is calculated from this modeled water and compared with the ??18O of measured calcites to help interpret diagenesis in the basin. The modification of ??18Owater which may be caused by diagenetic reactions at elevated temperatures, is modeled from two mass-balance equations. Three diagenetic reactions used to modify ??18Owater include: detrital limestone???calcite cement; detrital quartz???quartz cement; and detrital clay???authigenic illite/smectite. A weighted average ??18Owater and ??18O of calcite, quartz and illite/smectite in equilibrium with this water are calculated at 500-m increments. For a closed-system model, calculated variables at one depth are used for input variables at the next depth. An open system can be crudely simulated by adjusting the input variables at each depth. Petrographic and hydrologic data suggest that throughout much of the basin an open hydrochemical system overlies a relatively closed system which is below 3000 m. From the surface to 3000 m deep, ??18Ocalcite measured in sandstone cements deviates from calculated ??18Ocalcite for the closed-system model. Below 3000 m, ??18Ocalcite of cement and bulk shale converge from opposite directions with increasing depth toward the calculated ??18Ocalcite. Adjusting the calculated ??18Ocalcite to match the measured ??18Ocalcite indicates that the deviation above 3000 m results from mixing of meteoric waters with 18O-rich formation water. ?? 1987.

  4. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS OF WEATHERING ON A 50-YEAR OLD RETORTED OIL-SHALE WASTE PILE, RULISON EXPERIMENTAL RETORT, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Dean, Walter E.; Ackerman, Daniel J.

    1985-01-01

    An oil-shale mine and experimental retort were operated near Rulison, Colorado by the U. S. Bureau of Mines from 1926 to 1929. Samples from seven drill cores from a retorted oil-shale waste pile were analyzed to determine 1) the chemical and mineral composition of the retorted oil shale and 2) variations in the composition that could be attributed to weathering. Unweathered, freshly-mined samples of oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River Formation and slope wash collected away from the waste pile were also analyzed for comparison. The waste pile is composed of oil shale retorted under either low-temperature (400-500 degree C) or high-temperature (750 degree C) conditions. The results of the analyses show that the spent shale within the waste pile contains higher concentrations of most elements relative to unretorted oil shale.

  5. Mobilization of selenium from the Mancos Shale and associated soils in the lower Uncompahgre River Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Mills, Taylor J.; Paschke, Suzanne S.; Keith, Gabrielle; Linard, Joshua I.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates processes controlling mobilization of selenium in the lower part of the Uncompahgre River Basin in western Colorado. Selenium occurs naturally in the underlying Mancos Shale and is leached to groundwater and surface water by limited natural runoff, agricultural and domestic irrigation, and leakage from irrigation canals. Soil and sediment samples from the study area were tested using sequential extractions to identify the forms of selenium present in solid phases. Selenium speciation was characterized for nonirrigated and irrigated soils from an agricultural site and sediments from a wetland formed by a leaking canal. In nonirrigated areas, selenium was present in highly soluble sodium salts and gypsum. In irrigated soils, soluble forms of selenium were depleted and most selenium was associated with organic matter that was stable under near-surface weathering conditions. Laboratory leaching experiments and geochemical modeling confirm that selenium primarily is released to groundwater and surface water by dissolution of highly soluble selenium-bearing salts and gypsum present in soils and bedrock. Rates of selenium dissolution determined from column leachate experiments indicate that selenium is released most rapidly when water is applied to previously nonirrigated soils and sediment. High concentrations of extractable nitrate also were found in nonirrigated soils and bedrock that appear to be partially derived from weathered organic matter from the shale rather than from agricultural sources. Once selenium is mobilized, dissolved nitrate derived from natural sources appears to inhibit the reduction of dissolved selenium leading to elevated concentrations of selenium in groundwater. A conceptual model of selenium weathering is presented and used to explain seasonal variations in the surface-water chemistry of Loutzenhizer Arroyo, a major tributary contributor of selenium to the lower Uncompahgre River.

  6. Derivation of homogeneous streamflow records for the Green River basin, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hale, T.W.

    1979-01-01

    Four flood-control reservoirs, Green River Lake, Nolin River Lake, Barren River Lake, and Rough River Lake, were completed in the Green River basin of Kentucky between 1959 and 1969. A digital computer model of these reservoirs and the stream reaches from the reservoirs downstream to the Green River at Calhoun, Ky., was developed to simulate mean daily streamflows. Simulations of 1941 through 1971 water year streamflows were made for both the pre-reservoir and post-reservoir basin conditions, thus supplying homogeneous data sets for low-flow analyses of eight stream sites. The 7-day, 10-year recurrence interval, minimum discharges of the simulated regulated flows exceed those of the simulated natural flows by about 30 cubic feet per second for the Barren River at Bowling Green, Ky., and about 260 cubic feet per second for the Green River at Calhous, Ky. Analyses of the pre-reservoir simulations show that, for seven of the stream sites, the model yields streamflow which have annual minimum 7-day average discharges that are not significantly different, at the 95 percent significance level, from those of the observed flows. Results of the post-reservoir simulations show that actual reservoir operation was not closely matched by the model. Therefore, the low-flow characteristics of the simulated regulated streamflows are merely estimates of those that could be expected if the basin were regulated according to the modeled reservoir operating criteria. (USGS)

  7. Downstream effects of Flaming Forge Reservoir on the Green River, Colorado and Utah.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, E.D.

    1986-01-01

    In response to the reduced peak discharges, the bankfull channel width of the Green River has decreased by c10%. Adjustment of the channel to decreased peak flows and altered sediment loads is nowhere complete.-from Author

  8. Godiva Rim Member: A new stratigraphic unit of the Green River Formation in southwest Wyoming and northwest Colorado. Geology of the Eocene Wasatch, Green River, and Bridger (Washakie) Formations, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado. Professional paper

    SciTech Connect

    Roehler, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    The report names and describes the Godiva Rim Member of the Green River Formation in the eastern part of the Washakie basin in southwest Wyoming and the central part of the Sand Wash basin in northwest Colorado. The Godiva Rim Member comprises lithofacies of mixed mudflat and lacustrine origin situated between the overlying lacustrine Laney Member of the Green River Formation and the underlying fluvial Cathedral Bluffs Tongue of the Wasatch Formation. The Godiva Rim Member is laterally equivalent to and grades westward into the LaClede Bed of the Laney Member. The Godiva Rim Member of the Green River Formation was deposited along the southeast margins of Lake Gosiute and is correlated to similar lithologic units that were deposited along the northeast margins of Lake Uinta in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation. The stratigraphic data presented provide significant evidence that the two lakes were periodically connected around the east end of the Uinta Mountains during the middle Eocene.

  9. An analysis of stream temperatures, Green River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowham, H.W.

    1978-01-01

    A method for estimating temperatures of streams in the Green River basin, Wyoming, utilizes a regional model for estimating mean daily temperatures of streams at unmeasured sites. The regional model was developed by describing annual temperature patterns at 43 measured sites and by applying the harmonic function T = M + A -sin (0.0172 t + C)- where: T is mean daily temperature; M, A, and C are harmonic coefficients calculated from data for each stream-temperature station; and t is the day of the water year. Application of the equation for estimating temperatures at unmeasured sites requires regionalized estimates of M, A, and C. Regional estimates were developed with the aid of multiple-regression techniques, whereby the calculated harmonic coefficients were regressed against physical and climatic characteristics of the stream-temperature stations. Stream elevation was a significant factor affecting water temperature. Analysis of areal and temporal variations in temperature showed that springs, irrigation return flows, and reservoir storage were affecting reaches of several major streams. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Applicability of Aerial Green LiDAR to a Large River in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conner, J. T.; Welcker, C. W.; Cooper, C.; Faux, R.; Butler, M.; Nayegandhi, A.

    2013-12-01

    In October 2012, aerial green LiDAR data were collected in the Snake River (within Idaho and Oregon) to test this emerging technology in a large river with poor water clarity. Six study areas (total of 30 river miles spread out over 250 river miles) were chosen to represent a variety of depths, channel types, and surface conditions to test the accuracy, depth penetration, data density of aerial green LiDAR. These characteristics along with cost and speed of acquisition were compared to other bathymetric survey techniques including rod surveys (total station and RTK-GPS), single-beam sonar, and multibeam echosounder (MBES). The green LiDAR system typically measured returns from the riverbed through 1-2 meters of water, which was less than one Secchi depth. However, in areas with steep banks or aquatic macrophytes, LiDAR returns from the riverbed were less frequent or non-existent. In areas of good return density, depths measured from green LiDAR data corresponded well with previously collected data sets from traditional bathymetric survey techniques. In such areas, the green LiDAR point density was much higher than both rod and single beam sonar surveys, yet lower than MBES. The green LiDAR survey was also collected more efficiently than all other methods. In the Snake River, green LiDAR does not provide a method to map the entire riverbed as it only receives bottom returns in shallow water, typically at the channel margins. However, green LiDAR does provide survey data that is an excellent complement to MBES, which is more effective at surveying the deeper portions of the channel. In some cases, the green LiDAR was able to provide data in areas that the MBES could not, often due to issues with navigating the survey boat in shallow water. Even where both MBES and green LiDAR mapped the river bottom, green LiDAR often provides more accurate data through a better angle of incidence and less shadowing than the MBES survey. For one MBES survey in 2013, the green Li

  11. Effect of Narrow Cut Oil Shale Distillates on HCCI Engine Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, Scott J; Bunting, Bruce G; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Fairbridge, Craig

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation, oil shale crude obtained from the Green River Formation in Colorado using Paraho Direct retorting was mildly hydrotreated and distilled to produce 7 narrow boiling point fuels of equal volumes. The resulting derived cetane numbers ranged between 38.3 and 43.9. Fuel chemistry and bulk properties strongly correlated with boiling point.

  12. Passages: Rafting the Green River as an Analogy to the Mid-Life Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isenhart, Myra W.

    To help adults develop an awareness of midlife issues, to encourage personal acceptance of the transition, and to introduce appropriate coping skills, a speech communication course was designed that relied on river trip activities to develop insights about this passage. The vehicle for the seminar was a four-day raft trip down the Green River,…

  13. Oil shales, evaporites and ore deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, Hans P.

    1985-03-01

    elevated temperatures and with carbonates as principal host rocks. The Pine Point deposits are cited for their close association with evaporites. Alkaline, metal-rich brines are postulated for the HYC deposit of McArthur River, Australia. Such brines are known from the Green River Formation and deposits formed from such brines constitute the GRT class. They can be recognized by the presence of Magadi-type cherts and zeolite-analcime-K-spar tuffs. The Cu-Co ore bodies of Outokumpu, Finland, might also belong to this type. A new classification of sedimentary ore deposits is proposed, based on their geochemical environment. KST and MVT are formed from acid ore fluids, while GRT and CT (Creede type) are derived from basic ore fluids. pH of the fluids is best evaluated not from the ores themselves, but from their effect on the host-rocks.

  14. Assessment of the Mowry Shale and Niobrara Formation as Continuous Hydrocarbon Systems, Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anna, Lawrence O.; Cook, Troy A.

    2008-01-01

    A recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) oil and gas assessment of the Powder River Basin , Wyoming and Montana, identified the Upper Cretaceous Mowry Shale and Niobrara Formation as the primary hydrocarbon sources for Cretaceous conventional and unconventional reservoirs. Cumulative Mowry-sourced petroleum production is about 1.2 BBO (billion barrels of oil) and 2.2 TCFG (trillion cubic feet of gas) and cumulative Niobrara-sourced oil production is about 520 MMBO (million barrels of oil) and 0.95 TCFG. Burial history modeling indicated that hydrocarbon generation for both formations started at about 0.60 percent Ro at depths of about 8,000 ft. At maximum depths, Ro for the Mowry is about 1.2 to 1.3 percent and about 0.80 percent for the Niobrara. The Mowry and Niobrara continuous reservoirs were assessed using a cell-based methodology that utilized production data. The size of each cell was based on geologic controls and potential drainage areas in analog fields. Current and historical production data were used to determine the estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) distribution for untested cells. Only production data from unconventional fractured shale reservoirs with vertical wells were used. For the Mowry, the minimum, median, and maximum total recovery volumes per cell for untested cells are (1) 0.002, 0.25, and 0.35 MMBO, respectively; and for the Niobrara (2) 0.002, 0.028, and 0.5 MMBO. Sweet spots were identified by lineaments and faults, which are believed to be areas having the greatest petroleum potential; an upper limit of 8,000 ft depth was defined by overpressuring caused by hydrocarbon generation. Mean estimates of technically recoverable undiscovered continuous resource for the Mowry are 198 MMBO, 198 BCF (billion cubic feet of gas), and 11.9 MMBNGL (million barrels of natural gas liquid), and those for the Niobrara are 227 MMBO, 227 BCFG, and 13.6 MMBNGL.

  15. Reserves in western basins: Part 1, Greater Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This study characterizes an extremely large gas resource located in low permeability, overpressured sandstone reservoirs located below 8,000 feet drill depth in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming. Total in place resource is estimated at 1,968 Tcf. Via application of geologic, engineering and economic criteria, the portion of this resource potentially recoverable as reserves is estimated. Those volumes estimated include probable, possible and potential categories and total 33 Tcf as a mean estimate of recoverable gas for all plays considered in the basin. Five plays (formations) were included in this study and each was separately analyzed in terms of its overpressured, tight gas resource, established productive characteristics and future reserves potential based on a constant $2/Mcf wellhead gas price scenario. A scheme has been developed to break the overall resource estimate down into components that can be considered as differing technical and economic challenges that must be overcome in order to exploit such resources: in other words, to convert those resources to economically recoverable reserves. Total recoverable reserves estimates of 33 Tcf do not include the existing production from overpressured tight reservoirs in the basin. These have estimated ultimate recovery of approximately 1.6 Tcf, or a per well average recovery of 2.3 Bcf. Due to the fact that considerable pay thicknesses can be present, wells can be economic despite limited drainage areas. It is typical for significant bypassed gas to be present at inter-well locations because drainage areas are commonly less than regulatory well spacing requirements.

  16. Water assessment report on paraho oil shale demonstration plant, white river basin - utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-01

    The Federal Non-nuclear Energy Research and Development Act of 1974, as amended, provides that the U.S. Water Resources Council (WRC) will undertake assessments of water resource requirements and water supply availability for any non-nuclear energy technology. Acting under the provisions of Section 13(b) of the Act, the Department of Energy by letter dated April 23, 1980, requested that WRC undertake a water assessment for the Paraho Oil Shale Demonstration Project to be constructed in Uintah County, Utah. The objectives of the study were to develop and analyze relevant information and data which could be used as a basis to document: (1) water requirements for the project, (2) present and future water supply availability, and (3) water resources impacts.

  17. Drainage development of the Green River Basin in southwestern Wyoming and its bearing on fish biogeography, neotectonics, and paleoclimates.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Upper Green River flows southward out of the Green River Basin through a series of deep canyons across the Uinta Mountains in a course that post-dates the deposition of the Bishop Conglomerate (Oligocene). After the Eocene lakes disappeared, drainage was generally eastward across the present Continental Divide, until the Green River was captured near Green River, Wyo. by south-flowing drainage in middle Pleistocene time, ca., 600 kyr ago. Capture of the Upper Green River as recently as middle Pleistocene time, if a valid hypothesis, must take into account the marked differences between the endemic and indigenous fish fauna of the Green River and that of the North Platte. -from Author

  18. Mineralogical characterization of selected shales in support of nuclear waste repository studies: Progress report, October 1987--September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. Y.; Hyder, L. K.; Baxter, P. M.

    1989-07-01

    One objective of the Sedimentary Rock Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been to examine end-member shales to develop a data base that will aid in evaluations if shales are ever considered as a repository host rock. Five end-member shales were selected for comprehensive characterization: the Chattanooga Shale from Fentress County, Tennessee; the Pierre Shale from Gregory County, South Dakota; the Green River Formation from Garfield County, Colorado; and the Nolichucky Shale and Pumpkin Valley Shale from Roane County, Tennessee. Detailed micromorphological and mineralogical characterizations of the shales were completed by Lee et al. (1987) in ORNL/TM-10567. This report is a supplemental characterization study that was necessary because second batches of the shale samples were needed for additional studies. Selected physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties were determined for the second batches; and their properties were compared with the results from the first batches. Physical characterization indicated that the second-batch and first-batch samples had a noticeable difference in apparent-size distributions but had similar primary-particle-size distributions. There were some differences in chemical composition between the batches, but these differences were not considered important in comparison with the differences among the end-member shales. The results of x-ray diffraction analyses showed that the second batches had mineralogical compositions very similar to the first batches. 9 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Chapter 5: Geologic Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources in the Waltman Shale Total Petroleum System,Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Steve B.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Cook, Troy

    2007-01-01

    The Waltman Shale Total Petroleum System encompasses about 3,400 square miles in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming, and includes accumulations of oil and associated gas that were generated and expelled from oil-prone, lacustrine shale source rocks in the Waltman Shale Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Much of the petroleum migrated and accumulated in marginal lacustrine (deltaic) and fluvial sandstone reservoirs in the Shotgun Member of the Fort Union, which overlies and intertongues with the Waltman Shale Member. Additional petroleum accumulations derived from Waltman source rocks are present in fluvial deposits in the Eocene Wind River Formation overlying the Shotgun Member, and also might be present within fan-delta deposits included in the Waltman Shale Member, and in fluvial sandstone reservoirs in the uppermost part of the lower member of the Fort Union Formation immediately underlying the Waltman. To date, cumulative production from 53 wells producing Waltman-sourced petroleum exceeds 2.8 million barrels of oil and 5.8 billion cubic feet of gas. Productive horizons range from about 1,770 feet to 5,800 feet in depth, and average about 3,400 to 3,500 feet in depth. Formations in the Waltman Shale Total Petroleum System (Fort Union and Wind River Formations) reflect synorogenic deposition closely related to Laramide structural development of the Wind River Basin. In much of the basin, the Fort Union Formation is divided into three members (ascending order): the lower unnamed member, the Waltman Shale Member, and the Shotgun Member. These members record the transition from deposition in dominantly fluvial, floodplain, and mire environments in the early Paleocene (lower member) to a depositional setting characterized by substantial lacustrine development (Waltman Shale Member) and contemporaneous fluvial, and marginal lacustrine (deltaic) deposition (Shotgun Member) during the middle and late Paleocene. Waltman Shale Member source rocks have

  20. Characterization of Green River Kerogen upon Induced Maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsinan, S.; Vanorio, T.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of organic maturity on the elastic properties of kerogen, and then model its effect on the rock elastic responses. To fulfill this objective, we present a workflow that combines nano-scale Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (nanoSIMS), nanoindentation, SEM, ex situ maturation experiments, RockEval analysis and Self-Consistent modeling (SC). First, we used SEM and nanoSIMS to identify the organic rich-kerogen bodies. NanoSIMS provided maps of the secondary ion intensity distribution of H-, C- and O- which show a uniform distribution of these ions within the immature kerogen body. The measured H- /C- and O-/C- ionic intensity ratios range between 1.40 ±0.86 -1.69 ±0.61 and 0.77 ±0.72 - 1.04 ±0.44 respectively. Next, we used the nanoindentation technique to measure the elastic properties of an immature Green River kerogen, which had an average bulk modulus (K) of 3.11 ± 0.23 GPa. Then, we induced maturation using a High Temperature-High Pressure vessel that mimics reservoir conditions. Ex situ maturation resulted in a strong hydrocarbon smell, oil staining, and the expulsion of an oil-like viscous fluid. Geochemical analysis confirmed that the sample had successfully matured to the oil window. SEM time-lapse images show porosity (ϕ) development within the kerogen and surrounding matrix as a result of maturation. Once maturation was complete, we re-measured the elastic properties of the kerogen in the sample using the same nanoindentation technique. The average value of K of the mature kerogen (oil window) was 3.65 ±0.67 GPa. Therefore, we conclude that changes in the elastic properties of solid kerogen in the oil window are negligible. However, ϕ development within the kerogen, the shape of kerogen and its pores, and the presence of fluid can affect the composite rock stiffness. Therefore, we used SC modeling to investigate the effect of ϕ development within the kerogen associated with ex situ maturation, on

  1. Long-term simulation of PCB export from the Fox River to Green Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Velleux, M.L.; Endicott, Douglas; Steuer, Jeffrey; Patterson, Dale; Jaeger, Steven

    1995-01-01

    A mass balance approach was used to model long-term PCB transport in the Fox River (Wisconsin) from Lake Winnebago to Green Bay. The objectives of this research were to (1) extend the modeling approach for the Fox River to permit realistic long-term simulations of contaminant transport and fate, (2) forecast long-term PCB export from the Fox River to Green Bay, and (3) develop a rational approach for evaluating sediment remediation alternatives. Field data collected as part of the Green Bay Mass Balance Study during 1988-90 and additional data collected by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey during 1992-93 were used to develop the model. A 10-year hindcast was conducted to confirm long-term model predictions. A series of 25-year forecasts were then conducted to explore the potential effects of hydrograph structure, extremely high flows, and sediment remediation on long-term PCB export from the Fox River to Green Bay. PCB export from the Fox River is forecast to decrease, and most (75%) of the PCB reservoir in Fox River sediment is expected to remain in place. However, extremely high flows in future years are forecast to cause significant PCB resuspension and export. Model forecasts suggest that long-term PCB export is only mildly sensitive to changes in hydrograph structure. Sediment remediation is forecast to reduce but not eliminate PCB export.

  2. Simulation of blue and green water resources in the Wei River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z.; Zuo, D.

    2014-09-01

    The Wei River is the largest tributary of the Yellow River in China and it is suffering from water scarcity and water pollution. In order to quantify the amount of water resources in the study area, a hydrological modelling approach was applied by using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool), calibrated and validated with SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting program) based on river discharge in the Wei River basin (WRB). Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses were also performed to improve the model performance. Water resources components of blue water flow, green water flow and green water storage were estimated at the HRU (Hydrological Response Unit) scales. Water resources in HRUs were also aggregated to sub-basins, river catchments, and then city/region scales for further analysis. The results showed that most parts of the WRB experienced a decrease in blue water resources between the 1960s and 2000s, with a minimum value in the 1990s. The decrease is particularly significant in the most southern part of the WRB (Guanzhong Plain), one of the most important grain production basements in China. Variations of green water flow and green water storage were relatively small on the spatial and temporal dimensions. This study provides strategic information for optimal utilization of water resources and planning of cultivating seasons in the Wei River basin.

  3. Validation Results for Core-Scale Oil Shale Pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Staten, Josh; Tiwari, Pankaj

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes a study of oil shale pyrolysis at various scales and the subsequent development a model for in situ production of oil from oil shale. Oil shale from the Mahogany zone of the Green River formation was used in all experiments. Pyrolysis experiments were conducted at four scales, powdered samples (100 mesh) and core samples of 0.75”, 1” and 2.5” diameters. The batch, semibatch and continuous flow pyrolysis experiments were designed to study the effect of temperature (300°C to 500°C), heating rate (1°C/min to 10°C/min), pressure (ambient and 500 psig) and size of the sample on product formation. Comprehensive analyses were performed on reactants and products - liquid, gas and spent shale. These experimental studies were designed to understand the relevant coupled phenomena (reaction kinetics, heat transfer, mass transfer, thermodynamics) at multiple scales. A model for oil shale pyrolysis was developed in the COMSOL multiphysics platform. A general kinetic model was integrated with important physical and chemical phenomena that occur during pyrolysis. The secondary reactions of coking and cracking in the product phase were addressed. The multiscale experimental data generated and the models developed provide an understanding of the simultaneous effects of chemical kinetics, and heat and mass transfer on oil quality and yield. The comprehensive data collected in this study will help advance the move to large-scale in situ oil production from the pyrolysis of oil shale.

  4. Partial resolution of sources of n-alkanes in the saline portion of the Parachute Creek Member, Green River Formation (Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collister, J. W.; Lichtfouse, E.; Hieshima, G.; Hayes, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Systematic variations in the 13C contents of individual extractable n-alkanes (C16-C29) can be modelled quantitatively and interpreted as indicating contributions from at least five distinct sources. These appear to be cyanobacterial (C16-C18, delta 13C = -37% vs PDB), phytoplanktonic (C16-C23, delta = -32%), chemoautotrophic bacterial (C20-C29, delta = -38%), phytoplanktonic or heterotrophic bacterial (C20-C29, delta = -30%), and vascular plants (C23-C29, delta = -29%). Hydrous pyrolysis of related kerogens yields large quantities of additional n-alkanes with different and much more uniform delta values. The latter materials are apparently derived from the thermolysis of aliphatic biopolymers whose presence in the Green River Oil Shale has been recognized visually.

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out. The Green River, Utah, LTSP is based on the DOE`s Guidance for Implementing the UMTRA Project Long-term Surveillance Program (DOE, 1992a).

  7. An in situ FTIR step-scan photoacoustic investigation of kerogen and minerals in oil shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alstadt, Kristin N.; Katti, Dinesh R.; Katti, Kalpana S.

    2012-04-01

    Step-scan photoacoustic infrared spectroscopy experiments were performed on Green River oil shale samples obtained from the Piceance Basin located in Colorado, USA. We have investigated the molecular nature of light and dark colored areas of the oil shale core using FTIR photoacoustic step-scan spectroscopy. This technique provided us with the means to analyze the oil shale in its original in situ form with the kerogen-mineral interactions intact. All vibrational bands characteristic of kerogen were found in the dark and light colored oil shale samples confirming that kerogen is present throughout the depth of the core. Depth profiling experiments indicated that there are changes between layers in the oil shale molecular structure at a length scale of micron. Comparisons of spectra from the light and dark colored oil shale core samples suggest that the light colored regions have high kerogen content, with spectra similar to that from isolated kerogen, whereas, the dark colored areas contain more mineral components which include clay minerals, dolomite, calcite, and pyrite. The mineral components of the oil shale are important in understanding how the kerogen is "trapped" in the oil shale. Comparing in situ kerogen spectra with spectra from isolated kerogen indicate significant band shifts suggesting important nonbonded molecular interactions between the kerogen and minerals.

  8. To Green or Not to Green? Evaluation of Green Stormwater Infrastructure in Kansas City Middle Blue River Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The City of Kansas City, Mo., Water Services Department is implementing a pilot project to measure and evaluate the performance of green infrastructure. Information obtained through this pilot project will be used to guide the design of green solutions throughout Kansas City und...

  9. Location of potential interest for fracturing oil shale with nuclear explosives for in situ retorting, Piceance Creek Basin, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ege, J.R.

    1967-01-01

    Analysis of oil assays, structure sections, and isopach maps of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation indicates that numerous locations in the western part of the Piceance Creek basin could be selected with an oil shale section at least 500 feet thick that contains not less than 20 gallons per ton of shale oil, and has at least 800 feet of overburden.

  10. Dynamic imaging of oil shale pyrolysis using synchrotron X-ray microtomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saif, Tarik; Lin, Qingyang; Singh, Kamaljit; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin J.

    2016-07-01

    The structure and connectivity of the pore space during the pyrolysis of oil shales determines hydrocarbon flow behavior and ultimate recovery. We image the time evolution of the pore and microfracture networks during oil shale pyrolysis using synchrotron X-ray microtomography. Immature Green River (Mahogany Zone) shale samples were thermally matured under vacuum conditions at temperatures up to 500°C while being periodically imaged with a 2 µm voxel size. The structural transformation of both organic-rich and organic-lean layers within the shale was quantified. The images reveal a dramatic change in porosity accompanying pyrolysis between 390 and 400°C with the formation of micron-scale heterogeneous pores. With a further increase in temperature, the pores steadily expand resulting in connected microfracture networks that predominantly develop along the kerogen-rich laminations.

  11. Movement and habitat use of green sturgeon Acipenser medirostris in the Rogue River, Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erickson, D.L.; North, J.A.; Hightower, J.E.; Weber, J.; Lauck, L.

    2002-01-01

    Green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) movement patterns and habitat use within the Rogue River, Oregon were evaluated using radio telemetry. Nineteen specimens ranging from 154 to 225 cm total length were caught by gill netting and tagged with radio transmitters during May-July 2000. One tagged green sturgeon was verified as a female near spawning condition. Individual green sturgeons spent more than 6 months in fresh water and traveled as far as river kilometer (rkm) 39.5. Green sturgeon preferred specific holding sites within the Rogue River during summer and autumn months. These sites were typically deep (> 5 m) low-gradient reaches or off-channel coves. Home ranges within holding sites were restricted. All tagged individuals emigrated from the system to the sea during the autumn and winter, when water temperatures dropped below 10??C and flows increased. This species is extremely vulnerable to habitat alterations and overfishing because it spawns in only a few North American rivers and individuals reside within extremely small areas for extended periods of time.

  12. MASS BALANCE MODELLING OF PCBS IN THE FOX RIVER/GREEN BAY COMPLEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA Office of Research and Development developed and applies a multimedia, mass balance modeling approach to the Fox River/Green Bay complex to aid managers with remedial decision-making. The suite of models were applied to PCBs due to the long history of contamination and ...

  13. SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: GREEN RIVER STATION, KENTUCKY UTILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a survey of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system retrofitted to Boilers 1, 2, and 3 at the Green River Station of Kentucky Utilities. The FGD system consists of one wet lime scrubber module designed to handle a maximum of 170 cu m/sec (360,000 afc...

  14. A new libelluloid family from the Eocene Green River Formation (Colorado, USA) (Odonata, Anisoptera).

    PubMed

    Zeiri, Asma; Nel, Andre; Garrouste, Romain

    2015-01-01

    The new family Urolibellulidae is proposed for the new genus and species Urolibellula eocenica, based on a fossil dragonfly from the Eocene Green River Formation (USA). This new taxon is considered as the sister group of the extant Libellulidae. As the oldest libellulid dragonfly is dated from the Turonian, the Urolibellulidae should also be at least Late Cretaceous. PMID:26624363

  15. Factors controlling the establishment of fremont cottonwood seedlings on the upper Green River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, D.J.; Merritt, D.M.; Andersen, D.C.; Chimner, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    Declines in cottonwood (Populus spp.) recruitment along alluvial reaches of large rivers in arid regions of the western United States have been attributed to modified flow regimes, lack of suitable substrate, insufficient seed rain, and increased interspecific competition. We evaluated whether and how these factors were operating during 1993-1996 to influence demographics of Fremont cottonwood (P. deltoides Marshall subsp. wislizenii (Watson) Eckenwalder) along reaches of the Green and Yampa Rivers near their confluence in northwestern Colorado. We examined seedling establishment, defined as survival through three growing seasons, at three alluvial reaches that differed primarily in the level of flow regulation: a site on the unregulated Yampa, an upper Green River site regulated by Flaming Gorge Dam, and a lower Green River site below the Green-Yampa confluence. Seed rain was abundant in all sites, and led to large numbers of germinants (first-year seedlings) appearing each year at all sites. The regulated flow in the upper Green River reach restricted germination to islands and cut banks that were later inundated or eroded; no seedlings survived there. Mortality at the lower Green River site was due largely to desiccation or substrate erosion; 23% of 1993 germinants survived their first growing season, but at most 2% survived through their second. At the Yampa River site, germinants appeared on vegetated and unvegetated surfaces up to 2.5 m above base flow stage, but survived to autumn only on bare surfaces at least 1.25 m above base flow stage, and where at least 10 of the upper 40 cm of the alluvium was fine-textured. Our studies of rooting depths and the stable isotopic composition of xylem water showed that seedlings in the most favorable locations for establishment at the Yampa site do not become phreatophytic until their third or fourth growing season. Further, the results of experimental field studies examining effects of shade and competition supported

  16. Stratigraphic variations in oil-shale fracture properties. [Colorado and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.; Patti, N. C.; Trent, B. C.

    1982-09-01

    The proper design and evaluation of in situ oil shale fracture and retorting experiments require that both the extreme values and spatial distribution of the controlling rock properties be adequately known. Many of the in situ technologies being considered for processing within the Green River Formation in Colorado, Wyoming and Utah depend upon the carefully controlled explosive fracturing of the rock such that suitably uniform permeabilities are achieved. The prediction, control and evaluation of explosive oil shale fracturing require a detailed knowledge of tensile strength behavior as a function of shale grade and stratigraphic position. Direct-pull tensile tests, point-load pinch tests, and four-point-bend fracture toughness tests have been utilized to develop detailed logs of the relevant fracture properties for the 37 m thick Mahogany Zone section of the Green River Formation near Anvil Points, Colorado and for the rich, upper 13 m of the Tipton Member near Rock Springs, Wyoming. For the Mahogany Zone shale tensile strengths ranged up to 15.3 MPa for direct-pull tests and 43.4 MPa for indirect tests. Fracture energy values for this shale ranged from 8 J/m/sup 2/ to 191 J/m/sup 2/. For the Tipton shale tensile strengths ranged up to 3.7 MPa for direct-pull tests and 12.6 MPa for indirect tests. Fracture energy values for the Tipton averaged from 5 J/m/sup 2/ to 91 J/m/sup 2/. Detailed statistical analyses were performed on these data and on Fischer assay oil yield data to establish the correlations between them. Data from both tensile strength and fracture energy tests correlate well with lithologic and oil yield characteristics of the Mahogany Zone shale while poor correlations were found for the Tipton shale. 27 figures, 8 tables.

  17. Timing and origin for sand dunes in the Green River Lowland of Illinois, upper Mississippi River Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miao, X.; Hanson, P.R.; Wang, Hongfang; Young, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    The recent increase in dune studies in North America has been heavily focused in the Great Plains, while less attention has historically been given to the dune fields east of the Mississippi River. Here we report ages and suggest a potential sediment source for sand dunes in the Green River Lowland, Illinois, which may provide a better understanding of the dynamic interactions between eolian, glacial, lacustrine and fluvial processes that shaped the landscapes of the upper Midwest. Seven coherent optically stimulated luminescence ages (OSL, or optical ages) obtained from four sites suggest that major dune construction in the Green River Lowland occurred within a narrow time window around 17,500 ago. This implies either an enhanced aridity or an episodic increase of sediment supply at 17,500 years ago, or combination of the both. Contrary to previous assertions that dune sand was sourced from the deflation of the underlying outwash sand deposited when the Lake Michigan Lobe retreated from the area, we propose that Green River Lowland dunes sand originated from the Green Bay Lobe through the Rock River. Specifically, sediment supply increased in the Rock River valley during drainage of Glacial Lake Scuppernong, which formed between ???18,000 and 17,000 years ago, when the Green Bay Lobe retreated from its terminal moraine. The lake drained catastrophically through the Rock River valley, providing glacial sediment and water to erode the preexisting sandy sediments. Throughout the remainder of the late Pleistocene, the Laurentide Ice Sheet drained into larger more northerly glacial lakes that in turn drained through other river valleys. Therefore, the dunes in the Green River Lowland formed only during the catastrophic drainage of Glacial Lake Scuppernong, but were stabilized through the remainder of the Pleistocene. This scenario explains the abrupt dune construction around 17,500 years ago, and explains the lack of later dune activity up to the Pleistocene

  18. Dissolved rhenium in the Yamuna river system and the Ganga in the Himalaya: role of black shale weathering on the budgets of Re, Os, and U in rivers and CO 2 in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalai, Tarun K.; Singh, Sunil K.; Trivedi, J. R.; Krishnaswami, S.

    2002-01-01

    Extensive measurements of dissolved Re and major ion abundances in the Yamuna River System (YRS), a major tributary of the Ganga, have been performed along its entire stretch in the Himalaya, from its source near the Yamunotri Glacier to its outflow at the foothills of the Himalaya at Saharanpur. In addition, Re analysis has been made in granites and Precambrian carbonates, some of the major lithologies of the drainage basin. These data, coupled with those available for black shales in the Lesser Himalaya, allow an assessment of these lithologies' contributions to the Re budget of the YRS. The Re concentrations in the YRS range from 0.5 to 35.7 pM with a mean of 9.4 pM, a factor of ˜4 higher than that reported for its global average concentration in rivers. Dissolved Re and ΣCations∗ (= Na∗+K+Ca+Mg) are strongly correlated in the YRS, indicating that they are released to these waters in roughly the same proportion throughout their course. The Re/ΣCations∗ in most of these rivers are one to two orders of magnitude higher than the (Re/Na+K+Mg+Ca) measured in granites of the Yamuna basin. This leads to the conclusion that, on average, granites/crystallines make only minor contributions to the dissolved Re budget of the YRS on a basin-wide scale, though they may be important for rivers with low dissolved Re. Similarly, Precambrian carbonates of the Lesser Himalaya do not seem to be a major contributor to dissolved Re in these rivers, as their Re/(Ca+Mg) is much less than those in the rivers. The observation that Re concentrations in rivers flowing through black shales and in groundwaters percolating through phosphorite-black shale-carbonate layers in phosphorite mines are high, and that Re and SO 4 are significantly correlated in YRS, seems to suggest that the bulk of the dissolved Re is derived from black shale/carbonaceous sediments. Material balance considerations, based on average Re of 30 ng g -1 in black shales from the Lesser Himalaya, require that its

  19. Capturing the Green River -- Multispectral airborne videography to evaluate the environmental impacts of hydropower operations

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K.E.

    1996-02-01

    The 500-mile long Green River is the largest tributary of the Colorado River. From its origin in the Wind River Range mountains of western Wyoming to its confluence with the Colorado River in southeastern Utah, the Green River is vital to the arid region through which it flows. Large portions of the area remain near-wilderness with the river providing a source of recreation in the form of fishing and rafting, irrigation for farming and ranching, and hydroelectric power. In the late 1950`s and early 1960`s hydroelectric facilities were built on the river. One of these, Flaming Gorge Dam, is located just south of the Utah-Wyoming border near the town of Dutch John, Utah. Hydropower operations result in hourly and daily fluctuations in the releases of water from the dam that alter the natural stream flow below the dam and affect natural resources in and along the river corridor. In the present study, the authors were interested in evaluating the potential impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on the downstream natural resources. Considering the size of the area affected by the daily pattern of water release at the dam as well as the difficult terrain and limited accessibility of many reaches of the river, evaluating these impacts using standard field study methods was virtually impossible. Instead an approach was developed that used multispectral aerial videography to determine changes in the affected parameters at different flows, hydrologic modeling to predict flow conditions for various hydropower operating scenarios, and ecological information on the biological resources of concern to assign impacts.

  20. Assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of green and blue water flows in inland river basins in Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, C. F.; Liu, J.; van der Velde, M.; Kraxner, F.

    2012-03-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions freshwater resources have become scarcer with increasing demands from socio-economic development and population growth. Until recently, water research and management in these has mainly focused on blue water but ignored green water. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of both blue and green water flows simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. Calibration and validation at two hydrological stations show good performance of the SWAT model in modelling hydrological processes. The total green and blue water flows were 22.09 billion m3 in the 2000s for the Heihe river basin. Blue water flows are larger in upstream sub-basins than in downstream sub-basins mainly due to high precipitation and large areas of glaciers in upstream. Green water flows are distributed more homogeneously among different sub-basins. The green water coefficient was 88.0% in the 2000s for the entire river basin, varying from around 80-90% in up- and mid-stream sub-basins to above 95% in downstream sub-basins. This is much higher than reported green water coefficient in many other river basins. The spatial patterns of green water coefficient were closely linked to dominant land covers (e.g. glaciers in upstream and desert in downstream) and climate conditions (e.g. high precipitation in upstream and low precipitation in downstream). There are no clear consistent historical trends of change in green and blue water flows and green water coefficient at both the river basin and sub-basin levels. This study provides insights into green and blue water endowments for the entire Heihe river basin at sub-basin level. The results are helpful for formulating reasonable water policies to improve water resources management in the inland river basins of China.

  1. Detailed description of oil shale organic and mineralogical heterogeneity via fourier transform infrared mircoscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Foster, Michael; Gutierrez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical information on reservoir and source rocks is necessary to assess and produce from petroleum systems. The standard methods in the petroleum industry for obtaining these properties are bulk measurements on homogenized, generally crushed, and pulverized rock samples and can take from hours to days to perform. New methods using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have been developed to more rapidly obtain information on mineralogy and geochemistry. However, these methods are also typically performed on bulk, homogenized samples. We present a new approach to rock sample characterization incorporating multivariate analysis and FTIR microscopy to provide non-destructive, spatially resolved mineralogy and geochemistry on whole rock samples. We are able to predict bulk mineralogy and organic carbon content within the same margin of error as standard characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Validation of the method was performed using two oil shale samples from the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin with differing sedimentary structures. One sample represents laminated Green River oil shales, and the other is representative of oil shale breccia. The FTIR microscopy results on the oil shales agree with XRD and LECO TOC data from the homogenized samples but also give additional detail regarding sample heterogeneity by providing information on the distribution of mineral phases and organic content. While measurements for this study were performed on oil shales, the method could also be applied to other geological samples, such as other mudrocks, complex carbonates, and soils.

  2. Oil-shale data, cores, and samples collected by the U.S. geological survey through 1989

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyni, John R.; Gay, Frances; Michalski, Thomas C.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has acquired a large collection of geotechnical data, drill cores, and crushed samples of oil shale from the Eocene Green River Formation in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. The data include about 250,000 shale-oil analyses from about 600 core holes. Most of the data is from Colorado where the thickest and highest-grade oil shales of the Green River Formation are found in the Piceance Creek basin. Other data on file but not yet in the computer database include hundreds of lithologic core descriptions, geophysical well logs, and mineralogical and geochemical analyses. The shale-oil analyses are being prepared for release on floppy disks for use on microcomputers. About 173,000 lineal feet of drill core of oil shale and associated rocks, as well as 100,000 crushed samples of oil shale, are stored at the Core Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Lakewood, Colo. These materials are available to the public for research.

  3. Effects of experimental parameters on the sorption of cesium, strontium, and uranium from saline groundwaters onto shales: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Case, F.I.; O'Kelley, G.D.

    1988-11-01

    This report concerns an extension of the first series of experiments on the sorption properties of shales and their clay mineral components reported earlier. Studies on the sorption of cesium and strontium were carried out on samples of Chattanooga (Upper Dowelltown), Pierre, Green River Formation, Nolichucky, and Pumpkin Valley Shales that had been heated to 120/degree/C in a 0.1-mol/L NaCl solution for periods up to several months and on samples of the same shales which had been heated to 250/degree/C in air for six months, to simulate limiting scenarios in a HLW repository. To investigate the kinetics of the sorption process in shale/groundwater systems, strontium sorption experiments were done on unheated Pierre, Green River Formation, Nolichucky, and Pumpkin Valley Shales in a diluted, saline groundwater and in 0.03-mol/L NaHCO/sub 3/, for periods of 0.25 to 28 days. Cesium sorption kinetics tests were performed on the same shales in a concentrated brine for the same time periods. The effect of the water/rock (W/R) ratio on sorption for the same combinations of unheated shales, nuclides, and groundwaters used in the kinetics experiments was investigated for a range of W/R ratios of 3 to 20 mL/g. Because of the complexity of the shale/groundwater interaction, a series of tests was conducted on the effects of contact time and W/R ratio on the pH of a 0.03-mol/L NaHCO/sub 3/ simulated groundwater in contact with shales. 8 refs., 12 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Processesof Tamarix invasion and floodplain development along the lower Green River, Utah.

    PubMed

    Birken, Adam S; Cooper, David J

    2006-06-01

    Significant ecological, hydrologic, and geomorphic changes have occurred during the 20th century along many large floodplain rivers in the American Southwest. Native Populus forests have declined, while the exotic Eurasian shrub, Tamarix, has proliferated and now dominates most floodplain ecosystems. Photographs from late 19th and early 20th centuries illustrate wide river channels with largely bare in-channel landforms and shrubby higher channel margin floodplains. However, by the mid-20th century, floodplains supporting dense Tamarix stands had expanded, and river channels had narrowed. Along the lower Green River in eastern Utah, the causal mechanism of channel and floodplain changes remains ambiguous due to the confounding effects of climatically driven reductions in flood magnitude, river regulation by Flaming Gorge Dam, and Tamarix invasion. This study addressed whether Tamarix establishment and spread followed climate- or dam-induced reductions in annual peak flows or whether Tamarix was potentially a driver of floodplain changes. We aged 235 Tamarix and 57 Populus individuals, determined the hydrologic and geomorphic processes that controlled recruitment, identified the spatial relationships of germination sites within floodplain stratigraphic transects, and mapped woody riparian vegetation cohorts along three segments of the lower Green River. The oldest Tamarix established along several sampling reaches in 1938, and 1.50-2.25 m of alluvium has accreted above their germination surfaces. Nearly 90% of the Tamarix and Populus samples established during flood years that exceeded the 2.5-year recurrence interval. Recruitment was most common when large floods were followed by years with smaller peak flows. The majority of Tamarix establishment and Green River channel narrowing occurred long before river regulation by Flaming Gorge Dam. Tamarix initially colonized bare instream sand deposits (e.g., islands and bars), and most channel and floodplain changes

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah disposal site. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) for the Green River, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site describes the surveillance activities for the Green River disposal cell. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will carry out these activities to ensure that the disposal cell continues to function as designed. This final LTSP was prepared as a requirement for acceptance under the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) general license for custody and long-term care of residual radioactive materials (RRM). This LTSP documents whether the land and interests are owned by the United States or an Indian tribe and details how the long-term care of the disposal site will be carried out.

  6. UPR, DOE team to find gas deposits in Wyoming`s Green River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton, C.L.; Guennewig, V.B.

    1996-04-01

    Union Pacific and the U.S. Department of Energy have entered into a project in an effort to find a more economic and technologically efficient method of drilling for and producing the exceptionally large gas resources trapped in tight sands in the Greater Green River Basin. The project will be conducted in the Frontier Formation in Southwestern Wyoming. A vertical well will be drilled and tested to evaluate the economic benefit of various technologies.

  7. Integrated assessment of contaminated sediments in the lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Ankley, G.T.; Lodge, K.; Call, D.J.; Balcer, M.D.; Brooke, L.T.; Cook, P.M.; Kreis, R.G. Jr.; Carlson, A.R.; Johnson, R.D.; Niemi, G.J. )

    1992-02-01

    Samples of sediment and biota were collected from sites in the lower Fox River and southern Green Bay to determine existing or potential impacts of sediment-associated contaminants on different ecosystem components of this Great Lakes area of concern. Evaluation of benthos revealed a relatively depauperate community, particularly at the lower Fox River sites. Sediment pore water and bulk sediments from several lower Fox River sites were toxic to a number of test species including Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Hexagenia limbata, Selenastrum capricornutum, and Photobacterium phosphorum. An important component of the observed toxicity appeared to be due to ammonia. Evaluation of three bullhead (Ictalurus) species from the lower Fox River revealed an absence of preneoplastic or neoplastic liver lesions, and the Salmonella typhimurium bioassay indicated relatively little mutagenicity in sediment extracts. Apparent adverse reproductive effects were noted in two species of birds nesting along the lower Fox River and on a confined disposal facility for sediments near the mouth of the river, and there were measurable concentrations of potentially toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) both in the birds and in sediments from several of the study sites. Based on toxic equivalency factors and the results of an in vitro bioassay with H4IIE rat hepatoma cells, it appeared that the majority of potential toxicity of the PCB/PCDF/PCDD mixture in biota from the lower Fox River/Green Bay system was due to the planar PCBs. The results of these studies are discussed in terms of an integrated assessment focused on providing data for remedial action planning.

  8. Rates and Mechanisms of Oil Shale Pyrolysis: A Chemical Structure Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Three pristine Utah Green River oil shale samples were obtained and used for analysis by the combined research groups at the University of Utah and Brigham Young University. Oil shale samples were first demineralized and the separated kerogen and extracted bitumen samples were then studied by a host of techniques including high resolution liquid-state carbon-13 NMR, solid-state magic angle sample spinning 13C NMR, GC/MS, FTIR, and pyrolysis. Bitumen was extracted from the shale using methanol/dichloromethane and analyzed using high resolution 13C NMR liquid state spectroscopy, showing carbon aromaticities of 7 to 11%. The three parent shales and the demineralized kerogens were each analyzed with solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy. Carbon aromaticity of the kerogen was 23-24%, with 10-12 aromatic carbons per cluster. Crushed samples of Green River oil shale and its kerogen extract were pyrolyzed at heating rates from 1 to 10 K/min at pressures of 1 and 40 bar and temperatures up to 1000°C. The transient pyrolysis data were fit with a first-order model and a Distributed Activation Energy Model (DAEM). The demineralized kerogen was pyrolyzed at 10 K/min in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure at temperatures up to 525°C, and the pyrolysis products (light gas, tar, and char) were analyzed using 13C NMR, GC/MS, and FTIR. Details of the kerogen pyrolysis have been modeled by a modified version of the chemical percolation devolatilization (CPD) model that has been widely used to model coal combustion/pyrolysis. This refined CPD model has been successful in predicting the char, tar, and gas yields of the three shale samples during pyrolysis. This set of experiments and associated modeling represents the most sophisticated and complete analysis available for a given set of oil shale samples.

  9. Gas shale/oil shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, N.S.; Bereskin, S.R.; Bowker, K.A.; Cardott, B.J.; Chidsey, T.C., Jr.; Dubiel, R.F.; Enomoto, C.B.; Harrison, W.B.; Jarvie, D.M.; Jenkins, C.L.; LeFever, J.A.; Li, Peng; McCracken, J.N.; Morgan, C.D.; Nordeng, S.H.; Nyahay, R.E.; Schamel, Steven; Sumner, R.L.; Wray, L.L.

    2011-01-01

    This report provides information about specific shales across North America and Europe from which gas (biogenic or thermogenic), oil, or natural gas liquids are produced or is actively being explored. The intent is to re?ect the recently expanded mission of the Energy Minerals Division (EMD) Gas Shales Committee to serve as a single point of access to technical information on shales regardless of the type of hydrocarbon produced from them. The contents of this report were drawn largely from contributions by numerous members of the EMD Gas Shales Advisory Committee, with much of the data being available from public websites such as state or provincial geological surveys or other public institutions. Shales from which gas or oil is being produced in the United States are listed in alphabetical order by shale name. Information for Canada is presented by province, whereas for Europe, it is presented by country.

  10. Suspended Sediment Transport Dynamics and Sediment Yields in Relation to Watershed Characteristics, Upper Green River Basin, Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otoo, J.; Kentworthy, S.; Florea, L.; May, M.; Meier, Q.; Hollon, C.

    2008-12-01

    Sediment delivery is a major problem in the Green River, Kentucky, home of 71 of the state's 103 known mussel species and 151 fish species. The river also provides water for many of its surrounding counties. This research focuses on how suspended sediment loads, grain size, and the temporal co-variation of flow rate and sediment concentration during runoff events are related to watershed characteristics. The link between sediment load and watershed characteristics can help in the planning and development of effective strategies to minimize sediment load and suspended sediment concentration in the Green River, thereby improving the water quality of the river. The primary research objectives were on suspended sediment loads from two watersheds namely: Pitman Creek and Brush Creek in the Upper Green River Basin. Water quality was monitored using data sondes positioned at selected sites in the two watersheds. Water samples were collected and analyzed for concentrations of suspended sediments. The suspended sediments data was then linked to watershed characteristics to determine what factors affect or influence suspended sediment concentration in the Upper Green River Basin. Thus, the research reveals the relationships between suspended sediment loads, grain size, flow rate and the watershed characteristics of interest. We will present hydrologic monitoring results combined with field investigations which indicate that suspended sediment in the Green River is affected by an discharge, relief, geology, watershed area, landuse, and cover conditions.

  11. Controls on selenium distribution and mobilization in an irrigated shallow groundwater system underlain by Mancos Shale, Uncompahgre River Basin, Colorado, USA.

    PubMed

    Mills, Taylor J; Mast, M Alisa; Thomas, Judith; Keith, Gabrielle

    2016-10-01

    Elevated selenium (Se) concentrations in surface water and groundwater have become a concern in areas of the Western United States due to the deleterious effects of Se on aquatic ecosystems. Elevated Se concentrations are most prevalent in irrigated alluvial valleys underlain by Se-bearing marine shales where Se can be leached from geologic materials into the shallow groundwater and surface water systems. This study presents groundwater chemistry and solid-phase geochemical data from the Uncompahgre River Basin in Western Colorado, an irrigated alluvial landscape underlain by Se-rich Cretaceous marine shale. We analyzed Se species, major and trace elements, and stable nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate in groundwater and aquifer sediments to examine processes governing selenium release and transport in the shallow groundwater system. Groundwater Se concentrations ranged from below detection limit (<0.5μgL(-1)) to 4070μgL(-1), and primarily are controlled by high groundwater nitrate concentrations that maintain oxidizing conditions in the aquifer despite low dissolved oxygen concentrations. High nitrate concentrations in non-irrigated soils and nitrate isotopes indicate nitrate is largely derived from natural sources in the Mancos Shale and alluvial material. Thus, in contrast to areas that receive substantial NO3 inputs through inorganic fertilizer application, Se mitigation efforts that involve limiting NO3 application might have little impact on groundwater Se concentrations in the study area. Soluble salts are the primary source of Se to the groundwater system in the study area at-present, but they constitute a small percentage of the total Se content of core material. Sequential extraction results indicate insoluble Se is likely composed of reduced Se in recalcitrant organic matter or discrete selenide phases. Oxidation of reduced Se species that constitute the majority of the Se pool in the study area could be a potential source of Se in the future as

  12. Devonian shale

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Objectives were to: estimate the in-place gas resource of Devonian Shale in the eastern United States, project possible production volumes and reserve additions of recoverable gas at various price levels with current technology, estimate the potential of new technology and its effect on production and reserve additions, examine constraints of Devonian Shale development, and compare findings with other published studies.

  13. Oil Recovery Increases by Low-Salinity Flooding: Minnelusa and Green River Formations

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-09-01

    Waterflooding is by far the most widely used method in the world to increase oil recovery. Historically, little consideration has been given in reservoir engineering practice to the effect of injection brine composition on waterflood displacement efficiency or to the possibility of increased oil recovery through manipulation of the composition of the injected water. However, recent work has shown that oil recovery can be significantly increased by modifying the injection brine chemistry or by injecting diluted or low salinity brine. This paper reports on laboratory work done to increase the understanding of improved oil recovery by waterflooding with low salinity injection water. Porous media used in the studies included outcrop Berea sandstone (Ohio, U.S.A.) and reservoir cores from the Green River formation of the Uinta basin (Utah, U.S.A.). Crude oils used in the experimental protocols were taken from the Minnelusa formation of the Powder River basin (Wyoming, U.S.A.) and from the Green River formation, Monument Butte field in the Uinta basin. Laboratory corefloods using Berea sandstone, Minnelusa crude oil, and simulated Minnelusa formation water found a significant relationship between the temperature at which the oil- and water-saturated cores were aged and the oil recovery resulting from low salinity waterflooding. Lower aging temperatures resulted in very little to no additional oil recovery, while cores aged at higher temperatures resulted in significantly higher recoveries from dilute-water floods. Waterflood studies using reservoir cores and fluids from the Green River formation of the Monument Butte field also showed significantly higher oil recoveries from low salinity waterfloods with cores flooded with fresher water recovering 12.4% more oil on average than those flooded with undiluted formation brine.

  14. Detections of Acoustic-Tagged Green Sturgeon in Baker Bay on the Lower Columbia River during September - November 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsley, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Acoustic transmitters implanted in green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) captured in rivers in California were detected by acoustic receivers deployed within and around Baker Bay. The receivers were deployed at eight locations in the Bay and adjacent navigation channels of the Lower Columbia River during a period of anticipated channel dredging. Three of the transmitters detected were confirmed to have been implanted into green sturgeon in previous years; two were from the Sacramento River and one was from the Klamath River. The transmitters (fish) were within detection range of the receivers for only a short period, which is consistent with findings of earlier studies that green sturgeon make rapid and extensive intra-estuary movements.

  15. Mineralogy and lithology of Utah oil shale and their influence on logging response

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, H.M.; Callender, C.A.; Savage, K.D.

    1987-05-01

    Detailed mineralogic and lithologic investigations of the Green River Formation oil shale in Uintah County, Utah, indicate unusual properties which strongly influence certain wireline logging responses. Those logging parameters considered include density, gamma, relative dielectric constant, resistivity, and magnetic susceptibility. Two 160-ft cores, comprising the Mahogany Zone and an adjacent section approximately 40 ft above and below this unit, were cut, slabbed, and analyzed. Lithologically, the cores consist predominantly of laminated oil shale and marlstone with minor sandstone and altered tuff. Mineralogically, the oil shale contains dolomite, calcite, quartz, Na-feldspar, K-feldspar, smectite, illite, iron sulfides, and scattered siderite, aragonite, and analcime. Petrographic studies (thin section, SEM/EDS and XRD) indicate that iron sulfides occur both dispersed in the oil shale and concentrated along certain laminae. These iron sulfides, identified as pyrrhotite, pyrite, and marcasite, form blades, pods, cubes, and aggregates. In particular, pyrrhotite is highly conductive and magnetic and, when concentrated along thin, continuous laminae, markedly affects the electrical properties of the oil shale. Results of the study determined that the logging response reflects the bulk composition of the rock and is strongly influenced by the pyrrhotite-rich laminae and the amount of moisture in the shale.

  16. Agricultural implications of reduced water supplies in the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Lansford, R.R.; Roach, F.; Gollehon, N.R.; Creel, B.J.

    1981-07-01

    The growth of the energy sector in the energy-rich but water-restricted Western US has presented a potential conflict for water now used by the irrigated agricultural sector. This study measures the direct impacts on farm income and employment resulting from the transfer of water from agriculture to energy in two specific geographical areas - the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins. We used a linear programming model to evaluate the impacts of reduced water supplies. Through the use of regional multipliers, we expanded our analysis to include regional impacts. In the Green River Basin, we found that Duchesne and Uintah Counties, Utah, would experience the greatest economic impacts when agricultural water supplies were reduced by 50%. In the Upper Yellowstone River Basin, Treasure and Rosebud Counties, Montana, would experience the greatest total income and employment reductions when water supplies were reduced less than or equal to 40%. When these supplies were reduced by more than 40%, Stillwater, Carbon, Yellowstone, and Big Horn Counties, Montana, would experience the greatest reductions.

  17. Denitrification in marine shales in northeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Bruce, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    Parts of the South Platte River alluvial aquifer in northeastern Colorado are underlain by the Pierre Shale, a marine deposit of Late Cretaceous age that is <1000 m thick. Ground water in the aquifer is contaminated with NO3/-, and the shale contains abundant potential electron donors for denitrification in the forms of organic carbon and sulfide minerals. Nested piezometers were sampled, pore water was squeezed from cores of shale, and an injection test was conducted to determine if denitrification in the shale was a sink for alluvial NO3/- and to measure denitrification rates in the shale. Measured values of NO3/-, N2, NH4/+, ??15[NO3/-], ??15N[N2], and ??15N[NH4/+] in the alluvial and shale pore water indicated that denitrification in the shale was a sink for alluvial NO3/-. Chemical gradients, reaction rate constants, and hydraulic head data indicated that denitrification in the shale was limited by the slow rate of NO3/- transport (possibly by diffusion) into the shale. The apparent in situ first-order rate constant for denitrification in the shale based on diffusion calculations was of the order of 0.04-0.4 yr-1, whereas the potential rate constant in the shale based on injection tests was of the order of 60 yr-1. Chemical data and mass balance calculations indicate that organic carbon was the primary electron donor for denitrification in the shale during the injection test, and ferrous iron was a minor electron donor in the process. Flux calculations for the conditions encountered at the site indicate that denitrification in the shale could remove only a small fraction of the annual agricultural NO3/- input to the alluvial aquifer. However, the relatively large potential first-order rate constant for denitrification in the shale indicated that the percentage of NO3/- uptake by the shale could be considerably larger in areas where NO3/- is transported more rapidly into the shale by advection.

  18. Clean and Secure Energy from Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Resources

    SciTech Connect

    Spinti, Jennifer; Birgenheier, Lauren; Deo, Milind; Facelli, Julio; Hradisky, Michal; Kelly, Kerry; Miller, Jan; McLennan, John; Ring, Terry; Ruple, John; Uchitel, Kirsten

    2015-09-30

    (March, 2012); Conjunctive Surface and Groundwater Management in Utah: Implications for Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development (May, 2012); Development of CFD-Based Simulation Tools for In Situ Thermal Processing of Oil Shale/Sands (February, 2012); Core-Based Integrated Sedimentologic, Stratigraphic, and Geochemical Analysis of the Oil Shale Bearing Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah (April, 2011); Atomistic Modeling of Oil Shale Kerogens and Asphaltenes Along with their Interactions with the Inorganic Mineral Matrix (April, 2011); Pore Scale Analysis of Oil Shale/Sands Pyrolysis (March, 2011); Land and Resource Management Issues Relevant to Deploying In-Situ Thermal Technologies (January, 2011); Policy Analysis of Produced Water Issues Associated with In-Situ Thermal Technologies (January, 2011); and Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development (March, 2010)

  19. Agricultural implications of reduced water supplies in the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Lansford, R. R.; Roach, F.; Gollehon, N. R.; Creel, B. J.

    1982-02-01

    The growth of the energy sector in the energy-rich but water-restricted Western US has presented a potential conflict with the irrigated agricultural sector. This study measures the direct impacts on farm income and employment resulting from the transfer of water from agriculture to energy in two specific geographical areas - the Green and Upper Yellowstone River Basins. We used a linear programming model to evaluate the impacts of reduced water supplies. Through the use of regional multipliers, we expanded our analysis to include regional impacts. Volume I provides the major analysis of these impacts. Volume II provides further technical data.

  20. Specific Conductance and Dissolved-Solids Characteristics for the Green River and Muddy Creek, Wyoming, Water Years 1999-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Davidson, Seth L.

    2009-01-01

    Southwestern Wyoming is an area of diverse scenery, wildlife, and natural resources that is actively undergoing energy development. The U.S. Department of the Interior's Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative is a long-term science-based effort to assess and enhance aquatic and terrestrial habitats at a landscape scale, while facilitating responsible energy development through local collaboration and partnerships. Water-quality monitoring has been conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey on the Green River near Green River, Wyoming, and Muddy Creek near Baggs, Wyoming. This monitoring, which is being conducted in cooperation with State and other Federal agencies and as part of the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative, is in response to concerns about potentially increased dissolved solids in the Colorado River Basin as a result of energy development. Because of the need to provide real-time dissolved-solids concentrations for the Green River and Muddy Creek on the World Wide Web, the U.S. Geological Survey developed regression equations to estimate dissolved-solids concentrations on the basis of continuous specific conductance using relations between measured specific conductance and dissolved-solids concentrations. Specific conductance and dissolved-solids concentrations were less varied and generally lower for the Green River than for Muddy Creek. The median dissolved-solids concentration for the site on the Green River was 318 milligrams per liter, and the median concentration for the site on Muddy Creek was 943 milligrams per liter. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 187 to 594 milligrams per liter in samples collected from the Green River during water years 1999-2008. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 293 to 2,485 milligrams per liter in samples collected from Muddy Creek during water years 2006-08. The differences in dissolved-solids concentrations in samples collected from the Green River compared to samples collected from Muddy

  1. Reinterpreting the Pinedale Anticline in the Green River Basin: Implications for future hydrocarbon exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Fagan, J.P. Jr.

    1996-06-01

    The Green River Basin is a northwest-southeast elongate structural feature located in southwestern Wyoming. Bounded by three basement uplifts, this complex mountain front basin possesses tremendous gas reserves. Production has been limited to a few structures, such as the Pinedale Anticline, because of the great depth of the basin. The Pinedale Anticline is an elongate structure that parallels the front of the Wind River Thrust. Earlier research has suggested that the anticline is not related to basement, but rather is associated with a foreland detachment structure. A new, high-resolution aeromagnetic survey has been modelled in detail and the results indicate that the Pinedale Anticline may actually be a basement related structure. Profile modelling normal to the anticline from the LaBarge Platform to the Wind River Mountains suggests that not only is Pinedale Field situated on a possible basement structure, but also that additional, heretofore unknown analogous features are also present in the basin. Additionally, an east-northeast structural grain is prevalent throughout the aeromagnetic dataset. This trend has been correlated with structures exposed in the Wind River Mountains and has also been shown to be important to locating hydrocarbon production. Thus, Cretaceous and Paleocene reactivation of Proterozoic age faults may have significantly affected location of structures, local stratigraphy and, subsequently, emplacement of hydrocarbons.

  2. Comment and response document for the ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) responses to comments from both the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of Utah are provided in this document. The Proposed Ground Water Protection Strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah, presents the proposed (modified) ground water protection strategy for the disposal cell at the Green River disposal site for compliance with Subpart A of 40 CFR Part 192. Before the disposal cell was constructed, site characterization was conducted at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to determine an acceptable compliance strategy. Results of the investigation are reported in detail in the final remedial action plan (RAP) (DOE, 1991a). The NRC and the state of Utah have accepted the final RAP. The changes in this document relate only to a modification of the compliance strategy for ground water protection.

  3. Regional hydrology of the Green River-Moab area, northwestern Paradox basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rush, F.E.; Whitfield, M.S.; Hart, I.M.

    1984-01-01

    The Green River-Moab area encompasses about 7,800 square kilometers or about 25 percent of the Paradox basin. The entire Paradox basin is a part of the Colorado Plateaus that is underlain by a thick sequence of evaporite (salt) beds of Pennsylvanian age. The rock units that underlie the area have been grouped into hydrogeologic units based on their water-transmitting ability. Confining beds consist of evaporite beds of mostly salt, and overlying and underlying thick sequences of rocks with minimal permeability; above and below these confining beds are aquifers. The upper Mesozoic sandstone aquifer, probably is the most permeable hydrogeologic unit of the area and is the subject of this investigation. The principal component of groundwater outflow from this aquifer probably is subsurface flow to regional streams (the Green and Colorado Rivers) and is about 100 million cubic meters per year. All other components of outflow are relatively small. The average annual recharge to the aquifer is about 130 million cubic meters, of which about 20 million cubic meters is from local precipitation. For the lower aquifer, all recharge and discharge probably is by subsurface flow and was not estimated. The aquifers are generally isolated from the evaporite beds by the hounding confining beds; as a result, most ground water has little if any contact with the evaporites. Brines are present in the confining beds, but solution of beds of salt probably is very slow in most parts of the area. No brine discharges' have been identified.

  4. Consumption of freshwater bivalves by muskrats in the Green River, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hersey, Kimberly Asmus; Clark, Joseph D.; Layzer, James B.

    2013-01-01

    Muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) are known to prey on freshwater bivalves (mussels and clams) and can negatively impact imperiled mussel species. However, factors that influence muskrat predation on bivalves are poorly understood. We evaluated the feeding ecology of muskrats in the Green River, Kentucky, by using stable isotope analysis of muskrat hair samples and by monitoring bivalve shell deposition at muskrat middens. Bayesian mixing-model analysis of stable isotope δ15N and δ13C ratios revealed that the median muskrat biomass derived from bivalves was 51.4% (5th and 95th percentiles were 39.1 to 63.4%, respectively), a much higher dietary proportion than previously reported. Shell depositions by muskrats at middens decreased with the availability of seasonal emergent vegetation, suggesting that the consumption of animal matter is in response to a scarcity of plant foods, perhaps exacerbated by the altered flow regimes on the Green River. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that muskrats have the potential to impact mussel population growth and recovery in some environments.

  5. BX in-situ oil shale project. Annual status report on environmental monitoring and analysis-SP No. 6, March 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1981-09-01

    The objective of the BX In Situ Oil Shale Project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of using superheated steam as a heat-carrying medium to retort in situ the oil shale in the Green River Formation leached zone and provide a mechanism for the recovery of this shale oil with a minimum impact on the environment. Utilizing primarily the natural porosity in the leached zone, approximately one trillion Btus of heat will be injected into a site over a two-year period to heat to retorting temperature a shale zone approximately 550 feet thick and covering about one acre. The field project is located at Equity's BX In Situ site in Rio Blanco County in northwestern Colorado. Environmental activities conducted from March 1, 1980 through February 28, 1981 were a continuation of operational monitoring initiated the previous year that included meteorology, water quality and aquatic ecology monitoring.

  6. LEAK AND GAS PERMEABILITY TESTING DURING SOIL-GAS SAMPLING AT HAL'S CHEVRON LUST SITE IN GREEN RIVER, UTAH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The results of gas permeability and leak testing during active soil-gas sampling at Hal’s Chevron LUST Site in Green River, Utah are presented. This study was conducted to support development of a passive soil-gas sampling method. Gas mixtures containing helium and methane were...

  7. Comment and response document for the final long-term surveillance plan for the Green River, Utah, disposal site

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This document contains comments made by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission addressing their concerns over the long-term monitoring program for the Green River Disposal Site, UMTRA project. Responses are included as well as plans for implementation of changes, if any are deemed necessary.

  8. 78 FR 39608 - Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox River, Green Bay, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Summer in the City Water Ski Show; Fox... establishing a temporary safety zone on the Fox River in Green Bay, WI. This safety zone is intended...

  9. Fuzzy decision analysis for power, recreation, and environmental objectives on the Green River, CO and UT

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, W.J.; Gates, T.K.; Flug, M.

    1995-12-31

    A major challenge facing hydropower operators in today`s complex environment is making management decisions among conflicting objectives. To complicate the problem, many of these objectives are subjective by nature and, thus, are difficult to quantify. Fuzzy set theory creates a quantitative medium in which imprecise or ambiguous objectives can be characterized. Fuzzy membership functions for each objective or constraint can be combined to suggest the best solution. This methodology is applied to the dilemma which currently confronts reservoir operators at Flaming Gorge Dam, located on the Green River in northeastern Utah. The problem is how to balance hydropower objectives with needs of downstream recreationists, endangered fish, riparian vegetation and others. Construction of the membership functions from surveys of experts and estimation of the degree of variation within the functions are discussed. Preliminary results are also presented.

  10. Resolving tectonic, climatic, and geomorphologic signatures in the Eocene Green River Formation, Western U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. E.; Carroll, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    Tectonic lake basins are windows into the co-evolution of terrestrial climate and topography, but the stratigraphic responses to these drivers are complex and incompletely understood. Coring Quaternary lake basins has provided excellent temporal resolution, but is limited to one-dimensional archives of relatively short duration. Conversely, outcrop-based studies of older deposits can elucidate complex lateral facies relationships and longer time periods, but temporal resolution is often poor due to the lack of marine fossils. However, recent advances in radioisotopic dating have produced highly-resolved records of older lacustrine strata, provided volcanic ash beds are present. The Eocene Green River Formation in Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah is such a record, containing numerous 40Ar/39Ar-dated ash horizons with c.a. ±200 ky 2σ uncertainties. At the scale of individual Members of the Green River Formation (100-400 m), lithofacies and faunas differentiate five distinct lake-type intervals: Luman-Scheggs (fluviolacustrine), Rife (saline), Wilkins Peak (hypersaline-alluvial), Lower LaClede (saline), and Upper LaClede (fluviolacustrine). Although published explanations implicate tectonic and/or climatic control of these changes, both lack significant correlation to bulk lithofacies. While stratal geometries imply that the Uinta Mountains were the principle Eocene driver of flexural subsidence for the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB), conglomerate compositions reveal progressive Paleocene through Eocene unroofing rather than a discreet Early Eocene pulse of Laramide tectonism. Similarly, paleofloral evidence for climatic changes is equivocal. Instead, regional provenance and paleoflow patterns suggest that lake-type changes resulted from progressive hydrologic isolation of the GGRB from orogenic highlands to the west, hydrologic closure, then subsequent integration. From ~53 to ~51.5 Ma, Lake Gosiute expanded from a restricted freshwater to expansive saline lake

  11. Greater Green River basin bibliography: Selected references. Topical report, December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Mowers, T.; Wade, L.

    1994-12-01

    More than 260 items are included in this bibliography on gas exploration and production in the Greater Green River Basin. The references are arranged in two sections: Coalbed Methane, and Tight Gas Sands. Cited materials include Gas Research Institute (GRI) technical reports; materials generated by GRI workshops; papers from meetings, conferences, and symposia of other professional associations, such as American Association of Petroleum Geologists, Society of Petroleum Engineers, and Geological Society of America; materials generated by government agencies, such as U.S. Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Office of Surface Mining, state geological surveys and state geological associations; articles from both GRI-Journal of Petroleum Technology, Western Oil World, Oil & Gas Investor, etc.; other general reports and papers; and chapters from monographs.

  12. Idealized Shale Sorption Isotherm Measurements to Determine Pore Volume, Pore Size Distribution, and Surface Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, R.; Wang, B.; Aljama, H.; Rupp, E.; Wilcox, J.

    2014-12-01

    One method for mitigating the impacts of anthropogenic CO2-related climate change is the sequestration of CO2 in depleted gas and oil reservoirs, including shale. The accurate characterization of the heterogeneous material properties of shale, including pore volume, surface area, pore size distributions (PSDs) and composition is needed to understand the interaction of CO2 with shale. Idealized powdered shale sorption isotherms were created by varying incremental amounts of four essential components by weight. The first two components, organic carbon and clay, have been shown to be the most important components for CO2 uptake in shales. Organic carbon was represented by kerogen isolated from a Silurian shale, and clay groups were represented by illite from the Green River shale formation. The rest of the idealized shale was composed of equal parts by weight of SiO2 to represent quartz and CaCO3 to represent carbonate components. Baltic, Eagle Ford, and Barnett shale sorption measurements were used to validate the idealized samples. The idealized and validation shale sorption isotherms were measured volumetrically using low pressure N2 (77K) and CO2 (273K) adsorbates on a Quantachrome Autosorb IQ2. Gravimetric isotherms were also produced for a subset of these samples using CO2 and CH4adsorbates under subsurface temperature and pressure conditions using a Rubotherm magnetic suspension balance. Preliminary analyses were inconclusive in validating the idealized samples. This could be a result of conflicting reports of total organic carbon (TOC) content in each sample, a problem stemming from the heterogeneity of the samples and different techniques used for measuring TOC content. The TOC content of the validation samples (Eagle Ford and Barnett) was measured by Rock-Eval pyrolysis at Weatherford Laboratories, while the TOC content in the Baltic validation samples was determined by LECO TOC. Development of a uniform process for measuring TOC in the validation samples is

  13. An evaluation of water-quality data from Hydrologic Accounting Unit 051100, Green River Basin, Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leist, David W.

    1986-01-01

    Streamflow and water quality data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Kentucky Natural Resources and Environmental Protection Cabinet from 37 sites in the Green River basin were compared to data from the USGS National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) Station, Green River near Beech Grove, Kentucky. This comparison was used to determine variability of water quality data throughout the basin, and to determine if water quality data from the NASQAN station were representative of water quality data upstream. Water quality concentrations, yields, and trends were studied. Water quality data from the NASQAN station were fairly representative conditions throughout the basin for specific conductance, pH, phosphorus and nitrogen, but were not representative for chloride, sulfate, iron, and water temperature. Water quality characteristics which were not representative can generally be attributed to impacts of specific land uses such as coal mining or oil production. Mean concentrations of suspended sediment were similar, but extreme concentrations varied throughout the basin. There were no temporal trends detected in instantaneous streamflow, sulfate, or total iron concentrations. Specific conductance was increasing at three stations and decreasing at one, chloride was increasing at two stations and decreasing at one, phosphorus was increasing at two stations, dissolved iron was increasing at one station and decreasing at one, pH was increasing at three stations and decreasing at two, suspended sediment was increasing at one station and decreasing at one, and water temperature was decreasing at two stations. The NASQAN station had increasing trends in chloride, phosphorus, pH, and suspended sediment, and a decreasing trend in water temperature with time. (Author 's abstract)

  14. Greater Green River Basin production improvement project, Phase 1: Site characterization report

    SciTech Connect

    DeJarnett, B.B.; Krystinik, L.F.; Mead, R.H.; Poe, S.C.

    1996-05-01

    Several tight, naturally-fractured, gas-productive formations in the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB) in Wyoming have been exploited using conventional vertical well technology. Typically, hydraulic fracture treatments must be performed in completing these wells to increase gas production rates to economic levels. However, with the maturation of horizontal drilling technology hydraulic fracture treatments may not be the most effective method for improving gas production from these tight reservoirs. Two of the most prolific tight gas reservoirs in the Green River Basin, the Frontier and the Mesaverde, are candidates for the application of horizontal well completion technology. The objective of the proposed project is to apply the DOE`s technical concept to the Second Frontier Formation on the western flank of the Rock Springs Uplift. Previous industry attempts to produce in commercial quantities from the Second Frontier Formation have been hampered by lack of understanding of both the in-situ natural fracture system and lack of adequate stimulation treatments. The proposed technical approach involves drilling a vertical characterization well to the Second Frontier Formation at a depth of approximately 16,000 ft. from a site located about 18 miles northwest of Rock Springs, Wyoming. Logging, coring, and well testing information from the vertical well will be used to design a hydraulic fracturing treatment and to assess the resulting production performance. Data from the vertical drilling phase will be used to design a 2,500 to 3,000-ft lateral wellbore which will be kicked off from the vertical hole and extend into the blanket marine sandstone bench of the Second Frontier Formation. The trajectory of this wellbore will be designed to intersect the maximum number of natural fractures to maximize production rates. Production testing of the resulting completion will provide an assessment of reserve potential related to horizontal lateral completions.

  15. Fischer Assays of Oil Shale Drill Cores and Rotary Cuttings from the Piceance Basin, Colorado - 2009 Update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Self, Jesse G.

    1998-01-01

    This CD-ROM includes updated files containing Fischer assays of samples of core holes and cuttings from exploration drill holes drilled in the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of northwestern Colorado. A database was compiled that includes more than 321,380 Fischer assays from 782 boreholes. Most of the oil yield data were analyzed by the former U.S. Bureau of Mines oil shale laboratory in Laramie, Wyoming, and some analyses were made by private laboratories. Location data for 1,042 core and rotary holes, oil and gas tests, as well as a few surface sections are listed in a spreadsheet and included in the CD-ROM. These assays are part of a larger collection of subsurface information held by the U.S. Geological Survey, including geophysical and lithologic logs, water data, and chemical and X-ray diffraction analyses having to do with the Green River oil shale deposits in Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah. Because of an increased interest in oil shale, this CD-ROM disc containing updated Fischer assay data for the Piceance Basin oil shale deposits in northwestern Colorado is being released to the public.

  16. Geochemical behavior of Cs, Sr, Tc, Np, and U in saline groundwaters: Sorption experiments on shales and their clay mineral components: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.E.; Arnold, W.D.; Ho, P.C.; Case, F.I.; O'Kelley, G.D.

    1987-11-01

    The Sedimentary Rock Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is investigating shale to determine its potential suitability as a host rock for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW). In support of this program, preliminary studies were carried out on sorption of cesium, strontium, technetium, neptunium, and uranium onto Chattanooga (Upper Dowelltown), Pierre, Green River Formation, Nolichucky, and Pumpkin Valley Shales under oxic conditions (air present). Three simulated groundwaters were used. One of the groundwaters was a synthetic brine made up to simulate highly saline groundwaters in the Pumpkin Valley Shale. The second was a 100/1 dilution of this groundwater and the third was 0.03 M NaHCO/sub 3/. Moderate to significant sorption was observed under most conditions for all of the tested radionuclides except technetium. Moderate technetium sorption occurred on Upper Dowelltown Shale, and although technetium sorption was low on the other shales, it was higher than expected for Tc(VII), present as the anion TcO/sub 4//sup -/. Little sorption of strontium onto the shales was observed from the concentrated saline groundwater. These data can be used in a generic fashion to help assess the sorption characteristics of shales in support of a national survey. 10 refs., 4 figs., 23 tabs.

  17. Paleontological overview of oil shale and tar sands areas in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming.

    SciTech Connect

    Murphey, P. C.; Daitch, D.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-02-11

    In August 2005, the U.S. Congress enacted the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Public Law 109-58. In Section 369 of this Act, also known as the ''Oil Shale, Tar Sands, and Other Strategic Unconventional Fuels Act of 2005,'' Congress declared that oil shale and tar sands (and other unconventional fuels) are strategically important domestic energy resources that should be developed to reduce the nation's growing dependence on oil from politically and economically unstable foreign sources. In addition, Congress declared that both research- and commercial-scale development of oil shale and tar sands should (1) be conducted in an environmentally sound manner using management practices that will minimize potential impacts, (2) occur with an emphasis on sustainability, and (3) benefit the United States while taking into account concerns of the affected states and communities. To support this declaration of policy, Congress directed the Secretary of the Interior to undertake a series of steps, several of which are directly related to the development of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands. One of these steps was the completion of a programmatic environmental impact statement (PEIS) to analyze the impacts of a commercial leasing program for oil shale and tar sands resources on public lands, with an emphasis on the most geologically prospective lands in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. For oil shale, the scope of the PEIS analysis includes public lands within the Green River, Washakie, Uinta, and Piceance Creek Basins. For tar sands, the scope includes Special Tar Sand Areas (STSAs) located in Utah. This paleontological resources overview report was prepared in support of the Oil Shale and Tar Sands Resource Management Plan Amendments to Address Land Use Allocations in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming and PEIS, and it is intended to be used by Bureau of Land Management (BLM) regional paleontologists and field office staff to support future projectspecific analyses

  18. High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fifth quarterly report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1993-04-22

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical conditions (heating, mixing, pyrolysis, oxidation) exist in both systems.The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed this quarter. (1) Twelve pyrolysis runs were made on five different oil shales. All of the runs exhibited a complete absence of any plugging, tendency. Heat transfer for Green River oil shale in the rotary kiln was 84.6 Btu/hr/ft{sup 2}/{degrees}F, and this will provide for ample heat exchange in the Adams kiln. (2) One retorted residue sample was oxidized at 1000{degrees}F. Preliminary indications are that the ash of this run appears to have been completely oxidized. (3) Further minor equipment repairs and improvements were required during the course of the several runs.

  19. Investigation of sulfur-bearing minerals in raw and processed oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, G.M.

    1989-11-01

    Raw oil shale samples were investigated to provide baseline information on sulfur-bearing mineral composition. The sulfur-bearing mineral identified in raw oil in this study was primarily pyrite (FeS{sub 2}). Sulfur-bearing alteration minerals were gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O) and copiapite (Fe{sub 14}O{sub 3}(SO{sub 4}){sub 18}{center dot}63H{sub 2}O), which appeared as crystalline masses on the surfaces of sulfide minerals. Investigation of spent (or processed) oil shale demonstrated that heat-induced mineralogical reactions can drastically alter the crystalline structure of materials. Hexagonal pyrrhotite is the kinetically and structurally preferred sulfur-bearing mineral formed during oil shale processing. The Ca-monosulfide oldhamite was identified in processed Green River Formation oil shale resulting from WRI's TREE process. Oldhamite which has not been identified in terrestrial rocks, formed as a result of high sulfur gases present during the thermal processing of a Ca-rich oil shale. This work provided information concerning (1) thermal alteration of pyrite to pyrrhotite (and pyrrhotite-type minerals) and (2) the disclosure of a mineral not previously reported in oil shale. It is essential for processing and disposal considerations that metastable and unstable mineral forms be identified and more completely understood. Information concerning processing characteristics and sulfur-bearing mineral forms in raw and processed oil shale can be incorporated into the future strategies of solid waste management for fossil fuels. 56 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Leaching study of oil shale in Kentucky : with a section on Hydrologic reconnaissance of the oil shale outcrop in Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leung, Samuel S.; Leist, D.W.; Davis, R.W.; Cordiviola, Steven

    1984-01-01

    Oil shales in Kentucky are rocks of predominantly Devonian age. The most prominant are the Ohio, Chattanooga, and New Albany Shales. A leaching study was done on six fresh oil shale samples and one retorted oil shale sample. Leaching reagents were distilled water, 0.0005 N sulfuric acid, and 0.05 N sulfuric acid. The concentration of constituents in the leachates were highly variable. The concentration of sodium, manganese, and zinc in the retorted shale leachate was several orders of magnitude higher than those of the leachates of fresh shale samples. The major oil shale outcrop covers approximately 1,000 square miles in a horseshoe pattern from Vanceburg, Lewis County , in the east, to Louisville, Jefferson County, in the west. The Kentucky, Red, and Licking Rivers cross the outcrop belt, the Rolling Fork River flows along the strike of the shale in the southwest part of the outcrop, and the Ohio River flows past the outcrop at the ends of the horseshoe. Oil shale does not appear to significantly alter the water quality of these streams. Oil shale is not an aquifer, but seeps and springs found in the shale indicate that water moves through it. Ground water quality is highly variable. (USGS)

  1. Hazard assessment of selenium and other trace elements in wild larval razorback sucker from the Green River, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, S.J.; Muth, R.T.; Waddell, B.; May, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    Contaminant investigations of the Green River in northeastern Utah have documented selenium contamination at sites receiving irrigation drainage. The Green River provides critical habitat for four endangered fishes including the largest extant riverine population of endangered razorback sucker. Although 2175 larval razorback suckers were collected from the river between 1992 and 1996, very few juveniles have been captured within recent decades. Selenium concentrations were measured in larval razorback suckers collected from five sites in the Green River (Cliff Creek, Stewart Lake Drain, Sportsman's Drain, Greasewood Corral, and Old Charlie Wash) to assess the potential for adverse effects on recruitment of larvae to the juvenile stage and the adult population. Larvae from all sites contained mean selenium concentrations ranging from 4.3 to 5.8 ??g/g. These values were at or above the proposed toxic threshold of 4 ??g/g for adverse biological effects in fish, which was derived from several laboratory and field studies with a wide range of fish species. At two sites, Cliff Creek and Stewart Lake Drain, selenium concentrations in larvae increased over time as fish grew, whereas selenium concentrations decreased as fish grew at Sportsman's Drain. Evaluation of a 279-larvae composite analyzed for 61 elements demonstrated that selenium and, to a lesser extent, vanadium were elevated to concentrations reported to be toxic to a wide range of fish species. Elevated selenium concentrations in larval razorback suckers from the five sites suggest that selenium contamination may be widespread in the Green River, and that survival and recruitment of larvae to the juvenile stage may be limited due to adverse biological effects. Selenium contamination may be adversely affecting the reproductive success and recruitment of endangered razorback sucker.

  2. GIS-based Geospatial Infrastructure of Water Resource Assessment for Supporting Oil Shale Development in Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Wei; Minnick, Matthew D; Mattson, Earl D; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle E.

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale deposits of the Green River Formation (GRF) in Northwestern Colorado, Southwestern Wyoming, and Northeastern Utah may become one of the first oil shale deposits to be developed in the U.S. because of their richness, accessibility, and extensive prior characterization. Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock that contains significant amounts of kerogen from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced. Water is needed to retort or extract oil shale at an approximate rate of three volumes of water for every volume of oil produced. Concerns have been raised over the demand and availability of water to produce oil shale, particularly in semiarid regions where water consumption must be limited and optimized to meet demands from other sectors. The economic benefit of oil shale development in this region may have tradeoffs within the local and regional environment. Due to these potential environmental impacts of oil shale development, water usage issues need to be further studied. A basin-wide baseline for oil shale and water resource data is the foundation of the study. This paper focuses on the design and construction of a centralized geospatial infrastructure for managing a large amount of oil shale and water resource related baseline data, and for setting up the frameworks for analytical and numerical models including but not limited to three-dimensional (3D) geologic, energy resource development systems, and surface water models. Such a centralized geospatial infrastructure made it possible to directly generate model inputs from the same database and to indirectly couple the different models through inputs/outputs. Thus ensures consistency of analyses conducted by researchers from different institutions, and help decision makers to balance water budget based on the spatial distribution of the oil shale and water resources, and the spatial variations of geologic, topographic, and hydrogeological Characterization of the basin. This endeavor

  3. GIS-based geospatial infrastructure of water resource assessment for supporting oil shale development in Piceance Basin of Northwestern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wei; Minnick, Matthew D.; Mattson, Earl D.; Geza, Mengistu; Murray, Kyle E.

    2015-04-01

    Oil shale deposits of the Green River Formation (GRF) in Northwestern Colorado, Southwestern Wyoming, and Northeastern Utah may become one of the first oil shale deposits to be developed in the U.S. because of their richness, accessibility, and extensive prior characterization. Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock that contains significant amounts of kerogen from which liquid hydrocarbons can be produced. Water is needed to retort or extract oil shale at an approximate rate of three volumes of water for every volume of oil produced. Concerns have been raised over the demand and availability of water to produce oil shale, particularly in semiarid regions where water consumption must be limited and optimized to meet demands from other sectors. The economic benefit of oil shale development in this region may have tradeoffs within the local and regional environment. Due to these potential environmental impacts of oil shale development, water usage issues need to be further studied. A basin-wide baseline for oil shale and water resource data is the foundation of the study. This paper focuses on the design and construction of a centralized geospatial infrastructure for managing a large amount of oil shale and water resource related baseline data, and for setting up the frameworks for analytical and numerical models including but not limited to three-dimensional (3D) geologic, energy resource development systems, and surface water models. Such a centralized geospatial infrastructure made it possible to directly generate model inputs from the same database and to indirectly couple the different models through inputs/outputs. Thus ensures consistency of analyses conducted by researchers from different institutions, and help decision makers to balance water budget based on the spatial distribution of the oil shale and water resources, and the spatial variations of geologic, topographic, and hydrogeological characterization of the basin. This endeavor

  4. Altered tuffaceous rocks of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griggs, Roy Lee

    1968-01-01

    More than 50 ash-fall tuff beds which have altered to analcitized or feldspathized rocks have been found in the upper 500-600 feet of the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Creek Basin of northwestern Colorado. Similarly altered water-washed tuff occurs as tongues in the uppermost part of this member, and forms most of the lower 400-600 feet of the overlying Evacuation Creek Member of the Green River Formation. 'The altered ash-fall beds of the Parachute Creek Member are all thin and show a characteristic pattern of alteration. Most beds range in thickness from a fraction of an inch to a few inches. One bed reaches a maximum thickness of 5 feet, and, unlike the other beds, is composed of several successive ash falls. The pattern of alteration changes from the outer part to the center of the basin. Most beds in the outer part of the basin contain about 50 to 65 percent analcite,with the interstices between the crystals filled mainly by microlites of feldspar, opal, and quartz, and small amounts of carbonate. At the center of the basin .essentially all the beds -are composed of microlites of feldspar, opal, and quartz, and small amounts of carbonate. The tongues of water-washed tuff in the uppermost part of the Parachute Creek Member and the similar rocks composing the lower 400-600 feet of the Evacuation Creek Mewber are feldspathized rocks composed mainly of microlites of feldspar, opal, and quartz, varying amounts of carbonate, and in some specimens tiny subrounded crystals of analcite. The general trend in alteration of the tuffaceous rocks from analcitization near the margin to feidspathization near the center of the Piceance Creek Basin is believed to have taken place at shallow depth during diagenesis , as indicated by field observations and laboratory work. It is believed that during sedimentation and diagenesis the waters of the central part of the basin were more alkaline and following the breakdown of the original

  5. Mass-47 clumped isotope thermal history reordering: Example from the Greater Green River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, B.; Niemi, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    During the last several years, many studies have tried to reconstruct the paleoelevations of sedimentary basins and paleosol sequences using the mass-47 clumped isotope thermometer. Ideally, this technique directly preserves the temperature of carbonate formation, avoiding any speculation on the composition of surface or water from which the carbonate precipitated. Recently, however, concerns about post-depositional alteration of the mass-47 isotope signature, due to the effects of burial, O and C volume diffusion, and/or diagenetic alteration have arisen, potentially complicating the application of the clumped thermometer for determining paleo-surface conditions. Here we investigate the effect of burial depth on mass-47 bond reordering. To this purpose we collected samples, from the surface and from drill cores, in two different areas of the Greater Green River basin: the Washakie Basin near Rock Springs, Wyoming and Green River basin near Pinedale, Wyoming. Both basins are filled with a thick Eocene lacustrine series that include numerous limestone beds. The thermal histories of the basins are well documented from petroleum prospecting studies. The Δ47 composition of lacustrine limestones with peak burial depths ranging from 1 to 6 km have been measured and compared to values derived from temperature history reordering models (THRMs). These results show that the THRMs does not predict the observed clumped isotope composition, suggesting than parameters other than temperature are controlling the Δ47 reordering. In order to refine the predictive model, we propose to independently model the best k0 factor of each analyzed sample starting from their final measured Δ47 values and implementing the thermal history from current depth to the period of deposition. Resulting k0 values are surprisingly well correlated with depth, suggesting that pressure and/or depth have a strong influence on the k0factor, and consequently on Δ47 bond reordering. These results suggest

  6. Habitat measurement and modeling in the Green and Yampa Rivers: Project Report to Natural Resource Preservation Program December 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Z.H.; Bovee, K.D.; Waddle, T.J.; Modde, T.; Kitcheyan, C.

    2001-01-01

    Populations of the endangered razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) in the middle Green River have declined since closer of Flaming Gorge Dam in 1962. The apparent cause for the decline is a lack of successful recruitment. Recruitment failure has been attributed to habitat alteration and competition and predation by exotic fishes on early life stages of razorback sucker. This study was conducted to evaluate two of the potential reproductive bottlenecks that might limit recruitment of razorback sucker in the Green River Drainage; (1) reduced larvae production due to sediment deposition on spawning areas, and (2) reduced survival of larvae or juveniles due to lack of timely access to rood-rich backwater and floodplain habitatsa?|

  7. Green River Formation Water Flood Demonstration Project, Uinta Basin, Utah. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Lomax, J.D.; Nielson, D.L.; Deo, M.D.

    1993-12-01

    The project is designed to increase recoverable petroleum reserves in the United States. The Green River Formation in Utah`s Uinta Basin contains abundant hydrocarbons that are not easily recovered by primary means. The successful Lomax Montument Butte Unit water flood will be evaluated under this contract, and based on this information, water floods will be initiated in nearby Travis and Boundary units. In 1987, Lomax Exploration Company started a water flood in the Monument Butte Unit of a Douglas Creek member of the Green River Formation. This was a low-enerey, geologically heterogeneous reservoir producing a waxy crude oil. Primary production yielded 5% of the OOIP. Due to the water flood project, total production will yield an estimated recovery of 20% OOIP.

  8. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Green Peter-Foster Project; Middle Fork Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, J.H.

    1986-02-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Green Peter-Foster Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1955, 1972, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Eleven wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Green Peter-Foster Project extensively altered or affected 7873 acres of land and river in the Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1429 acres of grass-forb vegetation, 768 acres of shrubland, and 717 acres of open conifer forest cover types. Impacts resulting from the Green Peter-Foster Project included the loss of critical winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, upland game birds, river otter, beaver, pileated woodpecker, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Green Peter-Foster Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  9. Flexural analysis of two broken foreland basins; Late Cenozoic Bermejo basin and Early Cenozoic Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.; Reynolds, S.

    1986-05-01

    Lithospheric flexure that generates basin in a broke foreland setting (e.g., the Laramide foreland of Wyoming) is a three-dimensional system related to shortening along basin-bounding faults. The authors modeled the elastic flexure in three dimensions for two broken foreland basins: the early Cenozoic Green River basin and the analogous late Cenozoic Bermejo basin of Argentina. Each basin is located between a thrust belt and a reverse-fault-bounded basement uplift. Both basins are asymmetric toward the basement uplifts and have a central basement high: the Rock Springs uplift and the Pie de Palo uplift, respectively. The model applies loads generated by crustal thickening to an elastic lithosphere overlying a fluid mantle. Using the loading conditions of the Bermejo basin based on topography, limited drilling, and reflection and earthquake seismology, the model predicts the current Bermejo basin geometry. Similarly, flexure under the loading conditions in the Green River basin, which are constrained by stratigraphy, well logs, and seismic profiling and summed for Late Cretaceous (Lance Formation) through Eocene (Wasatch Formation), successfully models the observed geometry of the pre-Lance surface. Basin depocenters (> 4 km for the Green River basin; > 7 km for the Bermejo basin) and central uplifts are predicted to result from constructive interference of the nonparallel applied loads. Their Bermejo model implies that instantaneous basin geometry is successfully modeled by crustal loading, whereas the Green River basin analysis suggests that basin evolution can be modeled over large time steps (e.g., 20 Ma). This result links instantaneous basin geometry to overall basin evolution and is a first step in predicting stratigraphic development.

  10. Lacustrine hummocky cross-stratification in Green River Formation, southern Uinta basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Remy, R.R. )

    1989-09-01

    Hummocky cross-stratification (HCS) is a common sedimentary structure in marine strata but has only been reported in a few lake deposits. However, recent field investigations in the southern Uinta basin show that HCS occurs within several different depositional environments and lithologies in the lacustrine Green River Formation (Eocene). HCS is well developed within the open-lacustrine informal S2 marker unit of the Parachute Creek Member, where it exhibits many of the characteristics common in marine HCS: numerous low-angle, second-order truncations; antiforms (hummocks); association with planar laminations and ripples; gently curved parallel to nearly parallel laminations; fanning of laminations into swales; and scattered dip directions of truncation surfaces and laminae. Hummock spacing ranges from 20 cm to approximately 2.75 m. Hummocks produced by laminae that thicken toward the hummock crest indicate that at least some of the HCS was produced by bed forms molded by the flow, and not by a random scour-and-drape mechanism. Common laminae downlap at set boundaries, and asymmetric hummocks indicate that at least some of the hummocks were subject to minor migration during growth.

  11. Generation and expulsion of petroleum and gas from Almond Formation Coal, Greater Green River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Gonzalez, M.; Surdam, R.C.; Lee, M.L.

    1997-01-01

    Petrographic and geochemical studies of coal from the Almond Formation in the Greater Green River basin demonstrate that the coal contains important volumes of stored liquid petroleum, as well as methane. Modeling indicates that at the basin center, most of the oil generated in the coal has been thermally cracked to gas, whereas at the basin flank the oil-to-gas reaction has barely proceeded. Several new concepts are presented about the mechanism of petroleum generation in coal based on (1) natural maturation trends gleaned form examination of Almond coal samples from different burial depths and (2) similar maturation trends observed in hydrous pyrolysis experiments using immature Almond coal samples. These new concepts show that the oil in the coal was generated during the alteration of desmocollinite and liptinite macerals to exsudatinite (waxy oil) and inertinite solid residue; that the waxy oil was initially stored in porous structures and subsequently in vesicles as the coal matured under increasing temperature; that primary migration of the oil occurred as the generation of a sufficient volume of exsudatinite microfractured the vitrinite-semifusinite vesicles, interconnecting vesicles and pores; and that the thermal cracking of exsudatinite generated a sufficient volume of gas to fracture the vesiculated coal as pore pressure increased and allowed migration of hydrocarbons out of the coal.

  12. Characterization and fluid flow simulation of naturally fractured Frontier sandstone, Green River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Harstad, H.; Teufel, L.W.; Lorenz, J.C.; Brown, S.R.

    1996-08-01

    Significant gas reserves are present in low-permeability sandstones of the Frontier Formation in the greater Green River Basin, Wyoming. Successful exploitation of these reservoirs requires an understanding of the characteristics and fluid-flow response of the regional natural fracture system that controls reservoir productivity. Fracture characteristics were obtained from outcrop studies of Frontier sandstones at locations in the basin. The fracture data were combined with matrix permeability data to compute an anisotropic horizontal permeability tensor (magnitude and direction) corresponding to an equivalent reservoir system in the subsurface using a computational model developed by Oda (1985). This analysis shows that the maximum and minimum horizontal permeability and flow capacity are controlled by fracture intensity and decrease with increasing bed thickness. However, storage capacity is controlled by matrix porosity and increases linearly with increasing bed thickness. The relationship between bed thickness and the calculated fluid-flow properties was used in a reservoir simulation study of vertical, hydraulically-fractured and horizontal wells and horizontal wells of different lengths in analogous naturally fractured gas reservoirs. The simulation results show that flow capacity dominates early time production, while storage capacity dominates pressure support over time for vertical wells. For horizontal wells drilled perpendicular to the maximum permeability direction a high target production rate can be maintained over a longer time and have higher cumulative production than vertical wells. Longer horizontal wells are required for the same cumulative production with decreasing bed thickness.

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  14. An analysis of wintertime surface wind fields in the Upper Green River Basin of Sublette County, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emery, Brittni R.

    Observations of high ozone mixing ratios in Sublette County, Wyoming, recently resulted in the region being designated to be in marginal non-attainment of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for ozone. Many interrelated factors influence the frequency and extent of elevated ozone episodes, including meteorological factors, through their effect on pollutant dilution and dispersion. Surface wind field patterns in the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) of Sublette County, Wyoming, were therefore examined using observations from a network of surface monitoring stations for 2011, when many ozone episodes occurred, and for 2012, when, in contrast, there were none. The synoptic conditions associated with each pattern are described using output from the North American Mesoscale (NAM) model. Five patterns are described. They confirm that elevated ozone is often associated with light and variable winds. However, there are also days when moderate afternoon southeasterly flow leads to observations of elevated ozone on the west side of the basin. These southeasterly winds are identified as barrier winds caused by southwesterly flow at 700mb. Recognition of this wind pattern facilitates future forecasting of periods likely to experience potentially elevated ozone in the region. The merit of adding additional monitoring sites from the Upper Green River Basin Wintertime Ozone Wind Field Investigation (O3w) and the Upper Green River Ozone Study (UGWOS) of 2012 to the current monitoring network is also discussed.

  15. Analysis of lithofacies, petrology/petrography, and porosity/permeability of the lower green river formation: Willow Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, T.H., Garner, A.

    1994-04-14

    The 849.16 meter stratigraphic section was measured during consecutive spring field seasons. This section represents the ``lower`` Green River Formation which on the southwest flank of the basin rests stratigraphically above the dominant red beds of the Colton Member of the Green River Formation. The transition from Colton rocks to Green River rocks is gradual in the study area. Petrographic classification and textural analysis has been completed on 33 thin sections. These thin sections represent the volummetric majority of rock types in the measured section as well as few less common but very interesting lithofacies. Core plugs were taken from every lithology that was petrologically analyzed. Permeabilities were analyzed using a pressure transducer in a Hassler sleeve. Porosities from the lab were compared to point count porosities. In general there was good agreement and where there is some disagreement an explanation is given in the petrologic description. It appears that the sandstone lithofacies have much greater interparticle porosity. This is important to the study because these sandstones likely have greater hydrocarbon storage capacity than do the carbonate rocks. The data from this report have not been fully interpreted. There are several items relative to deposition facies interpretations and reservoir quality studies that are not as yet accomplished.

  16. Marine Shale reaches agreement with US Department of Justice

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-01

    Marine Shale Processors, Inc., and the U.S. Department of Justice on July 24 reached an accord that ended a three-year investigation into allegations by Marine Shale competitors of corporate wrongdoing. Under the agreement, Marine Shale agreed to one violation of each of three statutes: the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, the Refuse Act of 1899, and the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, and the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899. To bring the three years of uncertainty to an end, Marine Shale also agreed to pay a fine of $1 million. Since 1985 Marine Shale has operated a facility in Amelia, Louisiana, that recycles materials that would otherwise be disposed of as hazardous wastes into an inert aggregate material used in road building and other construction applications. The government's only allegations were (1) that Marine Shale stored soil containing creosole on a concrete pad at its recycling facility without a federal permit (Marine Shale has halted use of this storage facility and all of the soils were subsequently removed and recycled at the plant); (2) that Marine Shale created an obstacle to navigation by the placement of a barge in a river; and (3) that Marine Shale had allowed finished product and process area water to wash into the river during rainstorms. These practices or conditions have been discontinued or corrected.

  17. Converting oil shale to liquid fuels: energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions of the Shell in situ conversion process.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Adam R

    2008-10-01

    Oil shale is a sedimentary rock that contains kerogen, a fossil organic material. Kerogen can be heated to produce oil and gas (retorted). This has traditionally been a CO2-intensive process. In this paper, the Shell in situ conversion process (ICP), which is a novel method of retorting oil shale in place, is analyzed. The ICP utilizes electricity to heat the underground shale over a period of 2 years. Hydrocarbons are produced using conventional oil production techniques, leaving shale oil coke within the formation. The energy inputs and outputs from the ICP, as applied to oil shales of the Green River formation, are modeled. Using these energy inputs, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the ICP are calculated and are compared to emissions from conventional petroleum. Energy outputs (as refined liquid fuel) are 1.2-1.6 times greater than the total primary energy inputs to the process. In the absence of capturing CO2 generated from electricity produced to fuel the process, well-to-pump GHG emissions are in the range of 30.6-37.1 grams of carbon equivalent per megajoule of liquid fuel produced. These full-fuel-cycle emissions are 21%-47% larger than those from conventionally produced petroleum-based fuels. PMID:18939591

  18. Traveltime and dispersion of a soluble dye in the South Branch Potomac River, Petersburg to Green Spring, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jack, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    Traveltime studies, using rhodamine dyes, were made in 1970 and 1982 on the South Branch Potomac River from Petersburg, West Virginia, to the confluence with the North Branch Potomac River at Green Spring, West Virginia. Flow duration at the time of the studies was approximately 32% in November 1970 and 95% in September 1982. Two studies, at discharges of 110 and 1,230 cu ft/sec, were used to define traveltime-distance relationships. A contaminant takes 386 hours to travel 69 miles from Petersburg, West Virginia, to the mouth of the river when streamflow is 110 cu ft/sec. The contaminant would, however, take only 89 hours when streamflow is 1,230 cu ft/sec. The traveltime data were interpolated and extrapolated for selected discharges from 70 to 1,500 cu ft/sec at the index gage near Springfield, West Virginia. (USGS)

  19. Modeling of hydrologic conditions and solute movement in processed oil shale waste embankments under simulated climatic conditions. Final report, November 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    A study is described on the hydrological and geotechnical behavior of an oil shale solid waste. The objective was to obtain information which can be used to assess the environmental impacts of oil shale solid waste disposal in the Green River Basin. The spent shale used in this study was combusted by the Lurgi-Ruhrgas process by Rio Blanco Oil Shale Company, Inc. Laboratory bench-scale testing included index properties, such as grain size distribution and Atterberg limits, and tests for engineering properties including hydraulic conductivity and shear strength. Large-scale tests were conducted on model spent shale waste embankments to evaluate hydrological response, including infiltration, runoff, and seepage. Large-scale tests were conducted at a field site in western Colorado and in the Environmental Simulation Laboratory (ESL)at the University of Wyoming. The ESL tests allowed the investigators to control rainfall and temperature, providing information on the hydrological response of spent shale under simulated severe climatic conditions. All experimental methods, materials, facilities, and instrumentation are described in detail, and results are given and discussed. 34 refs.

  20. Molecular characterization and comparison of shale oils generated by different pyrolysis methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Jin, Jang Mi; Kim, Sunghwan

    2012-01-01

    Shale oils generated using different laboratory pyrolysis methods have been studied using standard oil characterization methods as well as Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) with electrospray ionization (ESI) and atmospheric photoionization (APPI) to assess differences in molecular composition. The pyrolysis oils were generated from samples of the Mahogany zone oil shale of the Eocene Green River Formation collected from outcrops in the Piceance Basin, Colorado, using three pyrolysis systems under conditions relevant to surface and in situ retorting approaches. Significant variations were observed in the shale oils, particularly the degree of conjugation of the constituent molecules and the distribution of nitrogen-containing compound classes. Comparison of FT-ICR MS results to other oil characteristics, such as specific gravity; saturate, aromatic, resin, asphaltene (SARA) distribution; and carbon number distribution determined by gas chromatography, indicated correspondence between higher average double bond equivalence (DBE) values and increasing asphaltene content. The results show that, based on the shale oil DBE distributions, highly conjugated species are enriched in samples produced under low pressure, high temperature conditions, and under high pressure, moderate temperature conditions in the presence of water. We also report, for the first time in any petroleum-like substance, the presence of N4 class compounds based on FT-ICR MS data. Using double bond equivalence and carbon number distributions, structures for the N4 class and other nitrogen-containing compounds are proposed.

  1. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  2. 4D imaging of fracturing in organic-rich shales during heating

    SciTech Connect

    Maya Kobchenko; Hamed Panahi; François Renard; Dag K. Dysthe; Anders Malthe-Sørenssen; Adriano Mazzini; Julien Scheibert1; Bjørn Jamtveit; Paul Meakin

    2011-12-01

    To better understand the mechanisms of fracture pattern development and fluid escape in low permeability rocks, we performed time-resolved in situ X-ray tomography imaging to investigate the processes that occur during the slow heating (from 60 to 400 C) of organic-rich Green River shale. At about 350 C cracks nucleated in the sample, and as the temperature continued to increase, these cracks propagated parallel to shale bedding and coalesced, thus cutting across the sample. Thermogravimetry and gas chromatography revealed that the fracturing occurring at {approx}350 C was associated with significant mass loss and release of light hydrocarbons generated by the decomposition of immature organic matter. Kerogen decomposition is thought to cause an internal pressure build up sufficient to form cracks in the shale, thus providing pathways for the outgoing hydrocarbons. We show that a 2D numerical model based on this idea qualitatively reproduces the experimentally observed dynamics of crack nucleation, growth and coalescence, as well as the irregular outlines of the cracks. Our results provide a new description of fracture pattern formation in low permeability shales.

  3. RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION OF THE LOWER GREEN RIVER FORMATION, SOUTHWEST UINTA BASIN, UTAH

    SciTech Connect

    S. Robert Bereskin

    2003-02-11

    Anastamosing, low gradient distributary channels produce {approx}30 gravity, paraffinic oils from the Middle Member of the lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation in the south-central portion of the Uinta Basin. This localized depocenter was situated along the fluctuating southern shoreline of Lake Uinta, where complex deposits of marginal-lacustrine to lower delta plain accumulations are especially characteristic. The Middle Member contains several fining-upward parasequences that can be recognized in outcrop, core, and downhole logs. Each parasequence is about 60 to 120 feet thick and consists of strata deposited during multiple lake level fluctuations that approach 30 to 35 feet in individual thickness. Such parasequences represent 300,000-year cycles based on limited absolute age dating. The subaerial to subaqueous channels commonly possess an erosional base and exhibit a fining upward character. Accordingly, bedding features commonly range from large-scale trough and planar cross bedding or lamination at the base, to a nonreservoir, climbing ripple assemblage near the uppermost reservoir boundary. The best reservoir quality occurs within the laminated to cross-stratified portions, and the climbing ripple phase usually possesses more deleterious micas and/or detrital clays. Diagenesis also exerts a major control on reservoir quality. Certain sandstones were cemented by an early, iron-poor calcite cement, which can be subsequently leached. Secondary intergranular porosity (up to 20%) is largely responsible for the 10 -100 millidarcy rock, which represents petrophysical objectives for both primary and secondary production. Otherwise, intense compaction, silicic and iron-rich carbonate cements, and authigenic clays serve to reduce reservoir quality to marginal economic levels.

  4. 3 Years of Ammonia Monitoring in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwandner, F. M.; Sewell, H.; Collett, J. L.; Molenar, J. V.; Archuleta, C.; Tigges, M.; Sherman, L.; Li, Y.; Raja, S.

    2009-12-01

    A multi-year ammonia air monitoring study was conducted at Boulder, Wyoming, in the Upper Green River Basin - a region experiencing rapid natural gas development with potential consequences of air quality and visibility impacts in the adjacent Class I Bridger Wilderness. The objective of this study is to characterize the local airborne nitrogen budget, specifically concentrations of ammonia and related gases and particles over one year. Samples were collected twice per week beginning December 15, 2006, using coated annular denuders and stacked filters in a URG sampler, analyzed at Colorado State University’s Atmospheric Science Department. NH3 concentrations are variable throughout the year and below 1 ppbv for most of the monitoring period, peaking in August 2007 at 1.55 ppbv (2.8 ppbv in Aug 2008), with a yearly mean value of 0.24 ppbv in 2007 (0.30 pppv in 2008). Concentrations are below or near detectable limits from December through February in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Elevated NH3 concentrations coincide with warmer summer months. A shift in ammonium nitrate equilibrium toward the gas phase might be responsible for some of this increase, although an increase in total reduced nitrogen (ammonium + ammonia) during the summer suggests that changes in emissions and or transport patterns are likely also important contributors. Increasingly strong nitrate and nitric acid cycles lasting several days, characterize the winter months, coinciding with observations of elevated ozone. This phenomenon dies off quickly with the onset of snowmelt. Two special studies were conducted in August 2008 and February/March 2009, representing typical peak summer and late winter conditions. Summer data show diurnal patterns likely driven by photochemical reactions and temperature changes, while winter observations indicate a coincidence of increased nitrogen loading with high ozone periods during stagnant conditions lasting several days. Changes of wind direction and speed in all cases

  5. Microfacies analysis of Green River Formation stromatolites and comparison to microbial mat experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. E.; Bahniuk Rumbelsperger, A. M.; Sauvage, J. F.; Jarrett, A. J.; Petryshyn, V. A.; Corsetti, F. A.; Shapiro, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    Stromatolites were collected from the Laney Member of the Early Eocene Green River Formation near LaClede, Wyoming. LaClede stromatolites are laminated at the micron scale and form domes ~10 cm in diameter. Relatively coarse sediments (>300 μm) fill interdomal depressions, but are rare within fine-grained laminae (a grain size distribution common in Proterozoic stromatolites). On the sides of domes, laminae thin significantly and are nearly vertical. Stromatolite growth and infill sedimentation likely occurred simultaneously, as laminae are draped into interdomal areas and are rarely cut by infill. Grains longer than 200 μm are absent on the steep edges of stromatolite domes, despite the presence of >200 μm grains deposited concomitantly in interdomal depressions. To test whether microbial mats are capable of collecting relatively coarse sediments at steep angles, sedimentation experiments were conducted using cyanobacterial mats collected from Catalina Harbor, Catalina Island, California. Fine (0.125-0.250 mm), medium (0.50-1.0 mm), and coarse (1.0-2.0 mm) sediments were dropped on mats inclined at six angles (15° increments from 0-75°). Coarse grains did not adhere to mats steeper than 45°, and all fine grains were captured by mats at angles less than 45°. All grains that settled on mats were strongly bound after one day of further microbial growth. Although we cannot conclude that fine-grained stromatolites were formed by cyanobacteria, our results suggest that coarse-grained stromatolites (e.g., most modern marine stromatolites) require processes not typically observed in modern cyanobacterial mats (e.g., processes associated with algal eukaryotes, diatoms, and/or copious extracellular polymeric substances, or EPS). Similar sedimentation experiments using other microbial mats, such as those with a thicker coating of EPS or a eukaryotic component, may yield additional information on the origins of coarse- and fine-grained stromatolites. This research was

  6. Distribution of bromine in bedded halite in the Green River Formation, southwestern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Higley, D.K.

    1983-01-01

    The Wilkins Peak Member of the Eocene Green River Formation of southwestern Wyoming contains a series of halite-trona beds deposited in ancestral Lake Gosiute. X-ray fluorescence analysis of 311) salt samples from 10 core holes revealed bromine contents ranging from 11 to 174 ppm. The average concentration, corrected to 100 percent sodium chloride, is approximately 80 ppm. The bromine content of most halite beds increases from the base upward. Variations or 'spikes' in the bromine profile and reversals of the upward increase in bromine are evidenced within several salt beds. Bromine of bed 10 salt zones exhibits a high degree of correlation laterally. No increase in bromine concentration for correlated salt zones was noted from the basin margins to the depositional center in the northeastern part of the study area. A great disparity in salt thickness from the depositional center to the margins suggests stratified lake conditions in which denser, sodium-chloride-saturated bottom brines did not extend to the margins during part of the depositional history of bed 10. Paleosalinity trends of Lake Gosiute determined from the bromine distribution include the following: (1) chemically stratified lake conditions with dense, highly saline bottom waters and a fresher water zone above during much of the depositional history of the halites, (2) gradual evaporation of lake waters in a closed basin with resultant upward increase in salinity for most intervals studied, and (3) absence of lateral lake-bottom salinity gradients or postdepositional salt alteration as determined by the lateral constancy of bromine concentrations for correlated bed 10 halite.

  7. Winter ozone formation and VOC incremental reactivities in the Upper Green River Basin of Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, William P. L.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2012-04-01

    The Upper Green River Basin (UGRB) in Wyoming experiences ozone episodes in the winter when the air is relatively stagnant and the ground is covered by snow. A modeling study was carried out to assess relative contributions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and individual volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and nitrous acid (HONO) in winter ozone formation episodes in this region. The conditions of two ozone episodes, one in February 2008 and one in March 2011, were represented using a simplified box model with all pollutants present initially, but with the detailed SAPRC-07 chemical mechanism adapted for the temperature and radiation conditions arising from the high surface albedo of the snow that was present. Sensitivity calculations were conducted to assess effects of varying HONO inputs, ambient VOC speciation, and changing treatments of temperature and lighting conditions. The locations modeled were found to be quite different in VOC speciation and sensitivities to VOC and NOx emissions, with one site modeled for the 2008 episode being highly NOx-sensitive and insensitive to VOCs and HONO, and the other 2008 site and both 2011 sites being very sensitive to changes in VOC and HONO inputs. Incremental reactivity scales calculated for VOC-sensitive conditions in the UGRB predict far lower relative contributions of alkanes to ozone formation than in the traditional urban-based MIR scale and that the major contributors to ozone formation were the alkenes and the aromatics, despite their relatively small mass contributions. The reactivity scales are affected by the variable ambient VOC speciation and uncertainties in ambient HONO levels. These box model calculations are useful for indicating general sensitivities and reactivity characteristics of these winter UGRB episodes, but fully three-dimensional models will be required to assess ozone abatement strategies in the UGRB.

  8. A stromatolite exhibiting both biogenic and abiogenic growth phases from the Eocene Green River Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantz, C. M.; Petryshyn, V. A.; Corsetti, F. A.; Bhartia, R.; Salas, E. C.; Nealson, K. H.

    2012-12-01

    The microstructure of microdigitate carbonate stromatolites from the Rife Bed of the Eocene Green River Formation (located near Rock Springs, Wyoming) alternates between calcite fans and micrite. Chemical and petrographic analysis of the stromatolites suggests the different microstructures result from significantly different growth regimes, potentially involving the biogenicity of the microfabrics. The calcite fan fabric is generally considered an abiogenic fabric. The micrite fabric, on the other hand, contains grains trapped at angles well beyond the angle of repose, suggesting the presence of a sticky substance (hypothesized to be microbial mats) during formation. Magnetic susceptibility has been recently developed by Petryshyn et al as a biosignature using the premise that microbial mats can trap very fine grains (including magnetic grains, ubiquitous in terrestrial environments) past the angle of repose while abiogenic structures with the same topography cannot. In these stromatolites, micritic layers have a greater magnetic susceptibility than calcite fan layers, consistent with the petrographic results. In addition, organic material was mapped within the stromatolites using deep-UV native fluorescence spectroscopy, a new technique that highlights π bond-containing organic molecules and avoids problems with mineral fluorescence inherent in other fluorescent techniques. Distinct organic features were present in the micritic layers and absent in the calcite fan layers. Attempts were made to identify the specific organic compounds mapped using organic extractions and traditional Raman spectroscopy. While trace amounts of organic compounds were detected in bulk organic extractions from the stromatolite, specific compounds could not be successfully correlated to deep-UV signatures. Strong calcite fluorescence prevented the detection of organic compounds using visible Raman scattering. Thus, at the time of abstract submission the organic material present had not

  9. Multiscale Characterization of Geological Properties of Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehmani, Y.; Burnham, A. K.; Vanden Berg, M. D.; Tchelepi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Detailed characterization of geologic properties of oil shale is important for predictive modeling of geomechanics as well as heat and mass transfer in these geomaterials. Specifically, quantitative knowledge of the spatial distribution of thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical properties is requisite. The primary parameter upon which these properties strongly depend is kerogen content. We have developed a simple but accurate method for quantifying the spatial distribution of kerogen content, spanning scales from a few microns to a hundred feet. Our approach is based on analyzing raw optical images. Promising results regarding the viability of this approach, based on comparison with lab measurements, are presented for the well-known Mahogany Zone of the Green River Formation, Utah. A combination of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and appropriately chosen mixing rules allows for the quantification of thermal, hydraulic, and mechanical properties with micron-scale resolution. Numerical upscaling can subsequently produce averaged properties at the scale of individual grid blocks in field-scale simulators.

  10. Chemical concentrations and instantaneous loads, Green River to the Lower Duwamish Waterway near Seattle, Washington, 2013–15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Black, Robert W.; Vanderpool-Kimura, Ann M.; Foreman, James R.; Peterson, Norman T.; Senter, Craig A.; Sissel, Stephen K.

    2015-01-01

    Median chemical concentrations in suspended-sediment samples were greater than median chemical concentrations in fine bed sediment (less than 62.5 µm) samples, which were greater than median chemical concentrations in paired bulk bed sediment (less than 2 mm) samples. Suspended-sediment concentration, sediment particle-size distribution, and general water-quality parameters were measured concurrent with the chemistry sampling. From this discrete data, combined with the continuous streamflow record, estimates of instantaneous sediment and chemical loads from the Green River to the Lower Duwamish Waterway were calculated. For most compounds, loads were higher during storms than during baseline conditions because of high streamflow and high chemical concentrations. The highest loads occurred during dam releases (periods when stored runoff from a prior storm is released from the Howard Hanson Dam into the upper Green River) because of the high river streamflow and high suspended-sediment concentration, even when chemical concentrations were lower than concentrations measured during storm events. 

  11. Assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of green and blue water flows under natural conditions in inland river basins in Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, C. F.; Liu, J.; van der Velde, M.; Kraxner, F.

    2012-08-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions freshwater resources have become scarcer with increasing demands from socio-economic development and population growth. Until recently, water research and management has mainly focused on blue water but ignored green water. Furthermore, in data poor regions hydrological flows under natural conditions are poorly characterised but are a prerequisite to inform future water resources management. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of both blue and green water flows that can be expected under natural conditions as simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. Calibration and validation at two hydrological stations show good performance of the SWAT model in modelling hydrological processes. The total green and blue water flows were 22.05-25.51 billion m3 in the 2000s for the Heihe river basin. Blue water flows are larger in upstream sub-basins than in downstream sub-basins mainly due to high precipitation and a large amount of snow and melting water in upstream. Green water flows are distributed more homogeneously among different sub-basins. The green water coefficient was 87%-89% in the 2000s for the entire river basin, varying from around 80%-90% in up- and mid-stream sub-basins to above 90% in downstream sub-basins. This is much higher than reported green water coefficients in many other river basins. The spatial patterns of green water coefficients were closely linked to dominant land covers (e.g. snow cover upstream and desert downstream) and climate conditions (e.g. high precipitation upstream and low precipitation downstream). There are no clear consistent historical trends of change in green and blue water flows and the green water coefficient at both the river basin and sub-basin levels. This study provides insights into green and blue water endowments under natural conditions for the entire Heihe river basin at the sub

  12. Carbonate reactions in a natural CO2 Reservoir, Green River, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, H.; Bickle, M. J.; Kampman, N.; Maskell, A.; Busch, A.; Evans, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the geochemical interaction of CO2 with minerals within a rock reservoir is vitally important to assess the long-term suitability of underground storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide. This study investigates the complexities of changes in mineralogy, porosity and flow within a series of porous aquifers and caprocks within Jurassic sedimentary sequences flooded by natural CO2 at Green River in Utah. This study of a natural analogue will inform the processes to quantify the risk of leakage and evolution of stored CO2 over a range of time scales in a sequence of stacked aquifers separated by less permeable rock layers. A 325m well (CO2W55 diamond drilled by DOSECC in 2012) gave excellent recovery of 282m of core from two major CO2 reservoirs in the Entrada and Navajo Sandstones and from the intervening Carmel Formation caprock. Fluid samples were also taken at pressure downhole. Element and isotope geochemistry were used to constrain fluid sources, mixing and fluid-rock reactions. Comparisons were made with the geochemistry of an adjacent cold water CO2-geyser to investigate the upward leakage and horizontal flow from the Little Grand Wash normal Fault that both the geyser and borehole intersect. Here we report the geochemical and isotopic compositions of the various carbonate and silicate components of the CO2 reacted rocks to constrain fluid-mineral reactions. A series of leaching experiments investigating reagents and reaction times allowed measurement of cation and strontium isotopic compositions of the major components within this sedimentary sequence. Strontium isotopes offer a powerful constraint in the study of subsurface fluid-rock reactions as they can be measured to high precision and are not affected by mass dependent fractionations during reaction and fluid transport. Analysis of major cations (especially Ca, Mg and Fe), Sr and 87Sr/86Sr of leachates from sequential leaching experiments allows estimation of the chemical and Sr

  13. Geomorphic Drainage Capture Recorded by Oxygen Isotopes of Green River Formation Lacustrine Mudstone, Eocene, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doebbert, A. C.; Booth, A. L.; Carroll, A.; Chamberlain, C.; Rhodes, M.

    2005-12-01

    The isotopic composition of cement and other meteoric precipitates are increasingly being used to interpret orogenic uplift histories, based on the relationship between altitude and rainwater δ18O. However, other variables such as changing regional drainage patterns may also affect the downstream composition of surface waters, especially when multiple drainages commingle in a lake. The Green River Formation contains some of the best documented lacustrine deposits in the world, making it ideal for examining such issues. Carbonate mudstone in balanced-fill facies of the lower LaClede Bed averages 3.41‰ (PDB), and records a deep, saline to brackish lake that fluctuated near its sill. In contrast, overfilled facies of the upper LaClede Bed record a freshwater lake, and δ18O reaches values as low as -9.72‰. This transition occurred shortly after deposition of the Analcite Tuff at 48.94 ± 0.12 Ma (Smith et al., 2003), and was geologically abrupt. Based on 40Ar/39Ar-calibrated sediment accumulation rates it required no more than 200-300 ky. An almost identical transition occurs in two cores separated by about 30 km, making local diagenesis an unlikely cause. The magnitude of δ18O change is similar to that in some uplift studies, but its rapidity virtually excludes uplift as a controlling mechanism. Instead, we propose that both the change in sedimentation and the sharp decrease in δ18O are the result of a drainage capture event. The addition of a new drainage to the basin may have adjusted isotopic values in two ways: by introducing runoff with relatively low δ18O, and by decreasing residence time (and therefore evaporation) of lake water. Decreasing 87Sr/86Sr across the same transition suggests that the newly added waters may have been sourced from rising volcanic topography to the north in the Absaroka province. Although this rising topography allows for the possibility of some uplift component, the rate of change in lacustrine δ18O is consistent with

  14. Strong wintertime ozone events in the Upper Green River Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappenglück, B.; Ackermann, L.; Alvarez, S.; Golovko, J.; Buhr, M.; Field, R.; Soltis, J.; Montague, D. C.; Hauze, B.; Adamson, S.; Risch, D.; Wilkerson, G.; Bush, D.; Stoeckenius, T.; Keslar, C.

    2013-07-01

    During recent years, elevated ozone (O3) values have been observed repeatedly in the Upper Green River Basin (UGRB), Wyoming during wintertime. This paper presents an analysis of high ozone days in late winter 2011 (1 h average up to 166 ppbv). Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) of ambient monitoring were performed which included comprehensive surface and boundary layer measurements. On IOP days, maximum O3 values are restricted to a very shallow surface layer. Low wind speeds in combination with low mixing layer heights (~50 m a.g.l. around noontime) are essential for accumulation of pollutants within the UGRB. Air masses contain substantial amounts of reactive nitrogen (NOx) and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) emitted from fossil fuel exploration activities in the Pinedale Anticline. On IOP days in the morning hours in particular, reactive nitrogen (up to 69%), aromatics and alkanes (~10-15%; mostly ethane and propane) are major contributors to the hydroxyl (OH) reactivity. Measurements at the Boulder monitoring site during these time periods under SW wind flow conditions show the lowest NMHC/NOx ratios (~50), reflecting a relatively low NMHC mixture, and a change from a NOx-limited regime towards a NMHC limited regime as indicated by photochemical indicators, e.g. O3/NOy, O3/NOz, and O3/HNO3 and the EOR (Extent of Reaction). OH production on IOP days is mainly due to nitrous acid (HONO). Until noon on IOP days, HONO photolysis contributes between 74-98% of the entire OH-production. Ozone photolysis (contributing 2-24%) is second to HONO photolysis. However, both reach about the same magnitude in the early afternoon (close to 50%). Photolysis of formaldehyde (HCHO) is not important (2-7%). High HONO levels (maximum hourly median on IOP days: 1096 pptv) are favored by a combination of shallow boundary layer conditions and enhanced photolysis rates due to the high albedo of the snow surface. HONO is most likely formed through (i) abundant nitric acid (HNO3

  15. Impacts of human activities and climate variability on green and blue water flows in the Heihe River Basin in Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, C.; Liu, J.; Jiang, L.; Gerten, D.

    2013-07-01

    Human activities and climate factors both affect the availability of water resources and the sustainability of water management. Especially in already dry regions, water has become more and more scarce with increasing requirements from growing population, economic development and diet shifts. Although progress has been made in understanding variability of runoff, the impacts of climate variability and human activities on flows of both green water (actual evapotranspiration) and blue water (discharge accumulated in the river network) remain less well understood. We study the spatial patterns of blue and green water flows and the impacts on them of human activities and climate variability as simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for an inland Heihe river basin located in Northwest China. The results show that total green and blue water flow increased from 1980 to 2005, mainly as a result of climate variability (upward precipitation trends). Direct human activities did not significantly change the total green and blue water flow. However, land use change led to a transformation of 206 million m3 from green to blue water flow, while farmland irrigation expansion resulted in a transformation of 66 million m3 from blue to green water flow. The synchronous climate variability caused an increase of green water flow by 469 million m3 and an increase of blue water flow by 146 million m3 at the river basin level, while the geographical distribution showed an uneven change even with reductions of water flows in western sub-basins at midstream. The results are helpful to benchmark the water resources in the context of global change in the inland river basins in China. This study also provides a general approach to investigate the impacts of historical human activities and climate variability on green and blue water flows at the river basin level.

  16. A new laboratory approach to shale analysis using NMR relaxometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.

    2013-01-01

    Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) relaxometry is a non-invasive technique commonly used to assess hydrogen-bearing fluids in petroleum reservoir rocks. Measurements made using LF-NMR provide information on rock porosity, pore-size distributions, and in some cases, fluid types and saturations (Timur, 1967; Kenyon et al., 1986; Straley et al., 1994; Brown, 2001; Jackson, 2001; Kleinberg, 2001; Hurlimann et al., 2002). Recent improvements in LF-NMR instrument electronics have made it possible to apply methods used to measure pore fluids to assess highly viscous and even solid organic phases within reservoir rocks. T1 and T2 relaxation responses behave very differently in solids and liquids; therefore the relationship between these two modes of relaxation can be used to differentiate organic phases in rock samples or to characterize extracted organic materials. Using T1-T2 correlation data, organic components present in shales, such as kerogen and bitumen, can be examined in laboratory relaxometry measurements. In addition, implementation of a solid-echo pulse sequence to refocus T2 relaxation caused by homonuclear dipolar coupling during correlation measurements allows for improved resolution of solid-phase protons. LF-NMR measurements of T1 and T2 relaxation time distributions were carried out on raw oil shale samples from the Eocene Green River Formation and pyrolyzed samples of these shales processed by hydrous pyrolysis and techniques meant to mimic surface and in-situ retorting. Samples processed using the In Situ Simulator approach ranged from bitumen and early oil generation through to depletion of petroleum generating potential. The standard T1-T2 correlation plots revealed distinct peaks representative of solid- and liquid-like organic phases; results on the pyrolyzed shales reflect changes that occurred during thermal processing. The solid-echo T1 and T2 measurements were used to improve assessment of the solid organic phases, specifically

  17. Density of river otters (Lontra canadensis) in relation to energy development in the Green River Basin, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Godwin, B L; Albeke, S E; Bergman, H L; Walters, A; Ben-David, M

    2015-11-01

    Exploration and extraction of oil and natural gas have increased in recent years and are expected to expand in the future. Reduction in water quality from energy extraction may negatively affect water supply for agriculture and urban use within catchments as well as down river. We used non-invasive genetic techniques and capture-recapture modeling to estimate the abundance and density of North American river otters (Lontra canadensis), a sentinel species of aquatic ecosystems, in Southwestern Wyoming. While densities in two of three river reaches were similar to those reported in other freshwater systems in the western US (1.45-2.39 km per otter), otters appeared to avoid areas near energy development. We found no strong difference in habitat variables, such as overstory cover, at the site or reach level. Also, fish abundance was similar among the three river reaches. Otter activity in our study area could have been affected by elevated levels of disturbance surrounding the industrial gas fields, and by potential surface water contamination as indicated by patterns in water conductivity. Continued monitoring of surface water quality in Southwestern Wyoming with the aid of continuously recording devices and sentinel species is warranted. PMID:26125409

  18. Density of river otters (Lontra canadensis) in relation to energy development in the Green River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godwin, B.L.; Albeke, S.E.; Bergman, H.L.; Walters, Annika W.; Ben-David, M.

    2015-01-01

    Exploration and extraction of oil and natural gas have increased in recent years and are expected to expand in the future. Reduction in water quality from energy extraction may negatively affect water supply for agriculture and urban use within catchments as well as down river. We used non-invasive genetic techniques and capture–recapture modeling to estimate the abundance and density of North American river otters (Lontra canadensis), a sentinel species of aquatic ecosystems, in Southwestern Wyoming. While densities in two of three river reaches were similar to those reported in other freshwater systems in the western US (1.45–2.39 km per otter), otters appeared to avoid areas near energy development. We found no strong difference in habitat variables, such as overstory cover, at the site or reach level. Also, fish abundance was similar among the three river reaches. Otter activity in our study area could have been affected by elevated levels of disturbance surrounding the industrial gas fields, and by potential surface water contamination as indicated by patterns in water conductivity. Continued monitoring of surface water quality in Southwestern Wyoming with the aid of continuously recording devices and sentinel species is warranted.

  19. Green-blue water in the city: quantification of impact of source control versus end-of-pipe solutions on sewer and river floods.

    PubMed

    De Vleeschauwer, K; Weustenraad, J; Nolf, C; Wolfs, V; De Meulder, B; Shannon, K; Willems, P

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization and climate change trends put strong pressures on urban water systems. Temporal variations in rainfall, runoff and water availability increase, and need to be compensated for by innovative adaptation strategies. One of these is stormwater retention and infiltration in open and/or green spaces in the city (blue-green water integration). This study evaluated the efficiency of three adaptation strategies for the city of Turnhout in Belgium, namely source control as a result of blue-green water integration, retention basins located downstream of the stormwater sewers, and end-of-pipe solutions based on river flood control reservoirs. The efficiency of these options is quantified by the reduction in sewer and river flood frequencies and volumes, and sewer overflow volumes. This is done by means of long-term simulations (100-year rainfall simulations) using an integrated conceptual sewer-river model calibrated to full hydrodynamic sewer and river models. Results show that combining open, green zones in the city with stormwater retention and infiltration for only 1% of the total city runoff area would lead to a 30 to 50% reduction in sewer flood volumes for return periods in the range 10-100 years. This is due to the additional surface storage and infiltration and consequent reduction in urban runoff. However, the impact of this source control option on downstream river floods is limited. Stormwater retention downstream of the sewer system gives a strong reduction in peak discharges to the receiving river. However due to the difference in response time between the sewer and river systems, this does not lead to a strong reduction in river flood frequency. The paper shows the importance of improving the interface between urban design and water management, and between sewer and river flood management. PMID:25500472

  20. Green River Formation Water Flood Demonstration Project, Uinta Basin, Utah. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Lomax, J.D.; Nielson, D.L.; Deo, M.D.

    1993-09-01

    The project is designed to increase recoverable petroleum reserves in the United States. The Green River Formation in Utah`s Uinta Basin contains abundant hydrocarbons that are not easily recovered by primary means. The successful Lomax Monument Butte Unit water flood will be evaluated under this contract, and based on this information, water floods will be initiated in nearby Travis and Boundary units. In 1987, Lomax Exploration Company started a water flood in the Monument Butte Unit of a Douglas Creek member of the Green River Formation. This was a low-energy, geologically heterogeneous reservoir producing a waxy crude oil. Primary production yielded about 5% of the OOIP. Due to the water flood project, total production will yield an estimated recovery of 20% OOIP. The Monument Butte Unit {number_sign}10-34 and the Travis Unit {number_sign}14A-28 were put on production the last quarter of 1992. Formation Microimaging and Magnetic Resonance Imaging logs were used to evaluate these wells as commercially productive. Through June 30, 1993, the Monument Butte {number_sign} 10-34 (11/27/92 first production) has produced 6,277 barrels of oil and 6.5 MMcf of gas and the Travis {number_sign}14A-28 (1/1/93 first production) has produced 7,717 barrels of oil and 19.9 MMcf of gas.

  1. Unusual soft-tissue preservation of a crocodile lizard (Squamata, Shinisauria) from the green river formation (Eocene) and shinisaur relationships.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Jack L; Head, Jason J; Carrano, Matthew T

    2014-03-01

    We describe an unusual squamate fossil from the Green River Formation (Uintan, Eocene) from the Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado, USA. The new specimen, USNM PAL 540708, is a small fossil squamate skin lacking skeletal elements. It is preserved as a part and counterpart in fine-grained limestone. Recovery of a fossil organism's skin (not a shed, but a true skin) is unusual and is most often accompanied by bone preservation. Phylogenetic analysis of a combined morphology (phenotype) and genetic data set reveals that USNM PAL 540708 is a shinisaur and reaffirms that shinisaurs are more closely related to varanids than to Xenosaurus. Shinisaur fossils are very rare, with only three species having been described (Dalinghosaurus longidigitus, Bahndwivici ammoskius, and Merkurosaurus ornatus). Despite differences in the relative size of scales, the new fossil demonstrates that shinisaurs have remained unchanged in the distribution of scales and patterns of scale size during the Cenozoic. This, paired with the osteological similarity between another Green River fossil (Bahndwivici ammoskius) demonstrates considerable overall conservatism within shinisaurs over the past 50 million years. PMID:24482393

  2. MODIS-informed greenness responsesto daytime land surface temperaturefluctuations and wildfire disturbancesin the Alaskan Yukon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tan, Zhengxi; Liu, Shu-Guang; Jenkerson, Calli; Oeding, Jennifer; Wylie, Bruce K.; Rover, Jennifer R.; Young, Claudia J.

    2012-01-01

    Pronounced climate warming and increased wildfire disturbances are known to modify forest composition and control the evolution of the boreal ecosystem over the Yukon River Basin (YRB) in interior Alaska. In this study, we evaluate the post-fire green-up rate using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from 250 m 7 day eMODIS (an alternative and application-ready type of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data) acquired between 2000 and 2009. Our analyses indicate measureable effects on NDVI values from vegetation type, burn severity, post-fire time, and climatic variables. The NDVI observations from both fire scars and unburned areas across the Alaskan YRB showed a tendency of an earlier start to the growing season (GS); the annual variations in NDVI were significantly correlated to daytime land surface temperature (LST) fluctuations; and the rate of post-fire green-up depended mainly on burn severity and the time of post-fire succession. The higher average NDVI values for the study period in the fire scars than in the unburned areas between 1950 and 2000 suggest that wildfires enhance post-fire greenness due to an increase in post-fire evergreen and deciduous species components

  3. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on riparian vegetation of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1995-06-01

    Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation.

  4. Sulfur Isotope Analysis of Minerals and Fluids in a Natural CO2 Reservoir, Green River, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F.; Kampman, N.; Bickle, M. J.; Busch, A.; Turchyn, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    Predicting the security of geological CO2 storage sites requires an understanding of the geochemical behavior of the stored CO2, especially of fluid-rock reactions in reservoirs, caprocks and fault zones. Factors that may influence geochemical behavior include co-injection of sulfur gases along with the CO2, either in acid-gas disposal or as contaminants in CO2 storage sites, and microbial activity, such as bacterial sulfate reduction. The latter may play an important role in buffering the redox chemistry of subsurface fluids, which could affect toxic trace metal mobilization and transport in acidic CO2-rich fluids. These processes involving sulfur are poorly understood. Natural CO2-reservoirs provide natural laboratories, where the flow and reactions of the CO2-charged fluids and the activity of microbial communities are integrated over sufficient time-scales to aid prediction of long-term CO2 storage. This study reports on sulfur isotope analyses of sulfate and sulfide minerals in rock core and in CO2-charged fluids collected from a stacked sequence of natural CO2 reservoirs at Green River, Utah. Scientific drilling adjacent to a CO2-degassing normal fault to a depth of 325m retrieved core and fluid samples from two CO2 reservoirs in the Entrada and Navajo Sandstones and from the intervening Carmel Formation caprock. Fluid samples were collected from CO2-charged springs that discharge through the faults. Sulfur exists as sulfate in the fluids, as sedimentary gypsum beds in the Carmel Formation, as remobilized gypsum veins within a fault damage zone in the Carmel Fm. and in the Entrada Sandstone, and as disseminated pyrite and pyrite-mineralized open fractures throughout the cored interval. We use the stable sulfur (δ34S) and oxygen (δ18OSO4) isotopes of the sulfate, gypsum, and pyrite to understand the source of sulfur in the reservoir as well as the timing of gypsum vein and pyrite formation. The hydration water of the gypsum is also reported to explore the

  5. Strong wintertime ozone events in the Upper Green River basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappenglück, B.; Ackermann, L.; Alvarez, S.; Golovko, J.; Buhr, M.; Field, R. A.; Soltis, J.; Montague, D. C.; Hauze, B.; Adamson, S.; Risch, D.; Wilkerson, G.; Bush, D.; Stoeckenius, T.; Keslar, C.

    2014-05-01

    During recent years, elevated ozone (O3) values have been observed repeatedly in the Upper Green River basin (UGRB), Wyoming, during wintertime. This paper presents an analysis of high ozone days in late winter 2011 (1 h average up to 166 ppbv - parts per billion by volume). Intensive operational periods (IOPs) of ambient monitoring were performed, which included comprehensive surface and boundary layer measurements. On IOP days, maximum O3 values are restricted to a very shallow surface layer. Low wind speeds in combination with low mixing layer heights (~ 50 m above ground level around noontime) are essential for accumulation of pollutants within the UGRB. Air masses contain substantial amounts of reactive nitrogen (NOx) and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) emitted from fossil fuel exploration activities in the Pinedale Anticline. On IOP days particularly in the morning hours, reactive nitrogen (up to 69%), aromatics and alkanes (~ 10-15%; mostly ethane and propane) are major contributors to the hydroxyl (OH) reactivity. Measurements at the Boulder monitoring site during these time periods under SW wind flow conditions show the lowest NMHC / NOx ratios (~ 50), reflecting a relatively low reactive NMHC mixture, and a change from a NOx-limited regime towards a NMHC-limited regime as indicated by photochemical indicators, e.g., O3 /NOy, O3 /NOz, and O3 / HNO3 and the EOR (extent of reaction). OH production on IOP days is mainly due to nitrous acid (HONO). On a 24 h basis and as determined for a measurement height of 1.80 m above the surface HONO photolysis on IOP days can contribute ~ 83% to OH production on average, followed by alkene ozonolysis (~ 9%). Photolysis by ozone and HCHO photolysis contribute about 4% each to hydroxyl formation. High HONO levels (maximum hourly median on IOP days: 1096 pptv - parts per trillion by volume) are favored by a combination of shallow boundary layer conditions and enhanced photolysis rates due to the high albedo of the snow

  6. The systematic geologic mapping program and a quadrangle-by-quadrangle analysis of time-stratigraphic relations within oil shale-bearing rocks of the Piceance Basin, western Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    During the 1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, the U.S. Geological Survey mapped the entire area underlain by oil shale of the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado. The Piceance Basin contains the largest known oil shale deposit in the world, with an estimated 1.53 trillion barrels of oil in place and as much as 400,000 barrels of oil per acre. This report places the sixty-nine 7½-minute geologic quadrangle maps and one 15-minute quadrangle map published during this period into a comprehensive time-stratigraphic framework based on the alternating rich and lean oil shale zones. The quadrangles are placed in their respective regional positions on one large stratigraphic chart so that tracking the various stratigraphic unit names that have been applied can be followed between adjacent quadrangles. Members of the Green River Formation were defined prior to the detailed mapping, and many inconsistencies and correlation problems had to be addressed as mapping progressed. As a result, some of the geologic units that were defined prior to mapping were modified or discarded. The extensive body of geologic data provided by the detailed quadrangle maps contributes to a better understanding of the distribution and characteristics of the oil shale-bearing rocks across the Piceance Basin.

  7. Data compilation for assessing sediment and toxic chemical loads from the Green River to the lower Duwamish Waterway, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, Kathleen E.; Black, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Between February and June 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey collected representative samples of whole water, suspended sediment, and (or) bed sediment from a single strategically located site on the Duwamish River, Washington, during seven periods of different flow conditions. Samples were analyzed by Washington-State-accredited laboratories for a large suite of compounds, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other semivolatile compounds, polychlorinated biphenyl Aroclors and the 209 congeners, metals, dioxins/furans, volatile organic compounds, pesticides, butyltins, hexavalent chromium, and total organic carbon. Chemical concentrations associated with bulk bed sediment (<2 mm) and fine bed sediment (<62.5 μm) fractions were compared to chemical concentrations associated with suspended sediment. Bulk bed sediment concentrations generally were lower than fine bed sediment and suspended-sediment concentrations. Concurrent with the chemistry sampling, additional parameters were measured, including instantaneous river discharge, suspended-sediment concentration, sediment particle-size distribution, and general water-quality parameters. From these data, estimates of instantaneous sediment and chemical loads from the Green River to the Lower Duwamish Waterway were calculated.

  8. Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on flow and stage in the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, S.C.L.; Cho, H.E.; McCoy, J.J.; Palmer, S.C.

    1995-05-01

    This report presents the development of Flaming Gorge Reservoir release patterns and resulting downstream flows and stages for four potential hydropower operational scenarios. The release patterns were developed for three representative hydrologic years: moderate, dry, and wet. Computer models were used to estimate flows and stages in the Green River resulting from these release patterns for the moderate water year. The four hydropower operational scenarios for Flaming Gorge Dam were year-round high fluctuating flows, seasonally adjusted high fluctuating flows, seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuating flows, and seasonally adjusted steady flows. The year-round high fluctuating flow scenario assumes that the monthly total reservoir releases would be the same as historical releases. The remaining seasonally adjusted flow scenarios would comply with the 1992 Biological Opinion of the US Fish and Wildlife Service, which requires high flows in the spring and limited hourly fluctuations, especially in summer and autumn releases, to protect endangered fish. Within one year, the maximum daily river stage fluctuations resulting from hydropower operations under the seasonally adjusted high fluctuating flow scenario would be similar to the maximum daily fluctuations under the year-round high fluctuating flow scenario. However, reduced or no fluctuations would occur in some time periods under the former scenario. The maximum daily river stage fluctuations under the seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuating flow scenario would be about half of those under the seasonally adjusted high fluctuating flow scenario.

  9. Oil shale commercialization study

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, M.M.

    1981-09-01

    Ninety four possible oil shale sections in southern Idaho were located and chemically analyzed. Sixty-two of these shales show good promise of possible oil and probable gas potential. Sixty of the potential oil and gas shales represent the Succor Creek Formation of Miocene age in southwestern Idaho. Two of the shales represent Cretaceous formations in eastern Idaho, which should be further investigated to determine their realistic value and areal extent. Samples of the older Mesozonic and paleozoic sections show promise but have not been chemically analyzed and will need greater attention to determine their potential. Geothermal resources are of high potential in Idaho and are important to oil shale prospects. Geothermal conditions raise the geothermal gradient and act as maturing agents to oil shale. They also might be used in the retorting and refining processes. Oil shales at the surface, which appear to have good oil or gas potential should have much higher potential at depth where the geothermal gradient is high. Samples from deep petroleum exploration wells indicate that the succor Creek shales have undergone considerable maturation with depth of burial and should produce gas and possibly oil. Most of Idaho's shales that have been analyzed have a greater potential for gas than for oil but some oil potential is indicated. The Miocene shales of the Succor Creek Formation should be considered as gas and possibly oil source material for the future when technology has been perfectes. 11 refs.

  10. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  11. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO[sub 2] HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  12. Statistical summary of the chemical quality of surface water in the Powder River coal basin, the Hanna coal field, and the Green River coal region, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    A summary of the chemical quality of surface water in the three principal coal-producing areas of Wyoming was intensified by the U.S. Geologic Survey during 1975-81, in response to interest spurred by a dramatic increase in surface mining of the areas. This statistical summary consists of descriptive statistics and regression analyses of data from 72 stations on streams in the Powder River coal basin, the Hanna coal field, and the Green River coal region of Wyoming. The mean dissolved-solids concentrations in streams ranged from 15 to 4,800 mg/L. Samples collected near mountainous areas or in the upstream reaches of perennial streams in the plains had the smallest concentrations of dissolved solids, and the predominant ions were calcium and bicarbonate. Samples from ephemeral, intermittent, and the downstream reaches of perennial streams in the plains contained relatively large dissolved-solids concentrations, and the predominant ions usually were sodium and sulfate. Regression models showed that the concentrations of dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, alkalinity, sulfate, and chloride correlated well with specific-conductance values in many of the streams. (USGS)

  13. 78 FR 31454 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Hudson River, Troy and Green Island, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Sec. Section Symbol U.S.C. United States... regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). 4. Public... Green Island, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The...

  14. Update on Kansas City Middle Blue River Green Infrastructure Pilot Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2010, Kansas City, MO (KCMO) signed a consent degree with EPA on combined sewer overflows. The City decided to use adaptive management in order to extensively utilize green infrastructure (GI) in lieu of, and in addition to, gray structural controls. KCMO installed 130 GI sto...

  15. Comparison of Modeled Results for Kansas City Middle Blue River Green Infrastructure Pilot Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Services Department (WSD) in Kansas City, Missouri (KCMO) has conducted extensive modeling and economic studies of its combined sewer system (CSS) over the last several years. A number of green infrastructure (GI) solutions were identified and constructed to reduce dis...

  16. Update on Kansas City Middle Blue River Green Infrastructure Pilot Project - seminar

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2010, Kansas City, MO (KCMO) signed a consent degree with EPA on combined sewer overflows. The City decided to use adaptive management in order to extensively utilize green infrastructure (GI) in lieu of, and in addition to, structural controls. KCMO installed 130 GI storm con...

  17. Water resources and potential hydrologic effects of oil-shale development in the southeastern Uinta Basin, Utah and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindskov, K.L.; Kimball, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Normal annual precipitation varies with altitude from less than 8 inches at altitudes below 5,000 feet to more than 20 inches where altitudes exceed 9,000 feet. In areas where precipitation is less than 10 inches, streams are ephemeral. Mean annual runoff is about 28,000 acre-feet and varies from less than 0.1 to 1.6 inches. Runoff varies yearly and seasonally, and potentially evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation. The White and Green Rivers convey an average flow of 4.3 million acre-feet per year from an outside drainage of 34,000 squqre miles, more than 150 times the flow originating in the area. Total recoverable groundwater in storage is about 18 million acre-feet. Yields of individual wells and interference between wells cound limit withdrawals to about 15,000 acre-feet per year. A 400,000-barrel-per-day oil-shale industry would require a water supply of 70,000 acre-feet per year. Other sources of water supply discussed are diversion from the White River, a proposed reservoir on the White River, diversion from the White River combined with proposed off-stream storage, diversion from the Green River, and conjunctive use of ground and surface water. Leachate water from retorted-shale piles has large concentrations of sodium and sulfates, and retort waters contain much organic carbon and nutrients. Without proper disposal of these water, the natural waters of the area could be contaminated and the salinity of downstream waters in the Colorado River Basin could be increased. (USGS)

  18. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Uteland Butte Member of the Eocene Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Ronald C.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered resources of 214 million barrels of oil, 329 billion cubic feet of associated/dissolved natural gas, and 14 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the informal Uteland Butte member of the Green River Formation, Uinta Basin, Utah.

  19. Geohydrologic feasibility study of the greater Green River Basin for the potential applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented tool

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, P.D.

    1994-02-01

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc, of Midland, Texas conducted geologic and hydrologic feasibility studies of the potential applicability of Jack McIntyre`s patented tool for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Greater Green River Basin through literature surveys.

  20. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the latest developments in the global common clay and shale industry, particularly in the U.S. It claims that common clay and shale is mainly used in the manufacture of heavy clay products like brick, flue tile and sewer pipe. The main producing states in the U.S. include North Carolina, New York and Oklahoma. Among the firms that manufacture clay and shale-based products are Mid America Brick & Structural Clay Products LLC and Boral USA.

  1. Reproduction and environmental contamination in tree swallows nesting in the Fox River drainage and Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, C.M.; Custer, T.W.; Allen, P.D.; Stromborg, K.L.; Melancon, M.J.

    1998-09-01

    Concentration, accumulation, and effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on reproduction in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were studied at four sites in the Fox River drainage and in Green Bay, Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA, in 1994 and 1995. Total PCBs in eggs and newly hatched young and 12-d-old nestlings at two contaminated sites (Kidney Island and Arrowhead) were higher than concentrations at two reference sites. Concentrations of 11 PCB congeners were also higher at contaminated compared to reference sites. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulated in nestlings at a higher rate at contaminated sites compared to reference locations. Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) was the only other organochlorine found in all samples; concentrations for all samples averaged {le}0.20 {micro}g/g wet weight. Total PCBs and p,p{prime}-DDE concentrations did not differ among clutches where all eggs hatched, some eggs hatched, and no eggs hatched.

  2. NMR determination of carbon aromatization during hydrous pyrolysis of coals from the Mesaverde group, Greater Green river basin

    SciTech Connect

    Miknis, F.P.; Netzel, D.A.; Surdam, R.C.

    1995-12-01

    Solid-state {sup 13}C NMR measurements have been made on the residues from hydrous pyrolysis experiments conducted on Almond and Lance Formation coals from the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde Group in the Green River Basin. Only a small percentage of the total carbon (13%) was converted to volatile products for both coals during hydrous pyrolysis. An accounting of the aliphatic carbon was obtained by comparing the aliphatic carbon in the gas, oil and residue products with that of the starting coals. The amount of aliphatic carbon in the volatile products and residue was not sufficient to account for the total amount of aliphatic carbon that disappeared. From this it was inferred that a substantial portion of the aliphatic carbon aromatized during hydrous pyrolysis, (48 and 56% for the Almond and Lance coal, respectively). These and additional results on coal maturation in the natural environment will be discussed.

  3. Natural fractures and lineaments of the east-central Greater Green river basin. Topical report, May 1992-August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Jaworowski, C.; Christiansen, G.E.; Grout, M.A.; Heasler, H.P.; Iverson, W.P.

    1995-08-01

    This topical report addresses the relationship of natural fractures and lineaments to hydrocarbon production of the east-central Greater Green River Basin. The tight gas sands of the Cretaceous Mesaverde Formation are the primary focus of this work. IER and USGS researchers have (1) demonstrated that east-northeast and northeast-trending regional fractures and lineaments are important to hydrocarbon production; (2) recognized the east-northeast regional joint set near two horizontal wells (Champlin 254 Amoco B 2-H and Champlin 320 C-1A-H) in the Washankie and Great Divide basins, respectively; (3) related Cretaceous Almond Formation thickness and facies to northeast-trending faults; (4) developed a program to automatically derive lineaments from small linear features; (5) associated oil and gas production data with east-northeast and northeast-trending lineaments and linear features; and (6) digitally compared lineaments with potentiometric maps of the Mesaverde and Frontier formations.

  4. Estimating average dissolved-solids yield from basins drained by ephemeral and intermittent streams, Green River basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLong, L.L.; Wells, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    A method was developed to determine the average dissolved-solids yield contributed by small basins characterized by ephemeral and intermittent streams in the Green River basin in Wyoming. The method is different from that commonly used for perennial streams. Estimates of dissolved-solids discharge at eight water quality sampling stations operated by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Land Management range from less than 2 to 95 tons/day. The dissolved-solids yield upstream from the sampling stations ranges from 0.023 to 0.107 tons/day/sq mi. However, estimates of dissolved solids yield contributed by drainage areas between paired stations on Bitter, Salt Wells, Little Muddy, and Muddy creeks, based on dissolved-solids discharge versus drainage area, range only from 0.081 to 0.092 tons/day/sq mi. (USGS)

  5. Biomarker Analysis of Samples Visually Identified as Microbial in the Eocene Green River Formation: An Analogue for Mars.

    PubMed

    Olcott Marshall, Alison; Cestari, Nicholas A

    2015-09-01

    One of the major exploration targets for current and future Mars missions are lithofacies suggestive of biotic activity. Although such lithofacies are not confirmation of biotic activity, they provide a way to identify samples for further analyses. To test the efficacy of this approach, we identified carbonate samples from the Eocene Green River Formation as "microbial" or "non-microbial" based on the macroscale morphology of their laminations. These samples were then crushed and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) to determine their lipid biomarker composition. GC/MS analysis revealed that carbonates visually identified as "microbial" contained a higher concentration of more diverse biomarkers than those identified as "non-microbial," suggesting that this could be a viable detection strategy for selecting samples for further analysis or caching on Mars. PMID:26317563

  6. The potential for coalbed gas exploration and production in the Greater Green River Basin, southwest Wyoming and northwest Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, R.; Kaiser, W.R.; Scott, A.R.; Hamilton, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Coalbed gas is an important source of natural gas in the United States. In 1993, approximately 740 BCF of coalbed gas was produced in the United States, or about 4.2% of the nation`s total gas production. Nearly 96% of this coalbed gas is produced from just two basins, the San Juan (615.7 BCF; gas in place 84 TCF) and Black Warrior (105 BCF; gas in place 20 TCF), and current production represents only a fraction of the nation`s estimated 675 TCF of in-place coalbed gas. Coal beds in the Greater Green River Basin in southwest Wyoming and northwest Colorado hold almost half of the gas in place (314 TCF) and are an important source of gas for low-permeability Almond sandstones. Because total gas in place in the Greater Green River Basin is reported to exceed 3,000 TCF (Law et al., 1989), the basin may substantially increase the domestic gas resource base. Therefore, through integrated geologic and hydrologic studies, the coalbed gas potential of the basin was assessed where tectonic, structural, and depositional setting, coal distribution and rank, gas content, coal permeability, and ground-water flow are critical controls on coalbed gas producibility. Synergism between these geologic and hydrologic controls determines gas productivity. High productivity is governed by (1) thick, laterally continuous coals of high thermal maturity, (2) basinward flow of ground water through fractured and permeable coals, down the coal rank gradient toward no-flow boundaries oriented perpendicular to the regional flow direction, and (3) conventional trapping of gas along those boundaries to provide additional sources of gas beyond that sorbed on the coal surface.

  7. 10. CANAL CUT THROUGH SHALE BEDROCK ON PROMINENT POINT, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. CANAL CUT THROUGH SHALE BEDROCK ON PROMINENT POINT, LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST. NOTE CONCRETE ABUTMENTS PROBABLY INSTALLED IN 1935 TO PREVENT WATER FROM ESCAPING THROUGH A CANAL BANK BREACH. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  8. Organochlorine contaminants and Tree Swallows along the Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Allen, P.D.; Stromborg, K.L.; Melancon, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Green Bay, Wisconsin is contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) however, whether these contaminants affect reproduction in insectivorous birds is unknown. Tree Swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, are secondary cavity nesters that will nest in boxes and tolerate handling. Because Tree Swallows are aquatic insectivores, residues in their tissues are primarily indicative of contaminants in sediments. We studied swallows at two contaminated and two reference colonies in 1993, 1994, and 1995 in the Green Bay area. Swallows at the two contaminated sites had significantly higher PCB levels in eggs when compared to two reference sites. Eggs from clutches that contained dead embryos had higher PCB concentrations than eggs from clutches where all eggs hatched; there were no contaminant effects overall on reproduction, however. Twelve-day-old nestlings at the two contaminated sites accumulated significantly more PCBs than did nestlings at the reference sites demonstrating that PCB contamination came from the local area. The PCB congener profile in 12-day-old nestlings mirrored the congener profile in their food.

  9. Organochlorine contaminants and Tree Swallows along the Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Allen, P.D.; Stromborg, K.L.; Melancon, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Green Bay, Wisconsin is contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) however, whether these contaminants affect reproduction in insectivorous birds is unknown. Tree Swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, are secondary cavity nesters that will nest in boxes and tolerate handling. Because Tree Swallows are aquatic insectivores, residues in their tissues are primarily indicative of contaminants in sediments. We studied swallows at two contaminated and two reference colonies in 1993, 1994, and 1995 in the Green Bay area. Swallows at the two contaminated sites had significantly higher PCB levels in eggs when compared to two reference sites. Eggs from clutches that contained dead embryos had higher PCB concentrations than eggs from clutches where all eggs hatched; there were no contaminant effects overall on reproduction, however. Twelve-day-old nestlings at the two contaminated sites accumulated significantly more PCBs than did nestlings at the reference sites demonstrating that PCB contamination came from the local area. The PCB congener profile in 12-day-old nestlings mirrored the congener profile in their food.

  10. Reclamation of river dredged sediments polluted by PAHs by co-composting with green waste.

    PubMed

    Mattei, P; Cincinelli, A; Martellini, T; Natalini, R; Pascale, E; Renella, G

    2016-10-01

    Polluted dredged sediments are classified as waste and cannot be re-used in civil and environmental engineering nor in agriculture, posing serious logistical, economic and environmental problems for their management. We tested co-composting of sediments (S) slightly polluted by PAHs with urban green waste (GW), as a sustainable technique to both degrade the organic pollutants and lend to sediments suitable properties to be reused as technosol. Four treatments were tested: sediments only (S), GW only (GW), 1:1 w:w S:GW (SGW1:1), and 3:1 w:w S:GW (SGW3:1) for a co-composting period of one year. The co-composting materials underwent to an initial short and moderate thermophilic phase. However, at the end of the co-composting process, SGW3:1 and SGW1:1 achieved suitable physical and chemical properties as plant substrate in terms of organic C, N and humic substances contents, electrical conductivity and bulk density. In the first six months of treatment, the PAHs concentration in SGW3:1 and SGW1:1 was reduced by 26% and 57%, respectively, reaching values below under 1mgg(-1), whereas such a reduction in S alone was observed only after nine months. We concluded that co-composting with green waste can be a suitable approach for reclamation of dredged sediments opening opportunities for their use as technosol or as plant growing substrate. PMID:27236622

  11. Coal Quality and Major, Minor, and Trace Elements in the Powder River, Green River, and Williston Basins, Wyoming and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stricker, Gary D.; Flores, Romeo M.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ellis, Margaret S.; Olson, Carol M.; Sullivan, Jonah E.; Takahashi, Kenneth I.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Wyoming Reservoir Management Group (RMG) of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and nineteen independent coalbed methane (CBM) gas operators in the Powder River and Green River Basins in Wyoming and the Williston Basin in North Dakota, collected 963 coal samples from 37 core holes (fig. 1; table 1) between 1999 and 2005. The drilling and coring program was in response to the rapid development of CBM, particularly in the Powder River Basin (PRB), and the needs of the RMG BLM for new and more reliable data for CBM resource estimates and reservoir characterization. The USGS and BLM entered into agreements with the gas operators to drill and core Fort Union coal beds, thus supplying core samples for the USGS to analyze and provide the RMG with rapid, real-time results of total gas desorbed, coal quality, and high pressure methane adsorption isotherm data (Stricker and others, 2006). The USGS determined the ultimate composition of all coal core samples; for selected samples analyses also included proximate analysis, calorific value, equilibrium moisture, apparent specific gravity, and forms of sulfur. Analytical procedures followed those of the American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM; 1998). In addition, samples from three wells (129 samples) were analyzed for major, minor, and trace element contents. Ultimate and proximate compositions, calorific value, and forms of sulfur are fundamental parameters in evaluating the economic value of a coal. Determining trace element concentrations, along with total sulfur and ash yield, is also essential to assess the environmental effects of coal use, as is the suitability of the coal for cleaning, gasification, liquefaction, and other treatments. Determination of coal quality in the deeper part (depths greater than 1,000 to 1,200 ft) of the PRB (Rohrbacher and others, 2006; Luppens and others, 2006) is especially important, because these coals are targeted for future

  12. Economic analysis of sequestering carbon in green ash forests in the Lower Mississippi River Valley.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ching-Hsun; Kronrad, Gary D; Cheng, Shiaolin D

    2003-08-19

    Since the U.S. is the largest emitter of carbon dioxide (CO2), it has become crucial to develop options that are both cost effective and supportive of sustainable development to reduce atmospheric CO2. Electric utility companies have the options of reducing their use of fossil fuels, switching to alternative energy sources, increasing efficiency, or offsetting carbon emissions. This study determined the cost and profitability of sequestering carbon in green ash plantations, and the number of tons of carbon that can be sequestered. The profitability of green ash is 2,342 dollars and 3,645 dollars per acre on site indices (measurement of soil quality) 65 and 105 land, respectively, calculated with a 2.5% alternative rate of return (ARR). These figures shift to -248 dollars and -240 dollars calculated with a 15.0% ARR. If landowners who have an ARR of 2.5% can sell carbon credits for 10 dollars per ton of carbon, profits will increase by 107 dollars per acre on poor sites and 242 dollars on good sites. Over one rotation (cutting cycle), 38.56 net tons of carbon can be sequestered on an acre of poor quality land and 51.35 tons on good quality land. The cost of sequestering carbon, without including revenues from timber production and carbon credits, ranges from a high of 15.20 dollars per ton on poor sites to 14.41 dollars on good sites, calculated with a 2.5% ARR; to a high of 8.51 dollars per ton on poor sites to 7.63 dollars on good sites, calculated with a 15.0% ARR. The cost of storing carbon can be reduced significantly if the trees can be sold for wood products. PMID:12941973

  13. Ground-water data for the Salt Basin, Eagle Flat, Red Light Draw, Green River Valley, and Presidio Bolson in westernmost Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Donald Edward; Gates, J.S.; Smith, Joe T.; Fry, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    From October 1971 through October 1974, the U.S. Geological Survey collected groundwater data in the basins in Texas west of the Pecos River drainage area and northwest of the Big Bend country. The basins included are, from east to west: The Presidio Bolson; the Salt Basin; Green River Valley, Eagle Flat, and Red Light Draw. The data collection program consisted of an inventory of all major irrigation, municipal-supply, and industrial wells; selected stock and domestic wells; and selected springs. Water samples were collected from representative wells and springs for chemical analyses. (Woodard-USGS)

  14. Ground-water data for the Salt Basin, Eagle Flat, Red Light Draw, Green River Valley and Presidio Bolson in westernmost Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Donald E.; Gates, Joseph S.; Smith, James T.; Fry, Bonnie J.

    1980-01-01

    From October 1971 through October 1974. the U.S. Geological Survey collected ground-water data in the basins in Texas west of the Pecos River drainage area and northwest of the Big Bend country. The basins included are, from east to west: The Presidio Bolson; the Salt Basin; Green River Valley, Eagle Flat, and Red Light Draw. These data, which were collected in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources (formerly Texas Water Development Board), will provide information for a continuing assessment of water availability within the State.

  15. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2000-01-01

    Part of the 1999 Industrial Minerals Review. The clay and shale market in 1999 is reviewed. In the U.S., sales or use of clay and shale increased from 26.4 million st in 1998 to 27.3 million st in 1999, with an estimated 1999 value of production of $143 million. These materials were used to produce structural clay products, lightweight aggregates, cement, and ceramics and refractories. Production statistics for clays and shales and for their uses in 1999 are presented.

  16. Eocene extension in Idaho generated massive sediment floods into Franciscan trench and into Tyee, Great Valley, and Green River basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumitru, Trevor A.; Ernst, W.G.; Wright, James E.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Wells, Ray E.; Farmer, Lucia P.; Kent, Adam J.R.; Graham, Stephan A.

    2013-01-01

    The Franciscan Complex accretionary prism was assembled during an ∼165-m.y.-long period of subduction of Pacific Ocean plates beneath the western margin of the North American plate. In such fossil subduction complexes, it is generally difficult to reconstruct details of the accretion of continent-derived sediments and to evaluate the factors that controlled accretion. New detrital zircon U-Pb ages indicate that much of the major Coastal belt subunit of the Franciscan Complex represents a massive, relatively brief, surge of near-trench deposition and accretion during Eocene time (ca. 53–49 Ma). Sediments were sourced mainly from the distant Idaho Batholith region rather than the nearby Sierra Nevada. Idaho detritus also fed the Great Valley forearc basin of California (ca. 53–37 Ma), the Tyee forearc basin of coastal Oregon (49 to ca. 36 Ma), and the greater Green River lake basin of Wyoming (50–47 Ma). Plutonism in the Idaho Batholith spanned 98–53 Ma in a contractional setting; it was abruptly superseded by major extension in the Bitterroot, Anaconda, Clearwater, and Priest River metamorphic core complexes (53–40 Ma) and by major volcanism in the Challis volcanic field (51–43 Ma). This extensional tectonism apparently deformed and uplifted a broad region, shedding voluminous sediments toward depocenters to the west and southeast. In the Franciscan Coastal belt, the major increase in sediment input apparently triggered a pulse of massive accretion, a pulse ultimately controlled by continental tectonism far within the interior of the North American plate, rather than by some tectonic event along the plate boundary itself.

  17. Evaluation of western shale-oil residue as an additive to petroleum asphalt for use as a pavement crack and joint sealant material

    SciTech Connect

    Harnsberger, P.M.; Wolf, J.M.; Robertson, R.E.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of using a distillation residue from Green River Formation (western) shale oil as an additive to a petroleum asphalt for use as a crack and joint filler material in portland cement concrete and asphaltic pavements. A commercially available rubberized asphalt crack and joint filler material was also tested for comparison. ASTM specification tests for sealant materials used in concrete and asphalt pavements were performed on the sealant materials. Portland cement concrete briquets prepared with an asphalt material sandwiched between two concrete wafers were tested in a stress-relaxation experiment to evaluate the relaxation and recovery properties of the sealant materials. The results show that the shale-oil modified petroleum asphalts and the neat petroleum asphalt do not pass the extension portion of the ASTM test; however, there is indication of improvement in the adhesive properties of the shale-oil modified asphalts. There is also evidence that the addition of shale-oil residue to the petroleum asphalt, especially at the 20% level, improves the relaxation and recovery properties compared with the petroleum asphalt.

  18. Comparing Laser Desorption Ionization and Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Coupled to Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry To Characterize Shale Oils at the Molecular Level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cho, Yunjo; Jin, Jang Mi; Witt, Matthias; Birdwell, Justin E.; Na, Jeong-Geol; Roh, Nam-Sun; Kim, Sunghwan

    2013-01-01

    Laser desorption ionization (LDI) coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used to analyze shale oils. Previous work showed that LDI is a sensitive ionization technique for assessing aromatic nitrogen compounds, and oils generated from Green River Formation oil shales are well-documented as being rich in nitrogen. The data presented here demonstrate that LDI is effective in ionizing high-double-bond-equivalent (DBE) compounds and, therefore, is a suitable method for characterizing compounds with condensed structures. Additionally, LDI generates radical cations and protonated ions concurrently, the distribution of which depends upon the molecular structures and elemental compositions, and the basicity of compounds is closely related to the generation of protonated ions. This study demonstrates that LDI FT-ICR MS is an effective ionization technique for use in the study of shale oils at the molecular level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that LDI FT-ICR MS has been applied to shale oils.

  19. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Accomplishments for the quarter are presented for the following areas of research: oil shale, tar sand, coal, advanced exploratory process technology, and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research includes; oil shale process studies, environmental base studies for oil shale, and miscellaneous basic concept studies. Tar sand research covers process development. Coal research includes; underground coal gasification, coal combustion, integrated coal processing concepts, and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes; advanced process concepts, advanced mitigation concepts, and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesa Verde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced recovery techniques; and menu driven access to the WDEQ Hydrologic Data Management Systems.

  20. Petrology and reservoir paragenesis in the Sussex 'B' sandstone of the upper Cretaceous Cody Shale, House Creek and Porcupine Fields, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Higley, D.K.

    1991-05-03

    Using petrologic and sedimentologic studies, the paper characterizes the influence of sedimentologic and petrologic variations on reservoir heterogeneity in the Sussex 'B' sandstone in the House Creek and Porcupine fields, Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Effects of authigenic minerals on reservoir properties are described in detail for selected inter-ridge and ridge facies sandstones.

  1. Modifications to the remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    Modifications to the water resources protection strategy detailed in the remedial action plan for the Green River, Utah, disposal site are presented. The modifications are based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. The modifications will result in compliance with the U.S. EPA proposed ground water standards (52 FR 36000 (1987)).

  2. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2004-01-01

    Part of the 2003 industrial minerals review. The legislation, production, and consumption of common clay and shale are discussed. The average prices of the material and outlook for the market are provided.

  3. Jonah field, sublette county, Wyoming: Gas production from overpressured Upper Cretaceous Lance sandstones of the Green River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, S.L.; Robinson, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    Jonah field, located in the northwestern Green River basin, Wyoming, produces gas from overpressured fluvial channel sandstones of the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation. Reservoirs exist in isolated and amalgamated channel facies 10-100 ft (3-30 m) thick and 150-4000 ft (45-1210 m) wide, deposited by meandering and braided streams. Compositional and paleocurrent studies indicate these streams flowed eastward and had their source area in highlands associated with the Wyoming-Idaho thrust belt to the west. Productive sandstones at Jonah have been divided into five pay intervals, only one of which (Jonah interval) displays continuity across most of the field. Porosities in clean, productive sandstones range from 8 to 12%, with core permeabilities of .01-0.9 md (millidarcys) and in-situ permeabilities as low as 3-20 ??d (microdarcys), as determined by pressure buildup analyses. Structurally, the field is bounded by faults that have partly controlled the level of overpressuring. This level is 2500 ft (758 m) higher at Jonah field than in surrounding parts of the basin, extending to the top part of the Lance Formation. The field was discovered in 1975, but only in the 1990s did the area become fully commercial, due to improvements in fracture stimulation techniques. Recent advances in this area have further increased recoverable reserves and serve as a potential example for future development of tight gas sands elsewhere in the Rocky Mountain region.

  4. Reproduction and environmental contamination in tree swallows nesting in the Fox River drainage and Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Allen, P.D.; Stromborg, K.L.; Melancon, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Concentration, accumulation, and effects of PCBs on reproduction in tree swallows (Tachycineata bicolor) were studied at four sites in the Fox River drainage and in Green Bay, Lake Michigan, Wisconsin in 1994 and 1995. Total PCBs in eggs and newly hatched young (mean = 3.01 ?g/g wet weight, years and sites combined) and 12-day-old nestlings (mean = 2.34 ?g/g wet weight) at two contaminated sites (Kidney Island and Arrowhead) were higher than concentrations at two reference sites, (Lake Poygan and High Cliff State Park, years and sites combined, pippers mean = 0.26 ?g/g, nestlings mean = 0.01 ?g/g). Concentrations of eleven PCB congener were also higher at contaminated compared to reference sites. PCBs accumulated in nestlings at a higher rate (1.34 6.69 ?g/day) at contaminated sites compared to reference locations (0.06 0.42 ?g/day). DDE was the only other organochlorine found in all samples; concentrations for all samples averaged < 0.20 ?g/g wet weight. Total PCBs and p,p'DDE concentrations did not differ among clutches where all eggs hatched, some eggs hatched, and no eggs hatched.

  5. Stresses and fractures in the Frontier Formation, Green River Basin, predicted from basin-margin tectonic element interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Natural fractures and in situ stresses commonly dictate subsurface reservoir permeability and permeability anisotropy, as well as the effectiveness of stimulation techniques in low-permeability, natural gas reservoirs. This paper offers an initial prediction for the orientations of the fracture and stress systems in the tight gas reservoirs of the Frontier Formation, in the Green River basin of southwestern Wyoming. It builds on a previous report that addressed fractures and stresses in the western part of the basin and on ideas developed for the rest of the basin, using the principle that thrust faults are capable of affecting the stress magnitudes and orientations in little-deformed strata several hundreds of kilometers in front of a thrust. The prediction of subsurface stresses and natural fracture orientations is an undertaking that requires the willingness to revise models as definitive data are acquired during drilling. The predictions made in this paper are offered with the caveat that geology in the subsurface is always full of surprises.

  6. Use of aerial videography to evaluate the effects of Flaming Gorge Dam operations on natural resources of the Green River

    SciTech Connect

    Snider, M.A.; Hayse, J.W.; Hlohowskyj, I.; LaGory, K.E.; Greaney, M.M.; Kuiper, J.A.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    Peaking hydropower operations can profoundly alter natural stream flow and thereby affect the natural resources dependent on these flows. In this paper, we describe how aerial videography was used to collect environmental data and evaluate impacts of hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam on natural resources of the Green River. An airborne multispectral video/radiometer remote sensing system was used to collect resource data under four different flow conditions from seven sites (each about one mile in length) located downstream from the dam. Releases from Flaming Gorge Dam during data collection ranged from approximately 800 to 4,000 cubic feet/sec (cfs), spanning most of the normal operating range for this facility. For each site a series of contiguous, non-overlapping images was prepared from the videotapes and used to quantify surface water area, backwater habitats, and areas of riparian vegetation under varying flow conditions. From this information, relationships between flow and habitat parameters were developed and used in conjunction with hydrologic modeling and ecological information to evaluate impacts of various modes of operation.

  7. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    At present, 150 companies produce common clay and shale in 41 US states. According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), domestic production in 2005 reached 24.8 Mt valued at $176 million. In decreasing order by tonnage, the leading producer states include North Carolina, Texas, Alabama, Georgia and Ohio. For the whole year, residential and commercial building construction remained the major market for common clay and shale products such as brick, drain tile, lightweight aggregate, quarry tile and structural tile.

  8. Airborne Trace Gas and Aerosol Measurements in Several Shale Gas Basins during the SONGNEX (Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus) Campaign 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warneke, C.; Trainer, M.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Oil and natural gas from tight sand and shale formations has increased strongly over the last decade. This increased production has been associated with emissions of methane, non-methane hydrocarbons and other trace gases to the atmosphere, which are concerns for air quality, climate and air toxics. The NOAA Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) aircraft campaign took place in 2015, when the NOAA WP-3 aircraft conducted 20 research flights between March 19 and April 27, 2015 in the following shale gas regions: Denver-Julesberg, Uintah, Upper Green River, San Juan, Bakken, Barnett, Eagle Ford, Haynesville, Woodford, and Permian. The NOAA P3 was equipped with an extensive set of gas phase measurements, including instruments for methane, ethane, CO, CO2, a new H3O+CIMS, canister and cartridge samples for VOCs, HCHO, glyoxal, HNO3, NH3, NOx, NOy, PANs, ozone, and SO2. Aerosol number and size distributions were also measured. This presentation will focus on an overview of all the measurements onboard the NOAA WP-3 aircraft and discuss the differences between the shale gas regions. Due to a drop in oil prices, drilling for oil decreased in the months prior to the mission, but nevertheless the production of oil and natural gas were near the all-time high. Many of the shale gas basins investigated during SONGNEX have quite different characteristics. For example, the Permian Basin is a well-established field, whereas the Eagle Ford and the Bakken saw an almost exponential increase in production over the last few years. The basins differ by the relative amounts of natural gas versus oil that is being produced. Previous work had shown a large variability in methane emissions relative to the production (leak rate) between different basins. By including more and qualitatively different basins during SONGNEX, the study has provided an extensive data set to address how emissions depend on raw gas composition, extraction techniques and regulation. The influence of these

  9. Energy map of southwestern Wyoming, Part B: oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R.H.; Wilson, Anna B.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled Part B of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI). Part B consists of oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar energy resource information in support of the WLCI. The WLCI represents the USGS partnership with other Department of the Interior Bureaus, State and local agencies, industry, academia, and private landowners, all of whom collaborate to maintain healthy landscapes, sustain wildlife, and preserve recreational and grazing uses while developing energy resources in southwestern Wyoming. This product is the second and final part of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming series (also see USGS Data Series 683, http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/683/), and encompasses all of Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, and Uinta Counties, as well as areas in Fremont County that are in the Great Divide and Green River Basins.

  10. Permeability of shale at elevated temperature and pressure: Test methodology and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, L.R.; Christian, T.L.

    1987-05-01

    A method of measuring the hydraulic conductivity of low permeability shale as a function of pressure and temperature has been developed and successfully demonstrated. Measurements have been performed on samples of Green River Formation up to a temperature of 140/sup 0/C. For flow parallel to bedding hydraulic conductivities increased nonlinearly from 1.75 x 10/sup -16/ m/s (1.6 x 10/sup -23/ m/sup 2/) at 25/sup 0/C, to 5.6 x 10/sup -15/ m/s (1.4 x 10/sup -22/ m/sup 2/) at 140/sup 0/C. This increase in permeability with temperature may reflect an increase in microcrack porosity resulting from the heating.

  11. Cytotoxic and mutagenic properties of shale oil byproducts. I. Activation of retort process waters with near ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Strniste, G.F.; Chen, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to dilutions of shale oil retort process waters obtained from three different retorting processes located in the Green River oil shale formations in the western part of the United States. Although the intensity of the response was dictated by the process water used, all induced a cytotoxic (reduction in colony-forming ability) and mutagenic (induced at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus) response in cells pretreated with dilutions of the waters and subsequent exposure to near ultraviolet light (NUV). Combinations of process water plus NUV yielded mutation frequencies as great as 50% that witnessed for the mutation frequency induced by the potent carcinogen far ultraviolet light. NUV alone was nontoxic and nonmutagenic at the doses of radiation used. Exposure of CHO cells in the dark to nontoxic dilutions of the process waters resulted in small but significant increases in 6-thioguanine resistent mutants (1-2 times background rates). The biological consequences resulting from the disposal of retort process waters into the delcate environment present in this oil shale region could be further complicated by this photoactivating process.

  12. Cytotoxic and mutagenic properties of shale oil byproducts. I. Activation of retort process waters with near ultraviolet light

    SciTech Connect

    Strniste, G.F.; Chen, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    Cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells were exposed to dilutions of shale oil retort process waters obtained from three different retorting processes located in the Green River oil shale formations in the western part of the United States. Although the intensity of the response was dictated by thd process water used, all induced a cytotoxic (reduction in colony-forming ability) and mutagenic (induced at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus) response in cells pretreated with dilutions of the waters and subsequent exposure to near ultraviolet light (NUV). Combinations of process water plus NUV yielded mutation frequencies as great as 50% that witnessed for the mutation frequency induced by the potent carcinogen far ultraviolet light. NUV alone was nontoxic and nonmutagenic at the doses of radiation used. Exposure of CHO cells in the dark to nontoxic dilutions of the process waters resulted in small but significant increases in 6-thioguanine resistant mutants. (1-2 time background rates). The biological consequences resulting from the disposal of retort process waters into the delicate environment present in this oil shale region could be further complicated by this photoactivating process.

  13. Examining cemented inverted channel deposits in Green River, Utah as an analog for inverted terrain on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanza, N.; Okubo, C. H.; Rampe, E. B.; Ollila, A. M.; Newsom, H. E.; Yurchyk, S.

    2009-12-01

    There have been numerous observations of long, relatively sinuous, positive relief landforms on Mars that appear morphologically similar to inverted channel deposits (ICDs) on Earth that represent exhumed fluvial sediments. ICDs initially form as bed sediments within active stream channels that subsequently become cemented, commonly by carbonates, iron oxides, or amorphous silica precipitated during evaporation. Subsequent deflation by aeolian processes reveals these sediments as positive relief features. Features such as the putative delta system in Eberswalde crater and the sinuous ridge in Miyamoto crater appear morphologically similar to terrestrial ICDs. The goal of this study is to better understand how terrestrial ICDs appear to remote sensing instruments that are similar to the ones currently orbiting Mars, and whether they have morphologic or spectroscopic characteristics that could help to identify them from orbit as paleofluvial deposits. Specifically, the presence of cement materials in conjunction with inverted terrain may help to identify potential ICDs on Mars. While carbonate is an unlikely cementing agent on Mars, both iron oxide and amorphous silica have been observed there. A terrestrial analog may be found in ICDs in the Cedar Mountain formation in Green River, Utah. Preliminary electron microprobe results indicate that the cement in these ICDs is primarily an amorphous silica (chalcedony) rather than a carbonate. If some martian inverted features are similarly cemented, they may not initially appear to be sedimentary features in infrared (IR) spectroscopy remote sensing data, especially if their constituent sediments are basaltic. We will show results from our initial laboratory examination of terrestrial ICD samples in mid-IR emission spectroscopy and compare these with remote sensing data of these ICDs in a similar band range from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) to identify features characteristic of

  14. Potential effects of four Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operational scenarios on the fishes of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Hlohowskyj, I.; Hayse, J.W.

    1995-09-01

    Aerial videography and modeling were used to evaluate the impacts of four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah, on trout and native fishes in the Green River, Utah and Colorado. The four operational scenarios studied were year-round high fluctuations, seasonally adjusted high fluctuations, seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuations, and seasonally adjusted steady flows. Impacts on trout were evaluated by examining differences among scenarios in the areas of inundated substrates that serve as spawning and feeding habitat. All scenarios would provide at least 23 acres per mile of habitat for spawning and food production; seasonally adjusted operations would provide additional areas during periods of sustained high release. Seasonally adjusted high fluctuations would increase inundated areas by 12 to 26% for a short period in winter and spring, but food production and reproduction would not be expected to increase. Seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuations and steady flows would produce similar increases in area, but the longer period of inundation could also result in increased food production and provide additional spawning sites for trout. Impacts on native fishes were assessed by examining daily changes in backwater nursery areas. Compared with year-round high fluctuations, the daily changes in backwater area would decrease by about 47, 89, and 100% under the seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, moderate fluctuation, and steady flow scenarios, respectively. Similarly, daily stage fluctuations during the nursery period would decrease by 72, 89, and 100% under the seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, moderate fluctuation, and steady flow scenarios, respectively. These reductions in daily fluctuations in backwater area and stage would improve conditions in nursery habitats and could in turn improve recruitment and overwinter survival. Introduced fish species could also benefit from the seasonally adjusted operational scenarios.

  15. Effect of Burial Depth on the Clumped Isotope Thermometer: An Example from the Green River and Washakie Basins (WY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, B.; Niemi, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    The mass-47 clumped isotope thermometer allows one to elucidate the temperature of carbonate formation and avoids speculation about the composition of precipitating water and/or oxygen composition of another mineral phase, as is required for conventional stable isotope thermometry. Recent studies have tried to reconstruct surface paleotemperatures to resolve paleoclimate or paleoelevation using this technique. Mass-47 measured from carbonates preserved in the geologic record; however, are potentially affected by burial and/or diagenetic alteration. These effects are poorly understood. Here we investigate the effect of burial on the ∆-47 composition of lacustrine carbonates. We collected samples, on the surface and recovered from drill cores, from two regions in the greater Green River Basin (Wyoming), the Washakie Basin and the Pinedale Anticline. Both basins were filled with thick, continuous Cretaceous - Eocene lacustrine strata. From these two sections, lacustrine carbonates were sampled over a paleodepth range of 1-6 km. The ∆-47 compositions of the carbonates have been measured over the first two kilometers of depth and the clumped temperatures compared with peak temperatures estimated from vitrinite reflectance, fluid inclusion thermometry and basin thermal models. Although slightly warmer than MAT estimates from Eocene paleosol geochemistry (~24°C), clumped isotope temperatures are consistently ~40°C across this depth range, similar to clumped-isotope paleotemperature estimates for the Eocene Bighorn Basin. Peak temperatures of the carbonate samples reached 120°C, while modern downhole temperatures of the deepest samples are 50°C. These results suggest that the ∆-47 thermometer preserves a record of surficial temperatures during Eocene time and that the ∆-47 thermometry is not apparently affected by burial to temperatures of at least 120°C. Effects of burial to greater depths (~6 km) and higher temperatures (~200°C) is in progress to evaluate

  16. Process for oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Jones, John B.; Kunchal, S. Kumar

    1981-10-27

    Particulate oil shale is subjected to a pyrolysis with a hot, non-oxygenous gas in a pyrolysis vessel, with the products of the pyrolysis of the shale contained kerogen being withdrawn as an entrained mist of shale oil droplets in a gas for a separation of the liquid from the gas. Hot retorted shale withdrawn from the pyrolysis vessel is treated in a separate container with an oxygenous gas so as to provide combustion of residual carbon retained on the shale, producing a high temperature gas for the production of some steam and for heating the non-oxygenous gas used in the oil shale retorting process in the first vessel. The net energy recovery includes essentially complete recovery of the organic hydrocarbon material in the oil shale as a liquid shale oil, a high BTU gas, and high temperature steam.

  17. Radioactivity and uranium content of some Cretaceous shales, central Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tourtelot, Harry A.

    1955-01-01

    The Sharon Springs member of the Pierre shale of Cretaceous age, a hard black organic-rich shale similar to the Chattanooga shale, is radioactive throughout central and western South Dakota, most of Nebraska, northern Kansas, and northeastern Colorado. In the Missouri River valley, thin beds of the shale contain as much as 0.01 percent uranium. Beds as much as 20 feet thick or more have a radioactivity of about 0.01 percent equivalent uranium in southwestern Nebraska according to interpretation of gamma-ray well logs. The radioactivity and uranium content is highest in the Missouri River valley in South Dakota and in southwestern Nebraska where the shale rests disconformably on the underlying Niobrara formation of Cretaceous age. Near the Black Hills, and in the area to the north, the shale of the Sharon Springs member rests on a wedge of the Gammon ferruginous member of the Pierre, which is represented by a disonformity to the east and south, and the radioactivity of the shale is low although greater than that of over-lying strata. The shale also contains a suite of trace elements in which arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and vanadium are conspicuous. Molybdenum and tin are less abundant in the Sharon Springs than in similar shales of Palezoic age and silver and selenium are more abundant. In the Great Plains region, the upper 30-50 feet of Cretaceous shales overlain unconformably by the White River group of Oligocene age has been altered to bright-colored material. This altered zone is chiefly the result of pre-Oligocene weathering although post-Oligocene ground water conditions also have affected the zone. The greatest radioactivity occurs in masses of unaltered shale measuring about 1 x 4 feet in cross section included in the lower part of the altered zone. Where the zone is developed on shale and marl of the Niobrara formation, parts of the included unaltered shale contains as much as 0.1 percent equivalent uranium and 0

  18. Oil shale retort apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.; Mast, Earl L.; Greaves, Melvin J.

    1990-01-01

    A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

  19. Eastern Gas Shales Project

    SciTech Connect

    Koen, A.D.

    1981-05-01

    The Eastern Gas Shales Project (EGSP), the DOE study to obtain reliable estimates of economically recoverable gas from shale formations in the Appalachian basin, has determined that between 20 and 50 TCF of gas can be recovered from the region. The EGSP final report states that the expected (mean) total economically recoverable gas is 20.2 TCF, with a standard deviation of 1.6 TCF, conditional on the use of shooting technology on 160-acre well spacing. If shooting technology is used and 160-acre well spacing maintained a 95% probability exists that the total recoverable gas from Appalachian basin Devonian shale is between 17.06 and 23.34 TCF.

  20. Oil shale: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    This report documents the status of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oil Shale Program as of the end of FY 86. The report consists of (1) a status of oil shale development, (2) a description of the DOE Oil Shale Program, (3) an FY 86 oil shale research summary, and (4) a summary of FY 86 accomplishments. Discoveries were made in FY 86 about the physical and chemical properties and behavior of oil shales, process chemistry and kinetics, in situ retorting, advanced processes, and the environmental behavior and fate of wastes. The DOE Oil Shale Program shows an increasing emphasis on eastern US oil shales and in the development of advanced oil shale processing concepts. With the award to Foster Wheeler for the design of oil shale conceptual plants, the first step in the development of a systems analysis capability for the complete oil shale process has been taken. Unocal's Parachute Creek project, the only commercial oil shale plant operating in the United States, is operating at about 4000 bbl/day. The shale oil is upgraded at Parachute Creek for input to a conventional refinery. 67 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Spatial and temporal use of a spawning site in the middle green river by wild and hatchery-reared razorback suckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Modde, T.; Bowen, Z.H.; Kitcheyan, D.C.

    2005-01-01

    The population of endangered razorback suckers Xyrauchen texanus in the middle Green River (upper Colorado River basin) has declined during the last 40 years. The apparent cause for this decline is a lack of successful recruitment. This study used radiotelemetry to evaluate the ability of hatchery-reared razorback suckers to locate spawning areas where wild fish congregate during the ascending hydrographic limb of the snowmelt runoff. Hatchery-reared razorback suckers appeared to show similar reproductive behavior to wild fish. Both wild and hatchery-reared fish were found near the middle Green River spawning area between 1 and 25 May 2000. Hatchery fish occupied the same areas on the spawning site as wild fish, and remained on the spawning site during both nocturnal and diurnal hours. Males were more abundant on the spawning area than females, but the few females captured tended to stage away from the primary spawning area. The results from this study suggest hatchery-reared fish are capable of responding to natural cues that prompt spawning aggregations and are successful in locating existing spawning aggregations of wild fish. Given attention to stocking criteria, including genetic diversity and the size and time of stocking, the challenges of recovering razorback suckers will center on those factors that led to the population declines, particularly the survival of early life stages in off-channel habitats. ?? American Fisheries Society 2005.

  2. Maintaining population persistence in the face of an extremely altered hydrograph: implications for three sensitive fishes in a tributary of the Green River, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bottcher, Jared L.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of an organism to disperse to suitable habitats, especially in modified and fragmented systems, determines individual fitness and overall population viability. The bluehead sucker (Catostomus discobolus), flannelmouth sucker (Catostomus latipinnis), and roundtail chub (Gila robusta) are three species native to the upper Colorado River Basin that now occupy only 50% of their historic range. Despite these distributional declines, populations of all three species are present in the San Rafael River, a highly regulated tributary of the Green River, Utah, providing an opportunity for research. Our goal was to determine the timing and extent of movement, habitat preferences, and limiting factors, ultimately to guide effective management and recovery of these three species. In 2007-2008, we sampled fish from 25 systematically selected, 300-m reaches in the lower 64 km of the San Rafael River, spaced to capture the range of species, life-stages, and habitat conditions present. We implanted all target species with a passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag, installed a passive PIT tag antennae, and measured key habitat parameters throughout each reach and at the site of native fish capture. We used random forest modeling to identify and rank the most important abiotic and biotic predictor variables, and reveal potential limiting factors in the San Rafael River. While flannelmouth sucker were relatively evenly distributed within our study area, highest densities of roundtail chub and bluehead sucker occurred in isolated, upstream reaches characterized by complex habitat. In addition, our movement and length-frequency data indicate downstream drift of age-0 roundtail chub, and active upstream movement of adult flannelmouth sucker, both from source populations, providing the lower San Rafael River with colonists. Our random forest analysis highlights the importance of pools, riffles, and distance-to-source populations, suggesting that bluehead sucker and roundtail

  3. Development and application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic techniques to the characterization of coal and oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The development of application programs for infrared spectroscopy has been an ongoing proposition for a number of years. This development, however, was accelerated with the advent of Fourier transform infared (FT-IR) instruments and their built-in mini-computers. The uses and pitfalls of several of these routines are discussed in this thesis. A least-squares curve resolving program has been developed and the use of this program is also discussed. The analysis of complex, multicomponent polymeric materials, such as coal and oil shale, by conventional infrared spectroscopy has been a difficult problem. The use of FT-IR spectroscopy for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of these types of materials is discussed. A characterization of oil shale from the Mahogany Zone of the Green River Formation has been obtained by FT-IR. A quantitative analysis of the mineral component by FT-IR spectroscopy is shown to be comparable to that obtained by x-ray diffraction when considering broad mineral types, i.e., carbonates. Methods for the FT-IR analysis of the organic component, both from the whole shale and from kerogen specimens, have been refined. There is a good correlation between the intensity of alkyl bands and Fisher assay yields. An assessment is made of the applicability of extinction coefficients obtained from paraffins to their use in quantitative analysis in oil shales. A quantitative analysis of OH content in coal by FT-IR is comparable to that done by other methods (i.e., chemical and NMR). An analysis is also made of the various types of OH groups in coal.

  4. Leachate migration from an in-situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glover, Kent C.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogeologic factors influencing leachate movement from an in-situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming, were investigated through models of ground-water flow and solute transport. Leachate, indicated by the conservative ion thiocyanate, has been observed ? mile downgradient from the retort. The contaminated aquifer is part of the Green River Formation and consists of thin, permeable layers of tuff and sandstone interbedded with oil shale. Most solute migration has occurred in an 8-foot sandstone at the top of the aquifer. Ground-water flow in the study area is complexly three dimensional and is characterized by large vertical variations in hydraulic head. The solute-transport model was used to predict the concentration of thiocyanate at a point where ground water discharges to the land surface. Leachate with peak concentrations of thiocyanate--45 milligrams per liter or approximately one-half the initial concentration of retort water--was estimated to reach the discharge area during January 1985. This report describes many of th3 advantages, as well as the problems, of site-specific studies. Data such as the distribution of thin, permeable beds or fractures might introduce an unmanageable degree of complexity to basin-wide studies but can be incorporated readily into site-specific models. Solute migration in the study area occurs primarily in thin, permeable beds rather than in oil-shale strata. Because of this behavior, leachate traveled far greater distances than might otherwise have been expected. The detail possible in site-specific models permits more accurate prediction of solute transport than is possible with basin-wide models. A major problem in site-specific studies is identifying model boundaries that permit the accurate estimation of aquifer properties. If the quantity of water flowing through a study area cannot be determined prior to modeling, the hydraulic conductivity and ground-water velocity will be poorly estimated.

  5. Leachate migration from an in situ oil-shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glover, K.C.

    1986-01-01

    Geohydrologic factors influencing leachate movement from an in situ oil shale retort near Rock Springs, Wyoming, were investigated by developing models of groundwater flow and solute transport. Leachate, indicated by the conservative ion thiocyanate, has been observed 1/2 mi downgradient from the retort. The contaminated aquifer is part of the Green River Formation and consists of thin, permeable layers of tuff and sandstone interbedded with oil shale. Most solute migration has occurred in an 8-ft sandstone at the top of the aquifer. Groundwater flow in the study area is complexly 3-D and is characterized by large vertical variations in hydraulic head. The solute transport model was used to predict the concentration of thiocyanate at a point where groundwater discharges to the land surface. Leachates with peak concentrations of thiocyanate--45 mg/L or approximately one-half the initial concentration of retort water--were estimated to reach the discharge area during January 1985. Advantages as well as the problems of site specific studies are described. Data such as the distribution of thin permeable beds or fractures may introduce an unmanageable degree of complexity to basin-wide studies but can be incorporated readily in site specific models. Solute migration in the study area primarily occurs in thin permeable beds rather than in oil shale strata. Because of this behavior, leachate traveled far greater distances than might otherwise have been expected. The detail possible in site specific models permits more accurate prediction of solute transport than is possible with basin-wide models. A major problem in site specific studies is identifying model boundaries that permit the accurate estimation of aquifer properties. If the quantity of water flowing through a study area cannot be determined prior to modeling, the hydraulic conductivity and groundwater velocity will be estimated poorly. (Author 's abstract)

  6. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.; Walton, O.; Lewis, A.E.; Braun, R.

    1983-09-21

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650 to 700/sup 0/C for use as a process heat source.

  7. Solar retorting of oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus and method for retorting oil shale using solar radiation. Oil shale is introduced into a first retorting chamber having a solar focus zone. There the oil shale is exposed to solar radiation and rapidly brought to a predetermined retorting temperature. Once the shale has reached this temperature, it is removed from the solar focus zone and transferred to a second retorting chamber where it is heated. In a second chamber, the oil shale is maintained at the retorting temperature, without direct exposure to solar radiation, until the retorting is complete.

  8. Combustion heater for oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.; Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.

    1985-01-01

    A combustion heater for oil shale heats particles of spent oil shale containing unburned char by burning the char. A delayed fall is produced by flowing the shale particles down through a stack of downwardly sloped overlapping baffles alternately extending from opposite sides of a vertical column. The delayed fall and flow reversal occurring in passing from each baffle to the next increase the residence time and increase the contact of the oil shale particles with combustion supporting gas flowed across the column to heat the shale to about 650.degree.-700.degree. C. for use as a process heat source.

  9. Long term effects of CO2 on 3-D pore structure and 3-D phase distribution in reservoir sandstones from the Green River well (Utah, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhoorn, Auke; Kisoensingh, Shailesh

    2014-05-01

    Reservoir sandstones and cap rocks from the Green River area in Utah (USA) have been naturally exposed to CO2 fluids for hundreds of thousands of years, leading to compositional and microstructural alterations of the rocks. A 300m long section of this section of these Green river reservoir and cap rocks has been cored in 2012. Here, results of a high-resolution micro X-ray tomography study of a suite of samples from the well are reported detailing the 3D pore structure and phase distribution changes due to long term CO2 exposure. The reservoir sandstones from the Green River well (Utah) reveal the presence of various degrees of carbonate precipitation in the pores. Both reservoir sandstones (the shallower Entrada Formation and the deeper Navajo Formation) show variations in carbonate content and porosity structure. The Entrada sandstone exhibits widespread carbonate precipitation (up to 60% of infill of the original porosity), with the largest amount of carbonates at the boundary with the underlying Carmel cap rock. In an interval of a meter from the contact, carbonate precipitation decreases sharply till ~20%. The porosity is significantly reduced in the lowest 1 meter. The reduction in porosity lead to a reduction in pore connectivity and thereby permeability by the long-term CO2 exposure. On the other hand the Navajo sandstone shows predominantly only isolated spots of carbonate precipitation (up to 20% of the original porosity). Widespread carbonate precipitation is absent in the Navajo reservoir sandstone samples. Because carbonate precipitation is not present throughout, the large-scale permeability of the formation is likely not significantly affected by the CO2 exposure. The results show how the 3D distribution of the phases and the 3D shapes of the pores are affected by long term CO2 exposure and can be used as an example for potential changes to be expected in reservoir sandstones due to CO2 storage in future CO2 sequestration endeavours.

  10. Histograms showing variations in oil yield, water yield, and specific gravity of oil from Fischer assay analyses of oil-shale drill cores and cuttings from the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dietrich, John D.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado contains over 1.5 trillion barrels of oil in place, making the basin the largest known oil-shale deposit in the world. Previously published histograms display oil-yield variations with depth and widely correlate rich and lean oil-shale beds and zones throughout the basin. Histograms in this report display oil-yield data plotted alongside either water-yield or oil specific-gravity data. Fischer assay analyses of core and cutting samples collected from exploration drill holes penetrating the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin can aid in determining the origins of those deposits, as well as estimating the amount of organic matter, halite, nahcolite, and water-bearing minerals. This report focuses only on the oil yield plotted against water yield and oil specific gravity.

  11. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Part of the 2000 annual review of the industrial minerals sector. A general overview of the common clay and shale industry is provided. In 2000, U.S. production increased by 5 percent, while sales or use declined to 23.6 Mt. Despite the slowdown in the economy, no major changes are expected for the market.

  12. Common clay and shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    Part of the 2002 industrial minerals review. The production, consumption, and price of shale and common clay in the U.S. during 2002 are discussed. The impact of EPA regulations on brick and structural clay product manufacturers is also outlined.

  13. Remedial Action Plan and final design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings at Green River, Utah. Volume 1, Text, Appendices A, B, and C: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, M.L.; Alkema, K.

    1991-03-01

    This Remedial Action Plan (RAP) has been developed to serve a threefold purpose. It presents the series of activities that are proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site located near Green River, Utah. It provides a characterization of the present conditions of the site. It also serves to document the concurrence of the state of Utah and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the remedial action. This agreement, upon execution by the DOE and the state of Utah, and concurrence by the NRC, becomes Appendix 8 of the Cooperative Agreement.

  14. Simulation of the reduction of runoff and sediment load resulting from the Gain for Green Program in the Jialingjiang catchment, upper region of the Yangtze River, China.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Seiji; Murakami, Shogo; Xu, Kai-Qin; Watanabe, Masataka

    2015-02-01

    A distributed catchment hydrologic model (Hydrological Simulation Program--FORTRAN; HSPF) with improved sediment production processes was used to evaluate the effect of restoration of cultivated land to forest on the reduction of runoff and sediment load in the Jialingjiang basin, which forms part of the Yangtze River basin, China. The simulation results showed that restoration to forest reduced sediment production even in the case of minimum restoration at a threshold catchment slope of 25°, as advocated in the "Gain for Green Program " planned by the Chinese government, even though reduction of the peak flow rate in the river channel was small. The increase in forest area resulting from lowering of the threshold catchment slope reduced sediment production further. PMID:25463578

  15. Feldspar dissolution kinetics and Gibbs free energy dependence in a CO 2-enriched groundwater system, Green River, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampman, Niko; Bickle, Mike; Becker, John; Assayag, Nelly; Chapman, Hazel

    2009-07-01

    Reactions between CO 2-charged brines and reservoir minerals might either enhance the long-term storage of CO 2 in geological reservoirs or facilitate leakage by corroding cap rocks and fault seals. Modelling the progress of such reactions is frustrated by uncertainties in the absolute mineral surface reaction rates and the significance of other rate limiting steps in natural systems. Here we use the chemical evolution of groundwater from the Jurassic Navajo Sandstone, part of a leaking natural accumulation of CO 2 at Green River, Utah, in the Colorado Plateau, USA, to place constraints on the rates and potential controlling mechanisms of the mineral-fluid reactions, under elevated CO 2 pressures, in a natural system. The progress of individual reactions, inferred from changes in groundwater chemistry is modelled using mass balance techniques. The mineral reactions are close to stoichiometric with plagioclase and K-feldspar dissolution largely balanced by precipitation of clay minerals and carbonate. Mineral modes, in conjunction with published surface area measurements and flow rates estimated from hydraulic head measurements, are then used to quantify the kinetics of feldspar dissolution. Maximum estimated dissolution rates for plagioclase and K-feldspar are 2 × 10 - 14 and 4 × 10 - 16 mol m - 2 s - 1 , respectively. Fluid ion-activity products are close to equilibrium (e.g. Δ Gr for plagioclase between - 2 and - 10 kJ/mol) and lie in the region in which mineral surface reaction rates show a strong dependence on Δ Gr. Local variation in Δ Gr is attributed to the injection and disassociation of CO 2 which initially depresses silicate mineral saturation in the fluid, promoting feldspar dissolution. With progressive flow through the aquifer feldspar hydrolysis reactions consume H + and liberate solutes to solution which increase mineral saturation in the fluid and rates slow as a consequence. The measured plagioclase dissolution rates at low Δ Gr of 2 × 10

  16. Effect of organic-matter type and thermal maturity on methane adsorption in shale-gas systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Ruppel, Stephen C.; Milliken, Kitty; Yang, Rongsheng

    2012-01-01

    A series of methane (CH4) adsorption experiments on bulk organic rich shales and their isolated kerogens were conducted at 35 °C, 50 °C and 65 °C and CH4 pressure of up to 15 MPa under dry conditions. Samples from the Eocene Green River Formation, Devonian–Mississippian Woodford Shale and Upper Cretaceous Cameo coal were studied to examine how differences in organic matter type affect natural gas adsorption. Vitrinite reflectance values of these samples ranged from 0.56–0.58 %Ro. In addition, thermal maturity effects were determined on three Mississippian Barnett Shale samples with measured vitrinite reflectance values of 0.58, 0.81 and 2.01 %Ro. For all bulk and isolated kerogen samples, the total amount of methane adsorbed was directly proportional to the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the sample and the average maximum amount of gas sorption was 1.36 mmol of methane per gram of TOC. These results indicate that sorption on organic matter plays a critical role in shale-gas storage. Under the experimental conditions, differences in thermal maturity showed no significant effect on the total amount of gas sorbed. Experimental sorption isotherms could be fitted with good accuracy by the Langmuir function by adjusting the Langmuir pressure (PL) and maximum sorption capacity (Γmax). The lowest maturity sample (%Ro = 0.56) displayed a Langmuir pressure (PL) of 5.15 MPa, significantly larger than the 2.33 MPa observed for the highest maturity (%Ro > 2.01) sample at 50 °C. The value of the Langmuir pressure (PL) changes with kerogen type in the following sequence: type I > type II > type III. The thermodynamic parameters of CH4 adsorption on organic rich shales were determined based on the experimental CH4 isotherms. For the adsorption of CH4 on organic rich shales and their isolated kerogen, the heat of adsorption (q) and the standard entropy (Δs0) range from 7.3–28.0 kJ/mol and from −36.2 to −92.2 J/mol/K, respectively.

  17. Evaluation of energies of interaction correlated with observed stabilities and rheological properties of asphalt-aggregate mixtures of western shale-oil residue as a modifier to petroleum asphalt

    SciTech Connect

    Tauer, J.E.; Ensley, E.K.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Robertson, R.E.

    1993-02-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of improving bonding and aging characteristics using a distillation residue from the Green River Formation (western) shale oil as a modifier to a petroleum asphalt for use as a crack and joint filler material in portland cement concrete and asphaltic pavements. This study was to examine the differences in moisture damage resistance and adhesion properties, as measured by bonding energy, of shale-oil modified asphalts compared with non-modified asphalts. The shale-oil modified asphalts mechanical properties were not expected to match those of the rubberized asphalt. A commercially available rubberized asphalt crack and joint filler material was also tested only for comparison of mechanical properties. Portland cement concrete briquets prepared with an asphalt material sandwiched between two concrete wafers were tested in a stress-relaxation type of experiment to evaluate the relaxation and recovery properties of the sealant materials. Energy of interaction (bonding energy) measurements were performed on asphalt materials with portland cement concrete, two silicate aggregates, and a limestone aggregate to evaluate the compatibility of the asphalt materials with various aggregates. The results show that the shale-oil modified petroleum asphalt improved the relaxation time, percent recovery, and bonding energy compared with the petroleum asphalt.

  18. Porosity and permeability of eastern Devonian gas shale

    SciTech Connect

    Soeder, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    High-precision core analysis has been performed on eight samples of Devonian gas shale from the Appalachian Basin. Seven of the core samples consist of the Upper Devonian age Huron Member of the Ohio Shale, six of which came from wells in the Ohio River valley, and the seventh from a well in east-central Kentucky. The eighth core sample consists of Middle Devonian age Marcellus Shale obtained from a well in Morgantown, West Virginia. The core analysis was originally intended to supply accurate input data for Devonian shale numerical reservoir simulation. Unexpectedly, the results have also shown that there are a number of previously unknown factors which influence or control gas production from organic-rich shales of the Appalachian Basin. The presence of petroleum as a mobile liquid phase in the pores of all seven Huron Shale samples effectively limits the gas porosity of this formation to less than 0.2%, and permeability of the rock matrix to gas is less than 0.1 microdarcy at reservoir stress. The Marcellus Shale core, on the other hand, was free of a mobile liquid phase and had a measured gas porosity of approximately 10% under stress with a fairly strong ''adsorption'' component. Permeability to gas (K/sub infinity/ was highly stress-dependent, ranging from about 20 microdarcies at a net stress of 3000 psi down to about 5 microdarcies at a net stress of 6000 psi. The conclusion reached from this study is that Devonian shale in the Appalachian Basin is a considerably more complex natural gas resource than previously thought. Production potential varies widely with geographic location and stratigraphy, just as it does with other gas and oil resources. 15 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Spatial heterogeneity of uranium isotope variations in a Phanerozoic, epicontintental black shale (Hushpuckney Shale, Swope Formation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, A. D.; Gordon, G. W.; Romaniello, S. J.; Algeo, T. J.; Anbar, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    It has recently been shown that substantial variations in the 238U/235U ratio exist in nature. The isotopic composition of seawater is ultimately driven by the relative sizes and isotopic signatures of the major sources and sinks. Rivers are the major sources of uranium to the ocean, and reducing sediments (mainly anoxic and suboxic sediments) are the major sinks. Under reducing conditions heavy uranium isotopes are sequestered preferentially. Because of the long residence time of uranium in the global ocean, and the relatively large fractionation during removal of uranium under reducing conditions, it has been suggested that the isotope composition of seawater might reflect changes in the redox state of the ocean and that such changes might be mirrored in black shales. Here we present uranium isotope variations of a Pennsylvanian black shale (Hushpuckney Shale; Swope Formation) from two cores from the same depositional basin (Late Paleozoic Midcontinent Sea; LPMS) to test whether global marine redox conditions can be determined from a single section in epicontinental settings. If uranium isotopes in epicontinental black shales can be used to quantify changes in redox changes of the global ocean, then contemporaneous black shales sections should have the same isotope trends and magnitudes. The Hushpuckney shale is one of several cyclothem core intervals that were deposited over large areas (tens of thousands of square kilometers) on continental crust during early transgression in response to the deglaciation of large icesheets in the southern hemisphere. The two cores investigated for this study represent a transect through the LPMS from close to the open ocean (SE Kansas) towards the shoreline (Iowa). The Hushpuckney shale can be easily identified and correlated in these two cores. Thus, it offers an excellent opportunity to test whether the uranium isotopic composition is similar across the basin and how much local redox conditions can play a role in faithfully

  20. Method of operating an oil shale kiln

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-05-23

    Continuously determining the bulk density of raw and retorted oil shale, the specific gravity of the raw oil shale and the richness of the raw oil shale provides accurate means to control process variables of the retorting of oil shale, predicting oil production, determining mining strategy, and aids in controlling shale placement in the kiln for the retorting.

  1. Groundwater well inventory and assessment in the area of the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project, Green River Basin, Wyoming, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweat, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    During May through September 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, inventoried and assessed existing water wells in southwestern Wyoming for inclusion in a possible groundwater-monitor network. Records were located for 3,282 wells in the upper Green River Basin, which includes the U.S. Geological Survey study area and the proposed Normally Pressured Lance natural gas development project area. Records for 2,713 upper Green River Basin wells were determined to be unique (not duplicated) and to have a Wyoming State Engineers Office permit. Further, 376 of these wells were within the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area. Of the 376 wells in the U.S. Geological Survey Normally Pressured Lance study area, 141 well records had sufficient documentation, such as well depth, open interval, geologic log, and depth to water, to meet many, but not always all, established monitor well criteria. Efforts were made to locate each of the 141 wells and to document their current condition. Field crews were able to locate 121 of the wells, and the remaining 20 wells either were not located as described, or had been abandoned and the site reclaimed. Of the 121 wells located, 92 were found to meet established monitor well criteria. Results of the field efforts during May through September 2012, and specific physical characteristics of the 92 wells, are presented in this report.

  2. Effects of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on sediment transport in the Browns Park reach of the Green River, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, G.P.; Tomasko, D.; Cho, H.E.; Yin, S.C.L.

    1995-05-01

    Three methods for comparing sediment transport were applied to four proposed hydropower operational scenarios under study for Flaming Gorge Dam on the Green River in Utah. These methods were effective discharge, equilibrium potential, and cumulative sediment load with flow exceedance plots. Sediment loads transported by the Green River in the Browns Park reach were calculated with the Engelund-Hansen equation for three historical water years and four hydropower operational scenarios. A model based on the Engelund-Hansen equation was developed using site-specific information and validated by comparing predictions for a moderate water year with measured historical values. The three methods were used to assess the impacts of hydropower operational scenarios on sediment resources. The cumulative sediment load method provided the most useful information for impact evaluation. Effective discharge was not a useful tool because of the limited number of discrete flows associated with synthetic hydrographs for the hydropower operational scenarios. The equilibrium potential method was relatively insensitive to the variations in operating conditions, rendering it comparatively ineffective for impact evaluation.

  3. Assessment of potential shale-oil and shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Nelson, Philip H.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Wandrey, Craig J.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 11 million barrels of potential shale-oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale-gas resources in Silurian shales of Jordan.

  4. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Progress made in five areas of research is described briefly. The subtask in oil shale research is on oil shale process studies. For tar sand the subtask reported is on process development. Coal research includes the following subtasks: Coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes the following: Advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sup 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residua; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process;NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of Mowry formation shale from different sedimentary basins; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

  5. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Progress made in five research programs is described. The subtasks in oil shale study include oil shale process studies and unconventional applications and markets for western oil shale.The tar sand study is on recycle oil pyrolysis and extraction (ROPE) process. Four tasks are described in coal research: underground coal gasification; coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and sold waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research covers: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; NMR analysis of sample from the ocean drilling program; and menu driven access to the WDEQ hydrologic data management system.

  6. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Speight, J.G.

    1992-12-31

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are presented for the following five tasks: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale research covers oil shale process studies. Tar sand research is on process development of Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) Process. Coal research covers: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology includes: advanced process concepts;advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; PGI demonstration project; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin, tight gas sands; flow-loop testing of double-wall pipe for thermal applications; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; NMR analysis of samples from the ocean drilling program; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; and solid state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens.

  7. Environmental baselines: preparing for shale gas in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, John; Manamsa, Katya; Bell, Rachel; Darling, George; Dochartaigh, Brighid O.; Stuart, Marianne; Ward, Rob

    2014-05-01

    Groundwater is a vital source of freshwater in the UK. It provides almost 30% of public water supply on average, but locally, for example in south-east England, it is constitutes nearly 90% of public supply. In addition to public supply, groundwater has a number of other uses including agriculture, industry, and food and drink production. It is also vital for maintaining river flows especially during dry periods and so is essential for maintaining ecosystem health. Recently, there have been concerns expressed about the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater. The UK has abundant shales and clays which are currently the focus of considerable interest and there is active research into their characterisation, resource evaluation and exploitation risks. The British Geological Survey (BGS) is undertaking research to provide information to address some of the environmental concerns related to the potential impacts of shale gas development on groundwater resources and quality. The aim of much of this initial work is to establish environmental baselines, such as a baseline survey of methane occurrence in groundwater (National methane baseline study) and the spatial relationships between potential sources and groundwater receptors (iHydrogeology project), prior to any shale gas exploration and development. The poster describes these two baseline studies and presents preliminary findings. BGS are currently undertaking a national survey of baseline methane concentrations in groundwater across the UK. This work will enable any potential future changes in methane in groundwater associated with shale gas development to be assessed. Measurements of methane in potable water from the Cretaceous, Jurassic and Triassic carbonate and sandstone aquifers are variable and reveal methane concentrations of up to 500 micrograms per litre, but the mean value is relatively low at < 10 micrograms per litre. These values compare with much higher levels of methane in aquicludes

  8. Shale oil recovery process

    DOEpatents

    Zerga, Daniel P.

    1980-01-01

    A process of producing within a subterranean oil shale deposit a retort chamber containing permeable fragmented material wherein a series of explosive charges are emplaced in the deposit in a particular configuration comprising an initiating round which functions to produce an upward flexure of the overburden and to initiate fragmentation of the oil shale within the area of the retort chamber to be formed, the initiating round being followed in a predetermined time sequence by retreating lines of emplaced charges developing further fragmentation within the retort zone and continued lateral upward flexure of the overburden. The initiating round is characterized by a plurality of 5-spot patterns and the retreating lines of charges are positioned and fired along zigzag lines generally forming retreating rows of W's. Particular time delays in the firing of successive charges are disclosed.

  9. Transport problems of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.I.; Yen, T.F.

    1982-08-01

    Commercial recovery of oil from oil shale is based on thermal decomposition of its solid organic materials, mainly kerogen. The term retorting, as applied to oil shale, signifies the process of applying heat to decompose the oil shale into kerogen products and by-products which then yield the shale oil or gas. The major phenomena that need to be understood are the mechanisms through which shale oil is released, the pressure drop across the shale bed, as well as the heat transmission and the mass transport problems. Frequently retorting process is often treated empirically, without benefit of a thorough understanding of the phenomena involved. A summary of recent advances in the modeling of retorting processes is needed to give a status review.

  10. Oil shale retort apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, A.A.; Mast, E.L.; Greaves, M.J.

    1990-08-14

    A retorting apparatus is described including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or rock chimneys'', through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln. 29 figs.

  11. Preservation of primary lake signatures in alkaline earth carbonates of the Eocene Green River Wilkins Peak-Laney Member transition zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, John T.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Pietras, Jeffrey T.

    2014-12-01

    Significant changes in carbonate mineralogy, texture, and stable isotope composition occur at the transition from the Wilkins Peak Member to the Laney Member in the Eocene Green River Formation, Bridger Basin, Wyoming, which reflect evolution of inflow waters, lake waters, and paleoenvironments. The top of the Wilkins Peak Member contains heterogeneous laminae of calcite and dolomite. Evaporites associated with these layers suggest deposition in hypersaline lakes. Diagenetic carbonate mineral textures include euhedral cement overgrowths and interlocking mosaics of calcite and dolomite crystals, 20-70 μm in size. Electron microprobe analyses indicate diagenetic overgrowth of Fe-rich dolomite on cloudy Fe-poor cores. δ18O values of carbonate laminae in the upper Wilkins Peak Member vary by ~ 6‰ with no depth dependent or mineralogic trends, which also suggests diagenetic overprinting. Alternating organic-rich and primary aragonite, calcite, and dolomite laminae were identified from the lower Laney Member. Primary lacustrine aragonite consists of well sorted, prismatic crystals 5-10 μm in length, with micro-lamination defined by crystal size variation. Primary precipitated calcite and dolomite laminae are monominerallic, with well sorted polyhedral crystals, ~ 10 μm in size. Primary mineralogy of the lower Laney Member changes from calcite to aragonite and dolomite stratigraphically upward. Along the same 15 m thick stratigraphic interval, δ18O values decrease upward by ~ 3‰, all of which suggests (1) lake waters underwent evaporative concentration, which together with calcite precipitation increased the lake water Mg/Ca ratios and led to formation of aragonite and dolomite, (2) source waters became lower in δ18O, possibly as inflow changed to higher altitude foreland rivers. The results from this study show that understanding the primary lacustrine versus diagenetic origin of Green River carbonate minerals is essential for paleoenvironmental and

  12. Apparatus for oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Arthur E.; Braun, Robert L.; Mallon, Richard G.; Walton, Otis R.

    1986-01-01

    A cascading bed retorting process and apparatus in which cold raw crushed shale enters at the middle of a retort column into a mixer stage where it is rapidly mixed with hot recycled shale and thereby heated to pyrolysis temperature. The heated mixture then passes through a pyrolyzer stage where it resides for a sufficient time for complete pyrolysis to occur. The spent shale from the pyrolyzer is recirculated through a burner stage where the residual char is burned to heat the shale which then enters the mixer stage.

  13. Investigating Rare Earth Element Systematics in the Marcellus Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Torres, M. E.; Kim, J. H.; Verba, C.

    2014-12-01

    The lanthanide series of elements (the 14 rare earth elements, REEs) have similar chemical properties and respond to different chemical and physical processes in the natural environment by developing unique patterns in their concentration distribution when normalized to an average shale REE content. The interpretation of the REE content in a gas-bearing black shale deposited in a marine environment must therefore take into account the paleoredox conditions of deposition as well as any diagenetic remobilization and authigenic mineral formation. We analyzed 15 samples from a core of the Marcellus Shale (Whipkey ST1, Greene Co., PA) for REEs, TOC, gas-producing potential, trace metal content, and carbon isotopes of organic matter in order to determine the REE systematics of a black shale currently undergoing shale gas development. We also conducted a series of sequential leaching experiments targeting the phosphatic fractions in order to evaluate the dominant host phase of REEs in a black shale. Knowledge of the REE system in the Marcellus black shale will allow us to evaluate potential REE release and behavior during hydraulic fracturing operations. Total REE content of the Whipkey ST1 core ranged from 65-185 μg/g and we observed three distinct REE shale-normalized patterns: middle-REE enrichment (MREE/MREE* ~2) with heavy-REE enrichment (HREE/LREE ~1.8-2), flat patterns, and a linear enrichment towards the heavy-REE (HREE/LREE ~1.5-2.5). The MREE enrichment occurred in the high carbonate samples of the Stafford Member overlying the Marcellus Formation. The HREE enrichment occurred in the Union Springs Member of the Marcellus Formation, corresponding to a high TOC peak (TOC ~4.6-6.2 wt%) and moderate carbonate levels (CaCO3 ~4-53 wt%). Results from the sequential leaching experiments suggest that the dominant host of the REEs is the organic fraction of the black shale and that the detrital and authigenic fractions have characteristic MREE enrichments. We present our

  14. Chemical quality and temperature of water in Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming and Utah, and the effect of the reservoir on the Green River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolke, E.L.; Waddell, Kidd M.

    1975-01-01

    The major tributaries to Flaming Gorge Reservoir contribute an average of about 97 percent of the total streamflow and 82 percent of the total load of dissolved solids. The Green River is the largest tributary, and for the 1957-72 water years it contributed 81 percent of the total streamflow and 70 percent of the total load of dissolved solids. The principal constituents in the tributary streamflow are calcium and sulfate during periods of lowest flow and calcium and bicarbonate during periods of highest flow. Flaming Gorge Dam was closed in November 1962, and the most significant load changes of chemical constituents due to the net effect of inflow, outflow, leaching, and chemical precipitation in the reservoir have been load changes of sulfate and bicarbonate. The average increase of dissolved load of sulfate in the reservoir for the 1969-72 water years was 110,000 tons (99,790 t) per year, which was 40,000 tons (36,287 t) per year less than for the 1963-66 water years. The average decrease of dissolved load of bicarbonate in the reservoir for 1969-72 was 40,000 tons (36,287 t) per year, which was the same as the decrease for 1963-66. Anaerobic conditions were observed in the deep, uncirculated part of the reservoir near the dam during the 1971 and 1972 water years, and anaerobic or near-anaerobic conditions were observed near the confluence of the Blacks Fork and Green River during the summers of 1971 and 1972. The water in Flaming Gorge Reservoir is in three distinct layers, and the upper two layers (the epilimnion and the metalimnion) mixed twice during each of the 1971-72 water years. The two circulation periods were in the spring and fall. The water in the deepest layer (the hypolimnion) did not mix with the waters of the upper zones because the density difference was too great and because the deep, narrow shape of the basin probably inhibits mixing. The depletion of flow in the Green River downstream from Flaming Gorge Dam between closure of the dam and the

  15. Re–Os geochronology of the lacustrine Green River Formation: Insights into direct depositional dating of lacustrine successions, Re–Os systematics and paleocontinental weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cumming, Vivien M.; Selby, David; Lillis, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    Lacustrine sedimentary successions provide exceptionally high-resolution records of continental geological processes, responding to tectonic, climatic and magmatic influences. These successions are therefore essential for correlating geological and climatic phenomena across continents and furthermore the globe. Producing accurate geochronological frameworks within lacustrine strata is challenging because the stratigraphy is often bereft of biostratigraphy and directly dateable tuff horizons. The rhenium–osmium (Re–Os) geochronometer is a well-established tool for determining precise and accurate depositional ages of marine organic-rich rocks. Lake systems with stratified water columns are predisposed to the preservation of organic-rich rocks and thus should permit direct Re–Os geochronology of lacustrine strata. We present Re–Os systematics from one of the world's best documented lacustrine systems, the Eocene Green River Formation, providing accurate Re–Os depositional dates that are supported by Ar–Ar and U–Pb ages of intercalated tuff horizons. Precision of the Green River Formation Re–Os dates is controlled by the variation in initial 187Os/188Os and the range of 187Re/188Os ratios, as also documented in marine systems. Controls on uptake and fractionation of Re and Os are considered to relate mainly to depositional setting and the type of organic matter deposited, with the need to further understand the chelating precursors of Re and Os in organic matter highlighted. In addition to geochronology, the Re–Os data records the 187Os/188Os composition of lake water (1.41–1.54) at the time of deposition, giving an insight into continental runoff derived from weathering of the geological hinterland of the Green River Formation. Such insights enable us to evaluate fluctuations in continental climatic, tectonic and magmatic processes and provide the ability for chemostratigraphic correlation combined with direct depositional dates. Furthermore

  16. Parachute Creek Shale Oil Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This pamphlet describes Union Oil's shale oil project in the Parachute Creek area of Garfield County, Colorado. The oil shale is estimated to contain 1.6 billion barrels of recoverable oil in the high Mahogany zone alone. Primarily a public relations publication, the report presented contains general information on the history of the project and Union Oil's future plans. (JMT)

  17. UPTAKE OF PLANAR POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS AND 2,3,7,8-SUBSTITUTED POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS AND DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS BY BIRDS NESTING IN THE LOWER FOX RIVER AND GREEN BAY, WI, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The uptake of persistent polychlorinated hydrocarbons (PCHs) by four avian species was investigated at upper trophic levels of two aquatic food chains of the lower Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin. ccumulation of total and specific planar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyc...

  18. Experimental testing of the transport-durability of shale lithics and its implications for interpreting the rock record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieber, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Detailed petrographic studies of shales show that they consist of a wide range of components, including a wide spectrum of composite particles that were contributed to the precursor muds in the form of high-water-content suspended floccules, bedload floccules, rip-up intraclasts, pedogenic aggregates, and fully lithified shale clasts. Experimental studies show that shale clasts of sand to silt size (shale lithics) can survive hundreds to thousands of kilometers of bedload transport. Observations of modern river and shelf muds reveal the common presence of shale lithics in these sediments, and suggest that a significant portion of ancient shale formations could potentially consist of reworked shale lithics and not, as commonly assumed, of primary composite particles such as clay floccules and organo-minerallic aggregates. Identification of shale lithics in the rock record presents challenges, but careful petrographic examination (using SEM and ion-milled samples) and case studies will help to develop robust criteria for recognition. The presented observations have manifold implications for the interpretation of many aspects of shales: mud transport and accumulation, sediment compaction and basin-fill modeling, and geochemical proxies. They emphasize the essential need for petrographic examination of shale samples before more advanced analyses are undertaken.

  19. ATOMISTIC MODELING OF OIL SHALE KEROGENS AND ASPHALTENES ALONG WITH THEIR INTERACTIONS WITH THE INORGANIC MINERAL MATRIX

    SciTech Connect

    Facelli, Julio; Pugmire, Ronald; Pimienta, Ian

    2011-03-31

    The goal of this project is to obtain and validate three dimensional atomistic models for the organic matter in both oil shales and oil sands. In the case of oil shales the modeling was completed for kerogen, the insoluble portion of the organic matter; for oil sands it was for asphaltenes, a class of molecules found in crude oil. The three dimensional models discussed in this report were developed starting from existing literature two dimensional models. The models developed included one kerogen, based on experimental data on a kerogen isolated from a Green River oil shale, and a set of six representative asphaltenes. Subsequently, the interactions between these organic models and an inorganic matrix was explored in order to gain insight into the chemical nature of this interaction, which could provide vital information in developing efficient methods to remove the organic material from inorganic mineral substrate. The inorganic substrate used to model the interaction was illite, an aluminum silicate oxide clay. In order to obtain the feedback necessary to validate the models, it is necessary to be able to calculate different observable quantities and to show that these observables both reproduce the results of experimental measurements on actual samples as well as that the observables are sensitive to structural differences between models. The observables that were calculated using the models include 13C NMR spectra, the IR vibrational spectra, and the atomic pair wise distribution function; these were chosen as they are among the methods for which both experimental and calculated values can be readily obtained. Where available, comparison was made to experiment results. Finally, molecular dynamic simulations of pyrolysis were completed on the models to gain an understanding into the nature of the decomposition of these materials when heated.

  20. Estimates of Shear Stress and Measurements of Water Levels in the Lower Fox River near Green Bay, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westenbroek, Stephen M.

    2006-01-01

    Turbulent shear stress in the boundary layer of a natural river system largely controls the deposition and resuspension of sediment, as well as the longevity and effectiveness of granular-material caps used to cover and isolate contaminated sediments. This report documents measurements and calculations made in order to estimate shear stress and shear velocity on the Lower Fox River, Wisconsin. Velocity profiles were generated using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) mounted on a moored vessel. This method of data collection yielded 158 velocity profiles on the Lower Fox River between June 2003 and November 2004. Of these profiles, 109 were classified as valid and were used to estimate the bottom shear stress and velocity using log-profile and turbulent kinetic energy methods. Estimated shear stress ranged from 0.09 to 10.8 dynes per centimeter squared. Estimated coefficients of friction ranged from 0.001 to 0.025. This report describes both the field and data-analysis methods used to estimate shear-stress parameters for the Lower Fox River. Summaries of the estimated values for bottom shear stress, shear velocity, and coefficient of friction are presented. Confidence intervals about the shear-stress estimates are provided.

  1. Fire and explosion hazards of oil shale

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The US Bureau of Mines publication presents the results of investigations into the fire and explosion hazards of oil shale rocks and dust. Three areas have been examined: the explosibility and ignitability of oil shale dust clouds, the fire hazards of oil shale dust layers on hot surfaces, and the ignitability and extinguishment of oil shale rubble piles. 10 refs., 54 figs., 29 tabs.

  2. Spatio-temporal Analysis on the Combined Impact of Long-term Climate and Landuse Changes on Blue and Green Water Dynamics over the Ohio River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, L.; Rajib, M. A.; Merwade, V.

    2015-12-01

    Impacts of climate and landuse change on the overall water availability can be analytically comprehended in terms of long-term trends in surface and subsurface hydrologic fluxes. The surface and subsurface fluxes can be represented in terms of blue water (BW; surface runoff and deep aquifer recharge) and green water (GW; soil water content and actual evapotranspiration). The objective of this study is to present a comprehensive assessment of the spatial and temporal trend of BW and GW under the historical climate and landuse data over the period of 1935 to 2014 in the Ohio River Basin (490,000 km2), and thereby, quantify the relative effects of climate and landuse changes on their long-term dynamics. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is used to simulate hydrologic fluxes for the Ohio River Basin by first changing both climate and landuse inputs, and then by only changing the climate input keeping landuse constant. The Mann-Kendall and Theil-Sen trend analyses over the whole basin show volumetric increase in both BW and GW. However, the trends reveal a regional pattern, where GW has increased significantly in the upper and lower parts of the basin in response to prominent landuse change. Whereas, BW has increased significantly only in the lower part that can be related to the significant change in precipitation there. The finding that BW is more affected by precipitation while landuse change is more influential in changing GW, is further supported from the BW and GW trend analyses at the individual sub-basin scale. The results from this study help to understand the collective influence of natural and anthropogenic impacts on hydrologic responses in the Ohio River basin, and thereby provide useful information for future water security and planning.

  3. Carbon sequestration in depleted oil shale deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, Alan K; Carroll, Susan A

    2014-12-02

    A method and apparatus are described for sequestering carbon dioxide underground by mineralizing the carbon dioxide with coinjected fluids and minerals remaining from the extraction shale oil. In one embodiment, the oil shale of an illite-rich oil shale is heated to pyrolyze the shale underground, and carbon dioxide is provided to the remaining depleted oil shale while at an elevated temperature. Conditions are sufficient to mineralize the carbon dioxide.

  4. Atmospheric Impacts of Marcellus Shale Gas Activities in Southwestern Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Presto, A. A.; Lipsky, E. M.; Saleh, R.; Donahue, N. M.; Robinson, A. L.

    2012-12-01

    Pittsburgh and the surrounding regions of southwestern Pennsylvania are subject to intensive natural gas exploration, drilling, and extraction associated with the Marcellus Shale formation. Gas extraction from the shale formation uses techniques of horizontal drilling followed by hydraulic fracturing. There are significant concerns about air pollutant emissions from the development and production of shale gas, especially methane emissions. We have deployed a mobile monitoring unit to investigate the atmospheric impacts of Marcellus Shale gas activities. The mobile sampling platform is a van with an on-board generator, a high-resolution GPS unit, cameras, and instrumentation for measuring methane, criteria gases (SO2, NOx, CO, O3), PM size distributions (scanning mobility particle sizer), black carbon mass (multi-angle absorption photometer), particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds (gas chromatograph with flame ionization detection), and meteorological data. A major advantage of the mobile sampling unit over traditional, stationary monitors is that it allows us to rapidly visit a variety of sites. Sampling at multiple sites allows us to characterize the spatial variability of pollutant concentrations related to Marcellus activity, particularly methane. Data collected from the mobile sampling unit are combined with GIS techniques and dispersion models to map pollutants related to Marcellus Shale operations. The Marcellus Shale gas activities are a major and variable source of methane. The background methane concentration in Pittsburgh is 2.1 +/- 0.2 ppm. However, two southwestern Pennsylvania counties with the highest density of Marcellus Shale wells, Washington and Greene Counties, have many areas of elevated methane concentration. Approximately 11% of the sampled sites in Washington County and nearly 50% of the sampled sites in Greene County have elevated (>2.3 ppm) methane concentrations, compared to 1.5% of sites with elevated

  5. Chemical Weathering of Black Shales and Rare Earth Element Composition of Surface Waters and Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannigan, R. E.; Johannesson, K. H.

    2001-05-01

    Weathering processes dominate the dissolved and suspended loads of most of the world's major rivers. Among sedimentary rocks, black shales are particularly sensitive to chemical weathering. Therefore, shale systems are useful for investigating the partitioning of chemical elements during chemical weathering. Recent studies, such as those by Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Ravizza and others, link chemical weathering of black shales to changes in marine isotopic composition. Rare earth elements (REE) have a unique chemistry and are ideal for such tracer studies. We explored the effect of modern chemical weathering of black shales on the hydrochemistry of surface and groundwaters in the Mohawk Valley of New York State. This region provides an ideal site for the investigation of trace element remobilization during the chemical weathering of black shales. In this region, surface and groundwaters, in intimate contact with black shales and have high dissolved metal concentrations presumably due to water-rock interactions. The extent to which the dissolved REE composition of the surface and ground waters retains the rock signature is, in someway related to the length of time that the water remains in contact with the rock. We compared the REE compositions of surface and groundwaters in areas draining black shale to those of waters draining regions of dolostone-limestone to explore the extent of metal release due to chemical weathering. Shale normalized REE patterns for stream waters exhibit slight heavy REE enrichments and, at some locations, LREE depletion. REE patterns of the waters normalized to their respective sediments show some LREE depletion. However, waters associated with the Little Falls dolomite show fractionation predominantly enriched in the heavy REEs. Differences between the black shale sites, recorded as light REE depletion and/or middle REE enrichment, may be related to the discharge of the streams and the total dissolved solids. The dissolved REE chemistry of

  6. USAF shale oil program status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, C. L.

    1984-01-01

    The test and evaluation program on shale derived fuel being conducted by the Air Force is intended to accomplish the minimum amount of testing necessary to assure both the safe use of shale oil derived turbine fuels in operational USAF aircraft and its compatibility with USAF handling systems. This program, which was designed to take advantage of existing R&D testing programs, began in 1981. However, due to a problem in acquiring the necessary fuel, the testing program was suspended until July 1983 when an additional sample of shale derived fuel was received. Tentatively, the Air Force is planning to make three relatively minor revisions to the procurement specifications requirements for the production shale derived fuel. These are: (1) Aromatic Contest (min) - 9% (by volume); (2) Nitrogen (max - 20 ppm by weight); and (3) Antioxidants - 9.1 g/100 gal (U.S.)

  7. Coal-shale interface detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, H., Jr. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal-shale interface detector for use with coal cutting equipment is described. The detector consists of a reciprocating hammer with an accelerometer to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  8. Coal-shale interface detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, P. H.; Burch, J. L.; Drost, E. J.; Stein, R. J. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A penetrometer for coal-shale interface detection is presented. It is used with coal cutting equipment consisting of a reciprocating hammer, having an accelerometer mounted thereon to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. Additionally, a pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface, and the outputs from the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  9. A new green anole lizard of the "Dactyloa" clade (Squamata: Dactyloidae) from the Magdalena river valley of Colombia .

    PubMed

    Velasco, Julián A; Hurtado-Gómez, Juan Pablo

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new species of Anolis from the Magdalena river valley in Colombia. The new species is morphologically similar to Anolis ibanezi and A. chocorum, but differs in body and dewlap color, and head scalation. We performed an exploratory multivariate analysis based on 15 morphological characteristics of the new species and A chocorum and found that differences between both species are mainly associated with head dimensions. A phylogenetic analysis based on morphological characters suggests that the new species is nested within the "Dactyloa" clade of Anolis. Finally, we discuss phylogenetic relationships and biogeographical affinities based in its distribution.  PMID:24872178

  10. Fracture toughness anisotropy in shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Michael R.; Meredith, Philip G.; Brantut, Nicolas; Crawford, Brian R.

    2016-03-01

    The use of hydraulic fracturing to recover shale gas has focused attention on the fundamental fracture properties of gas-bearing shales, but there remains a paucity of available experimental data on their mechanical and physical properties. Such shales are strongly anisotropic, so that their fracture propagation trajectories depend on the interaction between their anisotropic mechanical properties and the anisotropic in situ stress field in the shallow crust. Here we report fracture toughness measurements on Mancos shale determined in all three principal fracture orientations: Divider, Short Transverse, and Arrester, using a modified short-rod methodology. Experimental results for a range of other sedimentary and carbonate rocks are also reported for comparison purposes. Significant anisotropy is observed in shale fracture toughness measurements at ambient conditions, with values, as high as 0.72 MPa m1/2 where the crack plane is normal to the bedding, and values as low as 0.21 MPa m1/2 where the crack plane is parallel to the bedding. For cracks propagating nonparallel to bedding, we observe a tendency for deviation toward the bedding-parallel orientation. Applying a maximum energy release rate criterion, we determined the conditions under which such deviations are more or less likely to occur under more generalized mixed-mode loading conditions. We find for Mancos shale that the fracture should deviate toward the plane with lowest toughness regardless of the loading conditions.

  11. Early Jurassic black shales: Global anoxia or regional "Dead Zones"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Schootbrugge, B.; Payne, J.; Wignall, P.

    2012-12-01

    The so-called "Schwarzer Jura" or "Black Jurassic" in Germany is informally used to designate a series of organic-rich sediments that roughly span the Early Jurassic (201.6 - 175.6 Myr), and which culminate in the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event. Based on organic and inorganic geochemical as well as (micro)palaeontological data from several recently drilled cores, black shales deposited directly following the end-Triassic extinction (201.6 Ma) during the Hettangian are extremely similar to Toarcian black shales. Both events are characterized by laminated black shales that contain high amounts of the biomarker isorenieratane, a fossilized pigment derived from green sulphur bacteria. Furthermore, the two intervals show similar changes in phytoplankton assemblages from chromophyte (red) to chlorophyte (green) algae. Combined, the evidence suggests that photic zone euxinia developed repeatedly during the Early Jurassic, making wide swaths of shelf area inhospitable to benthic life. In the oceans today such areas are called "Dead Zones" and they are increasing in number and extent due to the combined effects of man-made eutrophication and global warming. During the Early Jurassic, regional anoxic events developed in response to flood basalt volcanism, which triggered global warming, increased run-off, and changes in ocean circulation. The patchiness of Early Jurassic anoxia allows comparisons to be made with present-day "Dead Zones", while at the same time ocean de-oxygenation in the past may serve to predict future perturbations in the Earth system.

  12. Economical and green biodiesel production process using river snail shells-derived heterogeneous catalyst and co-solvent method.

    PubMed

    Roschat, Wuttichai; Siritanon, Theeranun; Kaewpuang, Teadkait; Yoosuk, Boonyawan; Promarak, Vinich

    2016-06-01

    River snail shells-derived CaO was used as a heterogeneous catalyst to synthesize biodiesel via transesterification of palm oil with methanol. The shell materials were calcined in air at 600-1000°C for 3h. Physicochemical properties of the resulting catalysts were characterized by TGA-DTG, XRD, SEM, BET, XRF, FT-IR and TPD. CaO catalyzed transesterification mechanism of palm oil into biodiesel was verified. The effects of adding a co-solvent on kinetic of the reaction and %FAME yield were investigated. %FAME yield of 98.5%±1.5 was achieved under the optimal conditions of catalyst/oil ratio of 5wt.%; methanol/oil molar ratio of 12:1; reaction temperature of 65°C; 10%v/v of THF in methanol and reaction time of 90min. The results ascertained that river snail shells is a novel raw material for preparation of CaO catalyst and the co-solvent method successfully decreases the reaction time and biodiesel production cost. PMID:26995112

  13. A strategy for cross-calibrating U-Pb chronology and astrochronology of sedimentary sequences: An example from the Green River Formation, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machlus, Malka L.; Ramezani, Jahandar; Bowring, Samuel A.; Hemming, Sidney R.; Tsukui, Kaori; Clyde, William C.

    2015-03-01

    Astronomical calibration of the geological timescale has been limited until recently by the precision and accuracy of radioisotopic dates, especially for pre-Neogene records. Uncertainties for radioisotopic dates of older strata were typically much larger than a single precessional cycle, and dates were often sparse, leading to the practice of orbital tuning of cyclic strata in order to astronomically calibrate the desired interval. Ideally, in order to test the assumptions of astronomical calibration with geochronology, it is necessary that the precision of radioisotopic dates be comparable to the period of the cycle being tested. The new U-Pb CA-TIMS (chemical abrasion-thermal ionization mass spectrometry) zircon dates reported here conform to this precision requirement, with 2σ analytical uncertainties from ± 11 000 to ± 52 000 years for seven volcanic ashes from the Wilkins Peak Member of the Green River Formation. The zircon dates have simple distributions with few outliers and allow accurate estimations of the eruption ages with potential inaccuracies of less than precessional cycle. The Eocene Green River Formation (Wyoming, USA) has long been recognized as a record of cyclicly-deposited lacustrine sediments, and the abundant intercalated volcanic ashes make it a suitable place to test new approaches to astronomical calibration of cyclic strata. The abundance of different types of marker beds, including tuffs that are intercalated with the sedimentary cycles, guarantee an unambiguous correlation between sampling locations of dated tuffs on the margins of the basin and the basin center where the cyclicity is best developed, thus reducing any stratigraphic uncertainties to a fraction of (hypothesized) precession cycle. Tuning-based orbital age models, accepted by the previous geochronology, significantly deviate from the new geochronology, whereas a previously rejected model that assumes a short eccentricity period of 125 ky is now allowed. In order to test

  14. Sedimentary sulfur geochemistry of the Paleogene Green River Formation, western USA: Implications for interpreting depositional and diagenetic processes in saline alkaline lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuttle, Michele L.; Goldhaber, Martin B.

    1993-07-01

    The sulfur geochemistry of the lacustrine Paleogene Green River Formation (Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, USA) is unlike that of most marine and other lacustrine rocks. Distinctive chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical characteristics of the formation are pyrrhotite and marcasite, high contents of iron mineral sulfides strikingly enriched in 34S, cyclical trends in sulfur abundance and δ 34S values, and long-term evolutionary trends in δ 34S values. Analyses that identified and quantified these characteristics include carbonate-free abundance of organic carbon (0.13-47 wt%), total iron (0.31-13 wt%), reactive iron (>70% of total iron), total sulfur (0.02-16 wt%), acid-volatile monosulfide (S Av), disulfide (S Di > 70% of total sulfur), sulfate (S SO4) and organosulfur (S Org); isotopic composition of separated sulfur phases (δ 34S Di,Av up to +49‰); and mineralogy, morphology and paragenesis of sulfide minerals. Mineralogy, morphology, δ 34S Di,Av, and δ 34S Org have a distinctive relation, reflecting variable and unique depositional and early diagenetic conditions in the Green River lakes. When the lakes were brackish, dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria in the sediment produced H 2S, which initially reacted with labile iron to form pyrite framboids and more gradually with organic matter to form organosulfur compounds. During a long-lived stage of saline lake water, the amount of sulfate supplied by inflow decreased and alkalinity and pH of lake waters increased substantially. Extensive bacterial sulfate reduction in the water column kept lake waters undersaturated with sulfate minerals. A very high H 2S:SO 4 ratio developed in stagnant bottom water aided by the high pH that kinetically inhibited iron sulfidization. Progressive removal of H 2S by coeval formation of iron sulfides and organosulfur compounds caused the isotopic composition of the entire dissolved sulfur reservoir to evolve to δ 34S values much greater than that of inflow sulfate, which is

  15. Sedimentary sulfur geochemistry of the Paleogene Green River Formation, western USA: Implications for interpreting depositional and diagnetic processes in saline alkaline lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Tuttle, M.L.; Goldhaber, M.B. )

    1993-07-01

    The sulfur geochemistry of the lacustrine Paleogene Green River Formation is unlike that of most marine and lacustrine rocks. Chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical characteristics of the formation are pyrrhotite and marcasite, high contents of iron mineral sulfides enriched in [sup 34]S, cyclical trends in sulfur abundance and [delta][sup 34]S values, and long-term evolutionary trends in [delta][sup 34]S values. Mineralogy, morphology, [delta][sup 34]S[sub Di,Av], and [delta][sup 34]S[sub Org] have a distinctive relation, reflecting variable and unique depositional and early diagenetic conditions in the Green River lakes. When the lakes were brackish, dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria in the sediment produced H[sub 2]S, which initially reacted with labile iron to form pyrite framboids and more gradually with organic matter to form organosulfur compounds. During a long-lived stage of saline lake water, the amount of sulfate supplied by inflow decreased and alkalinity and pH of lake waters increased substantially. Extensive bacterial sulfate reduction in the water column kept lake waters undersaturated with sulfate minerals. A very high H[sub 2]S:SO[sub 4] ratio developed in stagnant bottom water aided by the high pH that kinetically inhibited iron sulfidization. Progressive removal of H[sub 2]S by coeval formation of iron sulfides and organosulfur compounds caused the isotopic composition of the entire dissolved sulfur reservoir to evolve to [delta][sup 34]S values much greater than that of inflow sulfate, which is estimated to have been +20[per thousand]. A six-million-year interval within Lake Uinta cores records this evolution as well as smaller systematic changes in [delta][sub 34]S, interpreted to reflect [approximately]100,000-year lake-level cycles. When porewater was exceptionally reducing, unstable FeS phases eventually recrystallized to pyrrhotite during diagenesis. A later reaction altered pyrrhotite to marcasite. 96 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Sedimentary sulfur geochemistry of the Paleogene Green River Formation, western USA: Implications for interpreting depositional and diagenetic processes in saline alkaline lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, M.L.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    The sulfur geochemistry of the lacustrine Paleogene Green River Formation (Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming, USA) is unlike that of most marine and other lacustrine rocks. Distinctive chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical characteristics of the formation are pyrrhotite and marcasite, high contents of iron mineral sulfides strikingly enriched in 34S, cyclical trends in sulfur abundance and ??34S values, and long-term evolutionary trends in ??34S values. Analyses that identified and quantified these characteristics include carbonate-free abundance of organic carbon (0.13-47 wt%), total iron (0.31-13 wt%), reactive iron (>70% of total iron), total sulfur (0.02-16 wt%), acid-volatile monosulfide (SAv), disulfide (SDi > 70% of total sulfur), sulfate (SSO4) and organosulfur (SOrg); isotopic composition of separated sulfur phases (??34SDi,Av up to +49???); and mineralogy, morphology and paragenesis of sulfide minerals. Mineralogy, morphology, ??34SDi,Av, and ??34SOrg have a distinctive relation, reflecting variable and unique depositional and early diagenetic conditions in the Green River lakes. When the lakes were brackish, dissimilatory sulfate-reducing bacteria in the sediment produced H2S, which initially reacted with labile iron to form pyrite framboids and more gradually with organic matter to form organosulfur compounds. During a long-lived stage of saline lake water, the amount of sulfate supplied by inflow decreased and alkalinity and pH of lake waters increased substantially. Extensive bacterial sulfate reduction in the water column kept lake waters undersaturated with sulfate minerals. A very high H2S:SO4 ratio developed in stagnant bottom water aided by the high pH that kinetically inhibited iron sulfidization. Progressive removal of H2S by coeval formation of iron sulfides and organosulfur compounds caused the isotopic composition of the entire dissolved sulfur reservoir to evolve to ??34S values much greater than that of inflow sulfate, which is estimated to have

  17. Combuston method of oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., John B.; Reeves, Adam A.

    1977-08-16

    A gravity flow, vertical bed of crushed oil shale having a two level injection of air and a three level injection of non-oxygenous gas and an internal combustion of at least residual carbon on the retorted shale. The injection of air and gas is carefully controlled in relation to the mass flow rate of the shale to control the temperature of pyrolysis zone, producing a maximum conversion of the organic content of the shale to a liquid shale oil. The parameters of the operation provides an economical and highly efficient shale oil production.

  18. Modification No. 2 to the remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Green River, Utah: Final

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Portions of the final Remedial Action Plan (RAP) for the Green River site, Volumes 1 and 2, Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC04-81AL16257, March 1991 (DOE, 1991) have been modified. The changes to the RAP are designated as RAP Modification No. 2. These changes have been placed in a three-ring binder that will supplement the original RAP (DOE, 1991), and include the following: addendum to the Executive Summary; Section 3.5 (Ground Water part of the Site Characterization Summary); Section 4.0 (Site Design); Section5.0 (Water Resources Protection Strategy Summary); Appendix D.5 (Ground Water Hydrology); and Appendix E (Ground Water Protection Strategy). In addition to these revisions, there have been editorial changes that clarify the text, but do not change the meaning. Also, certain sections of the document, which are included in the submittal for ease of review and continuity, have been updated to reflect the final ground water protection standards and the current UMTRA Project format and content of RAPs.

  19. Development of a SYBR green I-based quantitative RT-PCR for Ross River virus: Application in vector competence studies and antiviral drug evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dash, Paban Kumar; Agarwal, Ankita; Sharma, Shashi; Saha, Amrita; Joshi, Gaurav; Gopalan, Natarajan; Sukumaran, Devanathan; Parida, Man Mohan

    2016-08-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) is an emerging Alphavirus and is presently endemic in many parts of Oceania. Keeping in mind its emergence, we developed a molecular detection system and utilized it to study vector competence and evaluate activity of antiviral compounds against RRV. A SYBR Green I-based quantitative RT-PCR for detection of RRV was developed targeting the E2 gene, with a detection limit of 100 RNA copies/reaction. The specificity was confirmed with closely related Alphaviruses and Flaviviruses. The assay was applied to study the vector competence of Indian Aedes aegypti for RRV, which revealed 100% infection and dissemination rate with 75% transmission rate. Viral RNA was found in saliva as early as 3day post infection (dpi). Further application of the assay in antiviral drug evaluation revealed the superior in vitro activity of ribavirin compared to chloroquine in Vero cells. Successful demonstration of this assay to detect RRV in low titre mosquito samples makes it a sensitive tool in vector surveillance. This study also showed that Indian Ae. aegypti are well competent to transmit RRV highlighting the risk of its introduction to naïve territories across continents. Further validation of this assay, revealed its utility in screening of potential antivirals against RRV. PMID:27105737

  20. Coal as a source rock of petroleum and gas - a comparison between natural and artificial maturation of the Almond Formation coals, Greater Green River Basin in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Gonzalez, M.; MacGowan, D.B.; Surdam, R.C. )

    1993-01-01

    Organic petrological and geochemical studies demonstrate that the Almond Formation coals contain great unrecognized volumes of stored gas and oil. Oil is generated during maturation of hydrogen-rich vitrinite (desmocollinite) and liptinite macerals into exsudatinite (waxy oil) and inertinite solid residue. The waxy oil is initially stored in pores and vesicles. As the coal thermally matures, stored hydrocarbons are expelled from the pores and vesicles. This phase change causes a significant volume increase, which may overcome the storage capacity of these coals, fracturing them and allowing primary migration of hydrocarbons. Kinetic modeling, based on hydrous pyrolysis experiments, indicates that at the basin center, most oil generated and expelled from Almond coals has been thermally cracked to gas, whereas at the basin flank the oil-to-gas reaction is unimportant. During hydrous pyrolysis these coals expel up to 0.17 barrels of oil and 404 cubic feet of gas per ton of coal, indicating excellent generative capacity. Calculations of the volume of Upper Cretaceous coals in the Greater Green River at vitrinite reflectances between 0.9 and 1.7 percent indicate that these coals may have generated 24 billion barrels of oil and 66 trillion cubic feet of gas. 39 refs., 51 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. LLNL oil shale project review

    SciTech Connect

    Cena, R.J.

    1990-04-01

    Livermore's oil shale project is funded by two budget authorities, two thirds from base technology development and one third from environmental science. Our base technology development combines fundamental chemistry research with operation of pilot retorts and mathematical modeling. We've studied mechanisms for oil coking and cracking and have developed a detailed model of this chemistry. We combine the detailed chemistry and physics into oil shale process models (OSP) to study scale-up of generic second generation Hot-Recycled-Solid (HRS) retorting systems and compare with results from our 4 tonne-per-day continuous-loop HRS pilot retorting facility. Our environmental science program focuses on identification of gas, solid and liquid effluents from oil shale processes and development of abatement strategies where necessary. We've developed on-line instruments to quantitatively measure trace sulfur and nitrogen compounds released during shale pyrolysis and combustion. We've studied shale mineralogy, inorganic and organic reactions which generate and consume environmentally sensitive species. Figures, references, and tables are included with each discussion.

  2. RETORT. Oil Shale Retorting Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Eyberger, L.R.

    1992-02-26

    RETORT is a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the chemical and physical processes involved in the vertical retorting of a fixed or moving rubbled bed of oil shale. The model includes those processes believed to have the most important effects in either the hot-gas retorting mode or the forward combustion retorting mode. The physical processes are: axial convective transport of heat and mass, axial thermal dispersion, axial pressure drop, gas-solid heat transfer, intraparticle thermal conductivity, water evaporation and condensation, wall heat loss, and movement of shale countercurrent to flow of gas. The chemical reactions within the shale particles are: release of bound water, pyrolysis of kerogen, coking of oil, pyrolysis of char, decomposition of carbonate minerals, and gasification of residual organic carbon with CO2, H2O, and O2. The chemical reactions in the bulk-gas stream are: combustion and cracking of oil vapor, combustion of H2, CH4, CHx, and CO, and the water-gas shift. The RETORT model is meant to simulate adiabatic laboratory retorts and in situ retorts that have been prepared with fairly uniform lateral distribution of shale particle sizes, void volume, and permeability. The model`s main role is to calculate, as a function of time and axial location in the retort, the flow rate of the bulk-gas stream and the composition and temperature of both the fluid stream and the shale particles.

  3. RETORT. Oil Shale Retorting Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Braun, R.L.

    1992-02-26

    RETORT is a one-dimensional mathematical model for simulating the chemical and physical processes involved in the vertical retorting of a fixed or moving rubbled bed of oil shale. The model includes those processes believed to have the most important effects in either the hot-gas retorting mode or the forward combustion retorting mode. The physical processes are: axial convective transport of heat and mass, axial thermal dispersion, axial pressure drop, gas-solid heat transfer, intraparticle thermal conductivity, water evaporation and condensation, wall heat loss, and movement of shale countercurrent to flow of gas. The chemical reactions within the shale particles are: release of bound water, pyrolysis of kerogen, coking of oil, pyrolysis of char, decomposition of carbonate minerals, and gasification of residual organic carbon with CO2, H2O, and O2. The chemical reactions in the bulk-gas stream are: combustion and cracking of oil vapor, combustion of H2, CH4, CHx, and CO, and the water- gas shift. The RETORT model is meant to simulate adiabatic laboratory retorts and in situ retorts that have been prepared with fairly uniform lateral distribution of shale particle sizes, void volume, and permeability. The model`s main role is to calculate, as a function of time and axial location in the retort, the flow rate of the bulk-gas stream and the composition and temperature of both the fluid stream and the shale particles.

  4. EVALUATION OF RETORTED OIL SHALE AS A LINER MATERIAL FOR RETORTED SHALE DISPOSAL SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study considering the possibility of using a spent oil shale itself as a water barrier or liner beneath a spent oil shale waste enbankment. Pertinent properties of unburned Tosco II spent shale and an average mixture of Lurgi spent shale have been me...

  5. Oil shale technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This collaborative project with industrial participants studied oil shale retorting through an integrated program of fundamental research, mathematical model development and operation of a 4-tonne-per-day solid recirculation oil shale test unit. Quarterly, project personnel presented progress and findings to a Project Guidance Committee consisting of company representatives and DOE program management. We successfully operated the test unit, developed the oil shale process (OSP) mathematical model, evaluated technical plans for process scale up and determined economics for a successful small scale commercial deployment, producing premium motor fuel, specility chemicals along with electricity co-production. In budget negotiations, DOE funding for this three year CRADA was terminated, 17 months prematurely, as of October 1993. Funds to restore the project and continue the partnership have not been secured.

  6. Geochemistry of Brazilian oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Neto, C.C.

    1983-02-01

    A general survey of the main brazilian oil shale formations presenting their location, oil reserve, age and stratigraphy introduces this paper. It is followed by a comparative survey of the data on chemical composition (elementary, minerals and organic constituents/biological markers) and of thermal alteration indexes in order to define their maturity. The geochemical phenomena involved with a large diabase intrusion in the Irati formation is particularly stressed. The analytical methods of Solid Phase Extraction and Functional Group Marker developed for the analysis of bitumens and kerogens and the results obtained from the application of these methods to brazilian oil shales are discussed. The paper ends with a brief description of a comprehensive analytical bibliography on brazilian oil shales prepared to serve as a data base for these organites.

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS OF OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a state of the art description of the oil shale industry. The report particularly relates to oil shale mining, retorting, and refining in Greenville, Colorado. The possible effects of oil shale development on pollution, public health, and population growth ar...

  8. Metalliferous black shales and related ore deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Grauch, R.I. ); Huyck, H.L.O. )

    1990-01-01

    This book comprises papers and extended abstracts dealing with a variety of topics including the geochemistry and organic geochemistry of several black shale formations: the nature of modern Black Sea sediments: metal- organic complexes in ore fluids; black shales related to disseminated gold deposits; vanadium concentrations and molybdenum-nickel deposits; and the problem of defining metalliferous black shales.

  9. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

  10. Astronomically-Forced Lake Expansion and Contraction Cycles: Sr Isotopic Evidence from the Eocene Green River Formation, Western USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddouh, M.; Meyers, S. R.; Carroll, A.; Beard, B. L.; Johnson, C.

    2014-12-01

    87Sr/86Sr ratio from ancient lake deposits offer a unique insight into the astronomical forcing of lake expansion and contraction, by recording changes in runoff/groundwater provenance. We present new high-resolution 87Sr/86Sr data from the upper Wilkins Peak Member, to investigate linkages between astronomical forcing, water sources, and lake level in a classic rhythmic succession. Fifty-one 87Sr/86Sr ratios from White Mountain core #1 were acquired with a sampling interval of ~30 cm starting from the top of alluvial "I" bed to the lower Laney Member. The 87Sr/86Sr data show a strong and significant negative correlation with oil-yield, a traditional proxy for paleolake level and organic productivity. Application of a radioisotopic time scale, using previously dated ash beds, reveals that both 87Sr/86Sr and oil yield have a strong 20 kyr rhythm. The 87Sr/86Sr data more clearly express a longer period 100 kyr signal, similar to the Laskar 10D eccentricity solution. Using our nominal radioisotopic time scale, the Laskar 10D solution and 87Sr/86Sr data suggest that highest lake levels and greatest organic enrichment are attained during greatest precession and eccentricity. Regional geologic studies and modern river water analyses have shown that less radiogenic waters mostly originate west of the basin, where drainage is strongly influenced by thick Paleozoic and Mesozoic marine carbonate units. Decreased in 87Sr/86Sr therefore imply greater relative water contributions from the Sevier orogenic highlands, relative to lower relief, more radiogenic ranges lying to the east. We therefore propose that highstands of Lake Gosiute record increased penetration of Pacific moisture, related either to increased El Niño frequency or southward displacement of major storm tracks. We hypothesize that the occurrence of wetter winters caused expansion of Lake Gosiute, deposition of organic carbon rich facies, and decreased lake water 87Sr/86Sr.

  11. Oil shale, tar sand, coal research, advanced exploratory process technology, jointly sponsored research. Quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    Accomplishments for the past quarter are briefly described for the following areas of research: oil shale; tar sand; coal; advanced exploratory process technology; and jointly sponsored research. Oil shale and tar sand researches cover processing studies. Coal research includes: coal combustion; integrated coal processing concepts; and solid waste management. Advanced exploratory process technology covers: advanced process concepts; advanced mitigation concepts; and oil and gas technology. Jointly sponsored research includes: organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization; CROW{sup TM} field demonstration with Bell Lumber and Pole; development and validation of a standard test method for sequential batch extraction fluid; operation and evaluation of the CO{sub 2} HUFF-N-PUFF Process; fly ash binder for unsurfaced road aggregates; solid-state NMR analysis of Mesaverde Group, Greater Green River Basin tight gas sands; characterization of petroleum residue; shallow oil production using horizontal wells with enhanced oil recovery techniques; surface process study for oil recovery using a thermal extraction process; oil field waste cleanup using tank bottom recovery process; remote chemical sensor development; in situ treatment of manufactured gas plant contaminated soils demonstration program; solid-state NMR analysis of naturally and artificially matured kerogens; and development of an effective method for the clean-up of natural gas.

  12. Experimental drilling in Chattanooga shale

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Andrew

    1948-01-01

    Information on which specifications were originally drawn for drilling the Chattanooga shale was obtained largely from the TVA, whose geologists and driller laid great stress on the difficulties of maintaining circulation in their ho;es. The stated that the shale itself was not particularly difficult to core, the trouble being in the overburden. They did not use deep casing, depending on cementing to hold the holes open. On this basis, the Survey's specifications called for mid casing only, it being assumed that solid rock would be encountered at relatively shallow depths. This belief was borne out by examination of such road cuts and other exposures as were available.

  13. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, C.D.

    1992-07-18

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a larger continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heatup rate, oxidation of the residue and cool-down prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The second quarter agenda consisted of (a) kiln modifications; (b) sample preparation; and (c) Heat Transfer calibration runs (part of proposal task number 3 -- to be completed by the end of month 7).

  14. Geochemistry of Graywackes and Shales.

    PubMed

    Weber, J N

    1960-03-01

    Sixty-nine graywackes and 33 shales were analyzed spectrographically for 14 minor elements to illustrate the variation of composition within a graywacke bed, between beds in one section, between sections, and between formations. Analyses of several fractions of a graywacke indicate what each contributes chemically to the rock. PMID:17807444

  15. Mechanical Characterization of Mancos Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broome, S.; Ingraham, M. D.; Dewers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    A series of tests on Mancos shale have been undertaken to determine the failure surface and to characterize anisotropy. This work supports additional studies which are being performed on the same block of shale; fracture toughness, permeability, and chemical analysis. Mechanical tests are being conducted after specimens were conditioned for at least two weeks at 70% constant relative humidity conditions. Specimens are tested under drained conditions, with the constant relative humidity condition maintained on the downstream side of the specimen. The upstream is sealed. Anisotropy is determined through testing specimens that have been cored parallel and perpendicular to the bedding plane. Preliminary results show that when loaded parallel to bedding the shale is roughly 50% weaker. Test are run under constant mean stress conditions when possible (excepting indirect tension, unconfined compression, and hydrostatic). Tests are run in hydrostatic compaction to the desired mean stress, then differential stress is applied axially in displacement control to failure. The constant mean stress condition is maintained by decreasing the confining pressure by half of the increase in the axial stress. Results will be compared to typical failure criteria to investigate the effectiveness of capturing the behavior of the shale with traditional failure theory. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6107 A.

  16. The Influence of Shales on Slope Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stead, Doug

    2016-02-01

    Shales play a major role in the stability of slopes, both natural and engineered. This paper attempts to provide a review of the state-of-the-art in shale slope stability. The complexities of shale terminology and classification are first reviewed followed by a brief discussion of the important physical and mechanical properties of relevance to shale slope stability. The varied mechanisms of shale slope stability are outlined and their importance highlighted by reference to international shale slope failures. Stability analysis and modelling of anisotropic rock slope masses are briefly discussed and the potential role of brittle rock fracture and damage highlighted. A short review of shale slopes in open pits is presented.

  17. Evaluating Neogene Uplift and Denudational History of the Colorado Rockies Using River Profiles and Incision Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darling, A.; Karlstrom, K.; Kirby, E.; Ouimet, W.; Coblentz, D.; Aslan, A.

    2008-12-01

    The goal of the Colorado Rockies Experiment and Seismic Transects (CREST) is to image the velocity structure beneath the Rocky Mountains (2008-2009) and evaluate mantle to surface interconnections that may illuminate causes and timing of uplift of the Rockies. Existing mantle tomography shows a zone of low- density mantle, the Aspen Anomaly, that underlies the highest topography in Colorado. The tectonic geomorphic component of the project involves understanding incision patterns in time and space throughout the bedrock fluvial systems of western Rocky Mountains and eastern Colorado Plateau. The Colorado River and its tributaries drain the western slope of highest topography of the Colorado Rockies; The Green River drains the Wyoming Rockies and northern Colorado Plateau. Both cross highly variable substrates (Precambrian basement to Cretaceous Mancos shale) and active faults. Preliminary analysis of longitudinal profiles of the trunk rivers indicates that for a given drainage area, the Colorado generally has a higher steepness index (a measure of gradient normalized for upstream drainage area) than the Green. Localized reaches of high steepness index along the Green are interpreted to reflect resistant substrate. We suggest that these rivers, of similar stream power, are responding to different sustained forcings, wherein the Colorado River is responding to uplift above the Aspen Anomaly. We have compiled all known incision rates for the region for the last 10 Ma. The bedrock incision rate at a given reach is determined by dates on elevated straths where gravels are overlain by or inter-layered with basalt flows (Ar-Ar dates), ash layers (tephrochronology), or can be dated by cosmogenic burial ages. A suite of new samples have also been taken for undated reaches of the Colorado River, with plans for sampling the Green for comparison of incision rates. Available data show differential incision along both the Green and Colorado rivers. When combined with profile

  18. On wettability of shale rocks.

    PubMed

    Roshan, H; Al-Yaseri, A Z; Sarmadivaleh, M; Iglauer, S

    2016-08-01

    The low recovery of hydraulic fracturing fluid in unconventional shale reservoirs has been in the centre of attention from both technical and environmental perspectives in the last decade. One explanation for the loss of hydraulic fracturing fluid is fluid uptake by the shale matrix; where capillarity is the dominant process controlling this uptake. Detailed understanding of the rock wettability is thus an essential step in analysis of loss of the hydraulic fracturing fluid in shale reservoirs, especially at reservoir conditions. We therefore performed a suit of contact angle measurements on a shale sample with oil and aqueous ionic solutions, and tested the influence of different ion types (NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, CaCl2), concentrations (0.1, 0.5 and 1M), pressures (0.1, 10 and 20MPa) and temperatures (35 and 70°C). Furthermore, a physical model was developed based on the diffuse double layer theory to provide a framework for the observed experimental data. Our results show that the water contact angle for bivalent ions is larger than for monovalent ions; and that the contact angle (of both oil and different aqueous ionic solutions) increases with increase in pressure and/or temperature; these increases are more pronounced at higher ionic concentrations. Finally, the developed model correctly predicted the influence of each tested variable on contact angle. Knowing contact angle and therefore wettability, the contribution of the capillary process in terms of water uptake into shale rocks and the possible impairment of hydrocarbon production due to such uptake can be quantified. PMID:27156090

  19. High efficiency shale oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated at bench-scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although a batch oil shale sample will be sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch will be the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a large continuous process kiln. For example, similar conditions of heat-up rate (20 deg F/min during the pyrolysis), oxidation of the residue and cool-down will prevail for the element in both systems. This batch kiln is a unit constructed in a 1987 Phase I SBIR tar sand retorting project. The kiln worked fairly well in that project; however, the need for certain modifications was observed. These modifications are now underway to simplify the operation and make the data and analysis more exact. The agenda for the first three months of the project consisted of the first of nine tasks and was specified as the following four items: 1. Sample acquisition and equipment alteration: Obtain seven oil shale samples, of varying grade each 10 lb or more, and samples of quartz sand. Order equipment for kiln modification. 3. Set up and modify kiln for operation, including electric heaters on the ends of the kiln. 4. Connect data logger and make other repairs and changes in rotary batch kiln.

  20. Oil shale, shale oil, shale gas and non-conventional hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clerici, A.; Alimonti, G.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years there has been a world "revolution" in the field of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves, which goes by the name of "shale gas", gas contained inside clay sediments micropores. Shale gas finds particular development in the United States, which are now independent of imports and see a price reduction to less than one third of that in Europe. With the high oil prices, in addition to the non-conventional gas also "oil shales" (fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain a large amount of organic material to be used both to be directly burned or to extract liquid fuels which go under the name of shale oil), extra heavy oils and bitumen are becoming an industrial reality. Both unconventional gas and oil reserves far exceed in the world the conventional oil and gas reserves, subverting the theory of fossil fuels scarcity. Values and location of these new fossil reserves in different countries and their production by comparison with conventional resources are presented. In view of the clear advantages of unconventional fossil resources, the potential environmental risks associated with their extraction and processing are also highlighted.

  1. Volume 9: A Review of Socioeconomic Impacts of Oil Shale Development WESTERN OIL SHALE DEVELOPMENT: A TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Rotariu, G. J.

    1982-02-01

    recognize that the rate of development, the magnitude of development, and the technology mix that will actually take place remain uncertain. Although we emphasize that other energy and mineral resources besides oil shale may be developed, the conclusions reached in this study reflect only those impacts that would be felt from the oil shale scenario. Socioeconomic impacts in the region reflect the uneven growth rate implied by the scenario and will be affected by the timing of industry developments, the length and magnitude of the construction phase of development, and the shift in employment profiles predicted in the scenario. The facilities in the southern portion of the oil shale region, those along the Colorado River and Parachute Creek, show a peak in the construction work force in the mid-1980s, whereas those f acil it i es in the Piceance Creek Bas into the north show a construction peak in the late 1980s. Together, the facilities will require a large construction work force throughout the decade, with a total of 4800 construction workers required in 1985. Construction at the northern sites and second phase construction in the south will require 6000 workers in 1988. By 1990, the operation work force will increase to 7950. Two important characteristics of oil shale development emerge from the work force estimates: (1) peak-year construction work forces will be 90-120% the size of the permanent operating work force; and (2) the yearly changes in total work force requirements will be large, as much as 900 in one year at one facility. To estimate population impacts on individual communities, we devised a population distribution method that is described in Sec. IV. Variables associated with the projection of population impacts are discussed and methodologies of previous assessments are compared. Scenario-induced population impacts estimated by the Los Alamos method are compared to projections of a model employed by the Colorado West Area Council of Governments. Oil shale

  2. Hydrologic-information needs for oil-shale development, northwestern Colorado. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, O.J.

    1982-04-01

    The Piceance basin of northwestern Colorado contains large reserves of oil shale. Expected development of oil shale will affect the regional hydrologic systems because most oil-shale mines will require drainage; industrial requirements for water may be large; and oil-shale mines, wastes, and retorts may affect the quantity and quality of surface water and ground water. In addition, the oil-shale industry may discharge particles and gases to the atmosphere that could alter the quality of high-altitude lakes and surface-water reservoirs. Hydrologic data need to be collected in order to plan for oil-shale development and to estimate the effects of development. Test-well drilling and aquifer testing are needed to provide a better understanding of the local and regional flow system, to furnish additional data for a model that simulates mine drainage, and to explore for water supplies in aquifers of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. Much of the ground water in the bedrock aquifers discharges through springs, and a systematic study of the springs will help to predict the effects of mine drainage on spring discharge and quality. Surface runoff, dissolved and suspended loads in streams, and the aquatic environment in streams would be highly susceptible to the disruptions in the land surface and will require additional study in order to estimate the effects of development. A water-quality assessment is proposed for the White River basin because it is a possible source of water and a region likely to be affected by development. The effects of emissions to the atmosphere from oil-shale plants require study because these emissions may affect the quality of water in lakes downwind. Spoil piles of retorted oil shale may be very large and require study to anticipate any problems caused by leaching and erosion. Processing wastes resulting from in-situ retorts and other waste materials need to be studied in greater detail. 71 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Shale oil value enhancement research: Separation characterization of shale oil

    SciTech Connect

    Bunger, J.W.

    1993-12-31

    The overall objective is to develop a new technology for manufacturing valuable marketable products form shale oil. Phase-I objectives are to identify desirable components in shale oil, develop separations techniques for those components, identify market needs and to identify plausible products manufacturable from raw shale oil to meet those needs. Another objective is to conduct preliminary process modeling and economic analysis of selected process sequences and product slates, including an estimation of process, costs and profitability. The end objective of Phase-I is to propose technically and economically attractive separations and conversion processes for small-scale piloting in the optional Phase-II. Optional Phase-II activities include the pilot-scale test of the Shale Oil Native Products Extraction (SO-NPX) technology and to produce specification products. Specific objectives are to develop the engineering data on separations processing, particularly those in which mixtures behave non-ideally, and to develop the conversion processes for finishing the separations concentrates into specification products.The desired process scenarios will be developed and economic analysis will be performed on the process scenarios. As a result of the process simulation and economic analysis tasks, a product manufacture and test marketing program shall be recommended for the optional Phase-III. Optional Phase-III activities are to manufacture specification products and to test market those products in order to ensure market acceptability. The activities involve the assembling of the technical, market and economic data needed for venture evaluation. The end objective is to develop the private sector interest to carry this technology forward toward commercialization.

  4. Quantitative characterization of shales and their effects on permeability: Examples from tidally-influenced Ferron Sandstone, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biber, K.; Khan, S.; Bhattacharya, J.; Barton, M.; Glennie, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates the proportion, length, and effective properties of thin shale beds and drapes in tidally-influenced channels within a compound valley fill in the Cretaceous Ferron sandstone Member of the Mancos Shale Formation. The study outcrop comprises of three valley systems. Light detection and ranging derived digital outcrop models have been used to characterize shale length, width, thickness and frequency of each valley systems. Shale geometry and frequency calculated for the valley fills correlate with the degree of tidal influence and channel sinuosity. The long and infrequent shales in Valley-1 (mean length 7.8 m; mean frequency 1.5 m-1) were deposited in a low tidal influence and braided setting. On the contrary, the short and frequent shales in Valley-2 and Valley-3 (mean length, 4.3 m and 4.1 m; mean frequency 2.7 m-1 and 3.5 m-1, respectively) were deposited by more tidally-influenced single-thread meandering rivers. To estimate the effect of shales, a sand/shale model was utilized. The unique character of each architectural unit within the incised valley fills resulted in different kv/kh distributions. The valley fill deposits, V1, V2, and V3 had an average kv/kh ratio of 0.074, 0.016 and 0.011, respectively. It was demonstrated that the extent of tidal influence determined the shale character of different compartments of the compound fluvial valley fill, which, in turn, uniquely described the potential for fluid flow through these compartments. Therefore, it is important to consider the shale character and related permeability distributions in fluvial valley fill deposits when modeling analogous reservoirs.

  5. Statistical evaluation of the effects of fall and winter flows on the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout in the green river downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam.

    SciTech Connect

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division

    2009-01-09

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. In recent years, single peak releases each day or steady flows have been the operational pattern during the winter period. A double-peak pattern (two flow peaks each day) was implemented during the winter of 2006-2007 by Reclamation. Because there is no recent history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on the body condition of trout in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from double-peaking operations during winter months. Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of existing data on trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate potential effects of hydropower operations. This report presents the results of this analysis. We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming Gorge Dam and (2) to evaluate the degree to which flow characteristics (i.e., flow volumes and flow variability) and benthic macroinvertebrate abundance affect the condition of trout in this area. This information, together with further analyses of size-stratified trout data, may also serve as baseline data to which the effects of potential future double-peaking flows can be compared. The condition (length, weight and/or relative weight) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at two sites in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam (Tailrace and Little Hole) and weight of brown trout (Salmo trutta) at the Little Hole site has been decreasing since 1990 while the abundance of brown trout has been increasing at the two sites. At the

  6. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  7. Modifications to the Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Green River, Utah. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    This modification to the Green River Final Remedial Action Plan (FRAP) represents the changes made to the document in accordance with a joint agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) outlined in a letter dated August 7, 1991. As specified in this letter, methylene chloride will no longer be analyzed in groundwater samples collected from on-site monitor wells. All references to methylene chloride sampling have been deleted from the FRAP, as indicated by the pages in Section 2.0 of this document.

  8. Re-Os geochronology and Os isotope fingerprinting of petroleum sourced from a Type I lacustrine kerogen: insights from the natural Green River petroleum system in the Uinta Basin and hydrous pyrolysis experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cumming, Vivien M.; Selby, David; Lillis, Paul G.; Lewan, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Rhenium–osmium (Re–Os) geochronology of marine petroleum systems has allowed the determination of the depositional age of source rocks as well as the timing of petroleum generation. In addition, Os isotopes have been applied as a fingerprinting tool to correlate oil to its source unit. To date, only classic marine petroleum systems have been studied. Here we present Re–Os geochronology and Os isotope fingerprinting of different petroleum phases (oils, tar sands and gilsonite) derived from the lacustrine Green River petroleum system in the Uinta Basin, USA. In addition we use an experimental approach, hydrous pyrolysis experiments, to compare to the Re–Os data of naturally generated petroleum in order to further understand the mechanisms of Re and Os transfer to petroleum. The Re–Os geochronology of petroleum from the lacustrine Green River petroleum system (19 ± 14 Ma – all petroleum phases) broadly agrees with previous petroleum generation basin models (∼25 Ma) suggesting that Re–Os geochronology of variable petroleum phases derived from lacustrine Type I kerogen has similar systematics to Type II kerogen (e.g., Selby and Creaser, 2005a, Selby and Creaser, 2005b and Finlay et al., 2010). However, the large uncertainties (over 100% in some cases) produced for the petroleum Re–Os geochronology are a result of multiple generation events occurring through a ∼3000-m thick source unit that creates a mixture of initial Os isotope compositions in the produced petroleum phases. The 187Os/188Os values for the petroleum and source rocks at the time of oil generation vary from 1.4 to 1.9, with the mode at ∼1.6. Oil-to-source correlation using Os isotopes is consistent with previous correlation studies in the Green River petroleum system, and illustrates the potential utility of Os isotopes to characterize the spatial variations within a petroleum system. Hydrous pyrolysis experiments on the Green River Formation source rocks show that Re and Os transfer

  9. Re-Os geochronology and Os isotope fingerprinting of petroleum sourced from a Type I lacustrine kerogen: Insights from the natural Green River petroleum system in the Uinta Basin and hydrous pyrolysis experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cumming, Vivien M.; Selby, David; Lillis, Paul G.; Lewan, Michael D.

    2014-08-01

    Rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) geochronology of marine petroleum systems has allowed the determination of the depositional age of source rocks as well as the timing of petroleum generation. In addition, Os isotopes have been applied as a fingerprinting tool to correlate oil to its source unit. To date, only classic marine petroleum systems have been studied. Here we present Re-Os geochronology and Os isotope fingerprinting of different petroleum phases (oils, tar sands and gilsonite) derived from the lacustrine Green River petroleum system in the Uinta Basin, USA. In addition we use an experimental approach, hydrous pyrolysis experiments, to compare to the Re-Os data of naturally generated petroleum in order to further understand the mechanisms of Re and Os transfer to petroleum. The Re-Os geochronology of petroleum from the lacustrine Green River petroleum system (19 ± 14 Ma - all petroleum phases) broadly agrees with previous petroleum generation basin models (∼25 Ma) suggesting that Re-Os geochronology of variable petroleum phases derived from lacustrine Type I kerogen has similar systematics to Type II kerogen (e.g., Selby and Creaser, 2005a,b; Finlay et al., 2010). However, the large uncertainties (over 100% in some cases) produced for the petroleum Re-Os geochronology are a result of multiple generation events occurring through a ∼3000-m thick source unit that creates a mixture of initial Os isotope compositions in the produced petroleum phases. The 187Os/188Os values for the petroleum and source rocks at the time of oil generation vary from 1.4 to 1.9, with the mode at ∼1.6. Oil-to-source correlation using Os isotopes is consistent with previous correlation studies in the Green River petroleum system, and illustrates the potential utility of Os isotopes to characterize the spatial variations within a petroleum system. Hydrous pyrolysis experiments on the Green River Formation source rocks show that Re and Os transfer are mimicking the natural system. This

  10. Oil shale fines process developments in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Lisboa, A.C.; Nowicki, R.E. ); Piper, E.M. )

    1989-01-01

    The Petrobras oil shale retorting process, utilizes the particle range of +1/4 inch - 3 1/2 inches. The UPI plant in Sao Mateus do Sul has over 106,000 hours of operation, has processed over 6,200,000 metric tons of shale and has produced almost 3,000,000 barrels of shale oil. However, the nature of the raw oil shale is such that the amount of shale less than 1/4 inch that is mined and crushed and returned to the mine site is about 20 percent, thereby, increasing the cost of oil produced by a substantial number. Petrobras has investigated several systems to process the fines that are not handled by the 65 MTPH UPI plant and the 260 MTPH commercial plant. This paper provides an updated status of each of these processes in regard to the tests performed, potential contributions to an integrated use of the oil shale mine, and future considerations.

  11. Solar heated oil shale pyrolysis process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qader, S. A. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An improved system for recovery of a liquid hydrocarbon fuel from oil shale is presented. The oil shale pyrolysis system is composed of a retort reactor for receiving a bed of oil shale particules which are heated to pyrolyis temperature by means of a recycled solar heated gas stream. The gas stream is separated from the recovered shale oil and a portion of the gas stream is rapidly heated to pyrolysis temperature by passing it through an efficient solar heater. Steam, oxygen, air or other oxidizing gases can be injected into the recycle gas before or after the recycle gas is heated to pyrolysis temperature and thus raise the temperature before it enters the retort reactor. The use of solar thermal heat to preheat the recycle gas and optionally the steam before introducing it into the bed of shale, increases the yield of shale oil.

  12. Review of Emerging Resources: U.S. Shale Gas and Shale Oil Plays

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the potential U.S. domestic shale gas and shale oil resources, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) commissioned INTEK, Inc. to develop an assessment of onshore lower 48 states technically recoverable shale gas and shale oil resources. This paper briefly describes the scope, methodology, and key results of the report and discusses the key assumptions that underlie the results.

  13. Comparative dermotoxicity of shale oils

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, L.M.; Wilson, J.S.; Foreman, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    When shale oils are applied at higher dose levels the standard observation of tumor production and latency are often obscured by a severe inflammatory response leading to epidermal degeneration. The two experiments reported here are still in progress, however the interim results are useful in assessing both the phlogistic and tumorigenic properties of three shale oils. Three shale oils were tested in these experiments. The first crude oil (OCSO No. 6) was produced in a modified in situ report at Occidental Oil Company's Logan Wash site near Debeque, Colorado. The second crude oil (PCSO II) was produced in the above ground Paraho vertical-kiln retort located at Anvil Points near Rifle, Colorado and the third oil was the hydrotreated daughter product of the Paraho crude (PCSO-UP). Experiment I was designed to determine the highest dose level at which tumor latency could be measured without interference from epidermal degeneration. Experiment II was designed to determine the effect of application frequency on both tumor response and inflammatory phenomena. Complete epidermal degeneration was used as the only measure of severe inflammation. Relative tumorigenicity was based on the number of tumor bearing mice without regard to multiple tumors on individual animals. In both experiments, tumor occurrence was confirmed one week after initial appearance. The sex-related difference in inflammatory response is striking and certanly has significance for experimental design. An increased phlogistic sensitivity expressed in male mice could affect the meaning of an experiment where only one sex was used.

  14. Extent and effect of fault-controlled CO2 alteration on reservoir and seal rocks and implications for geomechanical failure at Crystal Geyser, Green River, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, J. R.; Eichhubl, P.; Dewers, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    A structural diagenesis approach involving the coupled chemical and mechanical properties of reservoir and seal rocks is necessary for assessing the short and long term security of sequestered CO2. Current numerical models used to model subsurface CO2 reservoirs do not account for such processes, and typically these use only linear-elastic geomechanical properties, ignoring failure parameters such as fracture toughness. In addition, numerical models normally lack constraints on long-term, geologic time scales. Study of fossil and active CO2 seeps found at Little Grand Wash and Salt Wash fault systems near Green River, Utah are invaluable to assess long-term storage and leakage behavior in natural systems. Observations from the site and geomechanical testing also indicate that fracture systems play a crucial role in leakage, and the extent of fracturing and CO2-related alteration extends from tens to over one-hundred meters. Failure parameters of reservoir and seal rocks under variable environmental conditions, such as fracture toughness should also be quantified as they likely play a role in fracturing and leakage. Subcritical fracture growth may also be involved. Transects across the Little Grand Wash fault show distinct mineralogical and isotopic trends related to alteration by CO2-rich fluids. Calcite is the dominant precipitated mineral, both in reservoir (sandstone) and seal (siltstone & mudrock) lithologies. Precipitated calcite is isotopically distinct and observed in bulk rock isotopic trends. Fracture toughness testing using the short rod method indicates that CO2-related alteration of rocks exposed at the field site has weakened one reservoir lithology by half (0.57 versus 0.27 MPa√m). A full suite of lithologies are being tested and compared with the double torsion test method under ambient air conditions. These same samples are also being tested in environmental conditions more like those encountered in a CO2 sequestration scenario. These data can and

  15. Temporal Chemical Variations during the Eruption Cycle at Crystal Geyser in Green River, Utah: Inverse Modeling of Fluid Sourcing and Implications to the Geyser Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Z. T.; Han, W. S.; Kampman, N.; Grundl, T.; Han, K.

    2014-12-01

    The most well-known example of a CO2-driven geyser is Crystal geyser in Green River, Utah. In situ monitoring of pressure and temperature and analysis of the elemental and isotopic composition of the emanating fluids has provided useful proxies for determining the geysering cycle, the source of water/CO2 and furthermore the physical constraints at depth which ultimately control the surficial expressions. Crystal geyser is the first geyser in the world which has been shown to go through repeated systematic chemical variations during its eruption cycle. The eruption cycle at Crystal geyser is comprised of 4 parts which follow the order of: minor eruption period (mEP), major eruption period (MEP), aftershock eruptions (Ae) and recharge period (R). Minor eruption periods are characterized by increasing specific conductivity (19.3 to 21.2 mS/cm), Na and Cl concentrations during the first half which plateau until the MEP. The beginning of the MEP denotes a sharp drop in temperature (17.4 to 16.8 ºC) Na, Cl, specific conductivity (21.2 to 18 mS/cm), and increasing concentrations of Fe, Sr, Ca, Mg and Mn. Downhole fluid sampling of the Entrada Sandstone and Navajo Sandstone provided 1 and 4 samples from the aquifers, respectively. The Entrada Sandstone in comparison to the deeper Navajo Sandstone has elevated concentrations of Sr and Fe and has lower concentrations of Na and Cl. Inverse modeling using the chemical characteristics of the Entrada Sandstone, Navajo Sandstone and brine was executed to determine the fractional inputs which comprise Crystal geyser's fluid. Variances in the fractional contribution are dependent on the depth of the sample chosen to be representative of the Navajo Sandstone because the concentration of Na and Cl, among other elements, changes over depth. During the mEP the Navajo Sandstone, Entrada Sandstone and brine supply 50-55%, 44-48% and 1-3% of the total fluid, respectively. During the MEP the Navajo Sandstone, Entrada Sandstone and brine

  16. Characterizing the Response of Fluvial Systems to Extreme Global Warming During the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum: An Analysis of the Wasatch and Green River Formations, Uinta Basin, UT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, E. R.; Plink-Bjorklund, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Wasatch and Green River Formations in the Uinta Basin, UT contain fluvial sandstones that record changes in terrestrial sedimentation coincident with Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and at least six post-PETM hyperthermal climate change events. While proxies for chemical weathering rates during the PETM have been developed using the marine osmium isotope record, to date there has been little research on chemical weathering rates in proximal terrestrial depocenters. This work is one part of a multi-proxy research effort combining quantitative petrographic analysis, the stable carbon isotope record, and a high-resolution stratigraphic and sedimentologic framework across the southern margin of the Uinta Basin. Relative tectonic quiescence in the Uinta Basin during the Early Eocene suggests that climate is the forcing mechanism controlling fluvial architecture and composition, and gradual basin subsidence has preserved at least six pulses of greenhouse climate change during the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Terrestrial records of PETM climate do not support a humid climate with increased precipitation as previously suggested from marine proxies of climate change. Instead, terrestrial records of the PETM climate show evidence of prolonged drought punctuated by intense terrestrial flooding events in mid-latitude continental interiors. Increases in chemical weathering rates during the PETM due to increased temperature and average precipitation is cited as a key carbon sink to initiate a recovery phase where atmospheric CO2 returned to normal concentrations. If terrestrial records of chemical weathering rates differ substantially from marine proxies the carbon-cycle dynamics active during the EECO must be reconsidered. Initial results of this study show that these peak hyperthermal climate change conditions in the Uinta Basin preserve more compositionally and texturally immature sediments due to extremely high erosion and deposition rates, and subdued

  17. The effects of overwinter flowson the spring condition of rainbow and brown trout size classes in the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah.

    SciTech Connect

    Magnusson, A. K.; LaGory, K. E.; Hayse, J. W.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-06-25

    Flaming Gorge Dam, a hydroelectric facility operated by the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation), is located on the Green River in Daggett County, northeastern Utah. Until recently, and since the early 1990s, single daily peak releases or steady flows have been the operational pattern of the dam during the winter period. However, releases from Flaming Gorge Reservoir followed a double-peak pattern (two daily flow peaks) during the winters of 2006-2007 and 2008-2009. Because there is little recent long-term history of double-peaking at Flaming Gorge Dam, the potential effects of double-peaking operations on trout body condition in the dam's tailwater are not known. A study plan was developed that identified research activities to evaluate potential effects from winter double-peaking operations (Hayse et al. 2009). Along with other tasks, the study plan identified the need to conduct a statistical analysis of historical trout condition and macroinvertebrate abundance to evaluate the potential effects of hydropower operations. The results from analyses based on the combined size classes of trout (85-630 mm) were presented in Magnusson et al. (2008). The results of this earlier analysis suggested possible relationships between trout condition and flow, but concern that some of the relationships resulted from size-based effects (e.g., apparent changes in condition may have been related to concomitant changes in size distribution, because small trout may have responded differently to flow than large trout) prompted additional analysis of within-size class relationships. This report presents the results of analyses of three different size classes of trout (small: 200-299 mm, medium: 300-399 mm, and large: {ge}400 mm body length). We analyzed historical data to (1) describe temporal patterns and relationships among flows, benthic macroinvertebrate abundance, and condition of brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the tailwaters of Flaming

  18. A 4D Synchrotron X-Ray-Tomography Study of the Formation of Hydrocarbon- Migration Pathways in Heated Organic-Rich Shale

    SciTech Connect

    Hamed Panahi; Paul Meakin; Francois Renard; Maya Kobchenko; Julien Scheibert; Adriano Mazzini; Bjorn Jamtveit; Anders Malthe-Sorenssen; Dag Kristian Dysthe

    2013-04-01

    Recovery of oil from oil shales and the natural primary migration of hydrocarbons are closely related processes that have received renewed interest in recent years because of the ever tightening supply of conventional hydrocarbons and the growing production of hydrocarbons from low-permeability tight rocks. Quantitative models for conversion of kerogen into oil and gas and the timing of hydrocarbon generation have been well documented. However, lack of consensus about the kinetics of hydrocarbon formation in source rocks, expulsion timing, and how the resulting hydrocarbons escape from or are retained in the source rocks motivates further investigation. In particular, many mechanisms have been proposed for the transport of hydrocarbons from the rocks in which they are generated into adjacent rocks with higher permeabilities and smaller capillary entry pressures, and a better understanding of this complex process (primary migration) is needed. To characterize these processes, it is imperative to use the latest technological advances. In this study, it is shown how insights into hydrocarbon migration in source rocks can be obtained by using sequential high-resolution synchrotron X-ray tomography. Three-dimensional images of several immature "shale" samples were constructed at resolutions close to 5 um. This is sufficient to resolve the source-rock structure down to the grain level, but very-fine-grained silt particles, clay particles, and colloids cannot be resolved. Samples used in this investigation came from the R-8 unit in the upper part of the Green River shale, which is organic rich, varved, lacustrine marl formed in Eocene Lake Uinta, USA. One Green River shale sample was heated in situ up to 400 degrees C as X-ray-tomography images were recorded. The other samples were scanned before and after heating at 400 degrees C. During the heating phase, the organic matter was decomposed, and gas was released. Gas expulsion from the low-permeability shales was coupled

  19. Monitoring and research to describe geomorphic effects of the 2011 controlled flood on the Green River in the Canyon of Lodore, Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, Erich R.; Grams, Paul E.; Schmidt, John C.; Hazel, Joseph E., Jr.; Kaplinski, Matt; Alexander, Jason A.; Kohl, Keith

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, a large magnitude flow release from Flaming Gorge Reservoir, Wyoming and Utah, occurred in response to high snowpack in the middle Rocky Mountains. This was the third highest recorded discharge along the Green River downstream of Flaming Gorge Dam, Utah, since its initial closure in November 1962 and motivated a research effort to document effects of these flows on channel morphology and sedimentology at four long-term monitoring sites within the Canyon of Lodore in Dinosaur National Monument, Colorado and Utah. Data collected in September 2011 included raft-based bathymetric surveys, ground-based surveys of banks, channel cross sections and vegetation-plot locations, sand-bar stratigraphy, and painted rock recovery on gravel bars. As part of this surveying effort, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data were collected at benchmarks on the canyon rim and along the river corridor to establish a high-resolution survey control network. This survey control network allows for the collection of repeatable spatial and elevation data necessary for high accuracy geomorphic change detection. Nearly 10,000 ground survey points and more than 20,000 bathymetric points (at 1-meter resolution) were collected over a 5-day field campaign, allowing for the construction of reach-scale digital elevation models (DEMs). Additionally, we evaluated long-term geomorphic change at these sites using repeat topographic surveys of eight monumented cross sections at each of the four sites. Analysis of DEMs and channel cross sections show a spatially variable pattern of erosion and deposition, both within and between reaches. As much as 5 meters of scour occurred in pools downstream from flow constrictions, especially in channel segments where gravel bars were absent. By contrast, some channel cross sections were stable during the 2011 floods, and have shown almost no change in over a decade of monitoring. Partial mobility of gravel bars occurred, and although in some locations

  20. Ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Green River, Utah. Final, Revision 2, Version 5: Appendix E to the remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Green River, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this appendix is to provide a ground water protection strategy for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal site at Green River, Utah. Compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water protection standards will be achieved by applying supplemental standards (40 CFR {section} 192.22(a); 60 FR 2854) based on the limited use ground water present in the uppermost aquifer that is associated with widespread natural ambient contamination (40 CFR {section} 192.11(e); 60 FR 2854). The strategy is based on new information, including ground water quality data collected after remedial action was completed, and on a revised assessment of disposal cell design features, surface conditions, and site hydrogeology. The strategy will result in compliance with Subparts A and C of the EPA final ground water protection standards (60 FR 2854). The document contains sufficient information to support the proposed ground water protection strategy, with monitor well information and ground water quality data included as a supplement. Additional information is available in the final remedial action plan (RAP) (DOE, 1991a), the final completion report (DOE, 1991b), and the long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) (DOE, 1994a).

  1. Developments in oil shale in 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, C.F.; Dana, G.F.; Solti, G.; Qian, J.L.; Ball, F.D.; Hutton, A.C.; Hanna, J.; Russell, P.L.; Piper, E.M.

    1988-10-01

    Oil shale development continued at a slow pace in 1987. The continuing interest in this commodity is demonstrated by the 342 oil shale citations added to the US Department of Energy Energy Database during 1987. The Unocal project in Parachute, Colorado, produced 600,000 bbl of synfuel in 1987. An appreciable amount of 1987's activity was associated with the nonsynfuel uses of oil shale. 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Introduction to special section: China shale gas and shale oil plays

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Shu; Zeng, Hongliu; Zhang, Jinchuan; Fishman, Neil; Bai, Baojun; Xiao, Xianming; Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Li, Xinjing; Richards-McClung, Bryony; Cai, Dongsheng; Ma, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Even though China shale gas and shale oil exploration is still in an early stage, limited data are already available. We are pleased to have selected eight high-quality papers from fifteen submitted manuscripts for this timely section on the topic of China shale gas and shale oil plays. These selected papers discuss various subject areas including regional geology, resource potentials, integrated and multidisciplinary characterization of China shale reservoirs (geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and petrophysics) China shale property measurement using new techniques, case studies for marine, lacustrine, and transitional shale deposits in China, and hydraulic fracturing. One paper summarizes the regional geology and different tectonic and depositional settings of the major prospective shale oil and gas plays in China. Four papers concentrate on the geology, geochemistry, reservoir characterization, lithologic heterogeneity, and sweet spot identification in the Silurian Longmaxi marine shale in the Sichuan Basin in southwest China, which is currently the primary focus of shale gas exploration in China. One paper discusses the Ordovician Salgan Shale in the Tarim Basin in northwest China, and two papers focus on the reservoir characterization and hydraulic fracturing of Triassic lacustrine shale in the Ordos Basin in northern China. Each paper discusses a specific area.

  3. 77 FR 41975 - Central Vermont Public Service Corporation; Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-17

    ... Public Service Corporation; Green Mountain Power Corporation; Notice of Application for Transfer of... Corporation (transferor or CVPSC) and Green Mountain Power Corporation (transferee or GMPC) filed an... name Location 2205 Lamoille River Lamoille River in Chittenden, Hydroelectric. Franklin, and...

  4. Analysis of ground-water-quality data of the Upper Colorado River basin, water years 1972-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, an analysis of the existing ground-water-quality data in the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit is necessary to provide information on the historic water-quality conditions. Analysis of the historical data provides information on the availability or lack of data and water-quality issues. The information gathered from the historical data will be used in the design of ground-water-quality studies in the basin. This report includes an analysis of the ground-water data (well and spring data) available for the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit from water years 1972 to 1992 for major cations and anions, metals and selected trace elements, and nutrients. The data used in the analysis of the ground-water quality in the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit were predominantly from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment data bases. A total of 212 sites representing alluvial aquifers and 187 sites representing bedrock aquifers were used in the analysis. The available data were not ideal for conducting a comprehensive basinwide water-quality assessment because of lack of sufficient geographical coverage.Evaluation of the ground-water data in the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit was based on the regional environmental setting, which describes the natural and human factors that can affect the water quality. In this report, the ground-water-quality information is evaluated on the basis of aquifers or potential aquifers (alluvial, Green River Formation, Mesaverde Group, Mancos Shale, Dakota Sandstone, Morrison Formation, Entrada Sandstone, Leadville Limestone, and Precambrian) and land-use classifications for alluvial aquifers.Most of the ground-water-quality data in the study unit were for major cations and anions and dissolved-solids concentrations. The aquifer with the highest median concentrations of

  5. Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  6. Indirect heating pyrolysis of oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Jones, Jr., John B.; Reeves, Adam A.

    1978-09-26

    Hot, non-oxygenous gas at carefully controlled quantities and at predetermined depths in a bed of lump oil shale provides pyrolysis of the contained kerogen of the oil shale, and cool non-oxygenous gas is passed up through the bed to conserve the heat

  7. Flow properties of Utah shale oils

    SciTech Connect

    Seitzer, W.H.; Lovell, P.F.

    1981-12-01

    In a concentric cylinder viscometer, Utah shale oils have different characteristics, both at equilibrium flow and during start-up from rest, depending on whether the wax has crystallized as needles or spherulites. Compared with waxy crude oils, which are thixotropic, shale oil has the added rheological property of being antithixotropic. 7 refs.

  8. Gas composition shifts in Devonian shales

    SciTech Connect

    Schettler, P.D.; Parmely, C.R. )

    1989-08-01

    Analysis of the gas composition of Devonian shale wells indicates that the composition of produced gas shifts during the production history of the well. Possible mechanisms to explain this behavior are examined in light of field and laboratory data. Application of diffusion theory is made to explain adsorption-like behavior exhibited by some shales.

  9. Cleanouts boost Devonian shale gas flow

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-04

    Cleaning shale debris from the well bores is an effective way to boost flow rates from old open hole Devonian shale gas wells, research on six West Virginia wells begun in 1985 has shown. Officials involved with the study say the Appalachian basin could see 20 year recoverable gas reserves hiked by 315 bcf if the process is used on a wide scale.

  10. Scales over Shale: How Pennsylvania Got Fracked

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sica, Carlo E.

    Shale gas has become one of Pennsylvania's major resources in recent years and the gas boom has proceeded in spite of uncertainty over the environmental risks of its production process. This thesis argues that location alone cannot explain why shale gas boomed in Pennsylvania. Using interviews with corporate and state executives, I argue that the scalar dimensions of the neoliberal environmental governance of shale gas were critical to understanding why shale gas boomed in Pennsylvania. These actors supported the preemption of local scales of governance by the state as a scalar fix for capital accumulation from shale gas development. They also legitimated the scalar fix by assembling a neat stack of scale frames that made shale gas seem to benefit everyone. These scale frames made shale gas appear as if it would provide local employment, regional supplies of cheap gas, national energy security, abundant gas for tight global markets, and a mitigating strategy for global climate change. In arguing this point, I present a history of how shale gas became a resource that outlines the critical role of the state in that process.

  11. Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design

    SciTech Connect

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-07-01

    Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

  12. Thermomechanical properties of selected shales

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, F.D.; Vogt, T.J.

    1987-08-01

    The experimental work discussed in this report is part of an ongoing program concerning evaluation of sedimentary and other rock types as potential hosts for a geologic repository. The objectives are the development of tools and techniques for repository characterization and performance assessment in a diversity of geohydrologic settings. This phase of the program is a laboratory study that investigates fundamental thermomechanical properties of several different shales. Laboratory experiments are intrinsically related to numerical modeling and in situ field experiments, which together will be used for performance assessment.

  13. The Shale Gas in Europe project (GASH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian; Gash-Team

    2010-05-01

    At the present time no shale gas play has been brought to the production level in Europe. While the opportunities appear abundant, there are still many challenges to be overcome in Europe such as land access and environmental issues. Costs per well are still higher than in the US, and mining regulations are tighter. As yet it remains unclear whether European shales can support commercial shale gas production. First, it will be essential to test the sub-surface and the potential deliverability of wells, supported by basic research. GASH is the first major scientific initiative in Europe that is focussed on shale gas; it is ambitious in that it is broad ranging in scientific scope and that it unites leading European research groups and geological surveys with industry. US know-how is also integrated into the programme to avoid reinventing the wheel, or, still worse, the flat tyre. GASH is currently funded by eight companies, and comprises two main elements: compilation of a European Black Shale Database (EBSD) and focussed research projects that are based on geochemical, geophysical and geomechanical investigations. The EBSD is being built by a team of more than 20 geological surveys, extending from Sweden in the north, through western Europe and the Baltic states down to southern Europe, and over to Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic in the east. The research projects apply numerical modelling, process simulations and laboratory analyses to selected regional study areas or "natural laboratories" from both Europe and the USA - the goal: to predict gas-in-place and fracability based on process understanding. The European black shales selected as natural shale gas laboratories are the Cambrian Alum Shale from Sweden and Denmark, the Lower Jurassic Posidonia Shale from Central Germany, and Carboniferous black shales from the UK in the west via the Netherlands to Germany in the east. Fresh core material for detailed investigations will be recovered during the mid

  14. Effects of fault-controlled CO2 alteration on mineralogical and geomechanical properties of reservoir and seal rocks, Crystal Geyser, Green River, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, J. R.; Eichhubl, P.; Urquhart, A.; Dewers, T. A.

    2012-12-01

    An understanding of the coupled chemical and mechanical properties of reservoir and seal units undergoing CO2 injection is critical for modeling reservoir behavior in response to the introduction of CO2. The implementation of CO2 sequestration as a mitigation strategy for climate change requires extensive risk assessment that relies heavily on computer models of subsurface reservoirs. Numerical models are fundamentally limited by the quality and validity of their input parameters. Existing models generally lack constraints on diagenesis, failing to account for the coupled geochemical or geomechanical processes that affect reservoir and seal unit properties during and after CO2 injection. For example, carbonate dissolution or precipitation after injection of CO2 into subsurface brines may significantly alter the geomechanical properties of reservoir and seal units and thus lead to solution-enhancement or self-sealing of fractures. Acidified brines may erode and breach sealing units. In addition, subcritical fracture growth enhanced by the presence of CO2 could ultimately compromise the integrity of sealing units, or enhance permeability and porosity of the reservoir itself. Such unknown responses to the introduction of CO2 can be addressed by laboratory and field-based observations and measurements. Studies of natural analogs like Crystal Geyser, Utah are thus a critical part of CO2 sequestration research. The Little Grand Wash and Salt Wash fault systems near Green River, Utah, host many fossil and active CO2 seeps, including Crystal Geyser, serving as a faulted anticline CO2 reservoir analog. The site has been extensively studied for sequestration and reservoir applications, but less attention has been paid to the diagenetic and geomechanical aspects of the fault zone. XRD analysis of reservoir and sealing rocks collected along transects across the Little Grand Wash Fault reveal mineralogical trends in the Summerville Fm (a siltstone seal unit) with calcite and

  15. The Green River natural analogue as a field laboratory to study the long-term fate of CO2 in the subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Andreas; Kampman, Niko; Hangx, Suzanne; Bertier, Pieter; Bickle, Mike; Harrington, Jon

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the long-term response of CO2 injected into porous reservoirs is one of the most important aspects to demonstrate safe and permanent storage. At the same time this is one of the least understood aspects of CCS in general. The reasons are that 'long-term', in the sense of hundreds to thousands of years, is impractical from a laboratory and rather idealised from a reservoir modelling perspective. However understanding the coupled long-term hydro-chemical-mechanical response of a reservoir-seal pair following CO2 injection is highly desirable to improve confidence and trust from a regulator and societal perspective, as well as to improve risk assessment and risk reduction. In order to provide one building block to advance understanding of this subject, in July 2012 Shell recovered some 300m of core from a scientific drill hole through a natural CO2 field near Green River, Utah. This core transected two sandstone formations (Entrada and Navajo) and one intervening seal layer, composed of interbedded marine clay-/silt and sandstones (Carmel Fm.). Fluid samples and core material were taken adjacent to the Little Grand Wash Fault (LGW), along which CO2-charged fluids traverse from depth to the surface and which is believed to be the migration pathway for CO2 inflow into the reservoirs. In-situ pH, CO2 concentrations, and fluid element and isotope geochemistry were determined from wireline downhole sampling of pressurized fluids taken from the Navajo reservoirs. The fluid geochemistry provides important constraints on reservoir filling by flow of CO2 -charged brines through the LGW fault damage zone, macro-scale fluid flow in the reservoirs and the state of fluid-mineral thermodynamic disequilibrium, from which the nature of the fluid-mineral reactions can be interpreted. In addition to core samples, we obtained control samples from stratigraphically equivalent outcrop locations and drill holes that were not subject to alterations by CO2 -charged fluids and

  16. 43 CFR 3905.10 - Oil shale lease exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oil shale lease exchanges. 3905.10 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Lease Exchanges § 3905.10 Oil shale lease exchanges. To facilitate the recovery of oil shale, the BLM may consider...

  17. 43 CFR 3905.10 - Oil shale lease exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oil shale lease exchanges. 3905.10 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Lease Exchanges § 3905.10 Oil shale lease exchanges. To facilitate the recovery of oil shale, the BLM may...

  18. 43 CFR 3905.10 - Oil shale lease exchanges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oil shale lease exchanges. 3905.10 Section... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE MANAGEMENT-GENERAL Lease Exchanges § 3905.10 Oil shale lease exchanges. To facilitate the recovery of oil shale, the BLM may...

  19. Green Coffee

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Caffeine in green coffee might slow blood clotting. Taking green coffee along with medications that also ...

  20. Green Tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Key References Green tea. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturaldatabase.com on July 8, 2009. Green tea ( Camellia sinensis ). Natural Standard Database Web site. Accessed at www.naturalstandard.com on July ...

  1. Phanerozoic black shales and the Wilson Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; Hay, W. W.; de Boer, P. L.

    2011-09-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of black shales is related to the development of the environments in which they accumulate and to a propitious combination of environmental variables. Whereas much has been done in recent years to improve our understanding of the mechanisms behind the temporal distribution of black shales in the Phanerozoic, the interpretation of the palaeogeographical distribution of black shales is still dominated by an oversimplistic set of three uniformitarian depositional models that do not capture the complexity and dynamics of environments of black shale accumulation. These three models, the restricted circulation, the (open) ocean oxygen minimum and the continental shelf models, are in fact a uniformitarian simplification of the variety of depositional environments that arise and coexist throughout the course of a basin's Wilson Cycle, i.e. the dynamic sequence of events and stages that characterise the evolution of an ocean basin, from the opening continental rift to the closing orogeny. We examine the spatial distribution of black shales in the context of the Wilson Cycle using examples from the Phanerozoic. It is shown that the geographical distribution of black shales, their position in the basin infill sequence and their nature (e.g. type of organic matter, lithology) depend on basin evolution because the latter controls the development of sedimentary environments where black shales may be deposited.

  2. Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Mark Dean; Lestz, Robert Steven; Hollis, Kirk; Taylor, Craig; Kinkead, Scott; Wigand, Marcus

    2010-09-07

    The present invention is directed to methods for extracting a kerogen-based product from subsurface (oil) shale formations, wherein such methods rely on fracturing and/or rubblizing portions of said formations so as to enhance their fluid permeability, and wherein such methods further rely on chemically modifying the shale-bound kerogen so as to render it mobile. The present invention is also directed at systems for implementing at least some of the foregoing methods. Additionally, the present invention is also directed to methods of fracturing and/or rubblizing subsurface shale formations and to methods of chemically modifying kerogen in situ so as to render it mobile.

  3. Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Mark Dean; Lestz, Robert Steven; Hollis, Kirk; Taylor, Craig; Kinkead, Scott; Wigand, Marcus

    2009-03-10

    The present invention is directed to methods for extracting a kerogen-based product from subsurface (oil) shale formations, wherein such methods rely on fracturing and/or rubblizing portions of said formations so as to enhance their fluid permeability, and wherein such methods further rely on chemically modifying the shale-bound kerogen so as to render it mobile. The present invention is also directed at systems for implementing at least some of the foregoing methods. Additionally, the present invention is also directed to methods of fracturing and/or rubblizing subsurface shale formations and to methods of chemically modifying kerogen in situ so as to render it mobile.

  4. Method for retorting oil shale

    DOEpatents

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Lui, A.P.

    1985-08-16

    The recovery of oil from oil shale is provided in a fluidized bed by using a fluidizing medium of a binary mixture of carbon dioxide and 5 steam. The mixture with a steam concentration in the range of about 20 to 75 volume percent steam provides an increase in oil yield over that achievable by using a fluidizing gas of carbon dioxide or steam alone when the mixture contains higher steam concentrations. The operating parameters for the fluidized bed retorted are essentially the same as those utilized with other gaseous fluidizing mediums with the significant gain being in the oil yield recovered which is attributable solely to the use of the binary mixture of carbon dioxide and steam. 2 figs.

  5. Comparison of naturally occurring shale bitumen asphaltene and retorted shale oil asphaltene

    SciTech Connect

    Shue, F.F.; Yen, T.F.

    1980-01-01

    Asphaltene is ubiquitously present in both the natural occurring bitumen and the retorted shale oil. Very few cases for the comparison of asphaltene properties are available in the literature. In this research, a comparison of the shale bitumen asphaltene and the retorted shale oil asphaltene was undertaken to investigate structural changes during thermal cracking. This was accomplished by means of elemental chemical analysis, infrared spectra, proton nmr spectra, and carbon-13 spectra of the bitumen asphaltenes and asphaltenes derived from shale oil retorted at 425 and 500/sup 0/C. Elemental analysis indicated that asphaltenes derived from retorted shale oils have smaller H/C ratio and smaller oxygen and sulfur contents, but greater nitrogen content than that derived from shale bitumen. Infrared spectra revealed that the retorted shale oil asphaltenes have greater pyrrolic N-H and hydrogen bonded O-H or N-H absorption than the shale bitumen asphaltene. Retorted shale oil asphaltenes have relatively higher aromaticity, lower degree of substitution of the aromatic sheet, and shorter alkyl substituents, which indicated that the main reactions in the retorting process are carbon-carbon bond fission and intramolecular aromatization.

  6. Contaminants from Cretaceous Black Shale Part 1: Natural weathering processes controlling contaminant cycling in Mancos Shale, southwestern United States, with emphasis on salinity and selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Fahy, Juli W.; Elliott, John G.; Grauch, Richard I.; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Soils derived from black shale can accumulate high concentrations of elements of environmental concern, especially in regions with semiarid to arid climates. One such region is the Colorado River basin in the southwestern United States where contaminants pose a threat to agriculture, municipal water supplies, endangered aquatic species, and water-quality commitments to Mexico. Exposures of Cretaceous Mancos Shale (MS) in the upper basin are a major contributor of salinity and selenium in the Colorado River. Here, we examine the roles of geology, climate, and alluviation on contaminant cycling (emphasis on salinity and Se) during weathering of MS in a Colorado River tributary watershed. Stage I (incipient weathering) began perhaps as long ago as 20 ka when lowering of groundwater resulted in oxidation of pyrite and organic matter. This process formed gypsum and soluble organic matter that persist in the unsaturated, weathered shale today. Enrichment of Se observed in laterally persistent ferric oxide layers likely is due to selenite adsorption onto the oxides that formed during fluctuating redox conditions at the water table. Stage II weathering (pedogenesis) is marked by a significant decrease in bulk density and increase in porosity as shale disaggregates to soil. Rainfall dissolves calcite and thenardite (Na2SO4) at the surface, infiltrates to about 1 m, and precipitates gypsum during evaporation. Gypsum formation (estimated 390 kg m−2) enriches soil moisture in Na and residual SO4. Transpiration of this moisture to the surface or exposure of subsurface soil (slumping) produces more thenardite. Most Se remains in the soil as selenite adsorbed to ferric oxides, however, some oxidizes to selenate and, during wetter conditions is transported with soil moisture to depths below 3 m. Coupled with little rainfall, relatively insoluble gypsum, and the translocation of soluble Se downward, MS landscapes will be a significant nonpoint source of salinity and Se to the

  7. Ordovician faunas of Burgess Shale type.

    PubMed

    Van Roy, Peter; Orr, Patrick J; Botting, Joseph P; Muir, Lucy A; Vinther, Jakob; Lefebvre, Bertrand; el Hariri, Khadija; Briggs, Derek E G

    2010-05-13

    The renowned soft-bodied faunas of the Cambrian period, which include the Burgess Shale, disappear from the fossil record in the late Middle Cambrian, after which the Palaeozoic fauna dominates. The disappearance of faunas of Burgess Shale type curtails the stratigraphic record of a number of iconic Cambrian taxa. One possible explanation for this loss is a major extinction, but more probably it reflects the absence of preservation of similar soft-bodied faunas in later periods. Here we report the discovery of numerous diverse soft-bodied assemblages in the Lower and Upper Fezouata Formations (Lower Ordovician) of Morocco, which include a range of remarkable stem-group morphologies normally considered characteristic of the Cambrian. It is clear that biotas of Burgess Shale type persisted after the Cambrian and are preserved where suitable facies occur. The Fezouata biota provides a link between the Burgess Shale communities and the early stages of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event. PMID:20463737

  8. COMPENDIUM REPORTS ON OIL SHALE TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document considers the various production processes (mining, retorting, and oil upgrading) and key environmental factors (organic and inorganic characterization, environmental control, and limitations) related to oil shale development. This state-of-the-art survey supports a...

  9. Military jet fuel from shale oil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppola, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    Investigations leading to a specification for aviation turbine fuel produced from whole crude shale oil are described. Refining methods involving hydrocracking, hydrotreating, and extraction processes are briefly examined and their production capabilities are assessed.

  10. Coal-shale interface detection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, R. A.; Hudgins, J. L.; Morris, P. W.; Reid, H., Jr.; Zimmerman, J. E. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A coal-shale interface detection system for use with coal cutting equipment consists of a reciprocating hammer on which an accelerometer is mounted to measure the impact of the hammer as it penetrates the ceiling or floor surface of a mine. A pair of reflectometers simultaneously view the same surface. The outputs of the accelerometer and reflectometers are detected and jointly registered to determine when an interface between coal and shale is being cut through.

  11. HYDRAULIC CEMENT PREPARATION FROM LURGI SPENT SHALE

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, P.K.; Persoff, P.; Fox, J.P.

    1980-06-01

    Low cost material is needed for grouting abandoned retorts. Experimental work has shown that a hydraulic cement can be produced from Lurgi spent shale by mixing it in a 1:1 weight ratio with limestone and heating one hour at 1000°C. With 5% added gypsum, strengths up to 25.8 MPa are obtained. This cement could make an economical addition up to about 10% to spent shale grout mixes, or be used in ordinary cement applications.

  12. Devonian shale gas resource assessment, Illinois basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cluff, R.M.; Cluff, S.G.; Murphy, C.M.

    1996-12-31

    In 1980 the National Petroleum Council published a resource appraisal for Devonian shales in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois basins. Their Illinois basin estimate of 86 TCFG in-place has been widely cited but never verified nor revised. The NPC estimate was based on extremely limited canister off-gas data, used a highly simplified volumetric computation, and is not useful for targeting specific areas for gas exploration. In 1994 we collected, digitized, and normalized 187 representative gamma ray-bulk density logs through the New Albany across the entire basin. Formulas were derived from core analyses and methane adsorption isotherms to estimate total organic carbon (r{sup 2}=0.95) and gas content (r{sup 2}=0.79-0.91) from shale bulk density. Total gas in place was then calculated foot-by-foot through each well, assuming normal hydrostatic pressures and assuming the shale is gas saturated at reservoir conditions. The values thus determined are similar to peak gas contents determined by canister off-gassing of fresh cores but are substantially greater than average off-gas values. Greatest error in the methodology is at low reservoir pressures (or at shallow depths), however, the shale is generally thinner in these areas so the impact on the total resource estimate is small. The total New Albany gas in place was determined by integration to be 323 TCFG. Of this, 210 TCF (67%) is in the upper black Grassy Creek Shale, 72 TCF (23%) in the middle black and gray Selmier Shale, and 31 TCF (10%) in the basal black Blocher Shale. Water production concerns suggest that only the Grassy Creek Shale is likely to be commercially exploitable.

  13. Devonian shale gas resource assessment, Illinois basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cluff, R.M.; Cluff, S.G.; Murphy, C.M. )

    1996-01-01

    In 1980 the National Petroleum Council published a resource appraisal for Devonian shales in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois basins. Their Illinois basin estimate of 86 TCFG in-place has been widely cited but never verified nor revised. The NPC estimate was based on extremely limited canister off-gas data, used a highly simplified volumetric computation, and is not useful for targeting specific areas for gas exploration. In 1994 we collected, digitized, and normalized 187 representative gamma ray-bulk density logs through the New Albany across the entire basin. Formulas were derived from core analyses and methane adsorption isotherms to estimate total organic carbon (r[sup 2]=0.95) and gas content (r[sup 2]=0.79-0.91) from shale bulk density. Total gas in place was then calculated foot-by-foot through each well, assuming normal hydrostatic pressures and assuming the shale is gas saturated at reservoir conditions. The values thus determined are similar to peak gas contents determined by canister off-gassing of fresh cores but are substantially greater than average off-gas values. Greatest error in the methodology is at low reservoir pressures (or at shallow depths), however, the shale is generally thinner in these areas so the impact on the total resource estimate is small. The total New Albany gas in place was determined by integration to be 323 TCFG. Of this, 210 TCF (67%) is in the upper black Grassy Creek Shale, 72 TCF (23%) in the middle black and gray Selmier Shale, and 31 TCF (10%) in the basal black Blocher Shale. Water production concerns suggest that only the Grassy Creek Shale is likely to be commercially exploitable.

  14. Stream macroinvertebrate baseline surveys: A comparative analysis from the oil-shale regions of Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erman, Don C.

    1981-11-01

    General surveys of the benthic macroinvertebrates from Piceance Creek and the White River were conducted for nearly a decade prior to oil-shale exploitation in north central Colorado, USA. Comparison of the taxa collected in four studies on Piceance Creek and five studies on the White River shows little similarity among most studies. Studies were generally consistent in methods, site selection, and time of year for collection. Lack of agreement among the studies on what constitutes a baseline of common taxa is probably a result of taxonomic difficulties and differences in technique. More emphasis should be placed on testing possible impacts than on repeated, expensive, and inconclusive baseline inventories.

  15. Stream macroinvertebrate baseline surveys: a comparative analysis from the oil-shale regions of Colorado, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Erman, D.C.

    1981-11-01

    General surveys of the benthic macroinvertebrates from Piceance Creek and the White River were conducted for nearly a decade prior to oil-shale exploitation in north central Colorado. Comparison of the taxa collected in four studies on Piceance Creek and five studies on the White River shows little similarity among most studies. Studies were generally consistent in methods, site selection, and time of year for collection. Lack of agreement among the studies on what constitutes a baseline of common taxa is probably a result of taxonomic difficulties and differences in technique. More emphasis should be placed on testing possible impacts than on repeated, expensive, and inconclusive baseline inventories. Refs.

  16. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Robert R; Hammarlund, Emma U; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E

    2012-04-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott's initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the "Cambrian explosion." PMID:22392974

  17. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Robert R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott’s initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the “Cambrian explosion.” PMID:22392974

  18. Commercialization of oil shale with the Petrosix process

    SciTech Connect

    Batista, A.R.D.; Ivo, S.C.; Piper, E.M.

    1985-02-01

    Brazil, because of domestic crude oil shortage, took an interest in oil shale between 1940 and 1950. Petrobras, created in 1954, included in its charter the responsibility to develop a modern oil shale industry. An outgrowth has been the Petrosix process incorporated in a commercial unit in the State of Parana that has operated successfully more than 65,000 hours. Because of the maturity of the Petrosix process in this plant and the similarity of the Brazilian Irati oil shale to many other shales, interest has developed to apply the Petrosix process to producing shale oil and high BTU gas from these oil shales. A comparison of the characteristics has been developed between Irati and other oil shales. An evaluation of a commercial plant design has been completed for Irati, Kentucky, and Indiana oil shale projects. The technological and commercial aspects of producing shale oil using the Petrosix technology are discussed.

  19. Assessment of undiscovered shale gas and shale oil resources in the Mississippian Barnett Shale, Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province, North-Central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marra, Kristen R.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Lewan, Michael D.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 53 trillion cubic feet of shale gas, 172 million barrels of shale oil, and 176 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Barnett Shale of the Bend Arch–Fort Worth Basin Province of Texas.

  20. Green Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  1. Assessment of potential shale gas and shale oil resources of the Norte Basin, Uruguay, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Klett, Timothy R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Weaver, Jean N.; Brownfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 13.4 trillion cubic feet of potential technically recoverable shale gas and 0.5 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil resources in the Norte Basin of Uruguay.

  2. CONTROL OF SULFUR EMISSIONS FROM OIL SHALE RETORTING USING SPEND SHALE ABSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a detailed engineering evaluation of the potential for using an absorption on spent shale process (ASSP) for controlling sulfur emissions from oil shale plants. The evaluation analyzes the potential effectiveness and cost of absorbing SO2 on combusted s...

  3. Understanding liquids production from shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panja, Palash

    The growth of production from liquid shale plays has been phenomenal. However, the recoveries are low of the order of 10% and more efficient methods of producing liquids are necessary. This research is aimed at understanding production performances involving complex interaction between phase behavior and flow in unconventional reservoirs like shales. A new rapid semianalytical forecast tool for transient state linear flow in ultralow permeability (100 nD to 5000 nD) fractured reservoir was developed. The tool is useful for well inflow performance, condensate drop out and material balance calculations of condensate production in unconventional reservoirs. Effects of individual parameters such as reservoir properties (matrix permeability, heterogeneity, rock compressibility and reservoir pressure) on production oil were studied using reservoir simulations with an appropriate number of grid blocks. The matrix permeability, initial reservoir pressure, fracture spacing were the most influencing factors in recoveries from gas-condensate as well as from oil reservoirs. Operating the well at higher flowing bottom hole pressure (FBHP) is preferable for low permeability (100 nD) reservoir and low FBHP for higher permeability (1000 nD) reservoir to recover more liquid. Production data, including Gas Oil Ratios (GOR) are valuable in assessing reservoir performance. A single characteristic factor affecting the produced gas oil ratio was found to be (1--Rsw/Rsb) (1--P wf/Pb) /(1-Pwf/Pi) that predicts deviation of gas oil ratio from its initial value. Effect of the interaction of parameters on recovery was examined using experimental design and response surface methodology. This study resulted in surrogate reservoir models for a quick assessment of production performance from ultralow permeability black oil and condensate reservoirs. Risks of production performance and investment were quantified by preparing the probability density functions (PDF) of production outcomes and the

  4. Method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground formation

    DOEpatents

    Sisemore, Clyde J.

    1980-01-01

    A method for maximizing shale oil recovery from an underground oil shale formation which has previously been processed by in situ retorting such that there is provided in the formation a column of substantially intact oil shale intervening between adjacent spent retorts, which method includes the steps of back filling the spent retorts with an aqueous slurry of spent shale. The slurry is permitted to harden into a cement-like substance which stabilizes the spent retorts. Shale oil is then recovered from the intervening column of intact oil shale by retorting the column in situ, the stabilized spent retorts providing support for the newly developed retorts.

  5. Uranium in river water

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, M.R. ); Edmond, J.M. )

    1993-10-01

    The concentration of dissolved uranium has been determined in over 250 river waters from the Orinoco, Amazon, and Ganges basins. Uranium concentrations are largely determined by dissolution of limestones, although weathering of black shales represents an important additional source in some basins. In shield terrains the level of dissolved U is transport limited. Data from the Amazon indicate that floodplains do not represent a significant source of U in river waters. In addition, the authors have determined dissolved U levels in forty rivers from around the world and coupled these data with previous measurements to obtain an estimate for the global flux of dissolved U to the oceans. The average concentration of U in river waters is 1.3 nmol/kg, but this value is biased by very high levels observed in the Ganges-Brahmaputra and Yellow rivers. When these river systems are excluded from the budget, the global average falls to 0.78 nmol/kg. The global riverine U flux lies in the range of 3-6 [times] 10[sup 7] mol/yr. The major uncertainty that restricts the accuracy of this estimate (and that of all other dissolved riverine fluxes) is the difficulty in obtaining representative samples from rivers which show large seasonal and annual variations in runoff and dissolved load.

  6. Hydrology, phosphorus, and suspended solids in five agricultural streams in the Lower Fox River and Green Bay Watersheds, Wisconsin, Water Years 2004-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graczyk, David J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Baumgart, Paul D.; Fermanich, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    The average annual TSS yields ranged from 111 tons/mi2 in Apple Creek to 45 tons/mi2 in Duck Creek. All five watersheds yielded more TSS than the median value (32.4 tons/mi2) from previous studies in the Southeastern Wisconsin Till Plains (SWTP) ecoregion. The average annual TP yields ranged from 663 lbs/mi2 in Baird Creek to 382 lbs/mi2 in Duck Creek. All five watersheds yielded more TP than the median value from previous studies in the SWTP ecoregion, and the Baird Creek watershed yielded more TP than the statewide median of 650 lbs/mi2 from previous studies.Overall, Duck Creek had the lowest median and volumetric weighted concentrations and mean yield of TSS and TP. The same pattern was true for dissolved phosphorus (DP), except the volumetrically weighted concentration was lowest in the East River. In contrast, Ashwaubenon, Baird, and Apple Creeks had greater median and volumetrically weighted concentrations and mean yields of TSS, TP, DP than Duck Creek and the East River. Water quality in Duck Creek and East River were distinctly different from Ashwaubenon, Baird, and Apple Creeks. Loads from individual runoff events for all of these streams were important to the total annual mass transport of the constituents. On average, about 20 percent of the annual TSS loads and about 17 percent of the TP loads were transported in 1-day events in each stream.

  7. BTEX biodegradation in fractured shale

    SciTech Connect

    O`Cleirigh, D.; Coryea, H.; Christopher, M.; Vaughn, C.

    1997-12-31

    A petroleum hydrocarbon groundwater plume was identified at a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) facility in Oklahoma. The affected area had an average BTEX concentration of 3.8 mg/L. Previous aquifer tests indicated preferential groundwater flow paths resulting from natural fractures present in the aquifer formation (primarily shale). A pneumatic fracturing pilot study was performed to evaluate the technology`s effectiveness in creating a more isotropic aquifer. As part of the study, pre-fracture/post-fracture pump tests were performed. Pre-fracture and post-fracture graphs confirmed the study`s hypothesis that pneumatic fracturing would eliminate preferential flow paths and increase groundwater yield. Based on the successful pneumatic fracturing test, an area within the petroleum hydrocarbon plume was fractured and a pilot-scale biodegradation system was operated for four months. The remediation system provided groundwater circulation amended with nutrients and oxygen. Results of the study indicated a significant decrease in BTEX concentrations between the injection well and the observation wells. By Day 113, the benzene concentration (0.044 mg/L) at one of the observation wells was less than the desired state cleanup goal of 0.05 mg/L.

  8. Greene Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article profiles the 37-year-old researcher Jay P. Greene and his controversial research studies on education. Most people learn early to trust the things they see first, but Greene adheres to a different creed. People are deceived by their own eyes. He believed that visual betrayal is as evident as it is in how people think…

  9. Fracture-permeability behavior of shale

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, J. William; Lei, Zhou; Rougier, Esteban; Mori, Hiroko; Viswanathan, Hari

    2015-05-08

    The fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale, an important play for shale gas and oil, was investigated using a triaxial coreflood device and X-ray tomography in combination with finite-discrete element modeling (FDEM). Fractures generated in both compression and in a direct-shear configuration allowed permeability to be measured across the faces of cylindrical core. Shale with bedding planes perpendicular to direct-shear loading developed complex fracture networks and peak permeability of 30 mD that fell to 5 mD under hydrostatic conditions. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with peak permeability as high as 900 mD. In addition to the large anisotropy in fracture permeability, the amount of deformation required to initiate fractures was greater for perpendicular layering (about 1% versus 0.4%), and in both cases activation of existing fractures are more likely sources of permeability in shale gas plays or damaged caprock in CO₂ sequestration because of the significant deformation required to form new fracture networks. FDEM numerical simulations were able to replicate the main features of the fracturing processes while showing the importance of fluid penetration into fractures as well as layering in determining fracture patterns.

  10. System for utilizing oil shale fines

    DOEpatents

    Harak, Arnold E.

    1982-01-01

    A system is provided for utilizing fines of carbonaceous materials such as particles or pieces of oil shale of about one-half inch or less diameter which are rejected for use in some conventional or prior surface retorting process, which obtains maximum utilization of the energy content of the fines and which produces a waste which is relatively inert and of a size to facilitate disposal. The system includes a cyclone retort (20) which pyrolyzes the fines in the presence of heated gaseous combustion products, the cyclone retort having a first outlet (30) through which vapors can exit that can be cooled to provide oil, and having a second outlet (32) through which spent shale fines are removed. A burner (36) connected to the spent shale outlet of the cyclone retort, burns the spent shale with air, to provide hot combustion products (24) that are carried back to the cyclone retort to supply gaseous combustion products utilized therein. The burner heats the spent shale to a temperature which forms a molten slag, and the molten slag is removed from the burner into a quencher (48) that suddenly cools the molten slag to form granules that are relatively inert and of a size that is convenient to handle for disposal in the ground or in industrial processes.

  11. Fracture-permeability behavior of shale

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Carey, J. William; Lei, Zhou; Rougier, Esteban; Mori, Hiroko; Viswanathan, Hari

    2015-05-08

    The fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale, an important play for shale gas and oil, was investigated using a triaxial coreflood device and X-ray tomography in combination with finite-discrete element modeling (FDEM). Fractures generated in both compression and in a direct-shear configuration allowed permeability to be measured across the faces of cylindrical core. Shale with bedding planes perpendicular to direct-shear loading developed complex fracture networks and peak permeability of 30 mD that fell to 5 mD under hydrostatic conditions. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with peak permeability as high as 900 mD. In addition tomore » the large anisotropy in fracture permeability, the amount of deformation required to initiate fractures was greater for perpendicular layering (about 1% versus 0.4%), and in both cases activation of existing fractures are more likely sources of permeability in shale gas plays or damaged caprock in CO₂ sequestration because of the significant deformation required to form new fracture networks. FDEM numerical simulations were able to replicate the main features of the fracturing processes while showing the importance of fluid penetration into fractures as well as layering in determining fracture patterns.« less

  12. Long-Term Effect of Fault-Controlled CO2 Alteration on the Weakening and Strengthening of Reservoir and Seal Lithologies at Crystal Geyser, Green River, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, J. R.; Eichhubl, P.; Dewers, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    An understanding of the coupled chemical and mechanical properties and behavior of reservoir and seal rocks is critical for assessing both the short and long term security of sequestered CO2. A combined structural diagenesis approach using observations from natural analogs has great advantages for understanding these properties over longer time scales than is possible using laboratory or numerical experiments. Current numerical models evaluating failure of reservoirs and seals during and after CO2 injection in the subsurface are just beginning to account for such coupled processes. Well-characterized field studies of natural analogs such as Crystal Geyser, Utah, are essential for providing realistic input parameters, calibration, and testing of numerical models across a range of spatial and temporal scales. Fracture mechanics testing was performed on a suite of naturally altered and unaltered reservoir and seal rocks exposed at the Crystal Geyser field site. These samples represent end-products of CO2-related alteration over geologic (>103 yr) time scales. Both the double torsion and short rod test methods yield comparable results on the same samples. Tests demonstrate that CO2-related alteration has weakened one reservoir sandstone lithology by approximately 50%, but the subcritical index is not significantly affected. An altered siltstone sample also shows a reduction in fracture toughness values and lowered subcritical index in comparison to unaltered siltstone. In contrast, elevated calcite content in shales due to CO2 alteration has increased fracture toughness. Similarly, fracture toughness was increased in what is otherwise a weak, poorly cemented sandstone unit due to increased calcite cement. Combined, these results demonstrate that CO2-related alteration generally weakens rock to fracturing (i.e. lowers fracture toughness), except in cases where calcite cementation is significantly increased. The natural system at Crystal Geyser demonstrates that water

  13. Methanogenic archaea in marcellus shale: a possible mechanism for enhanced gas recovery in unconventional shale resources.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Yael Tarlovsky; Kotcon, James; Mroz, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Marcellus Shale occurs at depths of 1.5-2.5 km (5000 to 8000 feet) where most geologists generally assume that thermogenic processes are the only source of natural gas. However, methanogens in produced fluids and isotopic signatures of biogenic methane in this deep shale have recently been discovered. This study explores whether those methanogens are indigenous to the shale or are introduced during drilling and hydraulic fracturing. DNA was extracted from Marcellus Shale core samples, preinjected fluids, and produced fluids and was analyzed using Miseq sequencing of 16s rRNA genes. Methanogens present in shale cores were similar to methanogens in produced fluids. No methanogens were detected in injected fluids, suggesting that this is an unlikely source and that they may be native to the shale itself. Bench-top methane production tests of shale core and produced fluids suggest that these organisms are alive and active under simulated reservoir conditions. Growth conditions designed to simulate the hydrofracture processes indicated somewhat increased methane production; however, fluids alone produced relatively little methane. Together, these results suggest that some biogenic methane may be produced in these wells and that hydrofracture fluids currently used to stimulate gas recovery could stimulate methanogens and their rate of producing methane. PMID:25924080

  14. Climate change and the green energy paradox: the consequences for twaite shad Alosa fallax from the River Severn, U.K.

    PubMed

    Aprahamian, M W; Aprahamian, C D; Knights, A M

    2010-11-01

    A stock-recruitment model with a temperature component was used to estimate the effect of an increase in temperature predicted by climate change projections on population persistence and distribution of twaite shad Alosa fallax. An increase of 1 and 2° C above the current mean summer (June to August) water temperature of 17·8° C was estimated to result in a three and six-fold increase in the population, respectively. Climate change is also predicted to result in an earlier commencement to their spawning migration into fresh water. The model was expanded to investigate the effect of any additional mortality that might arise from a tidal power barrage across the Severn Estuary. Turbine mortality was separated into two components: (1) juvenile (pre-maturation) on their out migration during their first year and on their first return to the river to spawn and (2) post-maturation mortality on adults on the repeat spawning component of the population. Under current conditions, decreasing pre-maturation and post-maturation survival by 8% is estimated to result in the stock becoming extinct. It is estimated that an increase in mean summer water temperature of 1° C would mean that survival pre and post-maturation would need to be reduced by c. 10% before the stock becomes extinct. Therefore, climate change is likely to be beneficial to populations of A. fallax within U.K. rivers, increasing survival and thus, population persistence. PMID:21078098

  15. Oil shale retorting and combustion system

    DOEpatents

    Pitrolo, Augustine A.; Mei, Joseph S.; Shang, Jerry Y.

    1983-01-01

    The present invention is directed to the extraction of energy values from l shale containing considerable concentrations of calcium carbonate in an efficient manner. The volatiles are separated from the oil shale in a retorting zone of a fluidized bed where the temperature and the concentration of oxygen are maintained at sufficiently low levels so that the volatiles are extracted from the oil shale with minimal combustion of the volatiles and with minimal calcination of the calcium carbonate. These gaseous volatiles and the calcium carbonate flow from the retorting zone into a freeboard combustion zone where the volatiles are burned in the presence of excess air. In this zone the calcination of the calcium carbonate occurs but at the expense of less BTU's than would be required by the calcination reaction in the event both the retorting and combustion steps took place simultaneously. The heat values in the products of combustion are satisfactorily recovered in a suitable heat exchange system.

  16. Shale gas development: a smart regulation framework.

    PubMed

    Konschnik, Katherine E; Boling, Mark K

    2014-01-01

    Advances in directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing have sparked a natural gas boom from shale formations in the United States. Regulators face a rapidly changing industry comprised of hundreds of players, operating tens of thousands of wells across 30 states. They are often challenged to respond by budget cuts, a brain drain to industry, regulations designed for conventional gas developments, insufficient information, and deeply polarized debates about hydraulic fracturing and its regulation. As a result, shale gas governance remains a halting patchwork of rules, undermining opportunities to effectively characterize and mitigate development risk. The situation is dynamic, with research and incremental regulatory advances underway. Into this mix, we offer the CO/RE framework--characterization of risk, optimization of mitigation strategies, regulation, and enforcement--to design tailored governance strategies. We then apply CO/RE to three types of shale gas risks, to illustrate its potential utility to regulators. PMID:24564674

  17. Shale Gas: Development Opportunities and Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Zoback, Mark D.; Arent, Douglas J.

    2014-03-01

    The use of horizontal drilling and multistage hydraulic fracturing technologies has enabled the production of immense quantities of natural gas, to date principally in North America but increasingly in other countries around the world. The global availability of this resource creates both opportunities and challenges that need to be addressed in a timely and effective manner. There seems little question that rapid shale gas development, coupled with fuel switching from coal to natural gas for power generation, can have beneficial effects on air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy security in many countries. In this context, shale gas resources represent a critically important transition fuel on the path to a decarbonized energy future. For these benefits to be realized, however, it is imperative that shale gas resources be developed with effective environmental safeguards to reduce their impact on land use, water resources, air quality, and nearby communities.

  18. Method and apparatus for shale gas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Nielson, D.H.

    1990-05-29

    This patent describes a method for the in situ recovery of natural gas from an undisturbed shale bed formation in a condition ready for transmission through a gas pipeline to end users and substantially without the formation of liquid products. It comprises: forming a heater assembly having an elongated substantially cylindrical outer housing; providing the elongated heater assembly with an interior containing a fuel gas burner there within joined to an upwardly extending fuel gas supply line and including in the interior an upwardly extending product gas line disposed adjacent an upwardly extending combustion air line; drilling a borehole into a subterranean shale bed formation; and lowering the heater assembly into the borehole to a position surrounded by the shale bed formation with the borehole having been drilled to define a diameter relative the heater assembly housing insuring a close fit therebetween while providing a gas space therebetween.

  19. Thermal Maturation of Gas Shale Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, Sylvain; Horsfield, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Shale gas systems serve as sources, reservoirs, and seals for unconventional natural gas accumulations. These reservoirs bring numerous challenges to geologists and petroleum engineers in reservoir characterization, most notably because of their heterogeneous character due to depositional and diagenetic processes but also because of their constituent rocks' fine-grained nature and small pore size -- much smaller than in conventional sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. Significant advances have recently been achieved in unraveling the gaseous hydrocarbon generation and retention processes that occur within these complex systems. In addition, cutting-edge characterization technologies have allowed precise documentation of the spatial variability in chemistry and structure of thermally mature organic-rich shales at the submicrometer scale, revealing the presence of geochemical heterogeneities within overmature gas shale samples and, notably, the presence of nanoporous pyrobitumen. Such research advances will undoubtedly lead to improved performance, producibility, and modeling of such strategic resources at the reservoir scale.

  20. Economic enhancement of Western shale oil upgrading

    SciTech Connect

    Bunger, J. W.; Ryu, H.; Jeong, S. Y.

    1989-07-01

    A proof-of-concept study for a novel shale oil refining process was undertaken. This project promises reduced upgrading costs, thereby making shale oil development more feasible for commercialization. The process consists of distillation of raw shale oil into a distillate and residue portion, cracking of the residue by hydropyrolysis, and selective hydrotreating of narrow boiling cuts from the total distillate. Based on models and experimental data, the end product slate is projected to be 34% naphtha, 57% middle distillate, and 10.3% atm residue + coke. Hydrogen addition is 1.3% or 800 scf/bbl. These results are considerably improved over conventional processing, which gives 14% naphtha, 41% middle distillate, and 48.2% residue + coke and hydrogen addition of 3.2% or 2000 scf/bbl. More quantitative data and preliminary economics will be obtained in the next phase of study. 13 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Assessment of potential unconventional lacustrine shale-oil and shale-gas resources, Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Brownfield, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed potential technically recoverable mean resources of 53 million barrels of shale oil and 320 billion cubic feet of shale gas in the Phitsanulok Basin, onshore Thailand.

  2. Baseline groundwater chemistry characterization in an area of future Marcellus shale gas development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenhauer, P.; Zegre, N.; Edwards, P. J.; Strager, M.

    2012-12-01

    The recent increase in development of the Marcellus shale formation for natural gas in the mid-Atlantic can be attributed to advances in unconventional extraction methods, namely hydraulic fracturing, a process that uses water to pressurize and fracture relatively impermeable shale layers to release natural gas. In West Virginia, the Department of Energy estimates 95 to 105 trillion cubic feet (TCF) of expected ultimately recovery (EUR) of natural gas for this formation. With increased development of the Marcellus shale formation comes concerns for the potential of contamination to groundwater resources that serve as primary potable water sources for many rural communities. However, the impacts of this practice on water resources are poorly understood because of the lack of controlled pre versus post-drilling experiments attributed to the rapid development of this resource. To address the knowledge gaps of the potential impacts of Marcellus shale development on groundwater resources, a pre versus post-drilling study has been initiated by the USFS Fernow Experimental Forest in the Monongahela National Forest. Drilling is expected to start at three locations within the next year. Pre-drilling water samples were collected and analyzed from two groundwater wells, a shallow spring, a nearby lake, and river to characterize background water chemistry and identify potential end-members. Geochemical analysis includes major ions, methane, δ13C-CH4, δ2H-CH4, 226Radium, and δ13C-DIC. In addition, a GIS-based conceptual ground water flow model was developed to identify possible interactions between shallow groundwater and natural gas wells given gas well construction failure. This model is used to guide management decisions regarding groundwater resources in an area of increasing shale gas development.

  3. Oil shale extraction using super-critical extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    Significant improvement in oil shale extraction under supercritical conditions is provided by extracting the shale at a temperature below 400 C, such as from about 250 C to about 350 C, with a solvent having a Hildebrand solubility parameter within 1 to 2 Hb of the solubility parameter for oil shale bitumen.

  4. Rapid gas development in the Fayetteville shale basin, Arkansas

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advances in drilling and extraction of natural gas have resulted in rapid expansion of wells in shale basins. The rate of gas well installation in the Fayetteville shale is 774 wells a year since 2005 with thousands more planned. The Fayetteville shale covers 23,000 km2 although ...

  5. Shale seismic anisotropy vs. compaction trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pervukhina, M.

    2015-12-01

    Shales comprise more than 60% of sedimentary rocks and form natural seals above hydrocarbon reservoirs. Their sealing capacity is also used for storage of nuclear wastes. Shales are notorious for their strong elastic anisotropy, so-called, vertical transverse isotropy or VTI. This VTI anisotropy is of practical importance as it is required for correct surface seismic data interpretation, seismic to well tie and azimuth versus offset analysis. A number of competing factors are responsible for VTI anisotropy in shales, namely, (1) micro-scale elastic anisotropy of clay particles, (2) anisotropic orientation distribution function of clay particles, (3) anisotropic orientation of pores and organic matter. On the contrary, silt (non-clay mineralogy grains with size between 0.06 -0.002 mm) is known to reduce elastic anisotropy of shales. Methods developed for calculations of anisotropy in polycrystalline materials can be used to estimate elastic anisotropy of shales from orientation distribution function (ODF) of clay platelets if elastic properties of individual clay platelets are known. Unfortunately, elastic properties of individual clay platelets cannot be directly measured. Recently, elastic properties of properties of individual clay platelets with different mineralogy were calculated from first principles based on density functional theory. In this work we use these elastic properties of individual platelets of muscovite, illite-smectite and kaolinite to obtain correlations between elastic anisotropy and Legendre coefficients W200 and W400 of different ODFs. Comparison of the Legendre coefficients calculated for more than 800 shales from depths 0 - 6 km (www.rockphysicists.org/data) with those of compaction ODFs shows that compaction has no first order effect on elastic anisotropy. Thus, elastic anisotropy is to large extent determined by factors other than compaction processes, such as depositional environment, chemical composition of fluid, silt fraction, etc.

  6. Controls on porphyrin concentrations of Pennsylvanian organic-rich shales, Western U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clayton, J.L.; Michael, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    Organic-rich black shales of Middle Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) age occur over much of the central U.S. and as far west as the northern Denver and southeastern Powder River basins. Total organic carbon contents (Corg) are commonly greater than 10 wt %. Porphyrin concentrations (vanadyl + nickel) are as high as 40000 ppm relative to extractable bitumen. In bulk, the organic matter contained in the shales is mostly type II and III (Rock-Eval hydrogen indexes 200-400 mg of hydrocarbons/g of Corg). The finding of high porphyrin concentrations in type III organic matter is unusual but can be explained by a depositional model wherein high preservation of primary organic production (water column photosynthesis) is combined with substantial input of allochthonous organic matter. The allochthonous organic matter (low porphyrin concentration) may come from erosion during advance of the sea across the area or from fluvial transport from shore.

  7. Shale oil stabilization with a hydroprocessor

    SciTech Connect

    York, E. D.; Johnson, D. M.; Miller, P. B.

    1985-10-22

    A process is provided to produce, stabilize, dedust and upgrade synthetic oil, such as shale oil. In the process, synthetic fuels, such as oil shale, tar sands and diatomite are retorted with heat carrier material to liberate an effluent product stream comprising hydrocarbons and entrained particulates of dust. In order to minimize polymerization of the product stream and agglomerate the dust, the product stream is stabilized, upgraded, and pretreated prior to dedusting, in a hydroprocessor, such as an ebullated bed reactor, with a hydroprocessing gas in the presence of a catalyst. The hydroprocessing gas can be hydrogen, scrubbed fractionator gases, or hydrocarbon-enriched hydroprocessor off gases.

  8. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  9. Code Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMinn, John

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the integrated approach to green design in the new Computer Science Building at Toronto's York University. The building design fulfills the university's demand to combine an energy efficient design with sustainability. Floor and site plans are included. (GR)

  10. Green Roofs

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    A New Technology Demonstration Publication Green roofs can improve the energy performance of federal buildings, help manage stormwater, reduce airborne emissions, and mitigate the effects of urban heat islands.

  11. Green Giant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polo, Marco

    2003-01-01

    Details the design of the Bahen Centre for Information Technology at the University of Toronto, particularly its emphasis on "green," or sustainable, design. Includes floor plans and photographs. (EV)

  12. CO2 Sequestration within Spent Oil Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, H.; Worrall, F.; Gluyas, J.; Morgan, C.; Fraser, J.

    2013-12-01

    Worldwide deposits of oil shales are thought to represent ~3 trillion barrels of oil. Jordanian oil shale deposits are extensive and of high quality, and could represent 100 billion barrels of oil, leading to much interest and activity in the development of these deposits. The exploitation of oil shales has raised a number of environmental concerns including: land use, waste disposal, water consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. The dry retorting of oil shales can overcome a number of the environmental impacts, but this leaves concerns over management of spent oil shale and CO2 production. In this study we propose that the spent oil shale can be used to sequester CO2 from the retorting process. Here we show that by conducting experiments using high pressure reaction facilities, we can achieve successful carbonation of spent oil shale. High pressure reactor facilities in the Department of Earth Sciences, Durham University, are capable of reacting solids with a range of fluids up to 15 MPa and 350°C, being specially designed for research with supercritical fluids. Jordanian spent oil shale was reacted with high pressure CO2 in order to assess whether there is potential for sequestration. Fresh and reacted materials were then examined by: Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) methods. Jordanian spent oil shale was found to sequester up to 5.8 wt % CO2, on reacting under supercritical conditions, which is 90% of the theoretical carbonation. Jordanian spent oil shale is composed of a large proportion of CaCO3, which on retorting decomposes, forming CaSO4 and Ca-oxides which are the focus of carbonation reactions. A factorially designed experiment was used to test different factors on the extent of carbonation, including: pressure; temperature; duration; and the water content. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques were then used to determine the significance of

  13. Wellbore stability in shale gas reservoirs, a case study of the Barnett Shale (USA).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouadfeul, Sid-Ali; Aliouane, Leila

    2015-04-01

    Wellbore stability in shale gas reservoirs is one of the major problems during the drilling phase; bad stability can induce the breakouts and drilling induced fractures. Wellbore stability requires the good knowledge of horizontal maximum and minimum stress, the overburden stress and the pore pressure. In this paper, we show a case study of the wellbore stability and how to estimate the mud weight in shale gas reservoir of the Barnett shale formation before drilling. The overburden stress is calculated from the seismic inversion, the minimum stress is calculated using the poro-elastic model, and however the pore pressure is calculated using the Eaton's model. Keywords: Wellbore stability, shale gas, maximum stress, minimum stress, overburden, mud weight, pore pressure.

  14. Influence of group II metals on Radium-226 concentration ratios in the native green plum (Buchanania obovata) from the Alligator Rivers Region, Northern Territory, Australia.

    PubMed

    Medley, Peter; Bollhöfer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    In this study, uptake of Ra from soil, and the influence of group II metals on Ra uptake, into the stones and edible flesh of the fruit of the wild green plum, Buchanania obovata, was investigated. Selective extraction of the exchangeable fraction of the soil samples was undertaken but was not shown to more reliably predict Ra uptake than total soil Ra activity concentration. Comparison of the group II metal to Ca ratios (i.e. Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Ra/Ca) in the flesh with exchangeable Ca shows that Ca outcompetes group II metals for root uptake and that the uptake pathway discriminated against group II metals relative to ionic radius, with uptake of Ca > Sr > Ba > Ra. Flesh and stone analysis showed that movement of group II metals to these components of the plant, after root uptake, was strongly related. This supports the hypothesis that Sr, Ba and Ra are being taken up as analogue elements, and follow the same uptake and translocation pathways, with Ca. Comparison with previously reported data from a native passion fruit supports the use of total soil CRs on natural, undisturbed sites. As exchangeable CRs for Ra reach a saturation value it may be possible to make more precise predictions using selective extraction techniques for contaminated or disturbed sites. PMID:26277654

  15. Experimental Determination of the Fracture Toughness and Brittleness of the Mancos Shale, Utah.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Mike; Meredith, Phil; Crawford, Brian

    2013-04-01

    non-linearity. This produces hysteresis during cyclic loading, allowing for the calculation of a brittleness coefficient using the residual displacement after successive loading cycles. This can then be used to define a brittleness corrected Fracture Toughness, KIcc. We report anisotropic KIcc values and a variety of supporting measurements made on the Mancos Shale in the three principle Mode-I crack orientations (Arrester, Divider and Short-Transverse) using a modified Short-Rod sample geometry. The Mancos is an Upper Cretaceous shale from western Colorado and eastern Utah with a relatively high siliclastic content for a gas target formation. The Short-Rod methodology involves the propagation of a crack through a triangular ligament in a chevron-notched cylindrical sample [3]. A very substantial anisotropy is observed in the loading curves and KIcc values for the three crack orientations, with the Divider orientation having KIcc values 25% higher than the other orientations. The measured brittleness for these Mancos shales is in the range 1.5-2.1; higher than for any other rocks we have found in the literature. This implies that the material is extremely non-linear. Increases in KIcc with increasing confining pressure are also investigated, as Shale Gas reservoirs occur at depths where confining pressure may be as high as 35MPa and temperature as high as 100oC. References [1] C.A. Green, P. Styles & B.J. Baptie, "Preese Hall Shale Gas Fracturing", Review & Recommendations for Induced Seismic Mitigation, 2012. [2] N.R. Warpinski & M.B. Smith, "Rock Mechanics and Fracture Geometry", Recent advances in Hydraulic Fracturing, SPE Monograms, Vol. 12, pp. 57-80, 1990. [3] F. Ouchterlony, "International Society for Rock Mechanics Commision on Testing Methods: Suggested Methods for Determining the Fracture Toughness of Rock", International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Science & Geomechanics Abstracts, Vol. 25, 1988.

  16. The Green of Green Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challis, Lawrie; Sheard, Fred

    2003-12-01

    In 1828, an English miller from Nottingham published a mathematical essay that generated little response. George Green's analysis, however, has since found applications in areas ranging from classical electrostatics to modern quantum field theory.

  17. Natural gas resource characterization study of the Mesaverde group in the Greater Green River basin, Wyoming: A strategic plan for the exploitation of tight gas sands. Final report, September 1993-April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Surdam, R.C.

    1996-05-01

    This final report summarizes work completed during the contract on developing an innovative exploration and production strategy for the Mesaverde Group tight gas sands in the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB). Thorough investigation of the processes affecting the sources and reservoirs of this gas resource has been undertaken in order to establish the critical parameters that determine how gas accumulates in gas-saturated, anomalously pressured rocks and that affect the successful and efficient exploitation of tight gas sands. During the contract, IER researchers have (1) developed a natural gas exploration paradigm that can be be used to create improved exploitation strategies for the Mesaverde Group tight gas sands, thereby lowing exploration risk; (2) detected and delineated sweet spots using 2-D and 3-D models of well log responses, petrographic and petrophysical studies, water chemistry analyses, and natural frature studies; (3) investigated the relationship of natural fractures and lineaments to hydrocarbon production in the GGRB; (4) created an expanded database for the GGRB; (5) prioritized volunteered experimental drill sites in the GGRB for potential cooperative research and development; and (6) participated in joint studies on a horizontal well completion in the Almond Formation, Echo Springs field, Washakie Basin.

  18. Enhanced formation of disinfection byproducts in shale gas wastewater-impacted drinking water supplies.

    PubMed

    Parker, Kimberly M; Zeng, Teng; Harkness, Jennifer; Vengosh, Avner; Mitch, William A

    2014-10-01

    The disposal and leaks of hydraulic fracturing wastewater (HFW) to the environment pose human health risks. Since HFW is typically characterized by elevated salinity, concerns have been raised whether the high bromide and iodide in HFW may promote the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) and alter their speciation to more toxic brominated and iodinated analogues. This study evaluated the minimum volume percentage of two Marcellus Shale and one Fayetteville Shale HFWs diluted by fresh water collected from the Ohio and Allegheny Rivers that would generate and/or alter the formation and speciation of DBPs following chlorination, chloramination, and ozonation treatments of the blended solutions. During chlorination, dilutions as low as 0.01% HFW altered the speciation toward formation of brominated and iodinated trihalomethanes (THMs) and brominated haloacetonitriles (HANs), and dilutions as low as 0.03% increased the overall formation of both compound classes. The increase in bromide concentration associated with 0.01-0.03% contribution of Marcellus HFW (a range of 70-200 μg/L for HFW with bromide = 600 mg/L) mimics the increased bromide levels observed in western Pennsylvanian surface waters following the Marcellus Shale gas production boom. Chloramination reduced HAN and regulated THM formation; however, iodinated trihalomethane formation was observed at lower pH. For municipal wastewater-impacted river water, the presence of 0.1% HFW increased the formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during chloramination, particularly for the high iodide (54 ppm) Fayetteville Shale HFW. Finally, ozonation of 0.01-0.03% HFW-impacted river water resulted in significant increases in bromate formation. The results suggest that total elimination of HFW discharge and/or installation of halide-specific removal techniques in centralized brine treatment facilities may be a better strategy to mitigate impacts on downstream drinking water treatment plants than altering

  19. Response of oil shale to fragmentation by cylindrical charges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fourney, W. L.; Dick, R. D.; Young, C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental program that was conducted in 1981 through 1983 in the Anvil Points Oil Shale Mine near Rifle, Colorado. The objective was to examine the response of the kerogen rich oil shale to explosive charges in relatively large scale tests. Due to an alleged shortage of oil at that time the price per barrel of crude oil had reached nearly 40 and the United States was looking at oil shale as a possible source of hydrocarbon fuels. It was the intention of the fragmentation program to develop a modified in situ retort to recover the oil from the fragmented shale. Programs were already underway wherein the oil shale was being mined, transported to the surface, and retorted to remove the oil. This surface retorting resulted in a tremendous amount of spent shale (shale with the kerogen removed) which had to be handled and it was felt that this would lead to serious environmental problems. The scheme being investigated in the program at Anvil Points was one in which about 25% of the shale is mined, moved to the surface, and retorted. The remaining 75% of the shale was to be fragmented in place and an underground retort formed so that the oil could be removed without the necessity of transporting the shale to the surface. A successful method was not developed but the results of the program did provide information on the response of shale to both single hole and multiple hole explosive charges.

  20. Processes of Terrace Formation on the Piedmont of the Santa Cruz River Valley During Quaternary Time, Green Valley-Tubac Area, Southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    In this report we describe a series of stepped Quaternary terraces on some piedmont tributaries of the Santa Cruz River valley in southeastern Arizona. These terraces began to form in early Pleistocene time, after major basin-and-range faulting ceased, with lateral planation of basin fill and deposition of thin fans of alluvium. At the end of this cycle of erosion and deposition, tributaries of the Santa Cruz River began the process of dissection and terrace formation that continues to the present. Vertical cutting alternated with periods of equilibrium, during which streams cut laterally and left thin deposits of channel fill. The distribution of terraces was mapped and compiled with adjacent mapping to produce a regional picture of piedmont stream history in the middle part of the Santa Cruz River valley. For selected tributaries, the thickness of terrace fill was measured, particle size and lithology of gravel were determined, and sedimentary features were photographed and described. Mapping of terrace stratigraphy revealed that on two tributaries, Madera Canyon Wash and Montosa Canyon Wash, stream piracy has played an important role in piedmont landscape development. On two other tributaries, Cottonwood Canyon Wash and Josephine Canyon Wash, rapid downcutting preempted piracy. Two types of terraces are recognized: erosional and depositional. Gravel in thin erosional terraces has Trask sorting coefficients and sedimentary structures typical of streamflood deposits, replete with bar-and-swale surface topography on young terraces. Erosional-terrace fill represents the channel fill of the stream that cuts the terrace; the thickness of the fill indicates the depth of channel scour. In contrast to erosional terraces, depositional terraces show evidence of repeated deposition and net aggradation, as indicated by their thickness (as much as 20+ m) and weakly bedded structure. Depositional terraces are common below mountain-front canyon mouths where streams drop their

  1. Geochemical controls on groundwater chemistry in shales

    SciTech Connect

    Von Damm, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    The chemistry of groundwaters is one of the most important parameters in determining the mobility of species within a rock formation. A three pronged approach was used to determine the composition of, and geochemical controls, on groundwaters specifically within shale formations: (1) available data were collected from the literature, the US Geological Survey WATSTORE data base, and field sampling, (2) the geochemical modeling code EQ3/6 was used to simulate interaction of various shales and groundwaters, and (3) several types of shale were reacted with synthetic groundwaters in the laboratory. The comparison of model results to field and laboratory data provide a means of validating the models, as well as a means of deconvoluting complex field interactions. Results suggest that groundwaters in shales have a wide range in composition and are primarily of the Na-Cl-HCO/sub 3/- type. The constancy of the Na:Cl (molar) ratio at 1:1 and the Ca:Mg ratio from 3:1 to 1:1 suggests the importance of halite and carbonates in controlling groundwater compositions. In agreement with the reaction path modeling, most of the groundwaters are neutral to slightly alkaline at low temperatures. Model and experimental results suggest that reaction (1) at elevated temperatures, or (2) in the presence of oxygen will lead to more acidic conditions. Some acetate was found to be produced in the experiments; depending on the constraints applied, large amounts of acetate were produced in the model results. 13 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Studies of the Scottish oil shale industry

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, S.C.

    1990-03-01

    An oral history of life in the first half of the twentieth century in the shale mining communities of Mid and West Lothian, Scotland provided background information needed for a mortality study of these communities where the Scottish shale oil industry was located until 1963. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews with 41 old people provide a detailed socio-historical picture of life in an area dominated by this industry. Much of the information is presented using quotations from the interviews. Housing conditions and perceptions of pollution are described. Details of working conditions, jobs and wages, focussing in particular on the shale industry, suggest that until the early 1920s shale workers were financially well off compared with workers elsewhere. Comparative wage levels then deteriorated until 1939. Women's activities, roles, domestic and work positions indicate that although women had little exposure to industrial hazards in the workplace, their standard of living was very low and they had to work extremely hard. Health and health care, diet, smoking and drinking habits, leisure and migrations are other factors which could affect morality patterns. Comparisons with contemporary studies are discussed. 33 refs., 6 tabs.

  3. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  4. Detecting a coal/shale interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broussard, P. H.; Burch, J. L.; Campbell, R. A.; Drost, E. J.; Hudgins, J. L.; Morris, P. W.; Reid, H., Jr.; Stein, R. J.; Zimmerman, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    Detector, intended for use with longwall shearer, determines when cut has pierced through coal layer. Accelerometer measures hardness of material struck by penetrometer ram, while reflectometers measure reflectivity of surface on either side of penetrometer. Signals are combined in voting circuit that indicates "coal" or "shale", depending on information supplied by three sensors. It distinguishes by differences in accelerometer waveforms.

  5. Paleontology: a new Burgess Shale fauna.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Derek E G

    2014-05-19

    A spectacular Cambrian soft bodied fauna some 40 km from Walcott's original Burgess Shale locality includes over 50 taxa, some 20% new to science. New anatomical evidence from this site will illuminate the evolution of early marine animals. PMID:24845670

  6. Geotechnical properties of PARAHO spent shale

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, T.E.

    1982-10-01

    A literature review of available geotechnical properties for PARAHO retorted shale was conducted. Also reported are laboratory measurements made at PNL on key hydraulic properties of the PARAHO retorted shale. The PARAHO material can be compacted in the laboratory to dry densities of 12.1 KN/m/sup 3/ (77.0 pcf) to 17.0 Kn/m/sup 3/ (108.4 pcf) depending on compaction effort. Optimum water content for these densities range from 14.4 to 23.7 percent (dry weight), however, PARAHO can achieve high densities without requiring water for compaction. Water retention characteristics indicate that optimum moisture contents (field capacity) range from 13 to 14% (dry weight). Water contents in excess of these values are likely to drain with time. PARAHO shale can be considered as semipervious to pervious with permeability values of 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -4/ cm/s depending on compaction effort. PARAHO shale exhibits self-cementing characteristics. Under normal conditions cementing reactions are slow, with strength gains still indicated after 28 days. The shear strength of PARAHO is comparable to similarly graded gravel with effective angles of internal friction, phi', of 33 to 34 degrees. Depending on compactive effort and gradation of the material, effective cohesion values of 0.09 Mn/m/sup 2/ to 0.19 MN/m/sup 2/ (128.05 psi to 277.45 psi) can be expected.

  7. Technically recoverable Devonian shale gas in Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Kuushraa, V.A.; Wicks, D.E.; Sawyer, W.K.; Esposito, P.R.

    1983-07-01

    The technically recoverable gas from Devonian shale (Lower and Middle Huron) in Ohio is estimated to range from 6.2 to 22.5 Tcf, depending on the stimulation method and pattern size selected. This estimate of recovery is based on the integration of the most recent data and research on the Devonian Age gas-bearing shales of Ohio. This includes: (1) a compilation of the latest geologic and reservoir data for the gas in-place; (2) analysis of the key productive mechanisms; and, (3) examination of alternative stimulation and production strategies for most efficiently recovering this gas. Beyond a comprehensive assembly of the data and calculation of the technically recoverable gas, the key findings of this report are as follows: a substantial volume of gas is technically recoverable, although advanced (larger scale) stimulation technology will be required to reach economically attractive gas production rates in much of the state; well spacing in certain of the areas can be reduced by half from the traditional 150 to 160 acres per well without severely impairing per-well gas recovery; and, due to the relatively high degree of permeability anisotropy in the Devonian shales, a rectangular, generally 3 by 1 well pattern leads to optimum recovery. Finally, although a consistent geological interpretation and model have been constructed for the Lower and Middle Huron intervals of the Ohio Devonian shale, this interpretation is founded on limited data currently available, along with numerous technical assumptions that need further verification. 11 references, 21 figures, 32 tables.

  8. Shale Gas reservoirs characterization using neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouadfeul, Sid-Ali; Aliouane, Leila

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a tentative of shale gas reservoirs characterization enhancement from well-logs data using neural network is established. The goal is to predict the Total Organic carbon (TOC) in boreholes where the TOC core rock or TOC well-log measurement does not exist. The Multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network with three layers is established. The MLP input layer is constituted with five neurons corresponding to the Bulk density, Neutron porosity, sonic P wave slowness and photoelectric absorption coefficient. The hidden layer is forms with nine neurons and the output layer is formed with one neuron corresponding to the TOC log. Application to two boreholes located in Barnett shale formation where a well A is used as a pilot and a well B is used for propagation shows clearly the efficiency of the neural network method to improve the shale gas reservoirs characterization. The established formalism plays a high important role in the shale gas plays economy and long term gas energy production.

  9. Boomtown blues; Oil shale and Exxon's exit

    SciTech Connect

    Gulliford, A. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper chronicles the social and cultural effects of the recent oil shale boom on the Colorado communities of Rifle, Silt, Parachute, and Grand Junction. The paper is based upon research and oral history interviews conducted throughout Colorado and in Houston and Washington, DC.

  10. [Chemical hazards arising from shale gas extraction].

    PubMed

    Pakulska, Daria

    2015-01-01

    The development of the shale industry is gaining momentum and hence the analysis of chemical hazards to the environment and health of the local population is extreiely timely and important. Chemical hazards are created during the exploitation of all minerals, but in the case of shale gas production, there is much more uncertainty as regards to the effects of new technologies application. American experience suggests the increasing risk of environmental contamination, mainly groundwater. The greatest, concern is the incomplete knowledge of the composition of fluids used for fracturing shale rock and unpredictability of long-term effects of hydraulic fracturing for the environment and health of residents. High population density in the old continent causes the problem of chemical hazards which is much larger than in the USA. Despite the growing public discontent data on this subject are limited. First of all, there is no epidemiological studies to assess the relationship between risk factors, such as air and water pollution, and health effects in populations living in close proximity to gas wells. The aim of this article is to identify and discuss existing concepts on the sources of environmental contamination, an indication of the environment elements under pressure and potential health risks arising from shale gas extraction. PMID:26016049

  11. Studies of New Albany shale in western Kentucky. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalb, H.R.; Norris, R.L.

    1980-02-01

    The New Albany (Upper Devonian) Shale in western Kentucky can be zoned by using correlative characteristics distinguishable on wire-line logs. Wells drilled through the shale which were logged by various methods provided a basis for zonation of the subsurface members and units of the Grassy Creek, Sweetland Creek, and Blocher. Structure and isopach maps and cross sections were prepared. The Hannibal Shale and Rockford Limestone were found in limited areas; isopach maps were not made for these members. Samples of cuttings from selected wells were studied in order to identify the contact of the shale with underlying and overlying rock units. A well-site examination of cuttings through the shale section was conducted, and the presence of natural gas was observed in the field. The New Albany Shale has the potential for additional commercially marketable natural gas production. Exploratory drilling is needed to evaluate the reservoir characteristics of the New Albany Shale.

  12. 76 FR 19338 - Green Island Power Authority; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Green Island Power Authority; Notice of Authorization for Continued Project Operation On March 2, 2009 Green Island Power Authority, licensee for the Green Island Hydroelectric Project... regulations thereunder. The Green Island Hydroelectric Project is on the Hudson River in Albany County,...

  13. Eastern oil shale research involving the generation of retorted and combusted oil shale solid waste, shale oil collection, and process stream sampling and characterization: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    Approximately 518 tons of New Albany oil shale were obtained from the McRae quarry in Clark County, Indiana and shipped to Golden, CO. A portion of the material was processed through a TOSCO II pilot plant retort. About 273 tons of crushed raw shale, 136 tons of retorted shale, 1500 gallons of shale oil, and 10 drums of retort water were shipped to US Department of Energy, Laramie, WY. Process conditions were documented, process streams were sampled and subjected to chemical analysis, and material balance calculations were made. 6 refs., 12 figs., 14 tabs.

  14. River on Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas R.

    1972-01-01

    Presents controversy over damming of Wyoming's Upper Green River to supply water to the arid basins of eastern Wyoming. Possibilities of wildlife destruction, flooding of valley lands, and opposition to the construction of the Kendall Dam itself are enumerated together with legislative action to date. (BL)

  15. Anthropogenic and natural methane emissions from a shale gas exploration area of Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pinti, Daniele L; Gelinas, Yves; Moritz, Anja M; Larocque, Marie; Sano, Yuji

    2016-10-01

    The increasing number of studies on the determination of natural methane in groundwater of shale gas prospection areas offers a unique opportunity for refining the quantification of natural methane emissions. Here methane emissions, computed from four potential sources, are reported for an area of ca. 16,500km(2) of the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec (Canada), where Utica shales are targeted by the petroleum industry. Methane emissions can be caused by 1) groundwater degassing as a result of groundwater abstraction for domestic and municipal uses; 2) groundwater discharge along rivers; 3) migration to the surface by (macro- and micro-) diffuse seepage; 4) degassing of hydraulic fracturing fluids during first phases of drilling. Methane emissions related to groundwater discharge to rivers (2.47×10(-4) to 9.35×10(-3)Tgyr(-1)) surpass those of diffuse seepage (4.13×10(-6) to 7.14×10(-5)Tgyr(-1)) and groundwater abstraction (6.35×10(-6) to 2.49×10(-4)Tgyr(-1)). The methane emission from the degassing of flowback waters during drilling of the Utica shale over a 10- to 20-year horizon is estimated from 2.55×10(-3) to 1.62×10(-2)Tgyr(-1). These emissions are from one third to sixty-six times the methane emissions from groundwater discharge to rivers. This study shows that different methane emission sources need to be considered in environmental assessments of methane exploitation projects to better understand their impacts. PMID:27267724

  16. Western Greece unconventional hydrocarbon potential from oil shale and shale gas reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakitsios, Vasileios; Agiadi, Konstantina

    2013-04-01

    It is clear that we are gradually running out of new sedimentary basins to explore for conventional oil and gas and that the reserves of conventional oil, which can be produced cheaply, are limited. This is the reason why several major oil companies invest in what are often called unconventional hydrocarbons: mainly oil shales, heavy oil, tar sand and shale gas. In western Greece exist important oil and gas shale reservoirs which must be added to its hydrocarbon potential1,2. Regarding oil shales, Western Greece presents significant underground immature, or close to the early maturation stage, source rocks with black shale composition. These source rock oils may be produced by applying an in-situ conversion process (ICP). A modern technology, yet unproven at a commercial scale, is the thermally conductive in-situ conversion technology, developed by Shell3. Since most of western Greece source rocks are black shales with high organic content, those, which are immature or close to the maturity limit have sufficient thickness and are located below 1500 meters depth, may be converted artificially by in situ pyrolysis. In western Greece, there are several extensive areas with these characteristics, which may be subject of exploitation in the future2. Shale gas reservoirs in Western Greece are quite possibly present in all areas where shales occur below the ground-water level, with significant extent and organic matter content greater than 1%, and during their geological history, were found under conditions corresponding to the gas window (generally at depths over 5,000 to 6,000m). Western Greece contains argillaceous source rocks, found within the gas window, from which shale gas may be produced and consequently these rocks represent exploitable shale gas reservoirs. Considering the inevitable increase in crude oil prices, it is expected that at some point soon Western Greece shales will most probably be targeted. Exploration for conventional petroleum reservoirs

  17. Fracturing and brittleness index analyses of shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhoorn, Auke; Primarini, Mutia; Houben, Maartje

    2016-04-01

    The formation of a fracture network in rocks has a crucial control on the flow behaviour of fluids. In addition, an existing network of fractures , influences the propagation of new fractures during e.g. hydraulic fracturing or during a seismic event. Understanding of the type and characteristics of the fracture network that will be formed during e.g. hydraulic fracturing is thus crucial to better predict the outcome of a hydraulic fracturing job. For this, knowledge of the rock properties is crucial. The brittleness index is often used as a rock property that can be used to predict the fracturing behaviour of a rock for e.g. hydraulic fracturing of shales. Various terminologies of the brittleness index (BI1, BI2 and BI3) exist based on mineralogy, elastic constants and stress-strain behaviour (Jin et al., 2014, Jarvie et al., 2007 and Holt et al., 2011). A maximum brittleness index of 1 predicts very good and efficient fracturing behaviour while a minimum brittleness index of 0 predicts a much more ductile shale behaviour. Here, we have performed systematic petrophysical, acoustic and geomechanical analyses on a set of shale samples from Whitby (UK) and we have determined the three different brittleness indices on each sample by performing all the analyses on each of the samples. We show that each of the three brittleness indices are very different for the same sample and as such it can be concluded that the brittleness index is not a good predictor of the fracturing behaviour of shales. The brittleness index based on the acoustic data (BI1) all lie around values of 0.5, while the brittleness index based on the stress strain data (BI2) give an average brittleness index around 0.75, whereas the mineralogy brittleness index (BI3) predict values below 0.2. This shows that by using different estimates of the brittleness index different decisions can be made for hydraulic fracturing. If we would rely on the mineralogy (BI3), the Whitby mudstone is not a suitable

  18. Lower Cody Shale (Niobrara equivalent) in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana: thickness, distribution, and source rock potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The lower shaly member of the Cody Shale in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana is Coniacian to Santonian in age and is equivalent to the upper part of the Carlile Shale and basal part of the Niobrara Formation in the Powder River Basin to the east. The lower Cody ranges in thickness from 700 to 1,200 feet and underlies much of the central part of the basin. It is composed of gray to black shale, calcareous shale, bentonite, and minor amounts of siltstone and sandstone. Sixty-six samples, collected from well cuttings, from the lower Cody Shale were analyzed using Rock-Eval and total organic carbon analysis to determine the source rock potential. Total organic carbon content averages 2.28 weight percent for the Carlile equivalent interval and reaches a maximum of nearly 5 weight percent. The Niobrara equivalent interval averages about 1.5 weight percent and reaches a maximum of over 3 weight percent, indicating that both intervals are good to excellent source rocks. S2 values from pyrolysis analysis also indicate that both intervals have a good to excellent source rock potential. Plots of hydrogen index versus oxygen index, hydrogen index versus Tmax, and S2/S3 ratios indicate that organic matter contains both Type II and Type III kerogen capable of generating oil and gas. Maps showing the distribution of kerogen types and organic richness for the lower shaly member of the Cody Shale show that it is more organic-rich and more oil-prone in the eastern and southeastern parts of the basin. Thermal maturity based on vitrinite reflectance (Ro) ranges from 0.60–0.80 percent Ro around the margins of the basin, increasing to greater than 2.0 percent Ro in the deepest part of the basin, indicates that the lower Cody is mature to overmature with respect to hydrocarbon generation.

  19. Shale gas development impacts on surface water quality in Pennsylvania

    PubMed Central

    Olmstead, Sheila M.; Muehlenbachs, Lucija A.; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Chu, Ziyan; Krupnick, Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    Concern has been raised in the scientific literature about the environmental implications of extracting natural gas from deep shale formations, and published studies suggest that shale gas development may affect local groundwater quality. The potential for surface water quality degradation has been discussed in prior work, although no empirical analysis of this issue has been published. The potential for large-scale surface water quality degradation has affected regulatory approaches to shale gas development in some US states, despite the dearth of evidence. This paper conducts a large-scale examination of the extent to which shale gas development activities affect surface water quality. Focusing on the Marcellus Shale in Pennsylvania, we estimate the effect of shale gas wells and the release of treated shale gas waste by permitted treatment facilities on observed downstream concentrations of chloride (Cl−) and total suspended solids (TSS), controlling for other factors. Results suggest that (i) the treatment of shale gas waste by treatment plants in a watershed raises downstream Cl− concentrations but not TSS concentrations, and (ii) the presence of shale gas wells in a watershed raises downstream TSS concentrations but not Cl− concentrations. These results can inform future voluntary measures taken by shale gas operators and policy approaches taken by regulators to protect surface water quality as the scale of this economically important activity increases. PMID:23479604

  20. Water management practices used by Fayetteville shale gas producers.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.

    2011-06-03

    Water issues continue to play an important role in producing natural gas from shale formations. This report examines water issues relating to shale gas production in the Fayetteville Shale. In particular, the report focuses on how gas producers obtain water supplies used for drilling and hydraulically fracturing wells, how that water is transported to the well sites and stored, and how the wastewater from the wells (flowback and produced water) is managed. Last year, Argonne National Laboratory made a similar evaluation of water issues in the Marcellus Shale (Veil 2010). Gas production in the Marcellus Shale involves at least three states, many oil and gas operators, and multiple wastewater management options. Consequently, Veil (2010) provided extensive information on water. This current study is less complicated for several reasons: (1) gas production in the Fayetteville Shale is somewhat more mature and stable than production in the Marcellus Shale; (2) the Fayetteville Shale underlies a single state (Arkansas); (3) there are only a few gas producers that operate the large majority of the wells in the Fayetteville Shale; (4) much of the water management information relating to the Marcellus Shale also applies to the Fayetteville Shale, therefore, it can be referenced from Veil (2010) rather than being recreated here; and (5) the author has previously published a report on the Fayetteville Shale (Veil 2007) and has helped to develop an informational website on the Fayetteville Shale (Argonne and University of Arkansas 2008), both of these sources, which are relevant to the subject of this report, are cited as references.

  1. Rare earth elements in river waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Steven J.; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-01-01

    To characterize the input to the oceans of rare earth elements (REE) in the dissolved and the suspended loads of rivers, the REE concentrations were measured in samples of Amazon, Indus, Mississippi, Murray-Darling, and Ohio rivers and in samples of smaller rivers that had more distinct drainage basin lithology and water chemistry. It was found that, in the suspended loads of small rivers, the REE pattern was dependent on drainage basin geology, whereas the suspended loads in major rivers had relatively uniform REE patterns and were heavy-REE depleted relative to the North American Shale composite (NASC). The dissolved loads in the five major rivers had marked relative heavy-REE enrichments, relative to the NASC and the suspended material, with the (La/Yb)N ratio of about 0.4 (as compared with the ratio of about 1.9 in suspended loads).

  2. Lithology, reservoir properties, and burial history of portion of Gammon Shale ( Cretaceous), southwestern North Dakota.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gautier, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    In the northern Great Plains, large quantities of biogenic methane are contained at shallow depths in Cretaceous marine mudstones. The Gammon Shale and equivalents of the Milk River Formation in Canada are typical. At Little Missouri field, Gammon reservoirs consist of discontinuous lenses and laminae of siltstone, enclosed by silty clay shale. Large amounts of allogenic clay, including highly expansible mixed-layer illite-smectite cause great water sensitivity and high water-saturation values. Studies show that the Gammon has not undergone thermal conditions sufficient for oil or thermal gas generation. The scarcity of authigenic silicates suggests that diagenesis has been inhibited by the presence of free methane. Shale layers are practically impermeable whereas siltstone microlenses are porous (30-40%) and have permeabilities on the order of 3-30 md. Organic matter in the low-permeability reservoirs served as the source of biogenic methane, and capillary forces acted as the trapping mechanism for gas accumulation. Much of the Gammon interval is potentially economic. -from Author

  3. Seismically induced shale diapirism: the Mine d'Or section, Vilaine estuary, Southern Brittany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vliet-Lanoe, B.; Hibsch, C.; Csontos, L.; Jegouzo, S.; Hallégouët, B.; Laurent, M.; Maygari, A.; Mercier, D.; Voinchet, P.

    2009-07-01

    The Pénestin section (southern Brittany) presents large regular undulations, commonly interpreted as evidence of periglacial pingos. It is an upper Neogene palaeoestuary of the Vilaine River reactivated during the middle Quaternary (middle terrace). It is incised into a thick kaolinitic saprolite and deformed by saprolite diapirs. This paper presents the arguments leading to a mechanistic interpretation of the deformations at Pénestin. Neither recent transpressive tectonics nor diagnostic evidence of periglacial pingo have been found despite evidence for a late paleo-permafrost. The major deformational process is shale diapirism, initially triggered by co-seismic water supply, with further loading and lateral spreading on an already deformed and deeply weathered basement, which allowed the shale diapirism to develop. Deformations are favoured by the liquefaction of the saprolite and a seaward mass movement and recorded, rather distant, effects of an earthquake (c. 280 ka B.P.) resulting from the progressive subsidence of the southern Armorican margin. These deformations triggered by an earthquake are similar to those induced by classical shale diapirism. They are probably common in tectonically active continental environments with shallow water table.

  4. Green Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    In the world of higher education, even the most ambitious sustainability plans often begin with tiny steps taken by individual departments. Michael Crowley, a program manager for Environmental Health & Engineering (EH&E) and former assistant director of the Harvard (Massachusetts) Green Campus Initiative, explains that going for small wins through…

  5. Going Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the benefits that schools and universities can gain by adopting environmentally sensitive practices in their design and operations. Includes resources for locating additional information about green schools and a list of 11 features that represent a comprehensive, sustainable school. (GR)

  6. Green pioneers.

    PubMed

    Trueland, Jennifer

    The government has set tough targets for the NHS in England to reduce its carbon footprint. In this article, nurses and managers at Nottinghamshire Healthcare NHS Trust explain how a programme of 'greening' initiatives - including a trial of electric cars for community staff - have slashed the trust's CO2 output. PMID:23763098

  7. Going Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  8. Buying Green

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layng, T. V. Joe

    2010-01-01

    In "Buying Green," Joe Layng recognizes that, like all choices we make, our decisions as consumers are more likely to be influenced by their short-term consequences for us as individuals (price, quality) than they are by their long-term consequences for society (environmental impact). He believes that the equation can be tilted in favor of greener…

  9. Green Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Mike

    2008-01-01

    More and more people are viewing the world through green-tinted glasses, and those ideas about making school and university facilities more environmentally friendly suddenly are appearing to be prudent and responsible. Among the groups that have been advocating for environmentally friendly school design for years are the Collaborative for High…

  10. Think green.

    PubMed

    Serb, Chris

    2008-08-01

    Hospitals typically don't come to mind when you think about cutting-edge environmental programs, but that's changing. Rising energy costs, the need to replace older facilities, and a growing environmental consciousness have spurred hospitals nationwide to embrace a green ideology. The executive suite is a vocal and active player in these efforts. PMID:19062433

  11. Occurrence of uranium-bearing coal, carbonaceous shale, and carbonaceous limestone in the Fall Creek area, Bonneville County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vine, James D.; Moore, George W.

    1952-01-01

    Uraniferous coal, carbonaceous shale, and carbonaceous limestone occur in the Bear River formation of Upper Crestaceous age at the Fall Creek prospect, in the Fall Creek area, Bonneville County, IDaho. The uranium compounds are believed to have been derived from mildly radioactive silicic volcanic rocks of the Tertiary age that rest unconformably on all older rocks and once overlay the Bear River formation and its coal. Meteoric water, percolating downward through the silicic volcanic rocks and into the older rocks along joints and faults, is believed to have brought the uranium compounds into contact with the coal and carbonaceous rocks in which the uranium was absorbed.

  12. A feasibility study of oil shale fired pulse combustors with applications to oil shale retorting

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, G.J.; Johnson, E.K.; Zhang, G.Q.; Roach, R.A.

    1992-07-01

    The results of the experimental investigation performed to determine the feasibility of using pulverized Colorado oil shale to fuel a bench scale pulse combustor reveal that oil shale cannot sustain pulsations when used alone as fuel. Trace amounts of propane mixed with the oil shale enabled the pulsations, however. Up to 80% of the organic material in the oil shale was consumed when it was mixed with propane in the combustor. Beyond the feasibility objectives, the operating conditions of the combustor fuel with propane and mixtures of oil shale and propane were characterized with respect to pulsation amplitude and frequency and the internal combustor wall temperature over fuel lean and fuel rich stoichiometries. Maximum pressure excursions of 12.5 kPa were experienced in the combustor. Pulsation frequencies ranged from 50 to nearly 80 Hz. Cycle resolved laser Doppler anemometry velocities were measured at the tail pipe exit plane. Injecting inert mineral matter (limestone) into the pulse combustor while using propane fuel had only a slight effect on the pulsation frequency for the feed rates tested.

  13. Water-related Issues Affecting Conventional Oil and Gas Recovery and Potential Oil-Shale Development in the Uinta Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Michael Vanden; Anderson, Paul; Wallace, Janae; Morgan, Craig; Carney, Stephanie

    2012-04-30

    in the subsurface of the Uinta Basin using a combination of water chemistry data collected from various sources and by analyzing geophysical well logs. By re-mapping the base of the moderately saline aquifer using more robust data and more sophisticated computer-based mapping techniques, regulators now have the information needed to more expeditiously grant water disposal permits while still protecting freshwater resources. Part 2: Eastern Uinta Basin gas producers have identified the Birds Nest aquifer, located in the Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, as the most promising reservoir suitable for large-volume saline water disposal. This aquifer formed from the dissolution of saline minerals that left behind large open cavities and fractured rock. This new and complete understanding the aquifer?s areal extent, thickness, water chemistry, and relationship to Utah?s vast oil shale resource will help operators and regulators determine safe saline water disposal practices, directly impacting the success of increased hydrocarbon production in the region, while protecting potential future oil shale production. Part 3: In order to establish a baseline of water quality on lands identified by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management as having oil shale development potential in the southeastern Uinta Basin, the UGS collected biannual water samples over a three-year period from near-surface aquifers and surface sites. The near-surface and relatively shallow groundwater quality information will help in the development of environmentally sound water-management solutions for a possible future oil shale and oil sands industry and help assess the sensitivity of the alluvial and near-surface bedrock aquifers. This multifaceted study will provide a better understanding of the aquifers in Utah?s Uinta Basin, giving regulators the tools needed to protect precious freshwater resources while still allowing for increased hydrocarbon production.

  14. Comparison of organic geochemistry and metal enrichment in two black shales: Cambrian Alum Shale of Sweden and Devonian Chattanooga Shale of United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leventhal, J.S.

    1991-01-01

    In most black shales, such as the Chattanooga Shale and related shales of the eastern interior United States, increased metal and metalloid contents are generally related to increased organic carbon content, decreased sedimentation rate, organic matter type, or position in the basin. In areas where the stratigraphic equivalents of the Chattanooga Shale are deeply buried and and the organic material is thermally mature, metal contents are essentially the same as in unheated areas and correlate with organic C or S contents. This paradigm does not hold for the Cambrian Alum Shale Formation of Sweden where increased metal content does not necessarily correlate with organic matter content nor is metal enrichment necessarily related to land derived humic material because this organic matter is all of marine source. In southcentral Sweden the elements U, Mo, V, Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb are all enriched relative to average black shales but only U and Mo correlate to organic matter content. Tectonically disturbed and metamorphosed allochthonous samples of Alum Shale on the Caledonian front in western Sweden have even higher amounts for some metals (V, Ni, Zn and Ba) relative to the autochthonous shales in this area and those in southern Sweden. ?? 1991 Springer-Verlag.

  15. Geologic analysis of Devonian Shale cores

    SciTech Connect

    1982-02-01

    Cleveland Cliffs Iron Company was awarded a DOE contract in December 1977 for field retrieval and laboratory analysis of cores from the Devonian shales of the following eleven states: Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Kentucky, Tennessee and Virginia. The purpose of this project is to explore these areas to determine the amount of natural gas being produced from the Devonian shales. The physical properties testing of the rock specimens were performed under subcontract at Michigan Technological University (MTU). The study also included LANDSAT information, geochemical research, structural sedimentary and tectonic data. Following the introduction, and background of the project this report covers the following: field retrieval procedures; laboratory procedures; geologic analysis (by state); references and appendices. (ATT)

  16. Oil shale health and environmental risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gratt, L.B.

    1983-04-01

    The potential human health and environmental risks of hypothetical one-million-barrels-per-day oil shale industry have been analyzed to serve as an aid in the formulation and management of a program of environmental research. The largest uncertainties for expected fatalities are in the public sector from air pollutants although the occupational sector is estimated to have 60% more expected fatalities than the public sector. Occupational safety and illness have been analyzed for the oil shale fuel cycle from extraction to delivery of products for end use. Pneumoconiosis from the dust environment is the worker disease resulting in the greatest number of fatalities, followed by chronic bronchitis, internal cancer, and skin cancers, respectively. Research recommendations are presented for reducing the uncertainties in the risks analyzed and to fill data gaps to estimate other risks.

  17. Energy trump for Morocco: the oil shales

    SciTech Connect

    Rosa, S.D.

    1981-10-01

    The mainstays of the economy in Morocco are still agriculture and phosphates; the latter represent 34% of world exports. Energy demand in 1985 will be probably 3 times that in 1975. Most of the oil, which covers 82% of its energy needs, must be imported. Other possible sources are the rich oil shale deposits and nuclear energy. Four nuclear plants with a total of 600 MW are projected, but shale oil still will play an important role. A contract for building a pilot plant has been met recently. The plant is to be located at Timahdit and cost $13 million, for which a loan from the World Bank has been requested. If successful in the pilot plant, the process will be used in full scale plants scheduled to produce 400,000 tons/yr of oil. Tosco also has a contract for a feasibility study.

  18. Modifying shale oil to improve flow characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Seitzer, W.H.; Lovell, P.F.

    1982-05-01

    Shale oil, which forms a viscous, wax slurry below 25 C, was treated in several different ways to try to improve its flow characteristics as measured in a concentric cylinder viscometer. Removing the wax does not greatly improve the pumpability of the oil. Hydrotreatment of the whole oil to take out nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen can lower the viscosity by a factor of five or more, even though the pour point is not greatly affected. Apparently hydrogenolysis of the nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen lowers the molecular weight of the oil without much modification of the paraffinic wax. The pour point of the shale oil can be decreased with various commercial pour improvers. Sometimes an accompanying drop in viscosity is observed, but most of this decrease is not stable to shear in the viscometer.

  19. Adsorption of xenon and krypton on shales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podosek, F. A.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Kramer, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    A method that uses a mass spectrometer as a manometer is employed in the measurement of Xe and Kr adsorption parameters on shales and related samples, where gas partial pressures were lower than 10 to the -11th atm, corresponding adsorption coverages are only small fractions of a monolayer, and Henry's Law behavior is expected and observed. Results show heats of adsorption in the 2-7 kcal/mol range, and Henry constants at 0-25 C of 1 cu cm STP/g per atmosphere are extrapolated. Although the adsorption properties obtained are variable by sample, the range obtained suggests that shales may be capable of an equilibrium adsorption with modern air high enough to account for a significant fraction of the atmospheric inventory of Xe, and perhaps even of Kr. This effect will nevertheless not account for the factor-of-25 defficiency of atmospheric Xe, in comparison with the planetary gas patterns observed in meteorites.

  20. Environmental contamination due to shale gas development.

    PubMed

    Annevelink, M P J A; Meesters, J A J; Hendriks, A J

    2016-04-15

    Shale gas development potentially contaminates both air and water compartments. To assist in governmental decision-making on future explorations, we reviewed scattered information on activities, emissions and concentrations related to shale gas development. We compared concentrations from monitoring programmes to quality standards as a first indication of environmental risks. Emissions could not be estimated accurately because of incomparable and insufficient data. Air and water concentrations range widely. Poor wastewater treatment posed the highest risk with concentrations exceeding both Natural Background Values (NBVs) by a factor 1000-10,000 and Lowest Quality Standards (LQSs) by a factor 10-100. Concentrations of salts, metals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hydrocarbons exceeded aquatic ecotoxicological water standards. Future research must focus on measuring aerial and aquatic emissions of toxic chemicals, generalisation of experimental setups and measurement technics and further human and ecological risk assessment. PMID:26845179